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Sample records for diagnostic signature development

  1. Developing urinary metabolomic signatures as early bladder cancer diagnostic markers.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chong; Sun, Zeyu; Chen, Deying; Su, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jing; Li, Gonghui; Lin, Biaoyang; Yan, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate of bladder cancer (BCa) patients, yet there is a lack of a reliable urine-based assay for early detection of BCa. Urine metabolites represented a potential rich source of biomarkers for BCa. This study aimed to develop a metabolomics approach for high coverage discovery and identification of metabolites in urine samples. Urine samples from 23 early stage BCa patients and 21 healthy volunteers with minimum sample preparations were analyzed by a short 30 min UPLC-HRMS method. We detected and quantified over 9000 unique UPLC-HRMS features, which is more than four times than about 2000 features detected in previous urine metabolomic studies. Furthermore, multivariate OPLS-DA classification models were established to differentiate urine samples from bladder cancer cohort and normal health cohort. We identified three BCa-upregulated metabolites: nicotinuric acid, trehalose, AspAspGlyTrp, and three BCa-downregulated metabolites: inosinic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, GlyCysAlaLys. Finally, analysis of six post-surgery BCa urine samples showed that these BCa-metabolomic features reverted to normal state after tumor removal, suggesting that they reflected metabolomic features associated with BCa. ROC analyses using two linear regression models to combine the identified markers showed a high diagnostic performance for detecting BCa with AUC (area under the ROC curve) values of 0.919 to 0.934. In summary, we developed a high coverage metabolomic approach that has potential for biomarker discovery in cancers.

  2. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.

  3. Draft versus finished sequence data for DNA and protein diagnostic signature development

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M W; Smith, J R; Torres, C L; Slezak, T R

    2004-10-29

    Sequencing pathogen genomes is costly, demanding careful allocation of limited sequencing resources. We built a computational Sequencing Analysis Pipeline (SAP) to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing necessary to develop high-quality diagnostic DNA and protein signatures. SAP uses simulations to estimate the number of target genomes and close phylogenetic relatives (near neighbors, or NNs) to sequence. We use SAP to assess whether draft data is sufficient or finished sequencing is required using Marburg and variola virus sequences. Simulations indicate that intermediate to high quality draft with error rates of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} ({approx} 8x coverage) of target organisms is suitable for DNA signature prediction. Low quality draft with error rates of {approx} 1% (3x to 6x coverage) of target isolates is inadequate for DNA signature prediction, although low quality draft of NNs is sufficient, as long as the target genomes are of high quality. For protein signature prediction, sequencing errors in target genomes substantially reduce the detection of amino acid sequence conservation, even if the draft is of high quality. In summary, high quality draft of target and low quality draft of NNs appears to be a cost-effective investment for DNA signature prediction, but may lead to underestimation of predicted protein signatures.

  4. Development of autoantibody signatures as novel diagnostic biomarkers of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Chang, Wenjun; Zhao, Jinfeng; Yu, Yongwei; Tan, Xiaojie; Su, Tong; Zhao, Lijun; Huang, Shengdong; Liu, Shiyuan; Cao, Guangwen

    2010-07-15

    To select autoantibody signatures as noninvasive biomarkers of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phage cDNA expression library was constructed with fresh samples from 30 lung cancer patients and biopanned using serum pools of 10 NSCLC patients and 10 healthy controls. A six-phage peptide detector was discovered by two-step immunoscreenings and was validated in an independent set of 90 NSCLC patients and 90 matched healthy controls, 30 NSCLC patients with chemotherapy, and 12 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The expression of a peptide target was validated by using immunohistochemistry. Factors affecting NSCLC-related death were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. Six phage peptide clones showing higher seroreactivity than others in 30 NSCLC patients were selected for diagnostic validation. The six-phage peptide detector was able to discriminate between NSCLC patients and healthy controls with a sensitivity and specificity of >92%, and had similar validity for indicating NSCLC at early stage. The seroreactivity of the six phage peptides was significantly higher in the NSCLC patients than in those with chemotherapy and the COPD patients, respectively. Of the six phage peptides, one encoded a peptide showing 100% homology to olfactomedin 1. Expression of olfactomedin 1 protein was significantly higher in lung adenocarcinoma than in lung cancer of other histologic types and normal lung tissues. The autoantibody signature was not associated with the prognosis of the NSCLC patients. The six-phage peptide detector stands out as promising diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC, unlikely for NSCLC relapse after chemotherapy. Olfactomedin 1 may be a novel target of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright 2010 AACR.

  5. Landsat Signature Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, R. N.; Mcguire, K. G.; Bland, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Landsat Signature Development Program, LSDP, is designed to produce an unsupervised classification of a scene from a Landsat tape. This classification is based on the clustering tendencies of the multispectral scanner data processed from the scene. The program will generate a character map that, by identifying each of the general classes of surface features extracted from the scene data with a specific line printer symbol, indicates the approximate locations and distributions of these general classes within the scene. Also provided with the character map are a number of tables each of which describes either some aspect of the spectral properties of the resultant classes, some inter-class relationship, the incidence of picture elements assigned to the various classes in the character map classification of the scene, or some significant intermediate stage in the development of the final classes.

  6. Failure Modes and Diagnostic Signatures Working Group - Ignition Diagnostics Requirements Update

    SciTech Connect

    Cerjan, C; Haan, S; Hatchett, S; Koch, J

    2007-03-26

    We have performed an initial assessment of the sensitivity of various expected ignition diagnostic signatures to ignition failure modes using one and two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations and post-processed simulated diagnostic output. As a result of this assessment, we recommend several changes to the current requirements for the ignition diagnostic suite. These recommendations are summarized in Table 1.

  7. Motor current signature analysis: A potential diagnostic for air conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, W.A.; Haynes, H.D.; Griffin, F.P.; Levins, W.P.; Karnitz, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    Recent advancements in modern electronics have made it possible to collect the various ''transient noise'' signals which are present on electric power lines of motor-driven equipment while using a simple non-intrusive clamp-on inductive pickup. Electronic filters are used to analyze the noise signal with an on-the-spot, real-time analysis. An exploratory study, conducted at ORNL, examined the potential for using the motor current signature on heat pumps and air conditioners as a diagnostic tool. Preliminary results show that there is some correlation between the motor current signature and the performance of a heat pump. However, the tests and associated analysis were limited, and additional research is needed to determine the full potential of motor current signature analysis (MCSA).

  8. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  9. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  10. Development of companion diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; ...

    2015-12-12

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods asmore » companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. Lastly, the review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.« less

  11. Development of companion diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2015-12-12

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. Lastly, the review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  12. Mass spectrometric signatures of the blood plasma metabolome for disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lokhov, Petr G; Balashova, Elena E; Voskresenskaya, Anna A; Trifonova, Oxana P; Maslov, Dmitry L; Archakov, Alexander I

    2016-01-01

    In metabolomics, a large number of small molecules can be detected in a single run. However, metabolomic data do not include the absolute concentrations of each metabolite. Generally, mass spectrometry analyses provide metabolite concentrations that are derived from mass peak intensities, and the peak intensities are strictly dependent on the type of mass spectrometer used, as well as the technical characteristics, options and protocols applied. To convert mass peak intensities to actual concentrations, calibration curves have to be generated for each metabolite, and this represents a significant challenge depending on the number of metabolites that are detected and involved in metabolome-based diagnostics. To overcome this limitation, and to facilitate the development of diagnostic tests based on metabolomics, mass peak intensities may be expressed in quintiles. The present study demonstrates the advantage of this approach. The examples of diagnostic signatures, which were designed in accordance to this approach, are provided for lung and prostate cancer (leading causes of mortality due to cancer in developed countries) and impaired glucose tolerance (which precedes type 2 diabetes, the most common endocrinology disease worldwide).

  13. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  14. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development.

    PubMed

    Eveland, Andrea L; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-11-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina's high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3'-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene.

  15. Development of Asset Fault Signatures for Prognostic and Health Management in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2014-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: Diagnostic Advisor, Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and Remaining Useful Life Database. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures to assess the health status of generator step-up generators and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. At the most basic level, fault signatures are comprised of an asset type, a fault type, and a set of one or more fault features (symptoms) that are indicative of the specified fault. The AFS Database is populated with asset fault signatures via a content development exercise that is based on the results of intensive technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  16. Glyco-Immune Diagnostic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets of Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    as mesothelial carcinogenesis occurs. Tumor development and growth during 52 weeks will also be followed in animals using high-frequency ultrasound ...IP synegeneic mesothelioma cell line, or intravenous Gemzar. 14 Saline SC MPM IP MPM Gemzar Saline SC MPM IP MPM Gemzar Figure 9...Development of AGAs in in rodents receiving saline, SC syngeneic mesothelioma cell line, IP synegeneic mesothelioma cell line, or intravenous Gemzar

  17. Glyco-Immune Diagnostic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets of Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    mesothelial carcinogenesis occurs. Tumor development and growth during 52 weeks will also be followed in animals using high-frequency ultrasound ...line, IP synegeneic mesothelioma cell line, or intravenous Gemzar. 14 Saline SC MPM IP MPM Gemzar Saline...mesothelioma cell line, IP synegeneic mesothelioma cell line, or intravenous Gemzar. Upper panel: Complete set of the PGA 400 data. Box colors correspond

  18. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  19. A Circulating Micro-RNA Signature Serves as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Indicator in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ascoli, Christian; Huang, Yue; Schott, Cody; Turturice, Benjamin A; Metwally, Ahmed; Perkins, David L; Finn, Patricia W

    2017-08-16

    Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. In sarcoidosis, aberrant miRNA expression may enhance immune responses mounted against an unknown antigenic agent. We tested whether a distinct miRNA signature functions as a diagnostic biomarker and explored its role as an immune modulator in sarcoidosis. Expression of miRNAs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects that met clinical and histopathologic criteria for sarcoidosis were compared to those from matched controls in the ACCESS study. Signature miRNAs were determined by miRNA microarray analysis and validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Microarray analysis identified 54 differentially expressed feature mature human miRNAs between groups. Significant feature miRNAs that distinguish sarcoidosis from controls were selected by use of probabilistic models adjusted for clinical variables. Eight signature miRNAs were chosen to verify the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a validation cohort and distinguished sarcoidosis from controls with a positive predictive value of 88%. We identified both novel and previously described genes and molecular pathways associated with sarcoidosis as targets of these signature miRNAs. Additionally, we demonstrate that signature miRNAs (hsa-miR-150-3p and hsa-miR-342-5p) are significantly associated with reduced lymphocytes and airflow limitations, known markers of poor prognosis. Together, these findings suggest that a circulating miRNA signature serves as a non-invasive biomarker that supports the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Future studies will test the miRNA signature as a prognostication tool associated with poor clinical outcomes in sarcoidosis.

  20. Evaluation of Signature Erosion in Ebola Virus Due to Genomic Drift and Its Impact on the Performance of Diagnostic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Holland, Mitchell Y.; Hall, Adrienne T.; Negrón, Daniel A.; Ivancich, Mychal; Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Campbell, Catherine E.; Berger, Walter J.; Christopher, George W.; Goodwin, Bruce G.; Smith, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequence analyses of the 2014 Ebola Virus (EBOV) isolates revealed a potential problem with the diagnostic assays currently in use; i.e., drifting genomic profiles of the virus may affect the sensitivity or even produce false-negative results. We evaluated signature erosion in ebolavirus molecular assays using an in silico approach and found frequent potential false-negative and false-positive results. We further empirically evaluated many EBOV assays, under real time PCR conditions using EBOV Kikwit (1995) and Makona (2014) RNA templates. These results revealed differences in performance between assays but were comparable between the old and new EBOV templates. Using a whole genome approach and a novel algorithm, termed BioVelocity, we identified new signatures that are unique to each of EBOV, Sudan virus (SUDV), and Reston virus (RESTV). Interestingly, many of the current assay signatures do not fall within these regions, indicating a potential drawback in the past assay design strategies. The new signatures identified in this study may be evaluated with real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assay development and validation. In addition, we discuss regulatory implications and timely availability to impact a rapidly evolving outbreak using existing but perhaps less than optimal assays versus redesign these assays for addressing genomic changes. PMID:26090727

  1. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development.

  2. Digital gene expression signatures for maize development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patt...

  3. Developing a Predictive Capability for Bioluminescence Signatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    naval nighttime operations because the flow field associated with their motion stimulates naturally occurring plankton . In the littoral, the primary...sources of bioluminescence are dinoflagellates, common unicellular plankton that are also known to form red tides. Dinoflagellate bioluminescence is...bioluminescent signatures of some swimming fish are distinct enough to differentiate species; nocturnally foraging predators may use bioluminescent

  4. Derivation of cancer diagnostic and prognostic signatures from gene expression data

    PubMed Central

    Goodison, Steve; Sun, Yijun; Urquidi, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    The ability to compare genome-wide expression profiles in human tissue samples has the potential to add an invaluable molecular pathology aspect to the detection and evaluation of multiple diseases. Applications include initial diagnosis, evaluation of disease subtype, monitoring of response to therapy and the prediction of disease recurrence. The derivation of molecular signatures that can predict tumor recurrence in breast cancer has been a particularly intense area of investigation and a number of studies have shown that molecular signatures can outperform currently used clinicopathologic factors in predicting relapse in this disease. However, many of these predictive models have been derived using relatively simple computational algorithms and whether these models are at a stage of development worthy of large-cohort clinical trial validation is currently a subject of debate. In this review, we focus on the derivation of optimal molecular signatures from high-dimensional data and discuss some of the expected future developments in the field. PMID:21083217

  5. New developments in malaria diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Versteeg, Inge; Migchelsen, Stephanie J; González, Iveth J; Perkins, Mark D; Mens, Petra F; Schallig, Henk DFH

    2012-01-01

    Currently available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria show large variation in sensitivity and specificity, and there are concerns about their stability under field conditions. To improve current RDTs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for novel malaria antigens have been developed and screened for their possible use in new diagnostic tests. Three antigens, glutamate rich protein (GLURP), dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and heme detoxification protein (HDP), were selected based on literature searches. Recombinant antigens were produced and used to immunize mice. Antibody-producing cell lines were subsequently selected and the resulting antibodies were screened for specificity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The most optimal antibody couples were selected based on antibody affinity (expressed as dissociation constants, KD) and detection limit of crude antigen extract from P. falciparum 3D7 culture. The highest affinity antibodies have KD values of 0.10 nM ± 0.014 (D5) and 0.068 ± 0.015 nM (D6) for DHFR-TS mAbs, 0.10 ± 0.022 nM (H16) and 0.21 ± 0.022 nM (H18) for HDP mAbs and 0.11 ± 0.028 nM (G23) and 0.33 ± 0.093 nM (G22) for GLURP mAbs. The newly developed antibodies performed at least as well as commercially available histidine rich protein antibodies (KD of 0.16 ± 0.13 nM for PTL3 and 1.0 ± 0.049 nM for C1–13), making them promising reagents for further test development. PMID:22327435

  6. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  7. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    sorting data coming from human and mouse adult mammary gland , and coming from the fetal mammary rudiment, to define gene expression profiles of...AD_____________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0106 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human...SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making Improve

  8. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion. We have used FAC sorting data coming from human and mouse adult mammary gland , and coming from the fetal mammary rudiment, to define gene...AD_____________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0107 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic

  9. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    satellites ” resulted in reversion of the cells to an epithelial state, re-entry into the cell cycle, and restoration of their ability to generate both...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0107 TITLE: Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer...W81XWH-12-1-0107 Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

  10. Analytical validation of a melanoma diagnostic gene signature using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

    PubMed

    Warf, M Bryan; Flake, Darl D; Adams, Doug; Gutin, Alexander; Kolquist, Kathryn A; Wenstrup, Richard J; Roa, Benjamin B

    2015-01-01

    These studies were to validate the analytical performance of a gene expression signature that differentiates melanoma and nevi, using RNA expression from 14 signature genes and nine normalization genes that generates a melanoma diagnostic score (MDS). Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions were evaluated in these studies. The overall SD of the assay was determined to be 0.69 MDS units. Individual amplicons within the signature had an average amplification efficiency of 92% and a SD less than 0.5 CT. The MDS was reproducible across a 2000-fold dilution range of input RNA. Melanin, an inhibitor of PCR, does not interfere with the signature. These studies indicate this signature is robust and reproducible and is analytically validated on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded melanocytic lesions.

  11. A small noncoding RNA signature found in exosomes of GBM patient serum as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Lorea; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Gállego Pérez-Larraya, Jaime; González-Huarriz, Marisol; Jauregui, Patricia; Tejada, Sonia; Diez-Valle, Ricardo; Segura, Victor; Samprón, Nicolás; Barrena, Cristina; Ruiz, Irune; Agirre, Amaia; Ayuso, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Alvaro; Xipell, Enric; Matheu, Ander; López de Munain, Adolfo; Tuñón, Teresa; Zazpe, Idoya; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Paris, Sophie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent malignant brain tumor in adults, and its prognosis remains dismal despite intensive research and therapeutic advances. Diagnostic biomarkers would be clinically meaningful to allow for early detection of the tumor and for those cases in which surgery is contraindicated or biopsy results are inconclusive. Recent findings show that GBM cells release microvesicles that contain a select subset of cellular proteins and RNA. The aim of this hypothesis-generating study was to assess the diagnostic potential of miRNAs found in microvesicles isolated from the serum of GBM patients. To control disease heterogeneity, we used patients with newly diagnosed GBM. In the discovery stage, PCR-based TaqMan Low Density Arrays followed by individual quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to test the differences in the miRNA expression levels of serum microvesicles among 25 GBM patients and healthy controls paired by age and sex. The detected noncoding RNAs were then validated in another 50 GBM patients. We found that the expression levels of 1 small noncoding RNA (RNU6-1) and 2 microRNAs (miR-320 and miR-574-3p) were significantly associated with a GBM diagnosis. In addition, RNU6-1 was consistently an independent predictor of a GBM diagnosis. Altogether our results uncovered a small noncoding RNA signature in microvesicles isolated from GBM patient serum that could be used as a fast and reliable differential diagnostic biomarker.

  12. Immune-Signatures for Lung Cancer Diagnostics: Evaluation of Protein Microarray Data Normalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Stefanie; Soldo, Regina; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Hofer, Philipp; Gsur, Andrea; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to “batch effects”. Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, “distance-weighted discrimination” (DWD), and “ComBat” for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune-signatures. “ComBat” data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests. PMID:27600218

  13. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of a DNA hypermethylated gene signature in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Goh, Liang Kee; Liem, Natalia; Vijayaraghavan, Aadhitthya; Chen, Gengbo; Lim, Pei Li; Tay, Kae-Jack; Chang, Michelle; Low, John Soon Wah; Joshi, Adita; Huang, Hong Hong; Kalaw, Emarene; Tan, Puay Hoon; Hsieh, Wen-Son; Yong, Wei Peng; Alumkal, Joshi; Sim, Hong Gee

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to identify a prostate cancer DNA hypermethylation microarray signature (denoted as PHYMA) that differentiates prostate cancer from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), high from low-grade and lethal from non-lethal cancers. This is a non-randomized retrospective study in 111 local Asian men (87 prostate cancers and 24 BPH) treated from 1995 to 2009 in our institution. Archival prostate epithelia were laser-capture microdissected and genomic DNA extracted and bisulfite-converted. Samples were profiled using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation microarray, with raw data processed by GenomeStudio. A classification model was generated using support vector machine, consisting of a 55-probe DNA methylation signature of 46 genes. The model was independently validated on an internal testing dataset which yielded cancer detection sensitivity and specificity of 95.3% and 100% respectively, with overall accuracy of 96.4%. Second validation on another independent western cohort yielded 89.8% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity, with overall accuracy of 88.7%. A PHYMA score was developed for each sample based on the state of methylation in the PHYMA signature. Increasing PHYMA score was significantly associated with higher Gleason score and Gleason primary grade. Men with higher PHYMA scores have poorer survival on univariate (p = 0.0038, HR = 3.89) and multivariate analyses when controlled for (i) clinical stage (p = 0.055, HR = 2.57), and (ii) clinical stage and Gleason score (p = 0.043, HR = 2.61). We further performed bisulfite genomic sequencing on 2 relatively unknown genes to demonstrate robustness of the assay results. PHYMA is thus a signature with high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating tumors from BPH, and has a potential role in early detection and in predicting survival.

  14. The Development of Articulatory Signatures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Latika; Singh, Nandini C.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to perceive and produce sounds at multiple time scales is a skill necessary for the acquisition of language. Unlike speech perception, which develops early in life, the production of speech sounds starts at a few months and continues into late childhood with the development of speech-motor skills. Though there is detailed information…

  15. Insonation method and diagnostic flow signatures for transcranial power motion (M-mode) Doppler.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Andrei V; Demchuk, Andrew M; Burgin, W Scott

    2002-07-01

    Power motion mode Doppler (PMD) simultaneously displays flow signal intensity and direction over several centimeters of intracranial space. Insonation protocol for PMD and spectral transcranial Doppler (TCD) with typical PMD flow signatures is described in serial patients with acute stroke symptoms examined via conventional windows with a PMD/TCD unit. Thirty-five patients were studied within 12 hours after stroke onset (age 64 +/- 15 years; 8 received intravenous and 3 intra-arterial thrombolysis). One patient had no temporal window, and 3 patients had suboptimal windows. In 90% of patients, PMD showed more than 1 ipsilateral temporal windows. In 63% of patients (n = 22), PMD simultaneously displayed the entire M1 (65-45 mm) and proximal M2 (45-30 mm) flows, leading to spectral TCD examination of the proximal M2 middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 28 of 35 patients (80%). All patients had sufficient foraminal (depth display = 60-110 mm) and orbital (depth display = 30-80 mm) windows. PMD displayed the entire basilar artery stem (75-100+ mm) in 69% (n = 24) of patients, and the distal basilar flow was detected in all patients by both PMD and TCD. TCD results were normal (12), proximal intracranial stenosis (5), large vessel occlusion (17), and cerebral circulatory arrest (1). Compared to spectral TCD, PMD signatures of similar diagnostic significance were low resistance (vessel identification and recanalization), high resistance (ophthalmic artery identification and distal obstruction), collateral (communicating arteries and leptomeningeal flow), reverberating (circulatory arrest), and branch embolization. PMD is a window-finding tool and a guide for spectral TCD gate placement. PMD facilitates flow detection in the M2 branches and the distal basilar artery. PMD can demonstrate recanalization of the entire MCA main stem and proximal branches, increase the yield of embolus detection and procedure monitoring, and facilitate abnormal flow pattern recognition.

  16. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  17. Development of forensic assay signatures for ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Doggett, Norman; Wren, Melinda; Burr, Tom; Fenimore, P W; Hatcher, Eneida L; Bruno, William J; Li, Po-E; Stubben, Chris; Wolinsky, Murray

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses are a diverse group of RNA viruses comprising five different species, four of which cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Because of their high infectivity and lethality, ebolaviruses are considered major biothreat agents. Although detection assays exist, no forensic assays are currently available. Here, we report the development of forensic assays that differentiate ebolaviruses. We performed phylogenetic analyses and identified canonical SNPs for all species, major clades and isolates. TaqMan-MGB allelic discrimination assays based on these SNPs were designed, screened against synthetic RNA templates, and validated against ebolavirus genomic RNAs. A total of 45 assays were validated to provide 100% coverage of the species and variants with additional resolution at the isolate level. These assays enabled accurate forensic analysis on 4 "unknown" ebolaviruses. Unknowns were correctly classified to species and variant. A goal of providing resolution below the isolate level was not successful. These high-resolution forensic assays allow rapid and accurate genotyping of ebolaviruses for forensic investigations.

  18. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  19. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  20. [Recent development of microfluidic diagnostic technologies].

    PubMed

    Li, Haifang; Zhang, Qianyun; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-04-01

    Microfluidic devices exhibit a great promising development in clinical diagnosis and disease screening due to their advantages of precise controlling of fluid flow, requirement of miniamount sample, rapid reaction speed and convenient integration. In this paper, the improvements of microfluidic diagnostic technologies in recent years are reviewed. The applications and developments of on-chip disease marker detection, microfluidic cell selection and cell drug metabolism, and diagnostic micro-devices are discussed.

  1. Toxoplasma gondii: history and diagnostic test development.

    PubMed

    Wyrosdick, Heidi M; Schaefer, John J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that causes toxoplasmosis in people and other animals. It is considered one of the most common parasitic infections in the world due to its impressive range of hosts, widespread environmental contamination and the diverse means by which animals can be infected. Despite its ubiquity and numerous ongoing research efforts into both its basic biology and clinical management, many aspects of diagnosis and management of this disease are poorly understood. The range of diagnostic options that is available for veterinary diagnostic investigators are notably more limited than those available to medical diagnosticians, making accurate interpretation of each test result critical. The current review joins other reviews on the parasite with a particular emphasis on the history and continued development of diagnostic tests that are useful for veterinary diagnostic investigations. An understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of current diagnostic techniques will assist veterinary and public health officials in formulating effective treatment and control strategies in diverse animal populations.

  2. Sparse Modeling Reveals miRNA Signatures for Diagnostics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Hübenthal, Matthias; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Degenhardt, Frauke; Szymczak, Silke; Du, Zhipei; Elsharawy, Abdou; Keller, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still remains a clinical challenge and the most accurate diagnostic procedure is a combination of clinical tests including invasive endoscopy. In this study we evaluated whether systematic miRNA expression profiling, in conjunction with machine learning techniques, is suitable as a non-invasive test for the major IBD phenotypes (Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)). Based on microarray technology, expression levels of 863 miRNAs were determined for whole blood samples from 40 CD and 36 UC patients and compared to data from 38 healthy controls (HC). To further discriminate between disease-specific and general inflammation we included miRNA expression data from other inflammatory diseases (inflammation controls (IC): 24 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 23 multiple sclerosis, 38 pancreatitis and 45 sarcoidosis cases) as well as 70 healthy controls from previous studies. Classification problems considering 2, 3 or 4 groups were solved using different types of penalized support vector machines (SVMs). The resulting models were assessed regarding sparsity and performance and a subset was selected for further investigation. Measured by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) the corresponding median holdout-validated accuracy was estimated as ranging from 0.75 to 1.00 (including IC) and 0.89 to 0.98 (excluding IC), respectively. In combination, the corresponding models provide tools for the distinction of CD and UC as well as CD, UC and HC with expected classification error rates of 3.1 and 3.3%, respectively. These results were obtained by incorporating not more than 16 distinct miRNAs. Validated target genes of these miRNAs have been previously described as being related to IBD. For others we observed significant enrichment for IBD susceptibility loci identified in earlier GWAS. These results suggest that the proposed miRNA signature is of relevance for the etiology of IBD. Its diagnostic value

  3. The development of a dental diagnostic terminology.

    PubMed

    Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Ramoni, Rachel L; White, Joel M; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta E; Stark, Paul C; Kimmes, Nicole S; Zeller, Gregory G; Willis, George P; Walji, Muhammad F

    2011-01-01

    There is no commonly accepted standardized terminology for oral diagnoses. The purpose of this article is to report the development of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology by a work group of dental faculty members. The work group developed guiding principles for decision making and adhered to principles of terminology development. The members used an iterative process to develop a terminology incorporating concepts represented in the Toronto/University of California, San Francisco/Creighton University and International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9/10 codes and periodontal and endodontic diagnoses. Domain experts were consulted to develop a final list of diagnostic terms. A structure was developed, consisting of thirteen categories, seventy-eight subcategories, and 1,158 diagnostic terms, hierarchically organized and mappable to other terminologies and ontologies. Use of this standardized diagnostic terminology will reinforce the diagnosis-treatment link and will facilitate clinical research, quality assurance, and patient communication. Future work will focus on implementation and approaches to enhance the validity and reliability of diagnostic term utilization.

  4. The Development of a Dental Diagnostic Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Ramoni, Rachel L.; White, Joel M.; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta E.; Stark, Paul C.; Kimmes, Nicole S.; Zeller, Gregory G.; Willis, George P.; Walji, Muhammad F.

    2011-01-01

    There is no commonly accepted standardized terminology for oral diagnoses. The purpose of this article is to report the development of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology by a work group of dental faculty members. The work group developed guiding principles for decision making and adhered to principles of terminology development. The members used an iterative process to develop a terminology incorporating concepts represented in the Toronto/University of California, San Francisco/Creighton University and International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9/10 codes and periodontal and endodontic diagnoses. Domain experts were consulted to develop a final list of diagnostic terms. A structure was developed, consisting of thirteen categories, seventy-eight subcategories, and 1,158 diagnostic terms, hierarchically organized and mappable to other terminologies and ontologies. Use of this standardized diagnostic terminology will reinforce the diagnosis-treatment link and will facilitate clinical research, quality assurance, and patient communication. Future work will focus on implementation and approaches to enhance the validity and reliability of diagnostic term utilization. PMID:21205730

  5. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources (www.epa.gov/tocast). In the proof-of-concept phase, we are focused upon evaluating chemicals with an existing, rich toxicological database in order to provide an interpretive context for the high through put screening data. This set of 320 reference chemicals are largely derived from the active ingredients in food use pesticides and represent numerous structural classes and phenotypic outcomes, including tumorigens, developmental and reproductive toxicants, neurotoxicants and irnrnunotoxicants. The goal of the program is to develop signatures based on the combined use of physico-chemical properties (the traditional independent variables in structure activity models) and the bioactivity data (derived from a broad spectrum of more than 400 readouts from biochemical assays, cell-based phenotypic assays, and genomic analyses of cells) that are predictive of responses in animal bioassays. The signatures derived for chemicals with toxicity data gaps could then be compared with those of the well characterized chemicals, and those with significant signatures would become priority candidates for testing in traditional animal bioassays. These data are being generated through a series of

  6. Trends in diagnostic biochip development.

    PubMed

    Ichiishi, Eiichiro

    2013-05-01

    Technological advancements in biochips for diagnosis and prevention lead to improved healthcare cost containment with a decreasing birth rate and an aging population. Biochips have been attracting attention as a tool for improving healthcare costs. There are technological, standardization-related, ethical and societal problems in biochip development. For biochip market expansion, in addition to technological problems, it is necessary to overcome social, institutional, marketing and economic problems all together. It is expected that the application of biochip technologies will facilitate not only 'super' early diagnosis of diseases and disease prevention based on the diagnosis, but also early treatment.

  7. Development in diagnostics, instrumentation and facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Clothiaux, E.J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of plasma armature models and the important parameters needed for progress on the research and the development of electromagnetic launchers. The current state of diagnostics development and of its supporting instrumentation in progress at Eglin AFB, which impacts validation of armature models, is reviewed.

  8. Diagnostic Potential of Plasmatic MicroRNA Signatures in Stable and Unstable Angina

    PubMed Central

    D'Alessandra, Yuri; Carena, Maria Cristina; Spazzafumo, Liana; Martinelli, Federico; Bassetti, Beatrice; Devanna, Paolo; Rubino, Mara; Marenzi, Giancarlo; Colombo, Gualtiero I.; Achilli, Felice; Maggiolini, Stefano; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Pompilio, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined circulating miRNA expression profiles in plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) vs. matched controls, with the aim of identifying novel discriminating biomarkers of Stable (SA) and Unstable (UA) angina. Methods An exploratory analysis of plasmatic expression profile of 367 miRNAs was conducted in a group of SA and UA patients and control donors, using TaqMan microRNA Arrays. Screening confirmation and expression analysis were performed by qRT-PCR: all miRNAs found dysregulated were examined in the plasma of troponin-negative UA (n=19) and SA (n=34) patients and control subjects (n=20), matched for sex, age, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the expression of 14 known CAD-associated miRNAs was also investigated. Results Out of 178 miRNAs consistently detected in plasma samples, 3 showed positive modulation by CAD when compared to controls: miR-337-5p, miR-433, and miR-485-3p. Further, miR-1, -122, -126, -133a, -133b, and miR-199a were positively modulated in both UA and SA patients, while miR-337-5p and miR-145 showed a positive modulation only in SA or UA patients, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed a good diagnostic potential (AUC ≥ 0.85) for miR-1, -126, and -483-5p in SA and for miR-1, -126, and -133a in UA patients vs. controls, respectively. No discriminating AUC values were observed comparing SA vs. UA patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the combination of miR-1, -133a, and -126 in UA and of miR-1, -126, and -485-3p in SA correctly classified patients vs. controls with an efficiency ≥ 87%. No combination of miRNAs was able to reliably discriminate patients with UA from patients with SA. Conclusions This work showed that specific plasmatic miRNA signatures have the potential to accurately discriminate patients with angiographically documented CAD from matched controls. We failed to identify a plasmatic miRNA expression pattern capable to differentiate SA from UA patients. PMID:24260372

  9. Identification of high risk anaplastic gliomas by a diagnostic and prognostic signature derived from mRNA expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Bao; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Pei; Cai, Jin-Quan; Wang, Zhi-Liang; Li, Qing-Bin; Bao, Zhao-Shi; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Tao

    2015-11-03

    Anaplastic gliomas are characterized by variable clinical and genetic features, but there are few studies focusing on the substratification of anaplastic gliomas. To identify a more objective and applicable classification of anaplastic gliomas, we analyzed whole genome mRNA expression profiling of four independent datasets. Univariate Cox regression, linear risk score formula and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were applied to derive a gene signature with best prognostic performance. The corresponding clinical and molecular information were further analyzed for interpretation of the different prognosis and the independence of the signature. Gene ontology (GO), Gene Set Variation Analysis (GSVA) and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed for functional annotation of the differences. We found a three-gene signature, by applying which, the anaplastic gliomas could be divided into low risk and high risk groups. The two groups showed a high concordance with grade II and grade IV gliomas, respectively. The high risk group was more aggressive and complex. The three-gene signature showed diagnostic and prognostic value in anaplastic gliomas.

  10. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in circulating cell-free DNA as diagnostic biomarkers for human cancers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenshuai; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Xingyu; You, Lei; Song, Yanqun; Luo, Zhongguang; Zhang, Jun; Nie, Ji; Zheng, Wanwei; Xu, Diannan; Wang, Yaping; Dong, Yuanqiang; Yu, Shulin; Hong, Jun; Shi, Jianping; Hao, Hankun; Luo, Fen; Hua, Luchun; Wang, Peng; Qian, Xiaoping; Yuan, Fang; Wei, Lianhuan; Cui, Ming; Zhang, Taiping; Liao, Quan; Dai, Menghua; Liu, Ziwen; Chen, Ge; Meckel, Katherine; Adhikari, Sarbani; Jia, Guifang; Bissonnette, Marc B; Zhang, Xinxiang; Zhao, Yupei; Zhang, Wei; He, Chuan; Liu, Jie

    2017-09-19

    DNA modifications such as 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are epigenetic marks known to affect global gene expression in mammals. Given their prevalence in the human genome, close correlation with gene expression and high chemical stability, these DNA epigenetic marks could serve as ideal biomarkers for cancer diagnosis. Taking advantage of a highly sensitive and selective chemical labeling technology, we report here the genome-wide profiling of 5hmC in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and in genomic DNA (gDNA) of paired tumor and adjacent tissues collected from a cohort of 260 patients recently diagnosed with colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, liver or thyroid cancer and normal tissues from 90 healthy individuals. 5hmC was mainly distributed in transcriptionally active regions coincident with open chromatin and permissive histone modifications. Robust cancer-associated 5hmC signatures were identified in cfDNA that were characteristic for specific cancer types. 5hmC-based biomarkers of circulating cfDNA were highly predictive of colorectal and gastric cancers and were superior to conventional biomarkers and comparable to 5hmC biomarkers from tissue biopsies. Thus, this new strategy could lead to the development of effective, minimally invasive methods for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer from the analyses of blood samples.Cell Research advance online publication 19 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cr.2017.121.

  11. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  12. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    PubMed

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  13. Molecular signatures of lung cancer: defining new diagnostic and therapeutic paradigms.

    PubMed

    Balko, Justin M; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2012-02-01

    Molecular profiling holds great promise for improving our ability to diagnose, prognosticate, and select individualized treatments for lung cancer patients. However, using multidimensional data and novel technologies to derive these profiles is limited by our ability to employ the assay in a clinical scenario where it can impact the course of disease. Although many molecular signatures have been reported in lung cancer, as of yet, few have been sufficiently validated for widespread clinical use. Recently, several novel signatures have been reported, which address critical aspects of patient care and/or demonstrate improved efforts for appropriate clinical validation. Here, we present our opinion on the current state of the field of molecular signatures in lung cancer.

  14. Democratizing molecular diagnostics for the developing world.

    PubMed

    Abou Tayoun, Ahmad N; Burchard, Paul R; Malik, Imran; Scherer, Axel; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    Infectious diseases that are largely treatable continue to pose a tremendous burden on the developing world despite the availability of highly potent drugs. The high mortality and morbidity rates of these diseases are largely due to a lack of affordable diagnostics that are accessible to resource-limited areas and that can deliver high-quality results. In fact, modified molecular diagnostics for infectious diseases were rated as the top biotechnology to improve health in developing countries. In this review, we describe the characteristics of accessible molecular diagnostic tools and discuss the challenges associated with implementing such tools at low infrastructure sites. We highlight our experience as part of the "Grand Challenge" project supported by the Gates Foundation for addressing global health inequities and describe issues and solutions associated with developing adequate technologies or molecular assays needed for broad access in the developing world. We believe that sharing this knowledge will facilitate the development of new molecular technologies that are extremely valuable for improving global health.

  15. Development of a transient internal probe diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, Thomas R.; Mattick, Arthur T.

    1994-12-01

    A research effort was carried out to develop and test key components of the transient internal probe, a diagnostic tool for measuring internal magnetic fields in a plasma. A gasdynamic sabot separation method was developed for discarding the sabot upstream of the plasma. Separation is effected in a vented 50-caliber gun barrel, and the sabot is deflected upstream of the plasma, reliably removing the sabot without disrupting the probe trajectory. A vacuum interface was constructed to isolate the plasma from gun gases, which uses a very fast trap-door valve to prevent gas from entering the plasma chamber. A full-up test of the diagnostic was made using a 2.2 km/sec probe to measure a static field in a vacuum. This yielded excellent agreement with Hall probe measurements, with a resolution of 20 Gauss, and the gun gas entering the measurement chamber is to be acceptably small for application to plasma devices.

  16. Diagnostic and prognostic significance of miRNA signatures in tissues and plasma of endometrioid endometrial carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Torres, Anna; Torres, Kamil; Pesci, Anna; Ceccaroni, Marcello; Paszkowski, Tomasz; Cassandrini, Paola; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Maciejewski, Ryszard

    2013-04-01

    The aim of our study was to define tissue and plasma miRNA signatures, which could potentially serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers in endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) and to investigate miRNA profiles in regard to clinicopathological characteristics. Tissue and plasma samples were collected from 122 women (77 EEC and 45 controls). Expression profiling of 866 human miRNAs and 89 human viral miRNAs was performed in 24 samples and was followed by qPCR validation in 104 patients. Expression of 16 miRNAs was analyzed in 48 plasma samples. Microarray study revealed regulation of 21 miRNAs in EEC tissues comparing to normal endometrium. Altered expression of 17 miRNAs was confirmed by qPCR performed in 104 tissue samples. Seven miRNAs were upregulated and two were downregulated in EEC plasma samples. Expression of a number of miRNAs was associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade, relapse and nodal metastases. Two miRNA signatures: miR-92a/miR-410 and miR-92a/miR-205/miR-410 classified tumor tissues with higher accuracy in comparison to single miRNAs (AUC: 0.977, 95% CI: 0.927-0.996 and 0.984, 95% CI: 0.938-0.999, respectively). miRNA signature composed of miR-205 and miR-200a predicted relapse with AUC of 0.854 (95% CI: 0.691-0.951). Tissue miRNA signatures were independent prognostic markers of overall (miR-1228/miR-200c/miR-429, HR: 2.98) and progression-free survival (miR-1228/miR-429, HR: 2.453). Plasma miRNA signatures: miR-9/miR-1228 and miR-9/miR-92a, classified EEC plasma samples with high accuracy yielding AUCs of 0.909 (95% CI: 0.789-973) and 0.913 (95% CI: 0.794-0.976), respectively. We conclude that miRNA signatures hold a great promise to become noninvasive biomarkers for early EEC detection and prognosis.

  17. A Methodology for Developing Diagnostic Concept Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindell, Rebecca

    2006-12-01

    Since the development of the Force Concept Inventory, there as been a heightened interest in developing other concept inventories that not only assess if students understand a phenomena, but also diagnose specific alternative understandings. Unfortunately, there is no clear-cut methodology on how to construct such inventories. One of the difficulties is that only some parts of test development theory are appropriate for such concept inventories. This is due to the concept inventories being distracter driven, where test-takers do not randomly choose an incorrect answer. In this poster, I will present a methodology for developing diagnostic concept inventories, which combines traditional psychometric theory with modern theories of concentration and model analysis. An example of how this methodology was utilized to develop the successful Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) will also be given.

  18. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Johnson; NSTX Team

    2003-06-16

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50{sup o}) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set.

  19. Diagnostic Test Accuracy of a 2-Transcript Host RNA Signature for Discriminating Bacterial vs Viral Infection in Febrile Children.

    PubMed

    Herberg, Jethro A; Kaforou, Myrsini; Wright, Victoria J; Shailes, Hannah; Eleftherohorinou, Hariklia; Hoggart, Clive J; Cebey-López, Miriam; Carter, Michael J; Janes, Victoria A; Gormley, Stuart; Shimizu, Chisato; Tremoulet, Adriana H; Barendregt, Anouk M; Salas, Antonio; Kanegaye, John; Pollard, Andrew J; Faust, Saul N; Patel, Sanjay; Kuijpers, Taco; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Burns, Jane C; Coin, Lachlan J M; Levin, Michael

    Because clinical features do not reliably distinguish bacterial from viral infection, many children worldwide receive unnecessary antibiotic treatment, while bacterial infection is missed in others. To identify a blood RNA expression signature that distinguishes bacterial from viral infection in febrile children. Febrile children presenting to participating hospitals in the United Kingdom, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States between 2009-2013 were prospectively recruited, comprising a discovery group and validation group. Each group was classified after microbiological investigation as having definite bacterial infection, definite viral infection, or indeterminate infection. RNA expression signatures distinguishing definite bacterial from viral infection were identified in the discovery group and diagnostic performance assessed in the validation group. Additional validation was undertaken in separate studies of children with meningococcal disease (n = 24) and inflammatory diseases (n = 48) and on published gene expression datasets. A 2-transcript RNA expression signature distinguishing bacterial infection from viral infection was evaluated against clinical and microbiological diagnosis. Definite bacterial and viral infection was confirmed by culture or molecular detection of the pathogens. Performance of the RNA signature was evaluated in the definite bacterial and viral group and in the indeterminate infection group. The discovery group of 240 children (median age, 19 months; 62% male) included 52 with definite bacterial infection, of whom 36 (69%) required intensive care, and 92 with definite viral infection, of whom 32 (35%) required intensive care. Ninety-six children had indeterminate infection. Analysis of RNA expression data identified a 38-transcript signature distinguishing bacterial from viral infection. A smaller (2-transcript) signature (FAM89A and IFI44L) was identified by removing highly correlated transcripts. When this 2-transcript

  20. Development of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2001-12-01

    The starting point for questions in the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) Version 2.0 was two precursor surveys, the STAR Evaluation by Philip M. Sadler and Michael Zeilik's Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 1.0. Questions were selected or developed for the new ADT which (1) addressed concepts included in most introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors, (2) included only concepts recognizable to most high-school graduates, (3) focused on one concept only, and (4) stressed concepts and not jargon. This version was administered to about 1000 students at four colleges and universities. The statistical results, e.g., item discrimination, guided re-writing and elimination of questions. Sixty student interviews at Montana State and the University of Maryland, as well as thirty written responses to the questions in open-ended format, were the basis for determining if the questions were interpreted by the students as intended. This student input was also the basis for distractors (wrong answers) reflecting the ideas and the words of the students themselves. After revision, the ADT was administered the next semester to 1557 students enrolled in 22 introductory classes, twenty students were interviewed, and comments solicited from the instructors of those classes. The result was the final ADT Version 2.0, which consists of 21 content and 12 student background multiple-choice questions. This work has been partly supported by NSF grant # DGE-9714489.

  1. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-05-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  2. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I. ); Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  3. Recognition of Diagnostic Acoustic Signatures in Shelf and Slope Deposits: The STRATAFORM California Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    gravity deposits, reflector geometry, and inferred sediment processes. Sediment is deposited on shelves and slopes in distinctive packages or sequences...presence and distinctive characteristics of marine sediment- gravity deposits and record the diagnostic geometric patterns of shallow subsurface...is also evident from Huntec DTS lines of the lower slope that sediment gravity flows have occurred on the slope and in the channels fed by gullies

  4. Progress on development of SPIDER diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualotto, R.; Agostini, M.; Barbisan, M.; Bernardi, M.; Brombin, M.; Cavazzana, R.; Croci, G.; Palma, M. Dalla; Delogu, R. S.; Gorini, G.; Lotto, L.; Muraro, A.; Peruzzo, S.; Pimazzoni, A.; Pomaro, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Spolaore, M.; Tardocchi, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zaupa, M.

    2017-08-01

    SPIDER experiment, the full size prototype of the beam source for the ITER heating neutral beam injector, has to demonstrate extraction and acceleration to 100 kV of a large negative ion hydrogen or deuterium beam with co-extracted electron fraction e-/D- <1 and beam uniformity within 10%, for up to one hour beam pulses. Main RF source plasma and beam parameters are measured with different complementary techniques to exploit the combination of their specific features. While SPIDER plant systems are being installed, the different diagnostic systems are in the procurement phase. Their final design is described here with a focus on some key solutions and most original and cost effective implementations. Thermocouples used to measure the power load distribution in the source and over the beam dump front surface will be efficiently fixed with proven technique and acquired through commercial and custom electronics. Spectroscopy needs to use well collimated lines of sight and will employ novel design spectrometers with higher efficiency and resolution and filtered detectors with custom built amplifiers. The electrostatic probes will be operated through electronics specifically developed to cope with the challenging environment of the RF source. The instrumented calorimeter STRIKE will use new CFC tiles, still under development. Two linear cameras, one built in house, have been tested as suitable for optical beam tomography. Some diagnostic components are off the shelf, others are custom developed: some of these are being prototyped or are under test before final production and installation, which will be completed before start of SPIDER operation.

  5. Microbial signatures in post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome--toward patient stratification for improved diagnostics and treatment.

    PubMed

    Jalanka, Jonna; Salonen, Anne; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder estimated to affect over 10% of the Western population. A subset of the patients reports the start of the disease after an episode of gastroenteritis. The alterations in the intestinal microbiota of the post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) patients were recently investigated in a British cohort and shown to differentiate from the healthy controls and resemble that of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients. The altered 27 genus-like groups created a microbial signature, which could be used to objectively stratify patients and healthy controls. In this addendum, we combine the microbiota data derived from the British cohort with that of a recently reported Swedish PI-IBS cohort. Remarkably, robust and reproducible microbiota signatures were observed in these PI-IBS patients. We discuss these results with attention on the emerging role of microbiota in the classification, development and treatment of PI-IBS.

  6. Neutron Diagnostic Development for the Z Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Kelly; Chandler, G. A.; Ruiz, C. L.; Jones, B.; Gomez, M. R.; Knapp, P. F.; Sefkow, A. B.; Hansen, S. B.; Schmit, P. F.; Harding, E. C.; Norris, E.; Torres, J. A.; Cooper, G. W.; Styron, J. D.; Frenje, J.; Lahmann, B.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Fittinghoff, D.; May, M.; Snyder, L.; Moy, K.; Buckles, R.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    We are studying Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) and Gas Puff fusion neutron sources on the Z accelerator. MagLIF experiments have produced up to 3e12 primary DD neutrons with 2-3 keV ion temperatures and 1-2 ns burn widths. Gas puff experiments have produced up to 5e13 primary DD neutrons with higher ion temperatures, longer burn times, and evidence of non-thermonuclear production. For MagLIF, the yield is expected to increase rapidly with increased energy coupling, yet it remains unclear if Gas Puffs would scale as attractively. We review neutron measurements for these experiments and plans for developing neutron diagnostics for these two very different sources. Sandia is sponsored by the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Diagnostic potential of plasma microRNA signatures in patients with deep-vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Sundquist, Kristina; Elf, Johan L; Strandberg, Karin; Svensson, Peter J; Hedelius, Anna; Palmer, Karolina; Memon, Ashfaque A; Sundquist, Jan; Zöller, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    For excluding deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), a negative D-dimer and low clinical probability are used to rule out DVT. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are stably present in the plasma, serum and other body fluids. Their diagnostic function has been investigated in many diseases but not in DVT. The aims of present study were to assess the diagnostic ability of plasma miRNAs in DVT and to examine their correlation with known markers of hypercoagulability, such as D-dimer and APC-PCI complex. Plasma samples were obtained from 238 patients (aged 16-95 years) with suspected DVT included in a prospective multicentre management study (SCORE). We first performed miRNA screening of plasma samples from three plasma pools containing plasma from 12 patients with DVT and three plasma pools containing plasma from 12 patients without DVT using a microRNA Ready-to-use PCR Panel comprising 742 miRNA primer sets. Thirteen miRNAs that differentially expressed were further investigated by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR in the entire cohort. The plasma level of miR-424-5p (p=0.01) were significantly higher, whereas the levels of miR-136-5p (p=0.03) were significantly lower in DVT patients compared to patients without DVT. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed the area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.63 for miR-424-5p and 0.60 for miR-136-5p. The plasma level of miR-424-5p was associated with both D-dimer and APC-PCI complex levels (p<0.0001 and p=0.001, respectively). In conclusions, these findings indicate that certain miRNAs are associated with DVT and markers of hypercoagulability, though their diagnostic abilities are probably too low.

  8. Plasma Diagnostics Development for Advanced Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Timothy; Kittrell, Carter; Chan, Anthony; Chang-Diaz, Franklin

    2000-10-01

    The VASIMR (Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket) engine is a next-generation rocket engine under development at the Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory. With an exhaust velocity up to 50 times that of chemical rocket engines such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine, the VASIMR concept promises fast, efficient interplanetary flight. Rice University has participated in VASIMR research since 1996 and at present is developing two new diagnostic probes: a retarding potential analyzer to measure the velocity of ions in the rocket's exhaust, and a moveable optical probe to examine the spectrum of the rocket's helicon plasma source. In support of the probe development, a test facility is under construction at Rice, consisting of a small electric rocket engine firing into a 2-m vacuum chamber. This engine, the MPD (magnetoplasmadynamic) thruster, dates from the 1960's and provides a well-characterized source plasma for testing of the probes under development. We present details of the ion energy analyzer and the facility under construction at Rice.

  9. Metagenomics of Two Severe Foodborne Outbreaks Provides Diagnostic Signatures and Signs of Coinfection Not Attainable by Traditional Methods.

    PubMed

    Huang, Andrew D; Luo, Chengwei; Pena-Gonzalez, Angela; Weigand, Michael R; Tarr, Cheryl L; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic testing for foodborne pathogens relies on culture-based techniques that are not rapid enough for real-time disease surveillance and do not give a quantitative picture of pathogen abundance or the response of the natural microbiome. Powerful sequence-based culture-independent approaches, such as shotgun metagenomics, could sidestep these limitations and potentially reveal a pathogen-specific signature on the microbiome that would have implications not only for diagnostics but also for better understanding disease progression and pathogen ecology. However, metagenomics have not yet been validated for foodborne pathogen detection. Toward closing these gaps, we applied shotgun metagenomics to stool samples collected from two geographically isolated (Alabama and Colorado) foodborne outbreaks, where the etiologic agents were identified by culture-dependent methods as distinct strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg. Metagenomic investigations were consistent with the culture-based findings and revealed, in addition, the in situ abundance and level of intrapopulation diversity of the pathogen, the possibility of coinfections with Staphylococcus aureus, overgrowth of commensal Escherichia coli, and significant shifts in the gut microbiome during infection relative to reference healthy samples. Additionally, we designed our bioinformatics pipeline to deal with several challenges associated with the analysis of clinical samples, such as the high frequency of coeluting human DNA sequences and assessment of the virulence potential of pathogens. Comparisons of these results to those of other studies revealed that in several, but not all, cases of diarrheal outbreaks, the disease and healthy states of the gut microbial community might be distinguishable, opening new possibilities for diagnostics.

  10. Transcriptomic markers meet the real world: finding diagnostic signatures of corticosteroid treatment in commercial beef samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of growth-promoters in beef cattle, despite the EU ban, remains a frequent practice. The use of transcriptomic markers has already proposed to identify indirect evidence of anabolic hormone treatment. So far, such approach has been tested in experimentally treated animals. Here, for the first time commercial samples were analyzed. Results Quantitative determination of Dexamethasone (DEX) residues in the urine collected at the slaughterhouse was performed by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). DNA-microarray technology was used to obtain transcriptomic profiles of skeletal muscle in commercial samples and negative controls. LC-MS confirmed the presence of low level of DEX residues in the urine of the commercial samples suspect for histological classification. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on microarray data identified two clusters of samples. One cluster included negative controls and a subset of commercial samples, while a second cluster included part of the specimens collected at the slaughterhouse together with positives for corticosteroid treatment based on thymus histology and LC-MS. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (3961) between the two groups provided further evidence that animals clustering with positive samples might have been treated with corticosteroids. These suspect samples could be reliably classified with a specific classification tool (Prediction Analysis of Microarray) using just two genes. Conclusions Despite broad variation observed in gene expression profiles, the present study showed that DNA-microarrays can be used to find transcriptomic signatures of putative anabolic treatments and that gene expression markers could represent a useful screening tool. PMID:23110699

  11. Molecular signature of salivary gland tumors: potential use as diagnostic and prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Sena Filho, Marcondes; Altemani, Albina; Speight, Paul M; Vargas, Pablo Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Salivary gland tumors are a highly heterogeneous group of lesions with diverse microscopic appearances and variable clinical behavior. The use of clinical and histological parameters to predict patient prognosis and survival rates has been of limited utility, and the search for new biomarkers that could not only aid in a better understanding of their pathogenesis but also be reliable auxiliaries for prognostic determination and useful diagnostic tools has been performed in the last decades with very exciting results. Hence, gene rearrangements such as CRTC1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinomas have shown excellent specificity, and more than that, it has been strongly correlated with low-grade tumors and consequently with an increased survival rate and better prognosis of patients affected by neoplasms carrying this translocation. Moreover, MYB-NFIB and EWSR1-ATF1 gene fusions were shown to be specifically found in cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas and hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas, respectively, in the context of salivary gland tumors, becoming reliable diagnostic tools for these entities and potential therapeutic targets for future therapeutic protocols. Finally, the identification of ETV6-NTRK3 in cases previously diagnosed as uncommon acinic cell carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and adenocarcinomas not otherwise specified led to the characterization of a completely new and now widely accepted entity, including, therefore, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma in the list of well-recognized salivary gland carcinomas. Thus, further molecular investigations of salivary gland tumors are warranted, and the recognition of other genetic abnormalities can lead to the acknowledgment of new entities and the acquirement of reliable biomarkers.

  12. Developments in laboratory diagnostics for isocyanate asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wisnewski, Adam V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Isocyanates, reactive chemicals used to generate polyurethane, are a leading cause of occupational asthma worldwide. Workplace exposure is the best-recognized risk factor for disease development, but is challenging to monitor. Clinical diagnosis and differentiation of isocyanates as the cause of asthma can be difficult. The gold-standard test, specific inhalation challenge, is technically and economically demanding, and is thus only available in a few specialized centers in the world. With the increasing use of isocyanates, efficient laboratory tests for isocyanate asthma and exposure are urgently needed. Recent findings The review focuses on literature published in 2005 and 2006. Over 150 articles, identified by searching PubMed using keywords ‘diphenylmethane’, ‘toluene’ or ‘hexamethylene diisocyanate’, were screened for relevance to isocyanate asthma diagnostics. New advances in understanding isocyanate asthma pathogenesis are described, which help improve conventional radioallergosorbent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay approaches for measuring isocyanate-specific IgE and IgG. Newer immunoassays, based on cellular responses and discovery science readouts are also in development. Summary Contemporary laboratory tests that measure isocyanate-specific human IgE and IgG are of utility in diagnosing a subset of workers with isocyanate asthma, and may serve as a biomarker of exposure in a larger proportion of occupationally exposed workers. PMID:17351466

  13. Developments in laboratory diagnostics for isocyanate asthma.

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, Adam V

    2007-04-01

    Isocyanates, reactive chemicals used to generate polyurethane, are a leading cause of occupational asthma worldwide. Workplace exposure is the best-recognized risk factor for disease development, but is challenging to monitor. Clinical diagnosis and differentiation of isocyanates as the cause of asthma can be difficult. The gold-standard test, specific inhalation challenge, is technically and economically demanding, and is thus only available in a few specialized centers in the world. With the increasing use of isocyanates, efficient laboratory tests for isocyanate asthma and exposure are urgently needed. The review focuses on literature published in 2005 and 2006. Over 150 articles, identified by searching PubMed using keywords 'diphenylmethane', 'toluene' or 'hexamethylene diisocyanate', were screened for relevance to isocyanate asthma diagnostics. New advances in understanding isocyanate asthma pathogenesis are described, which help improve conventional radioallergosorbent and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay approaches for measuring isocyanate-specific IgE and IgG. Newer immunoassays, based on cellular responses and discovery science readouts are also in development. Contemporary laboratory tests that measure isocyanate-specific human IgE and IgG are of utility in diagnosing a subset of workers with isocyanate asthma, and may serve as a biomarker of exposure in a larger proportion of occupationally exposed workers.

  14. Effects of contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel on the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in solitary pulmonary nodule.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Huang, Yanqi; Ma, Zelan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2016-10-10

    The Effects of contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel on the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) remains unclear. 240 patients with SPNs (malignant, n = 180; benign, n = 60) underwent non-contrast CT (NECT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) which were reconstructed with different slice thickness and convolution kernel. 150 radiomics features were extracted separately from each set of CT and diagnostic performance of each feature were assessed. After feature selection and radiomics signature construction, diagnostic performance of radiomics signature for discriminating benign and malignant SPN was also assessed with respect to the discrimination and classification and compared with net reclassification improvement (NRI). Our results showed NECT-based radiomics signature demonstrated better discrimination and classification capability than CECT in both primary (AUC: 0.862 vs. 0.829, p = 0.032; NRI = 0.578) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.750 vs. 0.735, p = 0.014; NRI = 0.023). Thin-slice (1.25 mm) CT-based radiomics signature had better diagnostic performance than thick-slice CT (5 mm) in both primary (AUC: 0.862 vs. 0.785, p = 0.015; NRI = 0.867) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.750 vs. 0.725, p = 0.025; NRI = 0.467). Standard convolution kernel-based radiomics signature had better diagnostic performance than lung convolution kernel-based CT in both primary (AUC: 0.785 vs. 0.770, p = 0.015; NRI = 0.156) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.725 vs.0.686, p = 0.039; NRI = 0.467). Therefore, this study indicates that the contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel can affect the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in SPN, of which non-contrast, thin-slice and standard convolution kernel-based CT is more informative.

  15. Effects of contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel on the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in solitary pulmonary nodule

    PubMed Central

    He, Lan; Huang, Yanqi; Ma, Zelan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Effects of contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel on the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) remains unclear. 240 patients with SPNs (malignant, n = 180; benign, n = 60) underwent non-contrast CT (NECT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) which were reconstructed with different slice thickness and convolution kernel. 150 radiomics features were extracted separately from each set of CT and diagnostic performance of each feature were assessed. After feature selection and radiomics signature construction, diagnostic performance of radiomics signature for discriminating benign and malignant SPN was also assessed with respect to the discrimination and classification and compared with net reclassification improvement (NRI). Our results showed NECT-based radiomics signature demonstrated better discrimination and classification capability than CECT in both primary (AUC: 0.862 vs. 0.829, p = 0.032; NRI = 0.578) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.750 vs. 0.735, p = 0.014; NRI = 0.023). Thin-slice (1.25 mm) CT-based radiomics signature had better diagnostic performance than thick-slice CT (5 mm) in both primary (AUC: 0.862 vs. 0.785, p = 0.015; NRI = 0.867) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.750 vs. 0.725, p = 0.025; NRI = 0.467). Standard convolution kernel-based radiomics signature had better diagnostic performance than lung convolution kernel-based CT in both primary (AUC: 0.785 vs. 0.770, p = 0.015; NRI = 0.156) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.725 vs.0.686, p = 0.039; NRI = 0.467). Therefore, this study indicates that the contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel can affect the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in SPN, of which non-contrast, thin-slice and standard convolution kernel-based CT is more informative. PMID:27721474

  16. A circulating miRNA signature as a diagnostic biomarker for non-invasive early detection of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Xu, Ye; Jin, Xingyu; Wang, Zengwu; Wu, Yidi; Zhao, Deyao; Chen, Gang; Li, Deyu; Wang, Xiaoxia; Cao, Huiqing; Xie, Yuntao; Liang, Zicai

    2015-11-01

    Novel, non-invasive biomarkers to diagnose breast cancer with high sensitivity and specificity are greatly desired. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) show potential for breast cancer detection, but the existing results appear to be mixed. Using microscale serum, we established a novel serum-direct multiplex detection assay based on RT-PCR (SdM-RT-PCR). Ninety-three miRNAs dysregulated or with functions in breast cancer were selected as candidates, and additional 3 miRNAs were chosen as endogenous controls. We first conducted miRNA profiling of these 96 miRNAs by SdM-RT-PCR using the sera of 25 breast cancer patients at diagnosis prior to treatment and 20 age-matched healthy controls. miRNAs showing significantly different expression levels between patients and controls were further analyzed using a logistic regression model. A miRNA signature was validated in an independent set of 128 serum samples composed of 76 breast cancer patients and 52 healthy controls. In the discovery stage, we identified 23 miRNAs as significantly dysregulated in breast cancer patients compared with healthy controls. Of these, 10 miRNAs were previously identified as dysregulated in breast cancer; 14 miRNAs remained significant after P-values were adjusted by both correction methods. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering of these miRNAs separated patients from controls. Furthermore, the 3-miRNA signature (miR-199a, miR-29c, and miR-424) with the highest diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing breast cancer patients from controls by ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.888) was successfully confirmed in the validation set (AUC = 0.901). Our data demonstrate that the SdM-RT-PCR assay is an effective breast cancer profiling method that utilizes very small volumes and is compatible with Biobank. Furthermore, the identified 3-miRNA signature is a promising circulating biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis.

  17. Electrical signature analysis applications for non-intrusive automotive alternator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    Automotive alternators are designed to supply power for automobile engine ignition systems as well as charge the storage battery. This product is used in a large market where consumers are concerned with acoustic noise and vibration that comes from the unit. as well as overall quality and dependability. Alternators and generators in general are used in industries other than automotive, such as transportation and airline industries and in military applications. Their manufacturers are interested in pursuing state-of-the-art methods to achieve higher quality and reduced costs. Preliminary investigations of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques utilizing the inherent voltage signals of alternators have been performed with promising results. These techniques are based on time and frequency domain analyses of specially conditioned signals taken from several alternators under various test conditions. This paper discusses investigations that show correlations of the alternator output voltage to airborne noise production. In addition these signals provide insight into internal magnetic characteristics that relate to design and/or assembly problems.

  18. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  19. Do companion diagnostics make economic sense for drug developers?

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit

    2012-09-15

    Drug developers are grappling with the impact of personalized medicine on their portfolios. The combination of molecular diagnostics with targeted biologic therapies has been hailed as a recent innovation with few historical analogs to guide behavior. However, if the definition of companion diagnostics is broadened to include any drug whose FDA approved label requires diagnostic testing before prescription then over 50 drugs across multiple therapeutic areas arise. Most importantly for current drug developers, these drugs represent a wide variety of market situations and with sufficient historical data to evaluate different commercialization strategies for the combination. Included in these examples are drugs which were not initially launched with companion diagnostics but were required to implement companion diagnostics after they were on the market for a period of time. The historical case studies demonstrate that companion diagnostics are neither a universal panacea nor an unmitigated disaster for drug developers but require an understanding of specific situations to determine the utility of companion diagnostics. Numerous case studies highlight how companion diagnostics have been a boon to drug developers including Iressa, statins, Soriatane, Arthrotec, Promacta, Nplate, Letairis, and Tracleer. Other examples provide lessons on how to avoid pitfalls such as Accutane, Ticlid, Tegretol, Ziagen, Actigall and Clozaril. By carefully evaluating these case studies, drug developers can gain insight on the appropriate companion diagnostic strategy to implement for their specific situation and develop the elements of a successful companion diagnostic strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New developments in APSTNG neutron probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) show potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray dector and neutron generator can be located on the same side of the interrogated object, so spaces behind walls and other confirmed areas can be inspected. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed, the neutron generator is relatively simple and small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. A complete system could be transported in an automotive van. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Inspection applications have been investigated for presence of cocaine in propane tanks, uranium and plutonium smuggling, and radioactive and toxic waste characterization. An advanced APSTNG tube is being designed and constructed that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  1. Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

  2. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  3. Chemical signatures and new drug targets for gametocytocidal drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Magle, Crystal T.; Huang, Wenwei; Southall, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Dehdashti, Seameen J.; McKew, John C.; Williamson, Kim C.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Control of parasite transmission is critical for the eradication of malaria. However, most antimalarial drugs are not active against P. falciparum gametocytes, responsible for the spread of malaria. Consequently, patients can remain infectious for weeks after the clearance of asexual parasites and clinical symptoms. Here we report the identification of 27 potent gametocytocidal compounds (IC50 < 1 μM) from screening 5,215 known drugs and compounds. All these compounds were active against three strains of gametocytes with different drug sensitivities and geographical origins, 3D7, HB3 and Dd2. Cheminformatic analysis revealed chemical signatures for P. falciparum sexual and asexual stages indicative of druggability and suggesting potential targets. Torin 2, a top lead compound (IC50 = 8 nM against gametocytes in vitro), completely blocked oocyst formation in a mouse model of transmission. These results provide critical new leads and potential targets to expand the repertoire of malaria transmission-blocking reagents.

  4. Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Coronal Diagnostic Spectrograph and Ground-based Observations of a Two-Ribbon Flare: Spatially Resolved Signatures of Chromospheric Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, L.; Falchi, A.; Cauzzi, G.; Falciani, R.; Smaldone, L. A.; Andretta, V.

    2003-05-01

    During a coordinated observing campaign (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, SOHO JOP 139), we obtained simultaneous spectroheliograms of a solar active region in several spectral lines, sampling levels from the chromosphere to the corona. Ground-based spectroheliograms were acquired at the Dunn Solar Tower of the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak in four chromospheric lines, while the coronal diagnostic spectrograph on board SOHO was used to obtain rasters of the active region in transition region (TR) and coronal lines. Such a complete data set allowed us to compare the development of intensity and velocity fields during a small two-ribbon flare in the whole atmosphere. In particular, we obtained for the first time quasi-simultaneous and spatially resolved observations of velocity fields during the impulsive phase of a flare, in both the chromosphere and upper atmosphere. In this phase, strong downflows (up to 40 km s-1) following the shape of the developing ribbons are measured at chromospheric levels, while strong upward motions are instead measured in TR (up to -100 km s-1) and coronal lines (-160 km s-1). The spatial pattern of these velocities have a common area about 10" wide. This is the first time that opposite-directed flows at different atmospheric levels are observed in the same spatial location during a flare. These signatures are highly suggestive of the chromospheric evaporation scenario predicted in theoretical models of flares.

  5. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics.

  6. Plasma Proteomic Profiling in Hereditary Breast Cancer Reveals a BRCA1-Specific Signature: Diagnostic and Functional Implications.

    PubMed

    Scumaci, Domenica; Tammè, Laura; Fiumara, Claudia Vincenza; Pappaianni, Giusi; Concolino, Antonio; Leone, Emanuela; Faniello, Maria Concetta; Quaresima, Barbara; Ricevuto, Enrico; Costanzo, Francesco Saverio; Cuda, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a leading cause of death among women. Among the major risk factors, an important role is played by familial history of BC. Germ-line mutations in BRCA1/2 genes account for most of the hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers. Gene expression profiling studies have disclosed specific molecular signatures for BRCA1/2-related breast tumors as compared to sporadic cases, which might help diagnosis and clinical follow-up. Even though, a clear hallmark of BRCA1/2-positive BC is still lacking. Many diseases are correlated with quantitative changes of proteins in body fluids. Plasma potentially carries important information whose knowledge could help to improve early disease detection, prognosis, and response to therapeutic treatments. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive approach finalized to improve the recovery of specific biomarkers from plasma samples of subjects affected by hereditary BC. To perform this analysis, we used samples from patients belonging to highly homogeneous population previously reported. Depletion of high abundant plasma proteins, 2D gel analysis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and bioinformatics analysis were used into an integrated approach to investigate tumor-specific changes in the plasma proteome of BC patients and healthy family members sharing the same BRCA1 gene founder mutation (5083del19), previously reported by our group, with the aim to identify specific signatures. The comparative analysis of the experimental results led to the identification of gelsolin as the most promising biomarker. Further analyses, performed using a panel of breast cancer cell lines, allowed us to further elucidate the signaling network that might modulate the expression of gelsolin in breast cancer.

  7. Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Phase Laser Development Acknowledgement of Support and Disclaimer This material is based upon work supported by Air Force Office of Scientific...00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Sciences Inc. Role of Optical Diagnostics in High Energy Gas Laser Development  Chemically rich, energetic, reacting flow with competing phenomena

  8. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Bringing diagnostics to developing countries: an interview with Rosanna Peeling.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Professor Rosanna Peeling, PhD by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Professor Rosanna Peeling is Chair of Diagnostic Research at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (London, UK) and founded the International Diagnostics Centre at the institution. Professor Peeling previously worked for the WHO in Geneva, Switzerland, and continues to work on innovations for molecular diagnostics for point-of-care use in developing countries, addressing challenges posed by lack of funding and resources, regulatory issues and under-developed healthcare systems in these locations. Here, she discusses her career, recent progress in the field and how connectivity will affect global healthcare.

  11. Induced Polarization Signature of Biofilms in Porous Media: From Laboratory Experiments to Theoretical Developments and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Atekwana, Estella; Patrauchan, Marianna; Revil, Andre

    2016-10-04

    Bioremediation strategies for mitigating the transport of heavy metals and radionuclides in subsurface sediments have largely targeted the use of dissimilatory metal and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Growth and metabolic activities from these organisms can significantly influence biogeochemical processes, including mineral dissolution/precipitation, fluctuating pH and redox potential (Eh) values, development of biofilms, and decreasing hydraulic conductivity. The Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) technique has emerged as the technique most sensitive to the presence of microbial cells and biofilms in porous media; yet it is often difficult to unambiguously distinguish the impact of multiple and often competing processes that occur during in-situ biostimulation activities on the SIP signatures. The main goal of our project is to quantitatively characterize major components within bacterial biofilms (cells, DNA, metals, metabolites etc.) contributing to detectable SIP signatures. We specifically: (i) evaluated the contribution of biofilm components to SIP signatures, (ii) determined the contribution of biogenic minerals commonly found in biofilms to SIP signatures, (iii) determined if the SIP signatures can be used to quantify the rates of biofilm formation, (iv) developed models and a fundamental understanding of potential underlying polarization mechanisms at low frequencies (<40 kHz) resulting from the presence of microbial cells and biofilms

  12. Developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for human cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    How, Christine; Pintilie, Melania; Bruce, Jeff P; Hui, Angela B Y; Clarke, Blaise A; Wong, Philip; Yin, Shaoming; Yan, Rui; Waggott, Daryl; Boutros, Paul C; Fyles, Anthony; Hedley, David W; Hill, Richard P; Milosevic, Michael; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains the third most frequently diagnosed and fourth leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. We sought to develop a micro-RNA signature that was prognostic for disease-free survival, which could potentially allow tailoring of treatment for cervical cancer patients. A candidate prognostic 9-micro-RNA signature set was identified in the training set of 79 frozen specimens. However, three different approaches to validate this signature in an independent cohort of 87 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, were unsuccessful. There are several challenges and considerations associated with developing a prognostic micro-RNA signature for cervical cancer, namely: tumour heterogeneity, lack of concordance between frozen and FFPE specimens, and platform selection for global micro-RNA expression profiling in this disease. Our observations provide an important cautionary tale for future miRNA signature studies for cervical cancer, which can also be potentially applicable to miRNA profiling studies involving other types of human malignancies.

  13. Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, J. C.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.

    2010-06-15

    A ''synthetic diagnostic'' has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak discharge modeled with the GYRO nonlinear gyrokinetic code [J. Candy and R. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The synthetic PCI includes the spatial response of the experimental diagnostic, primarily implemented as a line integral of plasma density along the beam path, and the minimum and maximum wavenumber response resulting from the detection scheme. The synthetic PCI can be used for comparisons between GYRO and experiment as well as studies of the PCI response.

  14. The development of spectro-signature indicators of root disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wear, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    The development and testing of airborne sensors that might be effective in discrimination root rot infected trees from healthy ones are outlined. The sensing device is composed of a thermal infrared radiometer and an instant replay video scan system.

  15. Development of Performance and Effectiveness Metrics For Mechanical Diagnostic Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-05

    this need , a virtual test bench is under development by the Navy for assessing the performance and effectiveness of machinery diagnostic systems. The...benefits of mechanical machinery diagnostic technologies does not currently exist. In response to this need , a virtual test bench is 375 under...thermocouples, acoustic emission sensors, and oil debris sensors. Tests are run at various load and speed profiles while 381 logging measurement signals for

  16. Diagnostic development and support of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. MSU personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  17. The Proteomic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus During Early Development*

    PubMed Central

    Cagas, Steven E.; Jain, Mohit Raja; Li, Hong; Perlin, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that causes a range of diseases in humans including invasive aspergillosis. All forms of disease begin with the inhalation of conidia, which germinate and develop. Four stages of early development were evaluated using the gel free system of isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation to determine the full proteomic profile of the pathogen. A total of 461 proteins were identified at 0, 4, 8, and 16 h and fold changes for each were established. Ten proteins including the hydrophobin rodlet protein RodA and a protein involved in melanin synthesis Abr2 were found to decrease relative to conidia. To generate a more comprehensive view of early development, a whole genome microarray analysis was performed comparing conidia to 8 and 16 h of growth. A total of 1871 genes were found to change significantly at 8 h with 1001 genes up-regulated and 870 down-regulated. At 16 h, 1235 genes changed significantly with 855 up-regulated and 380 down-regulated. When a comparison between the proteomics and microarray data was performed at 8 h, a total of 22 proteins with significant changes also had corresponding genes that changed significantly. When the same comparison was performed at 16 h, 12 protein and gene combinations were found. This study, the most comprehensive to date, provides insights into early pathways activated during growth and development of A. fumigatus. It reveals a pathogen that is gearing up for rapid growth by building translation machinery, generating ATP, and is very much committed to aerobic metabolism. PMID:21825280

  18. A distinct metabolic signature predicts development of fasting plasma glucose

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High blood glucose and diabetes are amongst the conditions causing the greatest losses in years of healthy life worldwide. Therefore, numerous studies aim to identify reliable risk markers for development of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism is so far insufficiently understood. The development of so called 'omics' approaches in the recent years promises to identify molecular markers and to further understand the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Although univariate statistical approaches are often applied, we demonstrate here that the application of multivariate statistical approaches is highly recommended to fully capture the complexity of data gained using high-throughput methods. Methods We took blood plasma samples from 172 subjects who participated in the prospective Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam follow-up study (MESY-BEPO Follow-up). We analysed these samples using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and measured 286 metabolites. Furthermore, fasting glucose levels were measured using standard methods at baseline, and after an average of six years. We did correlation analysis and built linear regression models as well as Random Forest regression models to identify metabolites that predict the development of fasting glucose in our cohort. Results We found a metabolic pattern consisting of nine metabolites that predicted fasting glucose development with an accuracy of 0.47 in tenfold cross-validation using Random Forest regression. We also showed that adding established risk markers did not improve the model accuracy. However, external validation is eventually desirable. Although not all metabolites belonging to the final pattern are identified yet, the pattern directs attention to amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and redox homeostasis. Conclusions We demonstrate that metabolites identified using a high

  19. A distinct metabolic signature predicts development of fasting plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Hische, Manuela; Larhlimi, Abdelhalim; Schwarz, Franziska; Fischer-Rosinský, Antje; Bobbert, Thomas; Assmann, Anke; Catchpole, Gareth S; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Willmitzer, Lothar; Selbig, Joachim; Spranger, Joachim

    2012-02-02

    High blood glucose and diabetes are amongst the conditions causing the greatest losses in years of healthy life worldwide. Therefore, numerous studies aim to identify reliable risk markers for development of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism is so far insufficiently understood. The development of so called 'omics' approaches in the recent years promises to identify molecular markers and to further understand the molecular basis of impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Although univariate statistical approaches are often applied, we demonstrate here that the application of multivariate statistical approaches is highly recommended to fully capture the complexity of data gained using high-throughput methods. We took blood plasma samples from 172 subjects who participated in the prospective Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam follow-up study (MESY-BEPO Follow-up). We analysed these samples using Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and measured 286 metabolites. Furthermore, fasting glucose levels were measured using standard methods at baseline, and after an average of six years. We did correlation analysis and built linear regression models as well as Random Forest regression models to identify metabolites that predict the development of fasting glucose in our cohort. We found a metabolic pattern consisting of nine metabolites that predicted fasting glucose development with an accuracy of 0.47 in tenfold cross-validation using Random Forest regression. We also showed that adding established risk markers did not improve the model accuracy. However, external validation is eventually desirable. Although not all metabolites belonging to the final pattern are identified yet, the pattern directs attention to amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism and redox homeostasis. We demonstrate that metabolites identified using a high-throughput method (GC-MS) perform well in

  20. Turbine Engine Diagnostic Development. Phase I Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-11-01

    isolating the fault to a line-replaceable unit. A successful system will be able to replace conventional maintenance procedures with a nalntenance-as...Computer programming will be developed for a high resolution cathode ray tube (CRT). Parameter trending will be implemented as well as fault matrices...manipulation throughout its operating envelope. 2. That the project be continued to establish more accurate diagnosis and reduce false alarms. This will

  1. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  2. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (Developing Predictive Bioactivity Signatures from ToxCasts HTS Data)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  3. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (Developing Predictive Bioactivity Signatures from ToxCasts HTS Data)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  4. Longitudinal shower development and its signature at observation level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitnis, V. R.; Bhat, P. N.

    2002-03-01

    From a study of Cverenkov photon arrival times at various core distances at the observation level it has already been established that the photon front is well fitted with a spherical surface traveling at the speed of light and originating from a fixed point on the shower axis. The radius of curvature as measured at the observation level has been found to be roughly equal to the height of shower maximum from the observation level. In the present work we study the relationship between the radius of curvature of the shower fromt (R), the height of electron maximum (he), the Cverenkov photon maximum (hCv) and the average production height of Cverenkov photons (h-). Cverenkov pulse width (w) has always ben used as a parameter to study cascade development especially at tens of PeV energies. We discuss the relation between the w and he at TeV energies for gamma-ray and proton primaries.

  5. FY-93 noncontacting acoustic ultrasonic signature analysis development

    SciTech Connect

    Tow, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.G.; Williamson, R.L.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1994-04-01

    A noncontacting, long-standoff inspection system with proven capabilities in container fill identification has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The system detects subtle change in container vibration characteristics caused by differences in the physical properties of the fill materials. A container is inspected by acoustically inducting it to vibrate and sensing the vibrational response with a laser vibrometer. A standoff distance of several meters is feasible. In previous work the system proved to be a reliable means of distinguishing between munitions with a variety of chemical fills. During FY-93, the system was modified to improve performance and simplify operation. Other FY-93 accomplishments include progress in modeling the vibrational characteristics of containers and refinements to the statistical classification algorithms. Progress was also made in identifying other applications for this technology.

  6. Protein amyloids develop an intrinsic fluorescence signature during aggregation†

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Fiona T. S.; Kaminski Schierle, Gabriele S.; Kumita, Janet R.; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2017-01-01

    We report observations of an intrinsic fluorescence in the visible range, which develops during the aggregation of a range of polypeptides, including the disease-related human peptides amyloid-β(1–40) and (1–42), lysozyme and tau. Characteristic fluorescence properties such as the emission lifetime and spectra were determined experimentally. This intrinsic fluorescence is independent of the presence of aromatic side-chain residues within the polypeptide structure. Rather, it appears to result from electronic levels that become available when the polypeptide chain folds into a cross-β sheet scaffold similar to what has been reported to take place in crystals. We use these findings to quantify protein aggregation in vitro by fluorescence imaging in a label-free manner. PMID:23420088

  7. Planning and developing a diagnostic imaging center.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Margaret J; Whelton, Dianne G

    2004-12-01

    The convergence of an aging population, new technology, and an increasing number of clinical applications and reimbursements has created a favorable environment for ambulatory imaging centers. From a patient's perspective, features such as easy access, parking, appointment availability, and a setting that caters to outpatients are attractive compared with the hospital environment. Before embarking on a venture, the execution of a careful, thorough planning process, from the inception of the idea to the opening, is vital to success. This article provides guidance on the process by discussing the process of determining whether a project is feasible; developing a business plan that will measure potential success; locating, financing, and planning space; contractor selection and project management; and planning operations.

  8. A Circulating microRNA Signature Predicts Age-Based Development of Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti, Afshin; Vanderburg, Charles; McDonald, J. Tyson; Ramkumar, Charusheila; Kadungure, Tatenda; Zhang, Hong; Gartenhaus, Ronald B.; Evens, Andrew M.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive epidemiological data have demonstrated an exponential rise in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that is associated with increasing age. The molecular etiology of this remains largely unknown, which impacts the effectiveness of treatment for patients. We proposed that age-dependent circulating microRNA (miRNA) signatures in the host influence diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) development. Our objective was to examine tumor development in an age-based DLBCL system using an inventive systems biology approach. We harnessed a novel murine model of spontaneous DLBCL initiation (Smurf2-deficient) at two age groups: 3 and 15 months old. All Smurf2-deficient mice develop visible DLBCL tumor starting at 15 months of age. Total miRNA was isolated from serum, bone marrow and spleen and were collected for all age groups for Smurf2-deficient mice and age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Using systems biology techniques, we identified a list of 10 circulating miRNAs being regulated in both the spleen and bone marrow that were present in DLBCL forming mice starting at 3 months of age that were not present in the control mice. Furthermore, this miRNA signature was found to occur circulating in the blood and it strongly impacted JUN and MYC oncogenic signaling. In addition, quantification of the miRNA signature was performed via Droplet Digital PCR technology. It was discovered that a key miRNA signature circulates throughout a host prior to the formation of a tumor starting at 3 months old, which becomes further modulated by age and yielded calculation of a ‘carcinogenic risk score’. This novel age-based circulating miRNA signature may potentially be leveraged as a DLBCL risk profile at a young age to predict future lymphoma development or disease progression as well as for potential innovative miRNA-based targeted therapeutic strategies in lymphoma. PMID:28107482

  9. Development of vibration signature analysis using multiwavelet systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadem, S. E.; Rezaee, M.

    2003-04-01

    In this paper the vibration analysis for local faults and transient phenomena detection, using multiwavelet systems, is developed. Unlike the scalar wavelet systems, in which their coefficients are scalar parameters, the transformation coefficients of multiwavelet systems are vector valued, and their calculation requires specialized techniques. In this investigation, having considered the technique used to obtain the scalar wavelet system coefficients, the transformation coefficients of the multiwavelet system are calculated, and by applying the method to artificial vibration signals, decomposition of the signal into different multiscale and multiwavelet functions (as introduced by Donovan, Geronimo, Hardin and Massopust) is examined, as well as the capability of this multiwavelet system for transient phenomena detection. By analyzing the vibration signal of a faulty gearing system the applicability of Donovan, Geronimo, Hardin and Massopust multiwavelet system for local fault detection of the mechanical systems is shown. The results confirm that using the multiwavelet system, not only can the fault in the gearing system be diagnosed, but also its location can be determined precisely.

  10. Laser spectroscopy of supersonic jet-cooled flexible molecules: Conformational preferences, spectral signatures, and method development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubert, Virgil Alvin

    The coupling of supersonic expansions with laser spectroscopy has been fruitfully applied toward gaining insight the conformational preferences and spectral signatures of molecules important to a variety of disciplines. In this vein, a variety of multi resonance methods were employed and/or developed. Studies of O-(2-acetamidoethyl)-N-acetyltyramine (OANAT) and the single chain analogs found the presence of two categories of structures: those having interchain amide-amide hydrogen bonding over the chromophore and those with non-interacting, independent chains. This result was counter the theoretical predictions that the interchain structures should be the only ones according to relative energies. Resolution to this paradox came once entropy corrections were made to obtain the free energies at the sample temperature and showed the population of independent chain structures is enhanced relative to the interchain structures at higher temperatures. Crown ethers (benzo-15-crown-5 ether and 4'-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 ether) and their singly and doubly complexed water clusters were also investigated. Some monohydrated crown ether water clusters were found to have the asymmetric water OH stretch split into multiplets due to a 3:1 Fermi resonance with aromatic CO stretches. Electronic origin shifts when coupled with theoretical methods proved especially diagnostic for making conformational assignments as the S0-S1 transitions were very sensitive to local conformation at the chromophore. The infrared region, notably the alkyl CH stretch, proved useful as blue-shifted CHO H-bonds characterized the region above 2930 cm-1 for the crown monomer due to the preference of uncomplexed crowns to buckle in on themselves, allowing different parts of the crown cycle to interact. Conversely, the water complexes lacked the alkyl CH stretch features indicative of CHO interactions. It was concluded that the complexation of water dramatically alters the conformational preferences of the crown

  11. A Temporal Chromatin Signature in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Identifies Regulators of Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sharon L.; Thomas, Sean; Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L.; Wang, Hao; Maves, Lisa; Sandstrom, Richard; Pabon, Lil; Reinecke, Hans; Pratt, Gabriel; Keller, Gordon; Moon, Randall T.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Murry, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiovascular cells provides a model for studying molecular mechanisms of human cardiovascular development. Though it is known that chromatin modification patterns in ESCs differ markedly from those in lineage-committed progenitors and differentiated cells, the temporal dynamics of chromatin alterations during differentiation along a defined lineage have not been studied. We show that differentiation of human ESCs into cardiovascular cells is accompanied by programmed temporal alterations in chromatin structure that distinguish key regulators of cardiovascular development from other genes. We used this temporal chromatin signature to identify regulators of cardiac development, including the homeobox gene MEIS2. We demonstrate using the zebrafish model that MEIS2 is critical for proper heart tube formation and subsequent cardiac looping. Temporal chromatin signatures should be broadly applicable to other models of stem cell differentiation to identify regulators and provide key insights into major developmental decisions. PMID:22981225

  12. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    most recent funding period, our bioinformatic analysis identified subsets of fMaSC signature genes that are coordinately expressed in archived human...adapted a new microfluidics -based, single-cell capture and library preparation system to improve reproducibility in the generation of gene expression...fraction, a two-class Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) [7, 8] was performed within each dataset comparing each given FACS population

  13. Use of a Novel Embryonic Mammary Stem Cell Gene Signature to Improve Human Breast Cancer Diagnostics and Therapeutic Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    bioinformatic analysis identified subsets of fMaSC signature genes that are coordinately expressed in archived human breast cancer gene expression data sets and...existing and commonly used clinical variables in the preliminary data sets we have analyzed. We have also adapted a new microfluidics -based, single... Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) [7, 8] was performed within each dataset comparing each given FACS population versus all others from that experimental

  14. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  15. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkova, P.; Melich, R.; Aftanas, M.; Boehm, P.; Sestak, D.; Jares, D.; Weinzettl, V.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Walsh, M. J.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  16. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS.

    PubMed

    Bilkova, P; Melich, R; Aftanas, M; Böhm, P; Sestak, D; Jares, D; Weinzettl, V; Stöckel, J; Hron, M; Panek, R; Scannell, R; Walsh, M J

    2010-10-01

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  17. Development of an otolaryngological interferometric fiber optic diagnostic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conerty, Michelle D.; Castracane, James; Saravia, Eduardo; Parnes, Steven M.; Cacace, Anthony T.

    1992-08-01

    Current medical instrumentation research at InterScience, Inc. is aimed at utilizing state of the art electro-optics in the development of a diagnostic fiber optic instrument capable of quantifying vibration patterns in real time. This work is in collaboration with the Division of Otolaryngology of the Albany Medical College. The innovative diagnostic probe system design involves the miniaturization of an electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) system through the use of fiber optic elements coupled with high speed image acquisition from a solid state matrix detector. Subsequent frame by frame processing produces a high quality three-dimensional spatial representation of the vibrational pattern. The diagnostic probe system is being developed for quantitative tympanic membrane and vocal cord vibration analysis. The significance of the introduction of this instrument to the medical community is the contribution it could make in the efficiency and effectiveness of the diagnosis of otolaryngological disorders. Specific applications include the evaluation of tympanosclerosis, stiffness related middle ear disorders, ossicular chain abnormalities, tympanic membrane replacement, vocal dysphonias, and early detection of laryngeal carcinomas, cysts, and phenomenological properties of mucosal wave dynamics. The current instrumentation research is focused on the production of a prototype system for clinical trials. This research is based in ESPI optical system development and miniaturization, system hardware and software development, and clinical design of the probe heads within anatomical limitations. Significant advantages of this diagnostic tool over currently used instrumentation and procedures are the real time capabilities of the instrument, the ability to quantify the vibrational pattern in time and space, and the possibility of establishing a database of patient history and disorder characteristics. Once fully developed and integrated into the clinical

  18. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills.

  19. Object-Oriented Integrated Maintenance Information System (IMIS) diagnostic Module Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Diagnostic Module (IMIS- DM) and diagnostic maintenance environment. The diagnostic module is part of an ongoing IMIS research and development (R& D ...11 D egraded M ode ................................................................................... 12 III. DIAGNOSTIC ...Previous R& D efforts in diagnostics produced the IMIS-DM, an almost purely functional assessment module for isolating and repairing faulty components

  20. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  1. Development of an experimental capability to validate infrared signature predictions of installed aircraft exhaust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooks, Steve; Fair, Martin L.; Smith, Anthony G.; Chettle, Nicholas

    2002-08-01

    As methods continue to develop for predicting infrared signatures for complex propulsion systems, the need to validate such methods and, indeed to gain confidence in new designs grows. Within Dstl, work to develop static engine test rigs has been carried out. These rigs allow aspects of infrared signature such as plume mixing, cavity emissions, surface impingement and subsequent treatment, obscuration and nozzle shaping to be studied. However, there is a growing need for data, which is more closely related to actual flight conditions. Full flight measurements are prohibitively expensive and often out of the question when a range of geometries are to be studied. Wind tunnel tests can also be difficult because of the quantity of power required for the free stream flow and the need to produce realistic hot gas. This paper describes the work that has been carried out to produce a cost effective free stream measurement capability, which makes use of existing static engine facilities. By bleeding engine compressor flows and exhaust flows, a reduced scale system has been created which allows the simulation of infrared propulsion issues at free stream Mach numbers of up to 0.5. The data obtained with this system has been used to validate the prediction methods for 3D-exhaust plume and afterbody infrared signature.

  2. Development of consensus statements for pregnancy screening in diagnostic nuclear medicine: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    James, Daphne J; Warren-Forward, Helen M

    2015-03-01

    Current radiation protection recommendations do not provide clear guidelines or advice on pregnancy screening strategies for diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. Previous studies have reported on variations in current practice for pregnancy screening before diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures. The development of consensus statements aims to provide a consistent approach and assist nuclear medicine personnel to confidently question patients about their pregnancy status. The Delphi technique was chosen for the research design. A panel consisting of 10 experienced nuclear medicine personnel from Australia and New Zealand was recruited. Panel members were provided with a summary of existing research. Consensus agreement was predefined as 80%. Questionnaires were developed and distributed to the panel members, with iterative analysis and feedback between survey rounds. Three survey rounds were conducted online using SurveyMonkey between December 2013 and June 2014. The round 1 questionnaire was developed from the results of a previous survey. It consisted of 30 questions designed to gather the opinions of the expert panel. After analysis of the round 1 responses, consensus statements were developed for round 2 and revised in round 3. Consensus was achieved for 16 statements. The statements recommend using verbal questioning with patient signature, defining the age range for questioning as 12-55 y, providing advice on the use of pregnancy testing, and questioning potentially difficult groups such as teenagers. A flowchart was included for comment in round 3. This was the first Australian study to develop consensus statements and a flowchart to assist nuclear medicine personnel in consistently and confidently questioning patients about their pregnancy status before diagnostic procedures. Implementation of these statements into clinical practice guidelines should reduce the possibility of inadvertent fetal irradiation. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and

  3. Specific 50'CpG island methylation signatures of FHIT and p16 genes and their potential diagnostic relevance in Indian breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Raza Ali; Hussain, Arif; Raish, Mohmammad; Noor, Afshan; Shahid, Mohammad; Sarin, Ritu; Kukreti, Himani; Khan, Nida Jameel; Ahmad, Shandar; Deo, Suryanarayan V S; Husain, Syed Akhtar; Pasha, Syed Tazeen; Basir, Seemi Farhat; Shukla, Nootan Kumar

    2008-09-01

    Even after tremendous molecular studies, early detection,more accurate and sensitive diagnosis, and prognosis of breast cancer appear to be a riddle so far. To stab the enigma, this study is designed to envisage DNA methylation signatures as cancer-specific and stage-specific biomarkers in Indian patients. Rigorous review of scattered scientific reports on aberrant DNA methylation helped us to select and analyze a potential tumor suppressor gene pair (FHIT and p16 genes) in breast cancer patients. Methylation signatures from 232 primary sporadic breast cancer patients were pinpointed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). To increase the sensitivity, we combined both MSP and expression studies (RT-PCR and Northern blotting) in a reproducible manner. Statistical analysis illustrated that hypermethylation of FHIT gene ( p < 0.0001) and p16 gene ( p=0.04) may be used as a potential diagnostic marker to diagnose the early and locally advanced stages of breast cancer. Additionally, the study authenticates the dependency of methylation and expressional loss of p16 gene on FHIT gene silencing. This observation not only describes the severity of disease when both genes are silenced but also drives to speculate the molecular cross talk between two genes or genetic pathways dictated by them separately.

  4. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y.

    2008-03-12

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  5. Development of beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. J.; Yu, Y.; Chen, R.; Wu, Y. F.; Yuan, B. D.; Gong, S. B.; Yu, Q. J.; Lyu, B.; Shi, Y. J.; Ye, M. Y.; Wan, B. N.

    2017-08-01

    Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic based on Neutron Beam Injection (NBI) on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak has been developed. This system consists of 16 × 8 channels which can diagnose the density fluctuation in a rectangular area of about 20 × 10 cm2 in the cross section, whose radial position is adjustable from the core to edge just by means of changing the angle of the rotation mirror. The spatial resolution is about 1-3 cm according to the diagnosed radial position. The temporal resolution is 1 μs. Space calibration of the diagnostic system is done based on the reversibility of the optical path. The NBI modulation experiment shows the success of BES development.

  6. Development of a Transient Acoustic Boundary Element Method to Predict the Noise Signature of Swimming Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Moored, Keith; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    Animals have evolved flexible wings and fins to efficiently and quietly propel themselves through the air and water. The design of quiet and efficient bio-inspired propulsive concepts requires a rapid, unified computational framework that integrates three essential features: the fluid mechanics, the elastic structural response, and the noise generation. This study focuses on the development, validation, and demonstration of a transient, two-dimensional acoustic boundary element solver accelerated by a fast multipole algorithm. The resulting acoustic solver is used to characterize the acoustic signature produced by a vortex street advecting over a NACA 0012 airfoil, which is representative of vortex-body interactions that occur in schools of swimming fish. Both 2S and 2P canonical vortex streets generated by fish are investigated over the range of Strouhal number 0 . 2 < St < 0 . 4 , and the acoustic signature of the airfoil is quantified. This study provides the first estimate of the noise signature of a school of swimming fish. Lehigh University CORE Grant.

  7. Digital Gene Expression Signatures for Maize Development1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Eveland, Andrea L.; Satoh-Nagasawa, Namiko; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Meyer, Sandra; Beatty, Mary; Sakai, Hajime; Ware, Doreen; Jackson, David

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide expression signatures detect specific perturbations in developmental programs and contribute to functional resolution of key regulatory networks. In maize (Zea mays) inflorescences, mutations in the RAMOSA (RA) genes affect the determinacy of axillary meristems and thus alter branching patterns, an important agronomic trait. In this work, we developed and tested a framework for analysis of tag-based, digital gene expression profiles using Illumina’s high-throughput sequencing technology and the newly assembled B73 maize reference genome. We also used a mutation in the RA3 gene to identify putative expression signatures specific to stem cell fate in axillary meristem determinacy. The RA3 gene encodes a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and may act at the interface between developmental and metabolic processes. Deep sequencing of digital gene expression libraries, representing three biological replicate ear samples from wild-type and ra3 plants, generated 27 million 20- to 21-nucleotide reads with frequencies spanning 4 orders of magnitude. Unique sequence tags were anchored to 3′-ends of individual transcripts by DpnII and NlaIII digests, which were multiplexed during sequencing. We mapped 86% of nonredundant signature tags to the maize genome, which associated with 37,117 gene models and unannotated regions of expression. In total, 66% of genes were detected by at least nine reads in immature maize ears. We used comparative genomics to leverage existing information from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) in functional analyses of differentially expressed maize genes. Results from this study provide a basis for the analysis of short-read expression data in maize and resolved specific expression signatures that will help define mechanisms of action for the RA3 gene. PMID:20833728

  8. Development of Methods for Diagnostics of Discharges in Supersonic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    flow, diagnostic methods, electric probe, measurement circuit, propane-air mixture, ignition. Participating Institution : Department of...932-88-20 E-mail: dean@phys.msu.su /ershov@ph-elec.phys.msu.su Partner: The European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD) Adress...of flight . The gas discharges of a various type can be the perspective tool of the decision of this problem. The definition of the most effective

  9. New and developing diagnostic technologies for urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Michael; Mach, Kathleen E.; Dairiki Shortliffe, Linda M.; Banaei, Niaz; Wang, Tza-Huei; Liao, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    Timely and accurate identification and determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens is central to the management of UTIs. Urine dipsticks are fast and amenable to point-of-care testing, but do not have adequate diagnostic accuracy or provide microbiological diagnosis. Urine culture with antimicrobial susceptibility testing takes 2 3 days and requires a clinical laboratory. The common use of empirical antibiotics has contributed to the rise of multidrug-resistant organisms, reducing treatment options and increasing costs. In addition to improved antimicrobial stewardship and the development of new antimicrobials, novel diagnostics are needed for timely microbial identification and determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities. New diagnostic platforms, including nucleic acid tests and mass spectrometry, have been approved for clinical use and have improved the speed and accuracy of pathogen identification from primary cultures. Optimization for direct urine testing would reduce the time to diagnosis, yet these technologies do not provide comprehensive information on antimicrobial susceptibility. Emerging technologies including biosensors, microfluidics, and other integrated platforms could improve UTI diagnosis via direct pathogen detection from urine samples, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and point-of-care testing. Successful development and implementation of these technologies has the potential to usher in an era of precision medicine to improve patient care and public health. PMID:28248946

  10. New and developing diagnostic technologies for urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Michael; Mach, Kathleen E; Shortliffe, Linda M Dairiki; Banaei, Niaz; Wang, Tza-Huei; Liao, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    Timely and accurate identification and determination of the antimicrobial susceptibility of uropathogens is central to the management of UTIs. Urine dipsticks are fast and amenable to point-of-care testing, but do not have adequate diagnostic accuracy or provide microbiological diagnosis. Urine culture with antimicrobial susceptibility testing takes 2-3 days and requires a clinical laboratory. The common use of empirical antibiotics has contributed to the rise of multidrug-resistant organisms, reducing treatment options and increasing costs. In addition to improved antimicrobial stewardship and the development of new antimicrobials, novel diagnostics are needed for timely microbial identification and determination of antimicrobial susceptibilities. New diagnostic platforms, including nucleic acid tests and mass spectrometry, have been approved for clinical use and have improved the speed and accuracy of pathogen identification from primary cultures. Optimization for direct urine testing would reduce the time to diagnosis, yet these technologies do not provide comprehensive information on antimicrobial susceptibility. Emerging technologies including biosensors, microfluidics, and other integrated platforms could improve UTI diagnosis via direct pathogen detection from urine samples, rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and point-of-care testing. Successful development and implementation of these technologies has the potential to usher in an era of precision medicine to improve patient care and public health.

  11. Development and application of diagnostic systems to achieve fault tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.W.; Singer, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Much work is currently being done to develop and apply diagnostic systems that are tolerant to faulted conditions in the process being monitored and in the sensors that measure the critical parameters associated with the process. A fault-tolerant diagnostic system based on state-determination, pattern-recognition techniques is currently undergoing testing and evaluation in certain applications at the EBR-II reactor. Testing and operational experience with the system to date has shown a high degree of tolerance to sensor failures, while being sensitive to very slight changes in the plant operational state. This paper briefly mentions related work being done by others, and describes in more detail the pattern-recognition system and the results of the testing and operational experience with the system at EBR-II. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Developments of the in-check platform for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, Michele; Alessi, Enrico; Conoci, Sabrina; Marchi, Mauro; Panvini, Gaetano

    2008-02-01

    In-Check is STMicroelectronics proprietary platform for molecular diagnostics. In-Check lays its foundations on the monolithic integration of microelectronics and micromachining technology MEMS, with microfluidic and optical features, bio-chemical surface functionalization and molecular biology. It comprises a core lab-on-chip device, control and reading instrumentation, a complete suite of software modules, and application protocols. Leveraging on such capabilities, In-Check enables fast, highly sensitive and specific, multi-analytical capability of nucleic acid analysis. The platform provides a unique combination of nucleic acid amplification, by polymerase-chain-reaction and target identification and typing by DNA microarray. These integrated biological functionalities together with top quality standard and process control are key features for a platform to be accepted by the highly demanding modern medical diagnostic. This paper describes recent developments of In-Check and some core biological characterizations.

  13. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  14. Dietary zinc deficiency fuels esophageal cancer development by inducing a distinct inflammatory signature

    PubMed Central

    Taccioli, C; Chen, H; Jiang, Y; Liu, XP; Huang, K; Smalley, KJ; Farber, JL; Croce, CM; Fong, LY

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). The causes of inflammation in ESCC, however, are undefined. Dietary zinc-deficiency (ZD) increases the risk of ESCC. We have previously shown that short-term ZD (6 weeks) in rats induces overexpression of the proinflammatory mediators S100a8 and S100a9 in the esophageal mucosa with accompanying esophageal epithelial hyperplasia. Here we report that prolonged ZD (21 weeks) in rats amplified this inflammation that when combined with non-carcinogenic low doses of the environmental carcinogen N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) elicited a 66.7% (16/24) incidence of ESCC. With zinc-sufficiency NMBA produced no cancers (0/21) (P<0.001). At tumor endpoint, the neoplastic ZD esophagus as compared with zinc-sufficient esophagus had an inflammatory gene signature with upregulation of numerous cancer-related inflammation genes (CXC and CC chemokines, chemokine receptors, cytokines, and Cox-2) in addition to S100a8 and S100a9. This signature was already activated in the earlier dysplastic stage. Additionally, time-course bioinformatics analysis of expression profiles at tumor endpoint and prior to NMBA exposure revealed that this sustained inflammation was due to ZD rather than carcinogen exposure. Importantly, zinc replenishment reversed this inflammatory signature at both the dysplastic and neoplastic stages of ESCC development, and prevented cancer formation. Thus, the molecular definition of ZD-induced inflammation as a critical factor in ESCC development has important clinical implications with regard to development and prevention of this deadly disease. PMID:22179833

  15. Development of a new virtual diagnostic for V3FIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, G. L. Terranova, D.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Hanson, J. D.

    2014-12-15

    The determination of plasma equilibria from diagnostic information is a fundamental issue. V3FIT is a fully three-dimensional reconstruction code capable of solving the inverse problem using both magnetic and kinetic measurements. It uses VMEC as core equilibrium solver and supports both free- and fixed-boundary reconstruction approaches. In fixed-boundary mode VMEC does not use explicit information about currents in external coils, even though it has important effects on the shape of the safety factor profile. Indeed, the edge safety factor influences the reversal position in RFP plasmas, which then determines the position of the m = 0 island chain and the edge transport properties. In order to exploit such information a new virtual diagnostic has been developed, that thanks to Ampère's law relates the external current through the center of the torus to the circulation of the toroidal magnetic field on the outermost flux surface. The reconstructions that exploit the new diagnostic are indeed found to better interpret the experimental data with respect to edge physics.

  16. Development of Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Microgravity Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Materials processing including crystal growth, either under a gravity environment on ground or a microgravity environment in space, involves complicated phenomena of fluid motions in gas or liquid phases as well as interaction of various species. To obtain important physical insight, it is very necessary to provide gross-field optical diagnostics for monitoring various physical properties. Materials processing inhibits easy access by ordinary instruments and thus characterizing gross-field physical properties is very challenging. Typical properties of importance can be fluid velocity, temperature, and species concentration for fluids, and surface topology and defects for solids. Observing surface grow rate during crystal growth is also important. Material microstructures, i.e., integrity of crystal structures, is strongly influenced by the existence of thermally-induced flow as well as local nucleation of particles during solidification, which may act in many detrimental ways. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the nature of product property changes resulting from three-dimensional fluid or particle motions need be characterized. Gross-field diagnostics is thus required to identify their effects on product defects and process deficiencies. The quantitative visualization techniques can also be used for validation of numerical modeling. For optical nonintrusive gross-field diagnostic techniques, two approaches were developed as summer projects. One optical approach allows us to provide information of species concentration and temperature for monitoring in real time. The other approach, that is, the concept which is formulated for detection of surface topography measurement can provide unprecedented spatial resolution during crystal growth.

  17. Defining the Genomic Signature of Totipotency and Pluripotency during Early Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Galan, Amparo; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Poo, Maria Eugenia; Valbuena, Diana; Sanchez, Eva; Ruiz, Veronica; Dopazo, Joaquin; Montaner, David; Conesa, Ana; Simon, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs) from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS) and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes), in vivo pluripotency (20 genes), and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes), and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions. PMID:23614026

  18. The Lifecycle of Bayesian Network Models Developed for Multi-Source Signature Assessment of Nuclear Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; White, Amanda M.; Whitney, Paul D.; Gosink, Luke J.; Sego, Landon H.

    2013-06-04

    The Multi-Source Signatures for Nuclear Programs project, part of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Signature Discovery Initiative, seeks to computationally capture expert assessment of multi-type information such as text, sensor output, imagery, or audio/video files, to assess nuclear activities through a series of Bayesian network (BN) models. These models incorporate knowledge from a diverse range of information sources in order to help assess a country’s nuclear activities. The models span engineering topic areas, state-level indicators, and facility-specific characteristics. To illustrate the development, calibration, and use of BN models for multi-source assessment, we present a model that predicts a country’s likelihood to participate in the international nuclear nonproliferation regime. We validate this model by examining the extent to which the model assists non-experts arrive at conclusions similar to those provided by nuclear proliferation experts. We also describe the PNNL-developed software used throughout the lifecycle of the Bayesian network model development.

  19. Polarization signatures of bow shocks: A diagnostic tool to constrain the properties of stellar winds and ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Manisha; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Nielson, Hilding R.; Ignace, Richard

    2017-01-01

    When a stellar wind traveling at supersonic speed interacts with almost stationary ISM, a bow shock shape is formed. By studying a bow shock, we can obtain information about the properties of the stellar wind as well as the surrounding ISM. Bow shocks are asymmetric structures, and thus produce net polarization even if they are unresolved. Hence, polarization studies of bow shocks can provide complementary constraints on their properties.We simulate the polarization signatures of circumstellar material with bow shock geometries using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code called SLIP. We use the analytic solution from Wilkin (1996) to define the geometry and mass surface density of the bow shock in our models. We present results from our simulations showing how changing CSM optical depth, CSM albedo, photon source, and scattering particles (electrons or different types of dust particles) affects the observed polarization in both resolved and unresolved cases. In the optically thin regime of the unresolved electron-scattering case, the polarization peaks at an inclination angle of 90°, in agreement with analytical single-scattering models. In optically thick cases, a second polarization peak appears near 130°, which we propose is due to multiple scattering. Given these results, an observed polarization value can constrain the inclination of an unresolved bow shock to two possible angles, which in turn constrain the motion of the star. In case of resolved bow shocks, our simulations produce polarization maps which we compare with observations.We also present results from our dust-scattering simulations, which show that multicolor broadband polarization observations can constrain the characteristics of the dust in a resolved or unresolved bow shock-shaped CSM configuration.

  20. Diagnostic signature of low-energy secondary electron emission at the boundary of a partially-ionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. I.; Adams, S. F.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Koepke, M. E.; Kurlyandskaya, I. P.

    2015-09-01

    Effects of secondary electron emission (SEE) from a solid surface in contact with plasma are important for conducting and interpreting plasma experiments and modeling. Those effects are especially strong for contaminated surfaces. Measurements of SEE reported here are conducted in a plasma having a nearly mono-energetic population of electrons that is energetically well resolved and separated from a broader-energy-range electron population. By performing the SEE measurement in an afterglow or afterglow-like plasma, we take advantage of the nearly mono-energetic electron population that arises in ionizing plasma-chemical reactions, such as binary like-particle collisions of metastable atoms. We demonstrate a diagnostic method for measuring the low-energy electron absorption coefficient across the broader energy range and the effects of contamination on the swept-bias probe characteristic trace. A part of this research was performed while VID held a National Research Council Research Associateship Award at AFRL.

  1. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  2. Malformations of cortical development: genetic mechanisms and diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events. Recent remarkable developments in genetic analysis methods have improved our understanding of these pathological mechanisms. The present review will discuss normal cortical development, the current proposed malformation classifications, and the diagnostic approach for malformations of cortical development. PMID:28203254

  3. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrex, P.A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Mueller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-11-10

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given.

  4. Malformations of cortical development: genetic mechanisms and diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehun

    2017-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events. Recent remarkable developments in genetic analysis methods have improved our understanding of these pathological mechanisms. The present review will discuss normal cortical development, the current proposed malformation classifications, and the diagnostic approach for malformations of cortical development.

  5. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  6. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  7. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-10-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. In this methodology, multilevel'' refers to information models described at successful levels of abstraction that are tied together in such a way that reasoning is directed to the appropriate level as determined by the problem solving requirements. The concept of multiagent'' refers to the method of information processing within the multilevel model network; each model in the network is an independent information processor, i.e., an intelligent agent. 19 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Partial mycoheterotrophy in Pyroleae: nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures during development from seedling to adult.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Veronika A; Mikusinska, Anna; Ekblad, Alf; Eriksson, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants (MHP) are divided into non-photosynthesizing full MHP and green-leaved partial or initial MHP. We investigated (13)C and (15)N isotope enrichment in five putatively partial MHP species in the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae): Chimaphila umbellata, Moneses uniflora, Orthilia secunda, Pyrola chlorantha and Pyrola minor, sampled from forest sites on Öland, Sweden. For M. uniflora and P. chlorantha, we investigated isotope signatures of subterranean seedlings (which are mycoheterotrophic), to examine how the use of seedlings instead of full MHP species (Hypopitys monotropa) as reference species affects the assessment of partial mycoheterotrophy. Our main findings were as follows: (1) All investigated Pyroleae species were enriched in (15)N compared to autotrophic reference plants. (2) significant fungal-derived C among the Pyroleae species was found for O. secunda and P. chlorantha. For the remaining species of C. umbellata, M. uniflora and P. minor, isotope signatures suggested adult autotrophy. (3) C and N gains, calculated using seedlings as a full MHP reference, yielded qualitatively similar results as when using H. monotropa as a reference. However, the estimated differences in C and N gains became larger when using seedlings as an MHP reference. (4) A previously unknown interspecific variation in isotope signature occurs during early ontogeny, from seed production to developing seedlings. Our findings suggest that there is a variation among Pyroleae species concerning partial mycoheterotrophy in adults. Adult autotrophy may be most common in Pyroleae species, and these species may not be as dependent on fungal-derived nutrients as some green orchids.

  9. Development and Validation of a Novel Platform-Independent Metastasis Signature in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Speers, Corey; Liu, Meilan; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Pierce, Lori J.; Feng, Felix Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The molecular drivers of metastasis in breast cancer are not well understood. Therefore, we sought to identify the biological processes underlying distant progression and define a prognostic signature for metastatic potential in breast cancer. Experimental design In vivo screening for metastases was performed using Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane assays in 21 preclinical breast cancer models. Expressed genes associated with metastatic potential were identified using high-throughput analysis. Correlations with biological function were determined using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Results We identified a broad range of metastatic potential that was independent of intrinsic breast cancer subtypes. 146 genes were significantly associated with metastasis progression and were linked to cancer-related biological functions, including cell migration/adhesion, Jak-STAT, TGF-beta, and Wnt signaling. These genes were used to develop a platform-independent gene expression signature (M-Sig), which was trained and subsequently validated on 5 independent cohorts totaling nearly 1800 breast cancer patients with all p-values < 0.005 and hazard ratios ranging from approximately 2.5 to 3. On multivariate analysis accounting for standard clinicopathologic prognostic variables, M-Sig remained the strongest prognostic factor for metastatic progression, with p-values < 0.001 and hazard ratios > 2 in three different cohorts. Conclusion M-Sig is strongly prognostic for metastatic progression, and may provide clinical utility in combination with treatment prediction tools to better guide patient care. In addition, the platform-independent nature of the signature makes it an excellent research tool as it can be directly applied onto existing, and future, datasets. PMID:25974184

  10. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  11. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug... resistance, rapid diagnostic device development for bacterial diseases, and antibacterial drug development. The workshop will address antibacterial drug resistance, mechanisms of resistance, epidemiology...

  12. Development and characterization of a highly specific and sensitive SYBR green reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus on the basis of sequence signatures.

    PubMed

    Medina, Rafael A; Rojas, Mark; Tuin, Astrid; Huff, Stephen; Ferres, Marcela; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Godoy, Paula; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fofanov, Yuriy; SantaLucia, John

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus showed that many diagnostic tests were unsuitable for detecting the novel virus isolates. In most countries the probe-based TaqMan assay developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was used for diagnostic purposes. The substantial sequence data that became available during the course of the pandemic created the opportunity to utilize bioinformatics tools to evaluate the unique sequence properties of this virus for the development of diagnostic tests. We used a comprehensive computational approach to examine conserved 2009 H1N1 sequence signatures that are at least 20 nucleotides long and contain at least two mismatches compared to any other known H1N1 genome. We found that the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes contained sequence signatures that are highly conserved among 2009 H1N1 isolates. Based on the NA gene signatures, we used Visual-OMP to design primers with optimal hybridization affinity and we used ThermoBLAST to minimize amplification artifacts. This procedure resulted in a highly sensitive and discriminatory 2009 H1N1 detection assay. Importantly, we found that the primer set can be used reliably in both a conventional TaqMan and a SYBR green reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay with no loss of specificity or sensitivity. We validated the diagnostic accuracy of the NA SYBR green assay with 125 clinical specimens obtained between May and August 2009 in Chile, and we showed diagnostic efficacy comparable to the CDC assay. Our approach highlights the use of systematic computational approaches to develop robust diagnostic tests during a viral pandemic.

  13. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-21

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (10{sup 7} n/s*cm{sup 2}) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore

  14. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (107 n/s*cm2) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore studied in the

  15. Toward development of a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based cancer diagnostic immunoassay panel.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jennifer H; Granger, Michael C; Firpo, Matthew A; Mulvihill, Sean J; Porter, Marc D

    2013-01-21

    Proteomic analyses of readily obtained human fluids (e.g., serum, urine, and saliva) indicate that the diagnosis of complex diseases will be enhanced by the simultaneous measurement of multiple biomarkers from such samples. This paper describes the development of a nanoparticle-based multiplexed platform that has the potential for simultaneous read-out of large numbers of biomolecules. For this purpose, we have chosen pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) as a test bed for diagnosis and prognosis. PA is a devastating form of cancer in which an estimated 86% of diagnoses resulted in death in the United States in 2010. The high mortality rate is due, in part, to the asymptomatic development of the disease and the dearth of sensitive diagnostics available for early detection. One promising route lies in the development of a serum biomarker panel that can generate a signature unique to early stage PA. We describe the design and development of a proof-of-concept PA biomarker immunoassay array coupled with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) as a sensitive readout method.

  16. [Development of expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei-hua; Chen, You-ling; Yan, Zheng

    2014-03-01

    To develop an internet-based expert diagnostic system for common respiratory diseases. SaaS system was used to build architecture; pattern of forward reasoning was applied for inference engine design; ASP.NET with C# from the tool pack of Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used for website-interview medical expert system.The database of the system was constructed with Microsoft SQL Server 2005. The developed expert system contained large data memory and high efficient function of data interview and data analysis for diagnosis of various diseases.The users were able to perform this system to obtain diagnosis for common respiratory diseases via internet. The developed expert system may be used for internet-based diagnosis of various respiratory diseases,particularly in telemedicine setting.

  17. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  18. Development of electrochemical immunosensors towards point of care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ying; Su, Yan; Zhu, Xinhua; Liu, Gang; Fan, Chunhai

    2013-09-15

    Electrochemical immunosensors (EI) has attracted numerous interests due to its inherent benefits over the other transduction schemes, such as a high sensitivity, ease of use, a possible automation and integration in compact analytical devices, mostly cheap and relatively simple technology of its production. Thus, EIs have great potential in point of care (POC) diagnostics for early detection of diseases. During last decades, numerous efforts have been put into EIs development. Firstly, different fabrication methods and amplification strategies have been employed to achieve high sensitivity. To be pointed, nanotechnology has been involved in the fabrication and signal amplification of EIs, which present great superiority. Secondly, EI arrays have been used for multiparametric analysis. Thirdly, several attempts have been made to construct integrated systems, which showed promising applications for POC test. Several of them are commercially available for POC use. Herein, we will review briefly the recent achievements and progress in developing EIs towards POC diagnostics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of gene patents on the development of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Toneguzzo, Frances

    2011-07-01

    There is a widely held view that gene patents in particular and patents in general, because of the exclusionary rights that they provide, are inhibiting the development of and access to critical molecular diagnostic testing. This is a highly relevant issue for healthcare delivery as we move towards personalized medicine, which relies heavily on genetic testing to tailor treatments that are specific for individual characteristics. Critics of the patent system hope to void or diminish the exclusionary aspect of patents by removing genes from the definition of what is patentable, by increasing the number of activities that fall within the research use exemption, or by compelling patent holders to license their rights non-exclusively. Although a re-examination of what constitutes patentable subject matter is an important undertaking, narrowing the definition of patentable subject matter is at best only a partial solution. Erosion of the patent system through compulsory licensing or expansion of the research use exemption runs the risk of destroying important incentives without also fully addressing the problem. To promote solutions that truly address the issues, this article distinguishes documented facts from perceptions and suggests alternative approaches to explore. The author believes that efforts to undermine the patent system are simply counterproductive and that time would be better spent addressing the real issues that lie within molecular diagnostic development.

  20. Development, Use and Implications of Diagnostic Creativity Assessment App, RDCA--Reisman Diagnostic Creativity Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisman, Fredricka; Keiser, Larry; Otti, Obinna

    2016-01-01

    The Reisman Diagnostic Creativity Assessment (RDCA) is a free online self-report creativity assessment that provides immediate feedback to the user and is diagnostic, rather than predictive, with the focus on making the user aware of creative strengths and weaknesses. Several engineering and teacher education studies have included the RDCA over a…

  1. Development, Use and Implications of Diagnostic Creativity Assessment App, RDCA--Reisman Diagnostic Creativity Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisman, Fredricka; Keiser, Larry; Otti, Obinna

    2016-01-01

    The Reisman Diagnostic Creativity Assessment (RDCA) is a free online self-report creativity assessment that provides immediate feedback to the user and is diagnostic, rather than predictive, with the focus on making the user aware of creative strengths and weaknesses. Several engineering and teacher education studies have included the RDCA over a…

  2. Signatures support program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.

    2009-05-01

    The Signatures Support Program (SSP) leverages the full spectrum of signature-related activities (collections, processing, development, storage, maintenance, and dissemination) within the Department of Defense (DOD), the intelligence community (IC), other Federal agencies, and civil institutions. The Enterprise encompasses acoustic, seismic, radio frequency, infrared, radar, nuclear radiation, and electro-optical signatures. The SSP serves the war fighter, the IC, and civil institutions by supporting military operations, intelligence operations, homeland defense, disaster relief, acquisitions, and research and development. Data centers host and maintain signature holdings, collectively forming the national signatures pool. The geographically distributed organizations are the authoritative sources and repositories for signature data; the centers are responsible for data content and quality. The SSP proactively engages DOD, IC, other Federal entities, academia, and industry to locate signatures for inclusion in the distributed national signatures pool and provides world-wide 24/7 access via the SSP application.

  3. Diagnostic Health Monitoring System Development for Army Vehicle Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    TCN 10009 10/7/2011 5 Approach The previous year’s effort focused on the modeling and testing of a rubberized diagnostic speed bump, which is...bump enabled some faults to be detected; however, the inherent variability in diagnostic testing using this narrow speed bump required that several...error was not conducive for providing sensitive or repeatable diagnostic measurements2. Figure 1. Diagnostic speed bump configuration tested

  4. Insights into the Diagnostic Potential of Extracellular Vesicles and Their miRNA Signature from Liquid Biopsy as Early Biomarkers of Diabetic Micro/Macrovascular Complications.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Valeria; Fierabracci, Alessandra

    2017-09-14

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. Almost all cell types release EVs, thus they are naturally present in all body fluids. Among the several potential applications, EVs could be used as drug delivery vehicles in disease treatment, in immune therapy because of their immunomodulatory properties and in regenerative medicine. In addition to general markers, EVs are characterized by the presence of specific biomarkers (proteins and miRNAs) that allow the identification of their cell or tissue origin. For these features, they represent a potential powerful diagnostic tool to monitor state and progression of specific diseases. A large body of studies supports the idea that endothelial derived (EMPs) together with platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of diseases characterized by micro- and macrovascular damages, including diabetes. Existing literature suggests that the detection of circulating EMPs and PMPs and their specific miRNA profile may represent a very useful non-invasive signature to achieve information on the onset of peculiar disease manifestations. In this review, we discuss the possible utility of EVs in the early diagnosis of diabetes-associated microvascular complications, specifically related to kidney.

  5. Recent Progress in the Development of Diagnostic Tests for Malaria.

    PubMed

    Krampa, Francis D; Aniweh, Yaw; Awandare, Gordon A; Kanyong, Prosper

    2017-09-19

    The impact of malaria on global health has continually prompted the need to develop effective diagnostic strategies. In malaria endemic regions, routine diagnosis is hampered by technical and infrastructural challenges to laboratories. These laboratories lack standard facilities, expertise or diagnostic supplies; thus, therapy is administered based on clinical or self-diagnosis. There is the need for accurate diagnosis of malaria due to the continuous increase in the cost of medication, and the emergence and spread of drug resistant strains. However, the widely utilized Giemsa-stained microscopy and immunochromatographic tests for malaria are liable to several drawbacks, including inadequate sensitivity and false-positive outcomes. Alternative methods that offer improvements in performance are either expensive, have longer turnaround time or require a level of expertise that makes them unsuitable for point-of-care (POC) applications. These gaps necessitate exploration of more efficient detection techniques with the potential of POC applications, especially in resource-limited settings. This minireview discusses some of the recent trends and new approaches that are seeking to improve the clinical diagnosis of malaria.

  6. A Technology for Developing Instructional Materials. Vol. 3, Handbook. Part F, Develop Diagnostic and Evaluative Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gropper, George L.

    This document, sixth in a series of 11 subvolumes of a handbook prepared to provide training for educational research and development personnel in the development of instructional materials, deals with the task of developing diagnostic and evaluative tests. The document is organized according to the four sequential steps involved in performing the…

  7. A miRNA-based signature detected in primary melanoma tissue predicts development of brain metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Hanniford, Doug; Zhong, Judy; Koetz, Lisa; Gaziel-Sovran, Avital; Lackaye, Daniel J.; Shang, Shulian; Pavlick, Anna; Shapiro, Richard; Berman, Russell; Darvishian, Farbod; Shao, Yongzhao; Osman, Iman; Hernando, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Brain metastasis is the major cause of mortality among melanoma patients. A molecular prognostic test that can reliably stratify patients at initial melanoma diagnosis by risk of developing brain metastasis may inform the clinical management of these patients. Experimental Design We performed a retrospective, cohort-based study analyzing genome-wide and targeted microRNA expression profiling of primary melanoma tumors of three patient cohorts (n= 92, n= 119, n= 45) with extensive clinical follow up. We used Cox regression analysis to establish a microRNA-based signature that improves the ability of the current clinicopathologic staging system to predict the development of brain metastasis. Results Our analyses identified a 4-microRNA (miR-150–5p, miR-15b-5p, miR-16–5p, and miR-374b-3p) prognostic signature that, in combination with stage, distinguished primary melanomas that metastasized to the brain from non-recurrent and non-brain-metastatic primary tumors (training cohort: C-index=81.4%, validation cohort: C-index=67.4%, independent cohort: C-index=76.9%). Corresponding Kaplan-Meier curves of high- vs. low-risk patients displayed a clear separation in brain-metastasis-free and overall survival (training: p<0.001, p<0.001, validation: p=0.033, p=0.007, independent: p=0.021, p=0.022, respectively). Finally, of the microRNA in the prognostic model, we found that the expression of a key lymphocyte miRNA, miR-150–5p, which is less abundant in primary melanomas metastatic to brain, correlated with presence of CD45+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Conclusions A prognostic assay based on the described miRNA expression signature combined with the currently used staging criteria may improve accuracy of primary melanoma patient prognoses and aid clinical management of patients, including selection for adjuvant treatment or clinical trials of adjuvant therapies. PMID:26089374

  8. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerberg, I. K.; McMillan, H. K.

    2015-09-01

    Information about rainfall-runoff processes is essential for hydrological analyses, modelling and water-management applications. A hydrological, or diagnostic, signature quantifies such information from observed data as an index value. Signatures are widely used, e.g. for catchment classification, model calibration and change detection. Uncertainties in the observed data - including measurement inaccuracy and representativeness as well as errors relating to data management - propagate to the signature values and reduce their information content. Subjective choices in the calculation method are a further source of uncertainty. We review the uncertainties relevant to different signatures based on rainfall and flow data. We propose a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrate it in two catchments for common signatures including rainfall-runoff thresholds, recession analysis and basic descriptive signatures of flow distribution and dynamics. Our intention is to contribute to awareness and knowledge of signature uncertainty, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We found that the uncertainties were often large (i.e. typical intervals of ±10-40 % relative uncertainty) and highly variable between signatures. There was greater uncertainty in signatures that use high-frequency responses, small data subsets, or subsets prone to measurement errors. There was lower uncertainty in signatures that use spatial or temporal averages. Some signatures were sensitive to particular uncertainty types such as rating-curve form. We found that signatures can be designed to be robust to some uncertainty sources. Signature uncertainties of the magnitudes we found have the potential to change the conclusions of hydrological and ecohydrological analyses, such as cross-catchment comparisons or inferences about dominant processes.

  9. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  10. Development of a nine spatial point, multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, F.; Deng, B. H.; Garate, E.; Gornostaeva, O.; Schroeder, J.

    2010-10-15

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic has been developed for the C-2 field-reversed configuration device. Based on a multipulse ruby laser, the system measures the electron temperature at nine spatial points. These points are chosen from 22 selectable positions covering r{approx_equal}1-41 cm. Twin collection lenses couple the scattered photons to nine optical fiber pairs. Extra fiber lengths delay the signals from different spatial points relative to each other, allowing up to three points to be analyzed by a single polychromator. The polychromator, using compact photomultipliers as detectors, has six spectral channels covering the range of 685-725 nm and is able to estimate electron temperatures of {approx_equal}10-200 eV. The photomultiplier output signals are recorded by digital storage oscilloscopes integrated with the main MDSplus database, with temperature and error estimates generated automatically at the conclusion of each plasma discharge.

  11. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical, and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature (i.e., mutated gene product, differentially expressed protein, altered cell surface antigen, etc.) exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. These biomarkers may be drug-specific targets and/or differentially expressed nucleic acids, proteins, or cell lineage profiles that can directly affect the patient’s disease tissue or immune response to a therapeutic regimen. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. Conversely, patients lacking predictive response biomarkers will no longer needlessly be exposed to drugs that are unlikely to provide clinical benefit, thereby enabling patients to pursue other therapeutic options and lowering overall healthcare costs by avoiding futile treatment. While patient molecular profiling offers a powerful tool to direct treatment options, the difficulty in identifying disease-specific targets or predictive biomarker signatures that stratify a significant fraction within a disease indication remains challenging. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Successful strategies may gain an advantage by employing repurposed, less-expensive existing agents while

  12. Development of a computer technique for the prediction of transport aircraft flight profile sonic boom signatures. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coen, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    A new computer technique for the analysis of transport aircraft sonic boom signature characteristics was developed. This new technique, based on linear theory methods, combines the previously separate equivalent area and F function development with a signature propagation method using a single geometry description. The new technique was implemented in a stand-alone computer program and was incorporated into an aircraft performance analysis program. Through these implementations, both configuration designers and performance analysts are given new capabilities to rapidly analyze an aircraft's sonic boom characteristics throughout the flight envelope.

  13. Integrative analysis of lung development-cancer expression associations reveals the roles of signatures with inverse expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlong; Li, Chunquan; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Shang, Desi; Yang, Xinmiao; Han, Junwei; Sun, Zeguo; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have focused on exploring the associations between organ development and malignant tumors; however, the clinical relevance of the development signatures was inadequately addressed in lung cancer. In this study, we explored the associations between lung development and lung cancer progression by analyzing a total of two development and seven cancer datasets. We identified representative expression patterns (continuously up- and down-regulated) from development and cancer profiles, and inverse pattern associations were observed at both the gene and functional levels. Furthermore, we dissected the biological processes dominating the associations, and found that proliferation and immunity were respectively involved in the two inverse development-cancer expression patterns. Through sub-pathway analysis of the signatures with inverse expression patterns, we finally identified a 13-gene risk signature from the cell cycle sub-pathway, and evaluated its predictive performance for lung cancer patient clinical outcome using independent cohorts. Our findings indicated that the integrative analysis of development and cancer expression patterns provided a framework for identifying effective molecular signatures for clinical utility.

  14. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR “next-generation” peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva. PMID:26580595

  15. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  16. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2011-01-26

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  17. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2010-11-03

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  18. Development of optical diagnostics for performance evaluation of arcjet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser and optical emission-based measurements have been developed and implemented for use on low-power hydrogen arcjet thrusters and xenon-propelled electric thrusters. In the case of low power hydrogen arcjets, these laser induce fluorescence measurements constitute the first complete set of data that characterize the velocity and temperature field of such a device. The research performed under the auspices of this NASA grant includes laser-based measurements of atomic hydrogen velocity and translational temperature, ultraviolet absorption measurements of ground state atomic hydrogen, Raman scattering measurements of the electronic ground state of molecular hydrogen, and optical emission based measurements of electronically excited atomic hydrogen, electron number density, and electron temperature. In addition, we have developed a collisional-radiative model of atomic hydrogen for use in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic models to predict the plasma radiative spectrum, and near-electrode plasma models to better understand current transfer from the electrodes to the plasma. In the final year of the grant, a new program aimed at developing diagnostics for xenon plasma thrusters was initiated, and results on the use of diode lasers for interrogating Hall accelerator plasmas has been presented at recent conferences.

  19. Developments in target micro-Doppler signatures analysis: radar imaging, ultrasound and through-the-wall radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Carmine; Balleri, Alessio; Woodbridge, Karl; Soraghan, John J.

    2013-12-01

    Target motions, other than the main bulk translation of the target, induce Doppler modulations around the main Doppler shift that form what is commonly called a target micro-Doppler signature. Radar micro-Doppler signatures are generally both target and action specific and hence can be used to classify and recognise targets as well as to identify possible threats. In recent years, research into the use of micro-Doppler signatures for target classification to address many defence and security challenges has been of increasing interest. In this article, we present a review of the work published in the last 10 years on emerging applications of radar target analysis using micro-Doppler signatures. Specifically we review micro-Doppler target signatures in bistatic SAR and ISAR, through-the-wall radar and ultrasound radar. This article has been compiled to provide radar practitioners with a unique reference source covering the latest developments in micro-Doppler analysis, extraction and mitigation techniques. The article shows that this research area is highly active and fast moving and demonstrates that micro-Doppler techniques can provide important solutions to many radar target classification challenges.

  20. Diagnostics for first plasma and development plan on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Na, H. K.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Seo, D. C.; Seo, S. H.; Oh, S. T.; Ko, W. H.; Chung, J.; Nam, Y. U.; Lee, K. D.; Ka, E. M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwon, M.; Jeong, S. H.

    2010-06-15

    The first plasma with target values of the plasma current and the pulse duration was finally achieved on June 13, 2008 in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The diagnostic systems played an important role in achieving successful first plasma operation for the KSTAR tokamak. The employed plasma diagnostic systems for the KSTAR first plasma including the magnetic diagnostics, millimeter-wave interferometer, inspection illuminator, H{sub {alpha}}, visible spectrometer, filterscope, and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer have provided the main plasma parameters, which are essential for the plasma generation, control, and physics understanding. Improvements to the first diagnostic systems and additional diagnostics including an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, reflectometer, ECE radiometer, resistive bolometer, and soft x-ray array are scheduled to be added for the next KSTAR experimental campaign in 2009.

  1. Development of the helium signature test for orbiter main propulsion system revalidation between flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilardo, Vincent J., Jr.; Izquierdo, Francisco; Smith, R. Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a test technique for revalidation of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System during ground turnaround operations between flights of the Space Transportation System (STS). The Main Propulsion System consists of the three Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME's) and the Main Propulsion System (MPS) connecting the SSME's to the orbiter/ground and orbiter/External Tank (ET) interfaces. The Helium Signature Test (HST) performs an end-to-end leak check of the MPS/SSME subsystems that serves as a final validation of those systems for reuse. The test was initially developed during the ground processing flow prior to the STS-6 launch of orbiter Challenger. The test was developed to fulfill a requirement for an overall subsystem leak check as a result of experience gained during the STS-6 Challenger Flight Readiness Firing (FRF) series, during which leaks were encountered in the SSME's that were not detected by routine fluid joint leak checks. The HST technique is described in detail, including orbiter and test equipment configuration, and compared to other leak detection methods used to revalidate MPS/SSME systems for reuse. The HST data base accumulated since STS-6 is summarized and future test applications are described.

  2. Facility for intense diagnostic neutral beam (IDNB) development

    SciTech Connect

    Kasik, R.J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Greenly, J.B.

    1993-08-01

    An intense, pulsed neutral beam source is under development for use as a probe beam on hot, burning plasmas such as in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) which is presently in the planning stage. A pulsed, neutral hydrogen beam of 10s of kilo amperes of current can have an alpha particle, charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy (alpha-CHERS) signal-to-noise ratio of {approximately} 10. This beam would allow the measurement, on a single pulse of a few hundred nanoseconds duration, of the local alpha particle distribution function as well as other features of the tokamak plasma such as current density profile, impurity density, and microturbulence spectrum. The cross-sections for the CHERS diagnostic dictate operation with proton energies greater than {approximately}50keV. A pulsed neutral hydrogen source of this voltage and intensity can be achieved by neutralizing the ion flux from a magnetized ion-diode. The cross-sections for attachment and stripping, when coupled with scaling from Child-Langmiur, space-charge-limited, ion-current flow imply operation below - 100keV for maximum neutral fluence. The development of a flashover-anode, ion source for forthcoming evaluation of a neutralizing section is described below. This source operates in the accelerator voltage range 70 to 100keV. Eventually, the flashover-anode, magnetized ion-diode will be replaced with a plasma-anode, magnetized ion-diode.

  3. New optical, acoustic, and electrical diagnostics for the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, S. L.; Witte, C.; Bourquin, Y.; Kremer, C.; Menachery, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, R.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases cause 10 million deaths each year worldwide, accounting for ~60% of all deaths of children aged 5- 14. Although these deaths arise primarily through pneumonia, TB, malaria and HIV, there are also the so called "neglected diseases" such as sleeping sickness and bilharzia, which have a devastating impact on rural communities, in sub-Sahara Africa. There, the demands for a successful Developing World diagnostic are particularly rigorous, requiring low cost instrumentation with low power consumption (there is often no fixed power infrastructure). In many cases, the levels of infection within individuals are also sufficiently low that instruments must show extraordinary sensitivity, with measurements being made in blood or saliva. In this talk, a description of these demands will be given, together with a review of some of the solutions that have been developed, which include using acoustics, optics and electrotechnologies, and their combinations to manipulate the fluid samples. In one example, we show how to find a single trypanosome, as the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  4. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  5. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  6. Application and development of advanced laser diagnostics for flame measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukesh

    The application of hydrogen coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for temperature measurements in low-pressure diamond-forming flames and the development of new polarization spectroscopy (PS) diagnostic techniques are the subjects of this Ph.D. dissertation research. The objectives of the low-pressure diamond-forming flame experiments were to measure detailed temperature profiles for comparison with a numerical flame model and to investigate the presence and magnitude of the temperature jump at the deposition substrate surface. Temperature jumps of approximately 100 K were observed in these rich, premixed oxy-acetylene flames ranging from 30 Torr to 125 Torr. The presence of this discontinuity in diamond-forming flames may have a significant effect on surface chemical model development. In these low-pressure flames, the ability to resolve fully the near-substrate temperature profiles will be extremely useful for the validation and improvement of surface chemistry models. The use of PS in the mid-infrared using a single-mode optical parametric generator (OPG) for the detection of CO2 has been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of the CO2 PS signal generation process has also been performed for comparison with the experimental PS signals. The experimental PS line shapes agree very well with the numerical calculations. These results are promising for using PS in detecting hydrocarbon molecules as hydrocarbon molecules have strong absorption resonances in the infrared region of the spectrum. The objectives of the theoretical work on short-pulse PS were to obtain fundamental insight into the physics of the short-pulse PS signal generation process and to investigate the diagnostic potential of the short-pulse PS for species concentration measurements. Short-pulse laser significantly decreases the collision-rate dependence of the PS signal compared with the long-laser pulse-length regime. For a saturating pump beam, the short-pulse PS signal was found to be nearly

  7. Temporal bacterial and metabolic development of the preterm gut reveals specific signatures in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christopher J; Embleton, Nicholas D; Marrs, Emma C L; Smith, Daniel P; Nelson, Andrew; Abdulkadir, Bashir; Skeath, Tom; Petrosino, Joseph F; Perry, John D; Berrington, Janet E; Cummings, Stephen P

    2016-12-29

    The preterm microbiome is crucial to gut health and may contribute to necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), which represents the most significant pathology affecting preterm infants. From a cohort of 318 infants, <32 weeks gestation, we selected 7 infants who developed NEC (defined rigorously) and 28 matched controls. We performed detailed temporal bacterial (n = 641) and metabolomic (n = 75) profiling of the gut microbiome throughout the disease. A core community of Klebsiella, Escherichia, Staphyloccocus, and Enterococcus was present in all samples. Gut microbiota profiles grouped into six distinct clusters, termed preterm gut community types (PGCTs). Each PGCT reflected dominance by the core operational taxonomic units (OTUs), except of PGCT 6, which had high diversity and was dominant in bifidobacteria. While PGCTs 1-5 were present in infants prior to NEC diagnosis, PGCT 6 was comprised exclusively of healthy samples. NEC infants had significantly more PGCT transitions prior to diagnosis. Metabolomic profiling identified significant pathways associated with NEC onset, with metabolites involved in linoleate metabolism significantly associated with NEC diagnosis. Notably, metabolites associated with NEC were the lowest in PGCT 6. This is the first study to integrate sequence and metabolomic stool analysis in preterm neonates, demonstrating that NEC does not have a uniform microbial signature. However, a diverse gut microbiome with a high abundance of bifidobacteria may protect preterm infants from disease. These results may inform biomarker development and improve understanding of gut-mediated mechanisms of NEC.

  8. Genetic and epigenetic regulation and expression signatures of glutathione S-transferases in developing mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Cui, Julia Yue; Choudhuri, Supratim; Knight, Tamara R; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2010-07-01

    The hepatic glutathione S-transferases (Gsts) are critical phase II enzymes in protecting cellular macromolecules against electrophiles and oxidative stress. Little is known about the ontogeny of Gsts and the underlying regulatory mechanisms during liver development. Therefore, in this study, the ontogeny and the regulatory mechanisms of 19 known Gst isoforms were investigated in mouse liver from 2 days before birth to postnatal day 45. With the exception of Gstm5 and MGst2 that showed a progressive decline in postnatal messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, most other Gst isoforms showed a progressive increase in postnatal mRNA expression. Two-way hierarchical clustering revealed three distinct expression patterns of these Gsts isoforms: perinatal, adolescent, and adult enriched. The expression signatures of certain Gst isoforms showed positive association with the ontogeny of critical xenobiotic-sensing transcription factors, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor, pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor-2. Specifically, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with the next generation sequencing technology (ChIP-Seq) revealed direct PXR-binding sites to the Gsta, Gstm, Gstt, and Gstp polycistron clusters as well as to the Mgst1 gene locus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis demonstrated that DNA methylation and histone H3K27-trimethylation (H3K27me3), two-gene expression-suppressing epigenetic marks, were consistently low around the Gstz1 gene locus. In contrast, enrichment of histone H3K4-dimethylation (H3K4me2), a hallmark for gene activation, increased 60% around the Gstz1 gene locus from prenatal to the young adult period. Regression analysis revealed a strong correlation between the enrichment of H3K4me2 and Gstz1 mRNA expression (r = 0.76). In conclusion, this study characterized three distinct ontogenic expression signatures of the 19 Gst isoforms

  9. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  10. Zhong TAA signature — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The TAA signature is a diagnostic array of five markers capable of distinguishing patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from normal control subjects. The diagnostic array was developed by enriching and screening phage-expressed tumor-associated proteins, and using these in a fluorescent protein microarray to identify and measure multiple non-small cell lung cancer-associated antibodies and show how simultaneous measurements can be combined into a single diagnostic assay. Although the identity of the phage-expressed proteins is not critical for use in a diagnostic assay, the sequences were compared with the GenBank database to obtain possible identity. The five proteins in the final diagnostic array are GAGE7, BAC clone RP11-499F19, SEC15L2, PMS2P7 (PMS2L15), and EEF1A.

  11. Development of Nanoscale Approaches for Ovarian Cancer Therapeutics and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Sarah A.; Hempel, Nadine; Bergkvist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecological cancers and the fifth leading cause of death due to cancer in women. This is largely due to late-stage diagnosis, poor prognosis related to advanced-stage disease, and the high recurrence rate associated with development of chemoresistance. Survival statistics have not improved significantly over the last three decades, highlighting the fact that improved therapeutic strategies and early detection require substantial improvements. Here, we review and highlight nanotechnology-based approaches that seek to address this need. The success of Doxil, a PEGylated liposomal nanoencapsulation of doxorubicin, which was approved by the FDA for use on recurrent ovarian cancer, has paved the way for the current wave of nanoparticle formulations in drug discovery and clinical trials. We discuss and summarize new nanoformulations that are currently moving into clinical trials and highlight novel nanotherapeutic strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical in vivo studies. Further, the potential for nanomaterials in diagnostic imaging techniques and the ability to leverage nanotechnology for early detection of ovarian cancer are also discussed. PMID:25271436

  12. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  13. Development of transient internal probe (TIP) magnetic field diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Galambos, J.P.; Bohnet, M.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mattick, A.T.

    1994-12-31

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is designed to permit measurement of internal magnetic fields, in hot, high density plasmas. The concept consists of accelerating a probe to high velocities (2.2 Km/s) in order to minimize probe exposure time to plasma. Faraday rotation within the probe is used to measure the local magnetic field. An Argon laser illuminates the probe consisting of a Faraday-rotator material with a retro-reflector that returns the incident light to the detection system. Performance results of the light gas gun and optical detection system will be shown. To date, the gas gun has been extensively tested consistently achieving velocities between 2 and 3 km/s. The probe and detection scheme have been tested by dropping the probe through a static magnetic field. Magnetic field resolution of 20 gauss and spatial resolution of 5 mm has been achieved. System frequency response is 10Mhz. Work is currently being conducted to integrate the diagnostic system with laboratory plasma experiments. Specifically a gas interfaced system has been developed to prevent helium muzzle gas from entering the plasma chamber with the probe. Additionally the probe must be separated from the sabot which protects the probe during acceleration in the gas gun. Data will be presented showing the results of various separation techniques.

  14. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  15. Diagnostic Testing and the Development of CAL Remedial Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraris, M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents methodology for designing and delivering computer-assisted diagnostic tests and discusses two natural applications of this methodology: for testing purposes, and for implementing adaptive computer-assisted learning sequences based on test results. (MBR)

  16. Diagnostic Testing and the Development of CAL Remedial Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraris, M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presents methodology for designing and delivering computer-assisted diagnostic tests and discusses two natural applications of this methodology: for testing purposes, and for implementing adaptive computer-assisted learning sequences based on test results. (MBR)

  17. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  18. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  19. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  20. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  1. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A.; Meadows, Nick A.; Schuh, A.; Manescu, Katie E.; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L.; Brindley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics. PMID:26858745

  2. Recent diagnostic development for inertial confinement fusion research at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.; Oertel, J.A.; Archuleta, T.N.

    1997-09-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require sophisticated diagnostics with temporal resolution measured in tens of picoseconds and spatial resolutions measured in microns. The Los Alamos ICF Program is currently supporting a number of diagnostics on the Nova and Triden laser facilities, and is developing new diagnostics for use on the Omega laser facility. New systems and technologies are being developed for use on the National Ignition Facility, which is expected to be operational early in the next decade.

  3. Development of portable CdZnTe spectrometers for remote sensing of signatures from nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Arnold; Groza, Michael; Cui, Yunlong; Roy, Utpal N.; Hillman, Damian; Guo, Mike; Li, Longxia; Wright, Gomez W.; James, Ralph B.

    2005-03-01

    Room temperature cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) gamma-ray spectrometers are being developed for a number for years for medical, space and national security applications where high sensitivity, low operating power and compactness are indispensable. The technology has matured now to the point where large volume (several cubic centimeters) and high energy resolution (approximately 1% at 660 eV) of gamma photons, are becoming available for their incorporation into portable systems for remote sensing of signatures from nuclear materials. The straightforward approach of utilizing a planar CZT device has been excluded due to the incomplete collection arising from the trapping of holes and causing broadening of spectral lines at energies above 80 keV, to unacceptable levels of performance. Solutions are being pursued by developing devices aimed at processing the signal produced primarily by electrons and practically insensitive to the contribution of holes, and recent progress has been made in the areas of material growth as well as electrode and electronics design. Present materials challenges are in the growth of CZT boules from which large, oriented single crystal pieces can be cut to fabricate such sizable detectors. Since virtually all the detector grade CZT boules consist of several grains, the cost of a large, single crystal section is still high. Co-planar detectors, capacitive Frisch-grid detectors and devices taking advantage of the small pixel effect, are configurations with a range of requirements in crystallinity and defect content and involve variable degrees of complexity in the fabrication, surface passivation and signal processing. These devices have been demonstrated by several research groups and will be discussed in terms of their sensitivity and availability.

  4. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  5. Development of a Diagnostic System for Information Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiota, Shingo; Sakai, Kyohei; Kobayashi, Keita

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new diagnostic system for information ethics education. In order to educate children about information ethics, it is necessary to know the stage at which they currently are in terms of their knowledge of the same. Some actual condition surveys have been conducted by the Cabinet Office and the National Police Agency to gauge…

  6. NSLS-II X-Ray Diagnostics Development

    SciTech Connect

    ILINSKI, P.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II x-ray diagnostics will provide continuous online data of electron beam dimensions, which will be used to derive electron beam emittance and energy spread. It will also provide information of electron beam tilt for coupling evaluation. X-ray diagnostics will be based on imaging of bending magnet and three-pole wiggler synchrotron radiation sources. Diagnostics from three-pole wiggler source will be used to derive particles energy spread. Beta and dispersion functions will have to be evaluated for emittance and particles energy spread calculations. Due to small vertical source sizes imaging need to be performed in x-ray energy range. X-ray optics with high numerical aperture, such as compound refractive lens, will be used to achieve required spatial resolution. Optical setups with different magnifications in horizontal and vertical directions fill be employed to deal with large aspect ratio of the source. X-ray diagnostics setup will include x-ray imaging optics, monochromatization, x-ray imaging and recording components.

  7. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  8. The Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Educational Programme in Biomedical Diagnostics: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCormac, Aoife; O'Brien, Emma; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a taught Master's course in biomedical diagnostics using a novel multi-disciplinary approach. This course, the first of its kind in Ireland, covers the science and technology underlying the development of medical diagnostic devices that detect early markers of diseases such as cancer. The ethical impact of…

  9. The Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Educational Programme in Biomedical Diagnostics: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCormac, Aoife; O'Brien, Emma; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a taught Master's course in biomedical diagnostics using a novel multi-disciplinary approach. This course, the first of its kind in Ireland, covers the science and technology underlying the development of medical diagnostic devices that detect early markers of diseases such as cancer. The ethical impact of…

  10. Development of an automatic cow body condition scoring using body shape signature and Fourier descriptors.

    PubMed

    Bercovich, A; Edan, Y; Alchanatis, V; Moallem, U; Parmet, Y; Honig, H; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Halachmi, I

    2013-01-01

    Body condition evaluation is a common tool to assess energy reserves of dairy cows and to estimate their fatness or thinness. This study presents a computer-vision tool that automatically estimates cow's body condition score. Top-view images of 151 cows were collected on an Israeli research dairy farm using a digital still camera located at the entrance to the milking parlor. The cow's tailhead area and its contour were segmented and extracted automatically. Two types of features of the tailhead contour were extracted: (1) the angles and distances between 5 anatomical points; and (2) the cow signature, which is a 1-dimensional vector of the Euclidean distances from each point in the normalized tailhead contour to the shape center. Two methods were applied to describe the cow's signature and to reduce its dimension: (1) partial least squares regression, and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow signature. Three prediction models were compared with manual scores of an expert. Results indicate that (1) it is possible to automatically extract and predict body condition from color images without any manual interference; and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow's signature result in improved performance (R(2)=0.77).

  11. The development and validation of a CT-based radiomics signature for the preoperative discrimination of stage I-II and stage III-IV colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Lan; Chen, Xin; Ma, Zelan; Dong, Di; Tian, Jie; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigative the predictive ability of radiomics signature for preoperative staging (I-IIvs.III-IV) of primary colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods This study consisted of 494 consecutive patients (training dataset: n=286; validation cohort, n=208) with stage I–IV CRC. A radiomics signature was generated using LASSO logistic regression model. Association between radiomics signature and CRC staging was explored. The classification performance of the radiomics signature was explored with respect to the receiver operating characteristics(ROC) curve. Results The 16-feature-based radiomics signature was an independent predictor for staging of CRC, which could successfully categorize CRC into stage I-II and III-IV (p <0.0001) in training and validation dataset. The median of radiomics signature of stage III-IV was higher than stage I-II in the training and validation dataset. As for the classification performance of the radiomics signature in CRC staging, the AUC was 0.792(95%CI:0.741-0.853) with sensitivity of 0.629 and specificity of 0.874. The signature in the validation dataset obtained an AUC of 0.708(95%CI:0.698-0.718) with sensitivity of 0.611 and specificity of 0.680. Conclusions A radiomics signature was developed and validated to be a significant predictor for discrimination of stage I-II from III-IV CRC, which may serve as a complementary tool for the preoperative tumor staging in CRC. PMID:27120787

  12. Development of a diagnostic system for an axial-plunger pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulich, E. A.; Gamov, S. V.; Zhukovskii, A. E.; Mordvintsev, E. Iu.

    An algorithm for diagnosing axial-plunger pumps operating as part of an oil pump station is described. The algorithm has been used in developing a technical diagnostic system for axial-plunger pumps. The system consists of pressure fluctuation transducers, a signal amplifier, a diagnostic module, a controller, an analog-to-digital converter, and a microcomputer. The operation of the diagnostic system is briefly described.

  13. Guide to good practices for teamwork training and diagnostic skills development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.

  14. The development of an improved streak tube for fusion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.; Fisher, Y.; Jadwin, A.; Boni, R.; Jaanimagi, P. A.

    2016-11-01

    The fusion diagnostic community, including the National Ignition Facility, the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Megajoule in France, and others require optical recording instruments with precise time resolution covering a dynamic range of many orders of magnitude. In 2012, LLE, Photek, and Sydor Instruments embarked on the re-design of an improved streak tube for fusion diagnostics. As a baseline we started with the Photek ST-Y streak tube which is a member of the RCA design dating back to 1957, because the tube body can accommodate a 35 mm long photocathode, and consequently more fibre coupled diagnostic channels than smaller designs. Electron optical modelling was carried out by both Paul Jaanimagi in the US and by Photek with different software packages in a parallel exercise. Our goal was to address some of the short-comings of this tube, the initial approach being to increase the field between the photocathode and extractor electrode from 700 to 1300 V/mm to reduce space charge effects and to improve time resolution. Many changes and modifications were made: the time resolution was improved to 5 ps, the usable cathode length was increased from 20 mm to 32 mm under high extraction field operation, and the off-axis spatial resolution was substantially improved compared to other tubes of this format. Several tubes have been built and tested in Sydor ROSS-5800 streak cameras.

  15. Development of an Instructional Information System Prototype for Use in the Teaching and Development of Nursing Diagnostic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, K. C.; Leitner, J. E.; Solano, J. L.

    1988-01-01

    An interdisciplinary project was instituted in 1986 for the development and testing of an instructional system to be used in a nursing curriculum for teaching and developing the diagnostic skills of undergraduate nursing students. The system serves two major functions: to assist students in learning and becoming proficient in the diagnostic process and to assist educators in evaluating the students' learning.

  16. Digital Signature Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  17. Digital Signature Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  18. A PRIM approach to predictive-signature development for patient stratification.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Zhong, Hua; Belousov, Anton; Devanarayan, Viswanath

    2015-01-30

    Patients often respond differently to a treatment because of individual heterogeneity. Failures of clinical trials can be substantially reduced if, prior to an investigational treatment, patients are stratified into responders and nonresponders based on biological or demographic characteristics. These characteristics are captured by a predictive signature. In this paper, we propose a procedure to search for predictive signatures based on the approach of patient rule induction method. Specifically, we discuss selection of a proper objective function for the search, present its algorithm, and describe a resampling scheme that can enhance search performance. Through simulations, we characterize conditions under which the procedure works well. To demonstrate practical uses of the procedure, we apply it to two real-world data sets. We also compare the results with those obtained from a recent regression-based approach, Adaptive Index Models, and discuss their respective advantages. In this study, we focus on oncology applications with survival responses.

  19. Domain-Specific Languages For Developing and Deploying Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Gray, Jeff

    2013-12-02

    Domain-agnostic Signature Discovery entails scientific investigation across multiple domains through the re-use of existing algorithms into workflows. The existing algorithms may be written in any programming language for various hardware architectures (e.g., desktops, commodity clusters, and specialized parallel hardware platforms). This raises an engineering issue in generating Web services for heterogeneous algorithms so that they can be composed into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we present our software tool that defines two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes: SDL and WDL. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery algorithm and generates the service code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our tool with a landscape classification example that is represented by BLAST workflows composed of services that wrap original scripts.

  20. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  1. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  2. Accelerating the Development and Validation of New Value-Based Diagnostics by Leveraging Biobanks.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel; Riegman, Peter H J; Cronin, Maureen; Negrouk, Anastassia; Moch, Holger; Balling, Rudi; Penault-Llorca, Frederiques; Zatloukal, Kurt; Horgan, Denis

    The challenges faced in developing value-based diagnostics has resulted in few of these tests reaching the clinic, leaving many treatment modalities without matching diagnostics to select patients for particular therapies. Many patients receive therapies from which they are unlikely to benefit, resulting in worse outcomes and wasted health care resources. The paucity of value-based diagnostics is a result of the scientific challenges in developing predictive markers, specifically: (1) complex biology, (2) a limited research infrastructure supporting diagnostic development, and (3) the lack of incentives for diagnostic developers to invest the necessary resources. Better access to biospecimens can address some of these challenges. Methodologies developed to evaluate biomarkers from biospecimens archived from patients enrolled in randomized clinical trials offer the greatest opportunity to develop and validate high-value molecular diagnostics. An alternative opportunity is to access high-quality biospecimens collected from large public and private longitudinal observational cohorts such as the UK Biobank, the US Million Veteran Program, the UK 100,000 Genomes Project, or the French E3N cohort. Value-based diagnostics can be developed to work in a range of samples including blood, serum, plasma, urine, and tumour tissue, and better access to these high-quality biospecimens with clinical data can facilitate biomarker research.

  3. Development and Functions of Signature Whistles of Free-Ranging Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    either in baby position (BP) or less than 1 meter from its mother for each of four focal calves during early, middle, late and yearling stages. Figure...the playback were lumped with those produced in the following post -trial period. Numbers in parentheses indicate turns 45 degrees or greater. Table...with those produced in the following post -trial period. P values correspond to 2 X 2 contingency tables (two-tailed) comparing the numbers of signature

  4. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  5. Signature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyati, Vittal P.

    The reduction of vehicle radar signature is accomplished by means of vehicle shaping, the use of microwave frequencies-absorbent materials, and either passive or active cancellation techniques; such techniques are also useful in the reduction of propulsion system-associated IR emissions. In some anticipated scenarios, the objective is not signature-reduction but signature control, for deception, via decoy vehicles that mimic the signature characteristics of actual weapons systems. As the stealthiness of airframes and missiles increases, their propulsion systems' exhaust plumes assume a more important role in detection by an adversary.

  6. Biologics industry challenges for developing diagnostic tests for the National Veterinary Stockpile.

    PubMed

    Hardham, J M; Lamichhane, C M

    2013-01-01

    Veterinary diagnostic products generated ~$3 billion US dollars in global sales in 2010. This industry is poised to undergo tremendous changes in the next decade as technological advances move diagnostic products from the traditional laboratory-based and handheld immunologic assays towards highly technical, point of care devices with increased sensitivity, specificity, and complexity. Despite these opportunities for advancing diagnostic products, the industry continues to face numerous challenges in developing diagnostic products for emerging and foreign animal diseases. Because of the need to deliver a return on the investment, research and development dollars continue to be focused on infectious diseases that have a negative impact on current domestic herd health, production systems, or companion animal health. Overcoming the administrative, legal, fiscal, and technological barriers to provide veterinary diagnostic products for the National Veterinary Stockpile will reduce the threat of natural or intentional spread of foreign diseases and increase the security of the food supply in the US.

  7. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`S computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  8. Diagnostic development and support of MHD Test Facilities. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  9. Leveling the Playing Field: Bringing Development of Biomarkers and Molecular Diagnostics up to the Standards for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Poste, George; Carbone, David P.; Parkinson, David R.; Verweij, Jaap; Hewitt, Stephen; Jessup, J. Milburn

    2012-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics are increasingly important in clinical research to stratify or identify molecularly profiled patient cohorts for targeted therapies, to modify the dose of a therapeutic, or to assess early response to therapy or monitor patients. Molecular diagnostics can also be used to identify pharmocogenetic risk of adverse drug reactions. The articles of this CCR Focus section on Molecular Diagnosis describe the development and use of markers for medical decision-making in the cancer patient. They define the sources of preanalytic variability to minimize as well as the regulatory and financial challenges in diagnostic development and integration into clinical practice. They also outline an NCI program to assist diagnostic development. Molecular diagnostic clinical tests require rigor in their development and clinical validation with sufficient sensitivity, specificity and validity that is comparable to that used for development of therapeutics. These diagnostics must be offered at a realistic cost that reflects both their clinical value and the costs associated with their development. When genome sequencing technologies move into the clinic, they must be integrated with and traceable to current technology because they may identify more efficient and accurate approaches to drug development. In addition, regulators may define progressive drug approval for companion diagnostics that requires further evidence regarding efficacy and safety before full approval. A way to accomplish this is to emphasize Phase IV post-marketing hypothesis driven clinical trials with biological characterization that permits accurate definition of the association of low prevalence gene alterations with toxicity or response in large cohorts. PMID:22422403

  10. Fault Diagnostics for Electrically Operated Pitch Systems in Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teja Kandukuri, Surya; Khang Huynh, Van; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell Gunnar

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the electrically operated pitch systems of offshore wind turbines for online condition monitoring and health assessment. The current signature based fault diagnostics is developed for electrically operated pitch systems using model-based approach. The electrical motor faults are firstly modelled based on modified winding function theory and then, current signature analysis is performed to detect the faults. Further, in order to verify the fault diagnostics capabilities in realistic conditions, the operating profiles are obtained from FAST simulation of offshore wind turbines in various wind conditions. In this way, the applicability of current signature analysis for fault diagnostics in offshore wind turbine pitch systems is demonstrated.

  11. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  12. Botulism in children: a diagnostic dilemma in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rehan; Maheshwari, Prem Kumar; Ibrahim, Shahnaz Hamid; Haque, Anwarul

    2013-06-01

    Botulism is a well-known disease of the neuromuscular junction. It is a rare but curable cause of paralysis in paediatric population. In addition to classical clinical signs and symptoms, the diagnosis of botulism requires laboratory confirmation of intoxication by various biological tests. These include demonstration of botulinum toxin in serum or isolation of the Clostridium botulinum from stool/gastric aspirates. However, it is not always possible to confirm intoxication due to unavailability of technical facilities, especially in resource limited countries like Pakistan. Under these circumstances, electrophysiological studies serve as an excellent diagnostic tool. These studies can provide quick diagnosis of botulism so that early administration of botulism immunoglobulin, if available, can reduce morbidity, mortality and length of stay in hospital. We report a case of botulism from Pakistan diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiological studies.

  13. Diagnostic Accuracy of a Host Gene Expression Signature That Discriminates Clinical Severe Sepsis Syndrome and Infection-Negative Systemic Inflammation Among Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Jerry J; Sullivan, Erin; Yager, Thomas D; Cheng, Catherine; Permut, Lester; Cermelli, Silvia; McHugh, Leo; Sampson, Dayle; Seldon, Therese; Brandon, Richard B; Brandon, Roslyn A

    2017-04-01

    SeptiCyte Lab (Immunexpress, Seattle, WA), a molecular signature measuring the relative expression levels of four host messenger RNAs, was developed to discriminate critically ill adults with infection-positive versus infection-negative systemic inflammation. The objective was to assess the performance of Septicyte Lab in critically ill pediatric patients. Prospective observational study. Pediatric and Cardiac ICUs, Seattle Children's Hospital, Seattle, WA. A cohort of 40 children with clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome and 30 children immediately postcardiopulmonary bypass surgery was recruited. The clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome children had confirmed or highly suspected infection (microbial culture orders, antimicrobial prescription), two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria (including temperature and leukocyte criteria), and at least cardiovascular ± pulmonary organ dysfunction. None (observational study only). Next-generation RNA sequencing was conducted on PAXgene blood RNA samples, successfully for 35 of 40 (87.5%) of the clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome patients and 29 of 30 (96.7%) of the postcardiopulmonary bypass patients. Forty patient samples (~ 60% of cohort) were reanalyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, to check for concordance with next-generation sequencing results. Postcardiopulmonary bypass versus clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome descriptors included the following: age, 7.3 ± 5.5 versus 9.0 ± 6.6 years; gender, 41% versus 49% male; Pediatric Risk of Mortality, version III, 7.0 ± 4.6 versus 8.7 ± 6.4; Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction, version II, 5.1 ± 2.2 versus 4.8 ± 2.8. SeptiCyte Lab strongly differentiated postcardiopulmonary bypass and clinically overt severe sepsis syndrome patients by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, with an area-under-curve value of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00). Equivalent performance was

  14. Expression of the Cameleon calcium biosensor in fungi reveals distinct Ca(2+) signatures associated with polarized growth, development, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Seon; Czymmek, Kirk J; Patel, Agam; Modla, Shannon; Nohe, Anja; Duncan, Randall; Gilroy, Simon; Kang, Seogchan

    2012-08-01

    Calcium is a universal messenger that translates diverse environmental stimuli and developmental cues into specific cellular and developmental responses. While individual fungal species have evolved complex and often unique biochemical and structural mechanisms to exploit specific ecological niches and to adjust growth and development in response to external stimuli, one universal feature to all is that Ca(2+)-mediated signaling is involved. The lack of a robust method for imaging spatial and temporal dynamics of subcellular Ca(2+) (i.e., "Ca(2+) signature"), readily available in the plant and animal systems, has severely limited studies on how this signaling pathway controls fungal growth, development, and pathogenesis. Here, we report the first successful expression of a FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer)-based Ca(2+) biosensor in fungi. Time-lapse imaging of Magnaporthe oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, and Fusarium graminearum expressing this sensor showed that instead of a continuous gradient, the cytoplasmic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](c)) change occurred in a pulsatile manner with no discernable gradient between pulses, and each species exhibited a distinct Ca(2+) signature. Furthermore, occurrence of pulsatile Ca(2+) signatures was age and development dependent, and major [Ca(2+)](c) transients were observed during hyphal branching, septum formation, differentiation into specialized plant infection structures, cell-cell contact and in planta growth. In combination with the sequenced genomes and ease of targeted gene manipulation of these and many other fungal species, the data, materials and methods developed here will help understand the mechanism underpinning Ca(2+)-mediated control of cellular and developmental changes, its role in polarized growth forms and the evolution of Ca(2+) signaling across eukaryotic kingdoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  16. A versatile facility for advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, D. T.; Sinenian, N.; Manuel, M.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Waugh, C.; Sio, H.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2011-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates as high as 107 s-1 are achieved with a new ion source and gas control system. The fluence and energy of the fusion products has been accurately characterized to allow for the development of new nuclear diagnostics on OMEGA, Z and the NIF. In-situ measurements of the on-target beam profile are used to determine the metrology of the fusion products source for particle counting applications. In addition, neutron diagnostics development is facilitated by detailed MCNP simulations used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform suitable for advanced diagnostics development. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  17. Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0317 TITLE: Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using 
 Resting State Functional MRI...include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using... genetics and exposure to teratogens (Dufour-Rainfray et al., 2011). Although beyond the scope of this Annual Summary Report, our current findings are

  18. Developments in the diagnostic procedures for von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    De Jong, A; Eikenboom, J

    2016-03-01

    Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder but its diagnosis can be challenging due to the heterogeneity of the disease. VWD is mainly associated with mild mucocutaneous bleeding, although there are more severe phenotypes with bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract or even the joints. Also, surgical interventions and trauma may lead to critical bleeding events. These bleeding episodes are all related to quantitative or qualitative defects of von Willebrand factor (VWF), a multimeric glycoprotein produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, which mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and binds factor VIII (FVIII) in the circulation. This review describes the diagnostic procedures required for correct diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and classification is required for proper treatment and counseling. Assessment of bleeding starts with the medical history. After a positive bleeding or family history, subsequent laboratory investigations will start with a panel of standard screening tests for hemostatic defects. Patients suspected of having VWD will be tested for plasma VWF antigen levels, the ability of VWF to bind platelets and FVIII activity. When VWD is confirmed, a set of subtyping tests can classify the patients as VWD types 1, 2 (A, B, M or N) or 3. The performance of some additional assays and analyses, such as VWF propeptide measurement or genetic analysis, may help in identifying the pathological mechanism behind certain defects or can guide in the choice of treatment.

  19. Methane and its Stable Isotope Signature Across Pennsylvania: Assessing the Potential Impacts of Natural Gas Development and Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Garcés, F.; Fuentes, J. D.; Grannas, A. M.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 72 times that of carbon dioxide (20 year time horizon). Many recent efforts have been focused on improving our understanding of methane sources to the atmosphere and better quantifying the atmospheric methane budget. Increased natural gas exploration, particularly associated with shale gas drilling, has been hypothesized to be a potential source of atmospheric methane during well development and also due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, measurements of methane and its stable isotope signature were obtained from a mobile measurement platform using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and well-impacted sites. Particular emphasis was placed on performing air sampling in the vicinity of natural gas wells under development, just completed, and in full operation. In the rural atmosphere, away from cattle farms and natural gas systems, the ambient levels of methane were around 1.75 ppm. Near and around gas wells under development, ambient methane levels resembled those found in the rural atmosphere. In some cases, the atmosphere was enriched with methane (up to 2.2 ppm) in areas near old wells and existing pipelines. Ambient methane levels around cattle farms were significantly enhanced, with mixing ratios reaching about 4 ppm. We will discuss here the impact of both gas well development and agricultural activities on observed methane concentrations and stable isotope signatures.

  20. Development of an effective short introductory course in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Messmer, J M; Papp, K K; Hurwitz, J; Cook, D E

    1989-08-01

    As part of a general medical curriculum renewal, a new one-week course in diagnostic radiology was given to students at the beginning of their third year. The course format consisted of didactic presentations to the entire class, a single afternoon session of small group discussions of unknowns, and three daily case-of-the-day unknowns with prizes for correct responses. One hundred fifty-eight students were tested on the first and last days of the course; testing consisted of two parallel 46-item multiple choice questions given in a crossed design. Questions covered radiographic anatomy and pathology as well as proper test ordering. Differences in achievement before and after the course as measured by the pre- and post-tests were highly significant. The class achieved a mean of 27 (59%) correct responses on the pre-test and a mean of 37 (80%) on the post-test (F(1156) = 15.79; P less than .001). The reliability coefficient of the pre- and post-tests was about .30. A course critique was returned by 88 students. There was anticipated variation in the evaluations of the different didactic lecturers. Instructors receiving the highest scores were cited for their enthusiasm, clarity, and the relevance of their presentation. Conversely, those receiving low marks were cited as being unenthusiastic and boring, merely presenting example after example of radiographic abnormalities with little explanation. The afternoon small group discussions were perceived as the best part of the course. Despite the fact that moderator experience ranged from second year resident to full professor, the seminars received uniformly positive comments.

  1. The ISIS Penning H- SPS and Diagnostic Developments at RAL

    SciTech Connect

    Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Pozimski, J.; Jolly, S.; Savage, P.; Haigh, M.; Morrison, J.; Yew, I.; Doucas, G.

    2007-08-10

    This paper covers the recent work carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) on the ISIS Ion Source Development Rig (ISDR). The development of a retarding potential energy analyzer is described and a measured energy spread of 17.6 eV {+-} 1.5 eV from the ion source is reported. Variation in energy spread versus discharge current is shown. The development of a pepperpot emittance scanner to study emittance variation along the beam axis is discussed.

  2. Development of phoH as a Novel Signature Gene for Assessing Marine Phage Diversity▿

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Dawn B.; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D.; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-01-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  3. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Final progress report, March 1980--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-80ET-15601, Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities, developed diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, were refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics were developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems were interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support was provided for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort. DIAL personnel also cooperated with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. The initial contract, Testing and Evaluation of Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery, established a data base on heat transfer, slagging effects on heat transfer surfaces, metal durability, secondary combustor performance, secondary combustor design requirements, and other information pertinent to the design of HR/SR components at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF). To accomplish these objectives, a combustion test stand was constructed that simulated MHD environments, and mathematical models were developed and evaluated for the heat transfer in hot-wall test sections. Two transitions occurred during the span of this contract. In May 1983, the objectives and title of the contract changed from Testing and Evaluation of Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery to Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities. In July 1988, the research laboratory`s name changed from the MHD Energy Center to the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory.

  4. Developing a Signature Based Safeguards Approach for the Electrorefiner and Salt Cleanup Unit Operations in Pyroprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Chantell Lynne-Marie

    2016-01-27

    Traditional nuclear materials accounting does not work well for safeguards when applied to pyroprocessing. Alternate methods such as Signature Based Safeguards (SBS) are being investigated. The goal of SBS is real-time/near-real-time detection of anomalous events in the pyroprocessing facility as they could indicate loss of special nuclear material. In high-throughput reprocessing facilities, metric tons of separated material are processed that must be accounted for. Even with very low uncertainties of accountancy measurements (<0.1%) the uncertainty of the material balances is still greater than the desired level. Novel contributions of this work are as follows: (1) significant enhancement of SBS development for the salt cleanup process by creating a new gas sparging process model, selecting sensors to monitor normal operation, identifying safeguards-significant off-normal scenarios, and simulating those off-normal events and generating sensor output; (2) further enhancement of SBS development for the electrorefiner by simulating off-normal events caused by changes in salt concentration and identifying which conditions lead to Pu and Cm not tracking throughout the rest of the system; and (3) new contribution in applying statistical techniques to analyze the signatures gained from these two models to help draw real-time conclusions on anomalous events.

  5. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Young-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 10⁸ and 0.86 × 10⁸, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 10⁴ IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats.

  6. Can model observers be developed to reproduce radiologists' diagnostic performances? Our study says not so fast!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Boone, John M.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine radiologists' diagnostic performances on different image reconstruction algorithms that could be used to optimize image-based model observers. We included a total of 102 pathology proven breast computed tomography (CT) cases (62 malignant). An iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm was used to obtain 24 reconstructions with different image appearance for each image. Using quantitative image feature analysis, three IIRs and one clinical reconstruction of 50 lesions (25 malignant) were selected for a reader study. The reconstructions spanned a range of smooth-low noise to sharp-high noise image appearance. The trained classifiers' AUCs on the above reconstructions ranged from 0.61 (for smooth reconstruction) to 0.95 (for sharp reconstruction). Six experienced MQSA radiologists read 200 cases (50 lesions times 4 reconstructions) and provided the likelihood of malignancy of each lesion. Radiologists' diagnostic performances (AUC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.89. However, there was no agreement among the six radiologists on which image appearance was the best, in terms of radiologists' having the highest diagnostic performances. Specifically, two radiologists indicated sharper image appearance was diagnostically superior, another two radiologists indicated smoother image appearance was diagnostically superior, and another two radiologists indicated all image appearances were diagnostically similar to each other. Due to the poor agreement among radiologists on the diagnostic ranking of images, it may not be possible to develop a model observer for this particular imaging task.

  7. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  8. The Development of a Literacy Diagnostic Tool for Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Rachael; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a Literacy Assessment Battery for the diagnosis of Maltese children with specific learning difficulties. It forms part of a wider research study involving testing of 549 children in Malta as well as standardisation of the tool. Results of the children's performance and psychometric validation go beyond…

  9. Development of a system to provide diagnostics-while-drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy; Jacobson, Ronald David; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2003-06-01

    This report describes development of a system that provides high-speed, real-time downhole data while drilling. Background of the project, its benefits, major technical challenges, test planning, and test results are covered by relatively brief descriptions in the body of the report, with some topics presented in more detail in the attached appendices.

  10. Research and development of the device for diagnostics of arrhythmia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lezhnina, I. A.; Boyakhchyan, A. A.; Overchuk, K. V.; Uvarov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article describes the results of the research for sensors optimal arrangement during one limb ECG detection. The found placement provides the registration of the enough quality signal sufficient for the diagnosis of arrhythmia, the QRS complex is clearly recognized. Authors also show the test results of the device developed for the diagnosis of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death.

  11. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  12. Development of Methods for Diagnostics of Discharges in Supersonic Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    channel and quartz combustor tube and for installation of plasma generators. The centering and fixation of quartz tube is provided by ribbon sealings ... unsteady parameters [1-3 ]. Under these conditions, the main advantage of the probe method (a possibility of local measurements with a high temporal...reactions (including ionization and recombination) in the air plasma. The unsteady character of plasma parameters suggests a necessity of development of

  13. Development of a Sampling Collection Device with Diagnostic Procedures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jhih-Yan; Feng, Mow-Jung; Wu, Chia-Chi; Wang, Jane; Chang, Ting-Chang; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-08-02

    Cervicovaginal fluid plays an important role in the detection of many female genital diseases, but the lack of suitable collection devices in the market severely challenges test success rate. Appropriate clinical sampling devices for cervicovaginal fluid collection would help physicians detect diseases and disease states more rapidly, efficiently, and accurately. The objective of this study was to develop a readily usable sampling collection device that would eliminate macromolecular interference and accurately provide specimens for further studies. This study was designed to develop an effective device to collect cervicovaginal fluid from women with symptoms of endometrial lesions, women appearing in the clinic for a routine Papanicolaou smear, and/or women seeking a routine gynecologic checkup. Paper-based assay, ELISA, and qNano were used to provide accurate diagnoses. A total of 103 patients successfully used the developed device to collect cervicovaginal fluid. Some of the collected specimens were used to detect glycogen, lactate, and pH for determining pathogen infection. Other specimen samples were tested for the presence of female genital cancer by comparing interleukin 6 concentration and microvesicle concentration. We proposed a noninvasive screening test for the diagnosis of female genital diseases using a dual-material collection device. The outer, nonwoven fabric portion of this device was designed to filter macromolecules, and the inner cotton portion was designed to absorb cervicovaginal fluid.

  14. In-situ measurement of plasma surface interactions and diagnostic development for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Soren David

    This work describes the measurement of plasma surface interactions (PSI) in nuclear fusion devices (e.g. tokamaks) and the successful development of a novel in-situ PSI diagnostic. The Alpha Radioisotope Remote Ion Beam Analysis (ARRIBA) diagnostic is designed to measure erosion, deposition, and hydrogenic retention at surfaces inside fusion devices. ARRIBA will enable groundbreaking insight into tokamak PSI, which is a high-leverage research area in the quest for abundant, clean, safe energy from nuclear fusion. Chapter 1 describes the impact of PSI on the performance of nuclear fusion devices. Chapter 2 provides a review of PSI diagnostics and discusses their implementation, strengths, and weaknesses in the harsh environment of fusion machines. The first two chapters motivate the research and development described in subsequent chapters. Chapter 3 provides an overview and introduction to the ARRIBA diagnostic; this chapter covers the essential elements of how the diagnostic functions. Chapter 4 describes the mechanical aspects of the ARRIBA diagnostic. Chapter 5 discusses the measurement, simulation, and analysis of ARRIBA data. And finally, Chapter 6 discusses the conclusion of this work.

  15. Development of a powerful approach for classification of surface waters by geochemical signature.

    PubMed

    Filella, Montserrat; Pomian-Srzednicki, Ian; Nirel, Pascale M

    2014-03-01

    Easy identification of chemical signatures characteristic of water systems has become a major issue in the field of environmental protection and management. We propose an exploratory method, exclusively based on the statistical analysis of river water composition, capable of characterizing river waters in a given watershed through their chemical composition, as well as of detecting modifications, even when not related to pollution sources. Although the method is based on well-known statistic techniques (Principal Component Analysis and Linear Discriminant Analysis), and therefore is very simple and straightforward to apply, it goes far beyond the common data reduction use of these techniques. Its capabilities are illustrated through its application to rivers in Canton Geneva, Switzerland, a hydrographical network consisting of 310 km of waterways with 250 streams and rivers. The procedure results in a very satisfactory classification of watersheds, in our case by using only two geochemical indicators: U and Ba concentrations. The method also makes it possible to follow the seasonal evolution of river regimes or the effect of wetlands on river water composition.

  16. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  17. Leveling the playing field: bringing development of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics up to the standards for drug development.

    PubMed

    Poste, George; Carbone, David P; Parkinson, David R; Verweij, Jaap; Hewitt, Stephen M; Jessup, J Milburn

    2012-03-15

    Molecular diagnostics are becoming increasingly important in clinical research to stratify or identify molecularly profiled patient cohorts for targeted therapies, to modify the dose of a therapeutic, and to assess early response to therapy or monitor patients. Molecular diagnostics can also be used to identify the pharmacogenetic risk of adverse drug reactions. The articles in this CCR Focus section on molecular diagnosis describe the development and use of markers to guide medical decisions regarding cancer patients. They define sources of preanalytic variability that need to be minimized, as well as the regulatory and financial challenges involved in developing diagnostics and integrating them into clinical practice. They also outline a National Cancer Institute program to assist diagnostic development. Molecular diagnostic clinical tests require rigor in their development and clinical validation, with sensitivity, specificity, and validity comparable to those required for the development of therapeutics. These diagnostics must be offered at a realistic cost that reflects both their clinical value and the costs associated with their development. When genome-sequencing technologies move into the clinic, they must be integrated with and traceable to current technology because they may identify more efficient and accurate approaches to drug development. In addition, regulators may define progressive drug approval for companion diagnostics that requires further evidence regarding efficacy and safety before full approval can be achieved. One way to accomplish this is to emphasize phase IV postmarketing, hypothesis-driven clinical trials with biological characterization that would permit an accurate definition of the association of low-prevalence gene alterations with toxicity or response in large cohorts.

  18. Development of prototype polychromator system for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Son, S. H.; Ko, W. H.; Seo, D. C.; Yamada, I.; Her, K. H.; Jeon, J. S.; Bog, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    A polychromator is widely used by the Thomson scattering system for measuring the electron temperature and density. This type of spectrometer includes optic elements such as band-pass filters, focusing lens, collimating lens, and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The characteristics of band-pass filters in the polychromator are determined by the measuring range of the Thomson system. KSTAR edge polychromators were developed by co-works at NIFS in Japan, and the KSTAR core polychromators were developed by NFRI in Korea. The power supply system of these polychromators is connected only to one power supply module and can manually control the APD's voltage at the front side of the power supply by using a potentiometer. In this paper, a prototype polychromator is introduced at the KSTAR. The prototype polychromator system has a built-in power supply unit that includes high voltage for the APD and ± 5 V for an op-amp IC. The high voltage for the APD is finely controlled and monitored using a PC with the LabView software. One out of the six band pass-filters has a center wavelength of 523.5 nm with 2-nm bandwidth, which can measure Zeff, and the other five band-pass filters can simultaneously measure the Thomson signal. In addition, we will show the test result of this prototype polychromator system during the KSTAR experiment campaign (2015).

  19. Using qualitative research to inform development of a diagnostic algorithm for UTI in children.

    PubMed

    de Salis, Isabel; Whiting, Penny; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Hay, Alastair D

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic and prognostic algorithms can help reduce clinical uncertainty. The selection of candidate symptoms and signs to be measured in case report forms (CRFs) for potential inclusion in diagnostic algorithms needs to be comprehensive, clearly formulated and relevant for end users. To investigate whether qualitative methods could assist in designing CRFs in research developing diagnostic algorithms. Specifically, the study sought to establish whether qualitative methods could have assisted in designing the CRF for the Health Technology Association funded Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) study, which will develop a diagnostic algorithm to improve recognition of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children aged <5 years presenting acutely unwell to primary care. Qualitative methods were applied using semi-structured interviews of 30 UK doctors and nurses working with young children in primary care and a Children's Emergency Department. We elicited features that clinicians believed useful in diagnosing UTI and compared these for presence or absence and terminology with the DUTY CRF. Despite much agreement between clinicians' accounts and the DUTY CRFs, we identified a small number of potentially important symptoms and signs not included in the CRF and some included items that could have been reworded to improve understanding and final data analysis. This study uniquely demonstrates the role of qualitative methods in the design and content of CRFs used for developing diagnostic (and prognostic) algorithms. Research groups developing such algorithms should consider using qualitative methods to inform the selection and wording of candidate symptoms and signs.

  20. Development of detection techniques and diagnostics for airborne carbon nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Witze, Peter O.; Settersten, Thomas B.

    2003-11-01

    We have recorded time-resolved LII signals from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame over a wide range of laser fluences at 532 nm. We have performed these experiments using an injection-seeded NdYAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns. The beam was spatially filtered and imaged into the flame to provide a homogeneous spatial profile. These data were used to aid in the development of a model, which will be used to test the validity of the LII technique under varying environmental conditions. The new model describes the heating of soot particles during the laser pulse and the subsequent cooling of the particles by radiative emission, sublimation, and conduction. The model additionally includes particle heating by oxidation, accounts for the likelihood of particle annealing, and incorporates a mechanism for nonthermal photodesorption, which is required for good agreement with our experimental results. In order to investigate the fast photodesorption mechanism in more detail, we have recorded LII temporal profiles using a regeneratively amplified Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 70 ps to heat the particles and a streak camera with a temporal resolution of {approx}65 ps to collect the signal. Preliminary results confirm earlier indications of a fast mechanism leading to signal decay rates of much less than a nanosecond. Parameters to which the model is sensitive include the initial soot temperature, the temperature of the ambient gas, and the partial pressure of oxygen. In order to narrow the model uncertainties, we have developed a source of soot that allows us to determine and control these parameters. Soot produced by a burner is extracted, diluted, and cooled in a flow tube, which is equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for characterization of the aggregates.

  1. Clinical Research and Development of Tuberculosis Diagnostics: Moving From Silos to Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Evans, Carlton A.; Alland, David; Barer, Michael; Diefenbach, Jane; Ellner, Jerrold; Hafner, Richard; Hamilton, Carol Dukes; Iademarco, Michael F.; Ireton, Gregory; Kimerling, Michael E.; Lienhardt, Christian; MacKenzie, William R.; Murray, Megan; Perkins, Mark D.; Posey, Jamie E.; Roberts, Teri; Sizemore, Christine; Stevens, Wendy S.; Via, Laura; Williams, Sharon D.; Yew, Wing W.; Swindells, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and implementation of new and improved diagnostics have been identified as critical needs by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis researchers and clinicians alike. These needs exist in international and domestic settings and in adult and pediatric populations. Experts in tuberculosis and HIV care, researchers, healthcare providers, public health experts, and industry representatives, as well as representatives of pertinent US federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, United States Agency for International Development) assembled at a workshop proposed by the Diagnostics Working Group of the Federal Tuberculosis Taskforce to review the state of tuberculosis diagnostics development in adult and pediatric populations. PMID:22476718

  2. Development of Radiated Power Diagnostics for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, Matthew; van Eden, G. G.; Lovell, Jack; Peterson, Byron; Gray, Travis; Chandra, Rian; Stratton, Brent; Ellis, Robert; NSTX-U Team

    2016-10-01

    New tools to measure radiated power in NSTX-U are under development to support a range of core and boundary physics research. Multiple resistive bolometer pinhole cameras are being built and calibrated to support FY17 operations, all utilizing standard Au-foil sensors from IPT-Albrecht. The radiation in the lower divertor will be measured using two, 8 channel arrays viewing both vertically and radially to enable estimates of the 2D radiation structure. The core radiation will be measured using a 24 channel array viewing tangentially near the midplane, observing the full cross-section from the inner to outer limiter. This enables characterization of the centrifugally-driven in/out radiation asymmetry expected from mid-Z and high-Z impurities in highly rotating NSTX-U plasmas. All sensors utilize novel FPGA-based BOLO8BLF analyzers from D-tAcq Solutions. Resistive bolometer measurements are complemented by an InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) which measures the temperature change of radiation absorber using an IR camera. A prototype IRVB system viewing the lower divertor was installed on NSTX-U for FY16 operations. Initial results from the plasma and benchtop testing are used to demonstrate the relative advantages between IRVB and resistive bolometers. Supported in Part by DE-AC05-00OR22725 & DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Disorders of sex development: effect of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Achermann, John C; Domenice, Sorahia; Bachega, Tania A S S; Nishi, Mirian Y; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2015-08-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are a diverse group of conditions that can be challenging to diagnose accurately using standard phenotypic and biochemical approaches. Obtaining a specific diagnosis can be important for identifying potentially life-threatening associated disorders, as well as providing information to guide parents in deciding on the most appropriate management for their child. Within the past 5 years, advances in molecular methodologies have helped to identify several novel causes of DSDs; molecular tests to aid diagnosis and genetic counselling have now been adopted into clinical practice. Occasionally, genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation as an adjunct to assisted reproduction, prenatal diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies and confirmatory testing of positive results found during newborn biochemical screening are performed. Of the available genetic tests, the candidate gene approach is the most popular. New high-throughput DNA analysis could enable a genetic diagnosis to be made when the aetiology is unknown or many differential diagnoses are possible. Nonetheless, concerns exist about the use of genetic tests. For instance, a diagnosis is not always possible even using new molecular approaches (which can be worrying for the parents) and incidental information obtained during the test might cause anxiety. Careful selection of the genetic test indicated for each condition remains important for good clinical practice. The purpose of this Review is to describe advances in molecular biological techniques for diagnosing DSDs.

  4. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  5. Development of stimulation diagnostic technology. Annual report, January 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Lorenz, J.C.; Sleefe, G.E.; Engler, B.P.

    1993-02-01

    To apply Sandia`s expertise and technology towards the development of stimulation diagnostic technology in the areas of in situ stress, natural fracturing, stimulation processes and instrumentation systems. The approach to stimulation diagnostics is to integrate in situ stress measurements (including microfracs, anelastic strain recovery, circumferential velocity analysis, and coring-induced fractures) with natural fracture characterization, stimulation analyses (including Fracpro, other models, finite-element analyses, and various pressure analyses), and fracture diagnostics in order to validate hydraulic fracture concepts, models and diagnostic capabilities. The focus of this year`s efforts has been on the planning and development of the M-Site experiment facility for hydraulic fracture diagnostic development. A microseismic suitability test was conducted at the site with very positive results. In four small fracture treatments, over 1,000 microseismic were recorded, with most of these events having analyzable polarization and p- and s-wave arrivals. In the area of in situ stress, comparative studies are being made to evaluate stress measurement techniques, and an in situ stress topical report is being prepared. Natural fracture studies of the Frontier formation are progressing; the genesis and stratigraphic controls on two fracture sets have been hypothesized.

  6. Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    AWARD  NUMBER:          W81XWH-14-1-0318 TITLE:       Genetic  and  Diagnostic  Biomarker  Development  in  ASD...0318 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0318 Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting-State Functional MRI Glahn, David C...fMRI); clinical outcome; genomic; heritability; genetic control; pleitropy USAMRMC 11UUU U U Our overarching strategy is to exploit three large

  7. Music-based Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) - A newly developed diagnostic measure for adults with intellectual developmental disabilities suspected of autism.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Thomas; Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Dames, Sibylle; Heinrich, Manuel; Ziegler, Matthias; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The MUSAD was developed as a diagnostic observational instrument in an interactional music framework. It is based on the ICD-10/DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and was designed to assess adults on a lower level of functioning, including individuals with severe language impairments. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the newly developed instrument. Calculations were based on a consecutive clinical sample of N=76 adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) suspected of ASD. Objectivity, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were calculated and a confirmatory factor analysis was applied to verify a reduced and optimized test version. The structural model showed a good fit, while internal consistency of the subscales was excellent (ω>.92). Item difficulties ranged between .04≤pi≤.82 and item-total correlation from .21 to .85. Objectivity was assessed by comparing the scorings of two external raters based on a subsample of n=12; interrater agreement was .71 (ICC 2, 1). Reliability was calculated for four test repetitions: the average ICC (3, 1) was .69. Convergent ASD measures correlated significantly with the MUSAD, while the discriminant Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) showed no significant overlap. Confirmation of factorial structure and acceptable psychometric properties suggest that the MUSAD is a promising new instrument for diagnosing ASD in adults with IDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A three-long noncoding RNA signature as a diagnostic biomarker for differentiating between triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Man; Xing, Lu-Qi; Liu, Yi-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive cancer with unfavorable outcome and it is useful to explore noninvasive biomarkers for its early diagnosis. Here, we identified differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in blood samples of patients with TNBC to assess their diagnostic value. Methods: Differential expression of lncRNAs in plasma of patients with TNBC (n = 25) and non-TNBC (NTNBC; n = 35) and in healthy controls was compared by microarray analysis and validated by real-time PCR. lncRNA expression between plasma and BC tissues was compared using Pearson correlation test. Logit model was used to obtain a new lncRNA-based score. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic value of the selected lncRNAs. Results: Microarray data showed that 41 lncRNAs were aberrantly expressed. Among these, antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL), hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha antisense RNA-2 (HIF1A-AS2), and urothelial carcinoma-associated 1 (UCA1) were markedly upregulated in plasma of patients with TNBC compared with patients with NTNBC (P < 0.01). HIF1A-AS2 expression was positively associated with its tissue levels (r = 0.670, P < 0.01). AUC (95% CI) of ANRIL, HIF1A-AS2, and UCA1 was 0.785 (0.660–0.881), 0.739 (0.610–0.844), and 0.817 (0.696–0.905), respectively. TNBCSigLnc-3, a new score obtained using the logit model, showed excellent diagnostic performance, with AUC of 0.934 (0.839–0.982), sensitivity of 76.0%, and specificity of 97.1%. Conclusion: ANRIL, HIF1A-AS2, and UCA1 expression was significantly increased in plasma of patients with TNBC, suggesting their use as TNBC-specific diagnostic biomarkers. PMID:28248879

  9. Genome-wide search for Zelda-like chromatin signatures identifies GAF as a pioneer factor in early fly development.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Arbel; Kaplan, Tommy

    2017-07-04

    The protein Zelda was shown to play a key role in early Drosophila development, binding thousands of promoters and enhancers prior to maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), and marking them for transcriptional activation. Recently, we showed that Zelda acts through specific chromatin patterns of histone modifications to mark developmental enhancers and active promoters. Intriguingly, some Zelda sites still maintain these chromatin patterns in Drosophila embryos lacking maternal Zelda protein. This suggests that additional Zelda-like pioneer factors may act in early fly embryos. We developed a computational method to analyze and refine the chromatin landscape surrounding early Zelda peaks, using a multichannel spectral clustering. This allowed us to characterize their chromatin patterns through MZT (mitotic cycles 8-14). Specifically, we focused on H3K4me1, H3K4me3, H3K18ac, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 and identified three different classes of chromatin signatures, matching "promoters," "enhancers" and "transiently bound" Zelda peaks. We then further scanned the genome using these chromatin patterns and identified additional loci-with no Zelda binding-that show similar chromatin patterns, resulting with hundreds of Zelda-independent putative enhancers. These regions were found to be enriched with GAGA factor (GAF, Trl) and are typically located near early developmental zygotic genes. Overall our analysis suggests that GAF, together with Zelda, plays an important role in activating the zygotic genome. As we show, our computational approach offers an efficient algorithm for characterizing chromatin signatures around some loci of interest and allows a genome-wide identification of additional loci with similar chromatin patterns.

  10. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts.

  11. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  12. Diagnostic Stability of Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorders in Developing Country Settings: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shubham

    2015-01-01

    Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD), introduced in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic system in 1992, are not receiving much attention in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to review the literature related to the diagnostic stability of ATPD in developing countries. A PubMed search was conducted to review the studies concerned with this issue in the context of developing countries, as diagnostic stability is more of a direct test of validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Four publications were found. According to the literature search, the stability percentage of the ICD-10 ATPD diagnosis is 63-100%. The diagnostic shift is more commonly either towards bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, if any. Shorter duration of illness (<1 month) and abrupt onset (<48 hours) predict a stable diagnosis of ATPD. Based on available evidence, the diagnosis of ATPD appears to be relatively stable in developing countries. However, it is difficult to make a definitive conclusion, as there is a substantial lack of literature in developing country settings. PMID:26266021

  13. Developing energy and momentum conceptual survey (EMCS) with four-tier diagnostic test items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afif, Nur Faadhilah; Nugraha, Muhammad Gina; Samsudin, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    Students' conceptions of work and energy are important to support the learning process in the classroom. For that reason, a diagnostic test instrument is needed to diagnose students' conception of work and energy. As a result, the researcher decided to develop Energy and Momentum Conceptual Survey (EMCS) instrument test into four-tier test diagnostic items. The purpose of this research is organized as the first step of four-tier test-formatted EMCS development as one of diagnostic test instruments on work and Energy. The research method used the 4D model (Defining, Designing, Developing and Disseminating). The instrument developed has been tested to 39 students in one of Senior High Schools. The resulting research showed that four-tier test-formatted EMCS is able to diagnose students' conception level of work and energy concept. It can be concluded that the development of four-tier test-formatted EMCS is one of potential diagnostic test instruments that able to obtain the category of students who understand concepts, misconceptions and do not understand about Work and Energy concept at all.

  14. A Non-Invasive Laboratory Panel as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker for Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Development and Application in a Chinese Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Huimei; Liang, Shaoshan; Chen, Dacheng; Zheng, Chunxia; Zeng, Caihong; Zhang, Haitao; Liu, Zhihong

    2014-01-01

    Background Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in the kidney is a histopathologic lesion that occurs in a number of clinical settings and is often associated with poor renal prognosis. The standard test for the diagnosis of TMA is the renal biopsy; noninvasive parameters such as potential biomarkers have not been developed. Methods We analyzed routine parameters in a cohort of 220 patients with suspected TMA and developed a diagnostic laboratory panel by logistic regression. The levels of candidate markers were validated using an independent cohort (n = 46), a cohort of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n = 157) and an expanded cohort (n = 113), as well as 9 patients with repeat biopsies. Results Of the 220 patients in the derivation cohort, 51 patients with biopsy-proven TMA presented with a worse renal prognosis than those with no TMA (P = 0.002). Platelet and L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels showed an acceptable diagnostic value of TMA (AUC = 0.739 and 0.756, respectively). A panel of 4 variables - creatinine, platelets, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats 13) activity and LDH - can effectively discriminate patients with TMA (AUC = 0.800). In the validation cohort, the platelet and LDH levels and the 4-variable panel signature robustly distinguished patients with TMA. The discrimination effects of these three markers were confirmed in patients with SLE. Moreover, LDH levels and the 4-variable panel signature also showed discrimination values in an expanded set. Among patients undergoing repeat biopsy, increased LDH levels and panel signatures were associated with TMA status when paired evaluations were performed. Importantly, only the 4-variable panel was an independent prognostic marker for renal outcome (hazard ratio = 3.549; P<0.001). Conclusions The noninvasive laboratory diagnostic panel is better for the early detection and prognosis of TMA compared with a single parameter, and may

  15. Development and Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children’s health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnost...

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  17. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  18. Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

  19. Diagnostics for the developing world: microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres W; Phillips, Scott T; Whitesides, George M; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (microPADs) are a new class of point-of-care diagnostic devices that are inexpensive, easy to use, and designed specifically for use in developing countries. (To listen to a podcast about this feature, please go to the Analytical Chemistry multimedia page at pubs.acs.org/page/ancham/audio/index.html.).

  20. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  2. Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

  3. A Needs-Based Approach to the Development of a Diagnostic College English Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the current situation of oral English teaching, learning, and assessment at the tertiary level in China through needs analysis and explored the implications for the development of a diagnostic speaking test. Through random sampling, the researcher administered both a student questionnaire and a teacher questionnaire to over…

  4. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop; request for...

  5. Development and Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children’s health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnost...

  6. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  7. Psychometric properties of the motor diagnostics in the German football talent identification and development programme.

    PubMed

    HÖner, Oliver; Votteler, Andreas; Schmid, Markus; Schultz, Florian; Roth, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of motor performance tests for talent identification in youth sports is discussed intensively in talent research. This article examines the reliability, differential stability and validity of the motor diagnostics conducted nationwide by the German football talent identification and development programme and provides reference values for a standardised interpretation of the diagnostics results. Highly selected players (the top 4% of their age groups, U12-U15) took part in the diagnostics at 17 measurement points between spring 2004 and spring 2012 (N = 68,158). The heterogeneous test battery measured speed abilities and football-specific technical skills (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting, juggling). For all measurement points, the overall score and the speed tests showed high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and satisfying differential stability. The diagnostics demonstrated satisfying factorial-related validity with plausible and stable loadings on the two empirical factors "speed" and "technical skills". The score, and the technical skills dribbling and juggling, differentiated the most among players of different performance levels and thus showed the highest criterion-related validity. Satisfactory psychometric properties for the diagnostics are an important prerequisite for a scientifically sound rating of players' actual motor performance and for the future examination of the prognostic validity for success in adulthood.

  8. Current and future trends in biomarker discovery and development of companion diagnostics for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David S; Bustard, Michael J; McGeough, Cathy M; Murray, Helena A; Crockard, Martin A; McDowell, Andrew; Blayney, Jayne K; Gardiner, Philip V; Bjourson, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are complex multifactorial disorders that are chronic in nature and debilitating for patients. A number of drug families are available to clinicians to manage these disorders but few tests exist to target these to the most responsive patients. As a consequence, drug failure and switching to drugs with alternate modes of action is common. In parallel, a limited number of laboratory tests are available which measure biological indicators or 'biomarkers' of disease activity, autoimmune status, or joint damage. There is a growing awareness that assimilating the fields of drug selection and diagnostic tests into 'companion diagnostics' could greatly advance disease management and improve outcomes for patients. This review aims to highlight: the current applications of biomarkers in rheumatology with particular focus on companion diagnostics; developments in the fields of proteomics, genomics, microbiomics, imaging and bioinformatics and how integration of these technologies into clinical practice could support therapeutic decisions.

  9. Initial operation of a newly developed multichord motional Stark effect diagnostic in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J. Ko, J.; Wi, H.; Messmer, M.; Schenkelaars, S.; Scheffer, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2016-11-15

    A photo-elastic modulator based 25-chord motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic has been successfully developed and commissioned in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. The diagnostic measures the radial magnetic pitch angle profile of the Stark splitting of a D-alpha line at 656.1 nm by the electric field associated with the neutral deuterium heating beam. A tangential view of the neutral beam provides a good spatial resolution of 1–3 cm for covering the major radius from 1.74 m to 2.28 m, and the time resolution is achieved at 10 ms. An in-vessel calibration before the vacuum closing as well as an in situ calibration during the tokamak operation was performed by means of specially designed polarized lighting sources. In this work, we present the final design of the installed MSE diagnostic and the first results of the commissioning.

  10. Initial operation of a newly developed multichord motional Stark effect diagnostic in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, J.; Ko, J.; Wi, H.; Messmer, M.; Schenkelaars, S.; Scheffer, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2016-11-01

    A photo-elastic modulator based 25-chord motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic has been successfully developed and commissioned in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. The diagnostic measures the radial magnetic pitch angle profile of the Stark splitting of a D-alpha line at 656.1 nm by the electric field associated with the neutral deuterium heating beam. A tangential view of the neutral beam provides a good spatial resolution of 1-3 cm for covering the major radius from 1.74 m to 2.28 m, and the time resolution is achieved at 10 ms. An in-vessel calibration before the vacuum closing as well as an in situ calibration during the tokamak operation was performed by means of specially designed polarized lighting sources. In this work, we present the final design of the installed MSE diagnostic and the first results of the commissioning.

  11. Development of backlighting sources for a Compton Radiography diagnostic of Inertial Confinement Fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R

    2010-04-23

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion is time-resolved imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. Here we report on the source and diagnostic development of hard x-ray radiography and on the first radiographs of direct drive implosions obtained at photon energies up to about 100keV, where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the shell opacity. The radiographs of direct drive, plastic shell implosions obtained at the OMEGA laser facility have a spatial resolution of {approx}10um and a temporal resolution of {approx}10ps. This novel Compton Radiography is an invaluable diagnostic tool for Inertial Confinement Fusion targets, and will be integrated at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  12. Molecular signatures of ribosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elijah; Sethi, Anurag; Montoya, Jonathan; Woese, Carl R; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2008-09-16

    Ribosomal signatures, idiosyncrasies in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and/or proteins, are characteristic of the individual domains of life. As such, insight into the early evolution of the domains can be gained from a comparative analysis of their respective signatures in the translational apparatus. In this work, we identify signatures in both the sequence and structure of the rRNA and analyze their contributions to the universal phylogenetic tree using both sequence- and structure-based methods. Domain-specific ribosomal proteins can be considered signatures in their own right. Although it is commonly assumed that they developed after the universal ribosomal proteins, we present evidence that at least one may have been present before the divergence of the organismal lineages. We find correlations between the rRNA signatures and signatures in the ribosomal proteins showing that the rRNA signatures coevolved with both domain-specific and universal ribosomal proteins. Finally, we show that the genomic organization of the universal ribosomal components contains these signatures as well. From these studies, we propose the ribosomal signatures are remnants of an evolutionary-phase transition that occurred as the cell lineages began to coalesce and so should be reflected in corresponding signatures throughout the fabric of the cell and its genome.

  13. Molecular signatures of ribosomal evolution

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elijah; Sethi, Anurag; Montoya, Jonathan; Woese, Carl R.; Luthey-Schulten, Zaida

    2008-01-01

    Ribosomal signatures, idiosyncrasies in the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and/or proteins, are characteristic of the individual domains of life. As such, insight into the early evolution of the domains can be gained from a comparative analysis of their respective signatures in the translational apparatus. In this work, we identify signatures in both the sequence and structure of the rRNA and analyze their contributions to the universal phylogenetic tree using both sequence- and structure-based methods. Domain-specific ribosomal proteins can be considered signatures in their own right. Although it is commonly assumed that they developed after the universal ribosomal proteins, we present evidence that at least one may have been present before the divergence of the organismal lineages. We find correlations between the rRNA signatures and signatures in the ribosomal proteins showing that the rRNA signatures coevolved with both domain-specific and universal ribosomal proteins. Finally, we show that the genomic organization of the universal ribosomal components contains these signatures as well. From these studies, we propose the ribosomal signatures are remnants of an evolutionary-phase transition that occurred as the cell lineages began to coalesce and so should be reflected in corresponding signatures throughout the fabric of the cell and its genome. PMID:18768810

  14. Diagnostic Suite for HyperV Coaxial Plasma Gun Development for the PLX- α Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Andrew; Brockington, Sam; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2015-11-01

    We present the diagnostic suite to be used during development of the coaxial guns HyperV will deliver to LANL in support of the ARPA-E Accelerating Low-Cost Plasma Heating And Assembly (ALPHA) program. For plasma jet diagnostics this includes fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for measuring total plasmoid momentum, interferometry for line integrated plasma density, deflectometry for line integrated perpendicular density gradient measurements, and spectroscopy, both time resolved high resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector developed by HyperV and time integrated survey spectroscopy, for measurements of velocity and temperature as well as impurities. In addition, we plan to use fast pressure probes for stagnation pressure, a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry and time integrated imaging for overall light emission. A novel low resolution long record length camera developed by HyperV will also be used for plume diagnostics. For diagnostics of gun operation, we will use Rogowski coils to measure current, voltage dividers for voltages, B-dot probes for magnetic field, and time resolved fast photodiodes to measure plasmoid velocity inside the accelerator. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  15. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  16. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  17. Multimodal signature modeling of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian; Prussing, Keith; Lane, Sarah; Thomas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related problems dictates a multimodal sensing approach. Human signature data of sufficient and accurate quality and quantity do not exist, thus the development of an accurate signature model for a human is needed. This model should also simulate various human activities to allow motion-based observables to be exploited. This paper will describe a multimodal signature modeling approach that incorporates human physiological aspects, thermoregulation, and dynamics into the signature calculation. This approach permits both passive and active signatures to be modeled. The focus of the current effort involved the computation of signatures in urban environments. This paper will discuss the development of a human motion model for use in simulating both electro-optical signatures and radar-based signatures. Video sequences of humans in a simulated urban environment will also be presented; results using these sequences for personnel tracking will be presented.

  18. Narrow bandwidth Thomson photon source and diagnostic development using laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Tsai, Hai-En; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Friedman, Alex; Grote, David; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Nakamura, Kei; Quiter, Brian J.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Steinke, Sven; Swanson, Kelly; Toth, Csaba; Vay, Jean-Luc; Vetter, Kai; Zhang, Yigong; Leemans, Wim

    2017-03-01

    Compact, high-quality photon sources at MeV energies are being developed based on Laser-Plasma Accelerators (LPAs), and these sources at the same time provide precision diagnostics of beam evolution to support LPA development. We review design of experiments and laser capabilities to realize a photon source, integrating LPA acceleration for compactness, control of scattering to increase photon flux, and electron deceleration to mitigate beam dump size. These experiments are developing a compact photon source system with the potential to enable new monoenergetic photon applications currently restricted by source size, including nuclear nonproliferation. Diagnostic use of the energy-angle spectra of Thomson scattered photons is presented to support development of LPAs to meet the needs of advanced high yield/low-energy-spread photon sources and future high energy physics colliders.

  19. Target Diagnostic Technology Research & Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P; Landen, O; Weber, F; Lowry, M; Bennett, C; Kimbrough, J; Moody, J; Holder, J; Lerche, R; Griffith, R; Park, H; Boni, R; Jaanimagi, P; Davies, T

    2004-04-13

    The National Ignition Facility is operational at LLNL. The ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed diagnostic research and development groups to institute improvements outside the charter of core diagnostics. We will present data from instrumentation being developed. A major portion of our work is improvements to detectors and readout systems. We have efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to back thin a large format CCD device. We have developed in collaboration with a commercial vendor a large format, compact CCD system. We have coupled large format CCD systems to our optical and x-ray streak cameras leading to improvements in resolution and dynamic range. We will discuss gate-width and uniformity improvements to MCP-based framing cameras. We will present data from single shot data link work and discuss technology aimed at improvements of dynamic range for high-speed transient measurements from remote locations.

  20. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  1. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  2. Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Louge, M.; Jenkins, J.T.

    1992-03-02

    In 1988, we proposed a program to develop new diagnostics for dense gas-solid suspensions, with particular interest toward the dense pneumatic transport of cohesive solid plugs. This program included three main objectives, as follows: to develop probes for local measurements of (1) local particle volume fraction and (2) individual particle velocities in dense gas-solid flows; and (3) to construct a bench-scale setup for transporting dense cohesive solid plugs and to analyze data from the resulting tests.

  3. Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Louge, M.; Jenkins, J.T.

    1992-03-02

    In 1988, we proposed a program to develop new diagnostics for dense gas-solid suspensions, with particular interest toward the dense pneumatic transport of cohesive solid plugs. This program included three main objectives, as follows: to develop probes for local measurements of (1) local particle volume fraction and (2) individual particle velocities in dense gas-solid flows; and (3) to construct a bench-scale setup for transporting dense cohesive solid plugs and to analyze data from the resulting tests.

  4. Reactive oxygen species-associated molecular signature predicts survival in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bime, Christian; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Ting; Slepian, Marvin J; Garcia, Joe G N; Hecker, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis-related multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. There is overwhelming evidence that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated multiple organ failure; however, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated biomarkers and/or diagnostics that define mortality or predict survival in sepsis are lacking. Lung or peripheral blood gene expression analysis has gained increasing recognition as a potential prognostic and/or diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to identify ROS-associated biomarkers predictive of survival in patients with sepsis. In-silico analyses of expression profiles allowed the identification of a 21-gene ROS-associated molecular signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. Importantly, this signature performed well in a validation cohort consisting of sepsis patients aggregated from distinct patient populations recruited from different sites. Our signature outperforms randomly generated signatures of the same signature gene size. Our findings further validate the critical role of ROSs in the pathogenesis of sepsis and provide a novel gene signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. These results also highlight the utility of peripheral blood molecular signatures as biomarkers for predicting mortality risk in patients with sepsis, which could facilitate the development of personalized therapies.

  5. Reactive oxygen species–associated molecular signature predicts survival in patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Wang, Ting; Slepian, Marvin J.; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Hecker, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sepsis-related multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. There is overwhelming evidence that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated multiple organ failure; however, reactive oxygen species (ROS)–associated biomarkers and/or diagnostics that define mortality or predict survival in sepsis are lacking. Lung or peripheral blood gene expression analysis has gained increasing recognition as a potential prognostic and/or diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to identify ROS-associated biomarkers predictive of survival in patients with sepsis. In-silico analyses of expression profiles allowed the identification of a 21-gene ROS-associated molecular signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. Importantly, this signature performed well in a validation cohort consisting of sepsis patients aggregated from distinct patient populations recruited from different sites. Our signature outperforms randomly generated signatures of the same signature gene size. Our findings further validate the critical role of ROSs in the pathogenesis of sepsis and provide a novel gene signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. These results also highlight the utility of peripheral blood molecular signatures as biomarkers for predicting mortality risk in patients with sepsis, which could facilitate the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27252846

  6. Identification of a three-miRNA signature as a blood-borne diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background The subtypes of NSCLC have unique characteristics of pathogenic mechanism and responses to targeted therapies. Thus, non-invasive markers for diagnosis of different subtypes of NSCLC at early stage are needed. Results Based on the results from the screening and validation process, 3 miRNAs (miR-532, miR-628-3p and miR-425-3p) were found to display significantly different expression levels in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, as compared to those in healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that the miRNA–based biomarker could distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from healthy controls with high AUC (0.974), sensitivity (91.5%), and specificity (97.8%). Importantly, these three miRNAs could also distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from lung benigh diseases and other subtypes of lung cancer. Methods Two hundreds and one early-stage lung adenocarcinoma cases and one hundreds seventy eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited to this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. A risk score model was established to evaluate the diagnostic value of the plasma miRNA profiling system. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that the 3 miRNA–based biomarker might serve as a novel non-invasive approach for diagnosis of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27036025

  7. Correlation signatures of wet soils and snows. [algorithm development and computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretation, analysis, and development of algorithms have provided the necessary computational programming tools for soil data processing, data handling and analysis. Algorithms that have been developed thus far, are adequate and have been proven successful for several preliminary and fundamental applications such as software interfacing capabilities, probability distributions, grey level print plotting, contour plotting, isometric data displays, joint probability distributions, boundary mapping, channel registration and ground scene classification. A description of an Earth Resources Flight Data Processor, (ERFDP), which handles and processes earth resources data under a users control is provided.

  8. Developing Predictive Toxicity Signatures Using In Vitro Data from the EPA ToxCast Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Numerous studies have evaluated the use of targeted biochemical, cell-based and genomic assay approaches. Each of these techniques is potentially helpful, but provide...

  9. Developing Predictive Toxicity Signatures Using In Vitro Data from the EPA ToxCast Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Numerous studies have evaluated the use of targeted biochemical, cell-based and genomic assay approaches. Each of these techniques is potentially helpful, but provide...

  10. The transcriptomic and evolutionary signature of social interactions regulating honey bee caste development.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The caste fate of developing female honey bee larvae is strictly socially regulated by adult nurse workers. As a result of this social regulation, nurse-expressed genes as well as larval-expressed genes may affect caste expression and evolution. We used a novel transcriptomic approach to identify ge...

  11. Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA): An Instructor's Development and Evaluation of an Embedded Signature Assessment in an Early Childhood Literacy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    As of May 2014, all candidates for teacher certification in New York State must successfully complete the teacher performance assessment (edTPA). This article describes an assignment piloted in an early childhood literacy class as an embedded signature assessment and has three goals: to explain the context that led to the development of the…

  12. Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel

  13. The Complexity Signature: Developing a Tool to Communicate Biopsychosocial Severity of Disease for Children with Chronic Neurological Complexity.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sonanini, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Focke, Axel; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Aim For children with medical complexity, interdisciplinary treatment approaches are required to address the various aspects defined within the biopsychosocial model. Methods The present study identifies dimensions of the biopsychosocial model to generate a standardized visualized severity score for chronic neurological diseases in children. We demonstrate the score's applicability and usefulness in clinical practice among clinicians with and without pediatric board certification with the aid of illustrative patient cases. The results are compared by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Nine dimensions were identified as the basis for the development of the score, which consists of five grades of severity for each of the selected neuropediatric subsections. All board-certified pediatricians would recommend the application of the severity score in clinical routine. Furthermore, a good correlation was revealed between direct and indirect (severity score) assessment. Interpretation The severity score developed in this study takes into account biopsychosocial aspects of chronic diseases while being comprehensible and easily applicable in clinical routine-a biopsychosocial signature serving as an excellent, striking communication basis within the interdisciplinary team. However, upcoming studies including more patient cases are needed for further refinement. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Streamer development in barrier discharge in air: spectral signatures and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoder, Tomas; Simek, Milan; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Prukner, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    Electrical breakdown in the upper atmosphere takes form of so called Transient Luminous Events (TLE). Down to the certain pressure limit, the first phases of the TLE-phenomena are controlled by the streamer mechanism. In order to understand the development of these events, streamers in 10 torr air were generated in volume barrier discharge. Stability and reproducibility of generated streamers were secured by proper electrode geometry and specific applied voltage waveform. In this work, spectrally resolved measurements of the streamer head emission with high spatial and temporal resolution are presented. Precise recordings of the emission of the second positive and first negative systems of molecular nitrogen allowed the determination of the spatio-temporal development of the reduced electric field in the streamer head. This unique experimental result reveals in more details the early stages of the streamer development and gives, besides values for streamer velocity and its diameter, quantitative information on the magnitude of the electric field. T.H. was financed through the ESF Programme TEA-IS (Grant No. 4219), M.S. and V.P. by the AVCR under collaborative project M100431201 and Z.B. acknowledges the support of grant of Czech Science Foundation GA15-04023S.

  15. Signatures in the gut microbiota of Japanese infants who developed food allergies in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masaru; Korenori, Yuki; Washio, Masakazu; Kobayashi, Takako; Momoda, Rie; Kiyohara, Chikako; Kuroda, Aki; Saito, Yuka; Sonomoto, Kenji; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-08-01

    Bacterial colonization in infancy is considered crucial for the development of the immune system. Recently, there has been a drastic increase in childhood allergies in Japan. Therefore, we conducted a prospective study with 56 infants on the relationship between gut microbiota in the first year of life and the development of allergies during the first 3 years. In the lactation period, organic acid producers such as Leuconostoc, Weissella and Veillonella tended to be underrepresented in subjects who developed food allergies (FA, n = 14) within the first two years. In the weaning period, children in the FA group were highly colonized by unclassified Enterobacteriaceae and two Clostridium species closely related to Clostridium paraputrificum and C. tertium, and the whole tree phylogenetic diversity index was significantly lower in the FA group. All of these differences in the weaning period were statistically significant, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. A higher abundance of unclassified Enterobacteriaceae was also found in the other allergic group (n = 15), whereas the two Clostridium species were highly specific to the FA group. The mode of action of these Clostridium species in childhood food allergies remains unknown, warranting further investigation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Microarray analysis of a salamander hopeful monster reveals transcriptional signatures of paedomorphic brain development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is considered a hopeful monster because it exhibits an adaptive and derived mode of development - paedomorphosis - that has evolved rapidly and independently among tiger salamanders. Unlike related tiger salamanders that undergo metamorphosis, axolotls retain larval morphological traits into adulthood and thus present an adult body plan that differs dramatically from the ancestral (metamorphic) form. The basis of paedomorphic development was investigated by comparing temporal patterns of gene transcription between axolotl and tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) that typically undergo a metamorphosis. Results Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via microarray analysis on four different days post hatching (42, 56, 70, 84 dph) and regression modeling was used to independently identify genes that were differentially expressed as a function of time in both species. Collectively, more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as unique to the axolotl (n = 76) and tiger salamander (n = 292) than were identified as shared (n = 108). All but two of the shared DEGs exhibited the same temporal pattern of expression and the unique genes tended to show greater changes later in the larval period when tiger salamander larvae were undergoing anatomical metamorphosis. A second, complementary analysis that directly compared the expression of 1320 genes between the species identified 409 genes that differed as a function of species or the interaction between time and species. Of these 409 DEGs, 84% exhibited higher abundances in tiger salamander larvae at all sampling times. Conclusions Many of the unique tiger salamander transcriptional responses are probably associated with metamorphic biological processes. However, the axolotl also showed unique patterns of transcription early in development. In particular, the axolotl showed a genome-wide reduction in mRNA abundance

  17. Microarray analysis of a salamander hopeful monster reveals transcriptional signatures of paedomorphic brain development.

    PubMed

    Page, Robert B; Boley, Meredith A; Smith, Jeramiah J; Putta, Srikrishna; Voss, Stephen R

    2010-06-28

    The Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is considered a hopeful monster because it exhibits an adaptive and derived mode of development - paedomorphosis - that has evolved rapidly and independently among tiger salamanders. Unlike related tiger salamanders that undergo metamorphosis, axolotls retain larval morphological traits into adulthood and thus present an adult body plan that differs dramatically from the ancestral (metamorphic) form. The basis of paedomorphic development was investigated by comparing temporal patterns of gene transcription between axolotl and tiger salamander larvae (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) that typically undergo a metamorphosis. Transcript abundances from whole brain and pituitary were estimated via microarray analysis on four different days post hatching (42, 56, 70, 84 dph) and regression modeling was used to independently identify genes that were differentially expressed as a function of time in both species. Collectively, more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as unique to the axolotl (n = 76) and tiger salamander (n = 292) than were identified as shared (n = 108). All but two of the shared DEGs exhibited the same temporal pattern of expression and the unique genes tended to show greater changes later in the larval period when tiger salamander larvae were undergoing anatomical metamorphosis. A second, complementary analysis that directly compared the expression of 1320 genes between the species identified 409 genes that differed as a function of species or the interaction between time and species. Of these 409 DEGs, 84% exhibited higher abundances in tiger salamander larvae at all sampling times. Many of the unique tiger salamander transcriptional responses are probably associated with metamorphic biological processes. However, the axolotl also showed unique patterns of transcription early in development. In particular, the axolotl showed a genome-wide reduction in mRNA abundance across loci, including genes

  18. [Intersex and differences of sex development: background, diagnostics, and concepts of care].

    PubMed

    Holterhus, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Intersex is an inherited incongruence of chromosomal, gonadal, and genital sexual characteristics. A typical clinical situation of intersex is the ambiguous genitalia in the newborn. Diagnostics, counseling, and therapy should be offered by specialized multidisciplinary health-care teams. The focus is not only on medical issues but also on psychological, social, and ethical aspects. In the international literature, intersex is now termed "disorders of sex development" (DSD). Alternatively, some authors use "differences of sex development" to underline that patients do not necessarily feel they have a "disorder" but rather a "difference" of sex development compared with normal sex development.

  19. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  20. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB.

    PubMed

    Awoniyi, Dolapo O; Baumann, Ralf; Chegou, Novel N; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-06-06

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings.

  1. Detection of a combination of serum IgG and IgA antibodies against selected mycobacterial targets provides promising diagnostic signatures for active TB

    PubMed Central

    Chegou, Novel N.; Kriel, Belinda; Jacobs, Ruschca; Kidd, Martin; Loxton, Andre G.; Kaempfer, Susanne; Singh, Mahavir; Walzl, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) based tests for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) disease often show a lack of specificity in TB endemic regions, which is mainly due to a high background prevalence of LTBI. Here, we investigated the combined performance of the responses of different Ig classes to selected mycobacterial antigens in primary healthcare clinic attendees with signs and symptoms suggestive of TB. The sensitivity and specificity of IgA, IgG and/or IgM to LAM and 7 mycobacterial protein antigens (ESAT-6, Tpx, PstS1, AlaDH, MPT64, 16kDa and 19kDa) and 2 antigen combinations (TUB, TB-LTBI) in the plasma of 63 individuals who underwent diagnostic work-up for TB after presenting with symptoms and signs compatible with possible active TB were evaluated. Active TB was excluded in 42 individuals of whom 21 has LTBI whereas active TB was confirmed in 21 patients of whom 19 had a follow-up blood draw at the end of 6-month anti-TB treatment. The leading single serodiagnostic markers to differentiate between the presence or absence of active TB were anti-16 kDa IgA, anti-MPT64 IgA with sensitivity and specificity of 90%/90% and 95%/90%, respectively. The combined use of 3 or 4 antibodies further improved this performance to accuracies above 95%. After successful completion of anti-TB treatment at month 6, the levels of 16 kDa IgA and 16 kDa IgM dropped significantly whereas LAM IgG and TB-LTBI IgG increased. These results show the potential of extending investigation of anti-tuberculous IgG responses to include IgM and IgA responses against selected protein and non-protein antigens in differentiating active TB from other respiratory diseases in TB endemic settings. PMID:28415587

  2. Ontogeny and phylogeny: molecular signatures of selection, constraint, and temporal pleiotropy in the development of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Artieri, Carlo G; Haerty, Wilfried; Singh, Rama S

    2009-01-01

    Background Karl Ernst Von Baer noted that species tend to show greater morphological divergence in later stages of development when compared to earlier stages. Darwin originally interpreted these observations via a selectionist framework, suggesting that divergence should be greatest during ontogenic stages in which organisms experienced varying 'conditions of existence' and opportunity for differential selection. Modern hypotheses have focused on the notion that genes and structures involved in early development will be under stronger purifying selection due to the deleterious pleiotropic effects of mutations propagating over the course of ontogeny, also known as the developmental constraint hypothesis. Results Using developmental stage-specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, we tested the 2 hypotheses by comparing the rates of evolution of 7,180 genes obtained from 6 species of the Drosophila melanogaster group with respect to ontogeny, and sex and reproduction-related functions in gonadal tissues. Supporting morphological observations, we found evidence of a pattern of increasing mean evolutionary rate in genes that are expressed in subsequent stages of development. Furthermore, supporting expectations that early expressed genes are constrained in divergence, we found that embryo stage genes are involved in a higher mean number of interactions as compared to later stages. We noted that the accelerated divergence of genes in the adult stage is explained by those expressed specifically in the male gonads, whose divergence is driven by positive selection. In addition, accelerated gonadal gene divergence occurs only in the adult stage, suggesting that the effects of selection are observed primarily at the stages during which they are expected occur. Finally, we also found a significant correlation between temporal specificity of gene expression and evolutionary rate, supporting expectations that genes with ubiquitous expression are under stronger constraint

  3. Polarimetric signatures indicative of severe storm development - the Pentecost event 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troemel, Silke; Diederich, Malte; Evaristo, Raquel; Ryzhkov, Alexander; Simmer, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    The 2014 Pentecost weekend storms in Europe were a series of severe supercell storms which followed a heatwave in early June 2014, resulting from a Spanish plume synoptic weather pattern. Outbreaks of severe weather were reported from these storm developments with the worst damages occurring over the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia on 9 June, where the storm was described as one of the most violent in decades by the German weather service (DWD). During this event six fatalities, wind gusts up to 150km/h, hail and a flash flood in Düsseldorf has been reported. Monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather using weather radars of shorter wavelength (X- and C-bands) requires special methods, i.e. anomalous high attenuation and differential attenuation due to very large raindrops originating from melting large hail has to be investigated and corrected. During the Pentecost event a record breaking ZDR bias of up to -25dB has been observed. Different strategies for reliable attenuation correction and rainfall estimation for this extreme event are explored and will be presented. A national 3D composite of polarimetric moments covering Germany with 1km horizontal, 250m vertical, and 5 minutes temporal resolution has been generated. 10 C-band radars from the DWD radar network, recently upgraded to polarimetry, have been included. Meanie3D, a 3D scale space tracking algorithm, is applied to the composite to investigate the magnitudes and temporal development of the 3 fundamental steps of a storms lifecycle: 1) high values of differential reflectivity ZDR aloft first indicate a developing cell, 2) ZDR-columns (these are vertical columns of high differential reflectivity) then indicate the updraft zone of a cell in the mature state. The vertical extent of the ZDR-column is thus a measure of the strength of the updraft and for the ensuing rainfall enhancement. 3) The very first big drops reach the surface before the most intense rain begins. This is reflected by the

  4. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  5. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four channel hyperplane to discriminate water from nonwater was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scaner (MSS) scenes and matching same/next day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes varied in sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 deg. The 28 matching air photo frames contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant, was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7% of the water pixels and 98.6% of the nonwater pixels. The discriminant detected 91.3% of the 414 water bodies over 10 acres in surface area, and misclassified as water 36 groups of contiguous nonwater pixels.

  6. Development and preparation of lead-containing paint films and diagnostic test materials.

    PubMed

    Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William; Sorrell, Kristen; Haas, Curtis; Winstead, Wayne; McCombs, Michelle; Brown, Gordon; Salmons, Cynthia; Harper, Sharon L

    2012-05-01

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children's health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnostic testing materials that provide the analytical challenges of real-world paints. To this end, 31 different types of paint test materials were developed and prepared. Preparation of the materials included development of lead-containing paint films yielding an overall relative standard error for one individual test sample being less than 10%. The 31 diagnostic test materials prepared with these paint films included two lead pigments; lead concentrations from nominally 0 to 2.0 mg lead/cm(2) (0 to 5% lead by weight); overlayers of both "lead-free," oil-based and water-based paints; Al, Ba, and Mg as potential chemical interferents; red and black potential color interferents; and substrates of wood, metal, masonry, and plaster. These materials challenge each step in method development and evaluation, including paint sample collection and preparation, lead extraction, and measurement of solubilized lead. When the materials were used to test performance of a new lead-in-paint testing method based on extraction using a rotor/stator method and measurement using turbidimetry, the results agreed to within ±20% of the expected lead values for 30 out of 31 of the diagnostic test materials, thereby demonstrating their levels of quality and utility.

  7. Cytokine response signatures in disease progression and development of severe clinical outcomes for leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Reis, Eliana A G; Hagan, José E; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Montgomery, Ruth R; Shaw, Albert C; Ko, Albert I; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2013-01-01

    The role of the immune response in influencing leptospirosis clinical outcomes is not yet well understood. We hypothesized that acute-phase serum cytokine responses may play a role in disease progression, risk for death, and severe pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome (SPHS). We performed a case-control study design to compare cytokine profiles in patients with mild and severe forms of leptospirosis. Among patients hospitalized with severe disease, we compared those with fatal and nonfatal outcomes. During active outpatient and hospital-based surveillance we prospectively enrolled 172 patients, 23 with mild disease (outpatient) and 149 with severe leptospirosis (hospitalized). Circulating concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at the time of patient presentation were measured using a multiplex bead array assay. Concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17A, and TNF-α were significantly higher (P<0.05) in severe disease compared to mild disease. Among severe patients, levels of IL-6 (P<0.001), IL-8 (P = 0.0049) and IL-10 (P<0.001), were higher in fatal compared to non-fatal cases. High levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were independently associated (P<0.05) with case fatality after adjustment for age and days of symptoms. IL-6 levels were higher (P = 0.0519) among fatal cases who developed SPHS than among who did not. This study shows that severe cases of leptospirosis are differentiated from mild disease by a "cytokine storm" process, and that IL-6 and IL-10 may play an immunopathogenic role in the development of life-threatening outcomes in human leptospirosis.

  8. Development of a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves.

    PubMed

    Bellino, Claudio; Arnaudo, Fabrizio; Biolatti, Cristina; Borrelli, Antonio; Gianella, Paola; Maurella, Cristiana; Zabaldano, Giuseppe; Cagnasso, Aurelio; D'Angelo, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To develop a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves. Prospective cross-sectional study. 148 Piedmontese calves (38 calves in preliminary experiments; 83 diarrheic calves and 27 healthy control calves in the primary experiment). Physical examination was performed and a standard data collection form was completed for each calf. Blood samples were obtained and submitted for evaluation of acid-base balance, performance of a CBC, and measurement of electrolyte and total protein concentrations. Severe metabolic acidosis (extracellular base excess more negative than -10 mmol/L) was associated with abnormal mental status, delayed or absent suckle reflex, abnormal posture or gait, enophthalmos, and cold oral mucosal membranes. Clinical signs associated with severe metabolic acidosis were arranged into a grid to create a diagnostic diagram. Sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic diagram for the prediction of severe metabolic acidosis were 88% and 79%, respectively. Use of the diagnostic diagram may aid differentiation between severe and nonsevere acidosis patterns as determined on the basis of clinical signs.

  9. INCLEN diagnostic tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (INDT-ADHD): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sharmila; Aneja, Satinder; Russell, Paul S S; Gulati, Sheffali; Deshmukh, Vaishali; Sagar, Rajesh; Silberberg, Donald; Bhutani, Vinod K; Pinto, Jennifer M; Durkin, Maureen; Pandey, Ravindra M; Nair, M K C; Arora, Narendra K

    2014-06-01

    To develop and validate INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (INDT-ADHD). Diagnostic test evaluation by cross sectional design. Tertiary care pediatric centers. 156 children aged 65-117 months. After randomization, INDT-ADHD and Connors 3 Parent Rating Scale (C3PS) were administered, followed by an expert evaluation by DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria. Psychometric evaluation of diagnostic accuracy, validity (construct, criterion and convergent) and internal consistency. INDT-ADHD had 18 items that quantified symptoms and impairment. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was identified in 57, 87 and 116 children by expert evaluation, INDT-ADHD and C3PS, respectively. Psychometric parameters of INDT-ADHD for differentiating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and normal children were: sensitivity 87.7%, specificity 97.2%, positive predictive value 98.0% and negative predictive value 83.3%, whereas for differentiating from other neuro-developmental disorders were 87.7%, 42.9%, 58.1% and 79.4%, respectively. Internal consistency was 0.91. INDT-ADHD has a 4-factor structure explaining 60.4% of the variance. Convergent validity with Conner's Parents Rating Scale was moderate (r =0.73, P= 0.001). INDT-ADHD is suitable for diagnosing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Indian children between the ages of 6 to 9 years.

  10. Significant roadblocks exist in developing sputum sample libraries for clinical validation of novel in vitro diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Dollow, Joshua M; Green, Justin A

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing rise of multiresistant pathogens, reliable, cost-effective, and novel diagnostics are urgently required by clinicians and clinical trialists to diagnose conditions such as respiratory tract infections to enable rational antimicrobial choice and enhance clinical outcomes. However, during product development, validation of these in vitro diagnostic devices, a key regulatory hurdle, requires sputum samples in large numbers. The Rapid Point-of-Care test Platform for Infectious Diseases (RAPP-ID) consortium is tasked with producing point of care test (POCT) platforms for rapid diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis and blood stream infections. Validation of diagnostic platforms would ideally use well-characterized samples in a sputum library taken from a range of clinical settings to allow for a wide panel of pathogens to be assessed. These samples would be stored in specific stable conditions (monitored temperature, specific medium) until required for validation. Therefore we reviewed the current literature for details of storage conditions of sputum samples and for previous validation studies of other diagnostic tests using this methodology. However, we conclude that little data exists, and thus the acquisition and successful storage of good quality clinical samples are major roadblocks in the validation of novel POCT platforms, and that while not without limitations, spiked sputum samples appear the best solution until sputum library laboratory techniques allowing careful preservation of pathogens are improved. PMID:24489460

  11. Recent developments in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) diagnostics using quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Geißler, Daniel; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2016-07-01

    The exceptional photophysical properties and the nanometric dimensions of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QD) have strongly attracted the bioanalytical community over the last approximately 20 y. In particular, the integration of QDs in the analysis of biological components and interactions, and the related diagnostics using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), have allowed researchers to significantly improve and diversify fluorescence-based biosensing. In this TRENDS article, we review some recent developments in QD-FRET biosensing that have implemented this technology in electronic consumer products, multiplexed analysis, and detection without light excitation for diagnostic applications. In selected examples of smartphone-based imaging, single- and multistep FRET, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy, and bio/chemiluminescence detection of QDs used as both FRET donors and acceptors, we highlight the advantages of QD-based FRET biosensing for multiplexed and sensitive diagnostics. Graphical Abstract Quantum dots (QDs) can be applied as donors and/or acceptors for Förster resonance energy transfer- (FRET-) based biosensing for multiplexed and sensitive diagnostics in various assay formats.

  12. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  13. Advanced spectral signature discrimination algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Cao, Wenjie; Samat, Alim

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the task of hyperspectral signature analysis. Hyperspectral signature analysis has been studied a lot in literature and there has been a lot of different algorithms developed which endeavors to discriminate between hyperspectral signatures. There are many approaches for performing the task of hyperspectral signature analysis. Binary coding approaches like SPAM and SFBC use basic statistical thresholding operations to binarize a signature which are then compared using Hamming distance. This framework has been extended to techniques like SDFC wherein a set of primate structures are used to characterize local variations in a signature together with the overall statistical measures like mean. As we see such structures harness only local variations and do not exploit any covariation of spectrally distinct parts of the signature. The approach of this research is to harvest such information by the use of a technique similar to circular convolution. In the approach we consider the signature as cyclic by appending the two ends of it. We then create two copies of the spectral signature. These three signatures can be placed next to each other like the rotating discs of a combination lock. We then find local structures at different circular shifts between the three cyclic spectral signatures. Texture features like in SDFC can be used to study the local structural variation for each circular shift. We can then create different measure by creating histogram from the shifts and thereafter using different techniques for information extraction from the histograms. Depending on the technique used different variant of the proposed algorithm are obtained. Experiments using the proposed technique show the viability of the proposed methods and their performances as compared to current binary signature coding techniques.

  14. Optical signature modeling at FOI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelsson, C.; Hermansson, P.; Nyberg, S.; Persson, A.; Persson, R.; Sjökvist, S.; Winzell, T.

    2006-09-01

    Computer programs for prediction of optical signatures of targets and backgrounds are valuable tools for signature assessment and signature management. Simulations make it possible to study optical signatures from targets and backgrounds under conditions where measured signatures are missing or incomplete. Several applications may be identified: Increase understanding, Design and assessment of low signature concepts, Assessment of tactics, Design and assessment of sensor systems, Duel simulations of EW, and Signature awareness. FOI (the Swedish Defence Research Agency) study several methods and modeling programs for detailed physically based prediction of the optical signature of targets in backgrounds. The most important commercial optical signature prediction programs available at FOI are CAMEO-SIM, RadThermIR, and McCavity. The main tasks of the work have been: Assembly of a database of input data, Gain experience of different computer programs, In-house development of complementary algorithms and programs, and Validation and assessment of the simulation results. This paper summarizes the activities and the results obtained. Some application examples will be given as well as results from validations. The test object chosen is the MTLB which is a tracked armored vehicle. It has been used previously at FOI for research purposes and therefore measurement data is available.

  15. A linear electrostatic accelerator for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinenian, N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Sio, H.; Waugh, C.; Orozco, D.; Penna, J.; Rinderknecht, H.; Rosenberg, M.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Ruiz, C.; Sangster, T.; Leeper, R.; Kilkenny, J.

    2013-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates of about 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  16. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  17. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 2 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four-channel hyperplane to discriminate water from non-water was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scanner (MSS) scences and matching same/next-day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes over upstate New York, eastern Washington, Montana and Louisiana taken between May and October 1978 varied in Sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 degrees. The 28 matching air photo frames selected for analysis contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. Approximately 1300 pixels, half of them non-edge water pixels and half non-water pixels spectrally close to water, were labelled. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels, giving more weight to those pixels that were difficult to discriminate. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7 percent of the water pixels and 98.6 percent of the non-water pixels.

  18. DNA methylation signature of long noncoding RNA genes during human pre-implantation embryonic development

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoli; Han, Shubiao; Ye, Hong; Huang, Guoning

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation have crucial roles in regulating the expression of developmental genes during mammalian pre-implantation embryonic development (PED). However, the DNA methylation dynamic pattern of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) genes, one type of epigenetic regulators, in human PED have not yet been demonstrated. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNA genes in human PED based on public reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) data. We observed that both lncRNA and protein-coding genes complete the major demethylation wave at the 2-cell stage, whereas the promoters of lncRNA genes show higher methylation level than protein-coding genes during PED. Similar methylation distribution was observed across the transcription start sites (TSS) of lncRNA and protein-coding genes, contrary to previous observations in tissues. Besides, not only the gamete-specific differentially methylated regions (G-DMRs) but also the embryonic developmental-specific DMRs (D-DMRs) showed more paternal bias, especially in promoter regions in lncRNA genes. Moreover, coding-non-coding gene co-expression network analysis of genes containing D-DMRs suggested that lncRNA genes involved in PED are associated with gene expression regulation through several means, such as mRNA splicing, translational regulation and mRNA catabolic. This firstly provides study provides the methylation profiles of lncRNA genes in human PED and improves the understanding of lncRNA genes involvement in human PED. PMID:28915634

  19. Captive dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, develop signature whistles that match acoustic features of human-made model sounds.

    PubMed

    Miksis, Jennifer L; Tyack, Peter L; Buck, John R

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a cross-sectional study testing whether dolphins that are born in aquarium pools where they hear trainers' whistles develop whistles that are less frequency modulated than those of wild dolphins. Ten pairs of captive and wild dolphins were matched for age and sex. Twenty whistles were sampled from each dolphin. Several traditional acoustic features (total duration, duration minus any silent periods, etc.) were measured for each whistle, in addition to newly defined flatness parameters: total flatness ratio (percentage of whistle scored as unmodulated), and contiguous flatness ratio (duration of longest flat segment divided by total duration). The durations of wild dolphin whistles were found to be significantly longer, and the captive dolphins had whistles that were less frequency modulated and more like the trainers' whistles. Using a standard t-test, the captive dolphin had a significantly higher total flatness ratio in 9/10 matched pairs, and in 8/10 pairs the captive dolphin had significantly higher contiguous flatness ratios. These results suggest that captive-born dolphins can incorporate features of artificial acoustic models made by humans into their signature whistles.

  20. Summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from collapse of the World Trade Center buildings.

    PubMed

    Lowers, Heather A; Meeker, Gregory P; Lioy, Paul J; Lippmann, Morton

    2009-03-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001, caused lower Manhattan and adjacent areas to be covered in millimeters to centimeters of dust. WTC dust penetrated into indoor spaces, and public health concerns remain regarding exposure to possible residual dust in the affected areas. The goal of the studies outlined in this review was to determine which, if any, components of the bulk WTC dust are sufficiently above typical background dust levels in New York City to develop an analytical method to screen for the component(s). Components of the <150-microm-size fraction of the dust are gypsum, phases compatible with crushed concrete, man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs), silica, lead, chrysotile asbestos, and other materials. Slag wool was the most common WTC MMVF, whereas soda-lime glass and rock wool were minor to trace constituents. Most background samples also contained gypsum, phases compatible with concrete, and MMVF. However, the proportions of the various MMVF in background samples are typically unlike those characteristic of bulk WTC dust. Results indicate that slag wool can be used as a signature marker to identify areas that contain potential residual WTC dust contamination at concentrations that are less than average background levels for the material.

  1. Summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from collapse of the World Trade Center buildings

    PubMed Central

    Lowers, Heather A; Meeker, Gregory P; Lioy, Paul J; Lippmann, Morton

    2014-01-01

    The collapse of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on September 11, 2001, caused lower Manhattan and adjacent areas to be covered in millimeters to centimeters of dust. WTC dust penetrated into indoor spaces, and public health concerns remain regarding exposure to possible residual dust in the affected areas. The goal of the studies outlined in this review was to determine which, if any, components of the bulk WTC dust are sufficiently above typical background dust levels in New York City to develop an analytical method to screen for the component(s). Components of the <150-µm-size fraction of the dust are gypsum, phases compatible with crushed concrete, man-made vitreous fibers (MMVFs), silica, lead, chrysotile asbestos, and other materials. Slag wool was the most common WTC MMVF, whereas soda-lime glass and rock wool were minor to trace constituents. Most background samples also contained gypsum, phases compatible with concrete, and MMVF. However, the proportions of the various MMVF in background samples are typically unlike those characteristic of bulk WTC dust. Results indicate that slag wool can be used as a signature marker to identify areas that contain potential residual WTC dust contamination at concentrations that are less than average background levels for the material. PMID:18478046

  2. Overview of optics, photon diagnostics and experimental instruments at SACLA: development, operation and scientific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tono, Kensuke; Togashi, Tadashi; Inubushi, Yuichi; Katayama, Tetsuo; Owada, Shigeki; Yabuuchi, Toshinori; Kon, Akira; Inoue, Ichiro; Osaka, Taito; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Yabashi, Makina

    2017-05-01

    This article reports the progress in the beamlines at the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free electron LAser (SACLA). The beamline optical and diagnostics systems have been upgraded to further accelerate the scientific applications of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs). End-station instruments have also been developed to provide user-friendly experimental platforms which allow efficient data collection. Along with the upgrades of beamlines and experimental stations, we have established reliable and efficient procedures of the beamline operation.

  3. Crustal signatures of the tectonic development of the North American midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlannan, Austin J.; Gilbert, Hersh

    2016-01-01

    The stable eastern portion of the North American continent offers an excellent environment to study the tectonic development of intra-continental structures. The midcontinent of North America formed by the accretion of Proterozoic terranes, and has since experienced episodes of deformation during the subsidence of the Illinois Basin and uplift of the Ozark Plateau. Rifting also initiated in eastern North America, but extension did not continue and arms of failed rifts extend across the region. The New Madrid Seismic Zone, situated within a portion of the failed Reelfoot Rift, represents an active zone of intraplate seismicity. Analyzing the structure of the crust and upper mantle within the midcontinent will therefore provide insight into the factors that lead to intraplate deformation. Using data from over 180 Transportable Array seismic stations, we calculate receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle of the midcontinent. At close to 40 km thick, the crust of the New Madrid Seismic Zone is thinner than in the surrounding areas outside of the Reelfoot Rift and Rough Creek Graben. The Illinois Basin cannot be characterized by a single crustal structure, as crust near 50 km thick in the central portion of the basin thins to between 40 and 45 km thick towards the northern and southern portions of the basin. Discontinuities within the crust and upper mantle are prominent in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone and mark locations of crustal modification and underplating. Comparing changes in crustal structure to the distribution of Bouguer gravity anomalies, the presence of positive gravity anomalies suggests that higher density crust plays a role in maintaining low surface elevations within the Reelfoot Rift. Conversely, a negative gravity anomaly in an area of thinner crust within the Ozark Plateau supports the need for low-density crustal material to influence the uplift of the plateau.

  4. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Jian; Yu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Dong

    2008-02-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  5. Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite: Asset Fault Signature Database

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2015-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: (1) Diagnostic Advisor, (2) Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, (3) Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and (4) Remaining Useful Life Database. The paper focuses on the AFS Database of the FW-PHM Suite, which is used to catalog asset fault signatures. A fault signature is a structured representation of the information that an expert would use to first detect and then verify the occurrence of a specific type of fault. The fault signatures developed to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers are described in the paper. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  6. Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

  7. Analytical determination and detection of individual odor signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Ryan M.; Grigsby, Claude C.

    2012-06-01

    Despite the fact that therapeutic approaches and diagnostic capabilities have made tremendous advances in the past few decades, the associated costs with these treatments continue to rise. This fact, coupled with a rapidly aging population, threatens to cripple our nation's capability to deliver quality healthcare at reasonable and affordable price points. The research community must therefore look to implementing transformational approaches that revolutionize both the way we diagnose and treat patients. Emerging multi-disciplinary research in the fields of molecular biology, systems biology, and solid-state sensing is poised to make such a contribution. Here we highlight key critical insights in the field of human derived volatile organic compound (VOC) signatures and the potential for non-invasive diagnostics. With the aim of developing future VOC-based diagnostics, we identify some critical gaps in our knowledge of how these often complex signatures are influenced by genetics, physiological state, and population variance. Also, we highlight a few canine and solid-state sensing strategies to demonstrate that VOC-based breath diagnostics are feasible and we suggest a bio-inspired approach for optimizing sensor architectures. VOC based diagnostics should drastically enhance early detection of multiple diseases, increase the time for therapeutic intervention, provide the capability to monitor in real-time the efficacy of therapeutic treatments, provide the context of emerging pathological outbreaks across participating populations, and potentially decrease mortality associated with many diseases by orders of magnitude.

  8. Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS. An Integrated, Prioritized Work Plan for Diagnostic Development and Maintenance and Supporting Capability

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    This Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS is an integrated prioritized work plan for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), program that is independent of individual National Security Enterprise Laboratories’ (Labs) requests or specific Subprograms being supported. This prioritized work plan is influenced by national priorities presented in the Predictive Capability Framework (PCF) and other strategy documents (Primary and Secondary Assessment Technologies Plans and the Plutonium Experiments Plan). This document satisfies completion criteria for FY 2010 MRT milestone #3496: Document an integrated, prioritized work plan for diagnostic development, maintenance, and supporting capability. This document is an update of the 3-year NNSS plan written a year ago, September 21, 2009, to define and understand Lab requests for diagnostic implementation. This plan is consistent with Lab interpretations of the PCF, Primary Assessment Technologies, and Plutonium Experiment plans.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  10. The development, evaluation and performance of molecular diagnostics for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-01-01

    The unique pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) poses several barriers to the development of accurate diagnostics: a) the establishment of life-long latency by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) after primary infection confounds the development of classical antibody or antigen based assays; b) our poor understanding of the molecular pathways that influence progression from latent to active disease; c) the intracellular nature of M.tb infection in tissues means that M.tb and/or its components, are not readily detectable in peripheral specimens; and d) the variable presence of M.tb bacilli in specimens from patients with extrapulmonary TB or children. The literature on the current portfolio of molecular diagnostics tests for TB is reviewed here and the developmental pipeline is summarized. Also reviewed are data from recently published operational research on the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and discussed are the lessons that can be taken forward for the design of studies to evaluate the impact of TB diagnostics.

  11. Development of phosphor imaging diagnostics for particle energization and field line mapping studies in MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.

    2014-10-01

    The energization of particles by magnetic reconnection is one of its most important roles in space and astrophysical plasmas. We present results from phosphor-screen imaging diagnostics for the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment, developed to measure the location and timing of particle energization by magnetic reconnection and to map field lines. Phosphor-based imaging diagnostics have previously been to study plasma dynamics in in non-neutral plasmas and low-temperature linear machines. In MRX, movable, phosphor-coated probes are scanned across the current sheet, and phosphor emission is imaged on a fast camera acquiring at typically 500 k frames/sec. Optical filters isolate the phosphor emission from line emission in the plasma. The energy sensitivity of the probe is determined by the characteristics of the phosphor and bias of the probe with respect to the plasma. We also present the development of an e-beam diagnostic to directly map the magnetic field line structure and possibly to measure the parallel electric field and/or cross-field electron transport. A modulated electron beam from a hot tungsten filament will be detected downstream by Langmuir probes and the phosphor imager.

  12. Multislice CT angiography in coronary artery disease: Technical developments, radiation dose and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (CT) angiography has been increasingly used in the detection and diagnosis of coronary artery disease because of its rapid technical evolution from the early generation of 4-slice CT scanners to the latest models such as 64-slice, 256-slice and 320-slice CT scanners. Technical developments of multislice CT imaging enable improved diagnostic value in the detection of coronary artery disease, and this indicates that multislice CT can be used as a reliable less-invasive alternative to invasive coronary angiography in selected patients. In addition, multislice CT angiography has played a significant role in the prediction of disease progression and cardiac events. Despite promising results reported in the literature, multislice CT has the disadvantage of having a high radiation dose which could contribute to the radiation-induced malignancy. A variety of strategies have been currently undertaken to reduce the radiation dose associated with multislice CT coronary angiography while in the meantime acquiring diagnostic images. In this article, the author will review the technical developments, radiation dose associated with multislice CT coronary angiography, and strategies to reduce radiation dose. The diagnostic and prognostic value of multislice CT angiography in coronary artery disease is briefly discussed, and future directions of multislice CT angiography in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease will also be highlighted. PMID:21160611

  13. Development of the Zebra load region for increased capability plasma diagnostics and improved Leopard laser access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanovitskiy, Alexey; Presura, R.; Ivanov, V. V.; Haboub, A.; Plachaty, C.; Kindel, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    A new geometry for the load area in the Zebra (1MA pulse generator) is developed. It will form the basis for future experiments requiring Leopard (1057nm, 50TW laser) to Zebra coupling and give extended capability to z-pinch diagnostics. This required the development of a new current return, which allows laser access and installation of the OD 4'' parabolic mirror for the x-ray radiography, isochoric heating and magnetized plasma experiments, and accommodates wire-array z-pinch loads, to which the laser may then be coupled. In addition, this configuration allows diagnostics access close to the plasma, leading to a significant increase of the spatial resolution for imaging of z-pinches, as well as the photon flux in imaging and spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas. These diagnostics will allow coupling of the Leopard beam for x-ray laser probing of the pinch plasma and we will test point-projection x-ray backlighting of the pinch plasma.

  14. Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kunio

    2006-07-07

    Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time.

  15. Development of the gas-puff imaging diagnostic in the TEXTOR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Shesterikov, I.; Xu, Y.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Schweer, B.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-05-15

    Gas puff imaging (GPI) [S. J. Zweben, D. P. Stotler et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 1981 (2002); R. J. Maqueda, G. A. Wurden et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2020 (2003)] is a powerful diagnostic that permits a two-dimensional measurement of turbulence in the edge region of a fusion plasma and is based on the observation of the local emission of a neutral gas, actively puffed into the periphery of the plasma. The developed in-vessel GPI telescope observes the emission from the puffed gas along local (at the puff) magnetic field lines. The GPI telescope is specially designed to operate in severe TEXTOR conditions and can be treated as a prototype for the GPI systems on next generation machines. Also, the gas puff nozzle is designed to have a lower divergence of the gas flow than previous GPI diagnostics. The resulting images show poloidally and radially propagating structures, which are associated with plasma blobs. We demonstrate that the local gas puff does not disturb plasma properties. Our results indicate also that the neutral gas emission intensity is more sensitive to the electron density than the electron temperature. Here, we present implementation details of the GPI system on TEXTOR and discuss some design and diagnostic issues related to the development of GPI systems in general.

  16. Development of an On-board Failure Diagnostics and Prognostics System for Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Osipov, Vyatcheslav V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Uckun, Serdar

    2009-01-01

    We develop a case breach model for the on-board fault diagnostics and prognostics system for subscale solid-rocket boosters (SRBs). The model development was motivated by recent ground firing tests, in which a deviation of measured time-traces from the predicted time-series was observed. A modified model takes into account the nozzle ablation, including the effect of roughness of the nozzle surface, the geometry of the fault, and erosion and burning of the walls of the hole in the metal case. The derived low-dimensional performance model (LDPM) of the fault can reproduce the observed time-series data very well. To verify the performance of the LDPM we build a FLUENT model of the case breach fault and demonstrate a good agreement between theoretical predictions based on the analytical solution of the model equations and the results of the FLUENT simulations. We then incorporate the derived LDPM into an inferential Bayesian framework and verify performance of the Bayesian algorithm for the diagnostics and prognostics of the case breach fault. It is shown that the obtained LDPM allows one to track parameters of the SRB during the flight in real time, to diagnose case breach fault, and to predict its values in the future. The application of the method to fault diagnostics and prognostics (FD&P) of other SRB faults modes is discussed.

  17. Diagnostics and results from coaxial plasma gun development for the PLX- α project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, A.; Brockington, S.; Cruz, E.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2016-10-01

    We present results from the diagnostics used during development of the contoured gap coaxial plasma guns for the PLX- α project at LANL. Plasma-jet diagnostics include fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for total plasmoid momentum, and interferometry for line integrated density. Deflectometry will be used for line integrated perpendicular density gradients. Time-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector and time-integrated survey spectroscopy are used for measurements of velocity and temperature, as well as impurities. We will also use a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry, and time-integrated imaging for overall light emission. Experimental results are compared to the desired target parameters for the plasma jets (up to n 2 ×1016cm-3 , v 50km / s , mass 5gm , radius = 4cm , and length 10cm). This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA Program.

  18. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  19. Development of Enhanced, Permanently-Installed, Neutron Activation Diagnostic Hardware for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E. R.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Carrera, J. A.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Neutron activation diagnostics are baseline neutron yield and flux measurement instruments at the National Ignition Facility. Up to 19 activation samples are distributed around the target chamber. Currently the samples must be removed to be counted, creating a 1-2 week data turn-around time and considerable labor costs. An improved system consisting of a commercially available LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and Power over Ethernet electronics is under development. A machined zirconium-702 cap over the detector is the activation medium to measure the 90Zr(n,2n)89Zr reaction. The detectors are located at the current neutron activation diagnostic sites and monitored remotely. Because they collect data in real time yield values are returned within a few hours after a NIF shot.

  20. Development and Testing of a Field Diagnostic Assay for Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus

    PubMed Central

    Baron, J; Fishbourne, E; Couacy-Hyman, E; Abubakar, M; Jones, B A; Frost, L; Herbert, R; Chibssa, T R; van't Klooster, G; Afzal, M; Ayebazibwe, C; Toye, P; Bashiruddin, J; Baron, M D

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) under field conditions. The diagnostic assay has been tested in the laboratory and also under field conditions in Ivory Coast, Pakistan, Ethiopia and Uganda. The test is carried out on a superficial swab sample (ocular or nasal) and showed a sensitivity of 84% relative to PCR. The specificity was 95% over all nasal and ocular samples. The test detected as little as 103 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious doses) of cell culture-grown virus, and detected virus isolates representing all four known genetic lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus. Virus could be detected in swabs from animals as early as 4 days post-infection, at a time when clinical signs were minimal. Feedback from field trials was uniformly positive, suggesting that this diagnostic tool may be useful for current efforts to control the spread of PPR. PMID:25073647

  1. Using standardized diagnostic instruments to classify children with autism in the study to explore early development.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E; Moody, Eric J; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E

    2015-05-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) to classify children with ASD, (2) examine psychometric properties of different ASD classification methods, including the SEED method that incorporates rules for resolving ADI-R and ADOS discordance, and (3) determine whether restricted interests and repetitive behaviors were noted for children who had instrument discordance resolved using ADI-R social and communication scores. Results support the utility of SEED criteria when well-defined groups of children are an important clinical or research outcome.

  2. Newcastle disease: progress and gaps in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Afonso, C L; Miller, P J

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease (ND) is a contagious disease of birds that can have severe economic consequences for poultry producers, including a serious impact on the international trade of poultry and eggs. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates are also called avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 isolates, but only infection with virulent NDV (vNDV) causes the disease. Virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) isolates are distributed worldwide and have a high capacity to mutate, allowing the development of multiple vNDV genotypes evolving simultaneously at different locations. Large gaps in existing knowledge in the areas of epidemiology and evolution limit the possibilities to control the disease. Recurrent infection of poultry and wild birds allows the maintenance of a reservoir for the viruses; however, the role of wild birds and poultry in vNDV evolution is largely unknown. In the area of diagnostics, the performance of fast and accurate diagnostics methods is often affected by the evolution of viral genomes. Therefore, there is a need for the validation of multiple recently developed experimental tests and a need to develop additional fast and inexpensive diagnostic tests to be used in the field. In the area of vaccination, the development of inexpensive thermostable NDV vaccines and the development of vaccines capable of preventing viral replication are the highest priorities for endemic countries. In countries considered free of vNDV the development of low- cost vaccines that produce minimal vaccine reactions to prevent decreased productivity are higher priorities. Worldwide, better strategies that replace the culling of infected birds are needed to control outbreaks.

  3. Development of a diagnostic rule for identifying radiographic osteoarthritis in people with first metatarsophalangeal joint pain.

    PubMed

    Zammit, G V; Munteanu, S E; Menz, H B

    2011-08-01

    To develop a diagnostic rule for the identification of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA) of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) in people with first MTPJ pain. Symptoms and clinical observations were documented in 181 people with first MTPJ pain, and the presence of OA was confirmed using plain film radiography. Diagnostic test statistics were calculated to assess the ability of symptoms and clinical observations to identify radiographic OA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to develop two diagnostic models: a statistically optimal model and a simplified clinical model. Multivariate logistic regression identified pain duration greater than 25 months, the presence of a dorsal exostosis, hard-end feel, crepitus and less than 64° of first MTPJ dorsiflexion to be significantly associated with radiographic OA. The statistically optimal model and clinical model performed similarly, with the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves being 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.93) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.93), respectively, and the percentage of cases correctly classified being 86.2 and 85.6, respectively. A cut-off score of ≥3 using the clinical model resulted in a sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 71%, accuracy of 84%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.07 and negative likelihood ratio of 0.17. In people with first MTPJ pain, a model consisting of five clinical observations can accurately identify the presence or absence of radiographic OA. The application of this diagnostic rule may assist clinical decision making and potentially reduce the need for referral for radiographs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of a Fluorescence Polarization-Based Diagnostic Assay for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Tencza, Sarah Burroughs; Islam, Kazi R.; Kalia, Vandana; Nasir, Mohammad S.; Jolley, Michael E.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    The control of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections of horses has been over the past 20 years based primarily on the identification and elimination of seropositive horses, predominantly by a standardized agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay in centralized reference laboratories. This screening for EIAV-seropositive horses has been to date hindered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic format that can be easily employed in the field. We describe here the development of a rapid solution-phase assay for the presence of serum antibodies to EIAV based on fluorescence polarization (FP) (patent pending). Peptides derived from antigenic regions of EIAV core and envelope proteins were initially screened for their utility as probes in an FP assay to select the best peptide antigen candidates. The FP assay was optimized to detect the presence of EIAV-specific antibodies by a change in the FP of a fluorescein-labeled immunoreactive peptide diagnostic antigen. The most sensitive and specific peptide probe was a peptide corresponding to the immunodominant region of the EIAV transmembrane protein, gp45. This probe was tested for its reactivity in the optimized FP assay with 151 AGID-positive horse sera and 106 AGID-negative serum samples. The results of these studies demonstrated that the FP assay reactivity correlated with reported AGID results in 106 of 106 negative serum samples (100% specificity) and in 135 of 151 positive serum samples (89.4% sensitivity). The FP assay was also found to have a very low background reactivity and to readily detect antibodies produced early in infection (≤3 weeks postinfection). The developed EIAV FP assay is rapid (5 to 20 min) and simple to perform and is equally suitable for use both in the field and in the diagnostic laboratory, thus providing the basis of an improved commercial diagnostic assay for EIAV infection of horses. PMID:10790112

  5. Development of a fluorescence polarization-based diagnostic assay for equine infectious anemia virus.

    PubMed

    Tencza, S B; Islam, K R; Kalia, V; Nasir, M S; Jolley, M E; Montelaro, R C

    2000-05-01

    The control of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infections of horses has been over the past 20 years based primarily on the identification and elimination of seropositive horses, predominantly by a standardized agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) assay in centralized reference laboratories. This screening for EIAV-seropositive horses has been to date hindered by the lack of a rapid diagnostic format that can be easily employed in the field. We describe here the development of a rapid solution-phase assay for the presence of serum antibodies to EIAV based on fluorescence polarization (FP) (patent pending). Peptides derived from antigenic regions of EIAV core and envelope proteins were initially screened for their utility as probes in an FP assay to select the best peptide antigen candidates. The FP assay was optimized to detect the presence of EIAV-specific antibodies by a change in the FP of a fluorescein-labeled immunoreactive peptide diagnostic antigen. The most sensitive and specific peptide probe was a peptide corresponding to the immunodominant region of the EIAV transmembrane protein, gp45. This probe was tested for its reactivity in the optimized FP assay with 151 AGID-positive horse sera and 106 AGID-negative serum samples. The results of these studies demonstrated that the FP assay reactivity correlated with reported AGID results in 106 of 106 negative serum samples (100% specificity) and in 135 of 151 positive serum samples (89.4% sensitivity). The FP assay was also found to have a very low background reactivity and to readily detect antibodies produced early in infection (developed EIAV FP assay is rapid (5 to 20 min) and simple to perform and is equally suitable for use both in the field and in the diagnostic laboratory, thus providing the basis of an improved commercial diagnostic assay for EIAV infection of horses.

  6. An Interferon-Inducible Neutrophil-Driven Blood Transcriptional Signature in Human Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Matthew P. R.; Graham, Christine M.; McNab, Finlay W.; Xu, Zhaohui; Bloch, Susannah A.A.; Oni, Tolu; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Banchereau, Romain; Skinner, Jason; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Quinn, Charles; Blankenship, Derek; Dhawan, Ranju; Cush, John J.; Mejias, Asuncion; Ramilo, Octavio; Kon, Onn M.; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; O'Garra, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and efforts to control TB are hampered by difficulties with diagnosis, prevention and treatment 1,2. Most people infected with M. tuberculosis remain asymptomatic, termed latent TB, with a 10% lifetime risk of developing active TB disease, but current tests cannot identify which individuals will develop disease 3. The immune response to M. tuberculosis is complex and incompletely characterized, hindering development of new diagnostics, therapies and vaccines 4,5. We identified a whole blood 393 transcript signature for active TB in intermediate and high burden settings, correlating with radiological extent of disease and reverting to that of healthy controls following treatment. A subset of latent TB patients had signatures similar to those in active TB patients. We also identified a specific 86-transcript signature that discriminated active TB from other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Modular and pathway analysis revealed that the TB signature was dominated by a neutrophil-driven interferon (IFN)-inducible gene profile, consisting of both IFN-γ and Type I IFNαβ signalling. Comparison with transcriptional signatures in purified cells and flow cytometric analysis, suggest that this TB signature reflects both changes in cellular composition and altered gene expression. Although an IFN signature was also observed in whole blood of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), their complete modular signature differed from TB with increased abundance of plasma cell transcripts. Our studies demonstrate a hitherto under-appreciated role of Type I IFNαβ signalling in TB pathogenesis, which has implications for vaccine and therapeutic development. Our study also provides a broad range of transcriptional biomarkers with potential as diagnostic and prognostic tools to combat the TB epidemic. PMID:20725040

  7. Product Development and Commercialization of Diagnostic or Life Science Products for Scientists and Researchers.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Meghan M

    2017-01-01

    Commercializing a diagnostic or life science product often encompasses different goals than that of research and grant funding. There are several necessary steps, and a strategy needs to be well defined in order to be successful. Product development requires input from and between various groups within a company and, for academia, outside entities. The product development stakeholder groups/entities are research, marketing, development, regulatory, manufacturing, clinical, safety/efficacy, and quality. After initial research and development, much of the work in product development can be outsourced or jointly created using public-private partnerships. This chapter serves as an overview of the product development process and provides a guide to best define a product strategy.

  8. Development of signal analysis method for the motional Stark effect diagnostic on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jia; Lyu, Bo; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Yingying; Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Yongqing; Fan, Chao; Shi, Yuejiang; Wu, Zhenwei; Wan, Baonian

    2017-10-01

    A pilot single-channel Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic has been developed on EAST since 2015. The dual photo-elastic modulators (PEM) were employed to encode the polarization angle into a time-varying signal. The pitch angle was related to the ratio of modulation amplitude at the second harmonic frequency. A digital harmonic analyzer (DHA) technique was developed for extracting the second harmonic amplitude. The results were validated with a hardware phase lock-in amplifier, and is also consistent with the software dual phase-locking algorithm.

  9. Infrared and far-infrared laser development for plasma diagnostics at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Casson, W.H.; Bennett, C.A.; Fletcher, L.K.; Hunter, H.T.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Lee, J.; Ma, C.DH.; Richards, R.K.; Vander Sluis, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Three IR and FIR based diagnostics will be developed ann installed on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) at ORNL. An interferometer operating at 119 mu m will measure plasma density along 14 vertical chords across the plasma cross-section. A small-angle Thomson scattering experiment using a 10.6-mu m pulsed laser will determine the feasibility of measuring alpha particle distribution in a burning plasma. Plans are being developed for installing an FIR-based scattering experiment on ATF to measure density fluctuations. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Development of a toxicogenomics signature for genotoxicity using a dose-optimization and informatics strategy in human cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Hong; Hyduke, Daniel R; Chen, Renxiang; Heard, Pamela; Yauk, Carole L; Aubrecht, Jiri; Fornace, Albert J

    2015-07-01

    The development of in vitro molecular biomarkers to accurately predict toxicological effects has become a priority to advance testing strategies for human health risk assessment. The application of in vitro transcriptomic biomarkers promises increased throughput as well as a reduction in animal use. However, the existing protocols for predictive transcriptional signatures do not establish appropriate guidelines for dose selection or account for the fact that toxic agents may have pleiotropic effects. Therefore, comparison of transcriptome profiles across agents and studies has been difficult. Here we present a dataset of transcriptional profiles for TK6 cells exposed to a battery of well-characterized genotoxic and nongenotoxic chemicals. The experimental conditions applied a new dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in preliminary dose-finding studies. The subsequent microarray-based transcriptomic analyses at the optimized dose revealed responses to the test chemicals that were typically complex, often exhibiting substantial overlap in the transcriptional responses between a variety of the agents making analysis challenging. Using the nearest shrunken centroids method we identified a panel of 65 genes that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. To validate the 65-gene panel as a genomic biomarker of genotoxicity, the gene expression profiles of an additional three well-characterized model agents were analyzed and a case study demonstrating the practical application of this genomic biomarker-based approach in risk assessment was performed to demonstrate its utility in genotoxicity risk assessment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs.

  12. Recent Developments in X-Ray Diagnostics for Cryogenic and Optically Dense Coaxial Rocket Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Christopher D.; Kastengren, Alan L.; Meyer, Terrence R.

    2017-01-01

    The mixing and atomization of propellants is often characterized by optically dense flow fields and complex breakup dynamics. In the development of propulsion systems, the complexity of relevant physics and the range of spatio-temporal scales often makes computational simulation impractical for full scale injector elements; consequently, continued research into improved systems for experimental flow diagnostics is ongoing. One area of non-invasive flow diagnostics which has seen widespread growth is using synchrotron based x-ray diagostics. Over the past 3 years, a series of water and cryogenic based experiments were performed at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Lab, on a NASA in-house designed swirl co-axial rocket injector, designed for operation using liquid oxygen and liquid methane in support of Project Morpheus. A range of techniques, such as x-ray fluorescence and time-averaged radiography were performed providing qualitative and quantitative mass and phase distributions, and were complemented by investigations using time-resolved radiography and white beam imaging, which provided information on breakup and mixing dynamics. Results of these investigations are presented, and conclusions regarding the viability of x-ray based diagnostics are discussed.

  13. Development of laser-based diagnostics for 1-MA z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Wiewior, P.; Presura, R.; Kindel, J. M.; Shevelko, A. P.; Chalyy, O.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Haboub, A.; Altemara, S. D.; Papp, D.; Durmaz, T.

    2009-11-01

    The 50 TW Leopard laser coupled with the 1-MA Zebra generator was used for development of new diagnostics of z-pinch plasmas. Two plasma diagnostics are presented: an x-ray broadband backlighting for z-pinch absorption spectroscopy and parametric two-plasmon decay of the laser beam in dense z-pinch plasma. Implementation of new diagnostics on the Zebra generator and the first results are discussed. The absorption spectroscopy is based on backlighting of z-pinch plasma with a broadband x-ray radiation from a Sm laser plasma. Detailed analysis of the absorption spectra yields the electron temperature and density of z-pinch plasma at the non-radiative stage. The parametric two-plasmon decay of intensive laser radiation generates 3/2φ and 1/2φ harmonics. These harmonics can be used to derive a temperature of z-pinch plasma with the electron density near the quarter of critical plasma density.

  14. Development and application of a diagnostic algorithm for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Belitskaya-Lévy, Ilana; Lu, Ying; Wang, Hui; Engdahl, Brian E; Leuthold, Arthur C; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-01-30

    Intact cognitive functions rely on synchronous neural activity; conversely, alterations in synchrony are thought to underlie psychopathology. We recently demonstrated that anomalies in synchronous neural interactions (SNI) determined by magnetoencephalography represent a putative PTSD biomarker. Here we develop and apply a regression-based diagnostic algorithm to further validate SNI as a PTSD biomarker in 432 veterans (235 controls; 138 pure PTSD; 59 PTSD plus comorbid disorders). Correlation coefficients served as proximities in multidimensional scaling (MDS) to obtain a two-dimensional representation of the data. In addition, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to derive a diagnostic algorithm for PTSD. Performance of this algorithm was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, and specificity in 1000 randomly divided testing and validation datasets and in independent samples. MDS revealed that individuals with PTSD, regardless of comorbid psychiatric conditions, are highly distinct from controls. Similarly, application of the LASSO regression-derived prediction model demonstrated remarkable classification accuracy (AUCs≥0.93 for men, AUC=0.82 for women). Neural functioning in individuals with PTSD, regardless of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, can be used as a diagnostic test to determine patient disease status, further validating SNI as a PTSD biomarker. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Development of a virtual Z{sub eff} diagnostic for the W7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Krychowiak, M.; Dodt, D.; Dreier, H.; Koenig, R.; Wolf, R.

    2008-10-15

    For the W7-X stellarator a diagnostic system for measurement of local Z{sub eff} values from the visible bremsstrahlung continuum is foreseen. The method is based on passive, absolute measurement of the bremsstrahlung intensity along several lines of sight. In order to eliminate the spurious impact of other radiation sources of different spectral intensity distribution than the bremsstrahlung, like the line radiation, it is intended to spectrally resolve the detected radiation, e.g., by use of microspectrometers. The visible bremsstrahlung background can be extracted by making use of the 1/{lambda}{sup 2} dependence of its intensity (expressed in unit W/m{sup 3} sr nm) in the high temperature plasmas by using Bayesian data analysis techniques. In a second step, the local values of Z{sub eff} as a function of the effective plasma radius are derived by inversion, using different regularization methods, of the line-integrated bremsstrahlung signals with the knowledge of the magnetic flux surfaces. Inversion of the full model based on statistical methods allows taking into account all conceivable uncertainties accompanying Z{sub eff} measurement and provides uncertainties of the local Z{sub eff} values and valuable information on other uncertain parameters of the model. In this paper we show the first steps in developing a virtual Z{sub eff} diagnostic for W7-X which allows the optimization of the statistical model as well as of the future diagnostic setup.

  16. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  17. The development of the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental and Behavioural Disorders

    PubMed Central

    First, Michael B; Reed, Geoffrey M; Hyman, Steven E; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization is in the process of preparing the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), scheduled for presentation to the World Health Assembly for approval in 2017. The International Advisory Group for the Revision of the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders made improvement in clinical utility an organizing priority for the revision. The uneven nature of the diagnostic information included in the ICD-10 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG), especially with respect to differential diagnosis, is a major shortcoming in terms of its usefulness to clinicians. Consequently, ICD-11 Working Groups were asked to collate diagnostic information about the disorders under their purview using a standardized template (referred to as a “Content Form”). Using the information provided in the Content Forms as source material, the ICD-11 CDDG are being developed with a uniform structure. The effectiveness of this format in producing more consistent clinical judgments in ICD-11 as compared to ICD-10 is currently being tested in a series of Internet-based field studies using standardized case material, and will also be tested in clinical settings. PMID:25655162

  18. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model.

  19. Developing and Testing of a Software Prototype to Support Diagnostic Reasoning of Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Vanessa Emille Carvalho; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Keenan, Gail M; Lopez, Karen Dunn

    2016-06-20

    To design and test educational software to improve nursing students' diagnostic reasoning through NANDA-I-based clinical scenarios. A mixed method approach was used and included content validation by a panel of 13 experts and prototype testing by a sample of 56 students. Experts' suggestions included writing adjustments, new response options, and replacement of clinical information on the scenarios. Percentages of students' correct answers were 65.7%, 62.2%, and 60.5% for related factors, defining characteristics, and nursing diagnoses, respectively. Full development of this software shows strong potential for enhancing students' diagnostic reasoning. New graduates may be able to apply diagnostic reasoning more rapidly by exercising their diagnostic skills within this software. Desenvolver e testar um protótipo de software educativo para melhorar o raciocínio diagnóstico de estudantes de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Uma abordagem mista foi utilizada e incluiu validação de conteúdo por 13 experts e testagem do protótipo por 56 estudantes. Sugestões dos experts incluíram ajustes na escrita, inclusão de novas opções de resposta e substituição de dados clínicos nos cenários. Os percentuais de respostas corretas dos estudantes foram 65,7%, 62,2% e 60,5% para fatores relacionados, características definidoras e diagnósticos de enfermagem respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: O desenvolvimento deste software tem um forte potencial para melhorar o raciocínio diagnóstico de estudantes. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA EM ENFERMAGEM: Através deste software, enfermeiros poderão ser capazes de exercitar o raciocínio diagnóstico e aplicá-lo mais rapidamente. © 2016 NANDA International, Inc.

  20. Feasibility Study of the Development of a Specialized Computer System of Organic Chemical Signatures of Spectral Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, R. G.; And Others

    This final report of a feasibility study describes the research performed in assessing the requirements for a chemical signature file and search scheme for organic compound identification and information retrieval. The research performed to determined feasibility of identifying an unknown compound involved screening the compound against a file of…

  1. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Hondl, K.D.; Eilts, M.D.

    1994-08-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  2. Does my patient have chronic Chagas disease? Development and temporal validation of a diagnostic risk score.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Holanda, Marcelo Teixeira; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Braga, José Ueleres

    2016-01-01

    With the globalization of Chagas disease, unexperienced health care providers may have difficulties in identifying which patients should be examined for this condition. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic clinical prediction model for chronic Chagas disease. This diagnostic cohort study included consecutive volunteers suspected to have chronic Chagas disease. The clinical information was blindly compared to serological tests results, and a logistic regression model was fit and validated. The development cohort included 602 patients, and the validation cohort included 138 patients. The Chagas disease prevalence was 19.9%. Sex, age, referral from blood bank, history of living in a rural area, recognizing the kissing bug, systemic hypertension, number of siblings with Chagas disease, number of relatives with a history of stroke, ECG with low voltage, anterosuperior divisional block, pathologic Q wave, right bundle branch block, and any kind of extrasystole were included in the final model. Calibration and discrimination in the development and validation cohorts (ROC AUC 0.904 and 0.912, respectively) were good. Sensitivity and specificity analyses showed that specificity reaches at least 95% above the predicted 43% risk, while sensitivity is at least 95% below the predicted 7% risk. Net benefit decision curves favor the model across all thresholds. A nomogram and an online calculator (available at http://shiny.ipec.fiocruz.br:3838/pedrobrasil/chronic_chagas_disease_prediction/) were developed to aid in individual risk estimation.

  3. Target Diagnostic Technology Research and Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P; Bennett, C; Holder, J; Kimbrough, J; Landen, O; Lerche, D; Lowry, M; McDonald, J; Perry, T; Turner, B; Weber, F

    2003-08-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at LLNL for the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Ignition, High Energy Density (HED) science, and basic science. Many issues confront experimentalists who wish to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics on the NIF. To foster this process the ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed a diagnostic research and development group to look at issues outside the charter of facility diagnostics (core diagnostics). We will present data from instrumentation and associated technology that is being developed by this group. A major portion of our instrumentation work is on improvements for readout systems. We have several efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to backthin a large format CCD device (36mm{sup 2}). This work has shown good results. The device has very high quantum efficiency, low noise readout and high charge transfer efficiency. The device is being fielded in direct optical, direct x-ray and 13-15 RV electron readout applications. In addition to readout device development we have completed work on a CCD readout system. With a commercial vendor we have developed a large format, compact, Ethernet addressable CCD camera system. This system fits in shoebox size volume, is thermal electrically cooled, supports a variety of CCD devices and can be run from remote locations via TCP/IP protocol. We are also doing work to improve streak camera systems. We have coupled our large format CCD system to an MK2 Kentech streak tube. Improvements have been made to the resolution and dynamic range of the system. Similar improvements have been made to the LLNL optical streak camera systems. We will present data from the optical and x-ray streak camera work. In addition we will present data from single shot high-speed, high dynamic range data link work. In

  4. Mutational Signatures in Breast Cancer: The Problem at the DNA Level

    PubMed Central

    Nik-Zainal, Serena; Morganella, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    A breast cancer genome is a record of the historic mutagenic activity that has occurred throughout the development of the tumour. Indeed, every mutation may be informative. While driver mutations were the main focus of cancer research for a long time, passenger mutational signatures, the imprints of DNA damage and DNA repair processes that have been operative during tumorigenesis, are also biologically illuminating. This review is a chronicle of how the concept of mutational signatures arose, and brings the reader up-to-date on this field, particularly in breast cancer. Mutational signatures have now been advanced to include mutational processes that involve rearrangements, and novel cancer biological insights have been gained through studying these in great detail. Furthermore, there are efforts to take this field into the clinical sphere. If validated, mutational signatures could thus form an additional weapon in the arsenal of cancer precision diagnostics and therapeutic stratification, in the modern war against cancer. PMID:28572256

  5. Helicopter Transmission Diagnostics Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    operating conditions, and eventually include the initiation of a gear microcrack at the root of a tooth , and its progression to a complete tooth failure, at...Analyzer: Based on metallurgical analyses of the gear tooth that fractured in this experiment, Boeing has determined that a micro- crack initiated...approximately 13.25 minutes prior to complete gear tooth failure and termination of the test data recording [13]. Alignment of the data available in the

  6. Development of a diagnostic test for Johne's disease using a DNA hybridization probe.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, S S; Splitter, G A; Welch, R A

    1989-01-01

    A DNA probe, M13 mpHAW71, that detects Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in the fecal material of infected animals was developed for use in the diagnosis of Johne's disease. The probe detected as few as 10(5) M. paratuberculosis when hybridized under stringent conditions to total genomic DNA purified from bovine fecal material. When the probe was used diagnostically, it did not differentiate members of the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare-M. paratuberculosis complex. Compared with culturing, the DNA probe identified 34.4% more mycobacterium-containing fecal samples, and testing took only 72 h to complete. Images PMID:2768445

  7. Development and validation of new diagnostic criteria for acute retinal necrosis.

    PubMed

    Takase, Hiroshi; Okada, Annabelle A; Goto, Hiroshi; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Namba, Kenichi; Ohguro, Nobuyuki; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Tomita, Makoto; Keino, Hiroshi; Kezuka, Takeshi; Kubono, Reo; Mizuuchi, Kazuomi; Shibuya, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Ryoji; Mochizuki, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and validate new diagnostic criteria for acute retinal necrosis (ARN) based on the ocular findings, clinical course, and virologic testing of intraocular fluids. The Japanese ARN Study Group, comprising 8 uveitis specialists and 1 statistician, was formed to develop new diagnostic criteria for ARN. The criteria used a combination of clinical features consistent with ARN including 6 early-stage ocular findings ([1a] anterior chamber cells or mutton-fat keratic precipitates; [1b] yellow-white lesion(s) in the peripheral retina [granular or patchy in the early stage, then gradually merging]; [1c] retinal arteritis; [1d] hyperemia of the optic disc; [1e] inflammatory vitreous opacities; and [1f] elevated intraocular pressure), 5 clinical courses ([2a] rapid expansion of the retinal lesion(s) circumferentially, [2b] development of retinal breaks or retinal detachment, [2c] retinal vascular occlusion, [2d] optic atrophy, and [2e] response to antiviral agents), and the results of virologic testing of intraocular fluids by means of either polymerase chain reaction or the Goldmann-Witmer coefficient for herpes simplex virus or varicella zoster virus. Various combinations of findings were analyzed to maximize the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). The criteria were then used to retrospectively analyze patients who had been diagnosed as having ARN or control uveitis. Patients were followed at 1 of 7 tertiary uveitis clinics between 2009 and 2011. Analysis of the data allowed delineation of 2 levels of diagnosis: "virus-confirmed ARN" (defined as the presence of both early-stage ocular findings 1a and 1b, the presence of any 1 of the 5 clinical courses, and a positive virologic test result) and "virus-unconfirmed ARN" (defined as the presence of 4 of 6 early-stage ocular findings including 1a and 1b, presence of any 2 of the 5 clinical courses, and a negative virologic test

  8. Developing High-Affinity Protein Capture Agents and Nanotechnology-Based Platforms for In Vitro Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Rosemary Dyane

    In this thesis, I describe projects that were aimed at improving ways to capture proteins for clinical diagnostics. Nanoelectronic sensors, such as silicon nanowires (SiNWs), can provide label-free quantitative measurements of protein biomarkers in real time. One technical challenge for SiNWs is to develop chemistry that can be applied for selectively encoding the nanowire surfaces with capture agents, thus making them sensors that have selectivity for specific proteins. Furthermore, because of the nature of how the sensor works, it is desirable to achieve this spatially selective chemical functionalization without having the silicon undergo oxidation. This method is described here and provides a general platform that can incorporate organic and biological molecules on Si (111) with minimal oxidation of the silicon surface. The development of these devices is, in part, driven by early diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and personalized medicine---all of which are increasingly requiring quantitative, rapid, and multiparameter measurements. To begin achieving this goal, a large number of protein biomarkers need to be captured and quantitatively measured to create a diagnostic panel. One of the greatest challenges towards making protein-biomarker-based in vitro diagnostics inexpensive involves developing capture agents to detect the proteins. A major thrust of this thesis is to develop multi-valent, high-affinity and high-selectivity protein capture agents using in situ click chemistry. In situ click chemistry is a tool that utilizes the protein itself to catalyze the formation of a biligand from individual azide and alkyne ligands that are co-localized. Large one-bead one-compound (OBOC) libraries of peptides are used to form the body of these ligands, also providing high chemical diversity with minimal synthetic effort. This process can be repeated to identify a triligand, tetraligand, and so forth. Moreover, the resulting multiligand protein capture agents can be

  9. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, K. Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Ogasawara, S.; Nishiura, M.

    2014-11-15

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  10. Transcriptomics in cancer diagnostics: developments in technology, clinical research and commercialization.

    PubMed

    Sager, Monica; Yeat, Nai Chien; Pajaro-Van der Stadt, Stefan; Lin, Charlotte; Ren, Qiuyin; Lin, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomic technologies are evolving to diagnose cancer earlier and more accurately to provide greater predictive and prognostic utility to oncologists and patients. Digital techniques such as RNA sequencing are replacing still-imaging techniques to provide more detailed analysis of the transcriptome and aberrant expression that causes oncogenesis, while companion diagnostics are developing to determine the likely effectiveness of targeted treatments. This article examines recent advancements in molecular profiling research and technology as applied to cancer diagnosis, clinical applications and predictions for the future of personalized medicine in oncology.

  11. MicroRNA as Biomarkers and Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Chen, Jinyun; Sen, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs that are involved in regulating a range of developmental and physiological processes; their dysregulation has been associated with development of diseases including cancer. Circulating miRNAs and exosomal miRNAs have also been proposed as being useful in diagnostics as biomarkers for diseases and different types of cancer. In this review, miRNAs are discussed as biomarkers for cancer and other diseases, including viral infections, nervous system disorders, cardiovascular disorders, and diabetes. We summarize some of the clinical evidence for the use of miRNAs as biomarkers in diagnostics and provide some general perspectives on their use in clinical situations. The analytical challenges in using miRNAs in cancer and disease diagnostics are evaluated and discussed. Validation of specific miRNA signatures as biomarkers is a critical milestone in diagnostics. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development of a curriculum in molecular diagnostics, genomics and personalized medicine for dermatology trainees.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael J; Shahriari, Neda; Payette, Michael; Mnayer, Laila; Elaba, Zendee

    2016-10-01

    Results of molecular studies are redefining the diagnosis and management of a wide range of skin disorders. Dermatology training programs maintain a relative gap in relevant teaching. To develop a curriculum in molecular diagnostics, genomics and personalized medicine for dermatology trainees at our institution. The aim is to provide trainees with a specialty-appropriate, working knowledge in clinical molecular dermatology. The Departments of Dermatology and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine collaborated on the design and implementation of educational objectives and teaching modalities for the new curriculum. A multidisciplinary curriculum was developed. It comprises: (i) assigned reading from the medical literature and reference textbook; (ii) review of teaching sets; (iii) two 1 hour lectures; (iv) trainee presentations; (v) 1-week rotation in a clinical molecular pathology and cytogenetics laboratory; and (vi) assessments and feedback. Residents who participated in the curriculum to date have found the experience to be of value. Our curriculum provides a framework for other dermatology residency programs to develop their own specific approach to molecular diagnostics education. Such training will provide a foundation for lifelong learning as molecular testing evolves and becomes integral to the practice of dermatology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development of a Digital Holography Diagnostic for Surface Characterization at ORNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biewer, T. M.; Thomas, C. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Fusion and Materials for Nuclear Systems Division (FMNSD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), in collaboration with Third Dimension Technologies (TDT), proposes to develop a digital holography (DH) surface erosion/deposition diagnostic for imaging 3D plasma facing component (PFC) surfaces in real time. Digital holography is a technique that utilizes IR lasers reflected from a material surface to form a holographic interferogram, which carries information about the topology of the surface when reconstructed. The interrogated surface (at a distance of 3 m) is a region of 2.3 cm x 2.3 cm, and the surface feature resolution is 10 micron or better in depth, around 1 mm transverse to the beam. This is being accomplished in a multi-staged research program at ORNL: 1) establishment of a single-laser DH system ``on the bench,'' 2) establishment of a dual-laser DH system ``on the bench,'' and 3) implementation of the dual-laser DH system on the Proto-MPEX device. The status of the diagnostic development effort will be presented. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of ORNL, managed by UT Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. D.O.E.

  14. The Security Problems in Some Novel Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Long; Sun, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ke-Jia; Wang, Qing-Le; Cai, Xiao-Qiu

    2017-08-01

    With the development of quantum signature, two improved arbitrated quantum signature(AQS) protocols have been presented with different quantum encryptions. In this paper, some security loopholes during the two AQS protocols are proposed. In the enhanced arbitrated quantum signature(EAQS) protocol, though the signer is not able to deny his signature, the receiver can still forge some valid signatures. In the chaos-based arbitrated quantum signature(CAQS) protocol, the receiver can forge a valid signature without being caught, and the signer can also deny her signature after the signing phase. Finally, some potential improved ideas are discussed.

  15. Effects of using the developing nurses' thinking model on nursing students' diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Tesoro, Mary Gay

    2012-08-01

    This quasi-experimental study tested the effectiveness of an educational model, Developing Nurses' Thinking (DNT), on nursing students' clinical reasoning to achieve patient safety. Teaching nursing students to develop effective thinking habits that promote positive patient outcomes and patient safety is a challenging endeavor. Positive patient outcomes and safety are achieved when nurses accurately interpret data and subsequently implement appropriate plans of care. This study's pretest-posttest design determined whether use of the DNT model during 2 weeks of clinical postconferences improved nursing students' (N = 83) diagnostic accuracy. The DNT model helps students to integrate four constructs-patient safety, domain knowledge, critical thinking processes, and repeated practice-to guide their thinking when interpreting patient data and developing effective plans of care. The posttest scores of students from the intervention group showed statistically significant improvement in accuracy.

  16. Feasibility Investigation on the Development of a Structural Damage Diagnostic and Monitoring System for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Ji Y.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The research activity for this project is mainly to investigate the necessity and feasibility to develop a structural health monitoring system for rocket engines, and to carry out a research plan for further development of the system. More than one hundred technical papers have been searched and reviewed during the period. We concluded after this investigation that adding a new module in NASA's existing automated diagnostic system to monitor the healthy condition of rocket engine structures is a crucial task, and it's possible to develop such a system based upon the vibrational-based nondestructive damage assessment techniques. A number of such techniques have been introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A global research plan has been figured out. As the first step of the overall research plan, a proposal for the next fiscal year has been submitted.

  17. Development and application of fluorescent diagnostics to fundamental droplet and spray problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Lynn A.

    1994-09-01

    This final report describes work carried out under ARO grant DAALO3-91-G-0033 for the development and application of fluorescent diagnostics to fundamental droplet problems. Particular emphasis has been placed on attempts to understand the heating, evaporation, and internal circulation processes of sub-millimeter droplets. At the University of Texas at Dallas, a new type of exciplex fluorescence thermometer, based on the temperature dependent shift of the exciplex band, has been developed and applied to thermometry of evaporating droplets and surface liquids. Algorithms and programs have been developed and disseminated for the correction of 'droplet slicing images' (DSI) for the effects of refraction by the front hemisphere of the droplet. At United Technologies Research Center, DSI techniques have been used to demonstrate unequivocally that aerodynamic shear can induce internal circulation in sub-millimeter droplets and to show that droplets rotate and interact with the surrounding gas phase flow field.

  18. Development of a diagnostic multiplex polymerase chain reaction microarray assay to detect and differentiate Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Schmoock, Gernot; Ehricht, Ralf; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy; Tomaso, Herbert; Neubauer, Heinrich; Al Dahouk, Sascha

    2011-12-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonosis leading to tremendous economic losses and severe human illness. Fast and reliable laboratory tests are needed to detect disease in both humans and animals and to monitor the production of safe food products and feed. For rapid identification of the genus Brucella and differentiation of its species, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction microarray assay based on 11 signature sequences and redundant oligonucleotide probes was developed. The gene targets included genus-specific sequences in bcsp31, perA, cgs, and omp2b, as well as chromosomal regions displaying species-specific hybridization patterns. Brucella reference strains and a representative panel of 102 field isolates were unambiguously identified by their hybridization patterns. The differentiation of species, however, was limited in members of the groups B. suis bv 3/4/B. canis and B. neotomae/B. microti. In summary, the newly developed Brucella ArrayTube® assay is an easy-to-handle molecular test for high-throughput and parallel analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive data processing plan for crop calendar MSS signature development from satellite imagery: Crop identification using vegetation phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Carlyle, S. M.; Haralick, R. M.; Yokoyama, R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The phenological method of crop identification involves the creation of crop signatures which characterize multispectral observations as phenological growth states. The phenological signature models spectral reflectance explicitly as a function of crop maturity rather than as a function of date. A correspondence of time to growth state is established which minimizes the smallest difference between the given multispectral multitemporal vector and a category mean vector. The application of the method to the identification of winter wheat and corn shows (1) the method is capable of discriminating crop type with about the same degree of accuracy as more traditional classifiers; (2) the use of LANDSAT observations on two or more dates yields better results than the use of a single observation; and (3) some potential is demonstrated for labeling the degree of maturity of the crop, as well as the crop type.

  20. Transferable Calibration Standard Developed for Quantitative Raman Scattering Diagnostics in High-Pressure Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from NASA Glenn Research Center s Combustion Branch and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) have developed a transferable calibration standard for an optical technique called spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) in high-pressure flames. SRS is perhaps the only technique that provides spatially and temporally resolved, simultaneous multiscalar measurements in turbulent flames. Such measurements are critical for the validation of numerical models of combustion. This study has been a combined experimental and theoretical effort to develop a spectral calibration database for multiscalar diagnostics using SRS in high-pressure flames. However, in the past such measurements have used a one-of-a-kind experimental setup and a setup-dependent calibration procedure to empirically account for spectral interferences, or crosstalk, among the major species of interest. Such calibration procedures, being non-transferable, are prohibitively expensive to duplicate. A goal of this effort is to provide an SRS calibration database using transferable standards that can be implemented widely by other researchers for both atmospheric-pressure and high-pressure (less than 30 atm) SRS studies. A secondary goal of this effort is to provide quantitative multiscalar diagnostics in high pressure environments to validate computational combustion codes.

  1. [The reactions of hypersensitivity: the mechanisms of development, clinical manifestations, principles of diagnostic (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Tukavkina, S Yu; Kharseyeva, G G

    2014-05-01

    The article considers the principles of modern classification of hypersensitivity, pathogenic mechanisms of formation of its various types resulting in development of typical clinical symptoms and syndromes. The knowledge and comprehension of these issues is important for physicians of different specializations since it permits to properly make out and formulate diagnosis and timely send patient for examination and treatment to such specialist as allergist-immunologist. The particular attention was paid to description of pathogenesis of diseases and syndromes underlaid by IgE-mediated type of hypersensitivity since their share is highest and clinical manifestations frequently require emergency medical care. The diagnostic of allergic diseases is to be implemented sequentially (step-by-step) and include common clinical and special (specific) methods. In case of choosing of extent of specialized allergological examination the diagnostic significance of techniques and their safety is to be taken into account concerning condition of patient. The diagnosis is objectively formulated only by complex of examination results. It is worth to remember about possibility of development of syndromes similar to IgE-mediated allergy by their clinical manifestations but belonging to non-allergic type of hypersensitivity. It is important to know main causes, mechanisms and ways of formation of such reactions previously named as anaphylactoid ones.

  2. Development of diagnostic SPR based biosensor for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonny, Susanna; Sesay, Adama M.; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study is to develop diagnostic tests for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva. Oral fluid is increasingly being considered as an ideal sample matrix. It can be collected non-invasively and causes less stress to the person being tested. The detection of pharmaceutical compounds and drugs in saliva can give valuable information on individual bases on dose response, usage, characterization and clinical diagnostics. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a highly sensitive, fast and label free analytical technique for the detection of molecular interactions. The specific binding of measured analyte onto the active gold sensing surface of the SPR device induces a refractive index change that can be monitored. To monitor these pharmaceutical compounds in saliva the immunoassays were developed using a SPR instrument. The instrument is equipped with a 670nm laser diode and has two sensing channels. Monoclonal antibodies against the pharmaceutical compounds were used to specifically recognise and capture the compounds which intern will have an effect of the refractive index monitored. Preliminary results show that the immunoassays for cocaine and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) are very sensitive and have linear ranges of 0.01 pg/ml - 1 ng/ml and 0.1 pg/ml - 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  3. The evolving threat of influenza viruses of animal origin and the challenges in developing appropriate diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mak, Polly W Y; Jayawardena, Shanthi; Poon, Leo L M

    2012-11-01

    An H1N1 subtype of swine origin caused the first influenza pandemic in this century. This pandemic strain was a reassortant of avian, swine, and human influenza viruses. Many diagnostic laboratories were overwhelmed by the testing demands related to this pandemic. Nevertheless, there remains the threat of other animal influenza viruses, such as highly pathogenic H5N1. As a part of pandemic preparedness, it is essential to identify the diagnostic challenges that will accompany the next pandemic. We discuss the natural reservoir of influenza viruses and the possible role of livestock in the emergence of pandemic strains. The current commonly used molecular tests for influenza diagnosis or surveillance are also briefly reviewed. Some of these approaches are also used to detect animal viruses. Unfortunately, owing to a lack of systematic surveillance of animal influenza viruses, established tests may not be able to detect pandemic strains that have yet to emerge from the animal reservoir. Thus, multiple strategies need to be developed for better identification of influenza viruses. In addition, molecular assays for detection of mutations associated with antiviral resistance and for viral segment reassortments should also be encouraged. Influenza viruses are highly dynamic viruses. Regular and systematic influenza surveillance in both humans and animals is essential to provide a more comprehensive picture of the prevalent influenza viruses. To better prepare for the next pandemic, we should develop some simple and easy-to-use tests for characterizing newly emerging influenza viruses. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  4. Development of local oscillator integrated antenna array for microwave imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.; Shinohara, S.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA.

  5. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, C. E.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Birkel, A.; Kabadi, N. V.; Lahmann, B.; Milanese, L. M.; Simpson, R. A.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G. D.; Wink, C.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, DT and DD neutron sources, and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The accelerator generates DD and D3He fusion products through the acceleration of D+ ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Accurately characterized fusion product rates of around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved. The DT and DD neutron sources generate up to 6x108, and 1x107 neutrons/s, respectively. One x-ray generator is a thick-target W source with a peak energy of 225 keV and a maximum dose rate of 12 Gy/min; the other uses Cu, Mo, or Ti elemental tubes to generate x-rays with a maximum energy of 40 keV. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39-based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a valuable hands-on tool for graduate and undergraduate education at MIT. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DoE, SNL, LLE and LLNL.

  6. Development of the Motional Stark Effect with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (MSE-LIF) Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Elizabeth L.

    2005-10-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence (MSE- LIF) diagnostic is under development to extend the MSE magnetic pitch angle diagnostic to lower fields ( < 0.5 T) and enable measurement of magnetic field magnitude as well as direction. The technique involves injecting a low energy-spread neutral hydrogen beam (30 kV, 30 mA) into plasma, and using a collinear laser to excite transitions from the n=2 to n=3 atomic states in the beam atoms. The subsequent fluorescence from the same transition (Balmer-alpha, near 650 nm for the Doppler-shifted beam) is observed, and its splitting and polarization due to the E = v X B electric field in the beam frame is used to determine the background magnetic field magnitude and direction. This poster will present recent results from MSE-LIF development, including magnetic field measurements at very low field (< 0.01 T) in neutral gas based on an enhanced LIF phenomenon, a comprehensive collisional-radiative model which determines the population fractions in the n=1, 2 and 3 states of the beam as the states mix in applied magnetic and electric fields, as well as upgrades to the experimental apparatus that will enable measurements in intermediate fields (0.01 - 0.2 T) in plasma.

  7. Static digital telepathology: a model for diagnostic and educational support to pathologists in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Sohani, Aliyah R; Sohani, Moez A

    2012-01-01

    The practice of pathology in the developing world presents challenges in terms of limited resources, shortages of trained personnel, and lack of continuing education programs. Telepathology holds promise as a means of diagnostic and educational support. We donated multiheaded teaching microscopes equipped with digital cameras to four hospitals in Eastern Africa and trained local pathologists on their use. Static images of challenging cases were posted on a web-based telepathology platform. A U.S.-based pathologist reviewed images in consultation with subspecialist colleagues. Over a period of 40 months, 109 cases were submitted for second opinion consultation, including 29 dermatopathology cases (26.6%), 14 hematopathology cases (12.8%), and 13 cases each (11.9%) in cytopathology and bone and soft tissue pathology. Static images enabled a complete or partial diagnosis in 100/109 cases (91.7%). Factors precluding a definitive diagnosis included absence of confirmatory immunophenotyping, technical issues, or lack of clinical history. Case responses included a diagnosis and discussion, including differential diagnosis, references, and treatment recommendations. Static digital telepathology is a simple, cost-effective, reliable and efficient means to provide diagnostic and educational support to pathologists in the developing world. Additional training may help overcome technical factors precluding a definitive diagnosis in certain cases.

  8. GeneSigDB: a manually curated database and resource for analysis of gene expression signatures

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Aedín C.; Schröder, Markus S.; Sultana, Razvan; Picard, Shaita C.; Martinelli, Enzo N.; Kelly, Caroline; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Kapushesky, Misha; St Pierre, Anne-Alyssa; Flahive, William; Picard, Kermshlise C.; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Papenhausen, Gerald; O'Connor, Niall; Correll, Mick; Quackenbush, John

    2012-01-01

    GeneSigDB (http://www.genesigdb.org or http://compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/genesigdb/) is a database of gene signatures that have been extracted and manually curated from the published literature. It provides a standardized resource of published prognostic, diagnostic and other gene signatures of cancer and related disease to the community so they can compare the predictive power of gene signatures or use these in gene set enrichment analysis. Since GeneSigDB release 1.0, we have expanded from 575 to 3515 gene signatures, which were collected and transcribed from 1604 published articles largely focused on gene expression in cancer, stem cells, immune cells, development and lung disease. We have made substantial upgrades to the GeneSigDB website to improve accessibility and usability, including adding a tag cloud browse function, facetted navigation and a ‘basket’ feature to store genes or gene signatures of interest. Users can analyze GeneSigDB gene signatures, or upload their own gene list, to identify gene signatures with significant gene overlap and results can be viewed on a dynamic editable heatmap that can be downloaded as a publication quality image. All data in GeneSigDB can be downloaded in numerous formats including .gmt file format for gene set enrichment analysis or as a R/Bioconductor data file. GeneSigDB is available from http://www.genesigdb.org. PMID:22110038

  9. Development of X-ray tracer diagnostics for radiatively-driven ablator experiments [annual report FY1998

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. MacFarlane; D.H. Cohen; P. Wang; G.A. Moses; R.R. Peterson; P.A. Jaanimagi; O.L. Langen; R.E. Olson; T.J. Murphy; G.R. Magelssen; N.D. Delamater

    1999-05-01

    This report covers fiscal year 1998 of our ongoing project to develop tracer X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics for hohlraum environments. This effort focused on an experimental campaign carried out at OMEGA on 25--27 August 1998. This phase of the project heavily emphasized experimental design, diagnostic development, and target fabrication, as well as building up numerical models for the experiments. The spectral diagnostic under development involves using two thin (few 1000 {angstrom}) mid-Z tracers in two witness plates mounted on the side of a hohlraum with the tracers' K{sub a} absorption features seen against an X-ray backlighter. The absorption data are used to sample the time-dependent, localized properties of each witness plate as a radiation wave ablates it. The experiments represented the first application of this diagnostic, in this case to side-by-side doped and undoped plastic to investigate the effects of capsule ablator dopants.

  10. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Klaus

    2013-01-10

    Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351.

  11. Regulators of skeletal development: a cluster analysis of 206 bone tumors reveals diagnostically useful markers.

    PubMed

    Horvai, Andrew E; Roy, Ritu; Borys, Dariusz; O'Donnell, Richard J

    2012-11-01

    The molecules Indian hedgehog (IHH), SP7 (also known as osterix), sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and TWIST1 regulate the normal differentiation of osteo- and chondrogenic cells from precursors during skeletal development and remodeling. The aberrant function of the same molecules has been implicated in the pathogenesis of bone tumors. Preliminary studies suggest that antibodies against these molecules have practical, diagnostic or prognostic utility in tumors. However, a comprehensive analysis of the expression of these molecules in a large, diverse set of bone tumors has yet to be reported. The goals of this study were to compare the immunohistochemical profiles of IHH, SP7, SOX9, RUNX2 and TWIST1 among bone tumors and to determine the optimum panel for diagnostic utility. Tissue microarrays prepared from 206 undecalcified tumors (71 osteosarcomas, 26 osteoblastomas/osteoid osteomas, 50 giant cell tumors, 5 chondromyxoid fibromas and 54 chondroblastomas) were stained with antibodies to IHH, SP7, SOX9, RUNX2 and TWIST1. The stains were scored for intensity (0-3+) and distribution. The results were analyzed by cluster analysis. Optimum antibody panels for diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Analysis revealed six main clusters that corresponded well to tumor types and suggested a close relationship between the stromal cells of giant cell tumor and the osteoblasts of osteosarcoma. The expression profile of chondromyxoid fibroma and chondroblastoma also suggested related differentiation. The distribution of osteoblastomas and osteoid osteomas was more heterogeneous. RUNX2, SOX9 and TWIST1 represented the most sensitive and specific immunohistochemical panel to distinguish among these diagnoses with the limitation that no result could discriminate between chondroblastoma and chondromyxoid fibroma. IHH and SP7 did not yield additional utility.

  12. On the signature of LINCOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollongren, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Suppose the international SETI effort yields the discovery of some signal of evidently non-natural origin. Could it contain linguistic information formulated in some kind of Lingua Cosmica? One way to get insight into this matter is to consider what specific (bio) linguistic signature( s) could be attached to a cosmic language for interstellar communication—designed by humans or an alien society having reached a level of intelligence (and technology) comparable to or surpassing ours. For this purpose, we consider in the present paper the logico-linguistic system LINCOS for ( A)CETI, developed during a number of years by the author in several papers and a monograph [1]. The system has a two-fold signature, which distinguishes it significantly from natural languages. In fact abstract and concrete signatures can be distinguished. That an abstract kind occurs is due to the manner in which abstractions of reality are represented in LINCOS-texts. They can take compound forms because the system is multi-expressive—partly due to the availability of inductive (recursive) entities. On the other hand, the concrete signature of LINCOS is related to the distribution of delimiters and predefined tokens in texts. Assigning measures to concrete signatures will be discussed elsewhere. The present contribution concentrates on the abstract signature of the language. At the same time, it is realized that an alien Lingua Cosmica might, but not necessarily needs to have this kind of signatures.

  13. Metabolomic signature of brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Renu; Caflisch, Laura; Lodi, Alessia; Brenner, Andrew J; Tiziani, Stefano

    2017-06-15

    Despite advances in surgery and adjuvant therapy, brain tumors represent one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality and morbidity in both adults and children. Gliomas constitute about 60% of all cerebral tumors, showing varying degrees of malignancy. They are difficult to treat due to dismal prognosis and limited therapeutics. Metabolomics is the untargeted and targeted analyses of endogenous and exogenous small molecules, which charact erizes the phenotype of an individual. This emerging "omics" science provides functional readouts of cellular activity that contribute greatly to the understanding of cancer biology including brain tumor biology. Metabolites are highly informative as a direct signature of biochemical activity; therefore, metabolite profiling has become a promising approach for clinical diagnostics and prognostics. The metabolic alterations are well-recognized as one of the key hallmarks in monitoring disease progression, therapy, and revealing new molecular targets for effective therapeutic intervention. Taking advantage of the latest high-throughput analytical technologies, that is, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS), metabolomics is now a promising field for precision medicine and drug discovery. In the present report, we review the application of metabolomics and in vivo metabolic profiling in the context of adult gliomas and paediatric brain tumors. Analytical platforms such as high-resolution (HR) NMR, in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and high- and low-resolution MS are discussed. Moreover, the relevance of metabolic studies in the development of new therapeutic strategies for treatment of gliomas are reviewed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Infrared signature studies of aerospace vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahulikar, Shripad P.; Sonawane, Hemant R.; Arvind Rao, G.

    2007-10-01

    Infrared (IR) emissions from aircraft are used to detect, track, and lock-on to the target. MAN Portable Air Defence Systems (MANPADS) have emerged as a major cause of aircraft and helicopter loss. Therefore, IR signature studies are important to counter this threat for survivability enhancement, and are an important aspect of stealth technology. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular emphasis on IR signature prediction from aerospace vehicles. The role of atmosphere in IR signature analysis, and relation between IR signature level and target susceptibility are illustrated. Also, IR signature suppression systems and countermeasure techniques are discussed, to highlight their effectiveness and implications in terms of penalties.

  15. Beyond Correctness: Development and Validation of Concept-Based Categorical Scoring Rubrics for Diagnostic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment approaches intend to provide fine-grained reports of what students know and can do, focusing on their areas of strengths and weaknesses. However, current application of such diagnostic approaches is limited by the scoring method for item responses; important diagnostic information, such as type of errors and strategy use is…

  16. Status of the diagnostics development for the first operation phase of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    König, R. Biedermann, C.; Burhenn, R.; Endler, M.; Grulke, O.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Kornejew, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laux, M.; Lorenz, A.; Otte, M.; Pasch, E.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Windisch, T.; Zhang, D.; and others

    2014-11-15

    An overview of the diagnostics which are essential for the first operational phase of Wendelstein 7-X and the set of diagnostics expected to be ready for operation at this time are presented. The ongoing investigations of how to cope with high levels of stray Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) radiation in the ultraviolet (UV)/visible/infrared (IR) optical diagnostics are described.

  17. Beyond Correctness: Development and Validation of Concept-Based Categorical Scoring Rubrics for Diagnostic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment approaches intend to provide fine-grained reports of what students know and can do, focusing on their areas of strengths and weaknesses. However, current application of such diagnostic approaches is limited by the scoring method for item responses; important diagnostic information, such as type of errors and strategy use is…

  18. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    SciTech Connect

    Shcheglova, L S; Maryakhina, V S; Abramova, L L

    2013-11-30

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 – 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions. (optical methods in biology and medicine)

  19. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglova, L. S.; Abramova, L. L.; Maryakhina, V. S.

    2013-11-01

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 - 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions.

  20. Developing the diagnostic and statistical manual V: what will "statistical" mean in DSM-V?

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Shrout, Patrick E; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza

    2007-04-01

    In February of 2004, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) hosted a Launch and Methodology Conference to discuss the role statistics might play in the eventual revision of the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Ninth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD9). The conference consisted of talks on specific topics by statisticians and epidemiologists from North America and Great Britain, followed by group discussion by experts in nosology and psychopathology. We report here on the development of specific themes related to the future interaction between statisticians and nosologists in DSM-V development that arose as a result of that meeting. The themes are related to (1) the nature of the statistician/nosologist interaction; (2) specific areas of concern in that interaction, and (3) the use of novel and complex statistical methods to challenge and inspire new avenues of thinking among nosologists.

  1. Progress and Challenges Towards Point-of-Care Diagnostic Development for Dengue.

    PubMed

    Pang, Junxiong; Chia, Po Ying; Lye, David C; Leo, Yee Sin

    2017-09-13

    Dengue detection strategies involve viral RNA, antigen and/or antibody detection. Each strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. Optimal, user-friendly and rapid diagnostic tests based on immunochromatographic assays are pragmatic point-of-care-test (POCT) in dengue endemic regions where there are limited laboratory capabilities and optimal storage conditions. Increasingly, there is a greater public health significance for multiplexing assay to differentiate dengue from Zika or pathogens with similar clinical presentations. Although there have been much assay/platform developments towards POCT, independent validation and implementation remain very limited. This review highlights the current key progress and challenges towards the development of dengue POCT. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Classification and diagnostic prediction of cancers using gene expression profiling and artificial neural networks | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method of classifying cancers to specific diagnostic categories based on their gene expression signatures using artificial neural networks (ANNs). We trained the ANNs using the small, round blue-cell tumors (SRBCTs) as a model. These cancers belong to four distinct diagnostic categories and often present diagnostic dilemmas in clinical practice. The ANNs correctly classified all samples and identified the genes most relevant to the classification.

  3. NREL Develops Diagnostic Test Cases to Improve Building Energy Simulation Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations in order to achieve more accurate energy use and savings predictions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Residential and Commercial Buildings research groups developed a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations. Eight test cases were developed to test surface conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes in building energy simulation programs. These algorithms are used to predict energy flow through external opaque surfaces such as walls, ceilings, and floors. The test cases consist of analytical and vetted numerical heat transfer solutions that have been available for decades, which increases confidence in test results. NREL researchers adapted these solutions for comparisons with building energy simulation results. Testing the new cases with EnergyPlus identified issues with the conduction finite difference (CondFD) heat transfer algorithm in versions 5 and 6. NREL researchers resolved these issues for EnergyPlus version 7. The new test cases will help users and developers of EnergyPlus and other building energy tools to identify and fix problems associated with solid conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes and their boundary conditions. In the long term, improvements to software algorithms will result in more accurate energy use and savings predictions. NREL researchers plan to document the set of test cases and make them available for future consideration by validation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 140: Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. EnergyPlus users will also have access to the improved CondFD model in version 7 after its next scheduled release.

  4. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited).

    PubMed

    Murari, A; Angelone, M; Bonheure, G; Cecil, E; Craciunescu, T; Darrow, D; Edlington, T; Ericsson, G; Gatu-Johnson, M; Gorini, G; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V; Mlynar, J; Perez von Thun, C; Pillon, M; Popovichev, S; Syme, B; Tardocchi, M; Zoita, V L

    2010-10-01

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose “burning plasmas.” D–T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1–18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions. A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined

  5. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Murari, A.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Bonheure, G.; Cecil, E.; Craciunescu, T.; Zoita, V. L.; Darrow, D.; Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Hellesen, C.; Mlynar, J.; Perez von Thun, C.; Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2010-10-15

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose ''burning plasmas.'' D-T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1-18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions.A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined with a

  6. Development, Evaluation, and Integration of a Quantitative Reverse-Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostic Test for Ebola Virus on a Molecular Diagnostics Platform.

    PubMed

    Cnops, Lieselotte; Van den Eede, Peter; Pettitt, James; Heyndrickx, Leo; De Smet, Birgit; Coppens, Sandra; Andries, Ilse; Pattery, Theresa; Van Hove, Luc; Meersseman, Geert; Van Den Herrewegen, Sari; Vergauwe, Nicolas; Thijs, Rein; Jahrling, Peter B; Nauwelaers, David; Ariën, Kevin K

    2016-10-15

     The 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa resulted in accelerated development of rapid diagnostic tests for emergency outbreak preparedness. We describe the development and evaluation of the Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test, a fully automated sample-to-result molecular diagnostic test for rapid detection of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV).  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test can simultaneously detect EBOV and SUDV in 200 µL of whole blood. The sample is directly added to a disposable cartridge containing all reagents for sample preparation, RNA extraction, and amplification by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The performance was evaluated with a variety of sample types, including synthetic constructs and whole blood samples from healthy volunteers spiked with viral RNA, inactivated virus, and infectious virus.  The 95% limits of detection for EBOV and SUDV were 465 plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL (1010 copies/mL) and 324 PFU/mL (8204 copies/mL), respectively. In silico and in vitro analyses demonstrated 100% correct reactivity for EBOV and SUDV and no cross-reactivity with relevant pathogens. The diagnostic sensitivity was 97.4% (for EBOV) and 91.7% (for SUDV), the specificity was 100%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.9%.  The Idylla™ prototype Ebola virus test is a fast, safe, easy-to-use, and near-patient test that meets the performance criteria to detect EBOV in patients with suspected Ebola. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balter, Max L.; Chen, Alvin I.; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads. PMID:28239509

  8. State of the art and new developments in molecular diagnostics for hemoglobinopathies in multiethnic societies.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, C L

    2014-02-01

    For detecting carriers of thalassemia traits, the basic part of diagnostics consists of measurement of the hematological indices followed by mostly automatic separation and measurement of the Hb fractions, while direct Hb separation either on high pressure liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis is sufficient to putatively identify carriers of the common Hb variants like HbS, C, E, D, and O-Arab. A putative positive result is reported together with an advice for parents, partner, or family analysis. For couples, presumed at-risk confirmation at the DNA level is essential. In general, this part of diagnostics is done in specialized centers provided with sufficient experience and the technical tools needed to combine hematological and biochemical interpretation with identification of the mutations at the molecular level. State-of-the-art tools are usually available in centers that also provide prenatal diagnosis and should consist of gap-PCR for the common deletions, direct DNA sequencing for all kind of point-mutations and the capacity to uncover novel or rare mutations or disease mechanisms. New developments are MLPA for large and eventually unknown deletion defects and microarray technology for fine mapping and primer design for breakpoint analysis. Gap-PCR primers designed in the region flanking the deletion breakpoints can subsequently be used to facilitate carrier detection of uncommon deletions in family members or isolated populations in laboratories where no microarray technology or MLPA is available.

  9. Development of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for the Caltech jet-target experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Byong Hoon; Greig, Amelia; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for studying the Caltech jet-target impact experiment. This experiment has a high-speed MHD-driven jet impact a dense, high-mass target cloud. The compression of the jet upon impact simulates the compression of an imploding liner. A preliminary bench top system consisting of a low power laser, lenses, a beam rotator, a monochromator, and a PMT is being used for measuring the Rayleigh and eventually Raman scattering signals from atmospheric pressure N2 and O2. The laser is modulated at 500 Hz to 1 kHz and lock-in techniques are used to recover the low-amplitude signal. For the actual pulsed plasma experiment, the low-power laser will be replaced by a high power Nd:YAG laser. The detector will consist of a double monochromator consisting of two single monochromators separated by a mask in the focal plane to block Rayleigh scattered light; detection will be by an intensified, gated camera. The diagnostic will be used to study the compression and heating that occurs when the jet plasma collides with a dense, high mass target cloud. Supported by USDOE Grant DE-AR0000565.

  10. Emerging morbillivirus infections of marine mammals: development of two diagnostic approaches.

    PubMed

    Saliki, Jeremiah T; Cooper, Emily J; Gustavson, Jonathan P

    2002-10-01

    In the last 13 years, four viruses belonging in the Morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae family have emerged as significant causes of disease and mortality in marine mammals. The viruses involved are canine distemper virus (CDV) in seals and polar bears, dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV) in cetaceans, and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in pinnipeds. The two cetacean morbilliviruses (DMV and PMV) are now considered to be the same viral species, named cetacean morbillivirus (CMV). All three morbillivirus species (CDV, CMV, and PDV) are genetically and antigenically related and cross-react in various serological tests. The diagnosis of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal specimens poses two challenges. First, various marine mammal species can be infected by more than one closely related but distinct morbilliviruses, making definitive virus identification unattainable by classical virology methods. Second, standard immunological reagents such as anti-species conjugates are unavailable for most marine mammal species, rendering definitive serological diagnosis difficult by classical serological techniques. The objectives of this study were to develop two diagnostic approaches that alleviate these difficulties, providing simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic methods. For nucleic acid detection, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction endonuclease digestions were used to differentiate the three viruses. For antibody detection, a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) was used on sera from several species, thus avoiding the need for multiple anti-species enzyme conjugates.

  11. Belief elicitation to populate health economic models of medical diagnostic devices in development.

    PubMed

    Haakma, Wieke; Steuten, Lotte M G; Bojke, Laura; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-06-01

    Bayesian methods can be used to elicit experts' beliefs about the clinical value of healthcare technologies. This study investigates a belief-elicitation method for estimating diagnostic performance in an early stage of development of photoacoustic mammography (PAM) imaging versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting breast cancer. Eighteen experienced radiologists ranked tumor characteristics regarding their importance to detect malignancies. With reference to MRI, radiologists estimated the true positives and negatives of PAM using the variable interval method. An overall probability density function was determined using linear opinion pooling, weighted for individual experts' experience. The most important tumor characteristics are mass margins and mass shape. Respondents considered MRI the better technology to visualize these characteristics. Belief elicitation confirmed this by providing an overall sensitivity of PAM ranging from 58.9 to 85.1% (mode 75.6%) and specificity ranging from 52.2 to 77.6% (mode 66.5%). Belief elicitation allowed estimates to be obtained for the expected diagnostic performance of PAM, although radiologists expressed difficulties in doing so. Heterogeneity within and between experts reflects this uncertainty and the infancy of PAM. Further clinical trials are required to validate the extent to which this belief-elicitation method is predictive for observed test performance.

  12. Development of MHD Wave Diagnostic and Models of Coronal Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the generation, propagation, and damping of MHD waves in active regions, with the goal to develop a diagnostic tool of active region structure, dynamics, and stability. We used 3D MHD model to study the generation and the propagation of EIT waves in a simple model of an active regions, and the interaction of EIT waves with the active region magnetic field. We model the oscillation of active region loops numerically using the 3D MHD model active regions. Such oscillations have been recently observed by TRACE. We use photospheric magnetograms as the boundary conditions for the magnetic field model, and construct an initial field using force-free extrapolation. Finite plasma temperature, density, and gravity are included in the model. We construct loop density structures in the model, guided by TRACE and EIT observations in the EUV. We demonstrate that by comparing the results of the MHD models of waves in an active region to observations we will be able to construct a diagnostic tool for the physical properties of the active regions, such as magnetic field and density structure.

  13. System Design and Development of a Robotic Device for Automated Venipuncture and Diagnostic Blood Cell Analysis.

    PubMed

    Balter, Max L; Chen, Alvin I; Fromholtz, Alex; Gorshkov, Alex; Maguire, Tim J; Yarmush, Martin L

    2016-10-01

    Diagnostic blood testing is the most prevalent medical procedure performed in the world and forms the cornerstone of modern health care delivery. Yet blood tests are still predominantly carried out in centralized labs using large-volume samples acquired by manual venipuncture, and no end-to-end solution from blood draw to sample analysis exists today. Our group is developing a platform device that merges robotic phlebotomy with automated diagnostics to rapidly deliver patient information at the site of the blood draw. The system couples an image-guided venipuncture robot, designed to address the challenges of routine venous access, with a centrifuge-based blood analyzer to obtain quantitative measurements of hematology. In this paper, we first present the system design and architecture of the integrated device. We then perform a series of in vitro experiments to evaluate the cannulation accuracy of the system on blood vessel phantoms. Next, we assess the effects of vessel diameter, needle gauge, flow rate, and viscosity on the rate of sample collection. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a white cell assay on the blood analyzer using in vitro human samples spiked with fluorescently labeled microbeads.

  14. Development of a diagnostic decision tree for obstructive pulmonary diseases based on real-life data.

    PubMed

    Metting, Esther I; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; van Heijst, Ellen; Kocks, Janwillem W H; Muilwijk-Kroes, Jacqueline B; Chavannes, Niels H; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and explore the diagnostic accuracy of a decision tree derived from a large real-life primary care population. Data from 9297 primary care patients (45% male, mean age 53±17 years) with suspicion of an obstructive pulmonary disease was derived from an asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) service where patients were assessed using spirometry, the Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, history data and medication use. All patients were diagnosed through the Internet by a pulmonologist. The Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method was used to build the decision tree. The tree was externally validated in another real-life primary care population (n=3215). Our tree correctly diagnosed 79% of the asthma patients, 85% of the COPD patients and 32% of the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) patients. External validation showed a comparable pattern (correct: asthma 78%, COPD 83%, ACOS 24%). Our decision tree is considered to be promising because it was based on real-life primary care patients with a specialist's diagnosis. In most patients the diagnosis could be correctly predicted. Predicting ACOS, however, remained a challenge. The total decision tree can be implemented in computer-assisted diagnostic systems for individual patients. A simplified version of this tree can be used in daily clinical practice as a desk tool.

  15. Development and testing of a field diagnostic assay for peste des petits ruminants virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, J; Fishbourne, E; Couacy-Hyman, E; Abubakar, M; Jones, B A; Frost, L; Herbert, R; Chibssa, T R; Van't Klooster, G; Afzal, M; Ayebazibwe, C; Toye, P; Bashiruddin, J; Baron, M D

    2014-10-01

    We have developed an immunochromatographic test for the diagnosis of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) under field conditions. The diagnostic assay has been tested in the laboratory and also under field conditions in Ivory Coast, Pakistan, Ethiopia and Uganda. The test is carried out on a superficial swab sample (ocular or nasal) and showed a sensitivity of 84% relative to PCR. The specificity was 95% over all nasal and ocular samples. The test detected as little as 10(3) TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious doses) of cell culture-grown virus, and detected virus isolates representing all four known genetic lineages of peste des petits ruminants virus. Virus could be detected in swabs from animals as early as 4 days post-infection, at a time when clinical signs were minimal. Feedback from field trials was uniformly positive, suggesting that this diagnostic tool may be useful for current efforts to control the spread of PPR. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  17. Response to the comment by Henry Kahn and Dennis Santella on a summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Lowers, Heather; Lioy, Paul J.; Lippmann, Morton

    2010-01-01

    A response by Gregory P. Meeker and colleagues to a commentary on their article on the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings is presented

  18. Development of an intelligent diagnostic system for reusable rocket engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anex, R. P.; Russell, J. R.; Guo, T.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A description of an intelligent diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) is presented. This system is suitable for incorporation in an intelligent controller which implements accommodating closed-loop control to extend engine life and maximize available performance. The diagnostic system architecture is a modular, hierarchical, blackboard system which is particularly well suited for real-time implementation of a system which must be repeatedly updated and extended. The diagnostic problem is formulated as a hierarchical classification problem in which the failure hypotheses are represented in terms of predefined data patterns. The diagnostic expert system incorporates techniques for priority-based diagnostics, the combination of analytical and heuristic knowledge for diagnosis, integration of different AI systems, and the implementation of hierarchical distributed systems. A prototype reusable rocket engine diagnostic system (ReREDS) has been implemented. The prototype user interface and diagnostic performance using SSME test data are described.

  19. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids. [Root-cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems based on research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. Our research in fault diagnosis at PNL grew out of our work in root-cause analysis (RCA). Our approach consists of those major activities which we categorize as (1) determining knowledge requirements, (2) constructing models, and (3) developing the requirements for representation schemes. We group knowledge for fault diagnosis into two broad groups: cognitive task and process-system knowledge. Our research indicates that a useful representation scheme can be developed employing function and object hierarchies, task required inference, and task specified reasoning control. Formal modeling of the reasoning task determines the required task inference and control. This research has focused on the use of the representation scheme for fault diagnosis. However, preliminary analysis indicates that this same scheme may be useful in automating control tasks. The next phase of this research is to develop a prototype. The prototype system has been specified and we are presently developing knowledge models of the components and system. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  1. Spectral signature selection for mapping unvegetated soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Petersen, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data covering the wavelength interval from 0.40-2.60 microns were collected at an altitude of 1000 m above the terrain in southeastern Pennsylvania. Uniform training areas were selected within three sites from this flightline. Soil samples were collected from each site and a procedure developed to allow assignment of scan line and element number from the multispectral scanner data to each sampling location. These soil samples were analyzed on a spectrophotometer and laboratory spectral signatures were derived. After correcting for solar radiation and atmospheric attenuation, the laboratory signatures were compared to the spectral signatures derived from these same soils using multispectral scanner data. Both signatures were used in supervised and unsupervised classification routines. Computer-generated maps using the laboratory and multispectral scanner derived signatures resulted in maps that were similar to maps resulting from field surveys. Approximately 90% agreement was obtained between classification maps produced using multispectral scanner derived signatures and laboratory derived signatures.

  2. Identification of host response signatures of infection.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for

  3. Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Dense-phase pneumatic transport is an attractive means of conveying solids. Unfortunately, because of the high solid concentrations, this transport method is a difficult regime in which to carry out detailed measurements. Hence most details of the flow are unknown. In this context, the main objective of this work is to develop probes for local measurements of solid velocity and holdup in dense gas-solid flows. In particular, we have designed capacitance probes to measure local, time-dependent particle concentrations, and a new optical fiber probe based on laser-induced-phosphorescence to measure particle velocities. We have described the principle of the capacitance diagnostic in (Particulate Science Tech., 7 51:59 (1989)) and its calibration in (Powder Tech. 62, 85--94 (1990)). In addition, we have recently published data on the optical anemometer in (Applied Optics 30, 1976--81 (1991)). 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Development of soft x-ray tracer diagnostics for hohlraum experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, J.J.; Cohen, D.H.; Wang, P.; Peterson, R.R.; Moses, G.A.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize work performed by the University of Wisconsin during fiscal year 1996 under the NLUF contract DE-FG-96SF21015. This contract involved the development of soft x-ray spectral diagnostics from tracer layers in hohlraum witness plates. This effort was originally intended to be focused on OMEGA experiments, but the experiments were changed to NOVA because initial indirect drive shots had not yet been performed on the OMEGA upgrade. Data were collected in a series of experiments between January 1997 and October 1997. Experiments were delayed somewhat due to bringing up the Hettrick spectrometer on the NOVA target chamber. The tasks related to the planning, carrying out, and modeling of the experiments are outlined in Table 1.1 and detailed in the remainder of this report.

  5. Development of quantitative diagnostic observables for age-related macular degeneration using Spectral Domain OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Bradley A.; Chiu, Stephanie J.; Davies, Emily; Davis, Anjul M.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Fuller, Alfred R.; Wiley, David F.; Izatt, Joseph A.; Toth, Cynthia A.

    2007-02-01

    We report on the development of quantitative, reproducible diagnostic observables for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). 3D SDOCT volumetric data sets (512 x 1000 x 100 voxels) were collected (5.7 seconds acquisition time) in over 50 patients with age-related macular degeneration and geographic atrophy using a state-of-the-art SDOCT scanner. Commercial and custom software utilities were used for manual and semi-automated segmentation of photoreceptor layer thickness, total drusen volume, and geographic atrophy cross-sectional area. In a preliminary test of reproducibility in segmentation of total drusen volume and geographic atrophy surface area, inter-observer error was less than 5%. Extracted volume and surface area of AMD-related drusen and geographic atrophy, respectively, may serve as useful observables for tracking disease state that were not accessible without the rapid 3D volumetric imaging capability unique to retinal SDOCT.

  6. Development of paper-based wireless communication modules for point-of-care diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Suzanne; Bezuidenhout, Petroné H.; Land, Kevin; Korvink, Jan G.; Mager, Dario

    2016-02-01

    We present an ultra-high frequency radio frequency identification based wireless communication set-up for paper-based point-of-care diagnostic applications, based on a sensing radio frequency identification chip. Paper provides a low-cost, disposable platform for ease of fluidic handling without bulky instrumentation, and is thus ideally suited for point-ofcare applications; however, result communication - a crucial aspect for healthcare to be implemented effectively - is still lacking. Printing of radio frequency identification antennas and electronic circuitry for sensing on paper are presented, with read out of the results using a radio frequency identification reader illustrated, demonstrating the feasibility of developing integrated, all-printed solutions for point-of-care diagnosis in resource-limited settings.

  7. Recent Developments in Synthetic Carbohydrate-Based Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2015-07-20

    Glycans are everywhere in biological systems, being involved in many cellular events with important implications for medical purposes. Building upon a detailed understanding of the functional roles of carbohydrates in molecular recognition processes and disease states, glycans are increasingly being considered as key players in pharmacological research. On the basis of the important progress recently made in glycochemistry, glycobiology, and glycomedicine, we provide a complete overview of successful applications and future perspectives of carbohydrates in the biopharmaceutical and medical fields. This review highlights the development of carbohydrate-based diagnostics, exemplified by glycan imaging techniques and microarray platforms, synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against infectious diseases (e.g., HIV) and cancer, and finally carbohydrate-derived therapeutics, including glycomimetic drugs and glycoproteins.

  8. Model fluids representing aqueous in-vitro diagnostic reagents for the development of dispensing systems.

    PubMed

    Losleben, Nadine; Spinke, Jürgen; Adler, Sabrina; Oranth, Norbert; Zengerle, Roland

    2013-11-01

    Analyzers for in-vitro diagnostic (IVD) testing facilitate the determination of medical information from biological samples. To reach a high quality, the detection reagents have to be dispensed with a high degree of precision and accuracy. A technology change from conventional pipetting systems to contact-free dispensers provides the opportunity to reduce carry-over and handle reagents in the microliter range. A great challenge for the development and validation of new systems is the huge variety of the IVD reagents. This work presents the fluidic properties of 646 different aqueous IVD reagents and how they can be represented by a set of easy-to-prepare model fluids, covering the rheological range of the reagents. In addition, based on the model fluids, a standardized approach is presented for the evaluation of dispensers for IVD applications.

  9. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. [Development of Standards for Baseline Quality in Quality Management of Molecular-Diagnostic Testing].

    PubMed

    Miyachi, Hayato

    2015-07-01

    As molecular-diagnostic testing is expanding in clinical use, the demand for its quality assurance is increasing. To this end, efforts towards quality management have been made regionally and globally. An entire testing procedure needs to be properly performed from the preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic processes. Particularly, the preanalytic process largely affects the measurement and, thus, the result. The Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory and Standard developed the standard documents, such as that for the quality management of clinical specimens and best-practice guideline for quality assurance of molecular-genetic testing. These standard documents would provide not only the requirements as the best practice for testing, but also the basis of baseline quality and reliability. They can be used as the basis for assessment of the quality of practice in reimbursement coverage by payers and in certification or accreditation by a third party.

  11. Development of class model based on blood biochemical parameters as a diagnostic tool of PSE meat.

    PubMed

    Qu, Daofeng; Zhou, Xu; Yang, Feng; Tian, Shiyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ma, Lin; Han, Jianzhong

    2017-06-01

    A fast, sensitive and effective method based on the blood biochemical parameters for the detection of PSE meat was developed in this study. A total of 200 pigs were slaughtered in the same slaughterhouse. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring pH, electrical conductivity and color at 45min, 2h and 24h after slaughtering in M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD). Blood biochemical parameters were determined in blood samples collected during carcass bleeding. Principal component analysis (PCA) biplot showed that high levels of exsanguination Creatine Kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase, Aspertate aminotransferase, blood glucose and lactate were associated with the PSE meat, and the five biochemical parameters were found to be good indicators of PSE meat Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was able to clearly identify PSE meat using the five biochemical parameters as input data, and the class model is an effective diagnostic tool in pigs which can be used to detect the PSE meat and reduce economic loss for the company.

  12. Development and construction of a comprehensive set of research diagnostics for the FLARE user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Jara-Almonte, J.; Majeski, S.; Frank, S.; Ji, H.; Yamada, M.

    2016-10-01

    FLARE (Facility for Laboratory Reconnection Experiments) will be operated as a flexible user facility, and so a complete set of research diagnostics is under development, including magnetic probe arrays, Langmuir probes, Mach probes, spectroscopic probes, and a laser interferometer. In order to accommodate the various requirements of users, large-scale (1 m), variable resolution (0.5-4 cm) magnetic probes have been designed, and are currently being prototyped. Moreover, a fully fiber-coupled laser interferometer has been designed to measure the line-integrated electron density. This fiber-coupled interferometer system will reduce the complexity of alignment processes and minimize maintenance of the system. Finally, improvements to the electrostatic probes and spectroscopic probes currently used in the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) are discussed. The specifications of other subsystems, such as integrators and digitizers, are also presented. This work is supported by DoE Contract No. DE-AC0209CH11466.

  13. Development of Short-Wavelength Far-Infrared Lasers and Optical Elements for Plasma Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Kazuya; Tomimoto, Masahiro; Okajima, Shigeki; Kawahata, Kazuo; Tanaka, Kenji; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Yasuhiko

    Powerful 48- and 57-μm CH3OD lasers pumped by a 9R(8) CO2 laser have been developed to establish a new two-color FIR laser interferometer system for high density and large volume plasma diagnostics. To design the collimated beams for the interferometer, the beam profiles and the divergence angles have been measured for the 48- and 57-μm CH3OD lasers oscillated simultaneously. Water vapor absorptions for the laser wavelengths have been measured at 22 °C C to realize an efficient transmission line. Optical constants and transmittance and reflectance of crystal quartz, silicon, CVD-diamond, polyethylene sheet, Mylar film, TPX plate, metal mesh and wire grid have been measured to design the optical components (observation windows and beam splitters) in the 48- and 57-μm laser interferometer system.

  14. Socio-cultural and global health perspectives for the development of future psychiatric diagnostic systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sing

    2002-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis and classification reflect the social and political context of an era and are embedded in it. In the last few decades, culture-bound syndromes reported in non-Western societies constituted the major focus of contention over the validity and universality of psychiatric diagnosis. In contemporary times, social, economic, and political factors, such as the hegemony of the DSM discourse, the managed care culture, pharmaceutical forces, and the global burden of disease study, have virtually made culture-bound syndromes 'disappear'. Once widely believed to be rare outside of the developed West, depression has rapidly become the master narrative of mental health worldwide. In the context of global mental health, the field of psychiatric classification must go beyond routine debates over categories. In order to address the growing discrepancy between needs and services, international cultural psychiatry must engage key social forces, such as psychiatric epidemiology, primary care psychiatry, integration of diagnostic systems, stigma, and advocacy.

  15. Spectral Catalogue of Kr Optical Lines for the Development of Diagnostics for Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, C.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Harris, C.L.; Utter, S.B.; Wong, K.L.

    2000-06-14

    We made an inventory of krypton spectra over the wavelength range 3700-6000 {angstrom} for the development of fusion plasma diagnostics. The measurements were performed using a Steinheil prism spectrometer on the LLNL low energy electron beam ion trap (EBIT II). With the electron energy from 150 eV to 17000 eV, we recorded low ionization stages together with a number of magnetic dipole transitions from higher charge states. In total, we observed over 80 lines, of which about 70% of the lines have not been listed in the literature. This measurement established a baseline for future extension using spectrometers with very high resolution. As an example, we present the Kr spectra from 3770 {angstrom} to 3900 {angstrom} measured with a transmission grating spectrometer that has a resolving power of about 15000. Among the 41 lines observed, only 6 lines have been listed in the databases.

  16. Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

  17. Development of recombinant nucleoprotein-based diagnostic systems for Lassa fever.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Masayuki; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Marianneau, Philippe; Romanowski, Victor; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Georges, Alain-Jean; Kurata, Takeshi; Kurane, Ichiro; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2007-09-01

    Diagnostic systems for Lassa fever (LF), a viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV), such as enzyme immunoassays for the detection of LASV antibodies and LASV antigens, were developed using the recombinant nucleoprotein (rNP) of LASV (LASV-rNP). The LASV-rNP was expressed in a recombinant baculovirus system. LASV-rNP was used as an antigen in the detection of LASV-antibodies and as an immunogen for the production of monoclonal antibodies. The LASV-rNP was also expressed in HeLa cells by transfection with the expression vector encoding cDNA of the LASV-NP gene. An immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using LASV-rNP and an indirect immunofluorescence assay using LASV-rNP-expressing HeLa cells were confirmed to have high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of LASV-antibodies. A novel monoclonal antibody to LASV-rNP, monoclonal antibody 4A5, was established. A sandwich antigen capture (Ag-capture) ELISA using the monoclonal antibody and an anti-LASV-rNP rabbit serum as capture and detection antibodies, respectively, was then developed. Authentic LASV nucleoprotein in serum samples collected from hamsters experimentally infected with LASV was detected by the Ag-capture ELISA. The Ag-capture ELISA specifically detected LASV-rNP but not the rNPs of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or Junin virus. The sensitivity of the Ag-capture ELISA in detecting LASV antigens was comparable to that of reverse transcription-PCR in detecting LASV RNA. These LASV rNP-based diagnostics were confirmed to be useful in the diagnosis of LF even in institutes without a high containment laboratory, since the antigens can be prepared without manipulation of the infectious viruses.

  18. Neutral Beam Source and Target Plasma for Development of a Local Electric Field Fluctuation Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.

  19. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

  20. Isotopic signatures: An important tool in today`s world

    SciTech Connect

    Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Benjamin, T.M.; Cappis, J.H.; Chamberlin, J.W.; Poths, H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1995-12-01

    High-sensitivity/high-accuracy actinide measurement techniques developed to support weapons diagnostic capabilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now being used for environmental monitoring. The measurement techniques used are Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), Alpha Spectrometry(AS), and High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry(HRGS). These techniques are used to address a wide variety of actinide inventory issues: Environmental surveillance, site characterizations, food chain member determination, sedimentary records of activities, and treaty compliance concerns. As little as 10 femtograms of plutonium can be detected in samples and isotopic signatures determined on samples containing sub-100 femtogram amounts. Uranium, present in all environmental samples, can generally yield isotopic signatures of anthropogenic origin when present at the 40 picogam/gram level. Solid samples (soils, sediments, fauna, and tissue) can range from a few particles to several kilograms in size. Water samples can range from a few milliliters to as much as 200 liters.

  1. Developing a diagnostic checklist of traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and signs for psoriasis: a Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a genetic basis. Its ill-defined causes make it difficult to diagnose. This study aims to develop a diagnostic checklist for psoriasis classification in the context of traditional Chinese medicine. Methods A Delphi study was conducted with three rounds by a panel of 16 dermatology experts to develop a checklist for traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and signs of psoriasis. Dermatology experts in psoriasis research, nine in Yunnan and seven in Beijing, were selected as the expert panel. The initial list of symptoms and signs in psoriasis was developed by reviewing the literature retrieved from Chinese and English journals. Experts rated each item of the list on a 5-point Likert scale. The list was revised and re-evaluated in the same manner for a total of 3 rounds before it was finalized. Results One hundred and thirty items were extracted from the literature review. After three rounds of expert ratings, 96 items were retained with eight domains: color, type and shape of skin lesion, physical expression, tongue and coating, pulse, associated factors, and living environment. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Kappa statistics indicated an inter-rater agreement in the final checklist. Conclusion A checklist containing 96 items in 8 domains was developed for psoriasis diagnosis using traditional Chinese medicine symptoms and signs. PMID:23663296

  2. Using hypermedia to develop an intelligent tutorial/diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Daniel; Williams, Robert; Yarborough, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    This is a tutorial/diagnostic system for training personnel in the use of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) Simulation Lab. It also provides a diagnostic capable of isolating lab failures at least to the major lab component. The system was implemented using Hypercard, which is an program of hypermedia running on Apple Macintosh computers. Hypercard proved to be a viable platform for the development and use of sophisticated tutorial systems and moderately capable diagnostic systems. This tutorial/diagnostic system uses the basic Hypercard tools to provide the tutorial. The diagnostic part of the system uses a simple interpreter written in the Hypercard language (Hypertalk) to implement the backward chaining rule based logic commonly found in diagnostic systems using Prolog. Some of the advantages of Hypercard in developing this type of system include sophisticated graphics, animation, sound and voice capabilities, its ability as a hypermedia tool, and its ability to include digitized pictures. The major disadvantage is the slow execution time for evaluation of rules (due to the interpretive processing of the language). Other disadvantages include the limitation on the size of the cards, that color is not supported, that it does not support grey scale graphics, and its lack of selectable fonts for text fields.

  3. The Roles and Developments needed for Diagnostics in the ITER Fusion Device

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Harnessing the power from Fusion on earth is an important and challenging task. Excellent work has been carried out in this area over the years with several demonstrations of the ability to produce power. Now, a new large device is being constructed in the south of France. This is called ITER. ITER is a large-scale scientific experiment that aims to demonstrate a possibility to produce commercial energy from fusion. This project is now well underway with the many teams working on the construction and completing various aspects of the design. This device will carry up to 15 MA of plasma current and produce about 500 MW of power, 400 MW approximately in high energy neutrons. The typical temperatures of the electrons inside this device are in the region of a few hundred million Kelvin. It is maintained using a magnetic field. This device is pushing several boundaries from those currently existing. As a result of this, several technologies need to be developed or extended. This is especially true for the systems or diagnostics that measure the performance and provide the control signals for this device. A diagnostic set will be installed on the ITER machine to provide the measurements necessary to control, evaluate and optimize plasma performance in ITER and to further the understanding of plasma physics. These include amongst others, measurements of the plasma shape, temperature, density, impurity concentration, and particle and energy confinement times. The system will comprise about 45 individual measuring systems drawn from the full range of modern plasma diagnostic techniques, including magnetics, lasers, X-rays, neutron cameras, impurity monitors, particle spectrometers, radiation bolometers, pressure and gas analysis, and optical fibres. These devices will have to be made to work in the new and challenging environment inside the vacuum vessel. These systems will have to cope with a range of phenomena that extend the current knowledge in the Fusion field. One

  4. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  5. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  6. Development and evaluation of virtual refrigerant mass flow sensors for fault detection and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, J.

    2016-03-05

    Refrigerant mass flow rate is an important measurement for monitoring equipment performance and enabling fault detection and diagnostics. However, a traditional mass flow meter is expensive to purchase and install. A virtual refrigerant mass flow sensor (VRMF) uses a mathematical model to estimate flow rate using low-cost measurements and can potentially be implemented at low cost. This study evaluates three VRMFs for estimating refrigerant mass flow rate. The first model uses a compressor map that relates refrigerant flow rate to measurements of inlet and outlet pressure, and inlet temperature measurements. The second model uses an energy-balance method on the compressor that uses a compressor map for power consumption, which is relatively independent of compressor faults that influence mass flow rate. The third model is developed using an empirical correlation for an electronic expansion valve (EEV) based on an orifice equation. The three VRMFs are shown to work well in estimating refrigerant mass flow rate for various systems under fault-free conditions with less than 5% RMS error. Each of the three mass flow rate estimates can be utilized to diagnose and track the following faults: 1) loss of compressor performance, 2) fouled condenser or evaporator filter, 3) faulty expansion device, respectively. For example, a compressor refrigerant flow map model only provides an accurate estimation when the compressor operates normally. When a compressor is not delivering the expected flow due to a leaky suction or discharge valve or other internal fault, the energy-balance or EEV model can provide accurate flow estimates. In this paper, the flow differences provide an indication of loss of compressor performance and can be used for fault detection and diagnostics.

  7. Development of a signature probe targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer of a ruminal Ruminococcus flavefaciens isolate from reindeer.

    PubMed

    Præsteng, K E; Mackie, R I; Cann, I K O; Mathiesen, S D; Sundset, M A

    2011-03-01

    The cellulolytic Ruminococcus flavefaciens has previously been introduced into the ruminant rumen to increase microbial degradation of plant cell wall carbohydrates. The functional effect of an introduced bacterium depends on its ability to establish in the digestive tract, and signature probes can be used as a tool to track and quantify introduced strains. The purpose of this current study was to develop an oligonucleotide signature probe targeting the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of a putative probiotic cellulolytic isolate (R. flavefaciens strain 8/94-32) from the rumen of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). The 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS of three Ruminococcus strains; R. flavefaciens strain 8/94-32, R. flavefaciens FD-1 and Ruminococcus albus Ra-8, was investigated. The ITS region has been reported to vary more between closely related bacteria compared to the widely used 16S rRNA gene, and a high degree of sequence polymorphism was indeed detected between the three Ruminococcus strains studied. Based on observed sequence differences, two oligonucloetide probes, ITSRumi1 and ITSRumi2, targeting the ITS region of the R. flavefaciens isolate 8/94-32 were developed. Probe specificity was evaluated in dot blot hybridisations with R. flavefaciens isolate 8/94-32 and four other Ruminococcus-strains tested. The probe ITSRumi1 gave positive signals for the R. flavefaciens isolate 8/94-32 only, while probe ITSRumi2 gave positive signals for R. flavefaciens isolate 8/94-32 as well as for R. albus Ra-8. The result of hybridisations with the probe ITSRumi1 indicates that the probe is specific for the R. flavefaciens strain 8/94-32 amongst the four Ruminococcus-strains tested, and is promising for further studies using it as a signature probe for tracking this strain when re-introduced to the reindeer rumen.

  8. Development of two quantitative real-time PCR diagnostic kits for HPV isolates from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeeva, Subbiah; Kim, Nam-Il; Jang, In-Kwon; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2012-10-01

    Viral pathogens, alongside other pathogens, have major effects on crustacean aquaculture. Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) is an emerging virus in the shrimp industry and has been detected in shrimp farms worldwide. The HPV genome has greater diversity than other shrimp viruses owing to its wide host range and geographical distribution. Therefore, developing diagnostic tools is essential to detect even small copy numbers from the target region of native HPV isolates. We have developed two easy to use quantitative real-time PCR kits, called Green Star and Dual Star, which contain all of the necessary components for real-time PCR, including HPV primers, using the primers obtained from the sequences of HPV isolates from Korea, and analyzed their specificity, efficiency, and reproducibility. These two kits could detect from 1 to 1 × 10(9) copies of cloned HPV DNA. The minimum detection limits obtained from HPV-infected shrimp were 7.74 × 10(1) and 9.06 × 10(1) copies in the Green Star and Dual Star assay kits, respectively. These kits can be used for rapid, sensitive, and efficient screening for HPV isolates from Korea before the introduction of postlarval stages into culture ponds, thereby decreasing the incidence of early development of the disease.

  9. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient's bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization. PMID:26885534

  10. Development of a new diagnostic sensor for extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, F.; Coleman, A. J.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.; Hurrell, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is the leading technique used in urology for the non-invasive treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. The stone is comminuted by thousands of ultrasound shocks, into fragments small enough to be naturally passed. Since the technique was introduced in the 1980 different generations of lithotripters have been developed. Nevertheless the alignment systems (x-ray, ultrasound) still have some limitations (indeed, the tighter focusing of newer lithotripter reduces the tolerance for misalignment) and there is no capability for on-line monitoring of the degree of fragmentation of the stone. There is 50% incidence of re-treatments, possibly due to these deficiencies. The objective of this research is to design a new passive acoustic sensor, exploiting the secondary acoustic emission generated during the treatment, which could be used as a diagnostic device for lithotripsy. With a passive cylindrical cavitation detector, developed by the National Physical Laboratory, it was possible to detect these emissions in a laboratory lithotripter, and it was shown that they contain information on the degree of stone fragmentation and stone location. This information could be used to perform the desired monitoring and to improve the stone targeting. In collaboration with Precision Acoustic Ltd, some clinical prototypes were developed and tested to verify the relevance of these preliminary results. Clinical results are presented.

  11. Diagnosis by numbers: defining skin disease pathogenesis through collated gene signatures.

    PubMed

    Salam, Amr; McGrath, John A

    2015-01-01

    Disease gene expression profiles can be utilized as biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic, and targeted therapeutic purposes, although individual data sets may be of limited generic value. To develop broader clinical relevance from disease gene signatures, Inkeles et al. demonstrate how mining publically available microarray data from a range of skin disorders can elucidate disease pathways, generate a multi-disease classifier, and identify potential therapeutic targets. This integrative molecular classification and functional analysis offers a new approach to understanding disease pathogenesis, with significant implications for diagnostics and the development of personalized medicine.

  12. Development of silicon photonic microring resonator biosensors for multiplexed cytokine assays and in vitro diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchansky, Matthew Sam

    In order to guide critical care therapies that are personalized to a patient's unique disease state, a diagnostic or theranostic medical device must quickly provide a detailed biomolecular understanding of disease onset and progression. This detailed molecular understanding of cellular processes and pathways requires the ability to measure multiple analytes in parallel. Though many traditional sensing technologies for biomarker analysis and fundamental biological studies (i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, etc.) rely on single-parameter measurements, it has become increasingly clear that the inherent complexity of many human illnesses and pathways necessitates quantitative and multiparameter analysis of biological samples. Currently used analytical methods are deficient in that they often provide either highly quantitative data for a single biomarker or qualitative data for many targets, but methods that simultaneously provide highly quantitative analysis of many targets have yet to be adequately developed. Fields such as medical diagnostics and cellular biology would benefit greatly from a technology that enables rapid, quantitative and reproducible assays for many targets within a single sample. In an effort to fill this unmet need, this doctoral dissertation describes the development of a clinically translational biosensing technology based on silicon photonics and developed in the chemistry research laboratory of Ryan C. Bailey. Silicon photonic microring resonators, a class of high-Q optical sensors, represent a promising platform for rapid, multiparameter in vitro measurements. The original device design utilizes 32-ring arrays for real-time biomolecular sensing without fluorescent labels, and these optical biosensors display great potential for more highly multiplexed (100s-1000s) measurements based on the impressive scalability of silicon device fabrication. Though this technology can be used to detect a variety of

  13. Genetic and Diagnostic Biomarker Development in ASD Toddlers Using Resting State Functional MRI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    connectivity networks during natural sleep as a neurologic biomarker for ASD that is suitable for diagnostic use in young children (ages 1-4). Existing...neuroimaging research. Currently, Dr. Fox specializes in Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Neuroimaging, having over 37 years experience in the field

  14. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Zylstra, A B; Rosenberg, M; Waugh, C J; Rinderknecht, H G; Casey, D T; Sio, H; Ruszczynski, J K; Zhou, L; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J

    2012-04-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) generates DD and D(3)He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for Omega, Z, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Significant improvements to the system in recent years are presented. Fusion reaction rates, as high as 10(7) s(-1) and 10(6) s(-1) for DD and D(3)He, respectively, are now well regulated with a new ion source and electronic gas control system. Charged fusion products are more accurately characterized, which allows for better calibration of existing nuclear diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are used to determine the metrology of the fusion-product source for particle-counting applications. Finally, neutron diagnostics development has been facilitated by detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) modeling of neutrons in the accelerator target chamber, which is used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform, which continues to support the existing nuclear diagnostics while simultaneously facilitating the development of new diagnostics in aid of the National Ignition Campaign at the National Ignition Facility.

  15. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  16. Development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, with over 500,000 deaths expected this year. While significant progress has been made in the treatment and management of cancer, challenges remain because of the complexity and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. The improvement that has been seen in survival rates reflects advancements not only in treatment, but also in early stage detection and diagnostics for certain cancers. In particular, early stage detection and treatment of cancer before it has metastasized to other organs has resulted in a dramatic improvement in patient survival rates. One area of research that has shown considerable promise in further advancing diagnostics and early cancer detection is nanotechnology. Specifically, semiconductor and metal nanoparticles have great potential to provide advanced technology platforms for ultrasensitive and multiplexed detection of disease markers and probe disease on the molecular level. Because they are in the same size regime as biological molecules, these nanoparticles exhibit unique interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomarkers of interest for detecting and diagnosing disease. However, high-quality nanoparticles are often unsuited for use in complex biological environments because of their coatings and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, we describe the design and development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for use in blood, cell and tissue diagnostic applications. First, low-molecular weight, amphiphilic polymers, with hydrocarbon chains capable of noncovalent interactions with nanoparticle surface ligands and a hydrophilic backbone to render the nanoparticle water soluble, were synthesized and characterized for use in nanoparticle coating applications. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the nanoparticle surface, the amphiphilic polymer and the aqueous solvent were able to drive the coating and water

  17. 42 CFR 424.36 - Signature requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... personal contact between the provider, hospital, or supplier and the beneficiary (for example, a physician sent a blood sample to the provider for diagnostic tests), a representative of the provider, hospital... Part B may be signed by the entity on the beneficiary's behalf. (e) Acceptance of other signatures...

  18. An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development

    SciTech Connect

    Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A.; Bennett, Nichelle L.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2013-06-13

    National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID COLLECTION DIAGNOSTICS ON NIF THROUGH BLAST SHIELD ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M; Shaughnessy, D A; Grant, P M; Hutcheon, I D; Lewis, L A; Moody, K J

    2011-12-15

    Radiochemical analysis of post-shot debris inside the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber can help determine various diagnostic parameters associated with the implosion efficiency of the fusion capsule. This capability is limited by the amount of target isotope that can be loaded inside the capsule ablator without affecting performance and the collection efficiency of the capsule debris after implosion. Prior to designing a collection system, the chemical nature and distribution of the debris inside the chamber must be determined and analysis methods developed. The focus of our current work has been on determining the elemental composition and distribution of debris on various blast shields and witness plates that were exposed to the chamber during ignition shots that occurred in 2009. These passive collection plates were used to develop both non-destructive and chemical analysis techniques to determine debris composition and melt depth at various shot energy profiles. A summary of these data will be presented along with our current strategy for the 2011 campaign.

  20. Lesson 6: Signature Validation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Checklist items 13 through 17 are grouped under the Signature Validation Process, and represent CROMERR requirements that the system must satisfy as part of ensuring that electronic signatures it receives are valid.

  1. Use of CRISPR-modified human stem cell organoids to study the origin of mutational signatures in cancer.

    PubMed

    Drost, Jarno; van Boxtel, Ruben; Blokzijl, Francis; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Nobuo; Sasselli, Valentina; de Ligt, Joep; Behjati, Sam; Grolleman, Judith E; van Wezel, Tom; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Kuiper, Roland P; Cuppen, Edwin; Clevers, Hans

    2017-09-14

    Mutational processes underlie cancer initiation and progression. Signatures of these processes in cancer genomes may explain cancer etiology, and hold diagnostic and prognostic value. Here, we develop a strategy that can be used to explore the origin of cancer-associated mutational signatures. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to delete key DNA repair genes in human colon organoids, followed by delayed sub-cloning and whole-genome sequencing. We found that mutation accumulation in organoids deficient in the mismatch repair gene MLH1 is driven by replication errors and accurately models the mutation profiles observed in mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancers. Application of this strategy to the cancer predisposition gene NTHL1, which encodes a base excision repair protein, revealed a mutational footprint (signature 30) previously observed in a breast cancer cohort. We show that signature 30 can arise from germline NTHL1 mutations. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  3. Development of microfluidics as endothelial progenitor cell capture technology for cardiovascular tissue engineering and diagnostic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Plouffe, Brian D.; Kniazeva, Tatiana; Mayer, John E.; Murthy, Shashi K.; Sales, Virna L.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a unique microfluidic platform capable of capturing circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) by understanding surface chemistries and adhesion profiles. The surface of a variable-shear-stress microfluidic device was conjugated with 6 different antibodies [anti-CD34, -CD31, -vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), -CD146, -CD45, and -von Willebrand factor (vWF)] designed to match the surface antigens on ovine peripheral blood-derived EPCs. Microfluidic analysis showed a shear-stress-dependent decrease in EPC adhesion on attached surface antigens. EPCs exhibited increased adhesion to antibodies against CD34, VEGFR-2, CD31, and CD146 compared to CD45, consistent with their endothelial cell-specific surface profile, when exposed to a minimum shear stress of 1.47 dyn/cm2. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and artery-derived endothelial and smooth muscle cells were used to demonstrate the specificity of the EPC microfluidic device. Coated hematopoietic specific-surface (CD45) and granular vWF antibodies, as well as uncoated bare glass and substrate (1% BSA), were utilized as controls. Microfluidic devices have been developed as an EPC capture platform using immobilized antibodies targeted as EPC surface antigens. This EPC chip may provide a new and effective tool for addressing challenges in cardiovascular disease and tissue engineering.—Plouffe, B. D., Kniazeva, T., Mayer, J. E., Jr., Murthy, S. K., Sales, V. L. Development of microfluidics as endothelial progenitor cell capture technology for cardiovascular tissue engineering and diagnostic medicine. PMID:19487310

  4. Microfluidics-based diagnostics of infectious diseases in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Chin, Curtis D; Laksanasopin, Tassaneewan; Cheung, Yuk Kee; Steinmiller, David; Linder, Vincent; Parsa, Hesam; Wang, Jennifer; Moore, Hannah; Rouse, Robert; Umviligihozo, Gisele; Karita, Etienne; Mwambarangwe, Lambert; Braunstein, Sarah L; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Sahabo, Ruben; Justman, Jessica E; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Sia, Samuel K

    2011-07-31

    One of the great challenges in science and engineering today is to develop technologies to improve the health of people in the poorest regions of the world. Here we integrated new procedures for manufacturing, fluid handling and signal detection in microfluidics into a single, easy-to-use point-of-care (POC) assay that faithfully replicates all steps of ELISA, at a lower total material cost. We performed this 'mChip' assay in Rwanda on hundreds of locally collected human samples. The chip had excellent performance in the diagnosis of HIV using only 1 μl of unprocessed whole blood and an ability to simultaneously diagnose HIV and syphilis with sensitivities and specificities that rival those of reference benchtop assays. Unlike most current rapid tests, the mChip test does not require user interpretation of the signal. Overall, we demonstrate an integrated strategy for miniaturizing complex laboratory assays using microfluidics and nanoparticles to enable POC diagnostics and early detection of infectious diseases in remote settings.

  5. Role of Interferons in the Development of Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Therapy for Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kai Ling; Sarmiento, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). About one-third of the world's population is latently infected with TB and 5–15% of them will develop active TB in their lifetime. It is estimated that each case of active TB may cause 10–20 new infections. Host immune response to Mtb is influenced by interferon- (IFN-) signaling pathways, particularly by type I and type II interferons (IFNs). The latter that consists of IFN-γ has been associated with the promotion of Th1 immune response which is associated with protection against TB. Although this aspect remains controversial at present due to the lack of established correlates of protection, currently, there are different prophylactic, diagnostic, and immunotherapeutic approaches in which IFNs play an important role. This review summarizes the main aspects related with the biology of IFNs, mainly associated with TB, as well as presents the main applications of these cytokines related to prophylaxis, diagnosis, and immunotherapy of TB. PMID:28713838

  6. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  7. Development of distance accuracy measurement program for quality control of diagnostic ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yon-Min; Kim, Moon-Chan; Han, Dong-Kyoon; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of a diagnostic ultrasound system is important. Above all, establishing standards for such evaluations in an objective and systematic way is critical. However, quality control is currently measured based on subjective judgment of an observer. Against this background, this study intended to suggest quantified and objective data that would enable inter-observer variation to be overcome. Five radiological technologists used an ATS-539 multi-purpose ultrasound phantom to conduct measurements in the predetermined method. A digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard image was obtained in an ultrasound system by using a self-developed software to measure the accuracy of the distance before the 95% confidence interval was calculated. In order to examine the accuracy of the distance in longitudinal and transverse measurements, we conducted t-tests to evaluate the significance for the results of quality control that was performed manually for the past one year and for the results of quality control that was performed by using software with the same equipment. For the longitudinal and the transverse measurements, the 95% confidence intervals were 100.96-101.29 mm and 83.18-84.26 mm, respectively. The computerized longitudinal measurement showed no significant difference from the manual measurement ( p > 0.05). The results of measurements using of software showed a higher reproducibility.

  8. Myelography as a stand-alone diagnostic procedure for degenerative spine disease in developing nations.

    PubMed

    Park, Bert Edward; Kitya, David

    2010-04-01

    The use of "stand-alone" contrast myelography (i.e., without computed tomography) has a proven track record in developing nations where few patients have access to magnetic resonance imaging, whether on the basis of prohibitive cost or the absence of such a modality altogether. To substantiate the author's 12-year experience with more than 300 myelograms performed in 16 different countries (plus some 1500 studies during 30 years of practice in the United States), a prospective pilot study was undertaken over 1 month in a community-based neurosurgical setting in western Kenya. Forty patients underwent cervical or lumbar myelography at Tenwek Hospital under the auspices of the Neurosurgery Training Program for East, Central, and South Africa (NSTP-ECSA) following failure of conservative measures to treat spine-related pathology. Thirty-five of the forty patients (88%) came to definitive surgery on the basis of a positive study that correlated with their clinical history and physical examination. There were no significant complications from the procedures, and no false-positive studies, with virtually all patients returning to normal activity and/or gainful employment within 3 weeks of their surgery. Myelography as a stand-alone diagnostic procedure is a sensitive, specific, and cost-effective means of diagnosing symptomatic degenerative spine disorders. Accordingly, its use should be encouraged at every NSTP-ECSA training site to address such ubiquitous pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Uptake and Diagnostic Yield of Chromosomal Microarray in an Australian Child Development Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Mordaunt, Dylan; Gabbett, Michael; Waugh, Melanie; O’Brien, Karen; Heussler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Autism is an etiologically heterogeneous developmental disorder for which the range of genetic investigations has expanded considerably over the past decade. Introduction of chromosomal microarray (CMA) to clinical practice has expanded the range of conditions which pediatricians are able to detect. This study reviewed the utilization, yield and cost of genetic investigations in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in an Australian metropolitan child development service. Six hundred and ninety eight patients with PDD were identified from the clinic population. One hundred and ten (15.7%) of the clinic population had undergone investigation with chromosomal microarray, 140 (20.0%) with karyotype (KT), and 167 (23.9%) with Fragile X testing (FRGX). Twelve (10.9%) CMA findings were reported, of which seven (6.3%) were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Five (3.5%) KT findings were reported, of which four (2.9%) were felt to be the likely cause of the child’s clinical features. Two patients (1.2%) were identified with Fragile X expansions. One fifth of the clinic’s recent PDD population had undergone testing with CMA. CMA appears to have increased the diagnostic yield of the genetic investigation of autism, in line with internationally reported levels. Number needed to test (NNT) and cost per incremental diagnosis, were also in line with internationally reported levels. PMID:27417464

  10. Development and application of diagnostic instrumentation for measurement of electron density and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this contract was to assemble and demonstrate in the laboratory a Faraday rotation system for measurement of electron density and conductivity, with the intent to produce a system suitable for diagnostic support of the development of pulsed, space-based magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems. Two system configurations were tested: (1) a rotating polarizer and (2) a beam splitting polarizer. Due to the short path length plasma produced in the laboratory flame, the long wavelength 496 {mu}m methyl fluoride laser line was used and only the more sensitive rotating polarizer configuration was used for the demonstration experiments. Electron number densities from 2 {times} 10{sup 19} to 9 {times} 10{sup 19} were measured with good agreement to statistical equilibrium (Saha) calculations using emission absorption-measured flame temperatures and neutral seed atom number seed atom nuclear densities. The electron collision frequencies were measured by transmission measurements. Combining these two measurements gave measured electron conductivities of between 4 and 12 mohs/m. These results compared reasonably well with those found with an electron collision frequency model combined with chemical equilibrium calculations and the emission absorption measurements. Ellipticity measurements of electron collision frequency were not possible due to the short path length of the laboratory plasma. 46 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. An accelerator based fusion-product source for development of inertial confinement fusion nuclear diagnostics.

    PubMed

    McDuffee, S C; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Leiter, R; Canavan, M J; Casey, D T; Rygg, J R; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2008-04-01

    A fusion-product source, utilizing a 150 kV Cockraft-Walton linear accelerator, has been refurbished to provide a reliable nuclear diagnostic development tool to the national inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research program. The accelerator is capable of routinely generating DD reaction rates at approximately 10(7)/s when using a 150 kV, 150 microA deuterium (D) beam onto an erbium (Er) or titanium (Ti) target doped with D, and D(3)He reaction rates at approximately 5 x 10(5)/s when using a using a 120 kV, approximately 100 microA D beam onto a Er or Ti target doped with (3)He. The new accelerator is currently being used in a number of projects related to the national ICF program at the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)], which includes the wedge range filter charged-particle spectrometry program [F. H. Seguin et al., Rev. Sci Instrum. 75, 3520 (2004)] and the magnetic recoil neutron spectrometer [J. A. Frenje et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 854 (2001)].

  12. Diagnostic medical imaging radiation exposure and risk of development of solid and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Berkes, Marschall B; Dy, Christopher J; Bogner, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Limiting patients' exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic imaging is of concern to patients and clinicians. Large single-dose exposures and cumulative exposures to ionizing radiation have been associated with solid tumors and hematologic malignancy. Although these associations have been a driving force in minimizing patients' exposure, significant risks are found when diagnoses are missed and subsequent treatment is withheld. Therefore, based on epidemiologic data obtained after nuclear and occupational exposures, dose exposure limits have been estimated. A recent collaborative effort between the US Food and Drug Administration and the American College of Radiology has provided information and tools that patients and imaging professionals can use to avoid unnecessary ionizing radiation scans and ensure use of the lowest feasible radiation dose necessary for studies. Further collaboration, research, and development should focus on producing technological advances that minimize individual study exposures and duplicate studies. This article outlines the research used to govern safe radiation doses, defines recent initiatives in decreasing radiation exposure, and provides orthopedic surgeons with techniques that may help decrease radiation exposure in their daily practice.

  13. Development of a Multichannel Spectrometer for the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2011-10-01

    To explore electron transport in helicity-driven discharges and investigate edge stability, a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed. Red-shifted scattered light from the Nd:YAG laser, 532-632 nm, is imaged using a custom lens coupled to fiber optic cables capable of imaging 1.4 cm along the length of the laser beam. Initially 1 spectrometer, containing up to 8 radial spatial points will be available for detection, with an upgrade to 3 spectrometers planned in the near future. New high efficiency volume phase holographic gratings, with > 75% transmission, allow for a simplified spectrometer design. This provides high optical throughput and readily couples to new high quantum efficiency (~45%) image intensified CCD cameras for multichannel design. These cameras can be gated to as low as 2 ns. The two gratings fabricated for this system (2971 lines/mm and 2072 lines/mm) cover the design temperature range of 10 eV to 1 keV. Completing the spectrometer are high quality lenses with focal lengths of 130 cm on the collimating lens and 85 cm on the exit lens. This design has a spectral range compatible with the blue shift from a conventional ruby laser and allows for a compact, simplified system. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  14. Nanotechnology-based approaches for the development of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; Rastogi, Anshu; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Srivastava, Shiv

    2014-06-01

    The architecture of nanoparticles of biological origin, generally also known as bionanoparticles, presents several features that are ideal for their use in developing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In this regard, particles formed by viral proteins using recombinant DNA technology resemble authentic virus particles. However, they lack infectivity due to the absence of genetic components such as DNA or RNA. Hence, they are designated as virus-like particles (VLP). VLPs possess the following characteristics: (1) they can be generated by either a single or a few viral proteins; (2) their size, formed by viral proteins, is in the range of 20 to100 nm; (3) the number of protein molecules required for particle assembly is from hundreds to thousands, depending on the VLP; (4) the protein(s) responsible for their assembly are amenable for manipulation; and (5) multiple proteins/peptides can be incorporated into a VLP. The potential advantages of VLPs directed by retroviral proteins are discussed in this review.

  15. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  16. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  17. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  18. Development of a Novel, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Invasive Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Gardiner, M.D...Novel, Non-Invasive Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-05-1-0092 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...patients with prostate cancer so that transrectal ultrasound guided biopsies can be restricted to men harboring PCa. Our broad strategy will involve

  19. Validation of a TaqMan diagnostic assay for the systematic development of Phytophthora genus and species specific markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Phytophthora contains many species that are not native to the USA and have the potential to cause significant damage to agriculture and native ecosystems. A genus and species-specific diagnostic assay was developed based on mitochondrial gene order differences that allowed for the systemat...

  20. Using next-generation sequencing to develop molecular diagnostics for Pseudoperonospora cubensis, the cucurbit downy mildew pathogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) allow for rapid development of genomics resources needed to generate molecular diagnostics assays