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Sample records for diagnostic signature development

  1. Developing Urinary Metabolomic Signatures as Early Bladder Cancer Diagnostic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chong; Sun, Zeyu; Chen, Deying; Su, Xiaoling; Jiang, Jing; Li, Gonghui; Lin, Biaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection is vital to improve the overall survival rate of bladder cancer (BCa) patients, yet there is a lack of a reliable urine-based assay for early detection of BCa. Urine metabolites represented a potential rich source of biomarkers for BCa. This study aimed to develop a metabolomics approach for high coverage discovery and identification of metabolites in urine samples. Urine samples from 23 early stage BCa patients and 21 healthy volunteers with minimum sample preparations were analyzed by a short 30 min UPLC-HRMS method. We detected and quantified over 9000 unique UPLC-HRMS features, which is more than four times than about 2000 features detected in previous urine metabolomic studies. Furthermore, multivariate OPLS-DA classification models were established to differentiate urine samples from bladder cancer cohort and normal health cohort. We identified three BCa-upregulated metabolites: nicotinuric acid, trehalose, AspAspGlyTrp, and three BCa-downregulated metabolites: inosinic acid, ureidosuccinic acid, GlyCysAlaLys. Finally, analysis of six post-surgery BCa urine samples showed that these BCa-metabolomic features reverted to normal state after tumor removal, suggesting that they reflected metabolomic features associated with BCa. ROC analyses using two linear regression models to combine the identified markers showed a high diagnostic performance for detecting BCa with AUC (area under the ROC curve) values of 0.919 to 0.934. In summary, we developed a high coverage metabolomic approach that has potential for biomarker discovery in cancers. PMID:25562196

  2. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.

  3. Draft versus finished sequence data for DNA and protein diagnostic signature development

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M W; Smith, J R; Torres, C L; Slezak, T R

    2004-10-29

    Sequencing pathogen genomes is costly, demanding careful allocation of limited sequencing resources. We built a computational Sequencing Analysis Pipeline (SAP) to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing necessary to develop high-quality diagnostic DNA and protein signatures. SAP uses simulations to estimate the number of target genomes and close phylogenetic relatives (near neighbors, or NNs) to sequence. We use SAP to assess whether draft data is sufficient or finished sequencing is required using Marburg and variola virus sequences. Simulations indicate that intermediate to high quality draft with error rates of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -5} ({approx} 8x coverage) of target organisms is suitable for DNA signature prediction. Low quality draft with error rates of {approx} 1% (3x to 6x coverage) of target isolates is inadequate for DNA signature prediction, although low quality draft of NNs is sufficient, as long as the target genomes are of high quality. For protein signature prediction, sequencing errors in target genomes substantially reduce the detection of amino acid sequence conservation, even if the draft is of high quality. In summary, high quality draft of target and low quality draft of NNs appears to be a cost-effective investment for DNA signature prediction, but may lead to underestimation of predicted protein signatures.

  4. Diagnostic marker signature for esophageal cancer from transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Warnecke-Eberz, Ute; Metzger, Ralf; Hölscher, Arnulf H; Drebber, Uta; Bollschweiler, Elfriede

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. Diagnostic markers are needed for achieving a cure in esophageal cancer detecting and treating tumor cells earlier. In patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC), we profiled the gene expression of ESCC compared to corresponding normal biopsies for diagnostic markers by genome microarrays. Profiling of gene expression identified 4844 genes differentially expressed, 2122 upregulated and 2722 downregulated in ESCC. Twenty-three overexpressed candidates with best scores from significance analysis have been selected for further analysis by TaqMan low-density array-technique using a validation cohort of 40 patients. The verification rate was 100 % for ESCC. Twenty-two markers were additionally overexpressed in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (EAC). The markers significantly overexpressed already in earlier tumor stages (pT1-2) of both histological subtypes (n = 19) have been clustered in a "diagnostic signature": PLA2G7, PRAME, MMP1, MMP3, MMP12, LIlRB2, TREM2, CHST2, IGFBP2, IGFBP7, KCNJ8, EMILIN2, CTHRC1, EMR2, WDR72, LPCAT1, COL4A2, CCL4, and SNX10. The marker signature will be translated to clinical practice to prove its diagnostic impact. This diagnostic signature may contribute to the earlier detection of tumor cells, with the aim to complement clinical techniques resulting in the development of better detection of concepts of esophageal cancer for earlier therapy and more favorite prognosis. PMID:26631031

  5. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  6. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  7. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  8. Development of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mankoff, David A.; Edmonds, Christine E.; Farwell, Michael D.; Pryma, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient’s cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has “hit” the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2–targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic. PMID:26687857

  9. The Radial Velocity Signature and Line Diagnostics Arising from Realistic, Rotating Stellar Plage Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven; Dumusque, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The radial velocity (RV) signature of starspots has been well-studied and methods to mitigate for them have been developed. The RV signature of magnetic plage is smaller, but more complex (since plage differs from its surroundings more by velocity than intensity) and less well understood. There are reasons however to expect that RV jitter from plage may be important, especially in low to moderate activity stars. We explore the RV effects of stellar plage by taking spatially resolved solar line bisectors in and out of plage at various limb angles to construct semi-empirical stellar intensity profiles profiles of different strengths. These lines are placed on model stars with various plage configurations, rotated, and disk-integrated. The resulting spectra are analyzed to yield the RV and various line and cross-correlation profile diagnostics as a function of rotational phase. We discuss the results and some ideas for mitigating the inferred RV signatures.

  10. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  11. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. PMID:26854149

  12. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  13. Development of Asset Fault Signatures for Prognostic and Health Management in the Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2014-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: Diagnostic Advisor, Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and Remaining Useful Life Database. This paper focuses on development of asset fault signatures to assess the health status of generator step-up generators and emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants. Asset fault signatures describe the distinctive features based on technical examinations that can be used to detect a specific fault type. At the most basic level, fault signatures are comprised of an asset type, a fault type, and a set of one or more fault features (symptoms) that are indicative of the specified fault. The AFS Database is populated with asset fault signatures via a content development exercise that is based on the results of intensive technical research and on the knowledge and experience of technical experts. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  14. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Spacecraft Circuit Diagnostics by Analog and Complex Signature Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Wade, Raymond P.; Izadnegahdar, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is aimed at developing technologies that will enable space-flight crews to perform in situ component-level repair of electronics on Moon and Mars outposts, where there is no existing infrastructure for logistics spares. These technologies must provide effective repair capabilities yet meet the payload and operational constraints of space facilities. Effective repair depends on a diagnostic capability that is versatile but easy to use by crew members that have limited training in electronics. CLEAR studied two techniques that involve extensive precharacterization of "known good" circuits to produce graphical signatures that provide an easy-to-use comparison method to quickly identify faulty components. Analog Signature Analysis (ASA) allows relatively rapid diagnostics of complex electronics by technicians with limited experience. Because of frequency limits and the growing dependence on broadband technologies, ASA must be augmented with other capabilities. To meet this challenge while preserving ease of use, CLEAR proposed an alternative called Complex Signature Analysis (CSA). Tests of ASA and CSA were used to compare capabilities and to determine if the techniques provided an overlapping or complementary capability. The results showed that the methods are complementary.

  15. Evaluation of Signature Erosion in Ebola Virus Due to Genomic Drift and Its Impact on the Performance of Diagnostic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Holland, Mitchell Y.; Hall, Adrienne T.; Negrón, Daniel A.; Ivancich, Mychal; Koehler, Jeffrey W.; Minogue, Timothy D.; Campbell, Catherine E.; Berger, Walter J.; Christopher, George W.; Goodwin, Bruce G.; Smith, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome sequence analyses of the 2014 Ebola Virus (EBOV) isolates revealed a potential problem with the diagnostic assays currently in use; i.e., drifting genomic profiles of the virus may affect the sensitivity or even produce false-negative results. We evaluated signature erosion in ebolavirus molecular assays using an in silico approach and found frequent potential false-negative and false-positive results. We further empirically evaluated many EBOV assays, under real time PCR conditions using EBOV Kikwit (1995) and Makona (2014) RNA templates. These results revealed differences in performance between assays but were comparable between the old and new EBOV templates. Using a whole genome approach and a novel algorithm, termed BioVelocity, we identified new signatures that are unique to each of EBOV, Sudan virus (SUDV), and Reston virus (RESTV). Interestingly, many of the current assay signatures do not fall within these regions, indicating a potential drawback in the past assay design strategies. The new signatures identified in this study may be evaluated with real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) assay development and validation. In addition, we discuss regulatory implications and timely availability to impact a rapidly evolving outbreak using existing but perhaps less than optimal assays versus redesign these assays for addressing genomic changes. PMID:26090727

  16. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  17. A new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature of melanoma revealed by integrated microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wanting

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide microarray technology has facilitated the systematic discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of cancers and other pathologies. However, meta-analyses of published arrays often uncover significant inconsistencies that hinder advances in clinical practice. Here we present an integrated microarray analysis framework, based on a genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS) model. When applied to five microarray datasets on melanoma published between 2000 and 2011, this method revealed a new signature of 200 genes. When these were linked to so-called ‘melanoma driver’ genes involved in MAPK, Ca2+, and WNT signaling pathways we were able to produce a new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature for melanoma (i.e., EGFR, FGFR2, FGFR3, IL8, PTPRF, TNC, CXCL13, COL11A1, CHP2, SHC4, PPP2R2C, and WNT4). We have begun to experimentally validate a subset of these genes involved in MAPK signaling at the protein level, including CXCL13, COL11A1, PTPRF and SHC4 and found these to be over-expressed in metastatic and primary melanoma cells in vitro and in situ compared to melanocytes cultured from healthy skin epidermis and normal healthy human skin. While SHC4 has been reported previously to be associated to melanoma, this is the first time CXCL13, COL11A1, and PTPRF have been associated with melanoma on experimental validation. Our computational evaluation indicates that this 12-gene biomarker signature achieves excellent diagnostic power in distinguishing metastatic melanoma from normal skin and benign nevus. Further experimental validation of the role of these 12 genes in a new signaling network may provide new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms driving the progression of melanoma. PMID:23638386

  18. New developments in malaria diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Versteeg, Inge; Migchelsen, Stephanie J; González, Iveth J; Perkins, Mark D; Mens, Petra F; Schallig, Henk DFH

    2012-01-01

    Currently available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria show large variation in sensitivity and specificity, and there are concerns about their stability under field conditions. To improve current RDTs, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for novel malaria antigens have been developed and screened for their possible use in new diagnostic tests. Three antigens, glutamate rich protein (GLURP), dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and heme detoxification protein (HDP), were selected based on literature searches. Recombinant antigens were produced and used to immunize mice. Antibody-producing cell lines were subsequently selected and the resulting antibodies were screened for specificity against Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The most optimal antibody couples were selected based on antibody affinity (expressed as dissociation constants, KD) and detection limit of crude antigen extract from P. falciparum 3D7 culture. The highest affinity antibodies have KD values of 0.10 nM ± 0.014 (D5) and 0.068 ± 0.015 nM (D6) for DHFR-TS mAbs, 0.10 ± 0.022 nM (H16) and 0.21 ± 0.022 nM (H18) for HDP mAbs and 0.11 ± 0.028 nM (G23) and 0.33 ± 0.093 nM (G22) for GLURP mAbs. The newly developed antibodies performed at least as well as commercially available histidine rich protein antibodies (KD of 0.16 ± 0.13 nM for PTL3 and 1.0 ± 0.049 nM for C1–13), making them promising reagents for further test development. PMID:22327435

  19. Current developments in salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D; Bailey, Alison L; Campell, Charles L; Humphries, Roger L; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N; Simmons, Glennon; Bhagwandin, Bryon; Jacobson, James W; Redding, Spencer W; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; McDevitt, John T

    2010-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field that has progressed through several important developments in the past decade, including the publication of the human salivary proteome and the infusion of federal funds to integrate nanotechnologies and microfluidic engineering concepts into developing compact point-of-care devices for rapid analysis of this secretion. In this article, we discuss some of these developments and their relevance to the prognosis, diagnosis and management of periodontitis, as an oral target, and cardiovascular disease, as a systemic example for the potential of these biodiagnostics. Our findings suggest that several biomarkers are associated with distinct biological stages of these diseases and demonstrate promise as practical biomarkers in identifying and managing periodontal disease, and acute myocardial infarction. The majority of these studies have progressed through biomarker discovery, with the identified molecules requiring more robust clinical studies to enable substantive validation for disease diagnosis. It is predicted that with continued advances in this field the use of a combination of biomarkers in multiplex panels is likely to yield accurate screening tools for these diagnoses in the near future. PMID:20387312

  20. Immune-Signatures for Lung Cancer Diagnostics: Evaluation of Protein Microarray Data Normalization Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Stefanie; Soldo, Regina; Kreuzhuber, Roman; Hofer, Philipp; Gsur, Andrea; Weinhaeusel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    New minimal invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of lung cancer are urgently needed. It is known that the immune system responds to tumors with production of tumor-autoantibodies. Protein microarrays are a suitable highly multiplexed platform for identification of autoantibody signatures against tumor-associated antigens (TAA). These microarrays can be probed using 0.1 mg immunoglobulin G (IgG), purified from 10 µL of plasma. We used a microarray comprising recombinant proteins derived from 15,417 cDNA clones for the screening of 100 lung cancer samples, including 25 samples of each main histological entity of lung cancer, and 100 controls. Since this number of samples cannot be processed at once, the resulting data showed non-biological variances due to “batch effects”. Our aim was to evaluate quantile normalization, “distance-weighted discrimination” (DWD), and “ComBat” for their effectiveness in data pre-processing for elucidating diagnostic immune-signatures. “ComBat” data adjustment outperformed the other methods and allowed us to identify classifiers for all lung cancer cases versus controls and small-cell, squamous cell, large-cell, and adenocarcinoma of the lung with an accuracy of 85%, 94%, 96%, 92%, and 83% (sensitivity of 0.85, 0.92, 0.96, 0.88, 0.83; specificity of 0.85, 0.96, 0.96, 0.96, 0.83), respectively. These promising data would be the basis for further validation using targeted autoantibody tests.

  1. Developing Score Reports for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mary Roduta; Gierl, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a framework to provide a structured approach for developing score reports for cognitive diagnostic assessments ("CDAs"). Guidelines for reporting and presenting diagnostic scores are based on a review of current educational test score reporting practices and literature from the area of information design. A sample diagnostic…

  2. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Colleen F; Shah, Maunank

    2014-08-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  3. Economic challenges associated with tuberculosis diagnostic development

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Shah, Maunank

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains a global health crisis in part due to underdiagnosis. Technological innovations are needed to improve diagnostic test accuracy and reduce the reliance on expensive laboratory infrastructure. However, there are significant economic challenges impeding the development and implementation of new diagnostics. The aim of this piece is to examine the current state of TB diagnostics, outline the unmet needs for new tests, and detail the economic challenges associated with development of new tests from the perspective of developers, policy makers and implementers. PMID:24766367

  4. Small business development for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Anagostou, Anthanasia; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Molecular profiling, which is the application of molecular diagnostics technology to tissue and blood -specimens, is an integral element in the new era of molecular medicine and individualized therapy. Molecular diagnostics is a fertile ground for small business development because it can generate products that meet immediate demands in the health-care sector: (a) Detection of disease risk, or early-stage disease, with a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to previous testing methods, and (b) "Companion diagnostics" for stratifying patients to receive a treatment choice optimized to their individual disease. This chapter reviews the promise and challenges of business development in this field. Guidelines are provided for the creation of a business model and the generation of a marketing plan around a candidate molecular diagnostic product. Steps to commercialization are outlined using existing molecular diagnostics companies as learning examples.

  5. The Development of Articulatory Signatures in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Latika; Singh, Nandini C.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to perceive and produce sounds at multiple time scales is a skill necessary for the acquisition of language. Unlike speech perception, which develops early in life, the production of speech sounds starts at a few months and continues into late childhood with the development of speech-motor skills. Though there is detailed information…

  6. Development of forensic assay signatures for ebolaviruses.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Doggett, Norman; Wren, Melinda; Burr, Tom; Fenimore, P W; Hatcher, Eneida L; Bruno, William J; Li, Po-E; Stubben, Chris; Wolinsky, Murray

    2015-03-01

    Ebolaviruses are a diverse group of RNA viruses comprising five different species, four of which cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. Because of their high infectivity and lethality, ebolaviruses are considered major biothreat agents. Although detection assays exist, no forensic assays are currently available. Here, we report the development of forensic assays that differentiate ebolaviruses. We performed phylogenetic analyses and identified canonical SNPs for all species, major clades and isolates. TaqMan-MGB allelic discrimination assays based on these SNPs were designed, screened against synthetic RNA templates, and validated against ebolavirus genomic RNAs. A total of 45 assays were validated to provide 100% coverage of the species and variants with additional resolution at the isolate level. These assays enabled accurate forensic analysis on 4 "unknown" ebolaviruses. Unknowns were correctly classified to species and variant. A goal of providing resolution below the isolate level was not successful. These high-resolution forensic assays allow rapid and accurate genotyping of ebolaviruses for forensic investigations.

  7. Development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Frank G.; Machura, Shirley

    The development of the Alberta Diagnostic Reading Program (ADRP) was based on a current psycholinguistic theory that describes reading as a process in which the reader uses background information to communicate with the author. To ensure its usefulness and effectiveness, the developers of the ADRP sought the advice and direct involvement of many…

  8. Sparse Modeling Reveals miRNA Signatures for Diagnostics of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Hübenthal, Matthias; Hemmrich-Stanisak, Georg; Degenhardt, Frauke; Szymczak, Silke; Du, Zhipei; Elsharawy, Abdou; Keller, Andreas; Schreiber, Stefan; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) still remains a clinical challenge and the most accurate diagnostic procedure is a combination of clinical tests including invasive endoscopy. In this study we evaluated whether systematic miRNA expression profiling, in conjunction with machine learning techniques, is suitable as a non-invasive test for the major IBD phenotypes (Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)). Based on microarray technology, expression levels of 863 miRNAs were determined for whole blood samples from 40 CD and 36 UC patients and compared to data from 38 healthy controls (HC). To further discriminate between disease-specific and general inflammation we included miRNA expression data from other inflammatory diseases (inflammation controls (IC): 24 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 23 multiple sclerosis, 38 pancreatitis and 45 sarcoidosis cases) as well as 70 healthy controls from previous studies. Classification problems considering 2, 3 or 4 groups were solved using different types of penalized support vector machines (SVMs). The resulting models were assessed regarding sparsity and performance and a subset was selected for further investigation. Measured by the area under the ROC curve (AUC) the corresponding median holdout-validated accuracy was estimated as ranging from 0.75 to 1.00 (including IC) and 0.89 to 0.98 (excluding IC), respectively. In combination, the corresponding models provide tools for the distinction of CD and UC as well as CD, UC and HC with expected classification error rates of 3.1 and 3.3%, respectively. These results were obtained by incorporating not more than 16 distinct miRNAs. Validated target genes of these miRNAs have been previously described as being related to IBD. For others we observed significant enrichment for IBD susceptibility loci identified in earlier GWAS. These results suggest that the proposed miRNA signature is of relevance for the etiology of IBD. Its diagnostic value

  9. Peripheral Blood Cell Gene Expression Diagnostic for Identifying Symptomatic Transthyretin Amyloidosis Patients: Male and Female Specific Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Kurian, Sunil M.; Novais, Marta; Whisenant, Thomas; Gelbart, Terri; Buxbaum, Joel N.; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Coelho, Teresa; Salomon, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Early diagnosis of familial transthyretin (TTR) amyloid diseases remains challenging because of variable disease penetrance. Currently, patients must have an amyloid positive tissue biopsy to be eligible for disease-modifying therapies. Endomyocardial biopsies are typically amyloid positive when cardiomyopathy is suspected, but this disease manifestation is generally diagnosed late. Early diagnosis is often difficult because patients exhibit apparent symptoms of polyneuropathy, but have a negative amyloid biopsy. Thus, there is a pressing need for an additional early diagnostic strategy for TTR-aggregation-associated polyneuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Methods and Findings: Global peripheral blood cell mRNA expression profiles from 263 tafamidis-treated and untreated V30M Familiar Amyloid Neuropathy patients, asymptomatic V30M carriers, and healthy, age- and sex-matched controls without TTR mutations were used to differentiate symptomatic from asymptomatic patients. We demonstrate that blood cell gene expression patterns reveal sex-independent, as well as male- and female-specific inflammatory signatures in symptomatic FAP patients, but not in asymptomatic carriers. These signatures differentiated symptomatic patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers with >80% accuracy. There was a global downregulation of the eIF2 pathway and its associated genes in all symptomatic FAP patients. We also demonstrated that the molecular scores based on these signatures significantly trended toward normalized values in an independent cohort of 46 FAP patients after only 3 months of tafamidis treatment. Conclusions: This study identifies novel molecular signatures that differentiate symptomatic FAP patients from asymptomatic V30M carriers as well as affected males and females. We envision using this approach, initially in parallel with amyloid biopsies, to identify individuals who are asymptomatic gene carriers that may convert to FAP patients. Upon further validation

  10. Diagnostic and prognostic gene expression signatures in 177 soft tissue sarcomas: hypoxia-induced transcription profile signifies metastatic potential

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Princy; Namløs, Heidi Maria; Müller, Christoph; Edén, Patrik; Fernebro, Josefin; Berner, Jeanne-Marie; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Åkerman, Måns; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Isinger, Anna; Rydholm, Anders; Myklebost, Ola; Nilbert, Mef

    2007-01-01

    Background Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) diagnosis is challenging because of a multitude of histopathological subtypes, different genetic characteristics, and frequent intratumoral pleomorphism. One-third of STS metastasize and current risk-stratification is suboptimal, therefore, novel diagnostic and prognostic markers would be clinically valuable. We assessed the diagnostic and prognostic value of array-based gene expression profiles using 27 k cDNA microarrays in 177, mainly high-grade, STS of 13 histopathological subtypes. Results Unsupervised analysis resulted in two major clusters – one mainly containing STS characterized by type-specific genetic alterations and the other with a predominance of genetically complex and pleomorphic STS. Synovial sarcomas, myxoid/round-cell liposarcomas, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors clustered tightly within the former cluster and discriminatory signatures for these were characterized by developmental genes from the EGFR, FGFR, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, RAR and KIT signaling pathways. The more pleomorphic STS subtypes, e.g. leiomyosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and dedifferentiated/pleomorphic liposarcoma, were part of the latter cluster and were characterized by relatively heterogeneous profiles, although subclusters herein were identified. A prognostic signature partly characterized by hypoxia-related genes was identified among 89 genetically complex pleomorphic primary STS and could, in a multivariate analysis including established prognostic markers, independently predict the risk of metastasis with a hazard ratio of 2.2 (P = 0.04). Conclusion Diagnostic gene expression profiles linking signaling pathways to the different STS subtypes were demonstrated and a hypoxia-induced metastatic profile was identified in the pleomorphic, high-grade STS. These findings verify diagnostic utility and application of expression data for improved selection of high-risk STS patients. PMID:17359542

  11. Development of a transient internal probe diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanjers, G. G.; Galambos, J. P.; Bohnet, M. A.; Jarboe, T. R.; Christiansen, W. H.; Wurden, G. A.; Wright, B. L.; Smith, R. J.

    1992-10-01

    The transient internal probe (TIP) diagnostic is a novel method for probing the interior of hot magnetic fusion plasmas. In the TIP scheme, a probe is fired, using a two-stage light gas gun, through a hot plasma at velocities up to 5 km/s, and makes direct, local measurements of the internal magnetic field structure. The data are relayed to the laboratory optical detection system using an incident laser that is directed through a Faraday rotator payload acting as a magneto-optic sensor. Ablative effects are avoided by minimizing the probe size, limiting the time that the probe is in the hot plasma, and encasing the probe with a diamond cladding. The degree to which the diamond probe cladding is susceptible to ablative effects will determine the plasma density and temperature regime in which the TIP diagnostic can be used. If the TIP suffers significant ablation it is an indication that the diagnostic is not usable on this hot and dense of a plasma (or that greater velocity must be imparted to the probe to further minimize the time that it is in the plasma). A quantitative experimental study of the ablation rates of diamond is planned as part of the TIP development. The integrated TIP system will be functional in 1992 and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus (HIT) [T. R. Jarboe, Fusion Tech. 15, 9 (1989)] at the University of Washington.

  12. A Methodology for Developing Diagnostic Concept Inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindell, Rebecca

    2006-12-01

    Since the development of the Force Concept Inventory, there as been a heightened interest in developing other concept inventories that not only assess if students understand a phenomena, but also diagnose specific alternative understandings. Unfortunately, there is no clear-cut methodology on how to construct such inventories. One of the difficulties is that only some parts of test development theory are appropriate for such concept inventories. This is due to the concept inventories being distracter driven, where test-takers do not randomly choose an incorrect answer. In this poster, I will present a methodology for developing diagnostic concept inventories, which combines traditional psychometric theory with modern theories of concentration and model analysis. An example of how this methodology was utilized to develop the successful Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) will also be given.

  13. Signatures of human NK cell development and terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Luetke-Eversloh, Merlin; Killig, Monica; Romagnani, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family and represent the main cytotoxic population. NK cells develop from bone marrow common lymphoid progenitors and undergo terminal differentiation in the periphery, where they finally gain their cytotoxic competence as well as the ability to produce IFN-γ in response to engagement of activating receptors. This process has been at least partially elucidated and several markers have been identified to discriminate different NK cell stages and other ILC populations. NK cell terminal differentiation is not only associated with progressive phenotypic changes but also with defined effector signatures. In this essay, we will describe the phenotypic and functional characteristics of the main stages of NK cell development and terminal differentiation and discuss them in light of recent discoveries of novel ILC populations.

  14. Signatures of Human NK Cell Development and Terminal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Luetke-Eversloh, Merlin; Killig, Monica; Romagnani, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family and represent the main cytotoxic population. NK cells develop from bone marrow common lymphoid progenitors and undergo terminal differentiation in the periphery, where they finally gain their cytotoxic competence as well as the ability to produce IFN-γ in response to engagement of activating receptors. This process has been at least partially elucidated and several markers have been identified to discriminate different NK cell stages and other ILC populations. NK cell terminal differentiation is not only associated with progressive phenotypic changes but also with defined effector signatures. In this essay, we will describe the phenotypic and functional characteristics of the main stages of NK cell development and terminal differentiation and discuss them in light of recent discoveries of novel ILC populations. PMID:24416035

  15. Development of the Astronomy Diagnostic Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, B.

    2001-12-01

    The starting point for questions in the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) Version 2.0 was two precursor surveys, the STAR Evaluation by Philip M. Sadler and Michael Zeilik's Astronomy Diagnostic Test Version 1.0. Questions were selected or developed for the new ADT which (1) addressed concepts included in most introductory astronomy courses for non-science majors, (2) included only concepts recognizable to most high-school graduates, (3) focused on one concept only, and (4) stressed concepts and not jargon. This version was administered to about 1000 students at four colleges and universities. The statistical results, e.g., item discrimination, guided re-writing and elimination of questions. Sixty student interviews at Montana State and the University of Maryland, as well as thirty written responses to the questions in open-ended format, were the basis for determining if the questions were interpreted by the students as intended. This student input was also the basis for distractors (wrong answers) reflecting the ideas and the words of the students themselves. After revision, the ADT was administered the next semester to 1557 students enrolled in 22 introductory classes, twenty students were interviewed, and comments solicited from the instructors of those classes. The result was the final ADT Version 2.0, which consists of 21 content and 12 student background multiple-choice questions. This work has been partly supported by NSF grant # DGE-9714489.

  16. Microbial signatures in post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome – toward patient stratification for improved diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jalanka, Jonna; Salonen, Anne; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder estimated to affect over 10% of the Western population. A subset of the patients reports the start of the disease after an episode of gastroenteritis. The alterations in the intestinal microbiota of the post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) patients were recently investigated in a British cohort and shown to differentiate from the healthy controls and resemble that of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients. The altered 27 genus-like groups created a microbial signature, which could be used to objectively stratify patients and healthy controls. In this addendum, we combine the microbiota data derived from the British cohort with that of a recently reported Swedish PI-IBS cohort. Remarkably, robust and reproducible microbiota signatures were observed in these PI-IBS patients. We discuss these results with attention on the emerging role of microbiota in the classification, development and treatment of PI-IBS. PMID:26512631

  17. Exploring miRNA-Associated Signatures with Diagnostic Relevance in Glioblastoma Multiforme and Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Véronique C.; Morin, Pier Jr

    2015-01-01

    The growing attention that non-coding RNAs have attracted in the field of cancer research in recent years is undeniable. Whether investigated as prospective therapeutic targets or prognostic indicators or diagnostic biomarkers, the clinical relevance of these molecules is starting to emerge. In addition, identification of non-coding RNAs in a plethora of body fluids has further positioned these molecules as attractive non-invasive biomarkers. This review will first provide an overview of the synthetic cascade that leads to the production of the small non-coding RNAs microRNAs (miRNAs) and presents their strengths as biomarkers of disease. Our interest will next be directed at exploring the diagnostic utility of miRNAs in two types of cancer: the brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and breast cancer. Finally, we will discuss additional clinical implications associated with miRNA detection as well as introduce other non-coding RNAs that have generated recent interest in the cancer research community. PMID:26287251

  18. Proteomic signature of Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMD): Toward diagnostically predictive biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Demerjian, Garabed Gary; Sims, Anothony Benjamin; Stack, Brendan Curran

    2011-01-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articulates the mandible with the maxilla. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are dysfunctions of this joint, which range from acute to chronic inflammation, trauma and dislocations, developmental anomalies and neoplasia. TMD manifest as signs and symptoms that involve the surrounding muscles, ligaments, bones, synovial capsule, connective tissue, teeth and innervations proximal and distal to this joint. TMD induce proximal and distal, chronic and acute, dull or intense pain and discomfort, muscle spasm, clicking/popping sounds upon opening and closing of the mouth, and chewing or speaking difficulties. The trigeminal cranial nerve V, and its branches provide the primary sensory innervation to the TMJ. Our clinical work suggests that the auriculotemporal (AT) nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve, the largest of the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, plays a critical role in TMD sequelae. The AT nerve provides the somatosensory fibers that supply the joint, the middle ear, and the temporal region. By projecting fibers toward the otic ganglion, the AT nerve establishes an important bridge to the sympathetic system. As it courses posteriorly to the condylar head of the TMJ, compression, injury or irritation of the AT nerve can lead to significant neurologic and neuro-muscular disorders, including Tourette's syndrome,Torticolli, gait or balance disorders and Parkinson’s disease. Here, we propose that a proteomic signature of TMD can be obtained by assessing certain biomarkers in local (e.g., synovial fluid at the joint) and distal body fluids (e.g., saliva, cerebrospinal fluid), which can aid TMD diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:21364835

  19. Effects of contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel on the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in solitary pulmonary nodule

    PubMed Central

    He, Lan; Huang, Yanqi; Ma, Zelan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2016-01-01

    The Effects of contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel on the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) remains unclear. 240 patients with SPNs (malignant, n = 180; benign, n = 60) underwent non-contrast CT (NECT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) which were reconstructed with different slice thickness and convolution kernel. 150 radiomics features were extracted separately from each set of CT and diagnostic performance of each feature were assessed. After feature selection and radiomics signature construction, diagnostic performance of radiomics signature for discriminating benign and malignant SPN was also assessed with respect to the discrimination and classification and compared with net reclassification improvement (NRI). Our results showed NECT-based radiomics signature demonstrated better discrimination and classification capability than CECT in both primary (AUC: 0.862 vs. 0.829, p = 0.032; NRI = 0.578) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.750 vs. 0.735, p = 0.014; NRI = 0.023). Thin-slice (1.25 mm) CT-based radiomics signature had better diagnostic performance than thick-slice CT (5 mm) in both primary (AUC: 0.862 vs. 0.785, p = 0.015; NRI = 0.867) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.750 vs. 0.725, p = 0.025; NRI = 0.467). Standard convolution kernel-based radiomics signature had better diagnostic performance than lung convolution kernel-based CT in both primary (AUC: 0.785 vs. 0.770, p = 0.015; NRI = 0.156) and validation cohort (AUC: 0.725 vs.0.686, p = 0.039; NRI = 0.467). Therefore, this study indicates that the contrast-enhancement, reconstruction slice thickness and convolution kernel can affect the diagnostic performance of radiomics signature in SPN, of which non-contrast, thin-slice and standard convolution kernel-based CT is more informative. PMID:27721474

  20. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  1. Electrical signature analysis applications for non-intrusive automotive alternator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, C.W.

    1996-03-01

    Automotive alternators are designed to supply power for automobile engine ignition systems as well as charge the storage battery. This product is used in a large market where consumers are concerned with acoustic noise and vibration that comes from the unit. as well as overall quality and dependability. Alternators and generators in general are used in industries other than automotive, such as transportation and airline industries and in military applications. Their manufacturers are interested in pursuing state-of-the-art methods to achieve higher quality and reduced costs. Preliminary investigations of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques utilizing the inherent voltage signals of alternators have been performed with promising results. These techniques are based on time and frequency domain analyses of specially conditioned signals taken from several alternators under various test conditions. This paper discusses investigations that show correlations of the alternator output voltage to airborne noise production. In addition these signals provide insight into internal magnetic characteristics that relate to design and/or assembly problems.

  2. New developments in APSTNG neutron probe diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, E.; Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-12-31

    The development and investigation of a small associated-particle sealed-tube neutron generator (APSTNG) show potential to allow the associated-particle diagnostic method to be moved out of the laboratory into field applications. The APSTNG interrogates the inspected object with 14-MeV neutrons generated from the deuterium-tritium reaction and detects the alpha-particle associated with each neutron inside a cone encompassing the region of interest. Gamma-ray spectra of resulting neutron reactions identify many nuclides. Flight-times determined from detection times of the gamma-rays and alpha-particles separate the prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra and can yield a separate coarse tomographic image of each identified nuclide, from a single orientation. Chemical substances are identified by comparing relative spectral line intensities with ratios of elements in reference compounds. The high-energy neutrons and gamma-rays penetrate large objects and dense materials. The gamma-ray dector and neutron generator can be located on the same side of the interrogated object, so spaces behind walls and other confirmed areas can be inspected. No collimators or radiation shielding are needed, the neutron generator is relatively simple and small, and commercial-grade electronics are employed. A complete system could be transported in an automotive van. Proof-of-concept laboratory experiments have been successfully performed for simulated nuclear, chemical warfare, and conventional munitions. Inspection applications have been investigated for presence of cocaine in propane tanks, uranium and plutonium smuggling, and radioactive and toxic waste characterization. An advanced APSTNG tube is being designed and constructed that will be transportable and rugged, yield a substantial neutron output increase, and provide sufficiently improved lifetime to allow operation at more than an order of magnitude increase in neutron flux.

  3. Systems biology meets -omic technologies: novel approaches to biomarker discovery and companion diagnostic development.

    PubMed

    Caberlotto, Laura; Lauria, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The next generation of biomarkers and companion diagnostics will require the development of technologies capable of conjugating the advances in high-throughput techniques in biology with computational methods. Systems biology is poised to contribute through an integrated view, capturing the complexity of the system, both in terms of a collection of interacting molecular components and also in terms of multiple intersecting views. Following this system-centered view, novel approaches have been developed for the identification of signatures of both disease processes and drug modes of action with the promising perspectives of better diagnosis of disease and of the discovery of more efficacious and safe drugs. The application of systems biology to the development of companion diagnostics is very recent and to date a few pioneering steps have been made in this direction. In this review, we describe the ongoing studies and the potential developments in this area of research.

  4. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  5. [Research Development of Diagnostic Techniques for Tropical Infectious Diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-mei

    2015-12-01

    Tropical infectious diseases remain predominant among emerging infectious diseases, and some of those are showing a spreading trend worldwide. Improvement of diagnostic techniques is a key to the control of tropical diseases. In this review, we provide an overview on research development of diagnostic techniques for the diseases, especially the development of immunological and molecular detection techniques.

  6. [Current situation and challenges in companion diagnostics development].

    PubMed

    Nishida, Miwa

    2014-12-01

    The personalized health care, it is defined as a medical care which provide the optimal therapy for each individual in consideration of a patient's individual difference, such as a genetic background and a physiological state. A companion diagnosis to stratify a patient appropriately is essential for the spread of personalized health care, and it is important that a companion diagnostic reagent used for the companion diagnosis is properly developed and clinically applied. However, as for the development of companion diagnostics and pharmaceuticals that require it, there are still many challenges such as its business model of cooperation of diagnostics companies and pharmaceutical companies, also, the regulations related to companion diagnostics. Furthermore, even in clinical practice, there are many issues such as the way of reimbursement for companion diagnostics and also the handling of laboratory developed test (LDT) as companion diagnostics. These are issues that should continue to discuss with industry, government and academia. In this report, from the point of view of a diagnostics company, we discuss the various challenges in clinical applications from the development of companion diagnostics. PMID:25596043

  7. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  8. Diagnostic value of blood gene expression signatures in active tuberculosis in Thais: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Satproedprai, N; Wichukchinda, N; Suphankong, S; Inunchot, W; Kuntima, T; Kumpeerasart, S; Wattanapokayakit, S; Nedsuwan, S; Yanai, H; Higuchi, K; Harada, N; Mahasirimongkol, S

    2015-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Routine laboratory tests or newly developed molecular detection are limited to the quality of sputum sample. Here we selected genes specific to TB by a minimum redundancy-maximum relevancy package using publicly available microarray data and determine level of selected genes in blood collected from a Thai TB cohort of 40 active TB patients, 38 healthy controls and 18 previous TB patients using quantitative real-time PCR. FCGR1A, FCGR1B variant 1, FCGR1B variant 2, APOL1, GBP5, PSTPIP2, STAT1, KCNJ15, MAFB and KAZN had significantly higher expression level in active TB individuals as compared with healthy controls and previous TB cases (P<0.01). A mathematical method was applied to calculate TB predictive score, which contains the level of expression of seven genes and this score can identify active TB cases with 82.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity as compared with conventional culture confirmation. In addition, TB predictive scores in active TB patients were reduced to normal after completion of standard short-course therapy, which was mostly in concordant with the disease outcome. These finding suggested that blood gene expression measurement and TB Sick Score could have potential value in terms of diagnosis of TB and anti-TB treatment monitoring.

  9. The Diagnostic Use of Immunohistochemical Surrogates for Signature Molecular Genetic Alterations in Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Tanboon, Jantima; Williams, Erik A; Louis, David N

    2016-01-01

    A number of key mutations that affect treatment and prognosis have been identified in human gliomas. Two major ways to identify these mutations in a tumor sample are direct interrogation of the mutated DNA itself and immunohistochemistry to assess the effects of the mutated genes on proteins. Immunohistochemistry is an affordable, robust, and widely available technology that has been in place for decades. For this reason, the use of immunohistochemical approaches to assess molecular genetic changes has become an essential component of state-of-the-art practice. In contrast, even though DNA sequencing technologies are undergoing rapid development, many medical centers do not have access to such methodologies and may be thwarted by the relatively high costs of sending out such tests to reference laboratories. This review summarizes the current experience using immunohistochemistry of glioma samples to identify mutations in IDH1, TP53, ATRX, histone H3 genes, BRAF, EGFR, MGMT, CIC, and FUBP1 as well as guidelines for prudent use of DNA sequencing as a supplemental method. PMID:26671986

  10. Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

  11. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for MHD power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL's computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. 25 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Development of a Malignancy-Associated Proteomic Signature for Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Romesser, Paul B.; Perlman, David H.; Faller, Douglas V.; Costello, Catherine E.; McComb, Mark E.; Denis, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    The extreme pathological diversity of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas has made their accurate histological assessment difficult. New diagnostics and treatment modalities are urgently needed for these lymphomas, particularly in drug development for cancer-specific targets. Previously, we showed that a subset of B cell lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, may be characterized by two major, orthogonal axes of gene expression: one set of transcripts that is differentially expressed between resting and proliferating, nonmalignant cells (ie, a “proliferative signature”) and another set that is expressed only in proliferating malignant cells (ie, a “cancer signature”). A differential proteomic analysis of B cell proliferative states, similar to previous transcriptional profiling analyses, holds great promise either to reveal novel factors that participate in lymphomagenesis or to define biomarkers of onset or progression. Here, we use a murine model of diffuse large B cell lymphoma to conduct unbiased two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic analyses of malignant proliferating B cells and tissue-matched, normal resting, or normal proliferating cells. We show that the expression patterns of particular proteins or isoforms across these states fall into eight specific trends that provide a framework to identify malignancy-associated biomarkers and potential drug targets, a signature proteome. Our results support the central hypothesis that clusters of proteins of known function represent a panel of expression markers uniquely associated with malignancy and not normal proliferation. PMID:19498000

  14. Diagnostic training for nuclear plant personnel. Volume 1. Courseware development

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.B.; Maddox, M.E.; Rouse, W.B.; Kiel, G.C.

    1985-01-01

    The need and potential for improved diagnostic training in the nuclear industry are considered. Via the results of on-site interviews and mailed opinionnaires, it is concluded that the industry has a strong desire for improved diagnostic training, as well as definite opinions regarding the knowledge, skills, and experiences that this training should provide. A conceptual framework for acquisition of diagnostic proficiency is presented and, in conjunction with consideration of fundamental human abilities and limitations, used to support the assertion that simulation-oriented computer-based instruction is an appropriate agent of diagnostic training. An analytical top-down process for developing this approach to diagnostic training is presented and illustrated by synthesizing prototype courseware for diesel generator operations and maintenance personnel.

  15. Development of novel fuel ion ratio diagnostic techniquesa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsholm, S. B.; Stejner, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Gorini, G.; Tardocchi, M.; von Hellermann, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.; Lischtschenko, O.; Delabie, E.; Bindslev, H.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Meo, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Moseev, D.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.

    2010-10-01

    To overcome the challenge of measuring the fuel ion ratio in the core (ρ <0.3) of ITER, a coordinated effort aiming at developing diagnostic techniques has been initiated. The investigated techniques are novel uses or further development of existing methods such as charge exchange recombination spectrometry, neutron spectrometry, and collective Thomson scattering. An overview of the work on the three diagnostic techniques is presented.

  16. Chemical signatures and new drug targets for gametocytocidal drug development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Tanaka, Takeshi Q.; Magle, Crystal T.; Huang, Wenwei; Southall, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Dehdashti, Seameen J.; McKew, John C.; Williamson, Kim C.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Control of parasite transmission is critical for the eradication of malaria. However, most antimalarial drugs are not active against P. falciparum gametocytes, responsible for the spread of malaria. Consequently, patients can remain infectious for weeks after the clearance of asexual parasites and clinical symptoms. Here we report the identification of 27 potent gametocytocidal compounds (IC50 < 1 μM) from screening 5,215 known drugs and compounds. All these compounds were active against three strains of gametocytes with different drug sensitivities and geographical origins, 3D7, HB3 and Dd2. Cheminformatic analysis revealed chemical signatures for P. falciparum sexual and asexual stages indicative of druggability and suggesting potential targets. Torin 2, a top lead compound (IC50 = 8 nM against gametocytes in vitro), completely blocked oocyst formation in a mouse model of transmission. These results provide critical new leads and potential targets to expand the repertoire of malaria transmission-blocking reagents.

  17. Development of a synthetic phase contrast imaging diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, J. C.; Lin, L.; Porkolab, M.

    2010-06-15

    A ''synthetic diagnostic'' has been developed to calculate the expected experimental response of phase contrast imaging (PCI), a scattering diagnostic used to measure density fluctuations in laboratory plasmas, to a tokamak discharge modeled with the GYRO nonlinear gyrokinetic code [J. Candy and R. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. The synthetic PCI includes the spatial response of the experimental diagnostic, primarily implemented as a line integral of plasma density along the beam path, and the minimum and maximum wavenumber response resulting from the detection scheme. The synthetic PCI can be used for comparisons between GYRO and experiment as well as studies of the PCI response.

  18. Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Weigum, Shannon E; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W

    2010-07-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care.

  19. Substorm development and ballooning mode signatures at GEOS--2/SCATHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holter, O.; Galopeau, P.; Roux, A.; Perraut, S.; Pedersen, A.; Korth, A.

    2003-04-01

    The substorm event considered here was recorded on May 22, 1979 at GEOS--2 and SCATHA when the two s/c were separated by less than 30 minutes in local time. The dipolarization onset associated with the substorm occurred within a time interval of less than one minute at the two s/c when they were located around 2100 LT. GEOS--2 was situated close to the magnetic equatorial surface, while SCATHA was presumably close to the current sheet boundary. The observed delay of the magnetic field dipolarization onset and the injection of electrons and ions for the two s/c indicated a westward expansion of the substorm with an angular velocity ˜ 7.7^o/s. At substorm onset, a strong azimuthal magnetic field component(˜ 50 nT) of finite duration (2--3 min) was recorded on SCATHA, indicating strong field aligned Birkeland currents below the magnetic equator. We have related the observed magnetic field component variations during the substorm to the field aligned current as indicated by the azimuthal magnetic field component. The first sign of an approaching substorm was an initial two minute tailward stretching of the magnetic field. Concurrent with the initial stretching was a reduction of the electron flux intensity. The electron injection started simultaneous with the dipolarization process. The measured field and particle fluxes are related to signatures suggested by a simple Rayleigh--Taylor drift ballooning instability model.

  20. Diagnostic development and support of MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for HRSR support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with MHD Energy Center computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. MSU personnel will also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  1. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  2. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  3. Guidelines for the Development of an Effective Diagnostic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreau, Lanny; And Others

    Described is the diagnostic teaching model developed by the Illinois Regional Resource Center to provide assessment and programing for children with unexplained handicaps. The model is explained to involve a multidisciplinary approach and to include six basic components: referals, information gathering, diagnosis, prescription, consultation, and…

  4. The Development of a Vocational Diagnostic Program. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, William W.

    A five-phased project is described which was designed to develop more specific diagnostic procedures and instrumentation that would allow both the vocational counselor and the prospective student to determine more effectively specific occupational programs and occupational objectives for education at the postsecondary level. Phases of the project…

  5. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkova, P.; Melich, R.; Aftanas, M.; Boehm, P.; Sestak, D.; Jares, D.; Weinzettl, V.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.; Walsh, M. J.

    2010-10-15

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  6. Developing checklists to prevent diagnostic error in Emergency Room settings

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Mark L.; Sorensen, Asta V.; Biswas, Jon; Modi, Varsha; Wackett, Andrew; Johnson, Scott; Lenfestey, Nancy; Meyer, Ashley N.D.; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background Checklists have been shown to improve performance of complex, error-prone processes. To develop a checklist with potential to reduce the likelihood of diagnostic error for patients presenting to the Emergency Room (ER) with undiagnosed conditions. Methods Participants included 15 staff ER physicians working in two large academic centers. A rapid cycle design and evaluation process was used to develop a general checklist for high-risk situations vulnerable to diagnostic error. Physicians used the general checklists and a set of symptom-specific checklists for a period of 2 months. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation that included interviews regarding user perceptions and quantitative assessment of resource utilization before and after checklist use. Results A general checklist was developed iteratively by obtaining feedback from users and subject matter experts, and was trialed along with a set of specific checklists in the ER. Both the general and the symptom-specific checklists were judged to be helpful, with a slight preference for using symptom-specific lists. Checklist use commonly prompted consideration of additional diagnostic possibilities, changed the working diagnosis in approximately 10% of cases, and anecdotally was thought to be helpful in avoiding diagnostic errors. Checklist use was prompted by a variety of different factors, not just diagnostic uncertainty. None of the physicians used the checklists in collaboration with the patient, despite being encouraged to do so. Checklist use did not prompt large changes in test ordering or consultation. Conclusions In the ER setting, checklists for diagnosis are helpful in considering additional diagnostic possibilities, thus having potential to prevent diagnostic errors. Inconsistent usage and using the checklists privately, instead of with the patient, are factors that may detract from obtaining maximum benefit. Further research is needed to optimize checklists for use in the ER, determine how

  7. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (Developing Predictive Bioactivity Signatures from ToxCasts HTS Data)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  8. Developing epigenetic diagnostics and therapeutics for brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2013-12-01

    Perturbations in epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as cardinal features in the molecular pathology of major classes of brain disorders. We therefore highlight evidence which suggests that specific epigenetic signatures measurable in central - and possibly even in peripheral tissues - have significant value as translatable biomarkers for screening, early diagnosis, and prognostication; developing molecularly targeted medicines; and monitoring disease progression and treatment responses. We also draw attention to existing and novel therapeutic approaches directed at epigenetic factors and mechanisms, including strategies for modulating enzymes that write and erase DNA methylation and histone/chromatin marks; protein-protein interactions responsible for reading epigenetic marks; and non-coding RNA pathways.

  9. Developing epigenetic diagnostics and therapeutics for brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Perturbations in epigenetic mechanisms have emerged as cardinal features in the molecular pathology of major classes of brain disorders. We therefore highlight evidence which suggests that specific epigenetic signatures measurable in central—and possibly even in peripheral tissues—have significant value as translatable biomarkers for screening, early diagnosis, and prognostication; developing molecularly targeted medicines; and monitoring disease progression and treatment responses. We also draw attention to existing and novel therapeutic approaches directed at epigenetic factors and mechanisms, including strategies for modulating enzymes that write and erase DNA methylation and histone/chromatin marks; protein-protein interactions responsible for reading epigenetic marks; and non-coding RNA pathways. PMID:24145019

  10. FY-93 noncontacting acoustic ultrasonic signature analysis development

    SciTech Connect

    Tow, D.M.; Rodriguez, J.G.; Williamson, R.L.; Blackwood, L.G.

    1994-04-01

    A noncontacting, long-standoff inspection system with proven capabilities in container fill identification has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The system detects subtle change in container vibration characteristics caused by differences in the physical properties of the fill materials. A container is inspected by acoustically inducting it to vibrate and sensing the vibrational response with a laser vibrometer. A standoff distance of several meters is feasible. In previous work the system proved to be a reliable means of distinguishing between munitions with a variety of chemical fills. During FY-93, the system was modified to improve performance and simplify operation. Other FY-93 accomplishments include progress in modeling the vibrational characteristics of containers and refinements to the statistical classification algorithms. Progress was also made in identifying other applications for this technology.

  11. Advancing the development of diagnostic tests and biomarkers for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yasinskaya, Y; Plikaytis, B; Sizemore, C; Sacks, L

    2011-07-01

    High costs and limited returns on investment have hampered progress in developing new diagnostic tests and treatments for tuberculosis (TB). We need new biomarkers to develop assays that can rapidly, efficiently and reliably detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease, identify drug resistance and expedite drug and vaccine development. This can only be accomplished through cross-disciplinary collaborations to facilitate access to human specimens. The Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, the industry and academia experts came together in a June 2010 workshop to examine the field of TB diagnostic test development and biomarker discovery, identify areas of most urgent need and formulate strategies to address those needs.

  12. An easy-to-use diagnostic system development shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, L. C.; Ross, J. B.; Han, C. Y.; Wee, W. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic System Development Shell (DSDS), an expert system development shell for diagnostic systems, is described. The major objective of building the DSDS is to create a very easy to use and friendly environment for knowledge engineers and end-users. The DSDS is written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. It runs on a VAX/VMS system. A set of domain independent, generalized rules is built in the DSDS, so the users need not be concerned about building the rules. The facts are explicitly represented in a unified format. A powerful check facility which helps the user to check the errors in the created knowledge bases is provided. A judgement facility and other useful facilities are also available. A diagnostic system based on the DSDS system is question driven and can call or be called by other knowledge based systems written in OPS5 and CommonLisp. A prototype diagnostic system for diagnosing a Philips constant potential X-ray system has been built using the DSDS.

  13. Authentication of animal signatures in traditional Chinese medicine of Lingyang Qingfei Wan using routine molecular diagnostic assays.

    PubMed

    Cao, Meng; Wang, Jikun; Yao, Lu; Xie, Suhua; Du, Jing; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Lingyang Qingfei Wan produced by Beijing TongRenTang is a long-standing and popular medicine in China and international pharmaceutical markets. Concerns continue to be raised about the legality of usage of saiga antelope, which was defined as endangered species by Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora legislation and internal legislation in China. Therefore, the alternative pill in which substitutes saiga antelope with goat in the formula of Lingyang Qingfei Wan was developed. In order to authenticate the origin of animal contents in Lingyang Qingfei Wan and its alternative pill, molecular diagnostic assay was utilized by mtDNA polymorphism analysis. Four universal primer pairs containing mtDNA 12SrRNA, 16SrRNA, cytochrome b gene and cytochrome oxidase I were employed to obtain species-specific sequences of saiga antelope and goat, and multiple species-specific primer pairs for saiga antelope and goat were used to identify the animal origin in patent pills according to nucleotide polymorphisms between the two species. In additions, alternative techniques were attempted surrounding dilemmas of low concentration of target DNAs and presence of PCR-inhibitory substances in organic ingredients within complex pill. Results revealed that all species-specific primers could be successfully used for authentication of animal origin within complex pill, and sample preprocessing was critical during experimental manipulation. Internal positive control was an efficient and cost-effective way to assist in monitoring the potential interference from inhibitory substances which existed in the highly processed pills. PMID:24445529

  14. Advanced Diagnostics for Developing High-Brightness Electron Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Babzien, M.; Malone, R.; Wang, X.-J.; Yakimenko, V.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  15. ADVANCED DIAGNOSTICS FOR DEVELOPING HIGH-BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON BEAMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI,I.

    1998-11-24

    The production of high-brightness particle beams calls for the development of advanced beam diagnostics. High brightness beams, meaning beams with a high density in phase space, are important for many applications, such as short-wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and advanced accelerator systems. A diagnostic that provides detailed information on the density distribution of the electron bunch in multi-dimensional phase-space is an essential tool for obtaining small emittance at a high charge. This diagnostic system has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. One component of the system is the measurement of a slice emittance which provides a measurement of transverse beam properties (such as emittance) as a function of the longitudinal position. Changing the laser pulse profile of a photocathode RF gun has been suggested as one way to achieve non-linear emittance compensation and improve the brightness and that can be diagnosed by the slice emittance system. The other element of the diagnostic is the tomographic reconstruction of the transverse phase. In our work we give special attention to the accuracy of the phase space reconstruction and present an analysis using a transport line with nine focusing magnets and techniques to control the optical functions and phases. This high precision phase space tomography together with the ability to modify the radial charge distribution of the electron beam presents an opportunity to improve the emittance and apply non-linear radial emittance corrections. Combining the slice emittance and tomography diagnostics leads to an unprecedented visualization of phase space distributions in 5 dimensional phase-space and an opportunity to perform high-order emittance corrections. This should lead to great improvements in the beam brightness.

  16. Development in Diagnostics Application to Control Advanced Tokamak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, Y.

    2008-03-12

    For continuous operation expected in DEMO, all the plasma current must be non-inductively driven, with self-generated neoclassical bootstrap current being maximized. The control of such steady state high performance tokamak plasma (so-called 'Advanced Tokamak Plasma') is a challenge because of the strong coupling between the current density, the pressure profile and MHD stability. In considering diagnostic needs for the advanced tokamak research, diagnostics for MHD are the most fundamental, since discharges which violate the MHD stability criteria either disrupt or have significantly reduced confinement. This report deals with the development in diagnostic application to control advanced tokamak plasma, with emphasized on recent progress in active feedback control of the current profile and the pressure profile under DEMO-relevant high bootstrap-current fraction. In addition, issues in application of the present-day actuators and diagnostics for the advanced control to DEMO will be briefly addressed, where port space for the advanced control may be limited so as to keep sufficient tritium breeding ratio (TBR)

  17. Development of Synthetic Diagnostics for use in Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmon, Danielle; Woodruff, Simon; Romero-Talamas, Carlos A.; O'Bryan, John; Darpa Spheromak Team

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic diagnostics are reproductions of experimental measurements obtained from simulation data, taking the same spatial averages (point, line, plane or volume) as in the experiment. This reduction of data facilitates meaningful direct quantitative comparisons which then allows for validation of simulation results. We demonstrate the development with data sets produced by highly spatially and temporally resolved NIMROD simulations with reference to the spheromak concept under development at UMBC. We present here results from a set of synthetic diagnostics that are scripted in Octave. Quantities such as magnetic field, temperature, and density are visually represented by color-coded graphs and movies to demonstrate how these quantities change over time. We discuss errors that enter into the computation of the quantities. Work performed under DARPA grant N66001-14-1-4044.

  18. Development of nuclear diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Glebov, V. Yu.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Barrera, C. A.; Celeste, J. R.; Cerjan, C. J.; Dauffy, L. S.; Eder, D. C.; Griffith, R. L.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Izumi, N.; Kimbrough, J. R.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Lerche, R. A.; MacGowan, B. J.

    2006-10-15

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will provide up to 1.8 MJ of laser energy for imploding inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets. Ignited NIF targets are expected to produce up to 10{sup 19} DT neutrons. This will provide unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the use of nuclear diagnostics in ICF experiments. In 2005, the suite of nuclear-ignition diagnostics for the NIF was defined and they are under development through collaborative efforts at several institutions. This suite includes PROTEX and copper activation for primary yield measurements, a magnetic recoil spectrometer and carbon activation for fuel areal density, neutron time-of-flight detectors for yield and ion temperature, a gamma bang time detector, and neutron imaging systems for primary and downscattered neutrons. An overview of the conceptual design, the developmental status, and recent results of prototype tests on the OMEGA laser will be presented.

  19. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  20. Development of a multiarray biosensor for DNA diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Isola, N.; Alarie, J.P.; Landis, D.; Griffin, G.D.; Allison, S.

    1998-11-01

    This work involves the development and evaluation of a multiarray biosensor for DNA diagnostics. The evaluation of various system components developed for the biosensor is discussed. The DNA probes labeled with visible and near infrared (NIR) dyes are evaluated. The detection system uses a two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD). Examples of application of gene probes in DNA hybridization experiments and in biomedical diagnosis (detection of the p53 cancer gene) are presented to illustrate the usefulness and potential of the biosensor device.

  1. Development of new malaria diagnostics: matching performance and need.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Fleurent, Alessandra E; Hegg, Michael C; Boomgard, John D; McConnico, Caitlin C

    2016-08-11

    Despite advances in diagnostic technology, significant gaps remain in access to malaria diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and misdiagnosis leads to unnecessary waste of resources, poor disease management, and contributes to a cycle of poverty in low-resourced communities. Despite much effort and investment, few new technologies have reached the field in the last 30 years aside from lateral flow assays. This suggests that much diagnostic development effort has been misdirected, and/or that there are fundamental blocks to introduction of new technologies. Malaria diagnosis is a difficult market; resources are broadly donor-dependent, health systems in endemic countries are frequently weak, and the epidemiology of malaria and priorities of malaria programmes and donors are evolving. Success in diagnostic development will require a good understanding of programme gaps, and the sustainability of markets to address them. Targeting assay development to such clearly defined market requirements will improve the outcomes of product development funding. Six market segments are identified: (1) case management in low-resourced countries, (2) parasite screening for low density infections in elimination programmes, (3) surveillance for evidence of continued transmission, (4) clinical research and therapeutic efficacy monitoring, (5) cross-checking for microscopy quality control, and (6) returned traveller markets distinguished primarily by resource availability. While each of these markets is potentially compelling from a public health standpoint, size and scale are highly variable and continue to evolve. Consequently, return on investment in research and development may be limited, highlighting the need for potentially significant donor involvement or the introduction of novel business models to overcome prohibitive economics. Given the rather specific applications, a well-defined set of stakeholders will need to be on board for the successful introduction and scaling of any new

  2. Development of new malaria diagnostics: matching performance and need.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Fleurent, Alessandra E; Hegg, Michael C; Boomgard, John D; McConnico, Caitlin C

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in diagnostic technology, significant gaps remain in access to malaria diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and misdiagnosis leads to unnecessary waste of resources, poor disease management, and contributes to a cycle of poverty in low-resourced communities. Despite much effort and investment, few new technologies have reached the field in the last 30 years aside from lateral flow assays. This suggests that much diagnostic development effort has been misdirected, and/or that there are fundamental blocks to introduction of new technologies. Malaria diagnosis is a difficult market; resources are broadly donor-dependent, health systems in endemic countries are frequently weak, and the epidemiology of malaria and priorities of malaria programmes and donors are evolving. Success in diagnostic development will require a good understanding of programme gaps, and the sustainability of markets to address them. Targeting assay development to such clearly defined market requirements will improve the outcomes of product development funding. Six market segments are identified: (1) case management in low-resourced countries, (2) parasite screening for low density infections in elimination programmes, (3) surveillance for evidence of continued transmission, (4) clinical research and therapeutic efficacy monitoring, (5) cross-checking for microscopy quality control, and (6) returned traveller markets distinguished primarily by resource availability. While each of these markets is potentially compelling from a public health standpoint, size and scale are highly variable and continue to evolve. Consequently, return on investment in research and development may be limited, highlighting the need for potentially significant donor involvement or the introduction of novel business models to overcome prohibitive economics. Given the rather specific applications, a well-defined set of stakeholders will need to be on board for the successful introduction and scaling of any new

  3. Development of Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Microgravity Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Materials processing including crystal growth, either under a gravity environment on ground or a microgravity environment in space, involves complicated phenomena of fluid motions in gas or liquid phases as well as interaction of various species. To obtain important physical insight, it is very necessary to provide gross-field optical diagnostics for monitoring various physical properties. Materials processing inhibits easy access by ordinary instruments and thus characterizing gross-field physical properties is very challenging. Typical properties of importance can be fluid velocity, temperature, and species concentration for fluids, and surface topology and defects for solids. Observing surface grow rate during crystal growth is also important. Material microstructures, i.e., integrity of crystal structures, is strongly influenced by the existence of thermally-induced flow as well as local nucleation of particles during solidification, which may act in many detrimental ways. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the nature of product property changes resulting from three-dimensional fluid or particle motions need be characterized. Gross-field diagnostics is thus required to identify their effects on product defects and process deficiencies. The quantitative visualization techniques can also be used for validation of numerical modeling. For optical nonintrusive gross-field diagnostic techniques, two approaches were developed as summer projects. One optical approach allows us to provide information of species concentration and temperature for monitoring in real time. The other approach, that is, the concept which is formulated for detection of surface topography measurement can provide unprecedented spatial resolution during crystal growth.

  4. Development of a new virtual diagnostic for V3FIT

    SciTech Connect

    Trevisan, G. L. Terranova, D.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Hanson, J. D.

    2014-12-15

    The determination of plasma equilibria from diagnostic information is a fundamental issue. V3FIT is a fully three-dimensional reconstruction code capable of solving the inverse problem using both magnetic and kinetic measurements. It uses VMEC as core equilibrium solver and supports both free- and fixed-boundary reconstruction approaches. In fixed-boundary mode VMEC does not use explicit information about currents in external coils, even though it has important effects on the shape of the safety factor profile. Indeed, the edge safety factor influences the reversal position in RFP plasmas, which then determines the position of the m = 0 island chain and the edge transport properties. In order to exploit such information a new virtual diagnostic has been developed, that thanks to Ampère's law relates the external current through the center of the torus to the circulation of the toroidal magnetic field on the outermost flux surface. The reconstructions that exploit the new diagnostic are indeed found to better interpret the experimental data with respect to edge physics.

  5. Century-long source apportionment of PAHs in Athabasca oil sands region lakes using diagnostic ratios and compound-specific carbon isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Jautzy, Josué; Ahad, Jason M E; Gobeil, Charles; Savard, Martine M

    2013-06-18

    Evaluating the impact that airborne contamination associated with Athabasca oil sands (AOS) mining operations has on the surrounding boreal forest ecosystem requires a rigorous approach to source discrimination. This study presents a century-long historical record of source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dated sediments from two headwater lakes located approximately 40 and 55 km east from the main area of open pit mining activities. Concentrations of the 16 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority PAHs in addition to retene, dibenzothiophene (DBT), and six alkylated groups were measured, and both PAH molecular diagnostic ratios and carbon isotopic signatures (δ(13)C) of individual PAHs were used to differentiate natural from anthropogenic inputs. Although concentrations of PAHs in these lakes were low and below the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) guidelines, diagnostic ratios pointed to an increasingly larger input of petroleum-derived (i.e., petrogenic) PAHs over the past 30 years concomitant with δ(13)C values progressively shifting to the value of unprocessed AOS bitumen. This petrogenic source is attributed to the deposition of bitumen in dust particles associated with wind erosion from open pit mines.

  6. Acoustic signature from flames as a combustion diagnostic tool. Final technical report, 1 May 79-31 Oct 83

    SciTech Connect

    Strahle, W.C.

    1983-11-01

    A program was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the combustion noise acoustic output as a non-intrusive diagnostic of some details of the combustion process. Investigated were an open premixed turbulent jet flame and a gas turbine combustor converted to run on propane. The analysis links the acoustic pressure fluctuations to the distribution of heat release rate fluctuations. Measurement of the sound field, yields in principle, the heat release rate fluctuation field. It was found, however, that the analytical methods for this inverse problem are too sensitive to small experimental uncertainties. Consequently, it appears that the method is not, in general feasible.

  7. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Duperrex, P.A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Mueller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-11-10

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given.

  8. Latest Diagnostic Electronics Development for the PROSCAN Proton Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duperrex, P. A.; Frei, U.; Gamma, G.; Müller, U.; Rezzonico, L.

    2004-11-01

    New VME-based diagnostic electronics are being developed for PROSCAN, a proton accelerator for medical application presently under construction at PSI. One new development is a VME-based multi-channel logarithmic amplifier for converting current to voltage (LogIV). The LogIV boards are used for measuring current from the multiple wire (harp) profile monitors. The LogIV calibration method, current dependant bandwidth and temperature stability are presented. Another development is a BPM front end, based on the newest digital receiver techniques. Features of this new system are the remote control of the preamplifier stage and the continuous monitoring of each individual signal overall gain. Characteristics of the developed prototype are given.

  9. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  10. Diagnostic development for determining the joint temperature/soot statistics in hydrocarbon-fueled pool fires : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Casteneda, Jaime N.; Frederickson, Kraig; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.; Kearney, Sean Patrick; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2009-09-01

    A joint temperature/soot laser-based optical diagnostic was developed for the determination of the joint temperature/soot probability density function (PDF) for hydrocarbon-fueled meter-scale turbulent pool fires. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort was in support of the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program which seeks to produce computational models for the simulation of fire environments for risk assessment and analysis. The development of this laser-based optical diagnostic is motivated by the need for highly-resolved spatio-temporal information for which traditional diagnostic probes, such as thermocouples, are ill-suited. The in-flame gas temperature is determined from the shape of the nitrogen Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signature and the soot volume fraction is extracted from the intensity of the Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII) image of the CARS probed region. The current state of the diagnostic will be discussed including the uncertainty and physical limits of the measurements as well as the future applications of this probe.

  11. Development of a Transient Acoustic Boundary Element Method to Predict the Noise Signature of Swimming Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Moored, Keith; Jaworski, Justin

    2015-11-01

    Animals have evolved flexible wings and fins to efficiently and quietly propel themselves through the air and water. The design of quiet and efficient bio-inspired propulsive concepts requires a rapid, unified computational framework that integrates three essential features: the fluid mechanics, the elastic structural response, and the noise generation. This study focuses on the development, validation, and demonstration of a transient, two-dimensional acoustic boundary element solver accelerated by a fast multipole algorithm. The resulting acoustic solver is used to characterize the acoustic signature produced by a vortex street advecting over a NACA 0012 airfoil, which is representative of vortex-body interactions that occur in schools of swimming fish. Both 2S and 2P canonical vortex streets generated by fish are investigated over the range of Strouhal number 0 . 2 < St < 0 . 4 , and the acoustic signature of the airfoil is quantified. This study provides the first estimate of the noise signature of a school of swimming fish. Lehigh University CORE Grant.

  12. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  13. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-21

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (10{sup 7} n/s*cm{sup 2}) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore

  14. X-ray diagnostic developments in the perspective of DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, D.; Romano, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Causa, F.; Murtas, F.; Claps, G.; Choe, W.; Lee, S. H.; Jang, S.; Jang, J.; Hong, J.; Jeon, T.; Lee, H.

    2014-08-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostics at present are not adequate for a burning plasma experiment, neither in term of hardware nor as diagnostic conception. Detectors have to be radiation tolerant, easily shielded, with low sensitivity to neutrons and gammas and with energy discrimination. Layout and viewing capability should be more flexible, thanks to the use also of optical devices, going toward a configuration intermediate between discrete tomography and pure imaging. The general conception of these diagnostics should therefore evolve in the direction of pattern recognition for a real time feedback. This work is focused on the diagnostic developments undertaken at the ENEA- Frascati X-ray Laboratory, following in particular three directions: gas detector for fast and advanced high density tomography, C-MOS solid state imaging detectors for slow control and X-ray polycapillary optics. GEM gas detectors in photon counting mode (noise free) were developed in the range 1-30 keV having high efficiency, high time resolution (up to microseconds), energy discrimination in bands and optical flexibility. Discrimination of X-rays, neutrons and gammas has been demonstrated, thanks to the combination of intrinsic gain and discrimination thresholds, at neutron fluxes (107 n/s*cm2) comparable with the expected ones at the ports of ITER. GEM detectors are also extremely flexible in the design, allowing optimization of the measurements and solutions for shielding or minimization of the effect of background radiation. Two solid state C-MOS imagers working in photon counting mode, one based on Si semiconductor (Medipix-2, range 5-30 keV) and the other one having a CdTe sensor (Pixirad, range 2-100 keV) have been characterized in laboratory. C-MOS imagers have features and performances thoroughly complementary to the GEM detector and, thanks to their higher pixel density, could be used as remote imaging detectors coupled to optics. X-ray polycapillary lenses have been therefore studied in the

  15. Metallic radionuclides in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals†

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Metallic radionuclides are the mainstay of both diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Therapeutic nuclear medicine is less advanced but has tremendous potential if the radionuclide is accurately targeted. Great interest exists in the field of inorganic chemistry for developing target specific radiopharmaceuticals based on radiometals for non-invasive disease detection and cancer radiotherapy. This perspective will focus on the nuclear properties of a few important radiometals and their recent applications to developing radiopharmaceuticals for imaging and therapy. Other topics for discussion will include imaging techniques, radiotherapy, analytical techniques, and radiation safety. The ultimate goal of this perspective is to introduce inorganic chemists to the field of nuclear medicine and radiopharmaceutical development, where many applications of fundamental inorganic chemistry can be found. PMID:21541393

  16. Development of Optical Diagnostics to Probe Post-Detonation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangilinan, G. I.

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments have spurred a need to recognize processes that occur after the detonation of energetic materials. Understanding enhanced explosive effects whereby substantial energy releasing steps happen nanoseconds to milliseconds after a detonation is a critical need. Optical diagnostic methods are promising because they can meet stringent requirements inherent in detonation events. Optical sensors can monitor fast events and can be remotely placed to be immune from the heat and pressure inherent in a detonation. They thus complement electrical gauges currently in use. We have applied time-resolved emission spectroscopy in monitoring the transient chemical processes in several detonating formulations. Gauges using refractive index to measure pressure have also been developed. Optical fibers have also been tremendously useful in determining shock velocities. These measurements of transient chemistry, pressure and particle flow are essential in unraveling these complex post detonation processes. Other optical techniques in development will be discussed. The scope of applications for these gauges and their limitations will be presented.

  17. Impact of gene patents on the development of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Toneguzzo, Frances

    2011-07-01

    There is a widely held view that gene patents in particular and patents in general, because of the exclusionary rights that they provide, are inhibiting the development of and access to critical molecular diagnostic testing. This is a highly relevant issue for healthcare delivery as we move towards personalized medicine, which relies heavily on genetic testing to tailor treatments that are specific for individual characteristics. Critics of the patent system hope to void or diminish the exclusionary aspect of patents by removing genes from the definition of what is patentable, by increasing the number of activities that fall within the research use exemption, or by compelling patent holders to license their rights non-exclusively. Although a re-examination of what constitutes patentable subject matter is an important undertaking, narrowing the definition of patentable subject matter is at best only a partial solution. Erosion of the patent system through compulsory licensing or expansion of the research use exemption runs the risk of destroying important incentives without also fully addressing the problem. To promote solutions that truly address the issues, this article distinguishes documented facts from perceptions and suggests alternative approaches to explore. The author believes that efforts to undermine the patent system are simply counterproductive and that time would be better spent addressing the real issues that lie within molecular diagnostic development.

  18. Development and validation of the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD).

    PubMed

    Cornelius, L R; Brouwer, S; de Boer, M R; Groothoff, J W; van der Klink, J J L

    2014-06-01

    Adjustment disorders (ADs) are under-researched due to the absence of a reliable and valid diagnostic tool. This paper describes the development and content/construct validation of a fully structured interview for the diagnosis of AD, the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD). We developed the DIAD by partly adjusting and operationalizing DSM-IV criteria. Eleven experts were consulted on the content of the DIAD. In addition, the DIAD was administered by trained lay interviewers to a representative sample of disability claimants (n = 323). To assess construct validity of the DIAD, we explored the associations between the AD classification by the DIAD and summary scores of the Kessler Psychological Distress 10-item Scale (K10) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) by linear regression. Expert agreement on content of the DIAD was moderate to good. The prevalence of AD using the DIAD with revised criteria for the diagnosis AD was 7.4%. The associations of AD by the DIAD with average sum scores on the K10 and the WHODAS supported construct validity of the DIAD. The results provide a first indication that the DIAD is a valid instrument to diagnose AD. Further studies on reliability and on other aspects of validity are needed. PMID:24478059

  19. A comparison between maritime field observations and photosimulation for developing and validating visible signature evaluation tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culpepper, Joanne B.; Wheaton, Vivienne C.; Shao, Q. T.; Furnell, Alistair

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, the majority of detection models used to assess visible signatures have been developed and validated using static imagery. Some of these models are the German developed CAMAELEON (CAMou age Assessment by Evaluation of Local Energy Spatial Frequency and OrieNtation) model and the U.S. Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) ACQUIRE and TTP (Targeting Task Performance) models. All these models gathered the necessary human observer data for development and validation from static images in photosimulation experiments. In this paper, we compare the results of a field observation trial to a static photosimulation experiment. The probability of detection obtained from the field observation trial was compared to the detection probability obtained from the static photosimulation trial. The comparison showed good correlation between the field trial and the static image photosimulation detection probabilities, where a Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.59 was calculated. The photosimulation detection task was found to be significantly harder than the field observation detection task, suggesting that to use static image photosimulation to develop and validate maritime visible signature evaluation tools may need correction to represent detection in field observations.

  20. Development and characterization of a highly specific and sensitive SYBR green reverse transcriptase PCR assay for detection of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus on the basis of sequence signatures.

    PubMed

    Medina, Rafael A; Rojas, Mark; Tuin, Astrid; Huff, Stephen; Ferres, Marcela; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Godoy, Paula; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fofanov, Yuriy; SantaLucia, John

    2011-01-01

    The emergence and rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus showed that many diagnostic tests were unsuitable for detecting the novel virus isolates. In most countries the probe-based TaqMan assay developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was used for diagnostic purposes. The substantial sequence data that became available during the course of the pandemic created the opportunity to utilize bioinformatics tools to evaluate the unique sequence properties of this virus for the development of diagnostic tests. We used a comprehensive computational approach to examine conserved 2009 H1N1 sequence signatures that are at least 20 nucleotides long and contain at least two mismatches compared to any other known H1N1 genome. We found that the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes contained sequence signatures that are highly conserved among 2009 H1N1 isolates. Based on the NA gene signatures, we used Visual-OMP to design primers with optimal hybridization affinity and we used ThermoBLAST to minimize amplification artifacts. This procedure resulted in a highly sensitive and discriminatory 2009 H1N1 detection assay. Importantly, we found that the primer set can be used reliably in both a conventional TaqMan and a SYBR green reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assay with no loss of specificity or sensitivity. We validated the diagnostic accuracy of the NA SYBR green assay with 125 clinical specimens obtained between May and August 2009 in Chile, and we showed diagnostic efficacy comparable to the CDC assay. Our approach highlights the use of systematic computational approaches to develop robust diagnostic tests during a viral pandemic.

  1. Defining the Genomic Signature of Totipotency and Pluripotency during Early Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Galan, Amparo; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Poo, Maria Eugenia; Valbuena, Diana; Sanchez, Eva; Ruiz, Veronica; Dopazo, Joaquin; Montaner, David; Conesa, Ana; Simon, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms governing human pre-implantation embryo development and the in vitro counterparts, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), still remain incomplete. Previous global genome studies demonstrated that totipotent blastomeres from day-3 human embryos and pluripotent inner cell masses (ICMs) from blastocysts, display unique and differing transcriptomes. Nevertheless, comparative gene expression analysis has revealed that no significant differences exist between hESCs derived from blastomeres versus those obtained from ICMs, suggesting that pluripotent hESCs involve a new developmental progression. To understand early human stages evolution, we developed an undifferentiation network signature (UNS) and applied it to a differential gene expression profile between single blastomeres from day-3 embryos, ICMs and hESCs. This allowed us to establish a unique signature composed of highly interconnected genes characteristic of totipotency (61 genes), in vivo pluripotency (20 genes), and in vitro pluripotency (107 genes), and which are also proprietary according to functional analysis. This systems biology approach has led to an improved understanding of the molecular and signaling processes governing human pre-implantation embryo development, as well as enabling us to comprehend how hESCs might adapt to in vitro culture conditions. PMID:23614026

  2. Development and implementation of thermal signature testing protocol of auxiliary power unit (APU) and diesel tractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Chelsea L.; Bourne, Stefanie M.; Rowley, Matthew J.; Miles, Jonathan J.

    2004-04-01

    Thermal signature may be one of the defining factors in determining the applicability of fuel cell auxiliary power unit (APU) technology in military applications. Thermal characterization is important for military applications given that identification and detection may be accomplished through observation of its thermal signature. The operating modes and power takeoff operations of a vehicle will likely determine the thermal profile. The objective of our study was to develop and implement a protocol for quantifying the thermal characteristics of a methanol fuel cell and an idling tractor engine under representative characteristic operations. APU thermal characteristics are a special case for which standardized testing procedures do not presently exist. A customized testing protocol was developed and applied that is specific to an APU-equipped vehicle. Initial testing was conducted on the methanol APU-equipped Freightliner tractor using a high-performance radiometric infrared system. The APU profile calls for a series of infrared images to be collected at three different viewing angles and two different elevations under various loads. The diesel engine was studied in a similar fashion using seven different viewing angles and two different elevations. Raw data collected according to the newly developed methodology provided the opportunity for computer analysis and thermal profiling of both the fuel cell and the diesel engine.

  3. Development of neutron spectrometer toward deuterium plasma diagnostics in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Tomita, H.; Iwai, H.; Iguchi, T.; Kawarabayashi, J.; Isobe, M.; Konno, C.

    2010-10-15

    Neutron spectrometer based on coincident counting of associated particles has been developed for deuterium plasma diagnostics on Large Helical Device (LHD) at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Efficient detection of 2.5 MeV neutron with high energy resolution would be achievable by coincident detection of a scattered neutron and a recoiled proton associated with an elastic scattering of incident neutron in a plastic scintillator as a radiator. The calculated neutron spectra from deuterium plasma heated by neutral beam injection indicate that the energy resolution of better than 7% is required for the spectrometer to evaluate energetic deuterium confinement. By using a prototype of the proposed spectrometer, the energy resolution of 6.3% and the detection efficiency of 3.3x10{sup -7} count/neutron were experimentally demonstrated for 2.5 MeV monoenergetic neutron, respectively.

  4. Development of burner flame diagnostic system for utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, F. ); Watanabe, N.; Misono, K.Y. ); Miyamae, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Tagami, I. )

    1990-01-01

    The combustion monitoring system in utility boilers generally consists of equipment for analyzing O{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and dust in flue gas at the boiler exit. The burner flame diagnostic system developed in this research is comprised of optical probes, optical fibers connecting the burners to a multispectrometer through an optical scanner for multiple burners of the boiler and computer for evaluating flame behavior, so as to serve precise spectroscopic analysis. This research began with a small size test furnace in order to derive combustion evaluation indices, thus successfully leading to theoretical expression in application to a large scale utility boiler. A ploto-type system was mounted on a 350 MW boiler with test result that clearly demonstrate this system to be effective for precise evaluation of individual burners of the boiler.

  5. Development of a diagnostic aid for bacterial infection in wounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisanelli, A. M.; Persaud, K. C.; Bailey, A.; Stuczen, M.; Duncan, R.; Dunn, K.

    2009-05-01

    Infection of wounds during hospitalisation often induces morbidity and sometimes mortality. The delay in patient recovery and subsequent increased length of hospital stay also has economic consequences. Standard techniques for microbiological detection are surface swabbing and wound biopsy culture. Surface swabbing is the most commonly used technique mainly because is quite inexpensive and is not invasive but can give only a representation of surface infection and analysis is also time consuming. Infected wounds are often characterised by an offensive odour that can be used as a diagnostic parameter. We report the results obtained by examining swabs and dressings taken from patients using a gas sensor array instrument developed as part of an EU funded project WOUNDMONITOR.

  6. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical, and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature (i.e., mutated gene product, differentially expressed protein, altered cell surface antigen, etc.) exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. These biomarkers may be drug-specific targets and/or differentially expressed nucleic acids, proteins, or cell lineage profiles that can directly affect the patient’s disease tissue or immune response to a therapeutic regimen. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. Conversely, patients lacking predictive response biomarkers will no longer needlessly be exposed to drugs that are unlikely to provide clinical benefit, thereby enabling patients to pursue other therapeutic options and lowering overall healthcare costs by avoiding futile treatment. While patient molecular profiling offers a powerful tool to direct treatment options, the difficulty in identifying disease-specific targets or predictive biomarker signatures that stratify a significant fraction within a disease indication remains challenging. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Successful strategies may gain an advantage by employing repurposed, less-expensive existing agents while

  7. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2011-01-26

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  8. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  9. Development of polymer 'chips' used in medical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Zachary G; Schultz, Laura M; Vanness, Justin W; Farinholt, Kevin M; Sarles, Stephen; Leo, Donald

    2010-11-03

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in creating bio-inspired devices that feature artificial bilayer lipid membranes (BLM), or lipid bilayers. These membranes can be tailored to mimic the structure and transport properties of cellular walls and can be used to selectively transport ions and other species between aqueous volumes. One application of this research is the formation of a standardized BLM contained within a portable and disposable housing for use in medical diagnostics. This concept utilizes a flexible polymer 'chip' that has internal compartments for housing both an organic solvent and an aqueous solution, which contains phospholipid molecules, proteins, and specific analyte molecules. The formation of a BLM within the chip enables integration of the chip into an electronic reader to perform diagnostic measurements of the sample. A key element of the bilayer formation process requires a single aqueous volume to first be separated into multiple volumes such that it can then be reattached to form a bilayer at the interface. This process, called the regulated attachment method, relies on the geometry of the deformable 'chip' to separate and reattach the aqueous contents held inside by opening and closing an aperture that divides adjacent compartments through the application of mechanical force. The purpose of this research is to develop an optimized chip that provides a controllable method for initially separating the aqueous phase via dynamic excitation. This study focuses on two specific aspects: designing an efficient excitation method for separating the aqueous volume, and optimizing the geometry of the chip to decrease the required input energy and better target the location and duration of the separation. Finite Element (FE) models are used to optimize the chip geometry and to identify suitable excitation signals. A series of experimental studies are also presented to validate the FE models.

  10. Development of optical diagnostics for performance evaluation of arcjet thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelli, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    Laser and optical emission-based measurements have been developed and implemented for use on low-power hydrogen arcjet thrusters and xenon-propelled electric thrusters. In the case of low power hydrogen arcjets, these laser induce fluorescence measurements constitute the first complete set of data that characterize the velocity and temperature field of such a device. The research performed under the auspices of this NASA grant includes laser-based measurements of atomic hydrogen velocity and translational temperature, ultraviolet absorption measurements of ground state atomic hydrogen, Raman scattering measurements of the electronic ground state of molecular hydrogen, and optical emission based measurements of electronically excited atomic hydrogen, electron number density, and electron temperature. In addition, we have developed a collisional-radiative model of atomic hydrogen for use in conjunction with magnetohydrodynamic models to predict the plasma radiative spectrum, and near-electrode plasma models to better understand current transfer from the electrodes to the plasma. In the final year of the grant, a new program aimed at developing diagnostics for xenon plasma thrusters was initiated, and results on the use of diode lasers for interrogating Hall accelerator plasmas has been presented at recent conferences.

  11. Basic properties of developed wind waves and their influence on microwave remote sensing signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.; Pilorz, Stuart H.

    1989-01-01

    Error trends in wind speed measurements by satellite scatterometer altimeter and microwave radiometer are shown to be correlated with the degree of wave development. These errors are analyzed theoretically by studying the rms wave slope which, directly or indirectly, affects all microwave signatures. For equilibrium sea state, the influence of spectrum parameters on the wave slope is reviewed. In well-developed seas, the dominant wavelength is shown to have no effect on the slope. Temporal-spatial rates of steep and breaking waves are derived and compared with field observations. The inner scale that determines a rapid falloff of spectral density function at high frequencies is estimated. The dependence of the spectral parameters on wind speed and sea maturity is studied using NOAA buoy observations. It is concluded that the removal of environmental error trends from satellite measurements can be best accomplished by a joint processing of microwave returns from several independent instruments.

  12. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  13. Diagnostics for first plasma and development plan on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Na, H. K.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Seo, D. C.; Seo, S. H.; Oh, S. T.; Ko, W. H.; Chung, J.; Nam, Y. U.; Lee, K. D.; Ka, E. M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwon, M.; Jeong, S. H.

    2010-06-15

    The first plasma with target values of the plasma current and the pulse duration was finally achieved on June 13, 2008 in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The diagnostic systems played an important role in achieving successful first plasma operation for the KSTAR tokamak. The employed plasma diagnostic systems for the KSTAR first plasma including the magnetic diagnostics, millimeter-wave interferometer, inspection illuminator, H{sub {alpha}}, visible spectrometer, filterscope, and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer have provided the main plasma parameters, which are essential for the plasma generation, control, and physics understanding. Improvements to the first diagnostic systems and additional diagnostics including an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, reflectometer, ECE radiometer, resistive bolometer, and soft x-ray array are scheduled to be added for the next KSTAR experimental campaign in 2009.

  14. Microfluidic based multiplex qRT-PCR identifies diagnostic and prognostic microRNA signatures in sera of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moltzahn, Felix; Olshen, Adam B.; Baehner, Lauren; Peek, Andrew; Fong, Lawrence; Stöppler, Hubert; Simko, Jeffry; Hilton, Joan F.; Carroll, Peter; Blelloch, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Recent prostate specific antigen (PSA) based screening trials indicate an urgent need for novel and non-invasive biomarker identification strategies to improve the prediction of prostate cancer behavior. Non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) in the serum and plasma have been shown to have potential as non-invasive markers for physiological and pathological conditions. To identify serum miRNAs that diagnose and correlate with prognosis of prostate cancer, we developed a multiplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) method involving purification of multiplex PCR products followed by uniplex analysis on a microfluidics chip to evaluate 384 human miRNAs. Using Dgcr8 and Dicer knockout (small RNA - deficient) mouse ES cells (mESC) as the benchmark, we confirmed the validity of our technique, while uncovering a significant lack of accuracy in previously published methods. Profiling 48 sera from healthy men and untreated prostate cancer patients with differing CAPRA (Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment) scores, we identified miRNA signatures that allow to diagnose cancer patients and correlate with prognosis. These serum signatures include oncogenic and tumor suppressive miRNAs suggesting functional roles in prostate cancer progression. PMID:21098088

  15. Signatures support program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Chadwick T.

    2009-05-01

    The Signatures Support Program (SSP) leverages the full spectrum of signature-related activities (collections, processing, development, storage, maintenance, and dissemination) within the Department of Defense (DOD), the intelligence community (IC), other Federal agencies, and civil institutions. The Enterprise encompasses acoustic, seismic, radio frequency, infrared, radar, nuclear radiation, and electro-optical signatures. The SSP serves the war fighter, the IC, and civil institutions by supporting military operations, intelligence operations, homeland defense, disaster relief, acquisitions, and research and development. Data centers host and maintain signature holdings, collectively forming the national signatures pool. The geographically distributed organizations are the authoritative sources and repositories for signature data; the centers are responsible for data content and quality. The SSP proactively engages DOD, IC, other Federal entities, academia, and industry to locate signatures for inclusion in the distributed national signatures pool and provides world-wide 24/7 access via the SSP application.

  16. New optical, acoustic, and electrical diagnostics for the developing world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, S. L.; Witte, C.; Bourquin, Y.; Kremer, C.; Menachery, A.; Zhang, Y.; Wilson, R.; Reboud, J.; Cooper, J. M.

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases cause 10 million deaths each year worldwide, accounting for ~60% of all deaths of children aged 5- 14. Although these deaths arise primarily through pneumonia, TB, malaria and HIV, there are also the so called "neglected diseases" such as sleeping sickness and bilharzia, which have a devastating impact on rural communities, in sub-Sahara Africa. There, the demands for a successful Developing World diagnostic are particularly rigorous, requiring low cost instrumentation with low power consumption (there is often no fixed power infrastructure). In many cases, the levels of infection within individuals are also sufficiently low that instruments must show extraordinary sensitivity, with measurements being made in blood or saliva. In this talk, a description of these demands will be given, together with a review of some of the solutions that have been developed, which include using acoustics, optics and electrotechnologies, and their combinations to manipulate the fluid samples. In one example, we show how to find a single trypanosome, as the causative agent of sleeping sickness.

  17. Facility for intense diagnostic neutral beam (IDNB) development

    SciTech Connect

    Kasik, R.J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Greenly, J.B.

    1993-08-01

    An intense, pulsed neutral beam source is under development for use as a probe beam on hot, burning plasmas such as in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) which is presently in the planning stage. A pulsed, neutral hydrogen beam of 10s of kilo amperes of current can have an alpha particle, charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy (alpha-CHERS) signal-to-noise ratio of {approximately} 10. This beam would allow the measurement, on a single pulse of a few hundred nanoseconds duration, of the local alpha particle distribution function as well as other features of the tokamak plasma such as current density profile, impurity density, and microturbulence spectrum. The cross-sections for the CHERS diagnostic dictate operation with proton energies greater than {approximately}50keV. A pulsed neutral hydrogen source of this voltage and intensity can be achieved by neutralizing the ion flux from a magnetized ion-diode. The cross-sections for attachment and stripping, when coupled with scaling from Child-Langmiur, space-charge-limited, ion-current flow imply operation below - 100keV for maximum neutral fluence. The development of a flashover-anode, ion source for forthcoming evaluation of a neutralizing section is described below. This source operates in the accelerator voltage range 70 to 100keV. Eventually, the flashover-anode, magnetized ion-diode will be replaced with a plasma-anode, magnetized ion-diode.

  18. Surface Diagnostics in Tribology Technology and Advanced Coatings Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodologies used for surface property measurement of thin films and coatings, lubricants, and materials in the field of tribology. Surface diagnostic techniques include scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, stylus profilometry, x-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil spectroscopy, and tribology examination. Each diagnostic technique provides specific measurement results in its own unique way. In due course it should be possible to coordinate the different pieces of information provided by these diagnostic techniques into a coherent self-consistent description of the surface properties. Examples are given on the nature and character of thin diamond films.

  19. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  20. ITER diagnostic systems in development in Ioffe Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.; Afanasyev, V.; Petrov, S.; Mironov, M.; Mukhin, E.; Tolstyakov, S.; Chugunov, I.; Shevelev, A.

    2014-08-21

    Three diagnostic systems are being developed in Ioffe Institute for ITER. Those are Neutral Particle Analysis (NPA), Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) and Gamma Spectroscopy (GS). The main objective of NPA in ITER is to measure D/T fuel ration in plasma on the basis of measurement of neutralized fluxes of D and T ions [1]. Fuel ratio is one of the key parameters needed by ITER control system to provide the optimal conditions in plasma and the most effective plasma burning. Another objective is to measure the distribution function of fast ions (including alpha particles) generated as a result of the additional heating and nuclear fusion reactions. Thomson Scattering in Divertor (TSD) [2] will be used to measure electron temperature and density in the scrape-off layer in outer leg of ITER divertor. The main task of TSD is to protect the machine from divertor overloading. Gamma Spectroscopy (GS) [3] is based on the measurement of spectral lines of MeV range gammas generated in nuclear reactions in plasma. 2-D gamma-ray emission measurements give valuable information on the confined alpha particles in DT plasma. They also provide important information on the location of MeV range runaway electron beams in ITER plasma. For all three cases the physical basis and instrumentation are presented. The simple NPA version for measurements of D/T ratio in DEMO is also briefly described.

  1. Development of Nanoscale Approaches for Ovarian Cancer Therapeutics and Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Engelberth, Sarah A.; Hempel, Nadine; Bergkvist, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of all gynecological cancers and the fifth leading cause of death due to cancer in women. This is largely due to late-stage diagnosis, poor prognosis related to advanced-stage disease, and the high recurrence rate associated with development of chemoresistance. Survival statistics have not improved significantly over the last three decades, highlighting the fact that improved therapeutic strategies and early detection require substantial improvements. Here, we review and highlight nanotechnology-based approaches that seek to address this need. The success of Doxil, a PEGylated liposomal nanoencapsulation of doxorubicin, which was approved by the FDA for use on recurrent ovarian cancer, has paved the way for the current wave of nanoparticle formulations in drug discovery and clinical trials. We discuss and summarize new nanoformulations that are currently moving into clinical trials and highlight novel nanotherapeutic strategies that have shown promising results in preclinical in vivo studies. Further, the potential for nanomaterials in diagnostic imaging techniques and the ability to leverage nanotechnology for early detection of ovarian cancer are also discussed. PMID:25271436

  2. Development of the ITER magnetic diagnostic set and specification.

    PubMed

    Vayakis, G; Arshad, S; Delhom, D; Encheva, A; Giacomin, T; Jones, L; Patel, K M; Pérez-Lasala, M; Portales, M; Prieto, D; Sartori, F; Simrock, S; Snipes, J A; Udintsev, V S; Watts, C; Winter, A; Zabeo, L

    2012-10-01

    ITER magnetic diagnostics are now in their detailed design and R&D phase. They have passed their conceptual design reviews and a working diagnostic specification has been prepared aimed at the ITER project requirements. This paper highlights specific design progress, in particular, for the in-vessel coils, steady state sensors, saddle loops and divertor sensors. Key changes in the measurement specifications, and a working concept of software and electronics are also outlined.

  3. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  4. Shatter cones: Diagnostic impact signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchone, J. F.; Dietz, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Uniquely fractured target rocks known as shatter cones are associated with more than one half the world's 120 or so presently known impact structures. Shatter cones are a form of tensile rock failure in which a positive conical plug separates from a negative outer cup or mold and delicate ornaments radiating from an apex are preserved on surfaces of both portions. Although distinct, shatter cones are sometimes confused with other striated geologic features such as ventifacts, stylolites, cone-in-cone, slickensides, and artificial blast plumes. Complete cones or solitary cones are rare, occurrences are usually as swarms in thoroughly fractured rock. Shatter cones may form in a zone where an expanding shock wave propagating through a target decays to form an elastic wave. Near this transition zone, the expanding primary wave may strike a pebble or other inhomogeneity whose contrasting transmission properties produce a scattered secondary wave. Interference between primary and secondary scattered waves produce conical stress fields with axes perpendicular to the plane of an advancing shock front. This model supports mechanism capable of producing such shatter cone properties as orientation, apical clasts, lithic dependence, and shock pressure zonation. Although formational mechanics are still poorly understood, shatter cones have become the simplest geologic field criterion for recognizing astroblemes (ancient terrestrial impact structures).

  5. Development of a computer technique for the prediction of transport aircraft flight profile sonic boom signatures. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coen, Peter G.

    1991-01-01

    A new computer technique for the analysis of transport aircraft sonic boom signature characteristics was developed. This new technique, based on linear theory methods, combines the previously separate equivalent area and F function development with a signature propagation method using a single geometry description. The new technique was implemented in a stand-alone computer program and was incorporated into an aircraft performance analysis program. Through these implementations, both configuration designers and performance analysts are given new capabilities to rapidly analyze an aircraft's sonic boom characteristics throughout the flight envelope.

  6. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures.

    PubMed

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M

    2015-11-13

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR "next-generation" peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva.

  7. Developments in FTICR-MS and Its Potential for Body Fluid Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Nicolardi, Simone; Bogdanov, Bogdan; Deelder, André M.; Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is the method of choice for measurements that require ultra-high resolution. The establishment of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS, the availability of biomolecular ionization techniques and the introduction of the Orbitrap™ mass spectrometer have widened the number of FTMS-applications enormously. One recent example involves clinical proteomics using FTICR-MS to discover and validate protein biomarker signatures in body fluids such as serum or plasma. These biological samples are highly complex in terms of the type and number of components, their concentration range, and the structural identity of each species, and thus require extensive sample cleanup and chromatographic separation procedures. Clearly, such an elaborate and multi-step sample preparation process hampers high-throughput analysis of large clinical cohorts. A final MS read-out at ultra-high resolution enables the analysis of a more complex sample and can thus simplify upfront fractionations. To this end, FTICR-MS offers superior ultra-high resolving power with accurate and precise mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) measurement of a high number of peptides and small proteins (up to 20 kDa) at isotopic resolution over a wide mass range, and furthermore includes a wide variety of fragmentation strategies to characterize protein sequence and structure, including post-translational modifications (PTMs). In our laboratory, we have successfully applied FTICR “next-generation” peptide profiles with the purpose of cancer disease classifications. Here we will review a number of developments and innovations in FTICR-MS that have resulted in robust and routine procedures aiming for ultra-high resolution signatures of clinical samples, exemplified with state-of-the-art examples for serum and saliva. PMID:26580595

  8. Integrative analysis of lung development-cancer expression associations reveals the roles of signatures with inverse expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunlong; Li, Chunquan; Xu, Yanjun; Feng, Li; Shang, Desi; Yang, Xinmiao; Han, Junwei; Sun, Zeguo; Li, Yixue; Li, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies have focused on exploring the associations between organ development and malignant tumors; however, the clinical relevance of the development signatures was inadequately addressed in lung cancer. In this study, we explored the associations between lung development and lung cancer progression by analyzing a total of two development and seven cancer datasets. We identified representative expression patterns (continuously up- and down-regulated) from development and cancer profiles, and inverse pattern associations were observed at both the gene and functional levels. Furthermore, we dissected the biological processes dominating the associations, and found that proliferation and immunity were respectively involved in the two inverse development-cancer expression patterns. Through sub-pathway analysis of the signatures with inverse expression patterns, we finally identified a 13-gene risk signature from the cell cycle sub-pathway, and evaluated its predictive performance for lung cancer patient clinical outcome using independent cohorts. Our findings indicated that the integrative analysis of development and cancer expression patterns provided a framework for identifying effective molecular signatures for clinical utility.

  9. Development plan for an advanced drilling system with real-time diagnostics (Diagnostics-While-Drilling)

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.; GLOWKA,D.A.

    2000-02-01

    This proposal provides the rationale for an advanced system called Diagnostics-while-drilling (DWD) and describes its benefits, preliminary configuration, and essential characteristics. The central concept is a closed data circuit in which downhole sensors collect information and send it to the surface via a high-speed data link, where it is combined with surface measurements and processed through drilling advisory software. The driller then uses this information to adjust the drilling process, sending control signals back downhole with real-time knowledge of their effects on performance. The report presents background of related previous work, and defines a Program Plan for US Department of Energy (DOE), university, and industry cooperation.

  10. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics.

  11. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A; Meadows, Nick A; Schuh, A; Manescu, Katie E; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L; Brindley, David A

    2015-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics. PMID:26858745

  12. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting the Technological Development and Adoption of Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Dee; Smith, James A.; Meadows, Nick A.; Schuh, A.; Manescu, Katie E.; Bure, Kim; Davies, Benjamin; Horne, Rob; Kope, Mike; DiGiusto, David L.; Brindley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid innovation in (epi)genetics and biomarker sciences is driving a new drug development and product development pathway, with the personalized medicine era dominated by biologic therapeutics and companion diagnostics. Companion diagnostics (CDx) are tests and assays that detect biomarkers and specific mutations to elucidate disease pathways, stratify patient populations, and target drug therapies. CDx can substantially influence the development and regulatory approval for certain high-risk biologics. However, despite the increasingly important role of companion diagnostics in the realization of personalized medicine, in the USA, there are only 23 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved companion diagnostics on the market for 11 unique indications. Personalized medicines have great potential, yet their use is currently constrained. A major factor for this may lie in the increased complexity of the companion diagnostic and corresponding therapeutic development and adoption pathways. Understanding the market dynamics of companion diagnostic/therapeutic (CDx/Rx) pairs is important to further development and adoption of personalized medicine. Therefore, data collected on a variety of factors may highlight incentives or disincentives driving the development of companion diagnostics. Statistical analysis for 36 hypotheses resulted in two significant relationships and 34 non-significant relationships. The sensitivity of the companion diagnostic was the only factor that significantly correlated with the price of the companion diagnostic. This result indicates that while there is regulatory pressure for the diagnostic and pharmaceutical industry to collaborate and co-develop companion diagnostics for the approval of personalized therapeutics, there seems to be a lack of parallel economic collaboration to incentivize development of companion diagnostics. PMID:26858745

  13. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  14. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has

  15. Diagnostic Development for Heavy-Ion Based HEDP and HIF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F.; Molvik, A. W.; Covo, M. K.

    2005-10-01

    We discuss diagnostics used in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL). Time-resolved optical imaging diagnostics provide 4-D transverse beam phase space information on the experimental beams. Current work includes a high speed (sub-ns) optical system, a compact optical diagnostic suitable for insertion in transport lines, improved algorithms for data analysis, and a high-resolution electrostatic energy analyzer. A longitudinal diagnostic kicker/buncher generates longitudinal space-charge waves. Time of flight of the space charge wave and the electrostatic energy analyzer provide an absolute measure of the beam energy. Special diagnostics to detect secondary electrons and gases desorbed from the wall have been developed. Optical imaging of the gas cloud is used to study evolution of the gas cloud and as a beam current diagnostic. Experiment and diagnostics definition and layout for upcoming high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments are in the planning stages.

  16. New Developments in Smart Bandage Technologies for Wound Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    McLister, Anna; McHugh, Jolene; Cundell, Jill; Davis, James

    2016-07-01

    The pH of wound fluid has long been recognized as an important diagnostic for assessing wound condition, but as yet there are few technological options available to the clinician. The availability of sensors that can measure wound pH, either in the clinic or at home could significantly improve clinical outcome - particularly in the early identification of complications such as infection. New material designs and electrochemical research strategies that are being targeted at wound diagnostics are identified and a critical overview of emerging research that could be pivotal in setting the direction for future devices is provided.

  17. Improving Patient Care Via Development of a Protein-Based Diagnostic Test for Microbe-Specific Detection of Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Subinoy; Rosas, Lucia E.; Jurcisek, Joseph A.; Novotny, Laura A.; Green, Kari B.; Bakaletz, Lauren O.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The hypothesis is that signature bacterial proteins can be identified in sinus secretions via high-throughput, proteomic based techniques. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with sinusitis and will serve as a proof of principle pathogen for identifying biomarkers. Study Design In vitro and in vivo studies using proteomic based analysis of cultures of NTHI and a novel, experimental chinchilla polymicrobial sinusitis model. Methods Nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) was performed to annotate the secretome from an NTHI biofilm. A model of NTHI induced sinusitis was developed in a chinchilla and NTHI proteins were detected in chinchilla secretions. A reference standard RT-PCR based assay was adapted to allow for sensitivity and specificity testing of the identified signature biomarkers in human patients. Results Outer membrane proteins P2 (OMP-P2) and P5 (OMP-P5) were identified as promising candidates for detection of NTHI biofilms and positively detected in nasopharyngeal secretions of chinchillas experimentally infected with NTHI. An RT-PCR based test for the presence of NTHI biofilms demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity when tested against 8 unique strains commonly found in human bacterial rhinosinusitis. Conclusions Proteomic analysis was successful in identifying signature proteins for possible use as a biomarker for CRS. OMP-P2 and OMP-P5 were validated as promising candidates and were positively detected from nasopharyngeal secretions from chinchillas experimentally infected with NTHI. Collectively, these data support the use of OMP-P2 and OMP-P5 as biomarkers for a human clinical trial to develop a point of care medical diagnostic test to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of CRS. PMID:23904321

  18. Developments in target micro-Doppler signatures analysis: radar imaging, ultrasound and through-the-wall radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente, Carmine; Balleri, Alessio; Woodbridge, Karl; Soraghan, John J.

    2013-12-01

    Target motions, other than the main bulk translation of the target, induce Doppler modulations around the main Doppler shift that form what is commonly called a target micro-Doppler signature. Radar micro-Doppler signatures are generally both target and action specific and hence can be used to classify and recognise targets as well as to identify possible threats. In recent years, research into the use of micro-Doppler signatures for target classification to address many defence and security challenges has been of increasing interest. In this article, we present a review of the work published in the last 10 years on emerging applications of radar target analysis using micro-Doppler signatures. Specifically we review micro-Doppler target signatures in bistatic SAR and ISAR, through-the-wall radar and ultrasound radar. This article has been compiled to provide radar practitioners with a unique reference source covering the latest developments in micro-Doppler analysis, extraction and mitigation techniques. The article shows that this research area is highly active and fast moving and demonstrates that micro-Doppler techniques can provide important solutions to many radar target classification challenges.

  19. The Development of a Multi-Disciplinary Educational Programme in Biomedical Diagnostics: A Novel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCormac, Aoife; O'Brien, Emma; O'Kennedy, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a taught Master's course in biomedical diagnostics using a novel multi-disciplinary approach. This course, the first of its kind in Ireland, covers the science and technology underlying the development of medical diagnostic devices that detect early markers of diseases such as cancer. The ethical impact of…

  20. NSLS-II X-Ray Diagnostics Development

    SciTech Connect

    ILINSKI, P.

    2011-03-28

    NSLS-II x-ray diagnostics will provide continuous online data of electron beam dimensions, which will be used to derive electron beam emittance and energy spread. It will also provide information of electron beam tilt for coupling evaluation. X-ray diagnostics will be based on imaging of bending magnet and three-pole wiggler synchrotron radiation sources. Diagnostics from three-pole wiggler source will be used to derive particles energy spread. Beta and dispersion functions will have to be evaluated for emittance and particles energy spread calculations. Due to small vertical source sizes imaging need to be performed in x-ray energy range. X-ray optics with high numerical aperture, such as compound refractive lens, will be used to achieve required spatial resolution. Optical setups with different magnifications in horizontal and vertical directions fill be employed to deal with large aspect ratio of the source. X-ray diagnostics setup will include x-ray imaging optics, monochromatization, x-ray imaging and recording components.

  1. Curricular Innovation and Digitisation at a Mega University in the Developing World--The UNISA "Signature Course" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baijnath, Narend

    2014-01-01

    As part of the endeavor to reposition itself in the open distance and e-learning arena, the University of South Africa (UNISA) has designed and developed six modular courses (one module per College) referred to as "Signature Courses". The focus of these modules is on a student-centred online teaching and learning approach; extensive…

  2. Guide to good practices for teamwork training and diagnostic skills development

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This guide provides assistance in the development, implementation, and improvement of training on teamwork and diagnostics. DOE and contractor representatives identified the need for teamwork and diagnostics training guidance. This need was based on the increasing emphasis of properly applying knowledge and skills to complete assigned tasks. Teamwork and diagnostic skills have become a focal point because of the impact they have on effective facility operation and safety.

  3. Benchmarking, Research, Development, and Support for ORNL Automated Image and Signature Retrieval (AIR/ASR) Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, K.W.

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Applied Materials, Inc. (AMAT) of Santa Clara, California. This project encompassed the continued development and integration of the ORNL Automated Image Retrieval (AIR) technology, and an extension of the technology denoted Automated Signature Retrieval (ASR), and other related technologies with the Defect Source Identification (DSI) software system that was under development by AMAT at the time this work was performed. In the semiconductor manufacturing environment, defect imagery is used to diagnose problems in the manufacturing line, train yield management engineers, and examine historical data for trends. Image management in semiconductor data systems is a growing cause of concern in the industry as fabricators are now collecting up to 20,000 images each week. In response to this concern, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed a semiconductor-specific content-based image retrieval method and system, also known as AIR. The system uses an image-based query-by-example method to locate and retrieve similar imagery from a database of digital imagery using visual image characteristics. The query method is based on a unique architecture that takes advantage of the statistical, morphological, and structural characteristics of image data, generated by inspection equipment in industrial applications. The system improves the manufacturing process by allowing rapid access to historical records of similar events so that errant process equipment can be isolated and corrective actions can be quickly taken to improve yield. The combined ORNL and AMAT technology is referred to hereafter as DSI-AIR and DSI-ASR.

  4. Diagnostics development for the PEP-II B factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, A. S.; Alzofon, D.; Arnett, D.; Bong, E.; Daly, E.; Gioumousis, A.; Kulikov, A.; Kurita, N.; Langton, J.; Reuter, E.; Seeman, J. T.; Wienands, H. U.; Wright, D.; Chin, M.; Hinkson, J.; Hunt, D.; Kennedy, K.

    1997-01-01

    PEP-II is a 2.2-km collider with a 2.1-A, 3.1-GeV positron ring 1 m above a 1-A, 9-GeV electron ring; both are designed for a maximum of 3 A. Several diagnostics are now in preparation for commissioning the rings. The beam size and pulse duration are measured using visible synchrotron radiation from arc dipoles. Grazing-incidence, water-cooled mirrors that must withstand up to 200 W/cm extract the light. The sum signal from a set of four pickup buttons, normalized to a DC current transformer's measurement of the ring current, is processed to measure the charge in each bunch. This enables us to fill 1658 of the 3492 buckets per ring to a charge that must be equal within ±2%. For diagnostics and machine protection, 100 photomultiplier-based Cherenkov detectors measure the beam-loss distribution.

  5. 75 FR 33317 - Antibacterial Resistance and Diagnostic Device and Drug Development Research for Bacterial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Development Research for Bacterial Diseases; Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Diseases Society of America (IDSA) regarding scientific and potential research issues in antibacterial drug resistance, rapid diagnostic device development for bacterial diseases, and antibacterial drug...

  6. Using Standardized Diagnostic Instruments to Classify Children with Autism in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine E.; Moody, Eric J.; Bernal, Pilar; Blaskey, Lisa; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Lee, Li-Ching; Levy, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The Study to Explore Early Development (SEED) is a multi-site case-control study designed to explore the relationship between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and etiologies. The goals of this paper are to (1) describe the SEED algorithm that uses the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule…

  7. Development of a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System Based on an Enhanced Concept--Effect Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjaburees, Patcharin; Triampo, Wannapong; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chuedoung, Meechoke; Triampo, Darapond

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid advances in computer technology during recent years, researchers have demonstrated the pivotal influences of computer-assisted diagnostic systems on student learning performance improvement. This research aims to develop a Diagnostic and Remedial Learning System (DRLS) for an algebra course in a Thai lower secondary school context…

  8. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  9. Diagnostic development and support of MHD Test Facilities. Technical progress report, October 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  10. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, W.S.; Cook, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU) is developing diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, are being refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics are being developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems are being interfaced with DIAL`S computers. Technical support for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort is being provided. DIAL personnel also cooperate with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs.

  11. Development of a Metabolomic Radiation Signature in Urine from Patients Undergoing Total Body Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Mak, Tytus D.; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A.; Barker, Christopher A.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Brenner, David J.; Fornace, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4–6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher’s exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  12. Development of a metabolomic radiation signature in urine from patients undergoing total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Laiakis, Evagelia C; Mak, Tytus D; Anizan, Sebastien; Amundson, Sally A; Barker, Christopher A; Wolden, Suzanne L; Brenner, David J; Fornace, Albert J

    2014-04-01

    The emergence of the threat of radiological terrorism and other radiological incidents has led to the need for development of fast, accurate and noninvasive methods for detection of radiation exposure. The purpose of this study was to extend radiation metabolomic biomarker discovery to humans, as previous studies have focused on mice. Urine was collected from patients undergoing total body irradiation at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at 4-6 h postirradiation (a single dose of 1.25 Gy) and 24 h (three fractions of 1.25 Gy each). Global metabolomic profiling was obtained through analysis with ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Prior to further analyses, each sample was normalized to its respective creatinine level. Statistical analysis was conducted by the nonparametric Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the Fisher's exact test and markers were validated against pure standards. Seven markers showed distinct differences between pre- and post-exposure samples. Of those, trimethyl-l-lysine and the carnitine conjugates acetylcarnitine, decanoylcarnitine and octanoylcarnitine play an important role in the transportation of fatty acids across mitochondria for subsequent fatty acid β-oxidation. The remaining metabolites, hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid are the final products of the purine catabolism pathway, and high levels of excretion have been associated with increased oxidative stress and radiation induced DNA damage. Further analysis revealed sex differences in the patterns of excretion of the markers, demonstrating that generation of a sex-specific metabolomic signature will be informative and can provide a quick and reliable assessment of individuals in a radiological scenario. This is the first radiation metabolomics study in human urine laying the foundation for the use of metabolomics in biodosimetry and providing confidence in biomarker

  13. MicroRNA GENE EXPRESSION SIGNATURES IN THE DEVELOPING NEURAL TUBE

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Appana, Savitri; Webb, Cynthia; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neurulation requires precise, spatio-temporal expression of numerous genes and coordinated interaction of signal transduction and gene regulatory networks, disruption of which may contribute to the etiology of neural tube (NT) defects. MicroRNAs are key modulators of cell and tissue differentiation. In order to define potential roles of miRNAs in development of the murine NT, miRNA microarray analysis was conducted to establish expression profiles, and identify miRNA target genes and functional gene networks. METHODS miRNA expression profiles in murine embryonic NTs derived from gestational days 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5 were defined and compared utilizing miRXplore™ microarrays from Miltenyi Biotech GmbH. Gene expression changes were verified by TaqMan™ quantitative Real-Time PCR. clValid R package and the UPGMA (hierarchical) clustering method were utilized for cluster analysis of the microarray data. Functional associations among selected miRNAs were examined via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS miRXplore™ chips enabled examination of 609 murine miRNAs. Expression of approximately 12% of these was detected in murine embryonic NTs. Clustering analysis revealed several developmentally regulated expression clusters among these expressed genes. Target analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs enabled identification of numerous target genes associated with cellular processes essential for normal NT development. Utilization of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed interactive biological networks which connected differentially expressed miRNAs with their target genes, and highlighted functional relationships. CONCLUSIONS The present study defined unique gene expression signatures of a range of miRNAs in the developing NT during the critical period of NT morphogenesis. Analysis of miRNA target genes and gene interaction pathways revealed that specific miRNAs may direct expression of numerous genes encoding proteins which have been shown to be indispensable

  14. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  15. Botulism in children: a diagnostic dilemma in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Rehan; Maheshwari, Prem Kumar; Ibrahim, Shahnaz Hamid; Haque, Anwarul

    2013-06-01

    Botulism is a well-known disease of the neuromuscular junction. It is a rare but curable cause of paralysis in paediatric population. In addition to classical clinical signs and symptoms, the diagnosis of botulism requires laboratory confirmation of intoxication by various biological tests. These include demonstration of botulinum toxin in serum or isolation of the Clostridium botulinum from stool/gastric aspirates. However, it is not always possible to confirm intoxication due to unavailability of technical facilities, especially in resource limited countries like Pakistan. Under these circumstances, electrophysiological studies serve as an excellent diagnostic tool. These studies can provide quick diagnosis of botulism so that early administration of botulism immunoglobulin, if available, can reduce morbidity, mortality and length of stay in hospital. We report a case of botulism from Pakistan diagnosed on the basis of electrophysiological studies.

  16. Development of an automatic cow body condition scoring using body shape signature and Fourier descriptors.

    PubMed

    Bercovich, A; Edan, Y; Alchanatis, V; Moallem, U; Parmet, Y; Honig, H; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Halachmi, I

    2013-01-01

    Body condition evaluation is a common tool to assess energy reserves of dairy cows and to estimate their fatness or thinness. This study presents a computer-vision tool that automatically estimates cow's body condition score. Top-view images of 151 cows were collected on an Israeli research dairy farm using a digital still camera located at the entrance to the milking parlor. The cow's tailhead area and its contour were segmented and extracted automatically. Two types of features of the tailhead contour were extracted: (1) the angles and distances between 5 anatomical points; and (2) the cow signature, which is a 1-dimensional vector of the Euclidean distances from each point in the normalized tailhead contour to the shape center. Two methods were applied to describe the cow's signature and to reduce its dimension: (1) partial least squares regression, and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow signature. Three prediction models were compared with manual scores of an expert. Results indicate that (1) it is possible to automatically extract and predict body condition from color images without any manual interference; and (2) Fourier descriptors of the cow's signature result in improved performance (R(2)=0.77). PMID:24094536

  17. Development of Monitoring and Diagnostic Methods for Robots Used In Remediation of Waste Sites - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.

    2000-04-01

    This project is the first evaluation of model-based diagnostics to hydraulic robot systems. A greater understanding of fault detection for hydraulic robots has been gained, and a new theoretical fault detection model developed and evaluated.

  18. Advances in the design, development, and deployment of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) multimodal signatures database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Kelly; Robertson, James

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in the design, development, and deployment of U.S. Army Research Laboratory's (ARL) Multimodal Signature Database (MMSDB) create a state-of-the-art database system with Web-based access through a Web interface designed specifically for research and development. Tens of thousands of signatures are currently available for researchers to support their algorithm development and refinement for sensors and other security systems. Each dataset is stored in (Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) format for easy modeling and storing of signatures and archived sensor data, ground truth, calibration information, algorithms, and other documentation. Archived HDF5 formatted data provides the basis for computational interoperability across a variety of tools including MATLAB, Octave, and Python. The database has a Web-based front-end with public and restricted access interfaces, along with 24/7 availability and support. This paper describes the overall design of the system, and the recent enhancements and future vision, including the ability for researchers to share algorithms, data, and documentation in the cloud, and providing an ability to run algorithms and software for testing and evaluation purposes remotely across multiple domains and computational tools. The paper will also describe in detail the HDF5 format for several multimodal sensor types.

  19. Fault Diagnostics for Electrically Operated Pitch Systems in Offshore Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teja Kandukuri, Surya; Khang Huynh, Van; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Robbersmyr, Kjell Gunnar

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the electrically operated pitch systems of offshore wind turbines for online condition monitoring and health assessment. The current signature based fault diagnostics is developed for electrically operated pitch systems using model-based approach. The electrical motor faults are firstly modelled based on modified winding function theory and then, current signature analysis is performed to detect the faults. Further, in order to verify the fault diagnostics capabilities in realistic conditions, the operating profiles are obtained from FAST simulation of offshore wind turbines in various wind conditions. In this way, the applicability of current signature analysis for fault diagnostics in offshore wind turbine pitch systems is demonstrated.

  20. Development and evaluation of a genomic signature for the prediction and mechanistic assessment of nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Mark R; Adai, Alex; Dunn, Robert T; Olaharski, Andrew; Searfoss, George; Sina, Joe; Aubrecht, Jiri; Boitier, Eric; Nioi, Paul; Auerbach, Scott; Jacobson-Kram, David; Raghavan, Nandini; Yang, Yi; Kincaid, Andrew; Sherlock, Jon; Chen, Shen-Jue; Car, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    Evaluating the risk of chemical carcinogenesis has long been a challenge owing to the protracted nature of the pathology and the limited translatability of animal models. Although numerous short-term in vitro and in vivo assays have been developed, they have failed to reliably predict the carcinogenicity of nongenotoxic compounds. Extending upon previous microarray work (Fielden, M. R., Nie, A., McMillian, M., Elangbam, C. S., Trela, B. A., Yang, Y., Dunn, R. T., II, Dragan, Y., Fransson-Stehen, R., Bogdanffy, M., et al. (2008). Interlaboratory evaluation of genomic signatures for predicting carcinogenicity in the rat. Toxicol. Sci. 103, 28-34), we have developed and extensively evaluated a quantitative PCR-based signature to predict the potential for nongenotoxic compounds to induce liver tumors in the rat as a first step in the safety assessment of potential nongenotoxic carcinogens. The training set was derived from liver RNA from rats treated with 72 compounds and used to develop a 22-gene signature on the TaqMan array platform, providing an economical and standardized assay protocol. Independent testing on over 900 diverse samples (66 compounds) confirmed the interlaboratory precision of the assay and its ability to predict known nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens (NGHCs). When tested under different experimental designs, strains, time points, dose setting criteria, and other preanalytical processes, the signature sensitivity and specificity was estimated to be 67% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 38-88%) and 59% (95% CI = 44-72%), respectively, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.46-0.83%). Compounds were best classified using expression data from short-term repeat dose studies; however, the prognostic expression changes appeared to be preserved after longer term treatment. Exploratory evaluations also revealed that different modes of action for nongenotoxic and genotoxic compounds can be discriminated based on the

  1. Diagnostic Methods for Platelet Bacteria Screening: Current Status and Developments

    PubMed Central

    Störmer, Melanie; Vollmer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial contamination of blood components and the prevention of transfusion-associated bacterial infection still remains a major challenge in transfusion medicine. Over the past few decades, a significant reduction in the transmission of viral infections has been achieved due to the introduction of mandatory virus screening. Platelet concentrates (PCs) represent one of the highest risks for bacterial infection. This is due to the required storage conditions for PCs in gas-permeable containers at room temperature with constant agitation, which support bacterial proliferation from low contamination levels to high titers. In contrast to virus screening, since 1997 in Germany bacterial testing of PCs is only performed as a routine quality control or, since 2008, to prolong the shelf life to 5 days. In general, bacterial screening of PCs by cultivation methods is implemented by the various blood services. Although these culturing systems will remain the gold standard, the significance of rapid methods for screening for bacterial contamination has increased over the last few years. These new methods provide powerful tools for increasing the bacterial safety of blood components. This article summarizes the course of policies and provisions introduced to increase bacterial safety of blood components in Germany. Furthermore, we give an overview of the different diagnostic methods for bacterial screening of PCs and their current applicability in routine screening processes. PMID:24659944

  2. Digital Signature Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassler, Vesna; Biely, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Digital Signature Project that was developed in Austria to establish an infrastructure for applying smart card-based digital signatures in banking and electronic-commerce applications. Discusses the need to conform to international standards, an international certification infrastructure, and security features for a public directory…

  3. Domain-Specific Languages For Developing and Deploying Signature Discovery Workflows

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Ferosh; Wynne, Adam S.; Liu, Yan; Gray, Jeff

    2013-12-02

    Domain-agnostic Signature Discovery entails scientific investigation across multiple domains through the re-use of existing algorithms into workflows. The existing algorithms may be written in any programming language for various hardware architectures (e.g., desktops, commodity clusters, and specialized parallel hardware platforms). This raises an engineering issue in generating Web services for heterogeneous algorithms so that they can be composed into a scientific workflow environment (e.g., Taverna). In this paper, we present our software tool that defines two simple Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) to automate these processes: SDL and WDL. Our Service Description Language (SDL) describes key elements of a signature discovery algorithm and generates the service code. The Workflow Description Language (WDL) describes the pipeline of services and generates deployable artifacts for the Taverna workflow management system. We demonstrate our tool with a landscape classification example that is represented by BLAST workflows composed of services that wrap original scripts.

  4. Hydrological signatures of Critical Zone Processes: Developing targets for Critical Zone modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. E.; Karst, N.; Dralle, D.

    2015-12-01

    Water fluxes through the Critical Zone (CZ) are ubiquitous, and their behavior has the potential to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of the CZ. Models describing these fluxes implicitly propose hypotheses about the CZ which are encoded in the structure of the models. However, the certainty with which such hypotheses can be tested with observed hydrologic data is challenged by the well-known problem of equifinality - the tendency of multiple models, with very different model structures, to produce equally good representations of observed hydrologic dynamics. The project of modeling the CZ is thus challenged by the need to identify hydrologic signatures that are closely tied to the CZ structure and which could provide a stronger basis for hypothesis testing in model frameworks. Here I present one potential signature based on streamflow recession dynamics and the structure of their variability. Firstly, I present a technique to remove a mathematical artifact that is inherent in power-law representations of streamflow recessions. Secondly, I show that having removed this artifact, intriguing relationships emerge in the recession variability in the rivers near the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory. This relationship is interpreted in terms of how water is partitioned within the CZ. The close relationship between CZ processes and this part of the hydrologic response suggests that co-variation in recession parameters could provide a process-oriented hydrologic signature that CZ models should attempt to emulate.

  5. Diagnostic development and support of MHD test facilities. Final progress report, March 1980--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at Mississippi State University (MSU), under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC02-80ET-15601, Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities, developed diagnostic instruments for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train data acquisition and for support of MHD component development test facilities. Microprocessor-controlled optical instruments, initially developed for Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery (HRSR) support, were refined, and new systems to measure temperatures and gas-seed-slag stream characteristics were developed. To further data acquisition and analysis capabilities, the diagnostic systems were interfaced with DIAL`s computers. Technical support was provided for the diagnostic needs of the national MHD research effort. DIAL personnel also cooperated with government agencies and private industries to improve the transformation of research and development results into processes, products and services applicable to their needs. The initial contract, Testing and Evaluation of Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery, established a data base on heat transfer, slagging effects on heat transfer surfaces, metal durability, secondary combustor performance, secondary combustor design requirements, and other information pertinent to the design of HR/SR components at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF). To accomplish these objectives, a combustion test stand was constructed that simulated MHD environments, and mathematical models were developed and evaluated for the heat transfer in hot-wall test sections. Two transitions occurred during the span of this contract. In May 1983, the objectives and title of the contract changed from Testing and Evaluation of Heat Recovery/Seed Recovery to Diagnostic Development and Support of MHD Test Facilities. In July 1988, the research laboratory`s name changed from the MHD Energy Center to the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory.

  6. The ISIS Penning H- SPS and Diagnostic Developments at RAL

    SciTech Connect

    Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Pozimski, J.; Jolly, S.; Savage, P.; Haigh, M.; Morrison, J.; Yew, I.; Doucas, G.

    2007-08-10

    This paper covers the recent work carried out at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) on the ISIS Ion Source Development Rig (ISDR). The development of a retarding potential energy analyzer is described and a measured energy spread of 17.6 eV {+-} 1.5 eV from the ion source is reported. Variation in energy spread versus discharge current is shown. The development of a pepperpot emittance scanner to study emittance variation along the beam axis is discussed.

  7. Can model observers be developed to reproduce radiologists' diagnostic performances? Our study says not so fast!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Boone, John M.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine radiologists' diagnostic performances on different image reconstruction algorithms that could be used to optimize image-based model observers. We included a total of 102 pathology proven breast computed tomography (CT) cases (62 malignant). An iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithm was used to obtain 24 reconstructions with different image appearance for each image. Using quantitative image feature analysis, three IIRs and one clinical reconstruction of 50 lesions (25 malignant) were selected for a reader study. The reconstructions spanned a range of smooth-low noise to sharp-high noise image appearance. The trained classifiers' AUCs on the above reconstructions ranged from 0.61 (for smooth reconstruction) to 0.95 (for sharp reconstruction). Six experienced MQSA radiologists read 200 cases (50 lesions times 4 reconstructions) and provided the likelihood of malignancy of each lesion. Radiologists' diagnostic performances (AUC) ranged from 0.7 to 0.89. However, there was no agreement among the six radiologists on which image appearance was the best, in terms of radiologists' having the highest diagnostic performances. Specifically, two radiologists indicated sharper image appearance was diagnostically superior, another two radiologists indicated smoother image appearance was diagnostically superior, and another two radiologists indicated all image appearances were diagnostically similar to each other. Due to the poor agreement among radiologists on the diagnostic ranking of images, it may not be possible to develop a model observer for this particular imaging task.

  8. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 109 and 0.86 × 109, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 104 IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats. PMID:24136209

  9. Molecular imaging of atherosclerosis for improving diagnostic and therapeutic development

    PubMed Central

    Quillard, Thibaut; Libby, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent progress, cardiovascular and allied metabolic disorders remain a worldwide health challenge. We need to identify new targets for therapy, develop new agents for clinical use, and deploy them in a clinically-effective and cost-effective manner. Molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions has become a major experimental tool in the last decade, notably by providing a direct gateway to the processes involved in atherogenesis and its complications. This review summarizes the current status of molecular imaging approaches that target the key processes implicated in plaque formation, development, and disruption, and highlights how the refinement and application of such tools might aid the development and evaluation of novel therapeutics. PMID:22773426

  10. Drug-Diagnostics Co-Development in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Developments in genomics are providing a biological basis for the heterogeneity of clinical course and response to treatment that have long been apparent to clinicians. The ability to molecularly characterize human diseases presents new opportunities to develop more effective treatments and new challenges for the design and analysis of clinical trials. In oncology, treatment of broad populations with regimens that benefit a minority of patients is less economically sustainable with expensive molecularly targeted therapeutics. The established molecular heterogeneity of human diseases requires the development of new paradigms for the design and analysis of randomized clinical trials as a reliable basis for predictive medicine. We review prospective designs for the development of new therapeutics and predictive biomarkers to inform their use. We cover designs for a wide range of settings. At one extreme is the development of a new drug with a single candidate biomarker and strong biological evidence that marker negative patients are unlikely to benefit from the new drug. At the other extreme are phase III clinical trials involving both genome-wide discovery of a predictive classifier and internal validation of that classifier. We have outlined a prediction based approach to the analysis of randomized clinical trials that both preserves the type I error and provides a reliable internally validated basis for predicting which patients are most likely or unlikely to benefit from a new regimen. PMID:24392354

  11. The Development of a Literacy Diagnostic Tool for Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Rachael; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a Literacy Assessment Battery for the diagnosis of Maltese children with specific learning difficulties. It forms part of a wider research study involving testing of 549 children in Malta as well as standardisation of the tool. Results of the children's performance and psychometric validation go beyond…

  12. Development of a system to provide diagnostics-while-drilling.

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Jack LeRoy; Jacobson, Ronald David; Finger, John Travis; Mansure, Arthur James; Knudsen, Steven Dell

    2003-06-01

    This report describes development of a system that provides high-speed, real-time downhole data while drilling. Background of the project, its benefits, major technical challenges, test planning, and test results are covered by relatively brief descriptions in the body of the report, with some topics presented in more detail in the attached appendices.

  13. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  14. Development of prototype polychromator system for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Son, S. H.; Ko, W. H.; Seo, D. C.; Yamada, I.; Her, K. H.; Jeon, J. S.; Bog, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    A polychromator is widely used by the Thomson scattering system for measuring the electron temperature and density. This type of spectrometer includes optic elements such as band-pass filters, focusing lens, collimating lens, and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The characteristics of band-pass filters in the polychromator are determined by the measuring range of the Thomson system. KSTAR edge polychromators were developed by co-works at NIFS in Japan, and the KSTAR core polychromators were developed by NFRI in Korea. The power supply system of these polychromators is connected only to one power supply module and can manually control the APD's voltage at the front side of the power supply by using a potentiometer. In this paper, a prototype polychromator is introduced at the KSTAR. The prototype polychromator system has a built-in power supply unit that includes high voltage for the APD and ± 5 V for an op-amp IC. The high voltage for the APD is finely controlled and monitored using a PC with the LabView software. One out of the six band pass-filters has a center wavelength of 523.5 nm with 2-nm bandwidth, which can measure Zeff, and the other five band-pass filters can simultaneously measure the Thomson signal. In addition, we will show the test result of this prototype polychromator system during the KSTAR experiment campaign (2015).

  15. Clinical Research and Development of Tuberculosis Diagnostics: Moving From Silos to Synergy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Peter S.; Evans, Carlton A.; Alland, David; Barer, Michael; Diefenbach, Jane; Ellner, Jerrold; Hafner, Richard; Hamilton, Carol Dukes; Iademarco, Michael F.; Ireton, Gregory; Kimerling, Michael E.; Lienhardt, Christian; MacKenzie, William R.; Murray, Megan; Perkins, Mark D.; Posey, Jamie E.; Roberts, Teri; Sizemore, Christine; Stevens, Wendy S.; Via, Laura; Williams, Sharon D.; Yew, Wing W.; Swindells, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and implementation of new and improved diagnostics have been identified as critical needs by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis researchers and clinicians alike. These needs exist in international and domestic settings and in adult and pediatric populations. Experts in tuberculosis and HIV care, researchers, healthcare providers, public health experts, and industry representatives, as well as representatives of pertinent US federal agencies (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Food and Drug Administration, National Institutes of Health, United States Agency for International Development) assembled at a workshop proposed by the Diagnostics Working Group of the Federal Tuberculosis Taskforce to review the state of tuberculosis diagnostics development in adult and pediatric populations. PMID:22476718

  16. Development of a BPM Lock-In Diagnostic System

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Dickson

    2003-05-12

    A system has been developed for the acquisition and analysis of high rate, time coherent BPM data across the Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This system will allow the acquisition of Beam Position Monitor (BPM) position and intensity information at a rate in excess 7 KHz for approximately 200 BPMs in a time synchronous manner. By inducing minute sinusoidal transverse beam motion in the CEBAF injector, with known phase relative to the synchronized BPM acquisition, it is possible to derive several types of useful information. Analysis of the BPM intensity data, which is proportional to beam current, by beating the signal with an in-phase sinusoidal representation of the transverse kick can localize beam scraping to a particular BPM. Similarly, real-time optics information may be deduced with an analysis of BPM position data. This paper will detail the frequency lock-in technique applied and present status.

  17. Development of detection techniques and diagnostics for airborne carbon nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Witze, Peter O.; Settersten, Thomas B.

    2003-11-01

    We have recorded time-resolved LII signals from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame over a wide range of laser fluences at 532 nm. We have performed these experiments using an injection-seeded NdYAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns. The beam was spatially filtered and imaged into the flame to provide a homogeneous spatial profile. These data were used to aid in the development of a model, which will be used to test the validity of the LII technique under varying environmental conditions. The new model describes the heating of soot particles during the laser pulse and the subsequent cooling of the particles by radiative emission, sublimation, and conduction. The model additionally includes particle heating by oxidation, accounts for the likelihood of particle annealing, and incorporates a mechanism for nonthermal photodesorption, which is required for good agreement with our experimental results. In order to investigate the fast photodesorption mechanism in more detail, we have recorded LII temporal profiles using a regeneratively amplified Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 70 ps to heat the particles and a streak camera with a temporal resolution of {approx}65 ps to collect the signal. Preliminary results confirm earlier indications of a fast mechanism leading to signal decay rates of much less than a nanosecond. Parameters to which the model is sensitive include the initial soot temperature, the temperature of the ambient gas, and the partial pressure of oxygen. In order to narrow the model uncertainties, we have developed a source of soot that allows us to determine and control these parameters. Soot produced by a burner is extracted, diluted, and cooled in a flow tube, which is equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for characterization of the aggregates.

  18. Disorders of sex development: effect of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Achermann, John C; Domenice, Sorahia; Bachega, Tania A S S; Nishi, Mirian Y; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2015-08-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSDs) are a diverse group of conditions that can be challenging to diagnose accurately using standard phenotypic and biochemical approaches. Obtaining a specific diagnosis can be important for identifying potentially life-threatening associated disorders, as well as providing information to guide parents in deciding on the most appropriate management for their child. Within the past 5 years, advances in molecular methodologies have helped to identify several novel causes of DSDs; molecular tests to aid diagnosis and genetic counselling have now been adopted into clinical practice. Occasionally, genetic profiling of embryos prior to implantation as an adjunct to assisted reproduction, prenatal diagnosis of at-risk pregnancies and confirmatory testing of positive results found during newborn biochemical screening are performed. Of the available genetic tests, the candidate gene approach is the most popular. New high-throughput DNA analysis could enable a genetic diagnosis to be made when the aetiology is unknown or many differential diagnoses are possible. Nonetheless, concerns exist about the use of genetic tests. For instance, a diagnosis is not always possible even using new molecular approaches (which can be worrying for the parents) and incidental information obtained during the test might cause anxiety. Careful selection of the genetic test indicated for each condition remains important for good clinical practice. The purpose of this Review is to describe advances in molecular biological techniques for diagnosing DSDs.

  19. Development of two color laser diagnostics for the ITER poloidal polarimeter.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, K; Akiyama, T; Tanaka, K; Nakayama, K; Okajima, S

    2010-10-01

    Two color laser diagnostics using terahertz laser sources are under development for a high performance operation of the Large Helical Device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. So far, we have achieved high power laser oscillation lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.7 μm by using a twin optically pumped CH(3)OD laser, and confirmed the original function, compensation of mechanical vibration, of the two color laser interferometer. In this article, application of the two color laser diagnostics to the ITER poloidal polarimeter and recent hardware developments will be described.

  20. Development of dosimetry using detectors of diagnostic digital radiography systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ariga, Eiji; Ito, Shigeki; Deji, Shizuhiko; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2007-01-15

    Dosimetry using an imaging plate (IP) of computed radiography (CR) systems was developed for quality control of output of the x-ray equipment. Sensitivity index, or the S number, of the CR systems was used for estimating exposure dose under the routine condition: exposure dose from 1.0 to 1.0x10{sup 2} {mu}C kg{sup -1}, tube voltages from 50 to 120 kV, and added filtration from 0 to 4.0 mm Al. The IP was calibrated by using a 6 cc ionization chamber having traceability to the National Standard Ionization Chamber. The uncertainty concerning the fading effect was suppressed less than 1.9% by reading the latent image 4 min{+-}5 s after irradiation at the room temperature 25.9{+-}1.0 degree sign C. The S number decreased linearly on the logarithmic graph regardless of the beam quality as exposure dose increased. The relationship between the exposure dose (E) and the S number was fitted by the equation E=a{sup '}xS{sup -b}. The coefficient a{sup '} decreased when the added filtration and the tube voltage were increased. The coefficient b was 0.977{+-}0.007 in all beam qualities. The dosimetry using the IP and the equation can estimate the exposure dose in a range from 9.0x10{sup -2} to 5.0 {mu}C kg{sup -1} within an uncertainty of {+-}5% required by the Japanese Industry Standard. This dose range partially included the doses under routine condition. The doses between 1.0 and 1.0x10{sup 2} {mu}C kg{sup -1} under the routine condition can be shifted to the 5% region by using an absorber. The IP dosimetry is applicable to the quality control of the CR systems.

  1. Advanced development of particle beam probe diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Crowley, T.P.; Connor, K.A.

    1990-11-01

    This progress report covers the period starting with the approval to go ahead with the 2 MeV heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) for TEXT Upgrade to the submission of the grant renewal proposal. During this period the co-principal investigators, R. L. Hickok and T. P. Crowley have each devoted 45% of their time to this Grant. Their effort has been almost exclusively devoted to the design and fabrication of the 2 MeV HIBP system. The 1989 report that described the advantages of a 2 MeV HIBP for TEXT Upgrade compared to the existing 0.5 MeV HIBP and outlined the design of the 2 MeV system is attached as Appendix A. Since the major effort under the renewal proposal will be the continued fabrication, installation and operation of the 2 MeV system on TEXT Upgrade, we describe some of the unique results that have been obtained with the 0.5 MeV system on TEXT. For completeness, we also include the preliminary operation of the 160 keV HIBP on ATF. We present the present fabrication status of the 2 MeV system with the exception of the electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy analyzer which is designed to operate with 400 kV on the top plate is a major development effort and is treated separately. Included in this section are the results obtained with a prototype no guard ring analyzer, the conceptual design for the 2 MeV analyzer, the status of the high voltage testing of full size analyzer systems and backup plans if it turns out that it is impossible to hold 400 kV on an analyzer this size.

  2. Development of phoH as a novel signature gene for assessing marine phage diversity.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Dawn B; Crosti, Giuseppe; Dwivedi, Bhakti; McDaniel, Lauren D; Varsani, Arvind; Suttle, Curtis A; Weinbauer, Markus G; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-11-01

    Phages play a key role in the marine environment by regulating the transfer of energy between trophic levels and influencing global carbon and nutrient cycles. The diversity of marine phage communities remains difficult to characterize because of the lack of a signature gene common to all phages. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of host-derived auxiliary metabolic genes in phage genomes, such as those belonging to the Pho regulon, which regulates phosphate uptake and metabolism under low-phosphate conditions. Among the completely sequenced phage genomes in GenBank, this study identified Pho regulon genes in nearly 40% of the marine phage genomes, while only 4% of nonmarine phage genomes contained these genes. While several Pho regulon genes were identified, phoH was the most prevalent, appearing in 42 out of 602 completely sequenced phage genomes. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that phage phoH sequences formed a cluster distinct from those of their bacterial hosts. PCR primers designed to amplify a region of the phoH gene were used to determine the diversity of phage phoH sequences throughout a depth profile in the Sargasso Sea and at six locations worldwide. phoH was present at all sites examined, and a high diversity of phoH sequences was recovered. Most phoH sequences belonged to clusters without any cultured representatives. Each depth and geographic location had a distinct phoH composition, although most phoH clusters were recovered from multiple sites. Overall, phoH is an effective signature gene for examining phage diversity in the marine environment. PMID:21926220

  3. The development of a post-test diagnostic system for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, June F.

    1991-01-01

    An effort was undertaken by NASA to develop an automated post-test, post-flight diagnostic system for rocket engines. The automated system is designed to be generic and to automate the rocket engine data review process. A modular, distributed architecture with a generic software core was chosen to meet the design requirements. The diagnostic system is initially being applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine data review process. The system modules currently under development are the session/message manager, and portions of the applications section, the component analysis section, and the intelligent knowledge server. An overview is presented of a rocket engine data review process, the design requirements and guidelines, the architecture and modules, and the projected benefits of the automated diagnostic system.

  4. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts.

  5. Mining balance disorders' data for the development of diagnostic decision support systems.

    PubMed

    Exarchos, T P; Rigas, G; Bibas, A; Kikidis, D; Nikitas, C; Wuyts, F L; Ihtijarevic, B; Maes, L; Cenciarini, M; Maurer, C; Macdonald, N; Bamiou, D-E; Luxon, L; Prasinos, M; Spanoudakis, G; Koutsouris, D D; Fotiadis, D I

    2016-10-01

    In this work we present the methodology for the development of the EMBalance diagnostic Decision Support System (DSS) for balance disorders. Medical data from patients with balance disorders have been analysed using data mining techniques for the development of the diagnostic DSS. The proposed methodology uses various data, ranging from demographic characteristics to clinical examination, auditory and vestibular tests, in order to provide an accurate diagnosis. The system aims to provide decision support for general practitioners (GPs) and experts in the diagnosis of balance disorders as well as to provide recommendations for the appropriate information and data to be requested at each step of the diagnostic process. Detailed results are provided for the diagnosis of 12 balance disorders, both for GPs and experts. Overall, the reported accuracy ranges from 59.3 to 89.8% for GPs and from 74.3 to 92.1% for experts. PMID:27619194

  6. Diagnostic Stability of Acute and Transient Psychotic Disorders in Developing Country Settings: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shubham

    2015-01-01

    Acute and transient psychotic disorders (ATPD), introduced in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) diagnostic system in 1992, are not receiving much attention in developing countries. Therefore, the main objective of this article is to review the literature related to the diagnostic stability of ATPD in developing countries. A PubMed search was conducted to review the studies concerned with this issue in the context of developing countries, as diagnostic stability is more of a direct test of validity of psychiatric diagnoses. Four publications were found. According to the literature search, the stability percentage of the ICD-10 ATPD diagnosis is 63-100%. The diagnostic shift is more commonly either towards bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, if any. Shorter duration of illness (<1 month) and abrupt onset (<48 hours) predict a stable diagnosis of ATPD. Based on available evidence, the diagnosis of ATPD appears to be relatively stable in developing countries. However, it is difficult to make a definitive conclusion, as there is a substantial lack of literature in developing country settings. PMID:26266021

  7. Hyperspectral signature analysis of skin parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, Saurabh; Banerjee, Amit; Garza, Luis; Kang, Sewon; Burlina, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    The temporal analysis of changes in biological skin parameters, including melanosome concentration, collagen concentration and blood oxygenation, may serve as a valuable tool in diagnosing the progression of malignant skin cancers and in understanding the pathophysiology of cancerous tumors. Quantitative knowledge of these parameters can also be useful in applications such as wound assessment, and point-of-care diagnostics, amongst others. We propose an approach to estimate in vivo skin parameters using a forward computational model based on Kubelka-Munk theory and the Fresnel Equations. We use this model to map the skin parameters to their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We then use machine learning based regression to develop an inverse map from hyperspectral signatures to skin parameters. In particular, we employ support vector machine based regression to estimate the in vivo skin parameters given their corresponding hyperspectral signature. We build on our work from SPIE 2012, and validate our methodology on an in vivo dataset. This dataset consists of 241 signatures collected from in vivo hyperspectral imaging of patients of both genders and Caucasian, Asian and African American ethnicities. In addition, we also extend our methodology past the visible region and through the short-wave infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. We find promising results when comparing the estimated skin parameters to the ground truth, demonstrating good agreement with well-established physiological precepts. This methodology can have potential use in non-invasive skin anomaly detection and for developing minimally invasive pre-screening tools.

  8. A Needs-Based Approach to the Development of a Diagnostic College English Speaking Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated the current situation of oral English teaching, learning, and assessment at the tertiary level in China through needs analysis and explored the implications for the development of a diagnostic speaking test. Through random sampling, the researcher administered both a student questionnaire and a teacher questionnaire to over…

  9. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  10. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using…

  11. Development and Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Diagnostic Test Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children’s health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnost...

  12. Development and Use of Diagnostic Tests to Evaluate Students' Misconceptions in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.

    1988-01-01

    Describes 10 steps for developing a diagnostic test of students' misconceptions and the use of two tests in chemistry (covalent bonding and structure) and in biology (photosynthesis and respiration in plants). Discusses the results and some implications for teaching science. (YP)

  13. Psychometric properties of the motor diagnostics in the German football talent identification and development programme.

    PubMed

    HÖner, Oliver; Votteler, Andreas; Schmid, Markus; Schultz, Florian; Roth, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of motor performance tests for talent identification in youth sports is discussed intensively in talent research. This article examines the reliability, differential stability and validity of the motor diagnostics conducted nationwide by the German football talent identification and development programme and provides reference values for a standardised interpretation of the diagnostics results. Highly selected players (the top 4% of their age groups, U12-U15) took part in the diagnostics at 17 measurement points between spring 2004 and spring 2012 (N = 68,158). The heterogeneous test battery measured speed abilities and football-specific technical skills (sprint, agility, dribbling, ball control, shooting, juggling). For all measurement points, the overall score and the speed tests showed high internal consistency, high test-retest reliability and satisfying differential stability. The diagnostics demonstrated satisfying factorial-related validity with plausible and stable loadings on the two empirical factors "speed" and "technical skills". The score, and the technical skills dribbling and juggling, differentiated the most among players of different performance levels and thus showed the highest criterion-related validity. Satisfactory psychometric properties for the diagnostics are an important prerequisite for a scientifically sound rating of players' actual motor performance and for the future examination of the prognostic validity for success in adulthood.

  14. Initial operation of a newly developed multichord motional Stark effect diagnostic in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, J.; Ko, J.; Wi, H.; Messmer, M.; Schenkelaars, S.; Scheffer, M.; Jaspers, R. J. E.

    2016-11-01

    A photo-elastic modulator based 25-chord motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic has been successfully developed and commissioned in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. The diagnostic measures the radial magnetic pitch angle profile of the Stark splitting of a D-alpha line at 656.1 nm by the electric field associated with the neutral deuterium heating beam. A tangential view of the neutral beam provides a good spatial resolution of 1-3 cm for covering the major radius from 1.74 m to 2.28 m, and the time resolution is achieved at 10 ms. An in-vessel calibration before the vacuum closing as well as an in situ calibration during the tokamak operation was performed by means of specially designed polarized lighting sources. In this work, we present the final design of the installed MSE diagnostic and the first results of the commissioning.

  15. Current and future trends in biomarker discovery and development of companion diagnostics for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David S; Bustard, Michael J; McGeough, Cathy M; Murray, Helena A; Crockard, Martin A; McDowell, Andrew; Blayney, Jayne K; Gardiner, Philip V; Bjourson, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are complex multifactorial disorders that are chronic in nature and debilitating for patients. A number of drug families are available to clinicians to manage these disorders but few tests exist to target these to the most responsive patients. As a consequence, drug failure and switching to drugs with alternate modes of action is common. In parallel, a limited number of laboratory tests are available which measure biological indicators or 'biomarkers' of disease activity, autoimmune status, or joint damage. There is a growing awareness that assimilating the fields of drug selection and diagnostic tests into 'companion diagnostics' could greatly advance disease management and improve outcomes for patients. This review aims to highlight: the current applications of biomarkers in rheumatology with particular focus on companion diagnostics; developments in the fields of proteomics, genomics, microbiomics, imaging and bioinformatics and how integration of these technologies into clinical practice could support therapeutic decisions.

  16. Current and future trends in biomarker discovery and development of companion diagnostics for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gibson, David S; Bustard, Michael J; McGeough, Cathy M; Murray, Helena A; Crockard, Martin A; McDowell, Andrew; Blayney, Jayne K; Gardiner, Philip V; Bjourson, Anthony J

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are complex multifactorial disorders that are chronic in nature and debilitating for patients. A number of drug families are available to clinicians to manage these disorders but few tests exist to target these to the most responsive patients. As a consequence, drug failure and switching to drugs with alternate modes of action is common. In parallel, a limited number of laboratory tests are available which measure biological indicators or 'biomarkers' of disease activity, autoimmune status, or joint damage. There is a growing awareness that assimilating the fields of drug selection and diagnostic tests into 'companion diagnostics' could greatly advance disease management and improve outcomes for patients. This review aims to highlight: the current applications of biomarkers in rheumatology with particular focus on companion diagnostics; developments in the fields of proteomics, genomics, microbiomics, imaging and bioinformatics and how integration of these technologies into clinical practice could support therapeutic decisions. PMID:25455156

  17. Development of a rapid method for the automatic classification of biological agents' fluorescence spectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carestia, Mariachiara; Pizzoferrato, Roberto; Gelfusa, Michela; Cenciarelli, Orlando; Ludovici, Gian Marco; Gabriele, Jessica; Malizia, Andrea; Murari, Andrea; Vega, Jesus; Gaudio, Pasquale

    2015-11-01

    Biosecurity and biosafety are key concerns of modern society. Although nanomaterials are improving the capacities of point detectors, standoff detection still appears to be an open issue. Laser-induced fluorescence of biological agents (BAs) has proved to be one of the most promising optical techniques to achieve early standoff detection, but its strengths and weaknesses are still to be fully investigated. In particular, different BAs tend to have similar fluorescence spectra due to the ubiquity of biological endogenous fluorophores producing a signal in the UV range, making data analysis extremely challenging. The Universal Multi Event Locator (UMEL), a general method based on support vector regression, is commonly used to identify characteristic structures in arrays of data. In the first part of this work, we investigate fluorescence emission spectra of different simulants of BAs and apply UMEL for their automatic classification. In the second part of this work, we elaborate a strategy for the application of UMEL to the discrimination of different BAs' simulants spectra. Through this strategy, it has been possible to discriminate between these BAs' simulants despite the high similarity of their fluorescence spectra. These preliminary results support the use of SVR methods to classify BAs' spectral signatures.

  18. Development of a unique epigenetic signature during in vivo Th17 differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bi-Huei; Floess, Stefan; Hagemann, Stefanie; Deyneko, Igor V; Groebe, Lothar; Pezoldt, Joern; Sparwasser, Tim; Lochner, Matthias; Huehn, Jochen

    2015-02-18

    Activated naive CD4(+) T cells are highly plastic cells that can differentiate into various T helper (Th) cell fates characterized by the expression of effector cytokines like IFN-γ (Th1), IL-4 (Th2) or IL-17A (Th17). Although previous studies have demonstrated that epigenetic mechanisms including DNA demethylation can stabilize effector cytokine expression, a comprehensive analysis of the changes in the DNA methylation pattern during differentiation of naive T cells into Th cell subsets is lacking. Hence, we here performed a genome-wide methylome analysis of ex vivo isolated naive CD4(+) T cells, Th1 and Th17 cells. We could demonstrate that naive CD4(+) T cells share more demethylated regions with Th17 cells when compared to Th1 cells, and that overall Th17 cells display the highest number of demethylated regions, findings which are in line with the previously reported plasticity of Th17 cells. We could identify seven regions located in Il17a, Zfp362, Ccr6, Acsbg1, Dpp4, Rora and Dclk1 showing pronounced demethylation selectively in ex vivo isolated Th17 cells when compared to other ex vivo isolated Th cell subsets and in vitro generated Th17 cells, suggesting that this unique epigenetic signature allows identifying and functionally characterizing in vivo generated Th17 cells. PMID:25593324

  19. Development of proteomic signatures of platelet activation using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization technology in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Czuchlewski, David; Peerschke, Ellinor I

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop proteomic profiles that would distinguish between resting and activated platelets in a clinical setting using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI) time of flight (TOF) technology. A data set of 50 donors was analyzed. Distinct spectral patterns emerged in the low-molecular-weight range (2-10 kDa) for resting platelets and platelets aggregated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or thrombin receptor activation peptide SFLLRN (TRAP) and in platelets exposed to shear stress. Platelets from patients treated with ADP receptor antagonists did not show the expected change in proteomic profile following aggregation with ADP. These data provide the first demonstration that proteomic signatures of platelets can be developed using SELDI-TOF in a clinical laboratory setting. PMID:18480001

  20. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  1. Diagnostic Suite for HyperV Coaxial Plasma Gun Development for the PLX- α Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Andrew; Brockington, Sam; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2015-11-01

    We present the diagnostic suite to be used during development of the coaxial guns HyperV will deliver to LANL in support of the ARPA-E Accelerating Low-Cost Plasma Heating And Assembly (ALPHA) program. For plasma jet diagnostics this includes fast photodiodes for velocimetry, a ballistic pendulum for measuring total plasmoid momentum, interferometry for line integrated plasma density, deflectometry for line integrated perpendicular density gradient measurements, and spectroscopy, both time resolved high resolution spectroscopy using a novel detector developed by HyperV and time integrated survey spectroscopy, for measurements of velocity and temperature as well as impurities. In addition, we plan to use fast pressure probes for stagnation pressure, a Faraday cup for density, fast imaging for plume geometry and time integrated imaging for overall light emission. A novel low resolution long record length camera developed by HyperV will also be used for plume diagnostics. For diagnostics of gun operation, we will use Rogowski coils to measure current, voltage dividers for voltages, B-dot probes for magnetic field, and time resolved fast photodiodes to measure plasmoid velocity inside the accelerator. This work supported by the ARPA-E ALPHA program.

  2. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  3. Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Louge, M.; Jenkins, J.T.

    1992-03-02

    In 1988, we proposed a program to develop new diagnostics for dense gas-solid suspensions, with particular interest toward the dense pneumatic transport of cohesive solid plugs. This program included three main objectives, as follows: to develop probes for local measurements of (1) local particle volume fraction and (2) individual particle velocities in dense gas-solid flows; and (3) to construct a bench-scale setup for transporting dense cohesive solid plugs and to analyze data from the resulting tests.

  4. Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Louge, M.; Jenkins, J.T.

    1992-03-02

    In 1988, we proposed a program to develop new diagnostics for dense gas-solid suspensions, with particular interest toward the dense pneumatic transport of cohesive solid plugs. This program included three main objectives, as follows: to develop probes for local measurements of (1) local particle volume fraction and (2) individual particle velocities in dense gas-solid flows; and (3) to construct a bench-scale setup for transporting dense cohesive solid plugs and to analyze data from the resulting tests.

  5. The Development of an Angiogenic Protein "Signature" in Ovarian Cancer Ascites as a Tool for Biologic and Prognostic Profiling.

    PubMed

    Trachana, Sofia-Paraskevi; Pilalis, Eleftherios; Gavalas, Nikos G; Tzannis, Kimon; Papadodima, Olga; Liontos, Michalis; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Vlachos, Georgios; Thomakos, Nikolaos; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Lykka, Maria; Koutsoukos, Konstantinos; Kostouros, Efthimios; Terpos, Evagelos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios; Bamias, Aristotelis

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) is one of the leading lethal gynecological cancers in developed countries. Based on the important role of angiogenesis in ovarian cancer oncogenesis and expansion, we hypothesized that the development of an "angiogenic signature" might be helpful in prediction of prognosis and efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapies in this disease. Sixty-nine samples of ascitic fluid- 35 from platinum sensitive and 34 from platinum resistant patients managed with cytoreductive surgery and 1st-line carboplatin-based chemotherapy- were analyzed using the Proteome ProfilerTM Human Angiogenesis Array Kit, screening for the presence of 55 soluble angiogenesis-related factors. A protein profile based on the expression of a subset of 25 factors could accurately separate resistant from sensitive patients with a success rate of approximately 90%. The protein profile corresponding to the "sensitive" subset was associated with significantly longer PFS (8 [95% Confidence Interval {CI}: 8-9] vs. 20 months [95% CI: 15-28]; Hazard ratio {HR}: 8.3, p<0.001) and OS (20.5 months [95% CI: 13.5-30] vs. 74 months [95% CI: 36-not reached]; HR: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.8-11.2]; p<0.001). This prognostic performance was superior to that of stage, histology and residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ascites. In conclusion, we developed an "angiogenic signature" for patients with AOC, which can be used, after appropriate validation, as a prognostic marker and a tool for selection for anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:27258020

  6. Development and application of stress-wave acoustic diagnostics for roller bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.

    2000-06-01

    A powerful, innovative diagnostic technique for assessing railcar wheel health characteristics is to listen to the operating sound of a bearing. The emission of acoustic energy (sound) from a wheel bearing is a frequency-dependent and load-related phenomenon. A complementary set of bearing health data to audible acoustic emission (AE) data, referred to as 'stress-wave' data, exists at an order of magnitude above traditional vibration-based (i.e., accelerometer) data and contains information about friction and shock conditions in a bearing under highly loaded conditions. These health-related symptoms of shock and friction will provide an early warning capability to prevent flat wheel failures and train derailments through condition-based maintenance (CBM). This paper describes Honeywell's recent work with applying stress- wave AE to perform CBM for today's railroad industry. A detailed description of the railcar wheel bearing problem, failure modes and effects, and technical approach are presented. The summary of a field-test effort capturing AE signatures from a 100-ton railcar truck are provided. A preliminary set of data analysis is presented.

  7. Development of advanced diagnostics for characterization of burning droplets in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, Subramanian; Buermann, Dale H.; Bachalo, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic techniques currently used for microgravity research are generally not as advanced as those used in earth based gravity experiments. Diagnostic techniques for measuring the instantaneous radial temperature profile (or temperature gradients) within the burning droplet do not exist. Over the past few years, Aerometrics has been researching and developing a rainbow thermometric technique for measuring the droplet temperatures of burning droplets. This technique has recently been integrated with the phase Doppler interferometric technique to yield a diagnostic instrument that can be used to simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and temperature of burning droplets in complex spray flames. Also, the rainbow thermometric technique has been recently integrated with a point-diffraction interferometric technique for measuring the instantaneous gas phase temperature field surrounding a burning droplet. These research programs, apart from being very successful, have also helped us identify other innovative techniques for the characterization of burning droplets. For example, new techniques have been identified for measuring the instantaneous regression rate of burning droplets. Also, there is the possibility of extracting the instantaneous radial temperature distribution or the temperature gradients within a droplet during transient heating. What is important is that these diagnostic techniques have the potential for making use of inexpensive, light-weight, and rugged devices such as diode lasers and linear CCD arrays. As a result, they can be easily packaged for incorporation into microgravity drop-test and flight-test facilities. Furthermore, with the use of linear CCD arrays, data rates as high as 10-100 kHz can be easily achieved. This data rate is orders of magnitude higher than what is currently achievable. In this research and development program, a compact and rugged diagnostic system will be developed that can be used to measure instantaneous fuel

  8. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  9. A Multi-Expert Approach for Developing Testing and Diagnostic Systems Based on the Concept-Effect Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panjaburee, Patcharin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Triampo, Wannapong; Shih, Bo-Ying

    2010-01-01

    With the popularization of computer and communication technologies, researchers have attempted to develop computer-assisted testing and diagnostic systems to help students improve their learning performance on the Internet. In developing a diagnostic system for detecting students' learning problems, it is difficult for individual teachers to…

  10. Development of an Information Fusion System for Engine Diagnostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Allan J.; Brotherton, Tom; Luppold, Robert; Simon, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data are available from a variety of sources including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data Fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources, to achieve improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This paper describes a basic PHM Data Fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C17 Propulsion Health Management (PHM) Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion as applied to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This paper will provide a broad overview of this work, discuss some of the methodologies employed and give some illustrative examples.

  11. Development of procedures to ensure quality and integrity in Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, G.W.; Coon, M.L.; Hinz, A.F.; Hornady, R.S.; Lang, D.D.; Lund, N.P.

    1983-11-30

    The diagnostic systems for Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) have grown from eleven initial systems to more than twenty systems. During operation, diagnostic system modifications are sometimes required to complete experimental objectives. Also, during operations new diagnostic systems are being developed and implemented. To ensure and maintain the quality and integrity of the data signals, a set of plans and systematic actions are being developed. This paper reviews the procedures set in place to maintain the integrity of existing data systems and ensure the performance objectives of new diagnostics being added.

  12. Development of spectrophotometer for breast tumor diagnostic spectrometer based on virtual instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Ying; Huang, Zhen

    2013-12-01

    Although some progresses have been achieved by the traditional diagnostic methods, such as X mammography, computer tomography (CT) imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) etc, their applications are limited by some drawbacks to some extent. As a more promising alternative method, the breast tumor diagnosis method based on infrared spectrometer was introduced. According to the theory of spectral unique characteristics for matter, i.e. the spectrums are different for the matter with different properties, so the spectrums are different between the tumor and normal tissues. Therefore, a spectrometer system was developed to diagnose the breast tumor in this paper. Meanwhile, a spectrophotometer for breast tumor diagnostic spectrometer was designed, and the plane holography concave (PHV) grating was used as the dispersion device in this spectrophotometer because of excellent performances. In this system, linear CCD detector combined with PCI data acquisition card was used as the spectral detector, and the virtual instruments (VI) technique was used to control the data acquisition and data processing. In experiments, the spectral calibration based on mercury lamp was performed. Experimental results illustrated that the construction of the spectrophotometer system is available, the spectral range is from 300-850nm, its wavelength resolution reached 2nm. The simulation experimental result proved that the design of the diagnostic system was very satisfied and diagnostic method was also feasible.

  13. Significant roadblocks exist in developing sputum sample libraries for clinical validation of novel in vitro diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Dollow, Joshua M; Green, Justin A

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing rise of multiresistant pathogens, reliable, cost-effective, and novel diagnostics are urgently required by clinicians and clinical trialists to diagnose conditions such as respiratory tract infections to enable rational antimicrobial choice and enhance clinical outcomes. However, during product development, validation of these in vitro diagnostic devices, a key regulatory hurdle, requires sputum samples in large numbers. The Rapid Point-of-Care test Platform for Infectious Diseases (RAPP-ID) consortium is tasked with producing point of care test (POCT) platforms for rapid diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis and blood stream infections. Validation of diagnostic platforms would ideally use well-characterized samples in a sputum library taken from a range of clinical settings to allow for a wide panel of pathogens to be assessed. These samples would be stored in specific stable conditions (monitored temperature, specific medium) until required for validation. Therefore we reviewed the current literature for details of storage conditions of sputum samples and for previous validation studies of other diagnostic tests using this methodology. However, we conclude that little data exists, and thus the acquisition and successful storage of good quality clinical samples are major roadblocks in the validation of novel POCT platforms, and that while not without limitations, spiked sputum samples appear the best solution until sputum library laboratory techniques allowing careful preservation of pathogens are improved. PMID:24489460

  14. Best practices for companion diagnostic and therapeutic development: translating between the stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Love, Delicia; Stratton, Elyse; Stocum, Michael

    2012-09-15

    By 2012 the pharmaceutical industry has generally recognized the value proposition offered through 'personalized medicine': shorter regulatory reviews and higher prices as a tradeoff for a more specific patient market. Examples of companion diagnostics (Cdx) exist not only in oncology, but across therapeutic areas that allow us to define treatment benefit and identify the 'best patients' for a given treatment approach or combination thereof. In the 13 years since the co-approval of trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)) from Genentech and the HercepTest(®) from Dako, the regulatory and commercial environments have yet to adopt a standard methodology for co-development and co-approval. Furthermore, a one-size-fits-all approach is unlikely to emerge despite attempts by various stakeholders to create an environment of conformity for approval and reimbursement issues. What has emerged, however, is the experience of clinical developers and commercial teams in bringing these products to market. In this article, we focus on the many factors that should be considered to successfully develop and market a companion diagnostic, based on lessons learned from recent case studies. A proposed framework of questions to be addressed at the various stages of developing highly effective companion diagnostic products is also presented. PMID:22743138

  15. Development and preparation of lead-containing paint films and diagnostic test materials.

    PubMed

    Binstock, David; Gutknecht, William; Sorrell, Kristen; Haas, Curtis; Winstead, Wayne; McCombs, Michelle; Brown, Gordon; Salmons, Cynthia; Harper, Sharon L

    2012-05-01

    Lead in paint continues to be a threat to children's health in cities across the United States, which means there is an ongoing need for testing and analysis of paint. This ongoing analytical effort and especially development of new methods continue to drive the need for diagnostic testing materials that provide the analytical challenges of real-world paints. To this end, 31 different types of paint test materials were developed and prepared. Preparation of the materials included development of lead-containing paint films yielding an overall relative standard error for one individual test sample being less than 10%. The 31 diagnostic test materials prepared with these paint films included two lead pigments; lead concentrations from nominally 0 to 2.0 mg lead/cm(2) (0 to 5% lead by weight); overlayers of both "lead-free," oil-based and water-based paints; Al, Ba, and Mg as potential chemical interferents; red and black potential color interferents; and substrates of wood, metal, masonry, and plaster. These materials challenge each step in method development and evaluation, including paint sample collection and preparation, lead extraction, and measurement of solubilized lead. When the materials were used to test performance of a new lead-in-paint testing method based on extraction using a rotor/stator method and measurement using turbidimetry, the results agreed to within ±20% of the expected lead values for 30 out of 31 of the diagnostic test materials, thereby demonstrating their levels of quality and utility.

  16. Identification of a three-miRNA signature as a blood-borne diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background The subtypes of NSCLC have unique characteristics of pathogenic mechanism and responses to targeted therapies. Thus, non-invasive markers for diagnosis of different subtypes of NSCLC at early stage are needed. Results Based on the results from the screening and validation process, 3 miRNAs (miR-532, miR-628-3p and miR-425-3p) were found to display significantly different expression levels in early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, as compared to those in healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that the miRNA–based biomarker could distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from healthy controls with high AUC (0.974), sensitivity (91.5%), and specificity (97.8%). Importantly, these three miRNAs could also distinguish lung adenocarcinoma from lung benigh diseases and other subtypes of lung cancer. Methods Two hundreds and one early-stage lung adenocarcinoma cases and one hundreds seventy eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited to this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. A risk score model was established to evaluate the diagnostic value of the plasma miRNA profiling system. Conclusions Taken together, these findings suggest that the 3 miRNA–based biomarker might serve as a novel non-invasive approach for diagnosis of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:27036025

  17. Development of a diagnostic method applicable to various serotypes of hantavirus infection in rodents.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Ivanov, Leonid I; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-09-01

    Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes.

  18. The MIT Accelerator Laboratory for Diagnostic Development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Orozco, D.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Hahn, K.; Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2014-10-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products, which are used for development of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved with this accelerator, and fluence and energy of the fusion products are accurately characterized. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) CVD-diamond-based bang time detector. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  19. Developing and Implementing Diagnostic Prediction Models for Vestibular Diseases in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Grill, Eva; Groezinger, Michael; Feil, Katharina; Strupp, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing patients with vertigo and dizziness is a challenge in primary care settings where laboratory examinations are often not available. This study uses data from patients with confirmed diagnoses of vestibular syndromes to develop and validate simple diagnostic prediction models for the primary care physician. We describe the implementation of these models into an application that may assist the practitioners with their clinical decisions. PMID:27577483

  20. The Development of a Framework for Target Diagnostic Centralized Control System (TDCCS) in ICF Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Wang, Jian; Yu, Xiaoqi; Yang, Dong

    2008-02-01

    A framework for target diagnostic centralized control system (TDCCS) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiment has been developed. The developed framework is based on the common object request broker architecture (CORBA) standard and part of the concept from the ICFRoot (a framework based on ROOT for ICF experiments) framework design. This framework is of a component architecture, including a message bus, command executer, status processor, parser and proxy. To test the function of the framework, a simplified prototype of the TDCCS has been developed as well.

  1. Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS. An Integrated, Prioritized Work Plan for Diagnostic Development and Maintenance and Supporting Capability

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2010-09-01

    This Integrated Program of Experimental Diagnostics at the NNSS is an integrated prioritized work plan for the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), program that is independent of individual National Security Enterprise Laboratories’ (Labs) requests or specific Subprograms being supported. This prioritized work plan is influenced by national priorities presented in the Predictive Capability Framework (PCF) and other strategy documents (Primary and Secondary Assessment Technologies Plans and the Plutonium Experiments Plan). This document satisfies completion criteria for FY 2010 MRT milestone #3496: Document an integrated, prioritized work plan for diagnostic development, maintenance, and supporting capability. This document is an update of the 3-year NNSS plan written a year ago, September 21, 2009, to define and understand Lab requests for diagnostic implementation. This plan is consistent with Lab interpretations of the PCF, Primary Assessment Technologies, and Plutonium Experiment plans.

  2. Reactive oxygen species-associated molecular signature predicts survival in patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bime, Christian; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Ting; Slepian, Marvin J; Garcia, Joe G N; Hecker, Louise

    2016-06-01

    Sepsis-related multiple organ dysfunction syndrome is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. There is overwhelming evidence that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated multiple organ failure; however, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated biomarkers and/or diagnostics that define mortality or predict survival in sepsis are lacking. Lung or peripheral blood gene expression analysis has gained increasing recognition as a potential prognostic and/or diagnostic tool. The objective of this study was to identify ROS-associated biomarkers predictive of survival in patients with sepsis. In-silico analyses of expression profiles allowed the identification of a 21-gene ROS-associated molecular signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. Importantly, this signature performed well in a validation cohort consisting of sepsis patients aggregated from distinct patient populations recruited from different sites. Our signature outperforms randomly generated signatures of the same signature gene size. Our findings further validate the critical role of ROSs in the pathogenesis of sepsis and provide a novel gene signature that predicts survival in sepsis patients. These results also highlight the utility of peripheral blood molecular signatures as biomarkers for predicting mortality risk in patients with sepsis, which could facilitate the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27252846

  3. New online signature acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulefki, Adel; Mostefai, Messaoud; Abbadi, Belkacem; Djebrani, Samira; Bouziane, Abderraouf; Chahir, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    We present a nonconstraining and low-cost online signature acquisition system that has been developed to enhance the performances of an existing multimodal biometric authentication system (based initially on both voice and image modalities). A laboratory prototype has been developed and validated for an online signature acquisition.

  4. ToxCast: Developing Predictive Signatures of Chemically Induced Toxicity (S)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry, bioactivity profiling and toxicogenomic data to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resour...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  6. Development of the Zebra load region for increased capability plasma diagnostics and improved Leopard laser access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astanovitskiy, Alexey; Presura, R.; Ivanov, V. V.; Haboub, A.; Plachaty, C.; Kindel, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    A new geometry for the load area in the Zebra (1MA pulse generator) is developed. It will form the basis for future experiments requiring Leopard (1057nm, 50TW laser) to Zebra coupling and give extended capability to z-pinch diagnostics. This required the development of a new current return, which allows laser access and installation of the OD 4'' parabolic mirror for the x-ray radiography, isochoric heating and magnetized plasma experiments, and accommodates wire-array z-pinch loads, to which the laser may then be coupled. In addition, this configuration allows diagnostics access close to the plasma, leading to a significant increase of the spatial resolution for imaging of z-pinches, as well as the photon flux in imaging and spectroscopy of laser produced plasmas. These diagnostics will allow coupling of the Leopard beam for x-ray laser probing of the pinch plasma and we will test point-projection x-ray backlighting of the pinch plasma.

  7. Development of an On-board Failure Diagnostics and Prognostics System for Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Osipov, Vyatcheslav V.; Timucin, Dogan A.; Uckun, Serdar

    2009-01-01

    We develop a case breach model for the on-board fault diagnostics and prognostics system for subscale solid-rocket boosters (SRBs). The model development was motivated by recent ground firing tests, in which a deviation of measured time-traces from the predicted time-series was observed. A modified model takes into account the nozzle ablation, including the effect of roughness of the nozzle surface, the geometry of the fault, and erosion and burning of the walls of the hole in the metal case. The derived low-dimensional performance model (LDPM) of the fault can reproduce the observed time-series data very well. To verify the performance of the LDPM we build a FLUENT model of the case breach fault and demonstrate a good agreement between theoretical predictions based on the analytical solution of the model equations and the results of the FLUENT simulations. We then incorporate the derived LDPM into an inferential Bayesian framework and verify performance of the Bayesian algorithm for the diagnostics and prognostics of the case breach fault. It is shown that the obtained LDPM allows one to track parameters of the SRB during the flight in real time, to diagnose case breach fault, and to predict its values in the future. The application of the method to fault diagnostics and prognostics (FD&P) of other SRB faults modes is discussed.

  8. Development of Enhanced, Permanently-Installed, Neutron Activation Diagnostic Hardware for NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, E. R.; Jedlovec, D. R.; Carrera, J. A.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2016-05-01

    Neutron activation diagnostics are baseline neutron yield and flux measurement instruments at the National Ignition Facility. Up to 19 activation samples are distributed around the target chamber. Currently the samples must be removed to be counted, creating a 1-2 week data turn-around time and considerable labor costs. An improved system consisting of a commercially available LaBr3(Ce) scintillator and Power over Ethernet electronics is under development. A machined zirconium-702 cap over the detector is the activation medium to measure the 90Zr(n,2n)89Zr reaction. The detectors are located at the current neutron activation diagnostic sites and monitored remotely. Because they collect data in real time yield values are returned within a few hours after a NIF shot.

  9. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-08-12

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented.

  10. Diagnostic assays developed for the control of foot-and-mouth disease in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav Kumar; Mahajan, Sonalika; Matura, Rakesh; Subramaniam, Saravanan; Ranjan, Rajeev; Biswal, Jitendra; Rout, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jajati Keshari; Dash, Bana Bihari; Sanyal, Aniket; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2015-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of livestock, primarily affecting cattle, buffalo and pigs. FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia1 are prevalent in India and systematic efforts are on to control and eventually eradicate the disease from the country. FMD epidemiology is complex due to factors like co-circulation, extinction, emergence and re-emergence of genotypes/lineages within the three serotypes, animal movement, diverse farm practices and large number of susceptible livestock in the country. Systematic vaccination, prompt diagnosis, strict biosecurity measures, and regular monitoring of vaccinal immunity and surveillance of virus circulation are indispensible features for the effective implementation of the control measures. Availability of suitable companion diagnostic tests is very important in this endeavour. In this review, the diagnostic assays developed and validated in India and their contribution in FMD control programme is presented. PMID:26279990

  11. Correlation signatures of wet soils and snows. [algorithm development and computer programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    Interpretation, analysis, and development of algorithms have provided the necessary computational programming tools for soil data processing, data handling and analysis. Algorithms that have been developed thus far, are adequate and have been proven successful for several preliminary and fundamental applications such as software interfacing capabilities, probability distributions, grey level print plotting, contour plotting, isometric data displays, joint probability distributions, boundary mapping, channel registration and ground scene classification. A description of an Earth Resources Flight Data Processor, (ERFDP), which handles and processes earth resources data under a users control is provided.

  12. Multimodal signature modeling of humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathcart, J. Michael; Kocher, Brian; Prussing, Keith; Lane, Sarah; Thomas, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Georgia Tech been investigating method for the detection of covert personnel in traditionally difficult environments (e.g., urban, caves). This program focuses on a detailed phenomenological analysis of human physiology and signatures with the subsequent identification and characterization of potential observables. Both aspects are needed to support the development of personnel detection and tracking algorithms. The difficult nature of these personnel-related problems dictates a multimodal sensing approach. Human signature data of sufficient and accurate quality and quantity do not exist, thus the development of an accurate signature model for a human is needed. This model should also simulate various human activities to allow motion-based observables to be exploited. This paper will describe a multimodal signature modeling approach that incorporates human physiological aspects, thermoregulation, and dynamics into the signature calculation. This approach permits both passive and active signatures to be modeled. The focus of the current effort involved the computation of signatures in urban environments. This paper will discuss the development of a human motion model for use in simulating both electro-optical signatures and radar-based signatures. Video sequences of humans in a simulated urban environment will also be presented; results using these sequences for personnel tracking will be presented.

  13. The transcriptomic and evolutionary signature of social interactions regulating honey bee caste development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The caste fate of developing female honey bee larvae is strictly socially regulated by adult nurse workers. As a result of this social regulation, nurse-expressed genes as well as larval-expressed genes may affect caste expression and evolution. We used a novel transcriptomic approach to identify ge...

  14. Developing Predictive Toxicity Signatures Using In Vitro Data from the EPA ToxCast Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major focus in toxicology research is the development of in vitro methods to predict in vivo chemical toxicity. Numerous studies have evaluated the use of targeted biochemical, cell-based and genomic assay approaches. Each of these techniques is potentially helpful, but provide...

  15. Streamer development in barrier discharge in air: spectral signatures and electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoder, Tomas; Simek, Milan; Bonaventura, Zdenek; Prukner, Vaclav

    2015-09-01

    Electrical breakdown in the upper atmosphere takes form of so called Transient Luminous Events (TLE). Down to the certain pressure limit, the first phases of the TLE-phenomena are controlled by the streamer mechanism. In order to understand the development of these events, streamers in 10 torr air were generated in volume barrier discharge. Stability and reproducibility of generated streamers were secured by proper electrode geometry and specific applied voltage waveform. In this work, spectrally resolved measurements of the streamer head emission with high spatial and temporal resolution are presented. Precise recordings of the emission of the second positive and first negative systems of molecular nitrogen allowed the determination of the spatio-temporal development of the reduced electric field in the streamer head. This unique experimental result reveals in more details the early stages of the streamer development and gives, besides values for streamer velocity and its diameter, quantitative information on the magnitude of the electric field. T.H. was financed through the ESF Programme TEA-IS (Grant No. 4219), M.S. and V.P. by the AVCR under collaborative project M100431201 and Z.B. acknowledges the support of grant of Czech Science Foundation GA15-04023S.

  16. The Complexity Signature: Developing a Tool to Communicate Biopsychosocial Severity of Disease for Children with Chronic Neurological Complexity.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sonanini, Sebastian; Sollmann, Nico; Focke, Axel; Gerstl, Lucia; Heinen, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Aim For children with medical complexity, interdisciplinary treatment approaches are required to address the various aspects defined within the biopsychosocial model. Methods The present study identifies dimensions of the biopsychosocial model to generate a standardized visualized severity score for chronic neurological diseases in children. We demonstrate the score's applicability and usefulness in clinical practice among clinicians with and without pediatric board certification with the aid of illustrative patient cases. The results are compared by Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Nine dimensions were identified as the basis for the development of the score, which consists of five grades of severity for each of the selected neuropediatric subsections. All board-certified pediatricians would recommend the application of the severity score in clinical routine. Furthermore, a good correlation was revealed between direct and indirect (severity score) assessment. Interpretation The severity score developed in this study takes into account biopsychosocial aspects of chronic diseases while being comprehensible and easily applicable in clinical routine-a biopsychosocial signature serving as an excellent, striking communication basis within the interdisciplinary team. However, upcoming studies including more patient cases are needed for further refinement. PMID:27228000

  17. Development of laser-based diagnostics for 1-MA z-pinch plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Hakel, P.; Mancini, R. C.; Wiewior, P.; Presura, R.; Kindel, J. M.; Shevelko, A. P.; Chalyy, O.; Astanovitskiy, A.; Haboub, A.; Altemara, S. D.; Papp, D.; Durmaz, T.

    2009-11-01

    The 50 TW Leopard laser coupled with the 1-MA Zebra generator was used for development of new diagnostics of z-pinch plasmas. Two plasma diagnostics are presented: an x-ray broadband backlighting for z-pinch absorption spectroscopy and parametric two-plasmon decay of the laser beam in dense z-pinch plasma. Implementation of new diagnostics on the Zebra generator and the first results are discussed. The absorption spectroscopy is based on backlighting of z-pinch plasma with a broadband x-ray radiation from a Sm laser plasma. Detailed analysis of the absorption spectra yields the electron temperature and density of z-pinch plasma at the non-radiative stage. The parametric two-plasmon decay of intensive laser radiation generates 3/2φ and 1/2φ harmonics. These harmonics can be used to derive a temperature of z-pinch plasma with the electron density near the quarter of critical plasma density.

  18. The development of the ICD-11 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines for Mental and Behavioural Disorders

    PubMed Central

    First, Michael B; Reed, Geoffrey M; Hyman, Steven E; Saxena, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization is in the process of preparing the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11), scheduled for presentation to the World Health Assembly for approval in 2017. The International Advisory Group for the Revision of the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders made improvement in clinical utility an organizing priority for the revision. The uneven nature of the diagnostic information included in the ICD-10 Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines (CDDG), especially with respect to differential diagnosis, is a major shortcoming in terms of its usefulness to clinicians. Consequently, ICD-11 Working Groups were asked to collate diagnostic information about the disorders under their purview using a standardized template (referred to as a “Content Form”). Using the information provided in the Content Forms as source material, the ICD-11 CDDG are being developed with a uniform structure. The effectiveness of this format in producing more consistent clinical judgments in ICD-11 as compared to ICD-10 is currently being tested in a series of Internet-based field studies using standardized case material, and will also be tested in clinical settings. PMID:25655162

  19. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model.

  20. Addressing Barriers to the Development and Adoption of Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Global Health

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric; Sikes, Hadley D.

    2015-01-01

    Immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have demonstrated significant potential for use as point-of-care diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings. Most notably, RDTs for malaria have reached an unparalleled level of technological maturity and market penetration, and are now considered an important complement to standard microscopic methods of malaria diagnosis. However, the technical development of RDTs for other infectious diseases, and their uptake within the global health community as a core diagnostic modality, has been hindered by a number of extant challenges. These range from technical and biological issues, such as the need for better affinity agents and biomarkers of disease, to social, infrastructural, regulatory and economic barriers, which have all served to slow their adoption and diminish their impact. In order for the immunochromatographic RDT format to be successfully adapted to other disease targets, to see widespread distribution, and to improve clinical outcomes for patients on a global scale, these challenges must be identified and addressed, and the global health community must be engaged in championing the broader use of RDTs. PMID:26594252

  1. Ontogeny and phylogeny: molecular signatures of selection, constraint, and temporal pleiotropy in the development of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Artieri, Carlo G; Haerty, Wilfried; Singh, Rama S

    2009-01-01

    Background Karl Ernst Von Baer noted that species tend to show greater morphological divergence in later stages of development when compared to earlier stages. Darwin originally interpreted these observations via a selectionist framework, suggesting that divergence should be greatest during ontogenic stages in which organisms experienced varying 'conditions of existence' and opportunity for differential selection. Modern hypotheses have focused on the notion that genes and structures involved in early development will be under stronger purifying selection due to the deleterious pleiotropic effects of mutations propagating over the course of ontogeny, also known as the developmental constraint hypothesis. Results Using developmental stage-specific expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries, we tested the 2 hypotheses by comparing the rates of evolution of 7,180 genes obtained from 6 species of the Drosophila melanogaster group with respect to ontogeny, and sex and reproduction-related functions in gonadal tissues. Supporting morphological observations, we found evidence of a pattern of increasing mean evolutionary rate in genes that are expressed in subsequent stages of development. Furthermore, supporting expectations that early expressed genes are constrained in divergence, we found that embryo stage genes are involved in a higher mean number of interactions as compared to later stages. We noted that the accelerated divergence of genes in the adult stage is explained by those expressed specifically in the male gonads, whose divergence is driven by positive selection. In addition, accelerated gonadal gene divergence occurs only in the adult stage, suggesting that the effects of selection are observed primarily at the stages during which they are expected occur. Finally, we also found a significant correlation between temporal specificity of gene expression and evolutionary rate, supporting expectations that genes with ubiquitous expression are under stronger constraint

  2. Development of a universal water signature for the LANDSAT-3 Multispectral Scanner, part 2 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, E. H.

    1980-01-01

    A generalized four-channel hyperplane to discriminate water from non-water was developed using LANDSAT-3 multispectral scanner (MSS) scences and matching same/next-day color infrared aerial photography. The MSS scenes over upstate New York, eastern Washington, Montana and Louisiana taken between May and October 1978 varied in Sun elevation angle from 40 to 58 degrees. The 28 matching air photo frames selected for analysis contained over 1400 water bodies larger than one surface acre. A preliminary water discriminant was used to screen the data and eliminate from further consideration all pixels distant from water in MSS spectral space. Approximately 1300 pixels, half of them non-edge water pixels and half non-water pixels spectrally close to water, were labelled. A linear discriminant was iteratively fitted to the labelled pixels, giving more weight to those pixels that were difficult to discriminate. This discriminant correctly classified 98.7 percent of the water pixels and 98.6 percent of the non-water pixels.

  3. Target Diagnostic Technology Research and Development for the LLNL ICF and HED Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, P; Bennett, C; Holder, J; Kimbrough, J; Landen, O; Lerche, D; Lowry, M; McDonald, J; Perry, T; Turner, B; Weber, F

    2003-08-22

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at LLNL for the Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. It will be used for experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Ignition, High Energy Density (HED) science, and basic science. Many issues confront experimentalists who wish to design, fabricate, and install diagnostics on the NIF. To foster this process the ICF and HED programs at LLNL have formed a diagnostic research and development group to look at issues outside the charter of facility diagnostics (core diagnostics). We will present data from instrumentation and associated technology that is being developed by this group. A major portion of our instrumentation work is on improvements for readout systems. We have several efforts related to CCD device development. Work has been done in collaboration with the University of Arizona to backthin a large format CCD device (36mm{sup 2}). This work has shown good results. The device has very high quantum efficiency, low noise readout and high charge transfer efficiency. The device is being fielded in direct optical, direct x-ray and 13-15 RV electron readout applications. In addition to readout device development we have completed work on a CCD readout system. With a commercial vendor we have developed a large format, compact, Ethernet addressable CCD camera system. This system fits in shoebox size volume, is thermal electrically cooled, supports a variety of CCD devices and can be run from remote locations via TCP/IP protocol. We are also doing work to improve streak camera systems. We have coupled our large format CCD system to an MK2 Kentech streak tube. Improvements have been made to the resolution and dynamic range of the system. Similar improvements have been made to the LLNL optical streak camera systems. We will present data from the optical and x-ray streak camera work. In addition we will present data from single shot high-speed, high dynamic range data link work. In

  4. Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management Suite: Asset Fault Signature Database

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Randall Bickford; Richard Rusaw

    2015-06-01

    Proactive online monitoring in the nuclear industry is being explored using the Electric Power Research Institute’s Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. The FW-PHM Suite is a set of web-based diagnostic and prognostic tools and databases that serves as an integrated health monitoring architecture. The FW-PHM Suite has four main modules: (1) Diagnostic Advisor, (2) Asset Fault Signature (AFS) Database, (3) Remaining Useful Life Advisor, and (4) Remaining Useful Life Database. The paper focuses on the AFS Database of the FW-PHM Suite, which is used to catalog asset fault signatures. A fault signature is a structured representation of the information that an expert would use to first detect and then verify the occurrence of a specific type of fault. The fault signatures developed to assess the health status of generator step-up transformers are described in the paper. The developed fault signatures capture this knowledge and implement it in a standardized approach, thereby streamlining the diagnostic and prognostic process. This will support the automation of proactive online monitoring techniques in nuclear power plants to diagnose incipient faults, perform proactive maintenance, and estimate the remaining useful life of assets.

  5. Crustal signatures of the tectonic development of the North American midcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlannan, Austin J.; Gilbert, Hersh

    2016-01-01

    The stable eastern portion of the North American continent offers an excellent environment to study the tectonic development of intra-continental structures. The midcontinent of North America formed by the accretion of Proterozoic terranes, and has since experienced episodes of deformation during the subsidence of the Illinois Basin and uplift of the Ozark Plateau. Rifting also initiated in eastern North America, but extension did not continue and arms of failed rifts extend across the region. The New Madrid Seismic Zone, situated within a portion of the failed Reelfoot Rift, represents an active zone of intraplate seismicity. Analyzing the structure of the crust and upper mantle within the midcontinent will therefore provide insight into the factors that lead to intraplate deformation. Using data from over 180 Transportable Array seismic stations, we calculate receiver functions to investigate the crust and upper mantle of the midcontinent. At close to 40 km thick, the crust of the New Madrid Seismic Zone is thinner than in the surrounding areas outside of the Reelfoot Rift and Rough Creek Graben. The Illinois Basin cannot be characterized by a single crustal structure, as crust near 50 km thick in the central portion of the basin thins to between 40 and 45 km thick towards the northern and southern portions of the basin. Discontinuities within the crust and upper mantle are prominent in and around the New Madrid Seismic Zone and mark locations of crustal modification and underplating. Comparing changes in crustal structure to the distribution of Bouguer gravity anomalies, the presence of positive gravity anomalies suggests that higher density crust plays a role in maintaining low surface elevations within the Reelfoot Rift. Conversely, a negative gravity anomaly in an area of thinner crust within the Ozark Plateau supports the need for low-density crustal material to influence the uplift of the plateau.

  6. Cooperative research and development for artificial intelligence based reactor diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Abboud, R.G.; Chasensky, T.M.

    1994-10-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in the form of knowledge-based Expert Systems (ESs) have been proposed to provide on-line decision-making support for plant operators during both normal and emergency conditions. However, in spite of the great interest in these advanced techniques, their application in the diagnosis of large-scale processes has not yet reached its full potential because of limitations of the knowledge base. These limitations include problems with knowledge acquisition and the use of an event-oriented approach for process diagnosis. To investigate the capabilities of this two-level hierarchical knowledge structure, Commonwealth Research Corporation (CRC) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)are collaborating on a DOE-sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) project to perform feasibility studies on the proposed diagnostic system. Investigations are being performed in the construction of a physics-based plant level process diagnostic ES and the characterization of component-level fault project is to develop a computer-based system using this Al approach to assist process plant operators during off-normal plant conditions. The proposed computer-based system will use T-H signals complemented by other non-T-H signals available in the data stream to provide the process operator with the component which most likely caused the observed process disturbance. To demonstrate the scale-up feasibility of the proposed diagnostic system it is being developed for use with the Chemical Volume Control System (CVCS) of a nuclear power plant. This is an ongoing multi-year project and the remainder of this paper presents a mid-term status report.

  7. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, K. Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Ogasawara, S.; Nishiura, M.

    2014-11-15

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  8. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, K.; Nishiura, M.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Ogasawara, S.

    2014-11-01

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  9. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Okada, K; Nishiura, M; Kubo, S; Shimozuma, T; Yoshimura, Y; Igami, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, K; Kobayashi, S; Ito, S; Mizuno, Y; Ogasawara, S

    2014-11-01

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  10. Transcriptomics in cancer diagnostics: developments in technology, clinical research and commercialization.

    PubMed

    Sager, Monica; Yeat, Nai Chien; Pajaro-Van der Stadt, Stefan; Lin, Charlotte; Ren, Qiuyin; Lin, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptomic technologies are evolving to diagnose cancer earlier and more accurately to provide greater predictive and prognostic utility to oncologists and patients. Digital techniques such as RNA sequencing are replacing still-imaging techniques to provide more detailed analysis of the transcriptome and aberrant expression that causes oncogenesis, while companion diagnostics are developing to determine the likely effectiveness of targeted treatments. This article examines recent advancements in molecular profiling research and technology as applied to cancer diagnosis, clinical applications and predictions for the future of personalized medicine in oncology. PMID:26565429

  11. The design and development of hypertext courseware for CAL in diagnostic radiography.

    PubMed

    Cole, P R; Moores, B M

    1995-01-01

    Educational software has been designed and developed for training within the field of diagnostic radiography and is particularly concerned with the science and technology of diagnostic X-rays. The material has been structured into hypertext networks and as such allows interactive exploration of the available information. The courseware development platform was Microsoft Windows and authoring was accomplished using the constructional tool kit ToolBook. The resulting CAL package is highly graphical in nature with a user interface designed to meet the 'friendliness' demands of the end user group. Mechanisms for navigation through, and orientation within, the hypertext have also been established which support two levels of user activities. By changing the level of user freedom, students using the system as a learning tool are restricted to more structured routes than experienced staff using the courseware as an information resource. An aim of this work has been to provide interactive educational activities to support the main courseware, and consequently a novel application has been developed using dynamic data exchange (DDE) and the spreadsheet software Excel. Through a ToolBook front end students can interactively alter an X-ray spectrum by changing the operating conditions of a simulated X-ray tube. PMID:8882562

  12. Diagnostic developments for quasicontinuous operation of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, R.; Cantarini, J.; Dreier, H.; Erckmann, V.; Hildebrandt, D.; Hirsch, M.; Kornejew, P.; Laux, M.; Laqua, H.; Pasch, E.; Thomsen, H.; Weller, A.; Werner, A.; Wolf, R.; Ye, M. Y.; Kocsis, G.; Recsei, S.; Zoletnik, S.; Szabo, V.

    2008-10-15

    The stellarator Wendelstein 7-X will allow for quasicontinuous operation with the duration only being limited to two 30 min discharges per day, at a continuous heating power of 10 MW electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at 140 GHz, by the capacity of the cooling water reservoir. This will result in high thermal loads on all plasma facing components of 50-100 kW/m{sup 2} from radiation alone and of up to about 500 kW/m{sup 2} on components additionally exposed to convective loads. In high density scenarios toroidally varying ECRH stray radiation levels of 50-200 kW/m{sup 2} need to be coped with, requiring careful material selection and different shielding and hardening techniques. Furthermore, a gradual buildup of coatings on plasma facing optical components, which without any measures being taken, would lead to high transmission losses already within a few days of long pulse operation (equivalent to about 1 year of operation in pulsed devices like JET or ASDEX-upgrade) and therefore needs to be prevented as much as possible. In addition in situ cleaning as well as absolute calibration techniques need to be developed for all plasma facing optical systems. Here we report about some of our efforts to find, for various types of diagnostics, ways to cope with these adverse effects. Moreover, we give a few examples for individual diagnostic specific issues with respect to quasicontinuous operation, such as the development of a special integrator for the magnetic diagnostics as well as special interferometer types which can cope with unavoidable vibrations and slow path length changes due to, e.g., thermal expansion of the plasma vessel.

  13. Feasibility Investigation on the Development of a Structural Damage Diagnostic and Monitoring System for Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Ji Y.; Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The research activity for this project is mainly to investigate the necessity and feasibility to develop a structural health monitoring system for rocket engines, and to carry out a research plan for further development of the system. More than one hundred technical papers have been searched and reviewed during the period. We concluded after this investigation that adding a new module in NASA's existing automated diagnostic system to monitor the healthy condition of rocket engine structures is a crucial task, and it's possible to develop such a system based upon the vibrational-based nondestructive damage assessment techniques. A number of such techniques have been introduced. Their advantages and disadvantages are also discussed. A global research plan has been figured out. As the first step of the overall research plan, a proposal for the next fiscal year has been submitted.

  14. Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

  15. Development of X-ray tracer diagnostics for radiatively-driven ablator experiments [annual report FY1998

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. MacFarlane; D.H. Cohen; P. Wang; G.A. Moses; R.R. Peterson; P.A. Jaanimagi; O.L. Langen; R.E. Olson; T.J. Murphy; G.R. Magelssen; N.D. Delamater

    1999-05-01

    This report covers fiscal year 1998 of our ongoing project to develop tracer X-ray spectroscopic diagnostics for hohlraum environments. This effort focused on an experimental campaign carried out at OMEGA on 25--27 August 1998. This phase of the project heavily emphasized experimental design, diagnostic development, and target fabrication, as well as building up numerical models for the experiments. The spectral diagnostic under development involves using two thin (few 1000 {angstrom}) mid-Z tracers in two witness plates mounted on the side of a hohlraum with the tracers' K{sub a} absorption features seen against an X-ray backlighter. The absorption data are used to sample the time-dependent, localized properties of each witness plate as a radiation wave ablates it. The experiments represented the first application of this diagnostic, in this case to side-by-side doped and undoped plastic to investigate the effects of capsule ablator dopants.

  16. Development of local oscillator integrated antenna array for microwave imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Tsuchiya, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.; Shinohara, S.

    2015-12-01

    Microwave imaging diagnostics are powerful tools that are used to obtain details of complex structures and behaviors of such systems as magnetically confined plasmas. For example, microwave imaging reflectometry and microwave imaging interferometers are suitable for observing phenomena that are involved with electron density fluctuations; moreover, electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostics enable us to accomplish the significant task of observing MHD instabilities in large tokamaks. However, microwave imaging systems include difficulties in terms of multi-channelization and cost. Recently, we solved these problems by developing a Horn-antenna Mixer Array (HMA), a 50 - 110 GHz 1-D heterodyne- type antenna array, which can be easily stacked as a 2-D receiving array, because it uses an end-fire element. However, the HMA still evidenced problems owing to the requirement for local oscillation (LO) optics and an expensive high-power LO source. To solve this problem, we have developed an upgraded HMA, named the Local Integrated Antenna array (LIA), in which each channel has an internal LO supply using a frequency multiplier integrated circuit. Therefore, the proposed antenna array eliminates the need for both the LO optics and the high-power LO source. This paper describes the principle of the LIA, and provides details about an 8 channel prototype LIA.

  17. Transferable Calibration Standard Developed for Quantitative Raman Scattering Diagnostics in High-Pressure Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Researchers from NASA Glenn Research Center s Combustion Branch and the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) have developed a transferable calibration standard for an optical technique called spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) in high-pressure flames. SRS is perhaps the only technique that provides spatially and temporally resolved, simultaneous multiscalar measurements in turbulent flames. Such measurements are critical for the validation of numerical models of combustion. This study has been a combined experimental and theoretical effort to develop a spectral calibration database for multiscalar diagnostics using SRS in high-pressure flames. However, in the past such measurements have used a one-of-a-kind experimental setup and a setup-dependent calibration procedure to empirically account for spectral interferences, or crosstalk, among the major species of interest. Such calibration procedures, being non-transferable, are prohibitively expensive to duplicate. A goal of this effort is to provide an SRS calibration database using transferable standards that can be implemented widely by other researchers for both atmospheric-pressure and high-pressure (less than 30 atm) SRS studies. A secondary goal of this effort is to provide quantitative multiscalar diagnostics in high pressure environments to validate computational combustion codes.

  18. Development of diffractive XUV-VUV light extractors for fusion plasma diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, D.; Caravelli, G.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.

    2009-11-01

    The diagnostic and control of next generation MFE and ICF fusion experiments will require optical light extractors capable of withstanding intense plasma and radiation exposure. A solution applicable from the XUV to the infrared is to use free-standing diffractive optics such as transmission gratings or zone plates. Here we present results on XUV-VUV diffractive extractors for the diagnostic of boundary MFE plasmas. For the VUV range we developed Si transmission gratings having 1 μm period, 5 μm thickness, 40% open fraction, 1x2 mm active area, and coated with Ni, while for the XUV range we use SiN gratings having 0.2 μm period, 0.3 μm thickness, 1x1 mm area, and coated with Ta. The grating extractors are spectrally and spatially calibrated in the laboratory using a newly developed extended XUV-VUV source and will be employed for imaging spectrometry on the NSTX experiment. The operational characteristics of the extended source and first space resolved XUV-VUV spectra will be presented. Work supported by DoE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54523 at JHU and Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 at PU.

  19. [The reactions of hypersensitivity: the mechanisms of development, clinical manifestations, principles of diagnostic (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Tukavkina, S Yu; Kharseyeva, G G

    2014-05-01

    The article considers the principles of modern classification of hypersensitivity, pathogenic mechanisms of formation of its various types resulting in development of typical clinical symptoms and syndromes. The knowledge and comprehension of these issues is important for physicians of different specializations since it permits to properly make out and formulate diagnosis and timely send patient for examination and treatment to such specialist as allergist-immunologist. The particular attention was paid to description of pathogenesis of diseases and syndromes underlaid by IgE-mediated type of hypersensitivity since their share is highest and clinical manifestations frequently require emergency medical care. The diagnostic of allergic diseases is to be implemented sequentially (step-by-step) and include common clinical and special (specific) methods. In case of choosing of extent of specialized allergological examination the diagnostic significance of techniques and their safety is to be taken into account concerning condition of patient. The diagnosis is objectively formulated only by complex of examination results. It is worth to remember about possibility of development of syndromes similar to IgE-mediated allergy by their clinical manifestations but belonging to non-allergic type of hypersensitivity. It is important to know main causes, mechanisms and ways of formation of such reactions previously named as anaphylactoid ones.

  20. Development of diagnostic SPR based biosensor for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonny, Susanna; Sesay, Adama M.; Virtanen, Vesa

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study is to develop diagnostic tests for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva. Oral fluid is increasingly being considered as an ideal sample matrix. It can be collected non-invasively and causes less stress to the person being tested. The detection of pharmaceutical compounds and drugs in saliva can give valuable information on individual bases on dose response, usage, characterization and clinical diagnostics. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a highly sensitive, fast and label free analytical technique for the detection of molecular interactions. The specific binding of measured analyte onto the active gold sensing surface of the SPR device induces a refractive index change that can be monitored. To monitor these pharmaceutical compounds in saliva the immunoassays were developed using a SPR instrument. The instrument is equipped with a 670nm laser diode and has two sensing channels. Monoclonal antibodies against the pharmaceutical compounds were used to specifically recognise and capture the compounds which intern will have an effect of the refractive index monitored. Preliminary results show that the immunoassays for cocaine and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) are very sensitive and have linear ranges of 0.01 pg/ml - 1 ng/ml and 0.1 pg/ml - 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  1. Dental diagnostic clinical instrument ("Canary") development using photothermal radiometry and modulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, R. J.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Garcia, J.; Matvienko, A.; Mandelis, A.; Abrams, S.

    2010-03-01

    Since 1999, our group at the CADIFT, University of Toronto, has developed the application of Frequency Domain Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Luminescence (LUM) to dental caries detection. Various cases including artificial caries detection have been studied and some of the inherent advantages of the adaptation of this technique to dental diagnostics in conjunction with modulated luminescence as a dual-probe technique have been reported. Based on these studies, a portable, compact diagnostic instrument for dental clinic use has been designed, assembled and tested. A semiconductor laser, optical fibers, a thermoelectric cooled mid-IR detector, and a USB connected data acquisition card were used. Software lock-in amplifier techniques were developed to compute amplitude and phase of PTR and LUM signals. In order to achieve fast measurement and acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for clinical application, swept sine waveforms were used. As a result sampling and stabilization time for each measurement point was reduced to a few seconds. A sophisticated software interface was designed to simultaneously record intra-oral camera images with PTR and LUM responses. Preliminary results using this instrument during clinical trials in a dental clinic showed this instrument could detect early caries both from PTR and LUM signals.

  2. Static Digital Telepathology: A Model for Diagnostic and Educational Support to Pathologists in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Sohani, Aliyah R.; Sohani, Moez A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The practice of pathology in the developing world presents challenges in terms of limited resources, shortages of trained personnel, and lack of continuing education programs. Telepathology holds promise as a means of diagnostic and educational support. Methods: We donated multiheaded teaching microscopes equipped with digital cameras to four hospitals in Eastern Africa and trained local pathologists on their use. Static images of challenging cases were posted on a web-based telepathology platform. A U.S.-based pathologist reviewed images in consultation with subspecialist colleagues. Results: Over a period of 40 months, 109 cases were submitted for second opinion consultation, including 29 dermatopathology cases (26.6%), 14 hematopathology cases (12.8%), and 13 cases each (11.9%) in cytopathology and bone and soft tissue pathology. Static images enabled a complete or partial diagnosis in 100/109 cases (91.7%). Factors precluding a definitive diagnosis included absence of confirmatory immunophenotyping, technical issues, or lack of clinical history. Case responses included a diagnosis and discussion, including differential diagnosis, references, and treatment recommendations. Conclusion: Static digital telepathology is a simple, cost-effective, reliable and efficient means to provide diagnostic and educational support to pathologists in the developing world. Additional training may help overcome technical factors precluding a definitive diagnosis in certain cases. PMID:22233701

  3. Fermilab PXIE Beam Diagnostics Development and Testing at the HINS Beam Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.A.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Steimel, J.; Wendt, M.; Hanna, B.M.; Prost, L.R.; Scarpine, V.E.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Fermilab is planning the construction of a prototype front end of the Project X linac. The Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE) is expected to accelerate 1 mA CW H- beam up to 30 MeV. Some of the major goals of the project are to test a CW RFQ and H- source, a broadband bunch-by-bunch beam chopper and a low-energy superconducting linac. The successful characterization and operation of such an accelerator place stringent requirements on beamline diagnostics. These crucial beam measurements include bunch currents, beam orbit, beam phase, bunch length, transverse profile and emittance and beam halo and tails, as well as the extinction performance of the broadband chopper. This paper presents PXIE beam measurement requirements and instrumentation development plans. Presented are plans to test key instruments at the Fermilab High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) beam facility. Since HINS is already an operational accelerator, utilizing HINS for instrumentation testing will allow for quicker development of the required PXIE diagnostics.

  4. Diagnostic pathology in 2012: development of digital pathology in an open access journal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Herein we describe and interpret the digital world of diagnostic surgical pathology, and take the in Pathology leading Open Access Journal Diagnostic Pathology as example. Virtual slide http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1944221953867351 PMID:23305209

  5. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model. PMID:26388206

  6. Beyond Correctness: Development and Validation of Concept-Based Categorical Scoring Rubrics for Diagnostic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arieli-Attali, Meirav; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment approaches intend to provide fine-grained reports of what students know and can do, focusing on their areas of strengths and weaknesses. However, current application of such diagnostic approaches is limited by the scoring method for item responses; important diagnostic information, such as type of errors and strategy use is…

  7. Status of the diagnostics development for the first operation phase of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    König, R. Biedermann, C.; Burhenn, R.; Endler, M.; Grulke, O.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Jakubowski, M.; Kornejew, P.; Krychowiak, M.; Langenberg, A.; Laux, M.; Lorenz, A.; Otte, M.; Pasch, E.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schneider, W.; Thomsen, H.; Windisch, T.; Zhang, D.; and others

    2014-11-15

    An overview of the diagnostics which are essential for the first operational phase of Wendelstein 7-X and the set of diagnostics expected to be ready for operation at this time are presented. The ongoing investigations of how to cope with high levels of stray Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) radiation in the ultraviolet (UV)/visible/infrared (IR) optical diagnostics are described.

  8. Development of a toxicogenomics signature for genotoxicity using a dose-optimization and informatics strategy in human cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Heng-Hong; Hyduke, Daniel R; Chen, Renxiang; Heard, Pamela; Yauk, Carole L; Aubrecht, Jiri; Fornace, Albert J

    2015-07-01

    The development of in vitro molecular biomarkers to accurately predict toxicological effects has become a priority to advance testing strategies for human health risk assessment. The application of in vitro transcriptomic biomarkers promises increased throughput as well as a reduction in animal use. However, the existing protocols for predictive transcriptional signatures do not establish appropriate guidelines for dose selection or account for the fact that toxic agents may have pleiotropic effects. Therefore, comparison of transcriptome profiles across agents and studies has been difficult. Here we present a dataset of transcriptional profiles for TK6 cells exposed to a battery of well-characterized genotoxic and nongenotoxic chemicals. The experimental conditions applied a new dose optimization protocol that was based on evaluating expression changes in several well-characterized stress-response genes using quantitative real-time PCR in preliminary dose-finding studies. The subsequent microarray-based transcriptomic analyses at the optimized dose revealed responses to the test chemicals that were typically complex, often exhibiting substantial overlap in the transcriptional responses between a variety of the agents making analysis challenging. Using the nearest shrunken centroids method we identified a panel of 65 genes that could accurately classify toxicants as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. To validate the 65-gene panel as a genomic biomarker of genotoxicity, the gene expression profiles of an additional three well-characterized model agents were analyzed and a case study demonstrating the practical application of this genomic biomarker-based approach in risk assessment was performed to demonstrate its utility in genotoxicity risk assessment.

  9. Epitope identification and discovery using phage display libraries: applications in vaccine development and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Fa; Yu, Meng

    2004-01-01

    Antigenic epitopes are the part (contact points) of an antigen involved in specific interaction with the antigen-binding site (the paratope) of an antibody or a T-cell receptor. Detailed analysis of epitopes is important both for the understanding of immunological events and for the development of more effective vaccine and diagnostic tools for various diseases. Identification and characterization of epitopes is a complex process. Although various methods have been developed in this area, there still lacks a simple common approach which can be applied to all epitopes. Since its first introduction more than a decade ago, phage display technology has made a major impact in this area of research. With the exponential growth in this area, it is impractical to review the entire literature detailing all possible applications. Instead, this review aims to focus on specific applications related to the discovery and identification of epitopes which have potential as vaccine candidates or can be used in disease diagnosis.

  10. Developing the diagnostic and statistical manual V: what will "statistical" mean in DSM-V?

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura; Shrout, Patrick E; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza

    2007-04-01

    In February of 2004, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) hosted a Launch and Methodology Conference to discuss the role statistics might play in the eventual revision of the Fourth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Ninth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD9). The conference consisted of talks on specific topics by statisticians and epidemiologists from North America and Great Britain, followed by group discussion by experts in nosology and psychopathology. We report here on the development of specific themes related to the future interaction between statisticians and nosologists in DSM-V development that arose as a result of that meeting. The themes are related to (1) the nature of the statistician/nosologist interaction; (2) specific areas of concern in that interaction, and (3) the use of novel and complex statistical methods to challenge and inspire new avenues of thinking among nosologists.

  11. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    SciTech Connect

    Shcheglova, L S; Maryakhina, V S; Abramova, L L

    2013-11-30

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 – 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions. (optical methods in biology and medicine)

  12. Identifying Differences In Diagnostic Skills Between Physics Students: Developing A Rubric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, A.; Cohen, E.; Yerushalmi, E.; Singh, C.

    2008-10-01

    Expert problem solvers are characterized by continuous evaluation of their progress towards a solution. One characteristic of expertise is self-diagnosis directed towards elaboration of the solvers' conceptual understanding, knowledge organization or strategic approach. "Self-diagnosis tasks" aim at fostering diagnostic behavior by explicitly requiring students to present diagnosis as part of the activity of reviewing their problem solutions. We have been investigating how introductory physics students perform in such tasks. Developing a robust rubric is essential for objective evaluation of students' self-diagnosis skills. We discuss the development of a grading rubric that takes into account introductory physics students' content knowledge as well as analysis, planning and presentation skills. Using this rubric, we have found the inter-rater reliability to be better than 80%. The rubric can easily be adapted to other problems, as will be discussed in a companion paper.

  13. Optical diagnostics of tumour cells at different stages of pathology development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglova, L. S.; Abramova, L. L.; Maryakhina, V. S.

    2013-11-01

    The differences in optical and biophysical properties between the cells of mammary gland tumour extracted from tumours of different diameter are described. It is shown that the spectral and spectrokinetic properties of fluorescent probes in the cells extracted from the tumours 1 - 3 cm in diameter are essentially different. Thus, the extinction coefficient of rhodamine 6G gradually increases with the pathology development. At the same time the rate of interaction of the triplet states of molecular probes with the oxygen, diluted in the tumour cells cytoplasm, decreases with the growth of the tumour capsule diameter. The observed regularities can be due to the changes in the cell structure, biochemical and biophysical properties. The reported data may be useful for developing optical methods of diagnostics of biotissue pathological conditions.

  14. NREL Develops Diagnostic Test Cases to Improve Building Energy Simulation Programs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This technical highlight describes NREL research to develop a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations in order to achieve more accurate energy use and savings predictions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Residential and Commercial Buildings research groups developed a set of diagnostic test cases for building energy simulations. Eight test cases were developed to test surface conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes in building energy simulation programs. These algorithms are used to predict energy flow through external opaque surfaces such as walls, ceilings, and floors. The test cases consist of analytical and vetted numerical heat transfer solutions that have been available for decades, which increases confidence in test results. NREL researchers adapted these solutions for comparisons with building energy simulation results. Testing the new cases with EnergyPlus identified issues with the conduction finite difference (CondFD) heat transfer algorithm in versions 5 and 6. NREL researchers resolved these issues for EnergyPlus version 7. The new test cases will help users and developers of EnergyPlus and other building energy tools to identify and fix problems associated with solid conduction heat transfer algorithms of building envelopes and their boundary conditions. In the long term, improvements to software algorithms will result in more accurate energy use and savings predictions. NREL researchers plan to document the set of test cases and make them available for future consideration by validation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 140: Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. EnergyPlus users will also have access to the improved CondFD model in version 7 after its next scheduled release.

  15. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited).

    PubMed

    Murari, A; Angelone, M; Bonheure, G; Cecil, E; Craciunescu, T; Darrow, D; Edlington, T; Ericsson, G; Gatu-Johnson, M; Gorini, G; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V; Mlynar, J; Perez von Thun, C; Pillon, M; Popovichev, S; Syme, B; Tardocchi, M; Zoita, V L

    2010-10-01

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose “burning plasmas.” D–T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1–18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions. A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined

  16. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited).

    PubMed

    Murari, A; Angelone, M; Bonheure, G; Cecil, E; Craciunescu, T; Darrow, D; Edlington, T; Ericsson, G; Gatu-Johnson, M; Gorini, G; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V; Mlynar, J; Perez von Thun, C; Pillon, M; Popovichev, S; Syme, B; Tardocchi, M; Zoita, V L

    2010-10-01

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose “burning plasmas.” D–T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1–18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions. A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined

  17. New developments in the diagnostics for the fusion products on JET in preparation for ITER (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Murari, A.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Bonheure, G.; Cecil, E.; Craciunescu, T.; Zoita, V. L.; Darrow, D.; Edlington, T.; Kiptily, V.; Popovichev, S.; Syme, B.; Ericsson, G.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Hellesen, C.; Mlynar, J.; Perez von Thun, C.; Collaboration: EFDA-JET Contributors

    2010-10-15

    Notwithstanding the advances of the past decades, significant developments are still needed to satisfactorily diagnose ''burning plasmas.'' D-T plasmas indeed require a series of additional measurements for the optimization and control of the configuration: the 14 MeV neutrons, the isotopic composition of the main plasma, the helium ash, and the redistribution and losses of the alpha particles. Moreover a burning plasma environment is in general much more hostile for diagnostics than purely deuterium plasmas. Therefore, in addition to the development and refinement of new measuring techniques, technological advances are also indispensable for the proper characterization of the next generation of devices. On JET an integrated program of diagnostic developments, for JET future and in preparation for ITER, has been pursued and many new results are now available. In the field of neutron detection, the neutron spectra are now routinely measured in the energy range of 1-18 MeV by a time of flight spectrometer and they have allowed studying the effects of rf heating on the fast ions.A new analysis method for the interpretation of the neutron cameras measurements has been refined and applied to the data of the last trace tritium campaign (TTE). With regard to technological upgrades, chemical vapor deposition diamond detectors have been qualified both as neutron counters and as neutron spectrometers, with a potential energy resolution of about one percent. The in situ calibration of the neutron diagnostics, in preparation for the operation with the ITER-like wall, is also promoting important technological developments. With regard to the fast particles, for the first time the temperature of the fast particle tails has been obtained with a new high purity Germanium detector measuring the gamma emission spectrum from the plasma. The effects of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes modes and various MHD instabilities on the confinement of the fast particles have been determined with a

  18. A four-step approach for developing diagnostic tests in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Boutros, N N; Arfken, C L

    2007-04-01

    A four-step approach for developing diagnostic tests in psychiatry is proposed. Step 1, a biological variable is observed to be deviant from healthy controls in a particular patient population. The demonstration of test retest reliability of the finding using blinding procedures is an essential component of this early step. Step 2, is the demonstration of potential clinical usefulness of the specific finding. The two most important objectives at this step are demonstration of difference between the target patient population and appropriate control groups (these should be groups of patients with diagnoses that commonly appear on the differential diagnostic lists of the target disorder). Estimation of the effect size of the finding could be a reasonable guide to which findings should be considered good candidates for Step 3 studies. During Step 3 the performance characteristics of the test should be established. Specifically, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the biological marker should be examined. Step 4 defines the clinical application of the test and helps standardize the technique used in large and multicenter clinical trials. Multicenter trials should pave the road towards standardization of laboratory procedures used to conduct the test, as well as providing data regarding cost effectiveness and impact on both short-term and long-term clinical outcomes.

  19. Development of a diagnostic decision tree for obstructive pulmonary diseases based on real-life data

    PubMed Central

    in ’t Veen, Johannes C.C.M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N. Richard; van Heijst, Ellen; Kocks, Janwillem W.H.; Muilwijk-Kroes, Jacqueline B.; Chavannes, Niels H.; van der Molen, Thys

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and explore the diagnostic accuracy of a decision tree derived from a large real-life primary care population. Data from 9297 primary care patients (45% male, mean age 53±17 years) with suspicion of an obstructive pulmonary disease was derived from an asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) service where patients were assessed using spirometry, the Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, history data and medication use. All patients were diagnosed through the Internet by a pulmonologist. The Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method was used to build the decision tree. The tree was externally validated in another real-life primary care population (n=3215). Our tree correctly diagnosed 79% of the asthma patients, 85% of the COPD patients and 32% of the asthma–COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) patients. External validation showed a comparable pattern (correct: asthma 78%, COPD 83%, ACOS 24%). Our decision tree is considered to be promising because it was based on real-life primary care patients with a specialist's diagnosis. In most patients the diagnosis could be correctly predicted. Predicting ACOS, however, remained a challenge. The total decision tree can be implemented in computer-assisted diagnostic systems for individual patients. A simplified version of this tree can be used in daily clinical practice as a desk tool. PMID:27730177

  20. State of the art and new developments in molecular diagnostics for hemoglobinopathies in multiethnic societies.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, C L

    2014-02-01

    For detecting carriers of thalassemia traits, the basic part of diagnostics consists of measurement of the hematological indices followed by mostly automatic separation and measurement of the Hb fractions, while direct Hb separation either on high pressure liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis is sufficient to putatively identify carriers of the common Hb variants like HbS, C, E, D, and O-Arab. A putative positive result is reported together with an advice for parents, partner, or family analysis. For couples, presumed at-risk confirmation at the DNA level is essential. In general, this part of diagnostics is done in specialized centers provided with sufficient experience and the technical tools needed to combine hematological and biochemical interpretation with identification of the mutations at the molecular level. State-of-the-art tools are usually available in centers that also provide prenatal diagnosis and should consist of gap-PCR for the common deletions, direct DNA sequencing for all kind of point-mutations and the capacity to uncover novel or rare mutations or disease mechanisms. New developments are MLPA for large and eventually unknown deletion defects and microarray technology for fine mapping and primer design for breakpoint analysis. Gap-PCR primers designed in the region flanking the deletion breakpoints can subsequently be used to facilitate carrier detection of uncommon deletions in family members or isolated populations in laboratories where no microarray technology or MLPA is available.

  1. Development and Evaluation of the Diagnostic Power for a Computer-Based Two-Tier Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-06-01

    This study adopted a quasi-experimental design with follow-up interview to develop a computer-based two-tier assessment (CBA) regarding the science topic of electric circuits and to evaluate the diagnostic power of the assessment. Three assessment formats (i.e., paper-and-pencil, static computer-based, and dynamic computer-based tests) using two-tier items were conducted on Grade 4 ( n = 90) and Grade 5 ( n = 86) students, respectively. One-way ANCOVA was conducted to investigate whether the different assessment formats affected these students' posttest scores on both the phenomenon and reason tiers, and confidence rating for an answer was assessed to diagnose the nature of students' responses (i.e., scientific answer, guessing, alternative conceptions, or knowledge deficiency). Follow-up interview was adopted to explore whether and how the various CBA representations influenced both graders' responses. Results showed that the CBA, in particular the dynamic representation format, allowed students who lacked prior knowledge (Grade 4) to easily understand the question stems. The various CBA representations also potentially encouraged students who already had learning experience (Grade 5) to enhance the metacognitive judgment of their responses. Therefore, CBA could reduce students' use of test-taking strategies and provide better diagnostic power for a two-tier instrument than the traditional paper-based version.

  2. Experimental studies of laser-ablated zirconium carbide plasma plumes: Fuel corrosion diagnostic development

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P.J.; Butt, D.P.; Sappey, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuel materials, such as refractory carbides, in a high temperature hydrogen environment is critical for several proposed nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) concepts. Monitoring the fuel corrosion products is important not only for understanding corrosion characteristics, but to assess the performance of an actual, operating nuclear propulsion system as well. In this paper, we describe an experimental study initiated to develop, test, and subsequently utilize non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostics to characterize the gaseous product species which are expected to evolve during the exposure of representative fuel samples to hydrogen. Laser ablation is used to produce high temperature, vapor plumes from solid solution, uranium-free, zirconium carbide (ZrC) forms for probing by other laser diagnostic methods; predominantly laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). We discuss the laser ablation technique, results of plume emission measurements, as well as the use of planar LIF to image both the ZrC plumes and actual NTP fuel corrosion constituents.

  3. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hondl, Kurt D.; Eilts, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  4. Feasibility Study of the Development of a Specialized Computer System of Organic Chemical Signatures of Spectral Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholtz, R. G.; And Others

    This final report of a feasibility study describes the research performed in assessing the requirements for a chemical signature file and search scheme for organic compound identification and information retrieval. The research performed to determined feasibility of identifying an unknown compound involved screening the compound against a file of…

  5. Doppler radar signatures of developing thunderstorms and their potential to indicate the onset of cloud-to-ground lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Hondl, K.D.; Eilts, M.D.

    1994-08-01

    The capability of Doppler weather radars to short-term forecast the initiation of thunderstorms and the onset of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning is examined. Doppler weather radar data from 28 thunderstorms were analyzed from August 1990 in the central Florida environment. These radar echoes were associated with CG lightning strike locations from the National Lightning Detection Network and two lightning detection systems operated by the U.S. Air Force in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center. From a time history of these radar echoes it was found that a 10-dBZ echo, first detected near the freezing level, may be the first definitive echo of a future thunderstorm. This thunderstorm initiation signature is often accompanied by low-altitude convergence and divergence at the top of the radar echo. The observed lead times between this thunderstorm initiation signature and the first detected CG lightning strike ranged from 5 to 45 min with a median lead time of 15 min. All lightning-producing radar echoes were detected using the thunderstorm initiation signature; however, some echoes exceeded the 10-dBZ threshold and did not produce andy CG lightning. The charecteristics of the WSR-88D and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar systems are evaluated for their capability to detect the thunderstorm initiation signature in central Florida with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution.

  6. On the Development of a Computer Based Diagnostic Assessment Tool to Help in Teaching and Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afaq; Al-Mashari, Ahmed; Al-Lawati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool developed to facilitate the learning process. The developed tool is capable of generating possible error syndromes associated with the answers received. The developed tool simulates the error pattern of the test results and then accordingly models the action plan to help in children's learning…

  7. Translating diagnostic assays from the laboratory to the clinic: analytical and clinical metrics for device development and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Borysiak, Mark D; Thompson, Matthew J; Posner, Jonathan D

    2016-04-21

    As lab-on-a-chip health diagnostic technologies mature, there is a push to translate them from the laboratory to the clinic. For these diagnostics to achieve maximum impact on patient care, scientists and engineers developing the tests should understand the analytical and clinical statistical metrics that determine the efficacy of the test. Appreciating and using these metrics will benefit test developers by providing consistent measures to evaluate analytical and clinical test performance, as well as guide the design of tests that will most benefit clinicians and patients. This paper is broken into four sections that discuss metrics related to general stages of development including: (1) laboratory assay development (analytical sensitivity, limit of detection, analytical selectivity, and trueness/precision), (2) pre-clinical development (diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, clinical cutoffs, and receiver-operator curves), (3) clinical use (prevalence, predictive values, and likelihood ratios), and (4) case studies from existing clinical data for tests relevant to the lab-on-a-chip community (HIV, group A strep, and chlamydia). Each section contains definitions of recommended statistical measures, as well as examples demonstrating the importance of these metrics at various stages of the development process. Increasing the use of these metrics in lab-on-a-chip research will improve the rigor of diagnostic performance reporting and provide a better understanding of how to design tests that will ultimately meet clinical needs. PMID:27043204

  8. Towards the development of multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids. [Root-cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1991-09-01

    Presented here is our methodology for developing automated aids for diagnosing faults in complex systems based on research at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We have designed these aids as multilevel-multiagent diagnostic aids based on principles that should be generally applicable to any complex system. Our research in fault diagnosis at PNL grew out of our work in root-cause analysis (RCA). Our approach consists of those major activities which we categorize as (1) determining knowledge requirements, (2) constructing models, and (3) developing the requirements for representation schemes. We group knowledge for fault diagnosis into two broad groups: cognitive task and process-system knowledge. Our research indicates that a useful representation scheme can be developed employing function and object hierarchies, task required inference, and task specified reasoning control. Formal modeling of the reasoning task determines the required task inference and control. This research has focused on the use of the representation scheme for fault diagnosis. However, preliminary analysis indicates that this same scheme may be useful in automating control tasks. The next phase of this research is to develop a prototype. The prototype system has been specified and we are presently developing knowledge models of the components and system. 19 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Desai, Darash; Wu, Grace; Zaman, Muhammad H

    2011-01-21

    Over the last thirty years, the world has seen HIV circulate the globe, affecting 33 million people to date and killing 2 million people a year. The disease has affected developed and developing countries alike, and in the U.S., remains one of the top ten leading causes of death. Many regions of the world are highly impacted by this disease, including sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Fortunately, multilateral, global efforts, along with successful developments in diagnostic tools and anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) have successfully curbed the spread of HIV over the last ten years. In spite of this fact, access to HIV treatment and preventive healthcare is varying and limited in developing countries. A lack of healthcare infrastructure, financial support, and healthcare workers are some logistical factors that are responsible. HIV stigmatization, discrimination, and inadequate education pose additional social challenges that are hindering countries from advancing in HIV prevention. This review focuses on current technological tools that are used for HIV diagnosis and ongoing research that is aimed at addressing the conditions in low-resource settings. Recent developments in microfluidic applications and mobile health technologies are promising approaches to building a compact, portable, and robust device that can provide information-rich, real-time diagnoses. We also discuss the role that governments, healthcare workers, and even researchers can play in order to increase the acceptance of newly introduced devices and treatments in rural communities.

  10. Development of High-Resolution UV-VIS Diagnostics for Space Plasma Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew; Batishchev, Oleg

    2012-10-01

    Non-invasive far-UV-VIS plasma emission allows remote diagnostics of plasma, which is particularly important for space application. Accurate vacuum tank space plasma simulations require monochromators with high spectral resolution (better than 0.01A) to capture important details of atomic and ionic lines, such as Ly-alpha, etc. We are building a new system based on the previous work [1], and will discuss the development of a spectrometry system that combines a single-pass vacuum far-UV-NIR spectrometer and a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon. [4pt] [1] O. Batishchev and J.L. Cambier, Experimental Study of the Mini-Helicon Thruster, Air Force Research Laboratory Report, AFRL-RZ-ED-TR-2009-0020, 2009.

  11. Proceedings of the advanced research and technology development direct utilization, instrumentation and diagnostics contractors' review meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W. ); Goldberg, P.M. )

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Direct Utilization, and Instrumentation and Diagnostics Contractors Review Meeting was held September 16--18, 1990, at the Hyatt at Chatham Center in Pittsburgh, PA. The meeting was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, and the Pittsburgh and Morgantown Energy Technology Centers. Each year the meeting provides a forum for the exchange of information among the DOE AR TD contractors and interested parties. This year's meeting was hosted by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and was attended by 120 individuals from industry, academia, national laboratories, and other governmental agencies. Papers were presented on research addressing coal surface, science, devolatilization and combustion, ash behavior, emission controls for gases particulates, fluid bed combustion and utilization in diesels and turbines. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  12. Recent Developments in Synthetic Carbohydrate-Based Diagnostics, Vaccines, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Tejada, Alberto; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2015-07-20

    Glycans are everywhere in biological systems, being involved in many cellular events with important implications for medical purposes. Building upon a detailed understanding of the functional roles of carbohydrates in molecular recognition processes and disease states, glycans are increasingly being considered as key players in pharmacological research. On the basis of the important progress recently made in glycochemistry, glycobiology, and glycomedicine, we provide a complete overview of successful applications and future perspectives of carbohydrates in the biopharmaceutical and medical fields. This review highlights the development of carbohydrate-based diagnostics, exemplified by glycan imaging techniques and microarray platforms, synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against infectious diseases (e.g., HIV) and cancer, and finally carbohydrate-derived therapeutics, including glycomimetic drugs and glycoproteins.

  13. Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

  14. Using hypermedia to develop an intelligent tutorial/diagnostic system for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Daniel; Williams, Robert; Yarborough, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    This is a tutorial/diagnostic system for training personnel in the use of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) Simulation Lab. It also provides a diagnostic capable of isolating lab failures at least to the major lab component. The system was implemented using Hypercard, which is an program of hypermedia running on Apple Macintosh computers. Hypercard proved to be a viable platform for the development and use of sophisticated tutorial systems and moderately capable diagnostic systems. This tutorial/diagnostic system uses the basic Hypercard tools to provide the tutorial. The diagnostic part of the system uses a simple interpreter written in the Hypercard language (Hypertalk) to implement the backward chaining rule based logic commonly found in diagnostic systems using Prolog. Some of the advantages of Hypercard in developing this type of system include sophisticated graphics, animation, sound and voice capabilities, its ability as a hypermedia tool, and its ability to include digitized pictures. The major disadvantage is the slow execution time for evaluation of rules (due to the interpretive processing of the language). Other disadvantages include the limitation on the size of the cards, that color is not supported, that it does not support grey scale graphics, and its lack of selectable fonts for text fields.

  15. A comprehensive data processing plan for crop calendar MSS signature development from satellite imagery: Crop identification using vegetation phenology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A. (Principal Investigator); Carlyle, S. M.; Haralick, R. M.; Yokoyama, R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The phenological method of crop identification involves the creation of crop signatures which characterize multispectral observations as phenological growth states. The phenological signature models spectral reflectance explicitly as a function of crop maturity rather than as a function of date. A correspondence of time to growth state is established which minimizes the smallest difference between the given multispectral multitemporal vector and a category mean vector. The application of the method to the identification of winter wheat and corn shows (1) the method is capable of discriminating crop type with about the same degree of accuracy as more traditional classifiers; (2) the use of LANDSAT observations on two or more dates yields better results than the use of a single observation; and (3) some potential is demonstrated for labeling the degree of maturity of the crop, as well as the crop type.

  16. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  17. Role of 3’-untranslated region translational control in cancer development, diagnostics and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vislovukh, Andrii; Vargas, Thaiz Rivera; Polesskaya, Anna; Groisman, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The messenger RNA 3’-untranslated region (3’UTR) plays an important role in regulation of gene expression on the posttranscriptional level. The 3’UTR controls gene expression via orchestrated interaction between the structural components of mRNAs (cis-element) and the specific trans-acting factors (RNA binding proteins and non-coding RNAs). The crosstalk of these factors is based on the binding sequences and/or direct protein-protein interaction, or just functional interaction. Much new evidence that has accumulated supports the idea that several RNA binding factors can bind to common mRNA targets: to the non-overlapping binding sites or to common sites in a competitive fashion. Various factors capable of binding to the same RNA can cooperate or be antagonistic in their actions. The outcome of the collective function of all factors bound to the same mRNA 3’UTR depends on many circumstances, such as their expression levels, affinity to the binding sites, and localization in the cell, which can be controlled by various physiological conditions. Moreover, the functional and/or physical interactions of the factors binding to 3’UTR can change the character of their actions. These interactions vary during the cell cycle and in response to changing physiological conditions. Abnormal functioning of the factors can lead to disease. In this review we will discuss how alterations of these factors or their interaction can affect cancer development and promote or enhance the malignant phenotype of cancer cells. Understanding these alterations and their impact on 3’UTR-directed posttranscriptional gene regulation will uncover promising new targets for therapeutic intervention and diagnostics. We will also discuss emerging new tools in cancer diagnostics and therapy based on 3’UTR binding factors and approaches to improve them. PMID:24600513

  18. Advanced detector development, laboratory simulations, diagnostic development, and data analysis on wake physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbet, John M.; Chan, Chung

    1994-06-01

    We have performed a number of experiments and have developed a theoretical analysis of the current scaling issues of a negatively biased probe in a plasma wake. The end product of the laboratory research performed in the large vacuum chamber JUMBO at Phillips Laboratory can be found in the associated publication. Theoretical assumptions have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by the use of the POLAR computer code. For a plasma with a constant beam energy, the analysis shows that the I-V collection characteristics are unaffected by Mach variations for Mach numbers above the value of two. For the same case, the current was found to scale with the 3/7 power of the density.

  19. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  20. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient's bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization. PMID:26885534

  1. Development of a new diagnostic sensor for extra-corporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, F.; Coleman, A. J.; Leighton, T. G.; White, P. R.; Hurrell, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is the leading technique used in urology for the non-invasive treatment of kidney and ureteric stones. The stone is comminuted by thousands of ultrasound shocks, into fragments small enough to be naturally passed. Since the technique was introduced in the 1980 different generations of lithotripters have been developed. Nevertheless the alignment systems (x-ray, ultrasound) still have some limitations (indeed, the tighter focusing of newer lithotripter reduces the tolerance for misalignment) and there is no capability for on-line monitoring of the degree of fragmentation of the stone. There is 50% incidence of re-treatments, possibly due to these deficiencies. The objective of this research is to design a new passive acoustic sensor, exploiting the secondary acoustic emission generated during the treatment, which could be used as a diagnostic device for lithotripsy. With a passive cylindrical cavitation detector, developed by the National Physical Laboratory, it was possible to detect these emissions in a laboratory lithotripter, and it was shown that they contain information on the degree of stone fragmentation and stone location. This information could be used to perform the desired monitoring and to improve the stone targeting. In collaboration with Precision Acoustic Ltd, some clinical prototypes were developed and tested to verify the relevance of these preliminary results. Clinical results are presented.

  2. Including Diagnostic Training in Counseling Curricula: Implications for Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, James T.

    2003-01-01

    During the last decade, diagnostic training has been increasingly assimilated into counseling curricula; however, the consequences for counselor identity of including this training have seldom been critically examined. The author argues that this diagnostic trend has major implications for the formation of individual counselor identity and for the…

  3. Upgrade of the MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) for nuclear diagnostics development for Omega, Z and the NIF.

    PubMed

    Sinenian, N; Manuel, M J-E; Zylstra, A B; Rosenberg, M; Waugh, C J; Rinderknecht, H G; Casey, D T; Sio, H; Ruszczynski, J K; Zhou, L; Gatu Johnson, M; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Ruiz, C L; Leeper, R J

    2012-04-01

    The MIT Linear Electrostatic Ion Accelerator (LEIA) generates DD and D(3)He fusion products for the development of nuclear diagnostics for Omega, Z, and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Significant improvements to the system in recent years are presented. Fusion reaction rates, as high as 10(7) s(-1) and 10(6) s(-1) for DD and D(3)He, respectively, are now well regulated with a new ion source and electronic gas control system. Charged fusion products are more accurately characterized, which allows for better calibration of existing nuclear diagnostics. In addition, in situ measurements of the on-target beam profile, made with a CCD camera, are used to determine the metrology of the fusion-product source for particle-counting applications. Finally, neutron diagnostics development has been facilitated by detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) modeling of neutrons in the accelerator target chamber, which is used to correct for scattering within the system. These recent improvements have resulted in a versatile platform, which continues to support the existing nuclear diagnostics while simultaneously facilitating the development of new diagnostics in aid of the National Ignition Campaign at the National Ignition Facility.

  4. Development of silicon photonic microring resonator biosensors for multiplexed cytokine assays and in vitro diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchansky, Matthew Sam

    In order to guide critical care therapies that are personalized to a patient's unique disease state, a diagnostic or theranostic medical device must quickly provide a detailed biomolecular understanding of disease onset and progression. This detailed molecular understanding of cellular processes and pathways requires the ability to measure multiple analytes in parallel. Though many traditional sensing technologies for biomarker analysis and fundamental biological studies (i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, etc.) rely on single-parameter measurements, it has become increasingly clear that the inherent complexity of many human illnesses and pathways necessitates quantitative and multiparameter analysis of biological samples. Currently used analytical methods are deficient in that they often provide either highly quantitative data for a single biomarker or qualitative data for many targets, but methods that simultaneously provide highly quantitative analysis of many targets have yet to be adequately developed. Fields such as medical diagnostics and cellular biology would benefit greatly from a technology that enables rapid, quantitative and reproducible assays for many targets within a single sample. In an effort to fill this unmet need, this doctoral dissertation describes the development of a clinically translational biosensing technology based on silicon photonics and developed in the chemistry research laboratory of Ryan C. Bailey. Silicon photonic microring resonators, a class of high-Q optical sensors, represent a promising platform for rapid, multiparameter in vitro measurements. The original device design utilizes 32-ring arrays for real-time biomolecular sensing without fluorescent labels, and these optical biosensors display great potential for more highly multiplexed (100s-1000s) measurements based on the impressive scalability of silicon device fabrication. Though this technology can be used to detect a variety of

  5. Development of silicon photonic microring resonator biosensors for multiplexed cytokine assays and in vitro diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchansky, Matthew Sam

    In order to guide critical care therapies that are personalized to a patient's unique disease state, a diagnostic or theranostic medical device must quickly provide a detailed biomolecular understanding of disease onset and progression. This detailed molecular understanding of cellular processes and pathways requires the ability to measure multiple analytes in parallel. Though many traditional sensing technologies for biomarker analysis and fundamental biological studies (i.e. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction, etc.) rely on single-parameter measurements, it has become increasingly clear that the inherent complexity of many human illnesses and pathways necessitates quantitative and multiparameter analysis of biological samples. Currently used analytical methods are deficient in that they often provide either highly quantitative data for a single biomarker or qualitative data for many targets, but methods that simultaneously provide highly quantitative analysis of many targets have yet to be adequately developed. Fields such as medical diagnostics and cellular biology would benefit greatly from a technology that enables rapid, quantitative and reproducible assays for many targets within a single sample. In an effort to fill this unmet need, this doctoral dissertation describes the development of a clinically translational biosensing technology based on silicon photonics and developed in the chemistry research laboratory of Ryan C. Bailey. Silicon photonic microring resonators, a class of high-Q optical sensors, represent a promising platform for rapid, multiparameter in vitro measurements. The original device design utilizes 32-ring arrays for real-time biomolecular sensing without fluorescent labels, and these optical biosensors display great potential for more highly multiplexed (100s-1000s) measurements based on the impressive scalability of silicon device fabrication. Though this technology can be used to detect a variety of

  6. Development of an antigen-based rapid diagnostic test for the identification of blowfly (Calliphoridae) species of forensic significance.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Laura; Thornton, Chris; Wallman, James F; Stevens, Jamie R

    2009-06-01

    In this study we examine the limitations of currently used sequence-based approaches to blowfly (Calliphoridae) identification and evaluate the utility of an immunological approach to discriminate between blowfly species of forensic importance. By investigating antigenic similarity and dissimilarity between the first instar larval stages of four forensically important blowfly species, we have been able to identify immunoreactive proteins of potential use in the development of species-specific immuno-diagnostic tests. Here we outline our protein-based approach to species determination, and describe how it may be adapted to develop rapid diagnostic assays for the 'on-site' identification of blowfly species.

  7. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  8. Comparison of MMW ground vehicle signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Ph. D., Annie V.; Kissell, Ann

    2006-05-01

    A continuing question asked of MMW target signature and model providers is the applicability of data from one frequency band to another. Recent monopulse Ka-band ground target signature measurements made by US Army programs provide an opportunity to do an in-depth comparison of signatures of several ground vehicles. The vehicles measured correspond to those measured at W-band by another Army program. This paper provides a comparison of vehicle signatures produced by models derived by AMRDEC from the measurements. The results have implications for missile programs that do not have an extensive measurement budget but require target signatures and models for algorithm development.

  9. Development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairdolf, Brad A.

    Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the United States, with over 500,000 deaths expected this year. While significant progress has been made in the treatment and management of cancer, challenges remain because of the complexity and the heterogeneous nature of the disease. The improvement that has been seen in survival rates reflects advancements not only in treatment, but also in early stage detection and diagnostics for certain cancers. In particular, early stage detection and treatment of cancer before it has metastasized to other organs has resulted in a dramatic improvement in patient survival rates. One area of research that has shown considerable promise in further advancing diagnostics and early cancer detection is nanotechnology. Specifically, semiconductor and metal nanoparticles have great potential to provide advanced technology platforms for ultrasensitive and multiplexed detection of disease markers and probe disease on the molecular level. Because they are in the same size regime as biological molecules, these nanoparticles exhibit unique interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomarkers of interest for detecting and diagnosing disease. However, high-quality nanoparticles are often unsuited for use in complex biological environments because of their coatings and surface chemistry. In this dissertation, we describe the design and development of polymer-coated nanoparticle imaging agents for use in blood, cell and tissue diagnostic applications. First, low-molecular weight, amphiphilic polymers, with hydrocarbon chains capable of noncovalent interactions with nanoparticle surface ligands and a hydrophilic backbone to render the nanoparticle water soluble, were synthesized and characterized for use in nanoparticle coating applications. We demonstrate that the hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions between the nanoparticle surface, the amphiphilic polymer and the aqueous solvent were able to drive the coating and water

  10. Contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound: development and evaluation of polymer-coated microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, M A; Schrope, B; Shen, P

    1990-11-01

    Although the concept of an ultrasound contrast agent dates from Gramiak's work in 1968 in which indocyanine green was injected into the ascending aorta and heart, no universally accepted contrast agent for ultrasound now exists. This is primarily due to problems with stability, size and/or toxicity of the agents which have been investigated. Development of an effective ultrasound contrast agent would be highly significant for the health care industry, since it would greatly expand the scope of ultrasound (a noninvasive and safe procedure) as a diagnostic technique. While encapsulated gas bubbles offer particular advantages in stability over hand-agitated systems, they frequently present problems with size. Capsules larger than 10 microns in diameter become entrapped in the capillary bed of the lung. This paper describes the use of ionotropic gelation of the naturally occurring polysaccharide, alginate, for microencapsulation of air. Two procedures have been investigated. A novel jet head has been developed which allows co-extrusion of a solution of sodium alginate and air to produce nascent microencapsulated air bubbles which fall into a hardening solution of calcium ions. A second method employs ultrasound to introduce cavitation-induced bubbles into the alginate before capsule formation by spraying. Power spectra of these preparations demonstrate echogenicity (that is strong scatter of the incident ultrasound wave back to the emitting transducer, which also acts as a receiver), with resonant peaks that are a function of capsule size and wall characteristics. PMID:2090309

  11. An Optical Streak Diagnostic for Observing Anode-Cathode Plasmas for Radiographic Source Development

    SciTech Connect

    Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.; Lare, Gregory A.; Bennett, Nichelle L.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2013-06-13

    National Security Technologies, LLC, and Sandia National Laboratories are collaborating in the development of pulsed power–driven flash x-ray radiographic sources that utilize high-intensity electron beam diodes. The RITS 6 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator at Sandia is used to drive a self magnetic pinch diode to produce a Bremsstrahlung x-ray source. The high electric fields and current densities associated with these short A-K gap pinch beam diodes present many challenges in diode development. Plasmas generated at both the anode and cathode affect the diode performance, which is manifested in varying spot (source) sizes, total dose output, and impedance profiles. Understanding the nature of these plasmas including closure rates and densities is important in modeling their behavior and providing insight into their mitigation. In this paper we describe a streak camera–based optical diagnostic that is capable of observing and measuring plasma evolution within the A-K gap. By imaging a region of interest onto the input slit of a streak camera, we are able to produce a time-resolved one-dimensional image of the evolving plasma. Typical data are presented.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SOLID COLLECTION DIAGNOSTICS ON NIF THROUGH BLAST SHIELD ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M; Shaughnessy, D A; Grant, P M; Hutcheon, I D; Lewis, L A; Moody, K J

    2011-12-15

    Radiochemical analysis of post-shot debris inside the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber can help determine various diagnostic parameters associated with the implosion efficiency of the fusion capsule. This capability is limited by the amount of target isotope that can be loaded inside the capsule ablator without affecting performance and the collection efficiency of the capsule debris after implosion. Prior to designing a collection system, the chemical nature and distribution of the debris inside the chamber must be determined and analysis methods developed. The focus of our current work has been on determining the elemental composition and distribution of debris on various blast shields and witness plates that were exposed to the chamber during ignition shots that occurred in 2009. These passive collection plates were used to develop both non-destructive and chemical analysis techniques to determine debris composition and melt depth at various shot energy profiles. A summary of these data will be presented along with our current strategy for the 2011 campaign.

  13. Development and utilization of new diagnostics for dense-phase pneumatic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Dense-phase pneumatic transport is an attractive means of conveying solids. Unfortunately, because of the high solid concentrations, this transport method is a difficult regime in which to carry out detailed measurements. Hence most details of the flow are unknown. In this context, the main objective of this work is to develop probes for local measurements of solid velocity and holdup in dense gas-solid flows. Because we anticipate the recent theories of rapid granular flows will bring insight to the dense pneumatic transport of particles, we have sought to substantiate these theories through computer simulations. There we have verified the theory of Hanes, Jenkins Richman (1988) for the rapid, steady shear flow of identical, smooth, nearly elastics disks driven by identical, parallel, bumpy boundaries. Because granular flows depend strongly on the nature of their interaction with a boundary, we have verified the boundary conditions calculated by Jenkins (1991) for spheres interacting with a flat, frictional surface. During the previous reporting period, we began a study of the time relaxation of the second moment of velocity fluctuations for a collection of disks undergoing simple shear. In the present reporting period, we have completed this study of relaxation by comparing results of simulations with the theoretical predictions of Jenkins and Richman (1988). In addition, we have concluded a series of experiments with flour plugs in the dense-phase pneumatic setup. Finally, we have established several industrial contacts to transfer the diagnostic techniques developed under this contract. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Expansion tunnel characterization and development of non-intrusive microwave plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufrene, Aaron T.

    The focus of this research is the development of non-intrusive microwave diagnostics for characterization of expansion tunnels. The main objectives of this research are to accurately characterize the LENS XX expansion tunnel facility, develop non-intrusive RF diagnostics that will work in short-duration expansion tunnel testing, and to determine plasma properties and other information that might otherwise be unknown, less accurate, intrusive, or more difficult to determine through conventional methods. Testing was completed in LENS XX, a new large-scale expansion tunnel facility at CUBRC, Inc. This facility is the largest known expansion tunnel in the world with an inner diameter of 24 inches, a 96 inch test section, and an end-to-end length of more than 240 ft. Expansion tunnels are currently the only facilities capable of generating high-enthalpy test conditions with minimal or no freestream dissociation or ionization. However, short test times and freestream noise at some conditions have limited development of these facilities. To characterize the LENS XX facility, the first step is to evaluate the facility pressure, vacuum, temperature, and other mechanical restrictions to derive a theoretical testing parameter space. Test condition maps are presented for a variety of parameters and gases based on 1D perfect gas dynamics. Test conditions well beyond 10 km/s or 50 MJ/kg are identified with minimum test times of 200 us. Additionally, a four-chamber expansion tube configuration is considered for extending the stagnation enthalpy range of the facility even further. A microwave shock speed diagnostic measures primary and secondary shock speeds accurately every 30 in. down the entire length of the facility resulting in a more accurate determination of freestream conditions required for computational comparisons. The high resolution of this measurement is used to assess shock speed attenuation as well as secondary diaphragm performance. Negligible shock attenuation is

  15. The gene expression signatures of melanoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Haqq, Christopher; Nosrati, Mehdi; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Crothers, Julia; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Pulliam, Brian L.; Federman, Scot; Miller, James R.; Allen, Robert E.; Singer, Mark I.; Leong, Stanley P. L.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Because of the paucity of available tissue, little information has previously been available regarding the gene expression profiles of primary melanomas. To understand the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we compared the gene expression profiles of a series of nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. We found that metastatic melanomas exhibit two dichotomous patterns of gene expression, which unexpectedly reflect gene expression differences already apparent in comparing laser-capture microdissected radial and vertical phases of a large primary melanoma. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering accurately separated nevi and primary melanomas. Multiclass significance analysis of microarrays comparing normal skin, nevi, primary melanomas, and the two types of metastatic melanoma identified 2,602 transcripts that significantly correlated with sample class. These results suggest that melanoma pathogenesis can be understood as a series of distinct molecular events. The gene expression signatures identified here provide the basis for developing new diagnostics and targeting therapies for patients with malignant melanoma. PMID:15833814

  16. Response to the comment by Henry Kahn and Dennis Santella on a summary of the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Lowers, Heather; Lioy, Paul J.; Lippmann, Morton

    2010-01-01

    A response by Gregory P. Meeker and colleagues to a commentary on their article on the development of a signature for detection of residual dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings is presented

  17. Identification of host response signatures of infection.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Sinha, Anupama; Bent, Zachary

    2013-02-01

    Biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging infectious diseases represent a serious and growing threat to our national security. Effective response to a bioattack or disease outbreak critically depends upon efficient and reliable distinguishing between infected vs healthy individuals, to enable rational use of scarce, invasive, and/or costly countermeasures (diagnostics, therapies, quarantine). Screening based on direct detection of the causative pathogen can be problematic, because culture- and probe-based assays are confounded by unanticipated pathogens (e.g., deeply diverged, engineered), and readily-accessible specimens (e.g., blood) often contain little or no pathogen, particularly at pre-symptomatic stages of disease. Thus, in addition to the pathogen itself, one would like to detect infection-specific host response signatures in the specimen, preferably ones comprised of nucleic acids (NA), which can be recovered and amplified from tiny specimens (e.g., fingerstick draws). Proof-of-concept studies have not been definitive, however, largely due to use of sub-optimal sample preparation and detection technologies. For purposes of pathogen detection, Sandia has developed novel molecular biology methods that enable selective isolation of NA unique to, or shared between, complex samples, followed by identification and quantitation via Second Generation Sequencing (SGS). The central hypothesis of the current study is that variations on this approach will support efficient identification and verification of NA-based host response signatures of infectious disease. To test this hypothesis, we re-engineered Sandia's sophisticated sample preparation pipelines, and developed new SGS data analysis tools and strategies, in order to pioneer use of SGS for identification of host NA correlating with infection. Proof-of-concept studies were carried out using specimens drawn from pathogen-infected non-human primates (NHP). This work provides a strong foundation for

  18. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  19. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  20. Isotopic signatures: An important tool in today`s world

    SciTech Connect

    Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Benjamin, T.M.; Cappis, J.H.; Chamberlin, J.W.; Poths, H.; Roensch, F.R.

    1995-12-01

    High-sensitivity/high-accuracy actinide measurement techniques developed to support weapons diagnostic capabilities at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now being used for environmental monitoring. The measurement techniques used are Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS), Alpha Spectrometry(AS), and High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry(HRGS). These techniques are used to address a wide variety of actinide inventory issues: Environmental surveillance, site characterizations, food chain member determination, sedimentary records of activities, and treaty compliance concerns. As little as 10 femtograms of plutonium can be detected in samples and isotopic signatures determined on samples containing sub-100 femtogram amounts. Uranium, present in all environmental samples, can generally yield isotopic signatures of anthropogenic origin when present at the 40 picogam/gram level. Solid samples (soils, sediments, fauna, and tissue) can range from a few particles to several kilograms in size. Water samples can range from a few milliliters to as much as 200 liters.

  1. Physics of the inner heliosphere: Mechanisms, models and observational signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, George L.

    1987-01-01

    Selected problems concerned with the important physical processes that occur in the corona and solar wind acceleration region, particularly time dependent phenomena were studied. Both the physics of the phenomena and the resultant effects on observational signatures, particularly spectroscopic signatures were also studied. Phenomena under study include: wave motions, particularly Alfven and fast mode waves; the formation of standing shocks in the inner heliosphere as a result of momentum and/or heat addition to the wind; and coronal transient phenomena where momentum and/or heat are deposited in the corona to produce transient plasma heating and/or mass ejection. The development of theoretical models for the inner heliosphere, the theoretical investigation of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for this region, and the analysis of existing skylab and other relevant data are also included.

  2. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  3. Nanotechnology-based approaches for the development of diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Alagarsamy; Rastogi, Anshu; Ayyavoo, Velpandi; Srivastava, Shiv

    2014-06-01

    The architecture of nanoparticles of biological origin, generally also known as bionanoparticles, presents several features that are ideal for their use in developing diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In this regard, particles formed by viral proteins using recombinant DNA technology resemble authentic virus particles. However, they lack infectivity due to the absence of genetic components such as DNA or RNA. Hence, they are designated as virus-like particles (VLP). VLPs possess the following characteristics: (1) they can be generated by either a single or a few viral proteins; (2) their size, formed by viral proteins, is in the range of 20 to100 nm; (3) the number of protein molecules required for particle assembly is from hundreds to thousands, depending on the VLP; (4) the protein(s) responsible for their assembly are amenable for manipulation; and (5) multiple proteins/peptides can be incorporated into a VLP. The potential advantages of VLPs directed by retroviral proteins are discussed in this review.

  4. Diagnostic medical imaging radiation exposure and risk of development of solid and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Berkes, Marschall B; Dy, Christopher J; Bogner, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Limiting patients' exposure to ionizing radiation during diagnostic imaging is of concern to patients and clinicians. Large single-dose exposures and cumulative exposures to ionizing radiation have been associated with solid tumors and hematologic malignancy. Although these associations have been a driving force in minimizing patients' exposure, significant risks are found when diagnoses are missed and subsequent treatment is withheld. Therefore, based on epidemiologic data obtained after nuclear and occupational exposures, dose exposure limits have been estimated. A recent collaborative effort between the US Food and Drug Administration and the American College of Radiology has provided information and tools that patients and imaging professionals can use to avoid unnecessary ionizing radiation scans and ensure use of the lowest feasible radiation dose necessary for studies. Further collaboration, research, and development should focus on producing technological advances that minimize individual study exposures and duplicate studies. This article outlines the research used to govern safe radiation doses, defines recent initiatives in decreasing radiation exposure, and provides orthopedic surgeons with techniques that may help decrease radiation exposure in their daily practice.

  5. Development of a portable multiphoton photo-acoustic spectroscopy system for tumor diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekharan, Nirmala; Kiser, John B.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a novel fiber optic probe for subsurface tumor diagnostics, based on non-resonant multiphoton photoacoustic spectroscopy (NMPPAS). In this technique, endogenous biomarkers present in tissues are irradiated in the near infrared, using a tunable high-power laser. The resulting multiphoton excitation events are detected as an acoustic (i.e. ultrasonic) signal, using an ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer. The signal from the piezoelectric transducer is then corrected for laser power fluctuations by normalizing the NMPPAS signal at each wavelength with the laser intensity recorded, from an optical diode. By scanning the laser excitation over the appropriate wavelength range for the tissue of interest, absorption differences between normal and tumor tissues can be measured and analyzed. The fiber optic probe was characterized and optimized for transmission efficiency as well as its time dependent response to high power laser pulses. The focusing optics were optimized and a piezoelectric transducer film detector chosen based on its sensitivity in the ultrasonic frequency range of interest. Using this probe system NMPPAS measurements were performed on several common fluorescent dyes including rhodamine 6G as well as well-characterized biomarkers like tryptophan. Furthermore, the technique was further successfully applied to the differentiation of tumorous and healthy human brain tissues.

  6. Development and application of diagnostic instrumentation for measurement of electron density and conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, L.E.

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this contract was to assemble and demonstrate in the laboratory a Faraday rotation system for measurement of electron density and conductivity, with the intent to produce a system suitable for diagnostic support of the development of pulsed, space-based magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems. Two system configurations were tested: (1) a rotating polarizer and (2) a beam splitting polarizer. Due to the short path length plasma produced in the laboratory flame, the long wavelength 496 {mu}m methyl fluoride laser line was used and only the more sensitive rotating polarizer configuration was used for the demonstration experiments. Electron number densities from 2 {times} 10{sup 19} to 9 {times} 10{sup 19} were measured with good agreement to statistical equilibrium (Saha) calculations using emission absorption-measured flame temperatures and neutral seed atom number seed atom nuclear densities. The electron collision frequencies were measured by transmission measurements. Combining these two measurements gave measured electron conductivities of between 4 and 12 mohs/m. These results compared reasonably well with those found with an electron collision frequency model combined with chemical equilibrium calculations and the emission absorption measurements. Ellipticity measurements of electron collision frequency were not possible due to the short path length of the laboratory plasma. 46 refs., 25 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Optoelectronic stereoscopic device for diagnostics, treatment, and developing of binocular vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautova, Larisa; Elkhov, Victor A.; Ovechkis, Yuri N.

    2003-08-01

    Operation of the device is based on alternative generation of pictures for left and right eyes on the monitor screen. Controller gives pulses on LCG so that shutter for left or right eye opens synchronously with pictures. The device provides frequency of switching more than 100 Hz, and that is why the flickering is absent. Thus, a separate demonstration of images to the left eye or to the right one in turn is obtained for patients being unaware and creates the conditions of binocular perception clsoe to natural ones without any additional separation of vision fields. LC-cell transfer characteristic coodination with time parameters of monitor screen has enabled to improve stereo image quality. Complicated problem of computer stereo images with LC-glasses is so called 'ghosts' - noise images that come to blocked eye. We reduced its influence by adapting stereo images to phosphor and LC-cells characteristics. The device is intended for diagnostics and treatment of stabismus, amblyopia and other binocular and stereoscopic vision impairments, for cultivating, training and developing of stereoscopic vision, for measurements of horizontal and vertical phoria, phusion reserves, the stereovision acuity and some else, for fixing central scotoma borders, as well as suppression scotoma in strabismus too.

  8. [Performance Assessment of a Newly Developed Rapid Diagnostic Reagent for Human Immunodeficiency Virus].

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Itsuhiro; Wada, Hideho; Tokunaga, Hirotoshi; Fukuda, Hirofumi; Tasaka, Taizo; Sugihara, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Extremely early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been considered highly important for its treatment. We conducted a performance assessment of a newly developed rapid diagnostic reagent for HIV by using a fourth-generation immunochromatographic assay (Alere HIV Combo). We used whole-blood, plasma, and serum samples obtained from 250 Japanese adults who visited the Kawasaki Medical School Hospital and underwent HIV screening tests. We also used 12 types of commercial HIV-1 sero- conversion panels and World Health Organization standard antigens. This method, which has a detection sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 99.3%, was as accurate as the chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) method. In a sensitivity test using seroconversion panels in the early phase of infection, the mean duration until positive conversion was 19.3 days. With this method having a high detection sensitivity for HIV-1p24 antigen, the results from whole-blood samples were the same as those from plasma and serum samples. Therefore, it can be considered as a useful rapid measurement method for general practice. PMID:26821522

  9. Development of distance accuracy measurement program for quality control of diagnostic ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yon-Min; Kim, Moon-Chan; Han, Dong-Kyoon; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Evaluating the performance of a diagnostic ultrasound system is important. Above all, establishing standards for such evaluations in an objective and systematic way is critical. However, quality control is currently measured based on subjective judgment of an observer. Against this background, this study intended to suggest quantified and objective data that would enable inter-observer variation to be overcome. Five radiological technologists used an ATS-539 multi-purpose ultrasound phantom to conduct measurements in the predetermined method. A digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standard image was obtained in an ultrasound system by using a self-developed software to measure the accuracy of the distance before the 95% confidence interval was calculated. In order to examine the accuracy of the distance in longitudinal and transverse measurements, we conducted t-tests to evaluate the significance for the results of quality control that was performed manually for the past one year and for the results of quality control that was performed by using software with the same equipment. For the longitudinal and the transverse measurements, the 95% confidence intervals were 100.96-101.29 mm and 83.18-84.26 mm, respectively. The computerized longitudinal measurement showed no significant difference from the manual measurement ( p > 0.05). The results of measurements using of software showed a higher reproducibility.

  10. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  11. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  12. Formative Assessment in Teacher Education: The Development of a Diagnostic Language Test for Trainee Teachers of German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of a diagnostic test of German and its integration in a programme of formative assessment during a one-year initial teacher-training course. The test focuses on linguistic aspects that cause difficulty for trainee teachers of German as a foreign language and assesses implicit and explicit…

  13. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae, the major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice; to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. Burkholderia glumae was frequently isolated from infected p...

  14. Development of practical diagnostic methods for monitoring rice bacterial panicle blight disease and evaluation of rice germplasm for resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was initiated to understand Burkholderia glumae (major causal agent for bacterial panicle blight disease of rice) to develop practical diagnostic methods for monitoring the disease; and to evaluate rice germplasm for resistance. B. glumae was frequently isolated from symptomatic panicles on...

  15. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  16. Development of a Rapid Diagnostic Kit That Uses an Immunochromatographic Device To Detect Antibodies in Human Sparganosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takeshi; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Maleewong, Wanchai; Morishima, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Takayama, Katsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Yukuharu

    2014-01-01

    A diagnostic kit using an immunochromatographic device was developed to replace the time-consuming immunodiagnostic methods for human sparganosis. The kit was found to be faster and easier to use than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and showed higher sensitivity and specificity. It will be useful for the laboratory diagnosis of hospitalized cases of sparganosis. PMID:24990912

  17. Application and Continued Development of Thin Faraday Collectors as a Lost Ion Diagnostic for Tokamak Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    F. Ed Cecil

    2011-06-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  18. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  19. Paragangliomas: update on differential diagnostic considerations, composite tumors, and recent genetic developments.

    PubMed

    Papathomas, Thomas G; de Krijger, Ronald R; Tischler, Arthur S

    2013-08-01

    Recent developments in molecular genetics have expanded the spectrum of disorders associated with pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and extra-adrenal paragangliomas (PGLs) and have increased the roles of pathologists in helping to guide patient care. At least 30% of these tumors are now known to be hereditary, and germline mutations of at least 10 genes are known to cause the tumors to develop. Genotype-phenotype correlations have been identified, including differences in tumor distribution, catecholamine production, and risk of metastasis, and types of tumors not previously associated with PCC/PGL are now considered in the spectrum of hereditary disease. Important new findings are that mutations of succinate dehydrogenase genes SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, and SDHAF2 (collectively "SDHx") are responsible for a large percentage of hereditary PCC/PGL and that SDHB mutations are strongly correlated with extra-adrenal tumor location, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Further, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal tumors are now associated with SDHx mutations. A PCC or PGL caused by any of the hereditary susceptibility genes can present as a solitary, apparently sporadic, tumor, and substantial numbers of patients presenting with apparently sporadic tumors harbor occult germline mutations of susceptibility genes. Current roles of pathologists are differential diagnosis of primary tumors and metastases, identification of clues to occult hereditary disease, and triaging of patients for optimal genetic testing by immunohistochemical staining of tumor tissue for the loss of SDHB and SDHA protein. Diagnostic pitfalls are posed by morphological variants of PCC/PGL, unusual anatomic sites of occurrence, and coexisting neuroendocrine tumors of other types in some hereditary syndromes. These pitfalls can be avoided by judicious use of appropriate immunohistochemical stains. Aside from loss of staining for SDHB, criteria for predicting risk of metastasis are still controversial, and

  20. Human-associated microbial signatures: examining their predictive value.

    PubMed

    Knights, Dan; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Zaneveld, Jesse; Lozupone, Catherine; Knight, Rob

    2011-10-20

    Host-associated microbial communities are unique to individuals, affect host health, and correlate with disease states. Although advanced technologies capture detailed snapshots of microbial communities, high within- and between-subject variation hampers discovery of microbial signatures in diagnostic or forensic settings. We suggest turning to machine learning and discuss key directions toward harnessing human-associated microbial signatures.

  1. A miRNA-based signature predicts development of disease recurrence in HER2 positive breast cancer after adjuvant trastuzumab-based treatment

    PubMed Central

    Du, F.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, Z. T.; Yang, Z.; Wang, T.; Zhao, J. D.; Luo, Y.; Ma, F.; Wang, J. Y.; Fan, Y.; Cai, R. G.; Zhang, P.; Li, Q.; Song, Y. M.; Xu, B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of HER2 positive breast cancer develops disease recurrence after adjuvant trastuzumab treatment. This study aimed to develop a molecular prognostic model that can reliably stratify patients by risk of developing disease recurrence. Using miRNA microarrays, nine miRNAs that differentially expressed between the recurrent and non-recurrent patients were identified. Then, we validated the expression of these miRNAs using qRT-PCR in training set (n = 101), and generated a 2-miRNA (miR-4734 and miR-150-5p) based prognostic signature. The prognostic accuracy of this classifier was further confirmed in an internal testing set (n = 57), and an external independent testing set (n = 53). Besides, by comparing the ROC curves, we found the incorporation of this miRNA based classifier into TNM stage could improve the prognostic performance of TNM system. The results indicated the 2-miRNA based signature was a reliable prognostic biomarker for patients with HER2 positive breast cancer. PMID:27650797

  2. Advances in Huntington's disease diagnostics: development of a standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barbara C; Richie, Kristy L; Jakupciak, John P

    2006-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects four to seven individuals per 100,000. The onset of symptoms usually begins in middle age, although approximately 5% become symptomatic as juveniles. Death occurs approximately 15 years following the onset of symptoms, which include choreic movements, cognitive decline and psychiatric changes. HD is an autosomal dominant inherited disease that is associated with an expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat located on chromosome 4. Physicians rely on a positive family history, and diagnostic and genetic tests to detect the expansion in the number of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the HD gene to confirm the diagnosis. More than 99% of HD patients have 40 or more CAG triplet repeats and, therefore, targeted mutational analysis is greater than 99% sensitive. Individuals with 26 triplet repeats or less are normal, and while those with 27-35 repeats may not demonstrate symptoms themselves, their offspring may have the disease. Individuals with 36-39 repeats may or may not exhibit symptoms. The College of American Pathology/American College of Medical Genetics Biochemical and Molecular Genetics Resource Committee has emphasized the need to standardize the methodology for the determination of the accurate number of CAG repeats. This will prevent false-positive or -negative results when conducting predictive or prenatal testing of at-risk individuals. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is developing a standard reference material to provide these positive and negative controls needed by clinical testing laboratories. The use of a HD standard reference material will provide the quality control and assurance that data from different laboratories are both comparable and accurate.

  3. Intermittent explosive disorder: development of integrated research criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a revised diagnostic criteria set for intermittent explosive disorder (IED) for consideration for inclusion in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V). This revised criteria set was developed by integrating previous research criteria with elements from the current DSM-IV set of diagnostic criteria. Evidence supporting the reliability and validity of IED-IR ("IED Integrated Criteria") in a new and well-characterized group of subjects with personality disorder is presented. Clinical, phenomenologic, and diagnostic data from 201 individuals with personality disorder were reviewed. All IED diagnoses were assigned using a best-estimate process (eg, kappa for IED-IR >0.85). In addition, subjects meeting IED-IR criteria had higher scores on dimensional measures of aggression and had lower global functioning scores than non-IED-IR subjects, even when related variables were controlled. The IED-IR criteria were more sensitive than the DSM-IV criteria only in identifying subjects with significant impulsive-aggressive behavior by a factor of 16. We conclude that the IED-IR criteria can be reliably applied and have sufficient validity to warrant consideration as DSM-V criteria for IED.

  4. [Content-based image-retrieval system - development, usefulness and perspectives of diagnostic assistant robot].

    PubMed

    Endo, Masahiro; Aramaki, Takeshi; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Sawada, Akihiro; Asakura, Koiku; Bekku, Emima; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2012-07-01

    In recent years, diagnostic imaging modalities have proliferated from standard X-ray to CT, MRI and PET, and the working environments of radiologists have changed greatly with the popular spread of the PACS system. Radiologists are now facing enormous duties due to the dramatic increase in the volume of images from various modalities, and the shortage of radiologists in Japan has reached near-crisis levels. Furthermore, it is difficult to gain the knowledge needed to interpret diagnostic imaging and modalities under the growing, increasingly diverse and complex modalities and methods, for general physicians and trainees. On the other hand, there are some computer-aided diagnosis and detection systems that support radiologists. Here, we introduce a new diagnostic assistant robot that automatically retrieves cases on record that are similar to new cases, helps in making diagnoses, and can create CT reports semi-automatically, using an existing past CT database of pulmonary nodules with a structured report. PMID:22790038

  5. Development of a neural network technique for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, J. H.; Yamada, I.; Park, Jae Sun

    2016-11-01

    Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ2 method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ2 method. The best results were obtained for 103 training cycles and eight nodes in the hidden layer. Our neural network approach shows good agreement with the χ2 method and performs the calculation twenty times faster.

  6. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-01-01

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article. PMID:27405995

  7. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David; Hetmaniak, Chris; Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  8. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis (TB).'' The purpose of the workshop is to provide... Medicine, Ending Neglect: The Elimination of Tuberculosis in the United States, Committee on...

  9. BRIGANCE(TM) Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development Including Developmental Record Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigance, Albert H.

    Designed for use with infants and children below the developmental level of seven years, the guide contains diagnostic and instructional information on skills in the following 11 areas (sample skills in parentheses): pre-ambulatory motor skills and behaviors, gross motor skills and behaviors (hopping, kicking, rhythm), fine motor skills and…

  10. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Douglas; Chavira, David; Henfling, Joseph; Hetmaniak, Chris; Huey, David; Jacobson, Ron; King, Dennis; Knudsen, Steve; Mansure, A. J.; Polsky, Yarom

    2009-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the second phase of the Diagnostics While-Drilling (DWD) project in which a high-temperature (HT) version of the phase 1 low-temperature (LT) proof-of-concept (POC) DWD tool was built and tested. Descriptions of the design, fabrication and field testing of the HT tool are provided.

  11. 76 FR 65518 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: The Development of a Companion Diagnostic Kit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... effect of an anti- cancer agent in the treatment of kidney, lung, and breast cancers that includes at... a Companion Diagnostic Kit for Predicting Therapeutic Efficacy of Anti- Cancer Agents AGENCY...: This invention concerns methods for the prognosis for a subject with cancer and to evaluate...

  12. Development and Evaluation of a Diagnostic Documentation Support System using Knowledge Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Kyoko; Hayakawa, Rumi; Terai, Koichi; Fukatsu, Hiroshi

    In this paper, we will introduce a system which supports creating diagnostic reports. Diagnostic reports are documents by doctors of radiology describing the existence and nonexistence of abnormalities from the inspection images, such as CT and MRI, and summarize a patient's state and disease. Our system indicates insufficiencies in these reports created by younger doctors, by using knowledge processing based on a medical knowledge dictionary. These indications are not only clerical errors, but the system also analyzes the purpose of the inspection and determines whether a comparison with a former inspection is required, or whether there is any shortage in description. We verified our system by using actual data of 2,233 report pairs, a pair comprised of a report written by a younger doctor and a check result of the report by an experienced doctor. The results of the verification showed that the rules of string analysis for detecting clerical errors and sentence wordiness obtained a recall of over 90% and a precision of over 75%. Moreover, the rules based on a medical knowledge dictionary for detecting the lack of required comparison with a former inspection and the shortage in description for the inspection purpose obtained a recall of over 70%. From these results, we confirmed that our system contributes to the quality improvement of diagnostic reports. We expect that our system can comprehensively support diagnostic documentations by cooperating with the interface which refers to inspection images or past reports.

  13. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  14. Discovery of a Novel Immune Gene Signature with Profound Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer: A Model of Cooperativity Disorientation Created in the Process from Development to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Shi, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yueming; Lv, Ning; Feng, Lin; Di, Xuebing; Han, Naijun; Wang, Guiqi

    2015-01-01

    Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis), probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan–Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11), and significantly associated with disease-free survival in four

  15. Discovery of a Novel Immune Gene Signature with Profound Prognostic Value in Colorectal Cancer: A Model of Cooperativity Disorientation Created in the Process from Development to Cancer.

    PubMed

    An, Ning; Shi, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yueming; Lv, Ning; Feng, Lin; Di, Xuebing; Han, Naijun; Wang, Guiqi; Cheng, Shujun; Zhang, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    Immune response-related genes play a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis by mediating inflammation or immune-surveillance evasion. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Development and carcinogenesis share striking similarities in their cellular behavior and underlying molecular mechanisms. The association between embryonic development and carcinogenesis makes embryonic development a viable reference model for studying cancer thereby circumventing the potentially misleading complexity of tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the immune genes, responsible for intra-immune cooperativity disorientation (defined in this study as disruption of developmental expression correlation patterns during carcinogenesis), probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. In this study, we determined the mRNA expression profile of 137 human biopsy samples, including samples from different stages of human colonic development, colorectal precancerous progression and colorectal cancer samples, among which 60 were also used to generate miRNA expression profile. We originally established Spearman correlation transition model to quantify the cooperativity disorientation associated with the transition from normal to precancerous to cancer tissue, in conjunction with miRNA-mRNA regulatory network and machine learning algorithm to identify genes with prognostic value. Finally, a 12-gene signature was extracted, whose prognostic value was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in five independent datasets. Using the log-rank test, the 12-gene signature was closely related to overall survival in four datasets (GSE17536, n = 177, p = 0.0054; GSE17537, n = 55, p = 0.0039; GSE39582, n = 562, p = 0.13; GSE39084, n = 70, p = 0.11), and significantly associated with disease-free survival in four

  16. Signature molecular descriptor : advanced applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr.

    2010-04-01

    In this work we report on the development of the Signature Molecular Descriptor (or Signature) for use in the solution of inverse design problems as well as in highthroughput screening applications. The ultimate goal of using Signature is to identify novel and non-intuitive chemical structures with optimal predicted properties for a given application. We demonstrate this in three studies: green solvent design, glucocorticoid receptor ligand design and the design of inhibitors for Factor XIa. In many areas of engineering, compounds are designed and/or modified in incremental ways which rely upon heuristics or institutional knowledge. Often multiple experiments are performed and the optimal compound is identified in this brute-force fashion. Perhaps a traditional chemical scaffold is identified and movement of a substituent group around a ring constitutes the whole of the design process. Also notably, a chemical being evaluated in one area might demonstrate properties very attractive in another area and serendipity was the mechanism for solution. In contrast to such approaches, computer-aided molecular design (CAMD) looks to encompass both experimental and heuristic-based knowledge into a strategy that will design a molecule on a computer to meet a given target. Depending on the algorithm employed, the molecule which is designed might be quite novel (re: no CAS registration number) and/or non-intuitive relative to what is known about the problem at hand. While CAMD is a fairly recent strategy (dating to the early 1980s), it contains a variety of bottlenecks and limitations which have prevented the technique from garnering more attention in the academic, governmental and industrial institutions. A main reason for this is how the molecules are described in the computer. This step can control how models are developed for the properties of interest on a given problem as well as how to go from an output of the algorithm to an actual chemical structure. This report

  17. Simulating realistic predator signatures in quantitative fatty acid signature analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.

    2015-01-01

    Diet estimation is an important field within quantitative ecology, providing critical insights into many aspects of ecology and community dynamics. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) is a prominent method of diet estimation, particularly for marine mammal and bird species. Investigators using QFASA commonly use computer simulation to evaluate statistical characteristics of diet estimators for the populations they study. Similar computer simulations have been used to explore and compare the performance of different variations of the original QFASA diet estimator. In both cases, computer simulations involve bootstrap sampling prey signature data to construct pseudo-predator signatures with known properties. However, bootstrap sample sizes have been selected arbitrarily and pseudo-predator signatures therefore may not have realistic properties. I develop an algorithm to objectively establish bootstrap sample sizes that generates pseudo-predator signatures with realistic properties, thereby enhancing the utility of computer simulation for assessing QFASA estimator performance. The algorithm also appears to be computationally efficient, resulting in bootstrap sample sizes that are smaller than those commonly used. I illustrate the algorithm with an example using data from Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their marine mammal prey. The concepts underlying the approach may have value in other areas of quantitative ecology in which bootstrap samples are post-processed prior to their use.

  18. Development and improvement of the operating diagnostics systems of NPO CKTI works for turbine of thermal and nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Rakovskii, V. G.; Isakov, N. Yu.; Sandovskii, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The work results on the development and improvement of the techniques, algorithms, and software-hardware of continuous operating diagnostics systems of rotating units and parts of turbine equipment state are presented. In particular, to ensure the full remote service of monitored turbine equipment using web technologies, the web version of the software of the automated systems of vibration-based diagnostics (ASVD VIDAS) was developed. The experience in the automated analysis of data obtained by ASVD VIDAS form the basis of the new algorithm of early detection of such dangerous defects as rotor deflection, crack in the rotor, and strong misalignment of supports. The program-technical complex of monitoring and measuring the deflection of medium pressure rotor (PTC) realizing this algorithm will alert the electric power plant staff during a deflection and indicate its value. This will give the opportunity to take timely measures to prevent the further extension of the defect. Repeatedly, recorded cases of full or partial destruction of shrouded shelves of rotor blades of the last stages of low-pressure cylinders of steam turbines defined the need to develop a version of the automated system of blade diagnostics (ASBD SKALA) for shrouded stages. The processing, analysis, presentation, and backup of data characterizing the mechanical state of blade device are carried out with a newly developed controller of the diagnostics system. As a result of the implementation of the works, the diagnosed parameters determining the operation security of rotating elements of equipment was expanded and the new tasks on monitoring the state of units and parts of turbines were solved. All algorithmic solutions and hardware-software implementations mentioned in the article were tested on the test benches and applied at some power plants.

  19. High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and mitochondrial-membrane protein signatures precede the development of hepatic insulin resistance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, M.; Schäfer, A.; Seelig, A.; Schultheiß, J.; Wu, M.; Aichler, M.; Leonhardt, J.; Rathkolb, B.; Rozman, J.; Sarioglu, H.; Hauck, S.M.; Ueffing, M.; Wolf, E.; Kastenmueller, G.; Adamski, J.; Walch, A.; Hrabé de Angelis, M.; Neschen, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. Methods We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Results Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. Conclusions We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid

  20. Acquired uterine arteriovenous malformation developing in retained products of conception: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Surbhi; Goyal, Ankur; Mahajan, Surbhi; Sharma, Shikha; Dev, Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding in the postabortal period requires meticulous diagnostic work-up to decide proper management. Imaging modalities including Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in concert with clinical and laboratory findings are useful to narrow the differential diagnoses but are not definitive. Presence of increased uterine vascularity and arteriovenous shunting is non-specific and can be detected in a variety of conditions including retained trophoblastic tissue, gestational trophoblastic disease, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), placental polyp and vascular neoplasm. We present here a case of a multiparous woman with unexplained postabortal bleeding posing a diagnostic challenge. Excluding the possibility of AVM before attempting dilatation and curettage in such a clinical scenario is crucial to prevent catastrophic bleeding. PMID:24033740

  1. Recent developments and key legal issues impacting diagnostic imaging services, part 2.

    PubMed

    Dresevic, Adrienne; Kalmowitz, Carey F

    2009-01-01

    Medicare's recently finalized anti-markup rule provides a flexible 2 alternative approach to determining whether or not a diagnostic testing arrangement is subject to the anti-markup payment limitation. Both tests measure whether a performing or supervising physician "shares a practice"with the billing physician or other supplier. Although in the 2009 Medicare Final Physician Fee Schedule CMS declined to implement the IDTF enrollment proposals, which would have required any physician or non-physician practitioner furnishing diagnostic testing services to enroll as an IDTF and be subject to most IDTF performance standards, CMS did finalize its earlier proposal to require mobile IDTFs to enroll and bill Medicare directly for the technical component services that they provide. Imaging services providers should be prepared for heightened Medicare auditing activity, as CMS has made permanent and is expanding its Recovery Audit Contractors program.

  2. Promoting Secondary Teachers' Diagnostic Competence with Respect to Functions: Development of a Scalable Unit in Continuous Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Julia; Barzel, Bärbel; Leuders, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosing student achievement in a formative way is a crucial skill for planning and carrying out effective mathematics lessons. This study takes a subject-specific view and aims at investigating diagnostic competence in the field of mathematical functions at secondary level and how to improve it. Following three evidence-based design principles,…

  3. Development of laser diagnostics for in situ measurements of entrained particles in recovery boilers.

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, Donald J.; Shaddix, Christopher R.

    2004-03-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, two different laser diagnostic techniques have been implemented in pulp mill recovery boilers to provide important information on entrained particles. One technique, based on single-particle scattering of a low-power, continuous-wave (cw) laser source, measures the velocity, concentration, and size distribution of particles within the furnace flow, over a predetermined range of particle sizes. For application to recovery boilers, this technique was designed to measure the range of particle sizes known as intermediate size particles (ISPs), roughly from 2-100 {micro}m in diameter. The other diagnostic technique, known as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), uses a pulsed, high-power laser beam to create a localized plasma spark in the flow, allowing the measurement of the elemental composition of the entrained particles. This technique is most sensitive for particles less than 10 {micro}m in diameter. Implementing these laser diagnostic techniques in recovery boilers proved to be challenging. For the particle scattering measurement, the use of a narrow aperture for measurement of the forward scattered light was postulated and later confirmed to be effective in minimizing background signals associated with the dense sodium fume in the boilers. For the LIBS measurement, a new water-jacketed optics probe was implemented to allow for measurements with an insertion depth of up to two meters in the furnace. Fume particle deposition on the exposed optics at the end of the LIBS probe was problematic but improved with a redesign of the probe geometry and purge flow. Both diagnostic techniques were employed at two representative recovery boilers. The particle scattering diagnostic demonstrated similar trends in mean ISP concentration, ISP size distribution, and temporal variation of ISP concentration at the two boilers

  4. Ballistic Signature Identification System Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The first phase of a research project directed toward development of a high speed automatic process to be used to match gun barrel signatures imparted to fired bullets was documented. An optical projection technique has been devised to produce and photograph a planar image of the entire signature, and the phototransparency produced is subjected to analysis using digital Fourier transform techniques. The success of this approach appears to be limited primarily by the accuracy of the photographic step since no significant processing limitations have been encountered.

  5. Graph Analytics for Signature Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Lo, Chaomei

    2013-06-01

    Within large amounts of seemingly unstructured data it can be diffcult to find signatures of events. In our work we transform unstructured data into a graph representation. By doing this we expose underlying structure in the data and can take advantage of existing graph analytics capabilities, as well as develop new capabilities. Currently we focus on applications in cybersecurity and communication domains. Within cybersecurity we aim to find signatures for perpetrators using the pass-the-hash attack, and in communications we look for emails or phone calls going up or down a chain of command. In both of these areas, and in many others, the signature we look for is a path with certain temporal properties. In this paper we discuss our methodology for finding these temporal paths within large graphs.

  6. Materials with controllable signature properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, O.; Holmberg, B.; Karlsson, T.; Savage, S.

    1995-02-01

    We have in this report considered some types of material with potential for use in signature control of structures. The material types selected for inclusion in this study were electrically conductive polymers, fullerenes, nanostructured materials and Langmuir-Blodgett films. To control the signature of a structure in real time it must be possible to vary the material emissivity, structural transmission, and reflection or absorption of electromagnetic radiation in the relevant wavelength region. This may be achieved by changes in temperature, pressure, electrical or magnetic field or by the concentration of a chemical substance within the material. It is concluded that it is feasible to develop electrically conductive polymeric materials with controllable properties for practical signature control application within 5 to 10 years.

  7. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  8. Gaseous electron multiplier-based soft x-ray plasma diagnostics development: Preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Wojeński, A.; Vezinet, D.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Mazon, D.; Jardin, A.; Herrmann, A.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P.

    2016-11-01

    A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.

  9. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  10. Development of diagnostic microsatellite markers from whole-genome sequences of Ammodramus sparrows for assessing admixture in a hybrid zone

    PubMed Central

    Kovach, Adrienne I; Walsh, Jennifer; Ramsdell, Jordan; Kelley Thomas, W

    2015-01-01

    Studies of hybridization and introgression and, in particular, the identification of admixed individuals in natural populations benefit from the use of diagnostic genetic markers that reliably differentiate pure species from each other and their hybrid forms. Such diagnostic markers are often infrequent in the genomes of closely related species, and genomewide data facilitate their discovery. We used whole-genome data from Illumina HiSeqS2000 sequencing of two recently diverged (600,000 years) and hybridizing, avian, sister species, the Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) and Nelson's (A. nelsoni) Sparrow, to develop a suite of diagnostic markers for high-resolution identification of pure and admixed individuals. We compared the microsatellite repeat regions identified in the genomes of the two species and selected a subset of 37 loci that differed between the species in repeat number. We screened these loci on 12 pure individuals of each species and report on the 34 that successfully amplified. From these, we developed a panel of the 12 most diagnostic loci, which we evaluated on 96 individuals, including individuals from both allopatric populations and sympatric individuals from the hybrid zone. Using simulations, we evaluated the power of the marker panel for accurate assignments of individuals to their appropriate pure species and hybrid genotypic classes (F1, F2, and backcrosses). The markers proved highly informative for species discrimination and had high accuracy for classifying admixed individuals into their genotypic classes. These markers will aid future investigations of introgressive hybridization in this system and aid conservation efforts aimed at monitoring and preserving pure species. Our approach is transferable to other study systems consisting of closely related and incipient species. PMID:26078861

  11. Intrusion signature creation via clustering anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Gilbert R.; Yang, Shanchieh J.

    2008-03-01

    Current practices for combating cyber attacks typically use Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) to detect and block multistage attacks. Because of the speed and impacts of new types of cyber attacks, current IDSs are limited in providing accurate detection while reliably adapting to new attacks. In signature-based IDS systems, this limitation is made apparent by the latency from day zero of an attack to the creation of an appropriate signature. This work hypothesizes that this latency can be shortened by creating signatures via anomaly-based algorithms. A hybrid supervised and unsupervised clustering algorithm is proposed for new signature creation. These new signatures created in real-time would take effect immediately, ideally detecting new attacks. This work first investigates a modified density-based clustering algorithm as an IDS, with its strengths and weaknesses identified. A signature creation algorithm leveraging the summarizing abilities of clustering is investigated. Lessons learned from the supervised signature creation are then leveraged for the development of unsupervised real-time signature classification. Automating signature creation and classification via clustering is demonstrated as satisfactory but with limitations.

  12. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  13. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  14. Laboratory Spectroscopy of Astrophysically-Relevant Materials: Developing Dust as a Diagnostic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Over forty years ago, observations in the new field of infrared astronomy showed a broad spectral feature at 10 microns; the feature was quickly associated with the presence of silicate-rich dust. Since that time, improvements in infrared astronomy have led to the discovery of a plethora of additional spectral features attributable to dust. By combining these observations with spectroscopic data acquired in the laboratory, astronomers have a diagnostic tool that can be used to explore underlying astronomical phenomena. As the laboratory data improves, so does our ability to interpret the astronomical observations. Here, we discuss some recent progress in laboratory spectroscopy and attempt to identify future research directions.

  15. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array. PMID:25430218

  16. The impact of patents on the development of genome-based clinical diagnostics: an analysis of case studies

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Brandon L.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Kuszler, Patricia C.; Stanford, Janet L.; Austin, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fragmented ownership of diagnostic gene patents has the potential to create an ‘anticommons’ in the area of genomic diagnostics, making it difficult and expensive to assemble the patent rights necessary to develop a panel of genetic tests. The objectives of this study were to identify U.S. patents that protect existing panels of genetic tests, describe how (or if) test providers acquired rights to these patents, and determine if fragmented patent ownership has inhibited the commercialization of these panels. Methods As case studies, we selected four clinical applications of genetic testing (cystic fibrosis, maturity-onset diabetes of the young, long QT syndrome, and hereditary breast cancer) that utilize tests protected by ≥3 U.S. patents. We summarized publically available information on relevant patents, test providers, licenses, and litigation. Results For each case study, all tests of major genes/mutations were patented, and at least one party held the collective rights to conduct all relevant tests, often as a result of licensing agreements. Conclusions We did not find evidence that fragmentation of patent rights has inhibited commercialization of genetic testing services. However, as knowledge of genetic susceptibility increases, it will be important to consider the potential consequences of fragmented ownership of diagnostic gene patents. PMID:19367193

  17. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  18. HER2 diagnostics in gastric cancer-guideline validation and development of standardized immunohistochemical testing.

    PubMed

    Rüschoff, Josef; Dietel, Manfred; Baretton, Gustavo; Arbogast, Susanne; Walch, Axel; Monges, Geneviéve; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Nagelmeier, Iris; Schlake, Werner; Höfler, H; Kreipe, H H

    2010-09-01

    Trastuzumab-based therapy has been shown to confer overall survival benefit in HER2-positive patients with advanced gastric cancer in a large multicentric trial (ToGA study). Subgroup analysis identified adenocarcinomas of the stomach and gastroesophageal (GE) junction with overexpression of HER2 according to immunohistochemistry (IHC) as potential responders. Due to recent approval of trastuzumab for HER2 positive metastatic gastric and GE-junction cancer in Europe (EMEA) HER2 diagnostics is now mandatory with IHC being the primary test followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in IHC2+ cases. However, in order to not miss patients potentially responding to targeted therapy determination of a HER2-positive status for gastric cancer required modification of scoring as had been proposed in a pre-ToGA study. To validate this new HER2 status testing procedure in terms of inter-laboratory and inter-observer consensus for IHC scoring a series of 547 gastric cancer tissue samples on a tissue microarray (TMA) was used. In the first step, 30 representative cores were used to identify specific IHC HER2 scoring issues among eight French and German laboratories, while in the second step the full set of 547 cores was used to determine IHC HER2 intensity and area score concordance between six German pathologists. Specific issues relating to discordance were identified and recommendations formulated which proved to be effective to reliably determine HER2 status in a prospective test series of 447 diagnostic gastric cancer specimens.

  19. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments.

    PubMed

    Ali, S J; Bolme, C A; Collins, G W; Jeanloz, R

    2015-04-01

    A normal-incidence visible and near-infrared shock wave optical reflectivity diagnostic was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression. Documenting wavelength- and time-dependent changes in the optical properties of laser-shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved, but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800-nm pulses from an ultrafast Ti:sapphire laser to generate high-intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scales. This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450-1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off-normal incidence velocity interferometry (velocity interferometer system for any reflector) characterized the sample under laser-compression and also provided an independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength. The shock-driven semiconductor-to-metallic transition in germanium was documented by the way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm.

  20. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedicine: applications and developments in diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Ittrich, H; Peldschus, K; Raabe, N; Kaul, M; Adam, G

    2013-12-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) can be used to image physiological processes and anatomical, cellular and molecular changes in diseases. The clinical applications range from the imaging of tumors and metastases in the liver, spleen and bone marrow, the imaging of lymph nodes and the CNS, MRA and perfusion imaging to atherosclerotic plaque and thrombosis imaging. New experimental approaches in molecular imaging describe undirected SPIO trapping (passive targeting) in inflammation, tumors and associated macrophages as well as the directed accumulation of SPIO ligands (active targeting) in tumor endothelia and tumor cells, areas of apoptosis, infarction, inflammation and degeneration in cardiovascular and neurological diseases, in atherosclerotic plaques or thrombi. The labeling of stem or immune cells allows the visualization of cell therapies or transplant rejections. The coupling of SPIO to ligands, radio- and/or chemotherapeutics, embedding in carrier systems or activatable smart sensor probes and their externally controlled focusing (physical targeting) enable molecular tumor therapies or the imaging of metabolic and enzymatic processes. Monodisperse SPIO with defined physicochemical and pharmacodynamic properties may improve SPIO-based MRI in the future and as targeted probes in diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR) using chip-based µNMR may significantly expand the spectrum of in vitro analysis methods for biomarker, pathogens and tumor cells. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) as a new imaging modality offers new applications for SPIO in cardiovascular, oncological, cellular and molecular diagnostics and therapy.

  1. Development of simple designs of multitip probe diagnostic systems for RF plasma characterization.

    PubMed

    Naz, M Y; Shukrullah, S; Ghaffar, A; Rehman, N U

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures.

  2. Development of Simple Designs of Multitip Probe Diagnostic Systems for RF Plasma Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Naz, M. Y.; Shukrullah, S.; Ghaffar, A.; Rehman, N. U.

    2014-01-01

    Multitip probes are very useful diagnostics for analyzing and controlling the physical phenomena occurring in low temperature discharge plasmas. However, DC biased probes often fail to perform well in processing plasmas. The objective of the work was to deduce simple designs of DC biased multitip probes for parametric study of radio frequency plasmas. For this purpose, symmetric double probe, asymmetric double probe, and symmetric triple probe diagnostic systems and their driving circuits were designed and tested in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) generated by a 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) source. Using I-V characteristics of these probes, electron temperature, electron number density, and ion saturation current was measured as a function of input power and filling gas pressure. An increasing trend was noticed in electron temperature and electron number density for increasing input RF power whilst a decreasing trend was evident in these parameters when measured against filling gas pressure. In addition, the electron energy probability function (EEPF) was also studied by using an asymmetric double probe. These studies confirmed the non-Maxwellian nature of the EEPF and the presence of two groups of the energetic electrons at low filling gas pressures. PMID:24683326

  3. Development of a broadband reflectivity diagnostic for laser driven shock compression experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S. J.; Bolme, C. A.; Collins, G. W.; Jeanloz, R.

    2015-04-01

    A normal - incidence visible and near - infrared Shock Wave Optical Reflectivity Diagnostic (SWORD) was constructed to investigate changes in the optical properties of materials under dynamic laser compression . Documenting wavelength - and time - dependent changes in the optical properties of laser - shock compressed samples has been difficult, primarily due to the small sample sizes and short time scales involved , but we succeeded in doing so by broadening a series of time delayed 800 - nm pulses from an ultra fast Ti: sapphire laser to generate high - intensity broadband light at nanosecond time scales . This diagnostic was demonstrated over the wavelength range 450 to 1150 nm with up to 16 time displaced spectra during a single shock experiment. Simultaneous off - normal incidence velocity interferometry (VISAR) characterize d the sample under laser - compression , and also provide d a n independent reflectivity measurement at 532 nm wavelength . Lastly, the shock - driven semiconductor - to - metallic transition in germanium was documented by way of reflectivity measurements with 0.5 ns time resolution and a wavelength resolution of 10 nm .

  4. [Concerning the development of nursing diagnostics, what are the accompanying dynamics?].

    PubMed

    Romeder, Florence

    2009-12-01

    To insure that they are carried out in medical establishments, nursing diagnostics have been taught in Nursing Training Institutes since 1992. This innovative practice, which is now included in new study programmes, is a logical step to increase the responsibility of the nursing profession. The acknowledgement of this new role for the nursing profession enables nurses to free themselves from the essentially curative model. However, this innovation, borrowed from the Anglo-Saxons, doesn't seem to be welcomed and fully taken up by all in the medical professions. The purpose of this thesis is to examine the use being made of this by the medical professions in order to provide new realistic nursing programmes. It also tries to look at teaching and tutoring practices to achieve a greater competency in nursing diagnostics. It attempts to highlight the diverging reactions of the nursing and teaching professionals having to deal with these changes. And finally, it seeks to identify a favourable environment which would lead to an even greater professionalisation of both individual and collective.

  5. Application of diagnostics to determine motor-operated valve operational readiness

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    ORNL has been carrying out an aging assessment of motor-operated valves (MOVs) with the primary objective of recommending diagnostic methods for detecting and trending aging. As a result of experimental investigations at ORNL, it was discovered that the motor current during a valve stroke was a very useful diagnostic parameter for detecting and trending many MOV drive train load variations. The motor curent signatures were analyzed at four levels: mean value for a stroke, gross trends during a stroke, transients, and noise frequency spectra. Examples illustrating the use of this technique are presented. The use of motor current signature analysis was also shown to apply to other electric motor driven equipment. Future work includes developing a data base of MOV diagnostics, including criteria for determining the extent of degradation and application of the technique to other LWR motor driven safety equipment.

  6. Biomarker Gene Signature Discovery Integrating Network Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Cun, Yupeng; Fröhlich, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of prognostic and diagnostic biomarker gene signatures for diseases, such as cancer, is seen as a major step towards a better personalized medicine. During the last decade various methods, mainly coming from the machine learning or statistical domain, have been proposed for that purpose. However, one important obstacle for making gene signatures a standard tool in clinical diagnosis is the typical low reproducibility of these signatures combined with the difficulty to achieve a clear biological interpretation. For that purpose in the last years there has been a growing interest in approaches that try to integrate information from molecular interaction networks. Here we review the current state of research in this field by giving an overview about so-far proposed approaches. PMID:24832044

  7. Development of the megahertz planar laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic for plasma turbulence visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Kuritsyn, Aleksey; Levinton, Fred M.

    2004-10-01

    A megahertz laser-induced fluorescence-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal two-dimensional (2D) images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultrafast charge coupled device camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique.

  8. Development of the Megahertz Planar Laser-induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for Plasma Turbulence Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksey Kuritsyn; Fred M. Levinton

    2004-04-27

    A megahertz LIF-based diagnostic system for measuring ion density fluctuations in two spatial dimensions is described. Well resolved spatial and temporal 2D images of turbulent structures will be useful in understanding ion turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas which is a key factor in the performance of fusion experimental devices. A sheet beam of a megahertz repetition rate tunable Alexandrite laser is used to excite ion emission from argon plasma. The fluorescence emitted from the plane of the laser beam is detected with a narrow band interference filter and intensified ultra-fast CCD camera providing 2D images of relative ion density fluctuations every microsecond. It is expected that the edge plasma on fusion devices will be accessible to this technique.

  9. Profiling local optima in K-means clustering: developing a diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Steinley, Douglas

    2006-06-01

    Using the cluster generation procedure proposed by D. Steinley and R. Henson (2005), the author investigated the performance of K-means clustering under the following scenarios: (a) different probabilities of cluster overlap; (b) different types of cluster overlap; (c) varying samples sizes, clusters, and dimensions; (d) different multivariate distributions of clusters; and (e) various multidimensional data structures. The results are evaluated in terms of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index, and several observations concerning the performance of K-means clustering are made. Finally, the article concludes with the proposal of a diagnostic technique indicating when the partitioning given by a K-means cluster analysis can be trusted. By combining the information from several observable characteristics of the data (number of clusters, number of variables, sample size, etc.) with the prevalence of unique local optima in several thousand implementations of the K-means algorithm, the author provides a method capable of guiding key data-analysis decisions. PMID:16784337

  10. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  11. [New developments in molecular diagnostics of carcinomas of the salivary glands: "translocation carcinomas"].

    PubMed

    Skálová, Alena; Šteiner, Petr; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the discovery of translocations and the fusion oncogenes that they result in has changed the way diagnoses are made in salivary gland pathology. These genetic aberrations are recurrent; and at the very least serve as powerful diagnostic tools in salivary gland tumors diagnosis and classification. They also show promise as prognostic markers and hopefully as targets of therapy. In this review the 4 carcinomas currently known to harbor translocations will be discussed, namely mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. The discovery and implications of each fusion will be highlighted and how they have helped to reshape the current classification of salivary gland tumors. PMID:27526014

  12. [Development and optimization of diagnostically informative boichemical and coagulative correlators in various atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries].

    PubMed

    Akhvlediani, M; Vorobiova, E; Emukhvari, M; Gachechiladze, D

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostically informative biochemical and coagulative correlators in various atherosclerotic lesions of carotid arteries are developed. It has been established positive correlation of the degree of stenosis and intima-media thickness of carotid arteries with the following biochemical parameters: total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Apo-B, Lp(a), triglycerides, hs-C-reactive protein(CRP), interleukines (IL-1ß and IL-6), fibrinogen, D-dimers. Negative correlation was stated with respect to HDL cholesterol, Apo-A-1, protein C. The established correlators of carotid intima-medial layer and the studied laboratory indices favour their inclusion into carotid atherosclerosis monitoring.

  13. The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Vlassis, Nikos; Hiller, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the emerging field of metabolomics and its application in the context of cancer biomarker research. Taking advantage of modern high-throughput technologies, and enhanced computational power, metabolomics has a high potential for cancer biomarker identification and the development of diagnostic tools. This chapter describes current metabolomics technologies used in cancer research, starting with metabolomics sample preparation, elaborating on current analytical methodologies for metabolomics measurement and introducing existing software for data analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with the statistical analysis of very large metabolomics datasets and their relevance for cancer biomarker identification.

  14. Development of the first oligonucleotide microarray for global gene expression profiling in guinea pigs: defining the transcription signature of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most extensively used animal models to study infectious diseases. However, despite its tremendous contribution towards understanding the establishment, progression and control of a number of diseases in general and tuberculosis in particular, the lack of fully annotated guinea pig genome sequence as well as appropriate molecular reagents has severely hampered detailed genetic and immunological analysis in this animal model. Results By employing the cross-species hybridization technique, we have developed an oligonucleotide microarray with 44,000 features assembled from different mammalian species, which to the best of our knowledge is the first attempt to employ microarray to study the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs. To validate and demonstrate the merit of this microarray, we have studied, as an example, the expression profile of guinea pig lungs during the advanced phase of M. tuberculosis infection. A significant upregulation of 1344 genes and a marked down regulation of 1856 genes in the lungs identified a disease signature of pulmonary tuberculosis infection. Conclusion We report the development of first comprehensive microarray for studying the global gene expression profile in guinea pigs and validation of its usefulness with tuberculosis as a case study. An important gap in the area of infectious diseases has been addressed and a valuable molecular tool is provided to optimally harness the potential of guinea pig model to develop better vaccines and therapies against human diseases. PMID:23031549

  15. Development of a Model Based Technique for Gear Diagnostics using the Wigner-Ville method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F.; Xu, A.; Polyshchuk, V.

    1997-01-01

    Imperfections in gear tooth geometry often result from errors in the manufacturing process or excessive material wear during operation. Such faults in the gear tooth geometry can result in large vibrations in the transmission system, and, in some cases, may lead to early failure of the gear transmission system. This report presents the study of the effects of imperfection in gear tooth geometry on the dynamic characteristics of a gear transmission system. The faults in the gear tooth geometry are modeled numerically as the deviation of the tooth profile from its original involute geometry. The changes in gear mesh stiffness due to various profile and pattern variations are evaluated numerically. The resulting changes in the mesh stiffness are incorporated into a computer code to simulate the dynamics of the gear transmission system. A parametric study is performed to examine the sensitivity of gear tooth geometry imperfections on the vibration of a gear transmission system. The parameters variations in this study consist of the magnitude of the imperfection, the pattern of the profile variation, and the total number of teeth affected. Numerical results from the dynamic simulations are examined in both the time and the frequency domains. A joint time-frequency analysis procedure using the Wigner-Ville Distribution is also introduced to identify the location of the damaged tooth from the vibration signature. Numerical simulations of the system dynamics with gear faults were compared to experimental results. An optimal tracker was introduced to quantify the level of damage in the gear mesh system. Conclusions are drawn from the results of this numerical study.

  16. Controlling radar signature

    SciTech Connect

    Foulke, K.W. )

    1992-08-01

    Low observable technologies for military and tactical aircraft are reviewed including signature-reduction techniques and signal detection/jamming. Among the applications considered are low-signature sensors and the reduction of radar cross section in conjunction with radar-absorbing structures and materials. Technologies for reducing radar cross section are shown to present significant technological challenges, although they afford enhanced aircraft survivability.

  17. Signatures of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltz, Edward Anthony

    It is well known that most of the mass in the universe remains unobserved save for its gravitational effect on luminous matter. The nature of this ``dark matter'' remains a mystery. From measurements of the primordial deuterium abundance, the theory of big bang nucleosynthesis predicts that there are not enough baryons to account for the amount of dark matter observed, thus the missing mass must take an exotic form. Several promising candidates have been proposed. In this work I will describe my research along two main lines of inquiry into the dark matter puzzle. The first possibility is that the dark matter is exotic massive particles, such as those predicted by supersymmetric extensions to the standard model of particle physics. Such particles are generically called WIMPs, for weakly interacting massive particles. Focusing on the so-called neutralino in supersymmetric models, I discuss the possible signatures of such particles, including their direct detection via nuclear recoil experiments and their indirect detection via annihilations in the halos of galaxies, producing high energy antiprotons, positrons and gamma rays. I also discuss signatures of the possible slow decays of such particles. The second possibility is that there is a population of black holes formed in the early universe. Any dark objects in galactic halos, black holes included, are called MACHOs, for massive compact halo objects. Such objects can be detected by their gravitational microlensing effects. Several possibilities for sources of baryonic dark matter are also interesting for gravitational microlensing. These include brown dwarf stars and old, cool white dwarf stars. I discuss the theory of gravitational microlensing, focusing on the technique of pixel microlensing. I make predictions for several planned microlensing experiments with ground based and space based telescopes. Furthermore, I discuss binary lenses in the context of pixel microlensing. Finally, I develop a new technique for

  18. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C.; Aparicio, Samuel A.J.R.; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V.; Bignell, Graham R.; Bolli, Niccolo; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P.; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R.; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A.; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T.W.; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R.; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A.; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V.; Puente, Xose S.; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L.; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N.; Span, Paul N.; Teague, Jon W.; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N.J.; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R.; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P. Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M.; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M.; Campbell, Peter J.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations. However, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here, we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, kataegis, is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer with potential implications for understanding of cancer etiology, prevention and therapy. PMID:23945592

  19. Signatures of mutational processes in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Wedge, David C; Aparicio, Samuel A J R; Behjati, Sam; Biankin, Andrew V; Bignell, Graham R; Bolli, Niccolò; Borg, Ake; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Boyault, Sandrine; Burkhardt, Birgit; Butler, Adam P; Caldas, Carlos; Davies, Helen R; Desmedt, Christine; Eils, Roland; Eyfjörd, Jórunn Erla; Foekens, John A; Greaves, Mel; Hosoda, Fumie; Hutter, Barbara; Ilicic, Tomislav; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Imielinski, Marcin; Imielinsk, Marcin; Jäger, Natalie; Jones, David T W; Jones, David; Knappskog, Stian; Kool, Marcel; Lakhani, Sunil R; López-Otín, Carlos; Martin, Sancha; Munshi, Nikhil C; Nakamura, Hiromi; Northcott, Paul A; Pajic, Marina; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Paradiso, Angelo; Pearson, John V; Puente, Xose S; Raine, Keiran; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Richardson, Andrea L; Richter, Julia; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schlesner, Matthias; Schumacher, Ton N; Span, Paul N; Teague, Jon W; Totoki, Yasushi; Tutt, Andrew N J; Valdés-Mas, Rafael; van Buuren, Marit M; van 't Veer, Laura; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Waddell, Nicola; Yates, Lucy R; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Futreal, P Andrew; McDermott, Ultan; Lichter, Peter; Meyerson, Matthew; Grimmond, Sean M; Siebert, Reiner; Campo, Elías; Shibata, Tatsuhiro; Pfister, Stefan M; Campbell, Peter J; Stratton, Michael R

    2013-08-22

    All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.

  20. Linking ToxCast Signatures with Functional Consequences: Proof-of-Concept Study using Known Inhibitors of Vascular Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA’s ToxCast program is developing a novel approach to chemical toxicity testing using high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to rapidly test thousands of chemicals against hundreds of in vitro molecular targets. This approach is based on the premise that in vitro HTS bioa...

  1. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  2. Navigating the Rapids: The Development of Regulated Next-Generation Sequencing-Based Clinical Trial Assays and Companion Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Saumya; Weiner, Russell; Marton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology has experienced meteoric growth in the aspects of platform, technology, and supporting bioinformatics development allowing its widespread and rapid uptake in research settings. More recently, NGS-based genomic data have been exploited to better understand disease development and patient characteristics that influence response to a given therapeutic intervention. Cancer, as a disease characterized by and driven by the tumor genetic landscape, is particularly amenable to NGS-based diagnostic (Dx) approaches. NGS-based technologies are particularly well suited to studying cancer disease development, progression and emergence of resistance, all key factors in the development of next-generation cancer Dxs. Yet, to achieve the promise of NGS-based patient treatment, drug developers will need to overcome a number of operational, technical, regulatory, and strategic challenges. Here, we provide a succinct overview of the state of the clinical NGS field in terms of the available clinically targeted platforms and sequencing technologies. We discuss the various operational and practical aspects of clinical NGS testing that will facilitate or limit the uptake of such assays in routine clinical care. We examine the current strategies for analytical validation and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approval of NGS-based assays and ongoing efforts to standardize clinical NGS and build quality control standards for the same. The rapidly evolving companion diagnostic (CDx) landscape for NGS-based assays will be reviewed, highlighting the key areas of concern and suggesting strategies to mitigate risk. The review will conclude with a series of strategic questions that face drug developers and a discussion of the likely future course of NGS-based CDx development efforts. PMID:24860780

  3. Development of monitoring and diagnostic methods for robots used in remediation of waste sites. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tecza, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Safe and efficient clean up of hazardous and radioactive waste sites throughout the DOE complex will require extensive use of robots. This research effort focuses on developing Monitoring and Diagnostic (M and D) methods for robots that will provide early detection, isolation, and tracking of impending faults before they result in serious failure. The utility and effectiveness of applying M and D methods to hydraulic robots has never been proven. The present research program is utilizing seeded faults in a laboratory test rig that is representative of an existing hydraulically-powered remediation robot. This report summarizes activity conducted in the first 9 months of the project. The research team has analyzed the Rosie Mobile Worksystem as a representative hydraulic robot, developed a test rig for implanted fault testing, developed a test plan and agenda, and established methods for acquiring and analyzing the test data.'

  4. Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries' scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Frazzoli, Chiara; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Dragone, Roberto; Mantovani, Alberto

    2010-11-15

    E-waste is the generic name for technological waste. Even though aspects related to e-waste environmental pollution and human exposure are known, scientific assessments are missing so far on the actual risks for health sustainability of the general population exposed to e-waste scenarios, such as illicit dumping, crude recycling and improper treatment and disposal. In fact, further to occupational and direct local exposure, e-waste scenarios may impact on the environment-to-food chain, thus eliciting a widespread and repeated exposure of the general population to mixtures of toxicants, mainly toxic chemical elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. In the absence of any clear policy on e-waste flow management, the situation in the e-waste receiver countries may become quite scary; accordingly, here we address a diagnostic risk assessment of health issues potentially elicited by e-waste related mixtures of toxicants. Scientific evidence available so far (mainly from China) is discussed with special attention to the concept of health sustainability, i.e. the poor health burden heritage perpetuated through the mother-to-child dyad. Endocrine disruption and neurotoxicity are specifically considered as examples of main health burden issues relevant to perpetuation through life cycle and across generations; toxicological information are considered along with available data on environmental and food contamination and human internal exposure. The risk from exposure to e-waste related mixtures of toxicants of vulnerable subpopulation like breast-fed infants is given special attention. The diagnostic risk assessment demonstrates how e-waste exposure poses an actual public health emergency, as it may entrain significant health risks also for generations to come. Exposure scenarios as well as specific chemicals of major concern may vary in different contexts; for instance, only limited information is available on e-waste related exposures in

  5. Signature extension through the application of cluster matching algorithms to determine appropriate signature transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.; Rice, D. P.

    1976-01-01

    Signature extension is intended to increase the space-time range over which a set of training statistics can be used to classify data without significant loss of recognition accuracy. A first cluster matching algorithm MASC (Multiplicative and Additive Signature Correction) was developed at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan to test the concept of using associations between training and recognition area cluster statistics to define an average signature transformation. A more recent signature extension module CROP-A (Cluster Regression Ordered on Principal Axis) has shown evidence of making significant associations between training and recognition area cluster statistics, with the clusters to be matched being selected automatically by the algorithm.

  6. The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility for education and advanced diagnostics development for OMEGA, Z and the NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrasso, R.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Armstrong, E.; Han, H. W.; Kabadi, N.; Lahmann, B.; Orozco, D.; Rojas Herrera, J.; Sio, H.; Sutcliffe, G.; Frenje, J.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Leeper, R.; Ruiz, C. L.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    The MIT HEDP Accelerator Facility utilizes a 135-keV linear electrostatic ion accelerator, a D-T neutron source and two x-ray sources for development and characterization of nuclear diagnostics for OMEGA, Z, and the NIF. The ion accelerator generates D-D and D-3He fusion products through acceleration of D ions onto a 3He-doped Erbium-Deuteride target. Fusion reaction rates around 106 s-1 are routinely achieved, and fluence and energy of the fusion products have been accurately characterized. The D-T neutron source generates up to 6 × 108 neutrons/s. The two x-ray generators produce spectra with peak energies of 35 keV and 225 keV and maximum dose rates of 0.5 Gy/min and 12 Gy/min, respectively. Diagnostics developed and calibrated at this facility include CR-39 based charged-particle spectrometers, neutron detectors, and the particle Time-Of-Flight (pTOF) and Magnetic PTOF CVD-diamond-based bang time detectors. The accelerator is also a vital tool in the education of graduate and undergraduate students at MIT. This work was supported in part by SNL, DOE, LLE and LLNL.

  7. Selection and collection of multi parameter physiological data for cardiac rhythm diagnostic algorithm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostock, J.; Weller, P.; Cooklin, M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated diagnostic algorithms are used in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD's) to detect abnormal heart rhythms. Algorithms misdiagnose and improved specificity is needed to prevent inappropriate therapy. Knowledge engineering (KE) and artificial intelligence (AI) could improve this. A pilot study of KE was performed with artificial neural network (ANN) as AI system. A case note review analysed arrhythmic events stored in patients ICD memory. 13.2% patients received inappropriate therapy. The best ICD algorithm had sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.69 (p<0.001 different to gold standard). A subset of data was used to train and test an ANN. A feed-forward, back-propagation network with 7 inputs, a 4 node hidden layer and 1 output had sensitivity 1.00, specificity 0.71 (p<0.001). A prospective study was performed using KE to list arrhythmias, factors and indicators for which measurable parameters were evaluated and results reviewed by a domain expert. Waveforms from electrodes in the heart and thoracic bio-impedance; temperature and motion data were collected from 65 patients during cardiac electrophysiological studies. 5 incomplete datasets were due to technical failures. We concluded that KE successfully guided selection of parameters and ANN produced a usable system and that complex data collection carries greater risk of technical failure, leading to data loss.

  8. Development of a rapid diagnostic test for pertussis: direct detection of pertussis toxin in respiratory secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, R L; Paulaitis, S; McMillan, J W

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were produced against the specific Bordetella pertussis antigen pertussis toxin (PT). In preliminary studies, one MAb (IB12) was selected and used in an enzyme-linked dot blot immunoassay to evaluate the ability of the method to detect known amounts of PT in control experiments and to test its potential for direct detection of PT in nasopharyngeal secretion (NP) specimens from patients with confirmed cases of whooping cough. The dot blot assay was able to detect PT at levels as low as 10 ng per dot in either buffer or control NP specimens. The assay demonstrated specificity, reacting only with dot blots of whole B. pertussis and not Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella parapertussis, or other bacterial strains. In preliminary studies, NP aspirate, swab, and wash specimens were compared. The specimen of choice was found to be the NP aspirate, for which 100% positive results were found in the assay. These initial studies suggest that the dot blot immunoassay in which a MAb is used for direct detection of PT in NP specimens may be useful as a rapid diagnostic test for pertussis. Images PMID:2808670

  9. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Fang, Yuman; Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang; Wen, Wenlong

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  10. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Jinsong; Yuan, Xiao; Jin, Fengtao

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH(2)OH)(4) (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code. PMID:19405658

  11. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Liu, Jinsong; Yuan, Xiao; Jin, Fengtao

    2009-04-01

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH2OH)4 (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  12. Diagnostic development in precise opacity measurement of radiatively heated Al plasma on Shenguang II laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Yang; Yang Jiamin; Zhang Jiyan; Liu Jinsong; Yuan Xiao; Jin Fengtao

    2009-04-15

    Simultaneous measurements of the self-emission spectrum, the backlighting source spectrum, and the transmission spectrum in one shot, which reduce the experimental uncertainties from shot-to-shot fluctuation, are essential for precise opacity experiments. In order to achieve precise absorption spectrum of Al plasmas, a special half sample sandwich target was designed and short backlighter was used to provide time- and space-resolving diagnostics on the Shenguang II high power laser facility. In the measurement, a cylindrical cavity with CH foam baffles was used to provide a clean x-ray radiation environment for sample heating. The x-ray source spectrum, the transmission spectrum, and the self-emission spectrum of the soft x-ray heated Al sample were recorded in one shot with a penta-erythritol tetrakis (hydroxymethy) methane C(CH{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (PET) crystal spectrometer by using the point-projection method. Experimental results have been compared with the calculation results of a detailed level accounting opacity code.

  13. A collisional radiative model of hydrogen plasmas developed for diagnostic purposes of negative ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordanova, Snejana; Paunska, Tsvetelina

    2016-02-01

    A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H+, H2+, and H3+. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the Hα to Hβ line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.

  14. Analysis of Renal Cell Carcinoma as a First Step for Developing Mass Spectrometry-Based Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kentaro; Chen, Lee Chuin; Mandal, Mridul Kanti; Nakazawa, Tadao; Yu, Zhan; Uchiyama, Takahito; Hori, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Kunio; Kubota, Takeo; Fujii, Hideki; Katoh, Ryohei; Hiraoka, Kenzo; Takeda, Sen

    2012-10-01

    Immediate diagnosis of human specimen is an essential prerequisites in medical routines. This study aimed to establish a novel cancer diagnostics system based on probe electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PESI-MS) combined with statistical data processing. PESI-MS uses a very fine acupuncture needle as a probe for sampling as well as for ionization. To demonstrate the applicability of PESI-MS for cancer diagnosis, we analyzed nine cases of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) by PESI-MS and processed the data by principal components analysis (PCA). Our system successfully delineated the differences in lipid composition between non-cancerous and cancerous regions. In this case, triacylglycerol (TAG) was reproducibly detected in the cancerous tissue of nine different individuals, the result being consistent with well-known profiles of ccRCC. Moreover, this system enabled us to detect the boundaries of cancerous regions based on the expression of TAG. These results strongly suggest that PESI-MS will be applicable to cancer diagnosis, especially when the number of data is augmented.

  15. Development of pathological diagnostics of human kidney cancer by multiple staining using new fluorescent Fluolid dyes.

    PubMed

    Wuxiuer, Dilibaier; Zhu, Yun; Ogaeri, Takunori; Mizuki, Keiji; Kashiwa, Yuki; Nishi, Kentaro; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Aoyagi, Tei-ichiro; Kiyama, Ryoiti

    2014-01-01

    New fluorescent Fluolid dyes have advantages over others such as stability against heat, dryness, and excess light. Here, we performed simultaneous immunostaining of renal tumors, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, chromophobe RCC, acquired cystic disease-associated RCC (ACD-RCC), and renal angiomyolipoma (AML), with primary antibodies against Kank1, cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and CD10, which were detected with secondary antibodies labeled with Fluolid-Orange, Fluolid-Green, and Alexa Fluor 647, respectively. Kank1 was stained in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC, and weakly or negatively in all other tumors. CK7 was positive in normal renal tubules, papillary RCC, and ACD-RCC. In contrast, CD10 was expressed in renal tubules and clear cell RCC, papillary RCC, AML, and AC-RCC, and weakly in chromophobe RCC. These results may contribute to differentiating renal tumors and subtypes of RCCs. We also examined the stability of fluorescence and found that fluorescent images of Fluolid dyes were identical between a tissue section and the same section after it was stored for almost three years at room temperature. This indicates that tissue sections can be stored at room temperature for a relatively long time after they are stained with multiple fluorescent markers, which could open a door for pathological diagnostics. PMID:24995295

  16. Development of virus-like particles for diagnostic and prophylactic biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Benjamin; Douglas, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    As ordered nanoscale architectures, viruses and virus-like particles (VLPs) remain unsurpassed by synthetic strategies to produce uniform and symmetric nanoparticles. Maintaining or mimicking the symmetry of pathogenic viruses, VLPs offer a ready platform for facilitating recognition, uptake, and processing by the immune system. An emerging understanding of how viruses interact with the immune system offers a means of precisely designing nanoparticles for biomedical use, both with respect to the structure of the particle as well as their ability to stimulate the immune system. Here we discuss recent advances by our group toward two parallel and complementary applications of VLPs, derived primarily from plants, bacteriophage, and nonviral sources, in biomedicine: diagnostic imaging and rational vaccine design. First we discuss advances in increasing VLP payloads of gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent as well as controlling the characteristics of individual gadolinium containing molecules to increase efficacy. In order to better understand the in vivo potential of VLP constructs, we then discuss the interface of protein-cages and the immune system beginning with the nonspecific innate immune system stimulation and continuing into the use of non-pathogenic VLPs as scaffolds for specific antigen presentation and control of the immune response. PMID:25677105

  17. Development and potential applications of microarrays based on fluorescent nanocrystal-encoded beads for multiplexed cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazhnik, Kristina; Grinevich, Regina; Efimov, Anton E.; Nabiev, Igor; Sukhanova, Alyona

    2014-05-01

    Advanced multiplexed assays have recently become an indispensable tool for clinical diagnostics. These techniques provide simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple biomolecules in a single sample quickly and accurately. The development of multiplex suspension arrays is currently of particular interest for clinical applications. Optical encoding of microparticles is the most available and easy-to-use technique. This technology uses fluorophores incorporated into microbeads to obtain individual optical codes. Fluorophore-encoded beads can be rapidly analyzed using classical flow cytometry or microfluidic techniques. We have developed a new generation of highly sensitive and specific diagnostic systems for detection of cancer antigens in human serum samples based on microbeads encoded with fluorescent quantum dots (QDs). The designed suspension microarray system was validated for quantitative detection of (1) free and total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the serum of patients with prostate cancer and (2) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) in the serum of patients with breast cancer. The serum samples from healthy donors were used as a control. The antigen detection is based on the formation of an immune complex of a specific capture antibody (Ab), a target antigen (Ag), and a detector Ab on the surface of the encoded particles. The capture Ab is bound to the polymer shell of microbeads via an adapter molecule, for example, protein A. Protein A binds a monoclonal Ab in a highly oriented manner due to specific interaction with the Fc-region of the Ab molecule. Each antigen can be recognized and detected due to a specific microbead population carrying the unique fluorescent code. 100 and 231 serum samples from patients with different stages of prostate cancer and breast cancer, respectively, and those from healthy donors were examined using the designed suspension system. The data were validated by comparing with the results of

  18. [Vanguard Signature TKR--first experiences].

    PubMed

    Stempin, Radosław; Kotela, Andrzej; Ostrowska, Monika; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2011-01-01

    On 15th May 2010 in Poland first computer planned total knee arthroplasty Vanguard Signature was performed and until now, including Orthopedic Traumatology Department of Central Clinical Hospital Ministry of Interior and Administration in Warsaw and Orthopedic Surgery Department of Promienista Clinic in Poznan, 65 patients have been operated with this method. The new system includes programming technical parameters of operation on the basis of diagnostic analysis of lower extremity using CT or MRI scans. Data are transmitted on Signature Positioning Guides (SPG) which implements function of navigation during surgery. Minimal bone resection, implants sizing and placement with reconstruction of mechanical axis of the limb provides proper functioning of the knee joint and reduces the risk of implants loosening. Further benefits include: instrument reduction, lower degree of femur trauma and reduction of average postoperative blood transfusion volume. The operator using Signature technology is required to have advanced knowledge in the conventional method TKR and medium level computer skills. Access to the program and materials and online communication with the Signature team in the USA allows the surgeon to modify the parameters of the operation and the necessary expert feedback. The rapid increase in the number of registered surgeons in Signature system shows a considerable interest in this technology.

  19. Targeted therapies with companion diagnostics in the management of breast cancer: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Myers, Meagan B

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifaceted disease exhibiting both intertumoral and intratumoral heterogeneity as well as variable disease course. Over 2 decades of research has advanced the understanding of the molecular substructure of breast cancer, directing the development of new therapeutic strategies against these actionable targets. In vitro diagnostics, and specifically companion diagnostics, have been integral in the successful development and implementation of these targeted therapies, such as those directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Lately, there has been a surge in the development, commercialization, and marketing of diagnostic assays to assist in breast cancer patient care. More recently, multigene signature assays, such as Oncotype DX, MammaPrint, and Prosigna, have been integrated in the clinical setting in order to tailor decisions on adjuvant endocrine and chemotherapy treatment. This review provides an overview of the current state of breast cancer management and the use of companion diagnostics to direct personalized approaches in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26858530

  20. UV Signature Mutations †

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing complete tumor genomes and exomes has sparked the cancer field's interest in mutation signatures for identifying the tumor's carcinogen. This review and meta-analysis discusses signatures and their proper use. We first distinguish between a mutagen's canonical mutations – deviations from a random distribution of base changes to create a pattern typical of that mutagen – and the subset of signature mutations, which are unique to that mutagen and permit inference backward from mutations to mutagen. To verify UV signature mutations, we assembled literature datasets on cells exposed to UVC, UVB, UVA, or solar simulator light (SSL) and tested canonical UV mutation features as criteria for clustering datasets. A confirmed UV signature was: ≥60% of mutations are C→T at a dipyrimidine site, with ≥5% CC→TT. Other canonical features such as a bias for mutations on the non-transcribed strand or at the 3' pyrimidine had limited application. The most robust classifier combined these features with criteria for the rarity of non-UV canonical mutations. In addition, several signatures proposed for specific UV wavelengths were limited to specific genes or species; non-signature mutations induced by UV may cause melanoma BRAF mutations; and the mutagen for sunlight-related skin neoplasms may vary between continents. PMID:25354245

  1. An archaeal genomic signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, D. E.; Overbeek, R.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of complete genome sequences allow the most objective and comprehensive descriptions possible of a lineage's evolution. This communication uses the completed genomes from four major euryarchaeal taxa to define a genomic signature for the Euryarchaeota and, by extension, the Archaea as a whole. The signature is defined in terms of the set of protein-encoding genes found in at least two diverse members of the euryarchaeal taxa that function uniquely within the Archaea; most signature proteins have no recognizable bacterial or eukaryal homologs. By this definition, 351 clusters of signature proteins have been identified. Functions of most proteins in this signature set are currently unknown. At least 70% of the clusters that contain proteins from all the euryarchaeal genomes also have crenarchaeal homologs. This conservative set, which appears refractory to horizontal gene transfer to the Bacteria or the Eukarya, would seem to reflect the significant innovations that were unique and fundamental to the archaeal "design fabric." Genomic protein signature analysis methods may be extended to characterize the evolution of any phylogenetically defined lineage. The complete set of protein clusters for the archaeal genomic signature is presented as supplementary material (see the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).

  2. An archaeal genomic signature.

    PubMed

    Graham, D E; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Woese, C R

    2000-03-28

    Comparisons of complete genome sequences allow the most objective and comprehensive descriptions possible of a lineage's evolution. This communication uses the completed genomes from four major euryarchaeal taxa to define a genomic signature for the Euryarchaeota and, by extension, the Archaea as a whole. The signature is defined in terms of the set of protein-encoding genes found in at least two diverse members of the euryarchaeal taxa that function uniquely within the Archaea; most signature proteins have no recognizable bacterial or eukaryal homologs. By this definition, 351 clusters of signature proteins have been identified. Functions of most proteins in this signature set are currently unknown. At least 70% of the clusters that contain proteins from all the euryarchaeal genomes also have crenarchaeal homologs. This conservative set, which appears refractory to horizontal gene transfer to the Bacteria or the Eukarya, would seem to reflect the significant innovations that were unique and fundamental to the archaeal "design fabric." Genomic protein signature analysis methods may be extended to characterize the evolution of any phylogenetically defined lineage. The complete set of protein clusters for the archaeal genomic signature is presented as supplementary material (see the PNAS web site, www.pnas.org).

  3. Structured interview for mild traumatic brain injury after military blast: inter-rater agreement and development of diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Walker, William C; Cifu, David X; Hudak, Anne M; Goldberg, Gary; Kunz, Richard D; Sima, Adam P

    2015-04-01

    The existing gold standard for diagnosing a suspected previous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is clinical interview. But it is prone to bias, especially for parsing the physical versus psychological effects of traumatic combat events, and its inter-rater reliability is unknown. Several standardized TBI interview instruments have been developed for research use but have similar limitations. Therefore, we developed the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) retrospective concussion diagnostic interview, blast version (VCU rCDI-B), and undertook this cross-sectional study aiming to 1) measure agreement among clinicians' mTBI diagnosis ratings, 2) using clinician consensus develop a fully structured diagnostic algorithm, and 3) assess accuracy of this algorithm in a separate sample. Two samples (n = 66; n = 37) of individuals within 2 years of experiencing blast effects during military deployment underwent semistructured interview regarding their worst blast experience. Five highly trained TBI physicians independently reviewed and interpreted the interview content and gave blinded ratings of whether or not the experience was probably an mTBI. Paired inter-rater reliability was extremely variable, with kappa ranging from 0.194 to 0.825. In sample 1, the physician consensus prevalence of probable mTBI was 84%. Using these diagnosis ratings, an algorithm was developed and refined from the fully structured portion of the VCU rCDI-B. The final algorithm considered certain symptom patterns more specific for mTBI than others. For example, an isolated symptom of "saw stars" was deemed sufficient to indicate mTBI, whereas an isolated symptom of "dazed" was not. The accuracy of this algorithm, when applied against the actual physician consensus in sample 2, was almost perfect (correctly classified = 97%; Cohen's kappa = 0.91). In conclusion, we found that highly trained clinicians often disagree on historical blast-related mTBI determinations. A fully structured interview

  4. Structured interview for mild traumatic brain injury after military blast: inter-rater agreement and development of diagnostic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Walker, William C; Cifu, David X; Hudak, Anne M; Goldberg, Gary; Kunz, Richard D; Sima, Adam P

    2015-04-01

    The existing gold standard for diagnosing a suspected previous mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is clinical interview. But it is prone to bias, especially for parsing the physical versus psychological effects of traumatic combat events, and its inter-rater reliability is unknown. Several standardized TBI interview instruments have been developed for research use but have similar limitations. Therefore, we developed the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) retrospective concussion diagnostic interview, blast version (VCU rCDI-B), and undertook this cross-sectional study aiming to 1) measure agreement among clinicians' mTBI diagnosis ratings, 2) using clinician consensus develop a fully structured diagnostic algorithm, and 3) assess accuracy of this algorithm in a separate sample. Two samples (n = 66; n = 37) of individuals within 2 years of experiencing blast effects during military deployment underwent semistructured interview regarding their worst blast experience. Five highly trained TBI physicians independently reviewed and interpreted the interview content and gave blinded ratings of whether or not the experience was probably an mTBI. Paired inter-rater reliability was extremely variable, with kappa ranging from 0.194 to 0.825. In sample 1, the physician consensus prevalence of probable mTBI was 84%. Using these diagnosis ratings, an algorithm was developed and refined from the fully structured portion of the VCU rCDI-B. The final algorithm considered certain symptom patterns more specific for mTBI than others. For example, an isolated symptom of "saw stars" was deemed sufficient to indicate mTBI, whereas an isolated symptom of "dazed" was not. The accuracy of this algorithm, when applied against the actual physician consensus in sample 2, was almost perfect (correctly classified = 97%; Cohen's kappa = 0.91). In conclusion, we found that highly trained clinicians often disagree on historical blast-related mTBI determinations. A fully structured interview

  5. A computational pipeline for the development of multi-marker bio-signature panels and ensemble classifiers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Biomarker panels derived separately from genomic and proteomic data and with a variety of computational methods have demonstrated promising classification performance in various diseases. An open question is how to create effective proteo-genomic panels. The framework of ensemble classifiers has been applied successfully in various analytical domains to combine classifiers so that the performance of the ensemble exceeds the performance of individual classifiers. Using blood-based diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection as a case study, we address the following question in this paper: Can acute rejection classification performance be improved by combining individual genomic and proteomic classifiers in an ensemble? Results The first part of the paper presents a computational biomarker development pipeline for genomic and proteomic data. The pipeline begins with data acquisition (e.g., from bio-samples to microarray data), quality control, statistical analysis and mining of the data, and finally various forms of validation. The pipeline ensures that the various classifiers to be combined later in an ensemble are diverse and adequate for clinical use. Five mRNA genomic and five proteomic classifiers were developed independently using single time-point blood samples from 11 acute-rejection and 22 non-rejection renal transplant patients. The second part of the paper examines five ensembles ranging in size from two to 10 individual classifiers. Performance of ensembles is characterized by area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity, as derived from the probability of acute rejection for individual classifiers in the ensemble in combination with one of two aggregation methods: (1) Average Probability or (2) Vote Threshold. One ensemble demonstrated superior performance and was able to improve sensitivity and AUC beyond the best values observed for any of the individual classifiers in the ensemble, while staying within the range of observed

  6. ATAD2 overexpression links to enrichment of B-MYB-translational signatures and development of aggressive endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Krakstad, Camilla; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Hoivik, Erling A.; Halle, Mari K.; Berg, Anna; Werner, Henrica M.; Ræder, Maria B.; Kusonmano, Kanthida; Zou, June X.; Øyan, Anne M.; Stefansson, Ingunn; Trovik, Jone; Kalland, Karl-Henning; Chen, Hong-Wu; Salvesen, Helga B.

    2015-01-01

    We have explored the potential for clinical implementation of ATAD2 as a biomarker for aggressive endometrial cancer by investigating to what extent immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for ATAD2 is feasible, reflects clinical phenotype and molecular subgroups of endometrial carcinomas. Increased expression of the ATAD2 gene has been implicated in cancer development and progression in a number of tissues, but few studies have investigated ATAD2 expression using IHC. Here we show that high ATAD2 protein expression is significantly associated with established clinical-pathological variables for aggressive endometrial cancer, also in the subset of estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive tumors. Protein and mRNA expression of ATAD2 were highly correlated (P < 0.001), suggesting that IHC staining may represent a more clinically applicable measure of ATAD2 level in routinely collected formalin fixed paraffin embedded specimens. Gene expression alterations in samples with high ATAD2 expression revealed upregulation of several cancer-related genes (B-MYB, CDCs, E2Fs) and gene sets that previously have been linked to aggressive disease and potential for new targeting therapies. Our results support that IHC staining for ATAD2 may be a clinically applicable biomarker reflecting clinical phenotype and targetable alterations in endometrial carcinomas to be further explored in controlled clinical trials. PMID:26308378

  7. Experimental Investigation of Motor Current Signal Signature for Developing an Operator Assistance System for a Food Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, D. P.; Panigrahi, S. N.

    2013-12-01

    Perturbations in the drawn current due to the fluctuation in load on the blade during the processing of food in a food processor has been used to design an operator assistance system. A robust signal processing scheme has been proposed in order to analyze the extremely feeble current fluctuations in the motor controller circuit. An enveloping technique followed by a wavelet based denoising filter has been proposed for extracting useful information from the acquired current signal. Output of this scheme is fed into an intelligent decision making algorithm, which primarily is able to take two kinds of decisions, finally assists the user in making certain informed judgments. One of these decisions deals with the completion of the mixing or grinding operation whereas the other deals with cautioning the user about the presence of undesirable impurities in the substance being processed. Effectiveness of the developed method has been demonstrated, first on an appropriately formulated simulation, and then on the acquired signal from the experimental setup.

  8. Development and implementation of an expert information system (BRITE) used in technical support of medical diagnostics customers.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, T; Advani, R; Gudmunson, G

    1995-09-01

    We developed BRITE (Bringing Resources and Information to Employees), an expert information retrieval system, for problem solving and retrieving technical product information. Specialists in our Technical Assistance Center (TAC) use the BRITE system on a Pentium workstation to access information in < 3 s. Manuals, technical bulletins, parts lists, and administrative tools such as word processing and network fax are available electronically. The system allows consistent troubleshooting and definition of customers' problems by TAC specialists. BRITE seamlessly integrates expert system, document retrieval, and relational database technologies; the system runs on a token ring local area network, which is part of a Ciba Corning Diagnostics wide area network. Information received over the wide area network is used to develop and update BRITE daily. BRITE is kept current by input or troubleshooting and new applications from TAC specialists.

  9. [Development of DICOM image viewing software for efficient image reading and evaluation of distributed server system for diagnostic environment].

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, K

    2000-12-01

    To construct an efficient diagnostic environment using computer displays, the author investigated the time of network transmission using clinical images. In our hospital, we introduced optical-fiber 100Base-Fx Ethernet connections between 22 HIS-segments and one RIS-segment. Although Ethernet architecture is inexpensive, the speed of image transmission becomes 2371 KB/sec. (4.6 CT-slice/sec.) in the RIS-segment and 996 KB/sec. (1.9 CT-slice/sec.) from the RIS-segment to HIS-segments. Because one examination is transmitted in one minute, it does not disturb image reading. Otherwise, a distributed server system using inexpensive personal computers helps in constructing an efficient system. This investigation showed that commercially based Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine(DICOM) servers and RSNA Central Test Node servers are not so different in transmission speed. The author programmed and developed DICOM transmission and viewing software for Macintosh computers. This viewer includes two inventions, dynamic tiling window system (DTWS) and window binding mode(WBM). On DTWS, windows, tiles, and images are independent objects, which are movable and resizable. The tile-matrix is changeable by mouse dragging, which realizes suitable tile rectangles for wide-low or narrow-high images. The arranging window tool prevents windows from scattering. Using WBM, any operation affects each window similarly. This means that the relationship of compared images is always equivalent. DTWS and WBM contribute greatly to a filmless diagnostic environment.

  10. Development of x-ray and ion diagnostics of plasma obtained with a 10-TW femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryć, L.; Dobrzański, L.; Dubecky, F.; Jabłoński, S.; Parys, P.; Słysz, W.; Rosiński, M.

    2016-07-01

    Several x-ray and ion semiconductor detectors have been developed for the diagnostics of femtosecond laser plasma generated by a 10-TW laser which was recently commissioned for operation at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw. A range of detectors has been employed including a CdTe detector for hard x-rays and four detectors for proton detection. These four are SiC and GaN employing a sandwich structure, an interdigitated M-S-M InP detector and finally a silicon photo-diode equipped with an aluminium filter (to shield against scattered light). The detectors presented are innovative as they are not commonly used for the diagnostic of laser plasma. The details of the internal structures of the detectors are presented. The immunity of the detectors to the noise coming from the laser system and the femtosecond plasma is discussed. Lastly, the possibility for further modifications and improvements are considered and discussed.

  11. Nonlinear control of magnetic signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemoczynski, Bogdan

    Magnetic properties of ferrite structures are known to cause fluctuations in Earth's magnetic field around the object. These fluctuations are known as the object's magnetic signature and are unique based on the object's geometry and material. It is a common practice to neutralize magnetic signatures periodically after certain time intervals, however there is a growing interest to develop real time degaussing systems for various applications. Development of real time degaussing system is a challenging problem because of magnetic hysteresis and difficulties in measurement or estimation of near-field flux data. The goal of this research is to develop a real time feedback control system that can be used to minimize magnetic signatures for ferrite structures. Experimental work on controlling the magnetic signature of a cylindrical steel shell structure with a magnetic disturbance provided evidence that the control process substantially increased the interior magnetic flux. This means near field estimation using interior sensor data is likely to be inaccurate. Follow up numerical work for rectangular and cylindrical cross sections investigated variations in shell wall flux density under a variety of ambient excitation and applied disturbances. Results showed magnetic disturbances could corrupt interior sensor data and magnetic shielding due to the shell walls makes the interior very sensitive to noise. The magnetic flux inside the shell wall showed little variation due to inner disturbances and its high base value makes it less susceptible to noise. This research proceeds to describe a nonlinear controller to use the shell wall data as an input. A nonlinear plant model of magnetics is developed using a constant tau to represent domain rotation lag and a gain function k to describe the magnetic hysteresis curve for the shell wall. The model is justified by producing hysteresis curves for multiple materials, matching experimental data using a particle swarm algorithm, and

  12. Altered miRNA Signature of Developing Germ-cells in Infertile Patients Relates to the Severity of Spermatogenic Failure and Persists in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Xavier; Mata, Ana; Bassas, Lluís; Larriba, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cellular miRNA expression behaviour in testes with spermatogenic failure (SpF). We performed a high-throughput screen of 623 mature miRNAs by a quantitative RT-qPCR-based approach in histologically well-defined testicular samples with spermatogenic disruption at different germ-cell stages, which revealed altered patterns of miRNA expression. We focussed on the differentially expressed miRNAs whose expression correlated with the number of testicular mature germ-cells and described the combined expression values of a panel of three miRNAs (miR-449a, miR-34c-5p and miR-122) as a predictive test for the presence of mature germ-cells in testicular biopsy. Additionally, we determined decreased cellular miRNA content in developing germ-cells of SpF testis; this was more noticeable the earlier the stage of germ-cell differentiation was affected by maturation failure. Furthermore, we showed that the miRNA expression profile in mature sperm from mild SpF patients was widely altered. Our results suggest that the cellular miRNA content of developed germ-cells depends heavily on the efficacy of the spermatogenic process. What is more, spermatozoa that have fulfilled the differentiation process still retain the dysregulated miRNA pattern observed in the developing SpF germ-cells. This altered miRNA molecular signature may have functional implications for the male gamete. PMID:26648257

  13. Validation of a Rapid Rabies Diagnostic Tool for Field Surveillance in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Léchenne, Monique; Naïssengar, Kemdongarti; Lepelletier, Anthony; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Bourhy, Hervé; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dacheux, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background One root cause of the neglect of rabies is the lack of adequate diagnostic tests in the context of low income countries. A rapid, performance friendly and low cost method to detect rabies virus (RABV) in brain samples will contribute positively to surveillance and consequently to accurate data reporting, which is presently missing in the majority of rabies endemic countries. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated a rapid immunodiagnostic test (RIDT) in comparison with the standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and confirmed the detection of the viral RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our analysis is a multicentre approach to validate the performance of the RIDT in both a field laboratory (N’Djamena, Chad) and an international reference laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). In the field laboratory, 48 samples from dogs were tested and in the reference laboratory setting, a total of 73 samples was tested, representing a wide diversity of RABV in terms of animal species tested (13 different species), geographical origin of isolates with special emphasis on Africa, and different phylogenetic clades. Under reference laboratory conditions, specificity was 93.3% and sensitivity was 95.3% compared to the gold standard FAT test. Under field laboratory conditions, the RIDT yielded a higher reliability than the FAT test particularly on fresh and decomposed samples. Viral RNA was later extracted directly from the test filter paper and further used successfully for sequencing and genotyping. Conclusion/Significance The RIDT shows excellent performance qualities both in regard to user friendliness and reliability of the result. In addition, the test cassettes can be used as a vehicle to ship viral RNA to reference laboratories for further laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations using nucleotide sequencing. The potential for satisfactory use in remote locations is

  14. Capacity-loss diagnostic and life-time prediction in lithium-ion batteries: Part 1. Development of a capacity-loss diagnostic method based on open-circuit voltage analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tiansi; Pei, Lei; Wang, Tingting; Lu, Rengui; Zhu, Chunbo

    2016-01-01

    Effective capacity-loss diagnosis and life-time prediction are the foundations of battery second-use technology and will play an important role in the development of the new energy industry. Of the two, the capacity-loss diagnostic, as a precondition of the life-time prediction, needs to be studied first. Performing a capacity-loss diagnosis for an aging cell consists of finding the decisive degradation mechanisms for the cell's capacity degradation. Because a cell's capacity just equals the span of the open-circuit voltage (OCV), when suspect degradation mechanisms affect a cell's capacity, they will leave corresponding and particular clues in the OCV curve. Taking a cell's OCV as the diagnostic indicator, a multi-mechanistic and non-destructive diagnostic method is developed in this paper. To establish an unambiguous relationship between OCV changes and the combinations of the decisive mechanisms, all the possible OCV changes under various aging situations are systematically analyzed based on a novel simultaneous coordinate system, in which the effects of each suspect capacity-loss mechanism on the OCV curve can be clearly represented. As a summary of the analysis results, a straightforward diagnostic flowchart is presented. By following the flowchart, an aging cell can be diagnosed within three steps by observation of the OCV changes.

  15. Are there molecular signatures?

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, W.P.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes molecular signatures and mutational spectrum analysis. The mutation spectrum is defined as the type and location of DNA base change. There are currently about five well documented cases. Mutations and radon-associated tumors are discussed.

  16. A Prospective Study Investigating Pre-diagnostic Leukocyte Telomere Length and Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Orr, Esther H.; Zee, Robert Y.L.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Costenbader, Karen H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and subsequent RA development in women. Methods Using a case-control design nested within the prospective Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII), and Women’s Health Study (WHS), each validated case of RA with a pre-diagnostic blood sample was matched to three controls by cohort, age, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone therapy, and blood collection covariates. We measured telomere length in genomic DNA extracted from stored buffy coat samples using quantitative PCR. We used unconditional logistic regression to determine odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and random-effects meta-analysis to combine study results. Results In total, we analyzed 296 incident RA cases and 827 matched controls. Mean age of diagnosis among women who developed RA was 60.5 in NHS/NHSII and 61.3 in WHS. Meta-analysis demonstrated that longer pre-diagnostic LTL was associated with increased RA risk when women in the longest vs. shortest LTL tertile were compared (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.03–2.23; pheterogeneity=0.27). However, statistically significant between study heterogeneity was observed for the intermediate tertile category (pheterogeneity=0.008). We did not observe heterogeneity by menopausal status, inflammatory cytokine levels, age at diagnosis, age at blood collection, body mass index, seropositivity, or HLA-DRB1 shared epitope status. Conclusion Our results do not support a role for short LTL preceding RA development. PMID:26773113

  17. Meteor signature interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-01-01

    Meteor signatures contain information about the constituents of space debris and present potential false alarms to early warnings systems. Better models could both extract the maximum scientific information possible and reduce their danger. Accurate predictions can be produced by models of modest complexity, which can be inverted to predict the sizes, compositions, and trajectories of object from their signatures for most objects of interest and concern.

  18. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  19. Nanotechnology development and utilization: a primer for diagnostic and interventional radiologists.

    PubMed

    Monsky, Wayne L; Vien, Derek S; Link, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The term nanotechnology refers to the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. Much of the ongoing research and development of nanotechnology is focused on the development of novel methods of imaging and delivery of therapeutics through minimally invasive means. Multifunctional nanoparticles offer great promise for molecular imaging and directing novel therapeutics to molecular targets, which was never before possible. Nanoparticle-based contrast agents have been developed for all imaging modalities. A rapidly increasing number of companies and government funding initiatives have led to a large number of novel agents in various stages of development, ranging from in vitro and in vivo animal studies to clinical use. However, barriers to the delivery of nanoparticles for tumor imaging and therapy exist. Interventional radiologists may circumvent these barriers by using imaging to guide delivery of nanoparticles. PMID:21918055

  20. Advanced development of particle-beam-probe diagnostic systems. Technical progress report, 1 July 1980-30 April 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Woo, J.T.; Connor, K.A.

    1981-05-01

    The heavy ion beam probe system on the RENTOR tokamak has been reinstalled with considerably improved performance. The heavy neutral beam probe system on the ALEX baseball facility has demonstrated the capability of measuring space potential in minimum-B geometry. A large amount of data were obtained from the highly successful TMX beam probe system and are presently being analyzed. Technological improvements were made on both the RENTOR and ALEX diagnostic systems, new ion sources and extraction configurations were investigated, and the superiority of off-line processing techniques for beam probe data has been demonstrated. The development of high energy probing beams for application to major confinement experiments has been initiated and cross-over sweep systems to improve spatial resolution, differential pumping, and reduce energy requirements have been designed.

  1. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS ASSOCIATION WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCERS: UNDERSTANDING VIRUS BIOLOGY AND USING IT IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CANCER DIAGNOSTICS.

    PubMed

    Strati, Katerina; Lambert, Paul F

    2008-01-01

    The link between human papillomaviruses and human cervical cancers has long been established. However, human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are now being detected in another type of cancer, not previously associated with this virus, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This review will focus on experimental data supporting the view that HPVs contribute to the etiology of a subset of HNSCC. We further put forth the argument that HPV-associated HNSCC deserves to be recognized as a distinct disease in the clinic and as such needs to be appropriately diagnosed. We offer an overview of studies that have helped dissect the role of HPVs in HNSCC and that may be helpful in the development of new diagnostic tools for discriminating this type of HNSCC.

  2. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of a Baseline System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a baseline system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements for aircraft engine on-line diagnostics is developed. This system is composed of a linear on-board engine model (LOBEM) and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The LOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of the discrepancy. Through this approach, the baseline system achieves the following objectives: (1) anomaly detection, (2) component fault detection, and (3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the baseline system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components.

  3. Research and Development for X-Ray Optics and Diagnostics on the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, A; Arthur, J; Barbee, T; Bionta, R; Jankowski, A; London, R; Ryutov, D; Shepherd, R; Shlyaptse, V; Tatchyn, R; Toor, A

    2001-08-14

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 1.5 to 15 {angstrom}-wavelength free-electron laser (FEL), currently proposed for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The photon output consists of high brightness, transversely coherent pulses with duration <300 fs, together with a broad spontaneous spectrum with total power comparable to the coherent output. The output fluence, and pulse duration, pose special challenges for optical component and diagnostic designs. We first discuss the specific requirements for the initial scientific experiments, and our proposed solutions. We then describe the supporting research and development program that includes: experimental and theoretical material damage studies; high resolution multilayer design, fabrication, and testing; replicated closed-form optics design and manufacturing; BeB manufacturing; and low-z Fresnel lens design, fabrication and testing. Finally some novel concepts for optical components are presented.

  4. Development and evaluation of a saliva-based chair-side diagnostic for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Burgess, Kate; Brammar, Gail C; Darby, Ivan B; Reynolds, Eric C

    2015-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key pathogen in the polymicrobial biofilm that is associated with the oral disease chronic periodontitis. A number of studies have shown that in humans the level of P. gingivalis in the polymicrobial biofilm is positively correlated with disease progression. The aim of this study was to develop a P. gingivalis diagnostic that has high specificity and sensitivity for P. gingivalis using a range of laboratory and clinical isolates and then compare the efficacy of the diagnostic with RTPCR using samples from chronic periodontitis patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Key parameters for the kit were to use saliva as the biological fluid as this is a most convenient medium for chair-side sampling and to give a positive reading for the reported threshold for detection of 5×10(5) P. gingivalis cells/mL that indicates disease progression. We initially screened a range of monoclonal antibodies for recognition of the P. gingivalis conserved virulence factor RgpA-Kgp complex and identified two mAbs that could be used in a capture and detection ELISA system. These mAbs were used to formulate and manufacture the GC P. gingivalis saliva diagnostic kit used in the study. To validate the saliva kit, saliva (P. gingivalis free) was spiked with known concentrations of viable P. gingivalis whole cells of W50, 381, A7A1-28, and ATCC 33277; P. gingivalis clinical isolates; P. gingivalis vesicles; and the secreted form of the RgpA-Kgp complex. Laboratory findings indicated that the kit was able to detect all laboratory and clinical isolate strains of P. gingivalis at 5×10(4)/mL to 5×10(5)/mL. It was also able to detect the RgpA-Kgp complex and vesicles at 5×10(4) and 5×10(5) cell equivalent doses, respectively. Saliva and plaque were then collected from 50 subjects with moderate-severe chronic periodontitis and 50 age- and sex-matched subjects with healthy periodontium. Real-time PCR was utilised to analyse levels of P. gingivalis in both

  5. Collection and Characterization of Samples for Establishment of a Serum Repository for Lyme Disease Diagnostic Test Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Molins, Claudia R.; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W.; Ashton, Laura V.; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

  6. Development and validation of a microRNA based diagnostic assay for primary tumor site classification of liver core biopsies.

    PubMed

    Perell, Katharina; Vincent, Martin; Vainer, Ben; Petersen, Bodil Laub; Federspiel, Birgitte; Møller, Anne Kirstine; Madsen, Mette; Hansen, Niels Richard; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Daugaard, Gedske

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the primary tumor site in patients with metastatic cancer is clinically important, but remains a challenge. Hence, efforts have been made towards establishing new diagnostic tools. Molecular profiling is a promising diagnostic approach, but tissue heterogeneity and inadequacy may negatively affect the accuracy and usability of molecular classifiers. We have developed and validated a microRNA-based classifier, which predicts the primary tumor site of liver biopsies, containing a limited number of tumor cells. Concurrently we explored the influence of surrounding normal tissue on classification. MicroRNA profiling was performed using quantitative Real-Time PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. 278 primary tumors and liver metastases, representing nine primary tumor classes, as well as normal liver samples were used as a training set. A statistical model was applied to adjust for normal liver tissue contamination. Performance was estimated by cross-validation, followed by independent validation on 55 liver core biopsies with a tumor content as low as 10%. A microRNA classifier developed, using the statistical contamination model, showed an overall classification accuracy of 74.5% upon independent validation. Two-thirds of the samples were classified with high-confidence, with an accuracy of 92% on high-confidence predictions. A classifier trained without adjusting for liver tissue contamination, showed a classification accuracy of 38.2%. Our results indicate that surrounding normal tissue from the biopsy site may critically influence molecular classification. A significant improvement in classification accuracy was obtained when the influence of normal tissue was limited by application of a statistical contamination model. PMID:25131495

  7. Status of diagnostic development to measure parallel wavenumber of lower hybrid waves on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, S. G.; Wallace, G. M.; Shinya, T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Takase, Y.; Brunner, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent lower hybrid (LH) current drive experiments on Alcator C-Mod have motivated measurement of the parallel wavenumber of LH waves with an aim to understand the significance of the k|| up-shift mechanisms such as scattering by turbulence or parametric decay instabilities. To this end, a new diagnostic system is under development, consisting of two rows of three RF magnetic loop probes (one row sensitive to B||, the other row B⊥) and three Langmuir probes. These will be mounted on a radially movable probe system on the low field side of the tokamak, which is magnetically mapped to the LH launcher but toroidally separated by about 110 deg from the launcher. This location is expected to be ideal for detecting the parallel wavenumber spectrum of the pump and sideband LH waves up to n|| of 6.5. The use of the loop probes will help unambiguously resolve the polarization of these waves. These loop probes have been developed under the collaboration with the University of Tokyo, and vacuum-compatible versions have recently been fabricated and tested on the bench. To evaluate the phase of the detected waves, the signals at 4.6 GHz will be frequency down-converted to 25 MHz in an intermediate frequency stage, and directly digitized at a sampling rate of 100 MS/sec. This system will output the dominant parallel wavenumber for each frequency, selected by controlling the frequency of a local oscillator in the IF stage. In addition to these loop probes, the Langmuir probes will be used to provide the density and temperature information at the measurement location to perform instability analyses. The Langmuir probes will be also used to examine the sensitivity of the radial measurement location on the strength of the sideband LH waves. Details of this proposed diagnostic system and the latest status will be presented.

  8. Polarization signatures of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Prashant; Fuller, Kirk A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2013-07-01

    Exploratory research has been conducted with the aim of completely determining the polarization signatures of selected particulates as a function of wavelength. This may lead to a better understanding of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and such materials, perhaps leading to the point detection of bio-aerosols present in the atmosphere. To this end, a polarimeter capable of measuring the complete Mueller matrix of highly scattering samples in transmission and reflection (with good spectral resolution from 300 to 1100 nm) has been developed. The polarization properties of Bacillus subtilis (surrogate for anthrax spore) are compared to ambient particulate matter species such as pollen, dust, and soot. Differentiating features in the polarization signatures of these samples have been identified, thus demonstrating the potential applicability of this technique for the detection of bio-aerosol in the ambient atmosphere.

  9. GEM detector development for tokamak plasma radiation diagnostics: SXR poloidal tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, Maryna; Malinowski, Karol; Ziółkowski, Adam; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, Ewa; Czarski, Tomasz; Poźniak, Krzysztof T.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Zabołotny, Wojciech; Wojeński, Andrzej; Kolasiński, Piotr; Krawczyk, Rafał D.

    2015-09-01

    An increased attention to tungsten material is related to a fact that it became a main candidate for the plasma facing material in ITER and future fusion reactor. The proposed work refers to the studies of W influence on the plasma performances by developing new detectors based on Gas Electron Multiplier GEM) technology for tomographic studies of tungsten transport in ITER-oriented tokamaks, e.g. WEST project. It presents current stage of design and developing of cylindrically bent SXR GEM detector construction for horizontal port implementation. Concept to overcome an influence of constraints on vertical port has been also presented. It is expected that the detecting unit under development, when implemented, will add to the safe operation of tokamak bringing creation of sustainable nuclear fusion reactors a step closer.

  10. Development of a PCR Diagnostic System for Iris yellow spot tospovirus in Quarantine.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Gil; Rho, Jae-Young

    2014-12-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) is a plant pathogenic virus which has been reported to continuously occur in onion bulbs, allium field crops, seed crops, lisianthus, and irises. In South Korea, IYSV is a "controlled" virus that has not been reported, and inspection is performed when crops of the genus Iris are imported into South Korea. In this study, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested PCR inspection methods, which can detect IYSV, from imported crops of the genus Iris at quarantine sites, were developed. In addition, a modified positive plasmid, which can be used as a positive control during inspection, was developed. This modified plasmid can facilitate a more accurate inspection by enabling the examination of a laboratory contamination in an inspection system. The inspection methods that were developed in this study are expected to contribute, through the prompt and accurate inspection of IYSV at quarantine sites to the plant quarantine in South Korea. PMID:25506310

  11. Research Plan for Fire Signatures and Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the prevention, suppression, and detection of fires aboard a spacecraft is presented. The topics include: 1) Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression Sub-Element Products; 2) FPDS Organizing Questions; 3) FPDS Organizing Questions; 4) Signatures, Sensors, and Simulations; 5) Quantification of Fire and Pre-Fire Signatures; 6) Smoke; 7) DAFT Hardware; 8) Additional Benefits of DAFT; 9) Development and Characterization of Sensors 10) Simulation of the Transport of Smoke and Fire Precursors; and 11) FPDS Organizing Questions.

  12. The Development of a Cognitively-Diagnostic Formative Assessment of the Early Concept of Angle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khasanova, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Students' development of conceptual understandings is a central goal of mathematics education (CCSS-Mathematics, 2010). Such a challenging, yet ambiguous, goal cannot be achieved without empowering teachers with the knowledge and tools critical for their ability to adequately convey the content, and assess and interpret students' performance. This…

  13. Web-Based Learning System for Developing and Assessing Clinical Diagnostic Skills for Dermatology Residency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Fan-Ray; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lee, Chao-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Hong, Chien-Hu; Lee, Kuang-Lieh; Ho, Wen-Hsien; Lee, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the learning difficulties and misconceptions that students encounter when using information and communication technology for e-learning. To address this issue, this research developed a system for evaluating the learning efficiency of medical students by applying two-tier diagnosis assessment. The effectiveness of the…

  14. Development of Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are…

  15. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  16. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field.

  17. Toward diagnostic model calibration and evaluation: Approximate Bayesian computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrugt, Jasper A.; Sadegh, Mojtaba

    2013-07-01

    The ever increasing pace of computational power, along with continued advances in measurement technologies and improvements in process understanding has stimulated the development of increasingly complex hydrologic models that simulate soil moisture flow, groundwater recharge, surface runoff, root water uptake, and river discharge at different spatial and temporal scales. Reconciling these high-order system models with perpetually larger volumes of field data is becoming more and more difficult, particularly because classical likelihood-based fitting methods lack the power to detect and pinpoint deficiencies in the model structure. Gupta et al. (2008) has recently proposed steps (amongst others) toward the development of a more robust and powerful method of model evaluation. Their diagnostic approach uses signature behaviors and patterns observed in the input-output data to illuminate to what degree a representation of the real world has been adequately achieved and how the model should be improved for the purpose of learning and scientific discovery. In this paper, we introduce approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) as a vehicle for diagnostic model evaluation. This statistical methodology relaxes the need for an explicit likelihood function in favor of one or multiple different summary statistics rooted in hydrologic theory that together have a clearer and more compelling diagnostic power than some average measure of the size of the error residuals. Two illustrative case studies are used to demonstrate that ABC is relatively easy to implement, and readily employs signature based indices to analyze and pinpoint which part of the model is malfunctioning and in need of further improvement.

  18. Development of visible spectroscopy diagnostics for W sources assessment in WEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, O.; Jones, O. M.; Giacalone, J. C.; Pascal, J. Y.; Raulin, D.; Xu, H.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Baude, R.; Escarguel, A.; Gil, C.; Harris, J. H.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Klepper, C. C.; Larroque, S.; Lotte, Ph.; Moreau, Ph.; Pégourié, B.; Vartanian, S.

    2016-11-01

    The present work concerns the development of a W sources assessment system in the framework of the tungsten-W environment in steady state tokamak project that aims at equipping the existing Tore Supra device with a tungsten divertor in order to test actively cooled tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in view of preparing ITER operation. The goal is to assess W sources and D recycling with spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution adapted to the PFCs observed. The originality of the system is that all optical elements are installed in the vacuum vessel and compatible with steady state operation. Our system is optimized to measure radiance as low as 1016 Ph/(m2 s sr). A total of 240 optical fibers will be deployed to the detection systems such as the "Filterscope," developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) and consisting of photomultiplier tubes and filters, or imaging spectrometers dedicated to Multiview analysis.

  19. Development of an antibody-based diagnostic method for the identification of Bemisia tabaci biotype B.

    PubMed

    Baek, Ji Hyeong; Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lim, Kook Jin; Lee, Si Hyeock; Kim, Bum Joon

    2016-07-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a very destructive pest. B. tabaci is composed of various morphologically undistinguishable biotypes, among which biotypes B and Q, in particular, draw attention because of their wide distribution in Korea and differential potentials for insecticide resistance development. To develop a biotype-specific protein marker that can readily distinguishes biotypes B from other biotypes in the field, we established an ELISA protocol based on carboxylesterase 2 (COE2), which is more abundantly expressed in biotypes B compared with Q. Recombinant COE2 was expressed, purified and used for antibody construction. Polyclonal antibodies specific to B. tabaci COE2 [anti-COE2 pAb and deglycosylated anti-COE2 pAb (DG anti-COE2 pAb)] revealed a 3-9-fold higher reactivity to biotype B COE2 than biotype Q COE2 by Western blot and ELISA analyses. DG anti-COE2 pAb exhibited low non-specific activity, demonstrating its compatibility in diagnosing biotypes. Western blot and ELISA analyses determined that one of the 11 field populations examined was biotype B and the others were biotype Q, suggesting the saturation of biotype Q in Korea. DG anti-COE2 pAb discriminates B. tabaci biotypes B and Q with high specificity and accuracy and could be useful for the development of a B. tabaci biotype diagnosis kit for on-site field applications. PMID:27265822

  20. Development of a diagnostic system for bilirubin detection in cerebral spinal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadri, Prashant R.; Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Majumdar, Anindya; Morgan, Chad J.; Zuccarello, Mario; Pyne, Gail J.; Dulaney, Elizabeth; Caffery, James, Jr.; Shukla, Rakesh; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2004-11-01

    A weakened portion of an artery in the brain leads to a medical condition known as a cerebral aneurysm. A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs when an aneurysm ruptures. For those individuals suspected of having a SAH, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain usually demonstrates evidence of the bleeding. However, in a considerable portion of people, the CT scan is unable to detect the blood that has escaped from the blood vessel. Recent studies have indicated nearly 30% of patients with a SAH are initially misdiagnosed. For circumstances when a SAH is suspected despite a normal CT scan, physicians make the diagnosis of SAH by performing a spinal tap. A spinal tap uses a needle to sample the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the patient"s lumbar spine. However, it is also possible for blood to be introduced into the CSF as a result of the spinal tap procedure. Therefore, an effective solution is required to help medical personnel differentiate between the blood that results from a tap and that from a ruptured aneurysm. In this paper, the development of a prototype is described which is sensitive and specific for measuring bilirubin in CSF, hemorrhagic-CSF and CSF-like solutions. To develop this instrument a combination of spectrophotometric analysis, custom data analysis software and other hardware interfaces are assembled that lay the foundation for the development of portable and user-friendly equipment suitable for assisting trained medical personnel with the diagnosis of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

  1. Seismic signature analysis for discrimination of people from animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, Thyagaraju; Mehmood, Asif; Sabatier, James M.

    2013-05-01

    Cadence analysis has been the main focus for discriminating between the seismic signatures of people and animals. However, cadence analysis fails when multiple targets are generating the signatures. We analyze the mechanism of human walking and the signature generated by a human walker, and compare it with the signature generated by a quadruped. We develop Fourier-based analysis to differentiate the human signatures from the animal signatures. We extract a set of basis vectors to represent the human and animal signatures using non-negative matrix factorization, and use them to separate and classify both the targets. Grazing animals such as deer, cows, etc., often produce sporadic signals as they move around from patch to patch of grass and one must characterize them so as to differentiate their signatures from signatures generated by a horse steadily walking along a path. These differences in the signatures are used in developing a robust algorithm to distinguish the signatures of animals from humans. The algorithm is tested on real data collected in a remote area.

  2. Automotive Diagnostic Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus State Community Coll., OH.

    This document contains materials developed for and about the automotive diagnostic technologies tech prep program of the South-Western City Schools in Ohio. Part 1 begins with a map of the program, which begins with an automotive/diagnostic technologies program in grades 11 and 12 that leads to entry-level employment or a 2-year automotive…

  3. Surface signatures of momentum/zero-momentum wakes in stratified fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voropayev, S. I.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Nath, C.

    2009-11-01

    The momentum (over- and under-thrusted) wakes of self-propelled bodies in stable density stratified fluids were studied using scaled laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a highly sensitive cooled Infra-Red (IR) camera were used for flow diagnostics. Two problems of broad interest that have not been received adequate study were the focus of this research: (i) thermal (IR) surface signatures of wakes of submerged/surface self-propelled bodies; and (ii) thermal (IR) and hydrodynamic (PIV) surface signatures of submerged/surface turbulent jets. The measurements and modeling delineated the mechanisms of vertical turbulent transport, the types of flow structures formed at the surface and their dependence on bulk wake properties on governing parameters. The physics-based models and parameterizations so developed help extrapolate laboratory results to oceanic environments.

  4. A two-stage Bayesian design for co-development of new drugs and companion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Karuri, Stella Wanjugu; Simon, Richard

    2012-05-10

    Most new drug development in oncology is based on targeting specific molecules. Genomic profiles and deregulated drug targets vary from patient to patient making new treatments likely to benefit only a subset of patients traditionally grouped in the same clinical trials. Predictive biomarkers are being developed to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from a particular treatment; however, their biological basis is not always conclusive. The inclusion of marker-negative patients in a trial is therefore sometimes necessary for a more informative evaluation of the therapy. In this paper, we present a two-stage Bayesian design that includes both marker-positive and marker-negative patients in a clinical trial. We formulate a family of prior distributions that represent the degree of a priori confidence in the predictive biomarker. To avoid exposing patients to a treatment to which they may not be expected to benefit, we perform an interim analysis that may stop accrual of marker-negative patients or accrual of all patients. We demonstrate with simulations that the design and priors used control type I errors, give adequate power, and enable the early futility analysis of test-negative patients to be based on prior specification on the strength of evidence in the biomarker.

  5. Development of a Dynamic Spot Size Diagnostic for Flash Radiographic X-Ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Droemer; S. Lutz; D. Devore; D. Rovang; S. Portillo; J. Maenchen

    2003-06-01

    There has been considerable work in recent years in the development of high-brightness, high-dose flash x-ray radiographic sources. Spot size is one of several parameters that helps characterize source performance and provides a figure of merit to assess the suitability of various sources to specific experimental requirements. Time-integrated spot-size measurements using radiographic film and a high-Z rolled-edge object have been used for several years with great success. The Advanced Radiographic Technologies program thrust to improve diode performance requires extending both modeling and experimental measurements into the transient time domain. A new Time Resolved Spot Detector (TRSD) is under development to provide this information. In this paper we report the initial results of the performance of a 148-element scintillating fiber array that is fiber-optically coupled to a gated streak camera. Spatial and temporal resolution results are discussed and the data obtained from the Sand ia National Laboratories (SNL) RITS-3 (Radiographic Integrated Test Stand) accelerator are presented.

  6. Development of Fault Models for Hybrid Fault Detection and Diagnostics Algorithm: October 1, 2014 -- May 5, 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, Howard; Braun, James E.

    2015-12-31

    This report describes models of building faults created for OpenStudio to support the ongoing development of fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) algorithms at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building faults are operating abnormalities that degrade building performance, such as using more energy than normal operation, failing to maintain building temperatures according to the thermostat set points, etc. Models of building faults in OpenStudio can be used to estimate fault impacts on building performance and to develop and evaluate FDD algorithms. The aim of the project is to develop fault models of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment in the United States, and the fault models in this report are grouped as control faults, sensor faults, packaged and split air conditioner faults, water-cooled chiller faults, and other uncategorized faults. The control fault models simulate impacts of inappropriate thermostat control schemes such as an incorrect thermostat set point in unoccupied hours and manual changes of thermostat set point due to extreme outside temperature. Sensor fault models focus on the modeling of sensor biases including economizer relative humidity sensor bias, supply air temperature sensor bias, and water circuit temperature sensor bias. Packaged and split air conditioner fault models simulate refrigerant undercharging, condenser fouling, condenser fan motor efficiency degradation, non-condensable entrainment in refrigerant, and liquid line restriction. Other fault models that are uncategorized include duct fouling, excessive infiltration into the building, and blower and pump motor degradation.

  7. International patenting in ophthalmology: An analysis of its structure and relevance for the development of drugs and diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Mucke, Hermann AM; Mucke, Peter; Mucke, Eva

    2009-01-01

    While investigative ophthalmologists access peer-reviewed journals as part of their daily routine, and while they regularly visit scientific congresses, they rarely peruse patent documents as an information source. Among the reasons for this negligence are the incompatibility of patent search algorithms with those known from journal databases, a legalistic and frequently redundant language, and misconceptions about the nature of the patenting system. Here we present key data and analyses from the ophthalmology module of a patent database system that we are developing to address some of these problems. We show that international patent applications consistently reflect developer interest in the ocular drug and diagnostics field; that they are technically focused lead indicators of developments that frequently feature in peer-reviewed patenting only much later; and that patenting targets are well aligned with the unmet therapeutic needs of populations in industrialized countries. Most applications (74%–78% in years since 2006) are supported with experimental data, and most (on average, 80%–90%) faced at least one objection to patentability during their initial stage of examination. In contrast to the peer-reviewed scenery that is highly diverse, the corresponding patenting arena shows a pronounced focus on the United States. PMID:19668552

  8. Development of laser-plasma diagnostics using ultrafast atomic-scale dynamics. 96-ERD-046 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.R.; Kulander, K.C.; Boreham, B.W.

    1997-03-01

    Ultrashort laser pulse systems allow examination of intense, ultrafast laser-plasma interactions. More specifically, intense laser irradiation can induce short xuv/x-ray bursts from the surface of condensed phase targets. Ultrafast xuv/x-ray detection is needed to understand laser-plasma interactions in this dynamic regime. Support of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program requires this critical understanding. Our effort here has been to extend understanding of atomic-scale dynamics in such environments with the goal of developing next generation ultrafast xuv/x-ray diagnostics where the sensors will be the atoms and ions themselves and the time resolution will approach that of the induced atomic transitions ({approx} a few femtoseconds). Pivotal contributions to the rapidly developing field of highly nonperturbative interactions of ultrashort pulse lasers with atoms/ions have been made at this laboratory. In the visible/infrared wavelength regions the temporal and spectral content of ultrashort laser pulses are now reliably monitored within a single pulse using frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) which is based on rapid nonlinear optical processes such as the Kerr effect. New applications of this basic concept are still being developed. Corresponding detection for the xuv/x-ray wavelengths does not exist and is urgently needed in many laboratory programs. The FROG technique cannot be applied in the xuv/x-ray region. Current x-ray streak camera technology is limited to {approx}0.5 picosecond resolution.

  9. Development of advanced laser systems and spectroscopic techniques for combustion diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatilaka, Waruna Dasal

    Single-longitudinal-mode, narrowband, injection-seeded, pulsed optical parametric (OP) systems have been developed, characterized, and applied for high-resolution spectroscopy of nitric oxide (NO). The OP systems were injection seeded at the idler wavelength using a near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser. In the optical parametric generator (OPG) version, two counter-rotating, beta-barium borate (beta-BBO) crystals were pumped by the third-harmonic output of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser. An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) version has also been developed by incorporating a feedback cavity at the signal wavelength. The cavity length was not actively controlled. The output signal beam from OPG or OPO was amplified using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) stage. In both the OPG and OPO, the signal and idler frequency bandwidths are nearly Fourier transform limited and were measured to be 220 MHz. The temporal pulses were smooth and near-Gaussian. The frequency-doubled signal output of the OPO/OPA system was used for single-photon, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and laser-induced polarization spectroscopy (LIPS) of NO. The signal output of the OPG/OPA system was also used for sub-Doppler, two-photon LIF of NO. A detailed investigation was also performed for electronic-resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (ERE-CARS) of NO. In the ERE-CARS scheme, an ultraviolet probe-laser beam is tuned to an electronic resonance, resulting in a huge resonance enhancement of the ERE-CARS signal. The effect of drastic variations in electronic quenching rate on the NO ERE-CARS signal was investigated experimentally. In contrast to LIF, the ERE-CARS signal was nearly unaffected by the quenchers O2 and CO2. The ERE-CARS signal intensity was also found to increase rapidly between pressures of 0.1-2 bars and remain nearly constant thereafter up to 8 bars, whereas the NO LIF signal drops with increasing pressure. We have also detected NO down to

  10. Probing suitable therapeutic nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery and diagnostic reproductive health biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Jha, Rakhi; Jha, Pradeep K; Gupta, Santosh; Bhuvaneshwaran, S P; Hossain, Maidul; Guha, Sujoy K

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterial mediated drug delivery represents a highly promising technique while its selectivity for reproductive healthcare application still remains a challenge. Since the delicate structure and functional role of reproductive tissue and gametes require the use of biocompatible nanomedicine/devices that do not affect fertility or the development of resulting offspring, this paper reports an intercomparative study of human spermatozoa interaction with three different nanoparticles (NPs) namely; iron oxide (Fe3O4), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene platelet nanopowder (GPN) to probe their suitability for drug delivery carrier and biomarker development purposes. ATR-FTIR results revealed that the sperm cell interaction with GPN had maximum amide I absorption for cell proteins and CO stretching of the peptide backbone at the band around 1657 cm(-1) followed by iron oxide NPs whereas MWCNT had no absorption. These results showed that GPN followed by iron oxide NPs got maximally entrapped by cell membrane protein with maximum disruption but MWCNT exhibited less entrapment but significantly higher internalization which was further validated by morphological analysis of these cell NP interaction by SEM, HRTEM and fluorescence microscopy. The uptake kinetics and penetration mechanism of NPs were examined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Interestingly, ITC results confirmed ATR-FTIR and morphological observations that the binding of GPN and Fe3O4 NPs with cell was exothermic and their bindings were favored by both negative enthalpy and positive entropy whereas in the case of MWCNT it was endothermic supported by unfavorable positive enthalpy and a favorable entropy change. Hence, it was evident that MWCNT had better internalization efficiency without disrupting the sperm lipid membrane compared to Fe3O4 and GPN NPs. Therefore, this work proposes CNT as promising means. PMID:26838846

  11. Quantitative imaging for development of companion diagnostics to drugs targeting HGF/MET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fangjin; Ma, Zhaoxuan; Pollan, Sara; Yuan, Xiaopu; Swartwood, Steven; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Rodriguez, Maria; Mallick, Jayati; Bhele, Sanica; Guindi, Maha; Dhall, Deepti; Walts, Ann E; Bose, Shikha; de Peralta Venturina, Mariza; Marchevsky, Alberto M; Luthringer, Daniel J; Feller, Stephan M; Berman, Benjamin; Freeman, Michael R; Alvord, W Gregory; Vande Woude, George; Amin, Mahul B

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The limited clinical success of anti‐HGF/MET drugs can be attributed to the lack of predictive biomarkers that adequately select patients for treatment. We demonstrate here that quantitative digital imaging of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues stained by immunohistochemistry can be used to measure signals from weakly staining antibodies and provides new opportunities to develop assays for detection of MET receptor activity. To establish a biomarker panel of MET activation, we employed seven antibodies measuring protein expression in the HGF/MET pathway in 20 cases and up to 80 cores from 18 human cancer types. The antibodies bind to epitopes in the extra (EC)‐ and intracellular (IC) domains of MET (MET4EC, SP44_METIC, D1C2_METIC), to MET‐pY1234/pY1235, a marker of MET kinase activation, as well as to HGF, pSFK or pMAPK. Expression of HGF was determined in tumour cells (T_HGF) as well as in stroma surrounding cancer (St_HGF). Remarkably, MET4EC correlated more strongly with pMET (r = 0.47) than SP44_METIC (r = 0.21) or D1C2_METIC (r = 0.08) across 18 cancer types. In addition, correlation coefficients of pMET and T_HGF (r = 0.38) and pMET and pSFK (r = 0.56) were high. Prediction models of MET activation reveal cancer‐type specific differences in performance of MET4EC, SP44_METIC and anti‐HGF antibodies. Thus, we conclude that assays to predict the response to HGF/MET inhibitors require a cancer‐type specific antibody selection and should be developed in those cancer types in which they are employed clinically. PMID:27785366

  12. Probing suitable therapeutic nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery and diagnostic reproductive health biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Jha, Rakhi; Jha, Pradeep K; Gupta, Santosh; Bhuvaneshwaran, S P; Hossain, Maidul; Guha, Sujoy K

    2016-04-01

    Nanomaterial mediated drug delivery represents a highly promising technique while its selectivity for reproductive healthcare application still remains a challenge. Since the delicate structure and functional role of reproductive tissue and gametes require the use of biocompatible nanomedicine/devices that do not affect fertility or the development of resulting offspring, this paper reports an intercomparative study of human spermatozoa interaction with three different nanoparticles (NPs) namely; iron oxide (Fe3O4), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene platelet nanopowder (GPN) to probe their suitability for drug delivery carrier and biomarker development purposes. ATR-FTIR results revealed that the sperm cell interaction with GPN had maximum amide I absorption for cell proteins and CO stretching of the peptide backbone at the band around 1657 cm(-1) followed by iron oxide NPs whereas MWCNT had no absorption. These results showed that GPN followed by iron oxide NPs got maximally entrapped by cell membrane protein with maximum disruption but MWCNT exhibited less entrapment but significantly higher internalization which was further validated by morphological analysis of these cell NP interaction by SEM, HRTEM and fluorescence microscopy. The uptake kinetics and penetration mechanism of NPs were examined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Interestingly, ITC results confirmed ATR-FTIR and morphological observations that the binding of GPN and Fe3O4 NPs with cell was exothermic and their bindings were favored by both negative enthalpy and positive entropy whereas in the case of MWCNT it was endothermic supported by unfavorable positive enthalpy and a favorable entropy change. Hence, it was evident that MWCNT had better internalization efficiency without disrupting the sperm lipid membrane compared to Fe3O4 and GPN NPs. Therefore, this work proposes CNT as promising means.

  13. Developing and testing a diagnostic probe for grape phylloxera applicable to soil samples.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Karen; Powell, Kevin; Mckay, Alan; Hartley, Di; Herdina; Ophel-Keller, Kathy; Schiffer, Michele; Hoffmann, Ary

    2008-12-01

    Grape phylloxera, Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch) (Hemiptera Phylloxeridae) is a damaging pest of grapevines (Vitis spp.) around the world, and the management of this pest requires early detection of infestations. Here, we describe the development and validation of a sensitive DNA test for grape phylloxera that can be applied to soil. Species-specific primers were developed for grape phylloxera in the internal transcribed space region 2, and their specificity was confirmed after thorough screening by using a wide range of vineyard organisms and aphid genera. Preliminary testing of the detection limits of the grape phylloxera-specific primers was conducted using field-sourced soil types spiked with a known number of grape phylloxera. The assay was converted to a real-time polymerase chain reaction format (TaqMan MGB). This assay, in combination with DNA extraction from soil, can detect phylloxera crawlers added to soil. The assay was evaluated in the field at a recently detected grape phylloxera infestation site from the Yarra Valley in Victoria, Australia. The DNA assay proved to be substantially more sensitive than a standard ground survey for detecting grape phylloxera presence on vine roots in the infested vineyard. Moreover, unlike the ground survey, the assay provided quantitative information on grape phylloxera infestations, because grape phylloxera DNA concentrations in samples from vines closely matched the numbers of grape phylloxera crawlers collected with emergence traps placed at the base of vines. Unlike other detection techniques, the method can be applied at any time of the year, and it can be potentially modified to provide specific information on the virulence levels of the particular grape phylloxera genotypes responsible for any new infestations.

  14. Uncertainty in hydrological signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Hilary; Westerberg, Ida

    2015-04-01

    Information that summarises the hydrological behaviour or flow regime of a catchment is essential for comparing responses of different catchments to understand catchment organisation and similarity, and for many other modelling and water-management applications. Such information types derived as an index value from observed data are known as hydrological signatures, and can include descriptors of high flows (e.g. mean annual flood), low flows (e.g. mean annual low flow, recession shape), the flow variability, flow duration curve, and runoff ratio. Because the hydrological signatures are calculated from observed data such as rainfall and flow records, they are affected by uncertainty in those data. Subjective choices in the method used to calculate the signatures create a further source of uncertainty. Uncertainties in the signatures may affect our ability to compare different locations, to detect changes, or to compare future water resource management scenarios. The aim of this study was to contribute to the hydrological community's awareness and knowledge of data uncertainty in hydrological signatures, including typical sources, magnitude and methods for its assessment. We proposed a generally applicable method to calculate these uncertainties based on Monte Carlo sampling and demonstrated it for a variety of commonly used signatures. The study was made for two data rich catchments, the 50 km2 Mahurangi catchment in New Zealand and the 135 km2 Brue catchment in the UK. For rainfall data the uncertainty sources included point measurement uncertainty, the number of gauges used in calculation of the catchment spatial average, and uncertainties relating to lack of quality control. For flow data the uncertainty sources included uncertainties in stage/discharge measurement and in the approximation of the true stage-discharge relation by a rating curve. The resulting uncertainties were compared across the different signatures and catchments, to quantify uncertainty

  15. Practical quantum digital signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Hua-Lei; Fu, Yao; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-03-01

    Guaranteeing nonrepudiation, unforgeability as well as transferability of a signature is one of the most vital safeguards in today's e-commerce era. Based on fundamental laws of quantum physics, quantum digital signature (QDS) aims to provide information-theoretic security for this cryptographic task. However, up to date, the previously proposed QDS protocols are impractical due to various challenging problems and most importantly, the requirement of authenticated (secure) quantum channels between participants. Here, we present the first quantum digital signature protocol that removes the assumption of authenticated quantum channels while remaining secure against the collective attacks. Besides, our QDS protocol can be practically implemented over more than 100 km under current mature technology as used in quantum key distribution.

  16. Development and characterization of hollow polymeric microcapsules for use as contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, Padma Jyothi

    1999-09-01

    This thesis concerns the development and characterization of a new type of rigid-shelled ultrasound contrast agent. A novel method was devised for producing hollow, gas- filled, polymer microcapsules, sized to less than 10 μm in diameter for contrast imaging. This method involved the encapsulation of a solid, volatile core material, and its subsequent evacuation by sublimation. The biodegradable polymer, 50/50 poly(D,L-lactide-co- glycolide), was the main focus of this study. Polymer- based contrast agents have many advantages, such as their applicability for concomitant imaging and drug delivery. Three encapsulation techniques were evaluated: solvent evaporation, coacervation, and spray drying. The polymer molecular weight and polydispersity in the solvent evaporation and coacervation techniques strongly affected microcapsule size and morphology. Efficient mechanical agitation and shear were crucial for obtaining high yields in the desired size range (less than 6 μm). In spray drying, a factorial design approach was used to optimize conditions to produce microcapsules. The main factors affecting spray drying were found to be the temperature driving force for drying and initial polymer concentration. The smallest microcapsule mean diameters were produced by spray drying (3-4 μm) and solvent evaporation (5-6 μm). Zeta potential (ζ) studies for all microcapsule types indicated that the encapsulation technique affected their surface properties due to the orientation of the polymer chains within nascent polymer droplets. Microcapsules with the most hydrophilic tendency were produced with solvent evaporation (ζ ~ -50 mV). In vitro acoustic testing revealed that the 20-41 μm size fractions of coacervate microcapsules were the most echogenic. In vivo ultrasound studies with both solvent evaporation and coacervate microcapsules showed visible enhancement of the color Doppler image in the rabbit kidney for the samples less than 10 μm in diameter. A mathematical

  17. Development and Application of a Pulsed Ionization Chamber-Based Multiprobe Plasma Diagnostic System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Won Young

    An experimental system based on the Pulsed Ionization Chamber (PIC) technique was developed and applied to the investigation of the characteristics of nuclear-generated plasmas, which are related to critical engineering design parameters of uranium fluoride based gas-core reactor/MHD converter systems. Plasma parameters measured included ionization production rate, recombinational loss coefficient, electron density, mobility, and electrical conductivity for plasmas containing various concentrations of UF _6 and rare gases such as He, Ar and Xe. The measurements demonstrated the advantage of the PIC technique in obtaining multiple plasmas simultaneously. The PIC system was subsequently upgraded to the Multi-Probe Ionization Chamber (MPIC) to improve its capabilities and to extend its range of measurement to higher plasma densities and temperatures by providing it with additional measurement features in the form of conductivity and Langmuir probes. To accommodate these additional capabilities and to obtain complete automation of experiment, a technique was developed for remote switching between several GPIB instruments controlled by a software system. Performance tests of the MPIC system using both ^{60}Co and ^3 He(n,p)T ionization sources showed that the chamber functions according to design. Of particular importance, leakage current, the limiting factor in high temperature chamber operation, was negligible at temperature of 1000 K due to the new electrode design. In addition, the responses of the three measurement features (PIC, Conductivity, Langmuir) exhibit regions of overlap under high plasma density conditions with good agreement and reproducibility. At higher pressures and for electronegative species such as UF_6, evidence of cluster formation was observed with an approximate T^ {-4} plasma loss temperature dependence. The measured electrical conductivity of 1 atm He (1% UF _6) gas was in the range of 5times10 ^{-7} to 1times10 ^{-4} (S/m) over the thermal

  18. The Los Alamos Science Pillars The Science of Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Joshua E.; Peterson, Eugene J.

    2012-09-13

    As a national security science laboratory, Los Alamos is often asked to detect and measure the characteristics of complex systems and to use the resulting information to quantify the system's behavior. The Science of Signatures (SoS) pillar is the broad suite of technical expertise and capability that we use to accomplish this task. With it, we discover new signatures, develop new methods for detecting or measuring signatures, and deploy new detection technologies. The breadth of work at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in SoS is impressive and spans from the initial understanding of nuclear weapon performance during the Manhattan Project, to unraveling the human genome, to deploying laser spectroscopy instrumentation on Mars. Clearly, SoS is a primary science area for the Laboratory and we foresee that as it matures, new regimes of signatures will be discovered and new ways of extracting information from existing data streams will be developed. These advances will in turn drive the development of sensing instrumentation and sensor deployment. The Science of Signatures is one of three science pillars championed by the Laboratory and vital to supporting our status as a leading national security science laboratory. As with the other two pillars, Materials for the Future and Information Science and Technology for Predictive Science (IS&T), SoS relies on the integration of technical disciplines and the multidisciplinary science and engineering that is our hallmark to tackle the most difficult national security challenges. Over nine months in 2011 and 2012, a team of science leaders from across the Laboratory has worked to develop a SoS strategy that positions us for the future. The crafting of this strategy has been championed by the Chemistry, Life, and Earth Sciences Directorate, but as you will see from this document, SoS is truly an Institution-wide effort and it has engagement from every organization at the Laboratory. This process tapped the insight and

  19. Development of a laser diagnostic using Raman and Thomson scattering in atmospheric microplasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Bradley; Adams, Steven

    2014-10-01

    A laser scattering system utilizing a triple grating spectrometer and a 266 nm ultraviolet laser has been developed in order to investigate Rayleigh, Raman, and Thomson scattering within atmospheric plasma sources. Such laser scattering interactions offer a non-invasive technique for investigating atmospheric microplasma sources, which have potential applications in remote optical sensing, materials processing, and environmental decontamination. In this work, laser scattering measurements were performed on atmospheric discharges composed of nitrogen and air. The laser signal was calibrated using a heated nitrogen vacuum cell held at atmospheric pressure. Preliminary temperature measurements were performed on a D.C. microdischarge operating in normal glow mode. This provides a non-thermal plasma in which the translational, rotational, vibrational and electron temperatures are not in equilibrium. All gas temperatures were calculated by fitting simulated scattering spectra to the experimental data obtained using the triple grating spectrometer. Measured temperatures were also compared with those obtained using standard optical emission spectroscopy methods. Special thanks to the NRC Research Associateship Program.

  20. Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) component enhancement, testing and expert fault diagnostics development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, L. S.; Zdankiewicz, E. M.

    1987-01-01

    Vapor compression distillation technology for phase change recovery of potable water from wastewater has evolved as a technically mature approach for use aboard the Space Station. A program to parametrically test an advanced preprototype Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem (VCDS) was completed during 1985 and 1986. In parallel with parametric testing, a hardware improvement program was initiated to test the feasibility of incorporating several key improvements into the advanced preprototype VCDS following initial parametric tests. Specific areas of improvement included long-life, self-lubricated bearings, a lightweight, highly-efficient compressor, and a long-life magnetic drive. With the exception of the self-lubricated bearings, these improvements are incorporated. The advanced preprototype VCDS was designed to reclaim 95 percent of the available wastewater at a nominal water recovery rate of 1.36 kg/h achieved at a solids concentration of 2.3 percent and 308 K condenser temperature. While this performance was maintained for the initial testing, a 300 percent improvement in water production rate with a corresponding lower specific energy was achieved following incorporation of the improvements. Testing involved the characterization of key VCDS performance factors as a function of recycle loop solids concentration, distillation unit temperature and fluids pump speed. The objective of this effort was to expand the VCDS data base to enable defining optimum performance characteristics for flight hardware development.

  1. Development of Radioimmunotherapeutic and Diagnostic Antibodies: An Inside-Out View†

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C. Andrew; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2007-01-01

    Only a handful of radiolabeled antibodies (Abs) have gained FDA approval for use in clinical oncology, including four immunodiagnostic agents and two targeted radioimmunotherapeutic agents. Despite the advent of non-immunogenic Abs and availability of a diverse library of radionuclides, progress beyond early Phase II RIT studies in solid tumors has been marginal. Furthermore, 18F-FDG continues to dominate the molecular imaging domain, underscored by a decade-long absence of any newly approved antibody-based imaging agents (none since 1996!). Why has the development of clinically successful Abs for RIT been limited to lymphoma? What obstacles must be overcome to allow the FDA-approval of immunoPET imaging agents? How can we address the unique challenges that have thus far prevented the introduction of Ab-based imaging agents and therapeutics for solid tumors? Many poor decisions have been made regarding radiolabeled Abs, but useful insight can be gained from these mistakes. The following review addresses physical, chemical, biological, clinical, regulatory, and financial limitations that impede the progress of this increasingly important class of drugs. PMID:17921028

  2. Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Development of diagnostic criteria and identification of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Owen, R G; Barrans, S L; Richards, S J; O'Connor, S J; Child, J A; Parapia, L A; Morgan, G J; Jack, A S

    2001-09-01

    To establish whether a combination of morphologic and immunophenotypic criteria could be developed to more precisely define Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and prognostic factors, we retrospectively assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 111 cases of WM. Bone marrow infiltration by small lymphocytes was documented in each case; and diffuse, interstitial, nodular, and paratrabecular patterns of infiltration were documented in 58%, 32%, 6%, and 4% of cases, respectively. Ninety percent were characterized by a surface immunoglobulin-positive, CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23- immunophenotype. The median overall survival from diagnosis was 60 months; univariate analysis revealed the following adverse prognostic factors: older than 60 years, performance status more than 1, platelet count less than 100 x 10(3)/microL (< 100 x 10(9)/L), pancytopenia, and diffuse bone marrow infiltration. Associated median survival was 40, 38, 46, 28, and 59 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed age, performance status, and platelet count as prognostically significant, but stratification of patients according to the International Prognostic Index had limited value. We suggest defining WM by the following criteria: IgM monoclonal gammopathy; bone marrow infiltration by small lymphocytes, plasmacytoid cells, and plasma cells in a diffuse, interstitial, or nodular pattern; and a surface immunoglobulin-positive, CD19+CD20+CD5-CD10-CD23- immunophenotype.

  3. Modular development of a prototype point of care molecular diagnostic platform for sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Branavan, Manoharanehru; Mackay, Ruth E; Craw, Pascal; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Ahern, Jeremy C; Sivanesan, Tulasi; Hudson, Chris; Stead, Thomas; Kremer, Jessica; Garg, Neha; Baker, Mark; Sadiq, Syed T; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the design of a modular point of care test platform that integrates a proprietary sample collection device directly with a microfluidic cartridge. Cell lysis, within the cartridge, is conducted using a chemical method and nucleic acid purification is done on an activated cellulose membrane. The microfluidic device incorporates passive mixing of the lysis-binding buffers and sample using a serpentine channel. Results have shown extraction efficiencies for this new membrane of 69% and 57% compared to the commercial Qiagen extraction method of 85% and 59.4% for 0.1ng/µL and 100ng/µL salmon sperm DNA respectively spiked in phosphate buffered solution. Extraction experiments using the serpentine passive mixer cartridges incorporating lysis and nucleic acid purification showed extraction efficiency around 80% of the commercial Qiagen kit. Isothermal amplification was conducted using thermophillic helicase dependant amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification. A low cost benchtop real-time isothermal amplification platform has been developed capable of running six amplifications simultaneously. Results show that the platform is capable of detecting 1.32×10(6) of sample DNA through thermophillic helicase dependant amplification and 1×10(5) copy numbers Chlamydia trachomatis genomic DNA within 10min through recombinase polymerase nucleic acid amplification tests. PMID:27238759

  4. Modular development of a prototype point of care molecular diagnostic platform for sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Branavan, Manoharanehru; Mackay, Ruth E; Craw, Pascal; Naveenathayalan, Angel; Ahern, Jeremy C; Sivanesan, Tulasi; Hudson, Chris; Stead, Thomas; Kremer, Jessica; Garg, Neha; Baker, Mark; Sadiq, Syed T; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the design of a modular point of care test platform that integrates a proprietary sample collection device directly with a microfluidic cartridge. Cell lysis, within the cartridge, is conducted using a chemical method and nucleic acid purification is done on an activated cellulose membrane. The microfluidic device incorporates passive mixing of the lysis-binding buffers and sample using a serpentine channel. Results have shown extraction efficiencies for this new membrane of 69% and 57% compared to the commercial Qiagen extraction method of 85% and 59.4% for 0.1ng/µL and 100ng/µL salmon sperm DNA respectively spiked in phosphate buffered solution. Extraction experiments using the serpentine passive mixer cartridges incorporating lysis and nucleic acid purification showed extraction efficiency around 80% of the commercial Qiagen kit. Isothermal amplification was conducted using thermophillic helicase dependant amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification. A low cost benchtop real-time isothermal amplification platform has been developed capable of running six amplifications simultaneously. Results show that the platform is capable of detecting 1.32×10(6) of sample DNA through thermophillic helicase dependant amplification and 1×10(5) copy numbers Chlamydia trachomatis genomic DNA within 10min through recombinase polymerase nucleic acid amplification tests.

  5. Development of diagnostics in the search for an explanation of aerotoxic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Lawrence M; Furlong, Clement E; Lockridge, Oksana

    2010-09-01

    Aerotoxic syndrome is assumed to be caused by exposure to tricresyl phosphate, an additive in engine lubricants and hydraulic fluids that is activated to the toxic 2-(ortho-cresyl)-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphoran-2-one (CBDP). Currently, there is no laboratory evidence to support intoxication of airline crew members by CBDP. Our goal was to develop methods for testing in vivo exposure by identifying and characterizing biomarkers. Mass spectrometry was used to study the reaction of CBDP with human albumin, free tyrosine, and human butyrylcholinesterase. Human albumin made a covalent bond with CBDP, adding a mass of 170amu to Tyr411 to yield the o-cresyl phosphotyrosine derivative. Human butyrylcholinesterase made a covalent bond with CBDP on Ser198 to yield five adducts with added masses of 80, 108, 156, 170, and 186amu. The most abundant adduct had an added mass of 80amu from phosphate (HPO(3)), a surprising result given that no pesticide or nerve agent is known to yield phosphorylated serine with an added mass of 80amu. The next most abundant adduct had an added mass of 170amu to form o-cresyl phosphoserine. It is concluded that toxic gases or oil mists in cabin air may form adducts on plasma butyrylcholinesterase and albumin, detectable by mass spectrometry. PMID:20447373

  6. Immuno-regulated common markers but different network signatures in two associated cancers: evidences from epigenetic treatment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Networks are now widely accepted inference tools in translational oncology. Besides providing agnostic model frameworks for complex data-driven clinical problems of diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic impacts, networks mainly support insights, testable hypotheses and decision processes on the basis of their topological configurations and connectivity patterns. Methods The purpose of this study is to emphasize the role of both gene and network signatures in two specific cancers. Retinoblastoma (RB) and osteosarcoma are associated to some extent. It is known that patients who carry germline mutations in the RB1 gene, and who survive RB, are typically at an increased risk of early-onset second cancers, including osteosarcomas. Gene signatures are widely used, but also criticized for their partial lack of reproducibility. Network signatures include gene association dynamics by identifying modules or communities in which subsets of genes functionally belong. Results Two cancer cell lines (one per cancer type) were subjected to a similar epigenetic treatment regimen, using a demethylation agent (DAC, and including similar dose and time course administration). A minimal set of shared differentially expressed (DEG) genes was identified in cancer-specific cell lines from microarray analyses. However, the identified immune signatures were observed to translate into much diversified network signatures. Conclusions Our evidence is relevant to therapeutic developments, indicating that preference should be assigned to the assessment of bio-entities in a connected environment rather than considering single entities alone. PMID:27047945

  7. Development of an economic evaluation of diagnostic strategies: the case of monogenic diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jaime L; Anderson, Rob; Hyde, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development process for defining an appropriate model structure for the economic evaluation of test–treatment strategies for patients with monogenic diabetes (caused by mutations in the GCK, HNF1A or HNF4A genes). Design Experts were consulted to identify and define realistic test–treatment strategies and care pathways. A systematic assessment of published diabetes models was undertaken to inform the model structure. Setting National Health Service in England and Wales. Participants Experts in monogenic diabetes whose collective expertise spans the length of the patient care pathway. Primary and secondary outcomes A defined model structure, including the test–treatment strategies, and the selection of a published diabetes model appropriate for the economic evaluation of strategies to identify patients with monogenic diabetes. Results Five monogenic diabetes test–treatment strategies were defined: no testing of any kind, referral for genetic testing based on clinical features as noted by clinicians, referral for genetic testing based on the results of a clinical prediction model, referral for genetic testing based on the results of biochemical and immunological tests, referral for genetic testing for all patients with a diagnosis of diabetes under the age of 30 years. The systematic assessment of diabetes models identified the IMS CORE Diabetes Model (IMS CDM) as a good candidate for modelling the long-term outcomes and costs of the test–treatment strategies for monogenic diabetes. The short-term test–treatment events will be modelled using a decision tree which will feed into the IMS CDM. Conclusions Defining a model structure for any economic evaluation requires decisions to be made. Expert consultation and the explicit use of critical appraisal can inform these decisions. Although arbitrary choices have still been made, decision modelling allows investigation into such choices and the impact of assumptions that have to be

  8. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment.

    PubMed

    Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P K

    2015-08-01

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset "hold" time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the "non-neutrality" of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C.

  9. Design, development, and results from a charge-collector diagnostic for a toroidal electron plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Sambaran; Lachhvani, Lavkesh Bajpai, Manu; Rathod, Karan; Yeole, Yogesh; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2015-08-15

    A suitable charge-collector has been designed and developed to estimate charge-content of electron plasmas in a Small Aspect Ratio Toroidal Experiment in a C-shaped trap (SMARTEX-C). The electrons are periodically injected and held in the trap with the aid of electrostatic end-fields and a toroidal magnetic field. After a preset “hold” time, the trapped charges are dumped onto a grounded collector (by gating it). As the charges flow along the magnetic field lines onto the collector, the integrated current gives the charge-content of the plasma at the instant of dump. In designing such a charge collector, several challenges peculiar to the geometry of the trap and the nature of the plasma had to be addressed. Instantaneous charge measurements synchronised with the E × B drift of the plasma, along with fast transit times of electrons to the collector (few 100 ns or less) (due to the low aspect ratio of the trap) essentially require fast gating of the collector. The resulting large capacitive transients alongside low charge content (few nC) of such plasmas further lead to increasing demands on response and sensitivity of the collector. Complete cancellation of such transients is shown to be possible, in principle, by including the return path in our measurement circuit but the “non-neutrality” of the plasma acts as a further impediment. Ultimately, appropriate shielding and measurement circuits allow us to (re)distribute the capacitance and delineate the paths of these currents, leading to effective cancellation of transients and marked improvement in sensitivity. Improved charge-collector has thus been used to successfully estimate the time evolution of total charge of the confined electron plasma in SMARTEX-C.

  10. Current signature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Ihlefeld, Curtis (Inventor); Burns, Bradley (Inventor); Bassignani, Karin E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A solenoid health monitoring system uses a signal conditioner and controller assembly in one embodiment that includes analog circuitry and a DSP controller. The analog circuitry provides signal conditioning to the low-level raw signal coming from a signal acquisition assembly. Software running in a DSP analyzes the incoming data (recorded current signature) and determines the state of the solenoid whether it is energized, de-energized, or in a transitioning state. In one embodiment, the software identifies key features in the current signature during the transition phase and is able to determine the health of the solenoid.

  11. Evaluation of the e-Learning material developed by EMERALD and EMIT for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Victoria; Tabakov, Slavik

    2005-09-01

    Two Leonardo projects, EMERALD and EMIT, have developed in a partnershipof university and hospital departments (the consortia) e-Learning materials in X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for medical physics graduates and other healthcare professionals. These e-Learning materials are described in a separate paper in this issue. To assess the effectiveness and relevance of the e-Learning material, a series of evaluations by student users groups plus experts in medical physics education and training were undertaken. The students, with backgrounds in physics and clinical ultrasound, reviewed the e-Learning material using an evaluation form developed by the consortia. The student feedback was favourable with students commenting that their level of knowledge had increased having completed the tasks. Areas identified for development were a reduction in text volume and an increase in the time allowed for completion of some tasks. The feedback from the experts was positive with an overall appreciation of the value of the learning material as a resource for students in medical physics field across Europe and identified other disciplines in which the access to the learning material could be useful contribution to their learning. Suggestions made for improvements ranged from grading the tasks into basic and advanced topics to increasing the interactive nature of the material. These early evaluation of the e-Learning material look promising and provide a framework for further developments in the field. Insight into users and providers views is important if developers are to provide relevant and worthwhile educational learning opportunities.

  12. Evaluation of the e-Learning material developed by EMERALD and EMIT for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Victoria; Tabakov, Slavik

    2005-09-01

    Two Leonardo projects, EMERALD and EMIT, have developed in a partnershipof university and hospital departments (the consortia) e-Learning materials in X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for medical physics graduates and other healthcare professionals. These e-Learning materials are described in a separate paper in this issue. To assess the effectiveness and relevance of the e-Learning material, a series of evaluations by student users groups plus experts in medical physics education and training were undertaken. The students, with backgrounds in physics and clinical ultrasound, reviewed the e-Learning material using an evaluation form developed by the consortia. The student feedback was favourable with students commenting that their level of knowledge had increased having completed the tasks. Areas identified for development were a reduction in text volume and an increase in the time allowed for completion of some tasks. The feedback from the experts was positive with an overall appreciation of the value of the learning material as a resource for students in medical physics field across Europe and identified other disciplines in which the access to the learning material could be useful contribution to their learning. Suggestions made for improvements ranged from grading the tasks into basic and advanced topics to increasing the interactive nature of the material. These early evaluation of the e-Learning material look promising and provide a framework for further developments in the field. Insight into users and providers views is important if developers are to provide relevant and worthwhile educational learning opportunities. PMID:16087384

  13. Factor models for cancer signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2016-11-01

    We present a novel method for extracting cancer signatures by applying statistical risk models (http://ssrn.com/abstract=2732453) from quantitative finance to cancer genome data. Using 1389 whole genome sequenced samples from 14 cancers, we identify an "overall" mode of somatic mutational noise. We give a prescription for factoring out this noise and source code for fixing the number of signatures. We apply nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to genome data aggregated by cancer subtype and filtered using our method. The resultant signatures have substantially lower variability than those from unfiltered data. Also, the computational cost of signature extraction is cut by about a factor of 10. We find 3 novel cancer signatures, including a liver cancer dominant signature (96% contribution) and a renal cell carcinoma signature (70% contribution). Our method accelerates finding new cancer signatures and improves their overall stability. Reciprocally, the methods for extracting cancer signatures could have interesting applications in quantitative finance.

  14. MMW, IR, and SAM signature collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstetter, Fred; Ward, Mary E.

    2002-08-01

    During the development of smart weapon's seeker/sensors, it is imperative to collect high quality signatures of the targets the system is intended to engage. These signatures are used to support algorithm development so the system can find and engage the targets of interest in the specific kill area on the target. Englin AFB FL is the AF development center for munitions; and in support of the development effort, the 46th Test Wing (46 TW) has initiated significant improvements in collection capabilities for signatures in the MMW, Infrared and Seismic, Acoustic and Magnetic (SAM) spectrum. Additionally, the Joint Munitions Test and Evaluation program office maintains a fleet of foreign ground vehicle targets used for such signature collection including items such as tanks, SCUD missile launchers, air defense units such as SA-06, SA-8, SA-13, and associated ground support trucks and general purpose vehicles. The major test facility includes a 300 ft tower used for mounting the instrumentation suite that currently includes, 10, 35 and 94 GHz MMW and 2-5(mu) and 8-12(mu) IR instrumentation systems. This facility has undergone major improvements in terms of background signature reduction, construction of a high bay building to house the turntable on which the targets are mounted, and an additional in- ground stationary turntable primarily for IR signature collection. Our experience using this facility to collect signatures for the smart weapons development community has confirmed a significant improvement in quality and efficiency. The need for the stationary turntable signature collection capability was driven by the requirements of the IR community who are interested in collecting signatures in clutter. This tends to be contrary to the MMW community that desires minimum background clutter. The resulting location, adjacent to the MMW tower, allows variations in the type and amount of clutter background that could be incorporated and also provides maximum utilization of

  15. Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.

    PubMed

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium.

  16. Developing a Research Agenda to Optimize Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: An Executive Summary of the 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Mills, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    The 2015 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference, "Diagnostic Imaging in the Emergency Department: A Research Agenda to Optimize Utilization" was held on May 12, 2015, with the goal of developing a high-priority research agenda on which to base future research. The specific aims of the conference were to (1) understand the current state of evidence regarding emergency department (ED) diagnostic imaging use and identify key opportunities, limitations, and gaps in knowledge; (2) develop a consensus-driven research agenda emphasizing priorities and opportunities for research in ED diagnostic imaging; and (3) explore specific funding mechanisms available to facilitate research in ED diagnostic imaging. Over a 2-year period, the executive committee and other experts in the field convened regularly to identify specific areas in need of future research. Six content areas within emergency diagnostic imaging were identified before the conference and served as the breakout groups on which consensus was achieved: clinical decision rules; use of administrative data; patient-centered outcomes research; training, education, and competency; knowledge translation and barriers to imaging optimization; and comparative effectiveness research in alternatives to traditional computed tomography use. The executive committee invited key stakeholders to assist with the planning and to participate in the consensus conference to generate a multidisciplinary agenda. There were a total of 164 individuals involved in the conference and spanned various specialties, including general emergency medicine, pediatric emergency medicine, radiology, surgery, medical physics, and the decision sciences.

  17. A Signature Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Dr. Amalia Amaki and her approach to art as her signature style by turning everyday items into fine art. Amaki is an assistant professor of art, art history, and Black American studies at the University of Delaware. She loves taking unexpected an object and redefining it in the context of art--like a button, a fan, a faded…

  18. Extracellular matrix signatures of human primary metastatic colon cancers and their metastases to liver

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Despite the fact that tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms controlling colorectal carcinogenesis have been identified, novel prognostic and diagnostic tools as well as novel therapeutic strategies are still needed to monitor and target colon cancer progression. We and others have previously shown, using mouse models, that the extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the tumor microenvironment, is an important contributor to tumor progression. In order to identify candidate biomarkers, we sought to define ECM signatures of metastatic colorectal cancers and their metastases to the liver. Methods We have used enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) from human patient samples and proteomics to define the ECM composition of primary colon carcinomas and their metastases to liver in comparison with normal colon and liver samples. Results We show that robust signatures of ECM proteins characteristic of each tissue, normal and malignant, can be defined using relatively small samples from small numbers of patients. Comparisons with gene expression data from larger cohorts of patients confirm the association of subsets of the proteins identified by proteomic analysis with tumor progression and metastasis. Conclusions The ECM protein signatures of metastatic primary colon carcinomas and metastases to liver defined in this study, offer promise for development of diagnostic and prognostic signatures of metastatic potential of colon tumors. The ECM proteins defined here represent candidate serological or tissue biomarkers and potential targets for imaging of occult metastases and residual or recurrent tumors and conceivably for therapies. Furthermore, the methods described here can be applied to other tumor types and can be used to investigate other questions such as the role of ECM in resistance to therapy. PMID:25037231

  19. Distinct microbiological signatures associated with triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sagarika; Wei, Zhi; Tan, Fei; Peck, Kristen N; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Michael; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Alwine, James C; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-10-15

    Infectious agents are the third highest human cancer risk factor and may have a greater role in the origin and/or progression of cancers, and related pathogenesis. Thus, knowing the specific viruses and microbial agents associated with a cancer type may provide insights into cause, diagnosis and treatment. We utilized a pan-pathogen array technology to identify the microbial signatures associated with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). This technology detects low copy number and fragmented genomes extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded archival tissues. The results, validated by PCR and sequencing, define a microbial signature present in TNBC tissue which was underrepresented in normal tissue. Hierarchical clustering analysis displayed two broad microbial signatures, one prevalent in bacteria and parasites and one prevalent in viruses. These signatures demonstrate a new paradigm in our understanding of the link between microorganisms and cancer, as causative or commensal in the tumor microenvironment and provide new diagnostic potential.

  20. Motor current signature analysis method for diagnosing motor operated devices

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Howard D.; Eissenberg, David M.

    1990-01-01

    A motor current noise signature analysis method and apparatus for remotely monitoring the operating characteristics of an electric motor-operated device such as a motor-operated valve. Frequency domain signal analysis techniques are applied to a conditioned motor current signal to distinctly identify various operating parameters of the motor driven device from the motor current signature. The signature may be recorded and compared with subsequent signatures to detect operating abnormalities and degradation of the device. This diagnostic method does not require special equipment to be installed on the motor-operated device, and the current sensing may be performed at remote control locations, e.g., where the motor-operated devices are used in accessible or hostile environments.