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Sample records for diagnostic techniques cardiovascular

  1. Cardiovascular procedures/diagnostic techniques and therapeutic procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tilkian, A.G.; Daily, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers the technical and therapeutic aspects of cardiovascular procedures in immense detail. There are large and appropriate diagrams and tables. The topics of the chapters are tools for catheterization, venous access, arterial access, hemodynamic monitoring, cardiac catheterization and coronary arteriography, ergonovine provocation testing for coronary artery spasm, pulmonary angiography, endomyocredial biopsy, electrophysiologic studies, pericardiocentesis and drainage, intraaortic balloon pumping, direct current cardioversion and defibrilaltion, pacemaker implantation of the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator, coronary angioplasty, thrombolytic therapy, transluminal catheter extraction and resolution of intracardiac catheter knots, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, contrast media toxicity and allergic reactions, radiation hazards, and medicolegal concerns. An appendix and index follow these chapters. In general, each chapter covers historical aspects, indications, complications, techniques, and preoperative and postoperative care.

  2. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime in cardiovascular diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We review fluorescence lifetime techniques including time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) instrumentation and associated methodologies that allow for characterization and diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaques. Emphasis is placed on the translational research potential of TR-LIFS and FLIM and on determining whether intrinsic fluorescence signals can be used to provide useful contrast for the diagnosis of high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. Our results demonstrate that these techniques allow for the discrimination of important biochemical features involved in atherosclerotic plaque instability and rupture and show their potential for future intravascular applications.

  4. Why currently used diagnostic techniques for heart failure in rheumatoid arthritis are not enough: the challenge of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Gabriel, Sherine; Sfikakis, Petros P; Pohost, Gerald M; Kitas, George D

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population that leads to progressive joint destruction and disability. Patients with RA exhibit a high risk of cardiovascular disease, which results in premature morbidity and mortality and reduced life expectancy, when compared with the general population. Among various guises of myocardial involvement, heart failure (HF) has been recently recognized as an important contributory factor to the excess cardiovascular mortality associated with RA. HF in RA typically presents with occult clinical symptomatology and is mainly associated with structural and functional left ventricular abnormalities leading to diastolic dysfunction, while systolic myocardial performance remains well preserved. As isolated diastolic dysfunction is a predictor of high mortality, the evaluation of patients in early asymptomatic stages, when treatment targeting the heart is more likely to be effective, is of great importance. Although patient history and physical examination remain the cornerstones of HF evaluation, noninvasive imaging of cardiac chambers, coronary arteries, and great vessels may be necessary. Echocardiography, nuclear techniques, and invasive coronary angiography are already established in the routine assessment of HF; however, many aspects of HF pathophysiology in RA remain obscure, due to the limitations of currently used techniques. The capability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to capture early tissue changes allows timely detection of pathophysiologic phenomena of HF in RA, such as myocardial inflammation and myocardial perfusion defects, due to either macrovascular (coronary artery disease) or microvascular (vasculitis) disease. Therefore, CMR may be a useful tool for early, accurate diagnosis and research in patients with RA.

  5. Nanotechnology in Disease Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Savaliya, Reema; Shah, Darshini; Singh, Ragini; Kumar, Ashutosh; Shankar, Rishi; Dhawan, Alok; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-06-25

    Currently the major research highlights of bioengineering and medical technology are directed towards development of improved diagnostic techniques to screen complex diseases. Screening requirements are for the identification of the cause of illnesses, monitoring the improvement or progression of the state of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases. Nanotechnology enables the manipulation of materials at nanoscale and has shown potential to enhance sensitivity, selectivity and lower the cost of a diagnosis. The causative biomolecules (DNA, proteins) can be detected by red-shifted absorbance of gold nanoparticles or alteration in the conductance of a nanowire or nanotubes, and deflection of a micro or nano-cantilever. Several types of nanomaterials such as metals, metal-oxides and quantum dots have shown ample advantages over traditional diagnosis, intracellular labeling and visualization of target cells/tissues. Nanotechnology has also opened several avenues which could be further developed to enable enhanced visualization of tissues, cells, DNA and proteins over a point-of-care device. Protein or gene chips created using nanomaterials could be further be integrated into a convenient nano-fluidic device for better disease diagnosis.

  6. Diagnostic cardiology: Noninvasive imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Come, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 23 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The chest x-ray and cardiac series; Computed tomographic scanning of the heart, coronary arteries, and great vessels; Digital subtraction angiography in the assessment of cardiovascular disease; Magnetic resonance: technique and cardiac applications; Basics of radiation physics and instrumentation; and Nuclear imaging: the assessment of cardiac performance.

  7. Aerodynamic measurement techniques. [laser based diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Laser characteristics of intensity, monochromatic, spatial coherence, and temporal coherence were developed to advance laser based diagnostic techniques for aerodynamic related research. Two broad categories of visualization and optical measurements were considered, and three techniques received significant attention. These are holography, laser velocimetry, and Raman scattering. Examples of the quantitative laser velocimeter and Raman scattering measurements of velocity, temperature, and density indicated the potential of these nonintrusive techniques.

  8. Molecular diagnostics of cardiovascular diseases in sudden unexplained death.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yingying; Stahl-Herz, Jay; Sampson, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The most challenging type of sudden cardiac death is sudden unexplained death. The etiologies for sudden unexplained death are diverse and not necessarily confined to the cardiovascular system. Nevertheless, certain cardiovascular diseases, particularly cardiac channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, are known to play significant roles in sudden deaths. The purpose of the review is to provide autopsy pathologists with an actionable guide through illuminating the clinically relevant molecular basis of cardiac channelopathies and cardiomyopathies, as well as the changing landscape of molecular diagnostics.

  9. Plasma diagnostic techniques using particle beam probes

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, W C

    1980-07-01

    A brief overview is given of particle beam probing. The fundamental concepts common to all techniques are discussed as well as the design considerations for choosing a particular diagnostic technique. The capabilities of existing and proposed techniques, and the present status of the techniques in major magnetic confinement geometries is also presented. Techniques which involve the injection of a beam of neutral particles into the plasma are then considered. The techniques of beam attenuation, beam scattering, and active charge exchange using a beam of light particles such as hydrogen or helium are first presented. Optical measurements of the Zeeman splitting of the radiation from a neutral lithium beam is then discussed, including a new proposal for significantly improving this technique through the addition of a dye laser. Two techniques involving the injection of heavy neutral particles are then presented, and the section concludes with two proposed techniques for measuring the properties of the alpha particles produced from actual fusion reactions. The diagnostic techniques which are based upon the injection of a beam of charged particles into the plasma are next described. The advantages and limitations of these techniques in comparison with the neutral techniques are discussed, followed by a description of specific techniques.

  10. Diagnostic technique applied for FEL electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovko, O.; Grebentsov, A.; Morozov, N.; Syresin, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2016-05-01

    Diagnostic technique applied for FEL ultrashort electron bunches is developed at JINR-DESY collaboration within the framework of the FLASH and XFEL projects. Photon diagnostics are based on calorimetric measurements and detection of undulator radiation. The infrared undulator constructed at JINR and installed at FLASH is used for longitudinal bunch shape measurements and for two-color lasing provided by the FIR and VUV undulators. The pump probe experiments with VUV and FIR undulators provide the bunch profile measurements with resolution of several femtosecond. The new three microchannel plates (MCP) detectors operated in X-ray range are under development now in JINR for SASE1-SASE 3 European XFEL.

  11. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system has been created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady-state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  12. Rocket engine diagnostics using qualitative modeling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, Michael; Maul, William; Meyer, Claudia; Sovie, Amy

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Lewis Research Center are presently developing qualitative modeling techniques for automated rocket engine diagnostics. A qualitative model of a turbopump interpropellant seal system was created. The qualitative model describes the effects of seal failures on the system steady state behavior. This model is able to diagnose the failure of particular seals in the system based on anomalous temperature and pressure values. The anomalous values input to the qualitative model are generated using numerical simulations. Diagnostic test cases include both single and multiple seal failures.

  13. Diagnostics of nonlocal plasmas: advanced techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafaev, Alexander; Grabovskiy, Artiom; Strakhova, Anastasiya; Soukhomlinov, Vladimir

    2014-10-01

    This talk generalizes our recent results, obtained in different directions of plasma diagnostics. First-method of flat single-sided probe, based on expansion of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in series of Legendre polynomials. It will be demonstrated, that flat probe, oriented under different angles with respect to the discharge axis, allow to determine full EVDF in nonlocal plasmas. It is also shown, that cylindrical probe is unable to determine full EVDF. We propose the solution of this problem by combined using the kinetic Boltzmann equation and experimental probe data. Second-magnetic diagnostics. This method is implemented in knudsen diode with surface ionization of atoms (KDSI) and based on measurements of the magnetic characteristics of the KDSI in presence of transverse magnetic field. Using magnetic diagnostics we can investigate the wide range of plasma processes: from scattering cross-sections of electrons to plasma-surface interactions. Third-noncontact diagnostics method for direct measurements of EVDF in remote plasma objects by combination of the flat single-sided probe technique and magnetic polarization Hanley method.

  14. Diagnostic reasoning techniques for selective monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homem-De-mello, L. S.; Doyle, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    An architecture for using diagnostic reasoning techniques in selective monitoring is presented. Given the sensor readings and a model of the physical system, a number of assertions are generated and expressed as Boolean equations. The resulting system of Boolean equations is solved symbolically. Using a priori probabilities of component failure and Bayes' rule, revised probabilities of failure can be computed. These will indicate what components have failed or are the most likely to have failed. This approach is suitable for systems that are well understood and for which the correctness of the assertions can be guaranteed. Also, the system must be such that changes are slow enough to allow the computation.

  15. Magnetic separation techniques in diagnostic microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Skjerve, E; Cudjoe, K S; Hornes, E; Ugelstad, J; Uhlén, M

    1994-01-01

    The principles of magnetic separation aided by antibodies or other specific binding molecules have been used for isolation of specific viable whole organisms, antigens, or nucleic acids. Whereas growth on selective media may be helpful in isolation of a certain bacterial species, immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technology can isolate strains possessing specific and characteristic surface antigens. Further separation, cultivation, and identification of the isolate can be performed by traditional biochemical, immunologic, or molecular methods. PCR can be used for amplification and identification of genes of diagnostic importance for a target organism. The combination of IMS and PCR reduces the assay time to several hours while increasing both specificity and sensitivity. Use of streptavidin-coated magnetic beads for separation of amplified DNA fragments, containing both biotin and a signal molecule, has allowed for the conversion of the traditional PCR into an easy-to-read microtiter plate format. The bead-bound PCR amplicons can also easily be sequenced in an automated DNA sequencer. The latter technique makes it possible to obtain sequence data of 300 to 600 bases from 20 to 30 strains, starting with clinical samples, within 12 to 24 h. Sequence data can be used for both diagnostic and epidemiologic purposes. IMS has been demonstrated to be a useful method in diagnostic microbiology. Most recent publications describe IMS as a method for enhancing the specificity and sensitivity of other detection systems, such as PCR, and providing considerable savings in time compared with traditional diagnostic systems. The relevance to clinical diagnosis has, however, not yet been fully established for all of these new test principles. In the case of PCR, for example, the presence of specific DNA in a food sample does not demonstrate the presence of a live organism capable of inducing a disease. However, all tests offering increased sensitivity and specificity of detection

  16. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nathel, H.; Colston, B.; Armitage, G.

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  17. Diagnostic imaging techniques in thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Toriumi, D.M.; Mafee, M.F.

    1988-02-01

    With the refinement of fine-needle aspiration, the specific applications of thyroid imaging techniques need to be reevaluated for efficiency and cost containment. No thyroid imaging test should be routinely obtained. Radionuclide scanning is most beneficial in evaluating the functional status of thyroid nodules when fine-needle aspiration is inadequate, the findings are benign, or when there is no discrete nodule that is palpated in an enlarged gland. When fine-needle aspiration is unavailable or unreliable, radionuclide scanning becomes a first-line diagnostic tool. Ultrasonography should be used primarily for identifying a solid component of a cystic nodule, determining the size of nodules on thyroxine suppression that are not easily palpable, or for performing guided fine-needle aspiration. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging both have a definite role in the evaluation of thyroid tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to computerized tomography for the evaluation of metastatic, retrotracheal, or mediastinal involvement of large thyroid tumors or goiters. Careful selection of the diagnostic techniques will ensure more accurate diagnosis and reduce unnecessary patient costs in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

  18. Diagnostics techniques in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soubra, Ayman; Risk, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is the most common presentation of bladder cancer and is often treatable with endoscopic resection and intravesical therapies. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the gold standard in diagnosis and surveillance but are limited by their sensitivity in some situations. We seek to provide an overview of recent additions to the diagnostic armamentarium for urologists treating this disease. Methods: Articles were identified through a literature review of articles obtained through PubMed searches including the terms “bladder cancer” and various diagnostic techniques described in the article. Results: A variety of urinary biomarkers are available to assist the diagnosis and management of patients with NMIBC. Many have improved sensitivity over urine cytology, but less specificity. There are certain situations in which this has proved valuable, but as yet these are not part of the standard guidelines for NMIBC. Fluorescence cystoscopy has level 1 evidence demonstrating increased rates of tumor detection and prolonged recurrence-free survival when utilized for transurethral resection. Other technologies seeking to enhance cystoscopy, such as narrow band imaging, confocal laser endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography are still under evaluation. Conclusions: A variety of urine biomarker and adjunctive endoscopic technologies have been developed to assist the management of NMIBC. While some, such as fluorescence cystoscopy, have demonstrated a definite benefit in this disease, others are still finding their place in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Future studies should shed light on how these can be incorporated to improve outcomes in NMIBC. PMID:26604438

  19. NMR techniques in the study of cardiovascular structure and functions

    SciTech Connect

    Osbakken, M.; Haselgrove, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter titles of this book are: Introduction to NMR Techniques;Theory of NMR Probe Design;Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Study the Cardiovascular System;Vascular Anatomy and Physiology Studied with NMR Techniques;Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging;The Use of MRI in Congenital Heart Disease;Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis Studied with NMR Techniques;Determination of Myocardial Mechanical Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques;Determination of Flow Using NMR Techniques;The Use of Contrast Agents in Cardiac MRI;Can Cardiovascular Disease Be Effectively Evaluated with NMR Spectroscopy. NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis Reactions in the Isolated Heart;Studies of Intermediary Metabolism in the Heart by 13C NMR Spectroscopy;23Na and 39K NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Intact Beating Heart;and Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Using Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

  20. Clinical technique: techniques in the practice diagnostic laboratory: a review.

    PubMed

    Doneley, Bob

    2015-01-01

    The need to rapidly diagnose disease in avian/exotic animal patients has led to the increased use of on-site diagnostic testing by veterinarians treating these animals. This article explores the use of on-site veterinary diagnostic testing: advantages and disadvantages of such testing; tests that are performed; type of equipment available; and the need for quality control.

  1. Cardiovascular microRNAs: as modulators and diagnostic biomarkers of diabetic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shruti; Manning, Patrick; Katare, Rajesh

    2014-02-14

    Diabetic heart disease (DHD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the people with diabetes, with approximately 80% of the deaths in diabetics are due to cardiovascular complications. Importantly, heart disease in the diabetics develop at a much earlier stage, although remaining asymptomatic till the later stage of the disease, thereby restricting its early detection and active therapeutic management. Thus, a better understanding of the modulators involved in the pathophysiology of DHD is necessary for the early diagnosis and development of novel therapeutic implications for diabetes-associated cardiovascular complications. microRNAs (miRs) have recently been evolved as key players in the various cardiovascular events through the regulation of cardiac gene expression. Besides their credible involvement in controlling the cellular processes, they are also released in to the circulation in disease states where they serve as potential diagnostic biomarkers for cardiovascular disease. However, their potential role in DHD as modulators as well as diagnostic biomarkers is largely unexplored. In this review, we describe the putative mechanisms of the selected cardiovascular miRs in relation to cardiovascular diseases and discuss their possible involvement in the pathophysiology and early diagnosis of DHD.

  2. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

  3. Laboratory Diagnostic Techniques for Entamoeba Species

    PubMed Central

    Fotedar, R.; Stark, D.; Beebe, N.; Marriott, D.; Ellis, J.; Harkness, J.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease. PMID:17630338

  4. Cardiovascular disease detection using bio-sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Altintas, Zeynep; Fakanya, Wellington M; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2014-10-01

    Universally, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is recognised as the prime cause of death with estimates exceeding 20 million by 2015 due to heart disease and stroke. Facts regarding the disease, its classification and diagnosis are still lacking. Hence, understanding the issues involved in its initiation, its symptoms and early detection will reduce the high risk of sudden death associated with it. Biosensors developed to be used as rapid screening tools to detect disease biomarkers at the earliest stage and able to classify the condition are revolutionising CVD diagnosis and prognosis. Advances in interdisciplinary research areas have made biosensors faster, highly accurate, portable and environmentally friendly diagnostic devices. The recent advances in microfluidics and the advent of nanotechnology have resulted in the development of improved diagnostics through reduction of analysis time and integration of several clinical assays into a single, portable device as lab-on-a-chip (LOC). The development of such affinity based systems is a major drive of the rapidly growing nanotechnology industry which involves a multidisciplinary research effort encompassing nanofluidics, microelectronics and analytical chemistry. This review summarised the classification of CVD, the biomarkers used for its diagnosis, biosensors and their application including the latest developments in the field of heart-disease detection.

  5. A comparative study of electrical probe techniques for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1972-01-01

    Techniques for using electrical probes for plasma diagnostics are reviewed. Specific consideration is given to the simple Langmuir probe, the symmetric double probe of Johnson and Malter, the variable-area probe of Fetz and Oeschsner, and a floating probe technique. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique are discussed.

  6. Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, Aeraj Ul

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

  7. Modelling and disentangling physiological mechanisms: linear and nonlinear identification techniques for analysis of cardiovascular regulation

    PubMed Central

    Batzel, Jerry; Baselli, Giuseppe; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Chon, Ki H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) regulation is the result of a number of very complex control interactions. As computational power increases and new methods for collecting experimental data emerge, the potential for exploring these interactions through modelling increases as does the potential for clinical application of such models. Understanding these interactions requires the application of a diverse set of modelling techniques. Several recent mathematical modelling techniques will be described in this review paper. Starting from Granger's causality, the problem of closed-loop identification is recalled. The main aspects of linear identification and of grey-box modelling tailored to CV regulation analysis are summarized as well as basic concepts and trends for nonlinear extensions. Sensitivity analysis is presented and discussed as a potent tool for model validation and refinement. The integration of methods and models is fostered for a further physiological comprehension and for the development of more potent and robust diagnostic tools. PMID:19324714

  8. Noninvasive detection of cardiovascular pulsations by optical Doppler techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, HyunDae; Fox, Martin D.

    1997-10-01

    A system has been developed based on the measurement of skin surface vibration that can be used to detect the underlying vascular wall motion of superficial arteries and the chest wall. Data obtained from tissue phantoms suggested that the detected signals were related to intravascular pressure, an important clinical and physiological parameter. Unlike the conventional optical Doppler techniques that have been used to measure blood perfusion in skin layers and blood flow within superficial arteries, the present system was optimized to pick up skin vibrations. An optical interferometer with a 633-nm He:Ne laser was utilized to detect micrometer displacements of the skin surface. Motion velocity profiles of the skin surface near each superficial artery and auscultation points on a chest for the two heart valve sounds exhibited distinctive profiles. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that the system detected the velocity of skin movement, which is related to the time derivative of the pressure. The system also reduces the loading effect on the pulsation signals and heart sounds produced by the conventional piezoelectric vibration sensors. The system's sensitivity, which could be optimized further, was 366.2 micrometers /s for the present research. Overall, optical cardiovascular vibrometry has the potential to become a simple noninvasive approach to cardiovascular screening.

  9. Emerging role of radiolabeled nanoparticles as an effective diagnostic technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising approach for diagnostic applications. Nanoparticles are structures in the nanometer size range, which can present different shapes, compositions, charges, surface modifications, in vitro and in vivo stabilities, and in vivo performances. Nanoparticles can be made of materials of diverse chemical nature, the most common being metals, metal oxides, silicates, polymers, carbon, lipids, and biomolecules. Nanoparticles exist in various morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, platelets, and tubes. Radiolabeled nanoparticles represent a new class of agent with great potential for clinical applications. This is partly due to their long blood circulation time and plasma stability. In addition, because of the high sensitivity of imaging with radiolabeled compounds, their use has promise of achieving accurate and early diagnosis. This review article focuses on the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in detecting diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also presents an overview about the formulation, stability, and biological properties of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:22809406

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Dual-Energy CT Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging: Direct Comparison With Cardiovascular MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Sung Min; Song, Meong Gun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Feuchtner, Gudrun Maria; Min, James K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of stress perfusion dual-energy CT (DECT) and its incremental value when used with coronary CT angiography (CTA) for identifying hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS One hundred patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease without chronic myocardial infarction detected with coronary CTA underwent stress perfusion DECT, stress cardiovascular perfusion MRI, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Stress perfusion DECT and cardiovascular stress perfusion MR images were used for detecting perfusion defects. Coronary CTA and ICA were evaluated in the detection of ≥ 50% coronary stenosis. The diagnostic performance of coronary CTA for detecting hemodynamically significant stenosis was assessed before and after stress perfusion DECT on a pervessel basis with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI as the reference standard. RESULTS The performance of stress perfusion DECT compared with cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI on a per-vessel basis in the detection of perfusion defects was sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 74%; positive predictive value, 73%; negative predictive value, 90%. Per segment, these values were sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 63%; and negative predictive value, 88%. Compared with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI per vessel territory the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of coronary CTA were 95%, 61%, 61%, and 95%. The values for stress perfusion DECT were 92%, 72%, 68%, and 94%. The values for coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT were 88%, 79%, 73%, and 91%. The ROC AUC increased from 0.78 to 0.84 (p = 0.02) with the use of coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT compared with coronary CTA alone. CONCLUSION Stress perfusion DECT plays a complementary role in enhancing the accuracy of coronary CTA for identifying hemodynamically

  11. Cardiovascular imaging with computed tomography: responsible steps to balancing diagnostic yield and radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Sandra S; Schoenhagen, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) is at the center of the risk-benefit debate about ionizing radiation exposure to the public from medical procedures. Although the risk has been sensationalized, the cardiovascular CT community has responded to the scrutiny by increasing efforts to ensure the responsible use of this young technology. Efforts to date have primarily included the development of appropriateness criteria and the implementation of dose-lowering techniques. Still needed is the development of standards that incorporate radiation exposure optimization into scan protocol selection. Such standards must consider applied radiation in the context of the clinical indication as well as the characteristics of the patient and provide guidance with regard to specific parameter settings. This editorial viewpoint demonstrates the need for comprehensive, individualized review of the clinical scenario before performing a cardiovascular CT, as well as the need for standards. If cardiovascular CT is the appropriate test and scan parameters are optimized with respect to radiation exposure, benefit should necessarily outweigh potential risk. However, efforts to promote responsible cardiovascular CT imaging must continue to ensure this is true for every patient.

  12. Diagnostic indicators of non-cardiovascular chest pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-cardiovascular chest pain (NCCP) has a high healthcare cost, but insufficient guidelines exist for its diagnostic investigation. The objective of the present work was to identify important diagnostic indicators and their accuracy for specific and non-specific conditions underlying NCCP. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. In May 2012, six databases were searched. Hand and bibliography searches were also conducted. Studies evaluating a diagnostic test against a reference test in patients with NCCP were included. Exclusion criteria were having <30 patients per group, and evaluating diagnostic tests for acute cardiovascular disease. Diagnostic accuracy is given in likelihood ratios (LR): very good (LR+ >10, LR- <0.1); good (LR + 5 to 10, LR- 0.1 to 0.2); fair (LR + 2 to 5, LR- 0.2 to 0.5); or poor (LR + 1 to 2, LR- 0.5 to 1). Joined meta-analysis of the diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity was performed by applying a hierarchical Bayesian model. Results Out of 6,316 records, 260 were reviewed in full text, and 28 were included: 20 investigating gastroesophageal reflux disorders (GERD), 3 musculoskeletal chest pain, and 5 psychiatric conditions. Study quality was good in 15 studies and moderate in 13. GERD diagnosis was more likely with typical GERD symptoms (LR + 2.70 and 2.75, LR- 0.42 and 0.78) than atypical GERD symptoms (LR + 0.49, LR- 2.71). GERD was also more likely with a positive response to a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) test (LR + 5.48, 7.13, and 8.56; LR- 0.24, 0.25, and 0.28); the posterior mean sensitivity and specificity of six studies were 0.89 (95% credible interval, 0.28 to 1) and 0.88 (95% credible interval, 0.26 to 1), respectively. Panic and anxiety screening scores can identify individuals requiring further testing for anxiety or panic disorders. Clinical findings in musculoskeletal pain either had a fair to moderate LR + and a poor LR- or vice versa. Conclusions In

  13. microRNA-based diagnostics and therapy in cardiovascular disease-Summing up the facts.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Christian; Zeller, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are discussed as potential disease-specific biomarkers in cardiovascular disease. Their diagnostic value has been examined in numerous studies and animal models with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) and the prognostic abilities of circulating miRNAs in risk stratification of future disease have been evaluated. Various miRNAs are described to complement protein-based biomarkers or classical risk factors in the diagnosis of CAD or MI and even represent potential new biomarkers in the discrimination of unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Signatures consisting of sets of multiple miRNAs seem to improve the predictive power compared to single miRNAs. Furthermore, the emerging field of miRNA-based therapeutics has reached cardiovascular research. The first promising in vitro results are raising hope for future clinical application. However, methods and material used for RNA isolation, miRNA detection and normalization steps still lack ways of standardization and need to be considered carefully. This article reviews the current knowledge of miRNAs in cardiovascular disease focusing on CAD and MI and will provide an overview regarding the use of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in the field of CAD.

  14. Diagnostic Emergency Ultrasound: Assessment Techniques In The Pediatric Patient.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Joshua; Nelson, Bret P

    2016-01-01

    Emergency ultrasound is performed at the point of care to answer focused clinical questions in a rapid manner. Over the last 20 years, the use of this technique has grown rapidly, and it has become a core requirement in many emergency medicine residencies and in some pediatric emergency medicine fellowships. The use of emergency ultrasound in the pediatric setting is increasing due to the lack of ionizing radiation with these studies, as compared to computed tomography. Utilizing diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department can allow clinicians to arrive at a diagnosis at the bedside rather than sending the patient out of the department for another study. This issue focuses on common indications for diagnostic ultrasound, as found in the pediatric literature or extrapolated from adult literature where pediatric evidence is scarce. Limitations, current trends, controversies, and future directions of diagnostic ultrasound in the emergency department are also discussed.

  15. Update on pre-diabetes: Focus on diagnostic criteria and cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Di Pino, Antonino; Urbano, Francesca; Piro, Salvatore; Purrello, Francesco; Rabuazzo, Agata Maria

    2016-01-01

    Pre-diabetes, which is typically defined as blood glucose concentrations higher than normal but lower than the diabetes threshold, is a high-risk state for diabetes and cardiovascular disease development. As such, it represents three groups of individuals: Those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and those with a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between 39-46 mmol/mol. Several clinical trials have shown the important role of IFG, IGT and HbA1c-pre-diabetes as predictive tools for the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Moreover, with regard to cardiovascular disease, pre-diabetes is associated with more advanced vascular damage compared with normoglycaemia, independently of confounding factors. In view of these observations, diagnosis of pre-diabetes is mandatory to prevent or delay the development of the disease and its complications; however, a number of previous studies reported that the concordance between pre-diabetes diagnoses made by IFG, IGT or HbA1c is scarce and there are conflicting data as to which of these methods best predicts cardiovascular disease. This review highlights recent studies and current controversies in the field. In consideration of the expected increased use of HbA1c as a screening tool to identify individuals with alteration of glycaemic homeostasis, we focused on the evidence regarding the ability of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for pre-diabetes and as a useful marker in identifying patients who have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Finally, we reviewed the current evidence regarding non-traditional glycaemic biomarkers and their use as alternatives to or additions to traditional ones. PMID:27795816

  16. Optical Imaging Techniques for Point-of-care Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongying; Isikman, Serhan O.; Mudanyali, Onur; Greenbaum, Alon; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Improving the access to effective and affordable healthcare has long been a global endeavor. In this quest, the development of cost-effective and easy-to-use medical testing equipment that enable rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce the time and costs associated with healthcare services. To this end, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics plays a crucial role in healthcare delivery in both the developed and developing countries by bringing medical testing to patients, or to sites near patients. As the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases, including various types of cancers and many endemics relies on optical techniques, numerous compact and cost-effective optical imaging platforms have been developed in recent years for use at the POC. Here, we review the state-of-the-art optical imaging techniques that can have significant impact on global health by facilitating effective and affordable POC diagnostics. PMID:23044793

  17. Reference Guide for Building Diagnostics Equipment and Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    measurements for performance tests on ventilation fans - velocity profiles in large ducts - calibration of other air flow meters. The anemometer caa be...MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART f 2NN 7V - CUM DEB-TR-86-06 Do s itT n s Reference Guide for Building ~~~Diagnostics Equipment and Techniques ’:’" C...FOR NONCONTACT THERMAL INSPECTIONS 17 NONDESTRUCTIVE SUBSURFACE MOISTURE TESTS ,’ Thermal Imagers 33 Spot Radiometers 38 Portable Line Scanners 41

  18. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Meglinski, I V

    2011-04-30

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  19. Multimodal imaging of vascular network and blood microcirculation by optical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2011-04-01

    We present a multimodal optical diagnostic approach for simultaneous non-invasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic microvessels, utilising a combined use of fluorescence intravital microscopy and a method of dynamic light scattering. This approach makes it possible to renounce the use of fluorescent markers for visualisation of blood vessels and, therefore, significantly (tenfold) reduce the toxicity of the technique and minimise side effects caused by the use of contrast fluorescent markers. We demonstrate that along with the ability to obtain images of lymph and blood microvessels with a high spatial resolution, current multimodal approach allows one to observe in real time permeability of blood vessels. This technique appears to be promising in physiology studies of blood vessels, and especially in the study of peripheral cardiovascular system in vivo.

  20. Cardiovascular

    NASA Video Gallery

    Overview of Cardiovascular research which addresses risks of space flight, including adaptive changes to the cephalad fluid shift (such as reduced circulating blood volume), potential for heart rhy...

  1. Development of Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Microgravity Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Materials processing including crystal growth, either under a gravity environment on ground or a microgravity environment in space, involves complicated phenomena of fluid motions in gas or liquid phases as well as interaction of various species. To obtain important physical insight, it is very necessary to provide gross-field optical diagnostics for monitoring various physical properties. Materials processing inhibits easy access by ordinary instruments and thus characterizing gross-field physical properties is very challenging. Typical properties of importance can be fluid velocity, temperature, and species concentration for fluids, and surface topology and defects for solids. Observing surface grow rate during crystal growth is also important. Material microstructures, i.e., integrity of crystal structures, is strongly influenced by the existence of thermally-induced flow as well as local nucleation of particles during solidification, which may act in many detrimental ways. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the nature of product property changes resulting from three-dimensional fluid or particle motions need be characterized. Gross-field diagnostics is thus required to identify their effects on product defects and process deficiencies. The quantitative visualization techniques can also be used for validation of numerical modeling. For optical nonintrusive gross-field diagnostic techniques, two approaches were developed as summer projects. One optical approach allows us to provide information of species concentration and temperature for monitoring in real time. The other approach, that is, the concept which is formulated for detection of surface topography measurement can provide unprecedented spatial resolution during crystal growth.

  2. Open Access Integrated Therapeutic and Diagnostic Platforms for Personalized Cardiovascular Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gladding, Patrick A.; Cave, Andrew; Zareian, Mehran; Smith, Kevin; Hussan, Jagir; Hunter, Peter; Erogbogbo, Folarin; Aguilar, Zoraida; Martin, David S.; Chan, Eugene; Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, Abhijit V.; Kassemi, Mohammad; Thomas, James D.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2013-01-01

    It is undeniable that the increasing costs in healthcare are a concern. Although technological advancements have been made in healthcare systems, the return on investment made by governments and payers has been poor. The current model of care is unsustainable and is due for an upgrade. In developed nations, a law of diminishing returns has been noted in population health standards, whilst in the developing world, westernized chronic illnesses, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease have become emerging problems. The reasons for these trends are complex, multifactorial and not easily reversed. Personalized medicine has the potential to have a significant impact on these issues, but for it to be truly successful, interdisciplinary mass collaboration is required. We propose here a vision for open-access advanced analytics for personalized cardiac diagnostics using imaging, electrocardiography and genomics. PMID:25562653

  3. A Review of Diagnostic Techniques for ISHM Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Biswas, Gautam; Aaseng, Gordon; Narasimhan, Sriam; Pattipati, Krishna

    2005-01-01

    System diagnosis is an integral part of any Integrated System Health Management application. Diagnostic applications make use of system information from the design phase, such as safety and mission assurance analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, hazards analysis, functional models, fault propagation models, and testability analysis. In modern process control and equipment monitoring systems, topological and analytic , models of the nominal system, derived from design documents, are also employed for fault isolation and identification. Depending on the complexity of the monitored signals from the physical system, diagnostic applications may involve straightforward trending and feature extraction techniques to retrieve the parameters of importance from the sensor streams. They also may involve very complex analysis routines, such as signal processing, learning or classification methods to derive the parameters of importance to diagnosis. The process that is used to diagnose anomalous conditions from monitored system signals varies widely across the different approaches to system diagnosis. Rule-based expert systems, case-based reasoning systems, model-based reasoning systems, learning systems, and probabilistic reasoning systems are examples of the many diverse approaches ta diagnostic reasoning. Many engineering disciplines have specific approaches to modeling, monitoring and diagnosing anomalous conditions. Therefore, there is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to building diagnostic and health monitoring capabilities for a system. For instance, the conventional approaches to diagnosing failures in rotorcraft applications are very different from those used in communications systems. Further, online and offline automated diagnostic applications are integrated into an operations framework with flight crews, flight controllers and maintenance teams. While the emphasis of this paper is automation of health management functions, striking the correct balance between

  4. Infrared Thermography-based Biophotonics: Integrated Diagnostic Technique for Systemic Reaction Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.; Morozov, Vitaly V.

    A peculiar branch of biophotonics is a measurement, visualisation and quantitative analysis of infrared (IR) radiation emitted from living object surfaces. Focal plane array (FPA)-based IR cameras make it possible to realize in medicine the so called interventional infrared thermal diagnostics. An integrated technique aimed at the advancement of this new approach in biomedical science and practice is described in the paper. The assembled system includes a high-performance short-wave (2.45-3.05 μm) or long-wave (8-14 μm) IR camera, two laser Doppler flowmeters (LDF) and additional equipment and complementary facilities implementing the monitoring of human cardiovascular status. All these means operate synchronously. It is first ascertained the relationship between infrared thermography (IRT) and LDF data in humans in regard to their systemic cardiovascular reactivity. Blood supply real-time dynamics in a narcotized patient is first visualized and quantitatively represented during surgery in order to observe how the general hyperoxia influences thermoregulatory mechanisms; an abrupt increase in temperature of the upper limb is observed using IRT. It is outlined that the IRT-based integrated technique may act as a take-off runway leading to elaboration of informative new methods directly applicable to medicine and biomedical sciences.

  5. Advances in Cardiovascular MRI for Diagnostics: Applications in Coronary Artery Disease and Cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Michael; Kramer, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging has emerged as an important cardiac imaging technique for the evaluation of multiple cardiac pathologies. Objective/Method The goal of this review is to describe recent advances in techniques which have extended the potential applications of CMR. The focus will be on the clinical applications of CMR for the evaluation of coronary artery disease and heart failure/cardiomyopathies which are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Conclusion CMR provides unique tissue characterization which is not available from other imaging modalities and has demonstrated important diagnostic and prognostic information in many forms of heart disease. PMID:21113233

  6. Diagnostic and prognostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) is recognised as a valuable clinical tool which in a single scan setting can assess ventricular volumes and function, myocardial fibrosis, iron loading, flow quantification, tissue characterisation and myocardial perfusion imaging. The advent of CMR using extrinsic and intrinsic contrast-enhanced protocols for tissue characterisation have dramatically changed the non-invasive work-up of patients with suspected or known cardiomyopathy. Although the technique initially focused on the in vivo identification of myocardial necrosis through the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique, recent work highlighted the ability of CMR to provide more detailed in vivo tissue characterisation to help establish a differential diagnosis of the underlying aetiology, to exclude an ischaemic substrate and to provide important prognostic markers. The potential application of CMR in the clinical approach of a patient with suspected non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy is discussed in this review. PMID:22857649

  7. Picosecond lidar techniques in laboratory and field diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulard, R.

    1984-12-01

    The availability of picosecond laser systems opens a new potential in the field of diagnostics. It is now possible to observe chemical events over time intervals as short as 10 to the minus 9th power sec (e.g., fluorescence, bond-selective chemistry,...) without overlap with the much shorter 10 to the minus 12th power sec triggering signal. In addition, two specific effects are of special interest to real industrial flame diagnostics. One is the elimination of background noise, since the picosecond time-gating of the detector will collect the whole signal of interest but only a tiny fraction of the time-spread noise background (e.g., soot, walls,...). The other is related to the very short length of these pulses (similar to mm): it is the possibility to use the lidar/radar principle to convert the time history of the measured back scattered signals into a millimeter-resolved space distribution along the beam. In this fashion, Raman and other techniques can yield a detailed map of concentrations and temperatures in three-dimensional space, even in sooty combustors background, with the need of only one single porthole.

  8. Diagnostics techniques and dosimetric evaluations for environmental radioactivity investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.; Gatto, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted about the investigation of the natural/anthropo-genic radioactivity of various environmental matrices. Different diagnostics techniques were employed: high resolution HpGe gamma spectrometry, to quantify the activity concentration of radionuclides that emit gamma photons; alpha spectrometry, for the determination of the specific activity of α -emitters radioisotopes; liquid scintillation, to measure the activity concentration of tritium, radon and total alpha/beta in liquid samples; alpha spectrometry through the Rad7 setup, to estimate the gas radon activity concentration in air, water and soil; total alpha/beta counter, for the activity concentration quantification of radionuclides, in solid samples, emitting alpha/beta particles. From the dosimetric point of view, knowledge of the radioactivity level in the environmental matrices allows to evaluate any possible radiological hazard for the population, through the calculation of the appropriate parameters of radioprotection and their comparison with the safety limits reported by the literature.

  9. A New Diagnostic Technique for the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R.; Davila, Joseph M.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over the last 30-40 years spectroscopic observation of the EUV (extreme ultraviolet) line emission has proved invaluable as a diagnostic of the solar coronal plasma state. Line ratios have been used to determine electron density, electron temperature and ion flow velocity. In this paper, we present results obtained with a new measurement technique that uses spectroscopic observations of the white light corona to obtain the electron density, temperature, and flow velocity. A prototype instrument has been designed and built to obtain visible light spectra (3800-4300 A) with modest resolution. This instrument was used to obtain coronal observations during the June 2001 eclipse in Zambia. The data were corrected for sky and instrument transmission to derive the electron temperature and flow speed. Results from these measurements will be discussed.

  10. Novel x-ray optics for medical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuyumchyan, A.; Arvanian, V.; Kuyumchyan, D.; Aristov, V.; Shulakov, E.

    2009-08-01

    A new hard X - ray hologram with using crystal Fresnel zone plates (ZP) has been described. An image of Fourier hologram for hard X- ray is presented. X-ray phase contrast methods for medical diagnostics techniques are presented. We have developed an X-ray microscope, based on micro focus source which is capable of high resolution phasecontrast imaging and holograms. We propose a new imaging technique with the x-ray energy 8 keV. The method is expected to have wide applications in imaging of low absorbing samples such as biological and medical tissue. We used FIB to reproduction three dimension structures of damaged spinal cord of rat before and after combined treatment with NT3 and NR2D. PUBLISHER'S NOTE 12/16/09: This SPIE Proceedings paper has been updated with an erratum correcting several issues throughout the paper. The corrected paper was published in place of the earlier version on 9/1/2009. If you purchased the original version of the paper and no longer have access, please contact SPIE Digital Library Customer Service at CustomerService@SPIEDigitalLibrary.org for assistance.

  11. Computed tomography angiography in children with cardiovascular disease: low dose techniques and image quality.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S Bruce; Bhutta, Sadaf; Braswell, Leah; Chan, Frandics

    2012-01-01

    Dose reduction techniques for computed tomography angiography (CTA) in children with cardiovascular diseases have the potential of reducing risks of radiation-induced cancer. To evaluate effectiveness of these techniques, both radiation dose and image quality must be compared. While clinically practical methods of estimating effective dose are available, there are no generally accepted metrics for the assessment of image quality in CTA. We introduce a measurable and reproducible image quality index, CTA QI. Using this index, along with calculated effective dose, we test the hypothesis that volume scan CTA delivers comparable image quality at substantially reduced radiation dose when compared to helical CTA. CTA QI is a measure of intraluminal contrast variation in three-dimensions, and it is calculated from standardized measurements of means and standard deviations of Hounsfield units in the thoracic descending aorta. From institutional database, 83 studies of CTA for thoracic cardiovascular diseases were retrospectively identified. CTA QI values were independently measured by two radiologists and compared using correlation. CTA QI and DLP-derived effective dose were compared for the following groups: non-cardiac gated wide-detector and helical CTA, ECG-synchronized retrospective wide-detector and helical CTA, ECG-synchronized wide detector retrospective and target technique CTA. Statistical significance was evaluated with the Student-t test. The correlations of CTA QI values between the radiologists were 0.83 and 0.92 for non-gated studies and ECG-synchronized studies respectively. Comparing non-gated volume scan CTA to helical CTA, there was a radiation dose reduction of 69% (P < 0.0001) without a significant change in CTA QI (1.4 ± 1.0 vs. 1.9 ± 1.4, P = 0.13). Comparing retrospective ECG-synchronized wide-detector CTA to helical CTA, there was a radiation dose reduction of 46% (P < 0.0001) with and improvement in CTA QI (1.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.7 ± 3.4, P < 0

  12. Tracking stem cells for cardiovascular applications in vivo: focus on imaging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Azene, Nicole; Xu, Yi; Kraitchman, Dara L

    2011-01-01

    Despite rapid translation of stem cell therapy into clinical practice, the treatment of cardiovascular disease using embryonic stem cells, adult stem and progenitor cells or induced pluripotent stem cells has not yielded satisfactory results to date. Noninvasive stem cell imaging techniques could provide greater insight into not only the therapeutic benefit, but also the fundamental mechanisms underlying stem cell fate, migration, survival and engraftment in vivo. This information could also assist in the appropriate choice of stem cell type(s), delivery routes and dosing regimes in clinical cardiovascular stem cell trials. Multiple imaging modalities, such as MRI, PET, SPECT and CT, have emerged, offering the ability to localize, monitor and track stem cells in vivo. This article discusses stem cell labeling approaches and highlights the latest cardiac stem cell imaging techniques that may help clinicians, research scientists or other healthcare professionals select the best cellular therapeutics for cardiovascular disease management. PMID:22287982

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Diagnostic utility and specific considerations in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Frances M; Prasad, Sanjay K; Greil, Gerald F; Drivas, Peter; Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Raphael, Claire E

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is a non-invasive imaging modality which is emerging as important tool for the investigation and management of pediatric cardiovascular disease. In this review we describe the key technical and practical differences between scanning children and adults, and highlight some important considerations that must be taken into account for this patient population. Using case examples commonly seen in clinical practice, we discuss the important clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and briefly highlight key future developments in this field.

  14. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Diagnostic utility and specific considerations in the pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Frances M; Prasad, Sanjay K; Greil, Gerald F; Drivas, Peter; Vassiliou, Vassilios S; Raphael, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance is a non-invasive imaging modality which is emerging as important tool for the investigation and management of pediatric cardiovascular disease. In this review we describe the key technical and practical differences between scanning children and adults, and highlight some important considerations that must be taken into account for this patient population. Using case examples commonly seen in clinical practice, we discuss the important clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and briefly highlight key future developments in this field. PMID:26862497

  16. Prevalence of Premorbid Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Adult Workers Using IDF and ATPIII Diagnostic Criteria: Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tauler, Pedro; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Morales-Asencio, Jose M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Angel A.; Vicente-Herrero, Teofila; De Pedro-Gomez, Joan; Royo, Vanessa; Pericas-Beltran, Jordi; Aguilo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder defined as a cluster of interconnected risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and high blood glucose levels. Premorbid metabolic syndrome (PMetS) is defined by excluding patients with previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus from those suffering MetS. We aimed to determine the prevalence of PMetS in a working population, and to analyse the relationship between the diagnostic criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII). The relationship between the presence of PMetS and cardiovascular risk factors was also analysed. Research Methodology/Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in 24,529 male and 18,736 female Spanish (white western European) adult workers (20–65 years) randomly selected during their work health periodic examinations. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and serum parameters were measured. The presence of MetS and PMetS was ascertained using ATPIII and IDF criteria. Cardiovascular risk was determined using the Framingham-REGICOR equation. The results showed MetS had an adjusted global prevalence of 12.39% using ATPIII criteria and 16.46% using IDF criteria. The prevalence of PMetS was slightly lower (11.21% using ATPIII criteria and 14.72% using IDF criteria). Prevalence in males was always higher than in females. Participants with PMetS displayed higher values of BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides, and lower HDL-cholesterol levels. Logistic regression models reported lower PMetS risk for females, non-obese subjects, non-smokers and younger participants. Cardiovascular risk determined with Framingham-REGICOR was higher in participants with PMetS. Conclusions PMetS could be a reliable tool for the early identification of apparently healthy individuals who have a significant risk for developing cardiovascular events and

  17. Evolving imaging techniques in diagnostic strategies of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Le Gal, Grégoire; Righini, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Modern non invasive diagnostic strategies for pulmonary embolism (PE) rely on the sequential use of clinical probability assessment, D-dimer measurement and thoracic imaging tests. Planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy was the cornerstone for more than two decades and has now been replaced by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strategies using CTPA are very safe to rule out PE and have been well validated in large prospective management outcome studies. With the widespread use of CTPA, concerns regarding radiation and overdiagnosis of PE have paved the way for investigating new diagnostic modalities. V/Q single photon emission tomography has arisen as a highly accurate test and a potential alternative to CTPA. However, prospective management outcome studies are still lacking and are warranted before implementation in everyday clinical practice.

  18. The diagnosis and management of pre-invasive breast disease: The role of new diagnostic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Nerurkar, Ashutosh; Osin, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In recent years we have seen significantly increased use of minimally invasive diagnostic techniques in the management of breast disease. There is wide recognition of fine needle aspiration and core biopsy as the principal diagnostic methods. However, concerns exist regarding their reliability. This article provides a brief overview of the major diagnostic issues related to use of fine needle aspiration, core biopsy and ductal lavage. It summarizes areas of use for each technique, outlines the main diagnostic pitfalls and their causes, and provides a perspective on future developments in the field. PMID:14580247

  19. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB[sub 2] and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB[sub 2].

  20. Developpement de techniques de diagnostic non intrusif par tomographie optique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubot, Fabien

    Que ce soit dans les domaines des procedes industriels ou de l'imagerie medicale, on a assiste ces deux dernieres decennies a un developpement croissant des techniques optiques de diagnostic. L'engouement pour ces methodes repose principalement sur le fait qu'elles sont totalement non invasives, qu'elle utilisent des sources de rayonnement non nocives pour l'homme et l'environnement et qu'elles sont relativement peu couteuses et faciles a mettre en oeuvre comparees aux autres techniques d'imagerie. Une de ces techniques est la Tomographie Optique Diffuse (TOD). Cette methode d'imagerie tridimensionnelle consiste a caracteriser les proprietes radiatives d'un Milieu Semi-Transparent (MST) a partir de mesures optiques dans le proche infrarouge obtenues a l'aide d'un ensemble de sources et detecteurs situes sur la frontiere du domaine sonde. Elle repose notamment sur un modele direct de propagation de la lumiere dans le MST, fournissant les predictions, et un algorithme de minimisation d'une fonction de cout integrant les predictions et les mesures, permettant la reconstruction des parametres d'interet. Dans ce travail, le modele direct est l'approximation diffuse de l'equation de transfert radiatif dans le regime frequentiel tandis que les parametres d'interet sont les distributions spatiales des coefficients d'absorption et de diffusion reduit. Cette these est consacree au developpement d'une methode inverse robuste pour la resolution du probleme de TOD dans le domaine frequentiel. Pour repondre a cet objectif, ce travail est structure en trois parties qui constituent les principaux axes de la these. Premierement, une comparaison des algorithmes de Gauss-Newton amorti et de Broyden- Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) est proposee dans le cas bidimensionnel. Deux methodes de regularisation sont combinees pour chacun des deux algorithmes, a savoir la reduction de la dimension de l'espace de controle basee sur le maillage et la regularisation par penalisation de Tikhonov

  1. Optical stimulation of the prostate nerves: A potential diagnostic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozburun, Serhat

    There is wide variability in sexual potency rates (9--86%) after nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery due to limited knowledge of the location of the cavernous nerves (CN's) on the prostate surface, which are responsible for erectile function. Thus, preservation of the CN's is critical in preserving a man's ability to have spontaneous erections following surgery. Nerve-mapping devices, utilizing conventional Electrical Nerve Stimulation (ENS) techniques, have been used as intra-operative diagnostic tools to assist in preservation of the CN. However, these technologies have proven inconsistent and unreliable in identifying the CN's due to the need for physical contact, the lack of spatial selectivity, and the presence of electrical artifacts in measurements. Optical Nerve Stimulation (ONS), using pulsed infrared laser radiation, is studied as an alternative to ENS. The objective of this study is sevenfold: (1) to develop a laparoscopic laser probe for ONS of the CN's in a rat model, in vivo; (2) to demonstrate faster ONS using continuous-wave infrared laser radiation; (3) to describe and characterize the mechanism of successful ONS using alternative laser wavelengths; (4) to test a compact, inexpensive all-single-mode fiber configuration for optical stimulation of the rat CN studies; (5) to implement fiber optic beam shaping methods for comparison of Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles during ONS; (6) to demonstrate successful ONS of CN's through a thin layer of fascia placed over the nerve and prostate gland; and (7) to verify the experimentally determined therapeutic window for safe and reliable ONS without thermal damage to the CN's by comparison with a computational model for thermal damage. A 5.5-Watt Thulium fiber laser operated at 1870 nm and two pigtailed, single mode, near-IR diode lasers (150-mW, 1455-nm laser and 500-mW, 1550-nm laser) were used for non-contact stimulation of the rat CN's. Successful laser stimulation, as measured by an

  2. Tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a technique for combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolshov, M. A.; Kuritsyn, Yu. A.; Romanovskii, Yu. V.

    2015-04-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has become a proven method of rapid gas diagnostics. In the present review an overview of the state of the art of TDL-based sensors and their applications for measurements of temperature, pressure, and species concentrations of gas components in harsh environments is given. In particular, the contemporary tunable diode laser systems, various methods of absorption detection (direct absorption measurements, wavelength modulation based phase sensitive detection), and relevant algorithms for data processing that improve accuracy and accelerate the diagnostics cycle are discussed in detail. The paper demonstrates how the recent developments of these methods and algorithms made it possible to extend the functionality of TDLAS in the tomographic imaging of combustion processes. Some prominent examples of applications of TDL-based sensors in a wide range of practical combustion aggregates, including scramjet engines and facilities, internal combustion engines, pulse detonation combustors, and coal gasifiers, are given in the final part of the review.

  3. Machinery Diagnostics Via Mechanical Vibration Analysis using Spectral Analysis Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    based on the economics of the situation, it is more advantageous to opt for a continuous monitoring system and or there are a very large number of...etc. 3 formats, to systems where permanently installed sensors feed into a computer equipped with diagnostic software. 3. Applictkon to Machinery...the intervals will only be optimal for those units which degrade exactly as does the average unit of the class. Those which perform below average may

  4. Assessment of stable coronary artery disease by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging: Current and emerging techniques

    PubMed Central

    Foley, James R J; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is established in clinical practice guidelines with a growing evidence base supporting its use to aid the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected or established CAD. CMR is a multi-parametric imaging modality that yields high spatial resolution images that can be acquired in any plane for the assessment of global and regional cardiac function, myocardial perfusion and viability, tissue characterisation and coronary artery anatomy, all within a single study protocol and without exposure to ionising radiation. Advances in technology and acquisition techniques continue to progress the utility of CMR across a wide spectrum of cardiovascular disease, and the publication of large scale clinical trials continues to strengthen the role of CMR in daily cardiology practice. This article aims to review current practice and explore the future directions of multi-parametric CMR imaging in the investigation of stable CAD. PMID:28289524

  5. Endoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative technique of taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Canaval Zuleta, Héctor Julián; Company Campins, María M; Dolz Abadía, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Despite a low incidence in developed countries, gastrointestinal taeniasis should be suspected in patients with abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and/or malabsorption of unknown origin, even more so if they come from endemic regions or areas with poor hygienic and alimentary habits. Diagnosis is traditionally reached by identifying the parasite in stools, but more recently both serological and immunological approaches are also available. Based on a patient diagnosed by gastroscopy, a literature review was undertaken of patients diagnosed by endoscopy. We discuss endoscopy as diagnostic modality, and the effectiveness and safety that endoscopic treatment may provide in view of the potential risk for neurocysticercosis.

  6. Action Research to Improve the Learning Space for Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh

    2015-12-01

    The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.

  7. Hypersonic Wake Diagnostics Using Laser Induced Fluorescence Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Jack L.; Sukenik, Charles I.; Balla, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent research performed in iodine that involves a two photon absorption of light at 193 nm will be discussed, and it's potential application to velocimetry measurements in a hypersonic flow field will be described. An alternative seed atom, Krypton, will be presented as a good candidate for performing nonintrusive hypersonic flow diagnostics. Krypton has a metastable state with a lifetime of approximately 43 s which would prove useful for time of flight measurement (TOF) and a sensitivity to collisions that can be utilized for density measurements. Calculations using modest laser energies and experimental values show an efficiency of excited state production to be on the order of 10(exp -6) for a two photon absorption at 193 nm.

  8. Electro-optic techniques in electron beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Toth, Csaba; Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    Electron accelerators such as laser wakefield accelerators, linear accelerators driving free electron lasers, or femto-sliced synchrotrons, are capable of producing femtosecond-long electron bunches. Single-shot characterization of the temporal charge profile is crucial for operation, optimization, and application of such accelerators. A variety of electro-optic sampling (EOS) techniques exists for the temporal analysis. In EOS, the field profile from the electron bunch (or the field profile from its coherent radiation) will be transferred onto a laser pulse co-propagating through an electro-optic crystal. This paper will address the most common EOS schemes and will list their advantages and limitations. Strong points that all techniques share are the ultra-short time resolution (tens of femtoseconds) and the single-shot capabilities. Besides introducing the theory behind EOS, data from various research groups is presented for each technique.

  9. Risk stratification in cardiovascular disease primary prevention - scoring systems, novel markers, and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zannad, Faiez; De Backer, Guy; Graham, Ian; Lorenz, Matthias; Mancia, Giuseppe; Morrow, David A; Reiner, Zeljko; Koenig, Wolfgang; Dallongeville, Jean; Macfadyen, Robert J; Ruilope, Luis M; Wilhelmsen, Lars

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and discuss current methods of risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, emerging biomarkers, and imaging techniques, and their relative merits and limitations. This report is based on discussions that took place among experts in the area during a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy in September 2009. Classical risk factors such as blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels remain the cornerstone of risk estimation in primary prevention but their use as a guide to management is limited by several factors: (i) thresholds for drug treatment vary with the available evidence for cost-effectiveness and benefit-to-risk ratios; (ii) assessment may be imprecise; (iii) residual risk may remain, even with effective control of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Novel measures include C-reactive protein, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) , genetic markers, and markers of subclinical organ damage, for which there are varying levels of evidence. High-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging to assess carotid atherosclerotic lesions have potential but require further validation, standardization, and proof of clinical usefulness in the general population. In conclusion, classical risk scoring systems are available and inexpensive but have a number of limitations. Novel risk markers and imaging techniques may have a place in drug development and clinical trial design. However, their additional value above and beyond classical risk factors has yet to be determined for risk-guided therapy in CVD prevention.

  10. Measurement Techniques for Electrothermal-Chemical Gun Diagnostics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    conductors of a circuit ( Askeland 1985). This technique has been successfully applied to other experimental work including the pressure measurements made in...Fe2O4 ( Askeland 1985). Ferrites are implemented by wrapping the power cords and coaxial data lines of all electronics equipment tightly for several... Askeland , D. R. The Sciece and Engineering of Materials. Prindle, Weber, and Schmidt, 1985. Burden. H. S., and D. D. Shear. "Transient Noise in Electronic

  11. Gearbox diagnostics using wavelet-based windowing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, F. K.; Gaouda, A. M.

    2009-08-01

    In extracting gear box acoustic signals embedded in excessive noise, the need for an online and automated tool becomes a crucial necessity. One of the recent approaches that have gained some acceptance within the research arena is the Wavelet multi-resolution analysis (WMRA). However selecting an accurate mother wavelet, defining dynamic threshold values and identifying the resolution levels to be considered in gearboxes fault detection and diagnosis are still challenging tasks. This paper proposes a novel wavelet-based technique for detecting, locating and estimating the severity of defects in gear tooth fracture. The proposed technique enhances the WMRA by decomposing the noisy data into different resolution levels while data sliding it into Kaiser's window. Only the maximum expansion coefficients at each resolution level are used in de-noising, detecting and measuring the severity of the defects. A small set of coefficients is used in the monitoring process without assigning threshold values or performing signal reconstruction. The proposed monitoring technique has been applied to a laboratory data corrupted with high noise level.

  12. Impact of microvascular obstruction on semiautomated techniques for quantifying acute and chronic myocardial infarction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Rosmini, Stefania; Abdel-Gadir, Amna; Bhuva, Anish N; Treibel, Thomas A; Fontana, Marianna; Weinmann, Shane; Sirker, Alex; Herrey, Anna S; Manisty, Charlotte; Moon, James C; Hausenloy, Derek J

    2016-01-01

    Aims The four most promising semiautomated techniques (5-SD, 6-SD, Otsu and the full width half maximum (FWHM)) were compared in paired acute and follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), taking into account the impact of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and using automated extracellular volume fraction (ECV) maps for reference. Furthermore, their performances on the acute scan were compared against manual myocardial infarct (MI) size to predict adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling (≥20% increase in end-diastolic volume). Methods 40 patients with reperfused ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with a paired acute (4±2 days) and follow-up CMR scan (5±2 months) were recruited prospectively. All CMR analysis was performed on CVI42. Results Using manual MI size as the reference standard, 6-SD accurately quantified acute (24.9±14.0%LV, p=0.81, no bias) and chronic MI size (17.2±9.7%LV, p=0.88, no bias). The performance of FWHM for acute MI size was affected by the acquisition sequence used. Furthermore, FWHM underestimated chronic MI size in those with previous MVO due to the significantly higher ECV in the MI core on the follow-up scans previously occupied by MVO (82 (75–88)% vs 62 (51–68)%, p<0.001). 5-SD and Otsu were precise but overestimated acute and chronic MI size. All techniques were performed with high diagnostic accuracy and equally well to predict adverse LV remodelling. Conclusions 6-SD was the most accurate for acute and chronic MI size and should be the preferred semiautomatic technique in randomised controlled trials. However, 5-SD, FWHM and Otsu could also be used when precise MI size quantification may be adequate (eg, observational studies). PMID:28008358

  13. [THE CYTOMETRIC TECHNIQUE OF BINDING OF EOSIN-5-MALEIMIDE IN DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT SPHEROCYTOSIS].

    PubMed

    Kuzminova, J A; Plyasunova, S A; Jogov, V V; Smetanina, N S

    2016-03-01

    The laboratory diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis is based on detection of spherocytes in peripheral blood, decreasing of index of sphericity, decreasing of osmotic resistance of erythrocytes. The new test of diagnostic of hereditary spherocytosis build on molecular defect was developed on the basis of binding extracellular fragments of protein of band 3 with eosin-5-maleimide (EMA-test). The study was carried out to implement comparative analysis of sensitivity and specificity of techniques applied to diagnose inherent spherocytosis. The sampling of 94 patients with various forms of anemias was analyzed All patients were applied complex clinical laboratory examination including analysis of osmotic resistance of erythrocytes, erythrocytometry and EMA-test as specific techniques of diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis. In 51 out of 94 patients (54%) decreasing of values of EMA-test was detected and in 47 patients diagnosis of inherent spherocytosis was confirmed. The standard values of EMA-test were established in 43 patients (46%) and 12 patients out of them with established diagnosis of inherent spherocytosis. Therefore, sensitivity of EMA-test made up to 79% and specificity - 80%. The most sensitive techniques of diagnostic remain osmotic resistance of erythrocytes (91%) and index of sphericity (up to 96%). But the highest specificity in this respect has EMA-test (80%). Nowadays, none of implemented techniques of diagnostic of inherent spherocytosis can be applied as a universal one. The implementation of complex examination is needed for proper diagnostic of disease.

  14. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    SciTech Connect

    Delogu, R. S. Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G.; Poggi, C.; Rossi, G.

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.

  15. Application of computerized tomography techniques to tokamak diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalker, K. T.; Kelly, J. G.

    1980-08-01

    A Coded Aperture Imaging System (CAIS) has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to image the motion of nuclear fuel rods undergoing tests simulating accident conditions within a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. The tests require that the motion of the test fuel be monitored while it is immersed in a liquid sodium coolant precluding the use of normal optical means of imaging. However, using the fission gamma rays emitted by the fuel itself and coded aperture techniques, images with 1.5 mm radial and 5 mm axial resolution have been attained. Using an electro-optical detection system coupled to a high speed motion picture camera a time resolution of one millisecond can be achieved. This paper will discuss the application of coded aperture imaging to the problem, including the design of the one-dimensional Fresnel zone plate apertures used and the special problems arising from the reactor environment and use of high energy gamma ray photons to form the coded image. Also to be discussed will be the reconstruction techniques employed and the effect of various noise sources on system performance. Finally, some experimental results obtained using the system will be presented.

  16. Myocardial tagging by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance: evolution of techniques--pulse sequences, analysis algorithms, and applications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tagging has been established as an essential technique for measuring regional myocardial function. It allows quantification of local intramyocardial motion measures, e.g. strain and strain rate. The invention of CMR tagging came in the late eighties, where the technique allowed for the first time for visualizing transmural myocardial movement without having to implant physical markers. This new idea opened the door for a series of developments and improvements that continue up to the present time. Different tagging techniques are currently available that are more extensive, improved, and sophisticated than they were twenty years ago. Each of these techniques has different versions for improved resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), scan time, anatomical coverage, three-dimensional capability, and image quality. The tagging techniques covered in this article can be broadly divided into two main categories: 1) Basic techniques, which include magnetization saturation, spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM), delay alternating with nutations for tailored excitation (DANTE), and complementary SPAMM (CSPAMM); and 2) Advanced techniques, which include harmonic phase (HARP), displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), and strain encoding (SENC). Although most of these techniques were developed by separate groups and evolved from different backgrounds, they are in fact closely related to each other, and they can be interpreted from more than one perspective. Some of these techniques even followed parallel paths of developments, as illustrated in the article. As each technique has its own advantages, some efforts have been made to combine different techniques together for improved image quality or composite information acquisition. In this review, different developments in pulse sequences and related image processing techniques are described along with the necessities that led to their invention, which makes this

  17. A Hybrid Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a model-based diagnostic method, which utilizes Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithms, is investigated. Neural networks are applied to estimate the engine internal health, and Genetic Algorithms are applied for sensor bias detection and estimation. This hybrid approach takes advantage of the nonlinear estimation capability provided by neural networks while improving the robustness to measurement uncertainty through the application of Genetic Algorithms. The hybrid diagnostic technique also has the ability to rank multiple potential solutions for a given set of anomalous sensor measurements in order to reduce false alarms and missed detections. The performance of the hybrid diagnostic technique is evaluated through some case studies derived from a turbofan engine simulation. The results show this approach is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  18. Coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering as a flow diagnostic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Graul, J. S.; Lilly, T. C.

    2014-12-09

    Broadband coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) was used to measure translational gas temperatures for nitrogen at the ambient pressure of 0.8 atm using a purpose-built Fabry-Perot etalon spectrometer. Temperatures derived from the CRBS spectral analysis were compared with experimentally-measured temperatures, and were found to be, on average, within 2% of the experimentally-measured value. Axial flow velocities from a double jet at a pressure ratio of 0.38 were also measured by looking at the Doppler shift of the CRBS line shape. With recent developments in chirped laser technology and the capacity of CRBS to simultaneously provide thermodynamic and bulk flow information, the CRBS line shape acquisition and analysis technique presented here may allow for future time-resolved, characterization of aerospace flows.

  19. Computational Diagnostic Techniques for Electromagnetic Scattering: Analytical Imaging, Near Fields, and Surface Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.; Talcott, Noel A., Jr.; Shaeffer, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents three techniques and the graphics implementations which can be used as diagnostic aides in the design and understanding of scattering structures: Imaging, near fields, and surface current displays. The imaging analysis is a new bistatic k space approach which has potential for much greater information than standard experimental approaches. The near field and current analysis are implementations of standard theory while the diagnostic graphics displays are implementations exploiting recent computer engineering work station graphics libraries.

  20. Fiber optic diagnostic techniques applied to electrical discharge machining sparks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillans, B. W.; Evensen, M. H.; Taylor, H. F.; Eubank, P. T.; Ma, Lianxi

    2002-02-01

    Plasma sparks from an electrical discharge machining (EDM) process were observed using fiber optics positioned in the dielectric oil. Measurement techniques were developed to observe the spark in the extremely noisy environment. Optical data were used along with current pulse wave forms from the EDM machine to study the temporal characteristics of the spark in both the pulse time and the pause time. During the pause time, extinction of the sparks was longer than previously thought—perhaps due to the remaining infrared radiation after the collapse of the spark. Further, an optical pattern was identified that indicated in advance when an arc was being formed instead of a spark. Spectral data of the plasma spark was obtained by using a scanning grating spectrometer in conjunction with crosscorrelation to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Average spark temperatures from the spectral data were found to be significantly higher than those previously predicted from energy balances. The results showed a shift in the optical spectra to longer wavelengths during the spark, showing that the spark temperature decreased with time.

  1. Development of detection techniques and diagnostics for airborne carbon nanoparticles.

    SciTech Connect

    Michelsen, Hope A.; Witze, Peter O.; Settersten, Thomas B.

    2003-11-01

    We have recorded time-resolved LII signals from a laminar ethylene diffusion flame over a wide range of laser fluences at 532 nm. We have performed these experiments using an injection-seeded NdYAG laser with a pulse duration of 7 ns. The beam was spatially filtered and imaged into the flame to provide a homogeneous spatial profile. These data were used to aid in the development of a model, which will be used to test the validity of the LII technique under varying environmental conditions. The new model describes the heating of soot particles during the laser pulse and the subsequent cooling of the particles by radiative emission, sublimation, and conduction. The model additionally includes particle heating by oxidation, accounts for the likelihood of particle annealing, and incorporates a mechanism for nonthermal photodesorption, which is required for good agreement with our experimental results. In order to investigate the fast photodesorption mechanism in more detail, we have recorded LII temporal profiles using a regeneratively amplified Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 70 ps to heat the particles and a streak camera with a temporal resolution of {approx}65 ps to collect the signal. Preliminary results confirm earlier indications of a fast mechanism leading to signal decay rates of much less than a nanosecond. Parameters to which the model is sensitive include the initial soot temperature, the temperature of the ambient gas, and the partial pressure of oxygen. In order to narrow the model uncertainties, we have developed a source of soot that allows us to determine and control these parameters. Soot produced by a burner is extracted, diluted, and cooled in a flow tube, which is equipped with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for characterization of the aggregates.

  2. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhou, Yi-Feng; Yang, Peng; Gao, Yan-Sha; Zhao, Gui-Ru; Ren, Shi-Yan; Li, Xian-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein, which is often accompanied by high complication rate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique. Methods: A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly. Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded. Results: The overall success rate (95.7% vs. 96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs. 66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups. In the subclavian vein group, pneumothorax occurred in three patients. The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead. In contrast, there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group. In the patient follow-ups, two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement. The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122), respectively (χ2 = 5.813, P = 0.016). Conclusion: Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02358551; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02358551?term=NCT02358551& rank=1. PMID:27823994

  3. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhao; Norton, James J S; Qazi, Raza; Zou, Zhanan; Ammann, Kaitlyn R; Liu, Hank; Yan, Lingqing; Tran, Phat L; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Zhang, Douglas; Kilian, Kristopher A; Jung, Sung Hee; Bretl, Timothy; Xiao, Jianliang; Slepian, Marvin J; Huang, Yonggang; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Rogers, John A

    2016-11-01

    Physiological mechano-acoustic signals, often with frequencies and intensities that are beyond those associated with the audible range, provide information of great clinical utility. Stethoscopes and digital accelerometers in conventional packages can capture some relevant data, but neither is suitable for use in a continuous, wearable mode, and both have shortcomings associated with mechanical transduction of signals through the skin. We report a soft, conformal class of device configured specifically for mechano-acoustic recording from the skin, capable of being used on nearly any part of the body, in forms that maximize detectable signals and allow for multimodal operation, such as electrophysiological recording. Experimental and computational studies highlight the key roles of low effective modulus and low areal mass density for effective operation in this type of measurement mode on the skin. Demonstrations involving seismocardiography and heart murmur detection in a series of cardiac patients illustrate utility in advanced clinical diagnostics. Monitoring of pump thrombosis in ventricular assist devices provides an example in characterization of mechanical implants. Speech recognition and human-machine interfaces represent additional demonstrated applications. These and other possibilities suggest broad-ranging uses for soft, skin-integrated digital technologies that can capture human body acoustics.

  4. Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhao; Norton, James J. S.; Qazi, Raza; Zou, Zhanan; Ammann, Kaitlyn R.; Liu, Hank; Yan, Lingqing; Tran, Phat L.; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Zhang, Douglas; Kilian, Kristopher A.; Jung, Sung Hee; Bretl, Timothy; Xiao, Jianliang; Slepian, Marvin J.; Huang, Yonggang; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Rogers, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Physiological mechano-acoustic signals, often with frequencies and intensities that are beyond those associated with the audible range, provide information of great clinical utility. Stethoscopes and digital accelerometers in conventional packages can capture some relevant data, but neither is suitable for use in a continuous, wearable mode, and both have shortcomings associated with mechanical transduction of signals through the skin. We report a soft, conformal class of device configured specifically for mechano-acoustic recording from the skin, capable of being used on nearly any part of the body, in forms that maximize detectable signals and allow for multimodal operation, such as electrophysiological recording. Experimental and computational studies highlight the key roles of low effective modulus and low areal mass density for effective operation in this type of measurement mode on the skin. Demonstrations involving seismocardiography and heart murmur detection in a series of cardiac patients illustrate utility in advanced clinical diagnostics. Monitoring of pump thrombosis in ventricular assist devices provides an example in characterization of mechanical implants. Speech recognition and human-machine interfaces represent additional demonstrated applications. These and other possibilities suggest broad-ranging uses for soft, skin-integrated digital technologies that can capture human body acoustics. PMID:28138529

  5. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance for evaluation of heart involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis. A luxury or a valuable diagnostic tool?

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2014-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis, including 3 clinical syndromes: granulomatosis with polyangiitis, known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and the Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). ANCA-related vasculitis usually presents with severe kidney or pulmonary disease, has a mortality of 28% at 5 years, and also contributes to increased morbidity in vasculitis patients. Cardiac involvement in this entity may have different forms, including coronary vessels, pericarditis, myocarditis, endocarditis, myocardial infarction and subendocardial vasculitis that can contribute to reduced life expectancy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance using oedema and fibrosis imaging can early reveal, noninvasively and without radiation, heart involvement during vasculitis, undetected by other imaging techniques and guide further risk stratification and treatment of these patients.

  6. The Sandtray Technique for Swedish Children 1945-1960: Diagnostics, Psychotherapy and Processes of Individualisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karin Zetterqvist

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines the development of a diagnostic and therapeutic technique named The Sandtray at the Erica Foundation, a privately-run child counselling service in Stockholm. Originally it was called The World, developed by the British paediatrician and child psychiatrist Margaret Lowenfeld. In the 1930s it was imported to Sweden,…

  7. Validation of Learning Effort Algorithm for Real-Time Non-Interfering Based Diagnostic Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Shan; Chang, Te-Jeng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to validate the algorithm of learning effort which is an indicator of a new real-time and non-interfering based diagnostic technique. IC3 Mentor, the adaptive e-learning platform fulfilling the requirements of intelligent tutor system, was applied to 165 university students. The learning records of the subjects…

  8. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes

    2017-03-01

    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  9. Calibration techniques for fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Bortolon, A.; Muscatello, C. M.; Ruskov, E.; Grierson, B. A.; Podesta, M.

    2012-10-15

    Fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} measurements are an application of visible charge-exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy that provide information about the energetic ion population. Like other CER diagnostics, the standard intensity calibration is obtained with an integrating sphere during a vacuum vessel opening. An alternative approach is to create plasmas where the fast-ion population is known, then calculate the expected signals with a synthetic diagnostic code. The two methods sometimes agree well but are discrepant in other cases. Different background subtraction techniques and simultaneous measurements of visible bremsstrahlung and of beam emission provide useful checks on the calibrations and calculations.

  10. Improved Signal Processing Technique Leads to More Robust Self Diagnostic Accelerometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Lekki, John; Jaros, Dave; Riggs, Terrence; Evans, Kenneth P.

    2010-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) is a sensor system designed to actively monitor the health of an accelerometer. In this case an accelerometer is considered healthy if it can be determined that it is operating correctly and its measurements may be relied upon. The SDA system accomplishes this by actively monitoring the accelerometer for a variety of failure conditions including accelerometer structural damage, an electrical open circuit, and most importantly accelerometer detachment. In recent testing of the SDA system in emulated engine operating conditions it has been found that a more robust signal processing technique was necessary. An improved accelerometer diagnostic technique and test results of the SDA system utilizing this technique are presented here. Furthermore, the real time, autonomous capability of the SDA system to concurrently compensate for effects from real operating conditions such as temperature changes and mechanical noise, while monitoring the condition of the accelerometer health and attachment, will be demonstrated.

  11. Fabrication of polyurethane and polyurethane based composite fibres by the electrospinning technique for soft tissue engineering of cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kucinska-Lipka, J; Gubanska, I; Janik, H; Sienkiewicz, M

    2015-01-01

    Electrospinning is a unique technique, which provides forming of polymeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering, which include tissue scaffolds for soft tissues of the cardiovascular system. Such artificial soft tissues of the cardiovascular system may possess mechanical properties comparable to native vascular tissues. Electrospinning technique gives the opportunity to form fibres with nm- to μm-scale in diameter. The arrangement of obtained fibres and their surface determine the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. Polyurethanes (PUs) are being commonly used as a prosthesis of cardiovascular soft tissues due to their excellent biocompatibility, non-toxicity, elasticity and mechanical properties. PUs also possess fine spinning properties. The combination of a variety of PU properties with an electrospinning technique, conducted at the well tailored conditions, gives unlimited possibilities of forming novel polyurethane materials suitable for soft tissue scaffolds applied in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This paper can help researches to gain more widespread and deeper understanding of designing electrospinable PU materials, which may be used as cardiovascular soft tissue scaffolds. In this paper we focus on reagents used in PU synthesis designed to increase PU biocompatibility (polyols) and biodegradability (isocyanates). We also describe suggested surface modifications of electrospun PUs, and the direct influence of surface wettability on providing enhanced biocompatibility of scaffolds. We indicate a great influence of electrospinning parameters (voltage, flow rate, working distance) and used solvents (mostly DMF, THF and HFIP) on fibre alignment and diameter - what impacts the biocompatibility and hemocompatibility of such electrospun PU scaffolds. Moreover, we present PU modifications with natural polymers with novel approach applied in electrospinning of PU scaffolds. This work may contribute with further developing of novel electrospun PUs, which may be

  12. Diagnostic Implication and Clinical Relevance of Ancillary Techniques in Clinical Pathology Practice

    PubMed Central

    Makki, Jaafar S.

    2016-01-01

    Hematoxylin–eosin-stained slide preparation is one of the most durable techniques in medicine history, which has remained unchanged since implemented. It allows an accurate microscopic diagnosis of the vast majority of tissue samples. In many circumstances, this technique cannot answer all the questions posed at the initial diagnostic level. The pathologist has always been looking for additional ancillary techniques to answer pending questions. In our daily histopathology practice, we referred to those techniques as special stains, but nowadays, they are more than stains and are collectively called ancillary tests. They include a wide range of techniques starting from histochemical stains and ending in one or more advanced techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, molecular studies, cytogenetic studies, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction. PMID:27042154

  13. In-vitro and in-vivo diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    McClure, Patrick; Elnakib, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Khalifa, Fahmi; Soliman, Ahmed; El-Diasty, Tarek; Suri, Jasjit S; Elmaghraby, Adel; El-Baz, Ayman

    2014-10-01

    This paper overviews one of the most important, interesting, and challenging problems in oncology, early diagnosis of prostate cancer. Developing effective diagnostic techniques for prostate cancer is of great clinical importance and can improve the effectiveness of treatment and increase the patient's chance of survival. The main focus of this study is to overview the different in-vitro and in-vivo technologies for diagnosing prostate cancer. This review discusses the current clinically used in-vitro cancer diagnostic tools, such as biomarker tests and needle biopsies and including their applications, advantages, and limitations. Moreover, the current in-vitro research tools that focus on the role of nanotechnology in prostate cancer diagnosis have been detailed. In addition to the in-vitro techniques, the current study discusses in detail developed in-vivo non-invasive state-of-the-art Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems for prostate cancer based on analyzing Transrectal Ultrasound (TRUS) and different types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), e.g., T2-MRI, Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI), Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE)-MRI, and multi-parametric MRI, focusing on their implementation, experimental procedures, and reported outcomes. Furthermore, the paper addresses the limitations of the current prostate cancer diagnostic techniques, outlines the challenges that these techniques face, and introduces the recent trends to solve these challenges, which include biomarkers used in in-vitro lab-on-a-chip nanotechnology-based methods.

  14. Signal Detection Techniques for Diagnostic Monitoring of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, Thomas; Jong, Jen-Yi

    1986-01-01

    An investigation to develop, implement, and evaluate signal analysis techniques for the detection and classification of incipient mechanical failures in turbomachinery is reviewed. A brief description of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) test/measurement program is presented. Signal analysis techniques available to describe dynamic measurement characteristics are reviewed. Time domain and spectral methods are described, and statistical classification in terms of moments is discussed. Several of these waveform analysis techniques have been implemented on a computer and applied to dynamc signals. A laboratory evaluation of the methods with respect to signal detection capability is described. A unique coherence function (the hyper-coherence) was developed through the course of this investigation, which appears promising as a diagnostic tool. This technique and several other non-linear methods of signal analysis are presented and illustrated by application. Software for application of these techniques has been installed on the signal processing system at the NASA/MSFC Systems Dynamics Laboratory.

  15. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-08-29

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented.

  16. Diagnostic techniques for measurement of aerodynamic noise in free field and reverberant environment of wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Sum, H. M. A.; Mawardi, O. K.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques for studying aerodynamic noise generating mechanisms without disturbing the flow in a free field, and in the reverberation environment of the ARC wind tunnel were investigated along with the design and testing of an acoustic antenna with an electronic steering control. The acoustic characteristics of turbojet as a noise source, detection of direct sound from a source in a reverberant background, optical diagnostic methods, and the design characteristics of a high directivity acoustic antenna. Recommendations for further studies are included.

  17. Closing the diarrhoea diagnostic gap in Indian children by the application of molecular techniques.

    PubMed

    Ajjampur, S S R; Rajendran, P; Ramani, S; Banerjee, I; Monica, B; Sankaran, P; Rosario, V; Arumugam, R; Sarkar, R; Ward, H; Kang, G

    2008-11-01

    A large proportion of diarrhoeal illnesses in children in developing countries are ascribed to an unknown aetiology because the only available methods, such as microscopy and culture, have low sensitivity. This study was aimed at decreasing the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal disease by the application of molecular techniques. Faecal samples from 158 children with and 99 children without diarrhoea in a hospital in South India were tested for enteric pathogens using conventional diagnostic methods (culture, microscopy and enzyme immunoassays) and molecular methods (six PCR-based assays). The additional use of molecular techniques increased identification to at least one aetiological agent in 76.5 % of diarrhoeal specimens, compared with 40.5 % using conventional methods. Rotavirus (43.3 %), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (15.8 %), norovirus (15.8 %) and Cryptosporidium spp. (15.2 %) are currently the most common causes of diarrhoea in hospitalized children in Vellore, in contrast to a study conducted two decades earlier in the same hospital, where bacterial pathogens such as Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp. and enterotoxigenic E. coli were more prevalent. Molecular techniques significantly increased the detection rates of pathogens in children with diarrhoea, but a more intensive study, testing for a wider range of infectious agents and including more information on non-infectious causes of diarrhoea, is required to close the diagnostic gap in diarrhoeal disease.

  18. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Kalchenko, V. V.; Astaf'eva, N. G.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2014-08-01

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials.

  19. Optical diagnostics of vascular reactions triggered by weak allergens using laser speckle-contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu L; Kalchenko, V V; Astaf'eva, N G; Meglinski, I V

    2014-08-31

    The capability of using the laser speckle contrast imaging technique with a long exposure time for visualisation of primary acute skin vascular reactions caused by a topical application of a weak contact allergen is considered. The method is shown to provide efficient and accurate detection of irritant-induced primary acute vascular reactions of skin. The presented technique possesses a high potential in everyday diagnostic practice, preclinical studies, as well as in the prognosis of skin reactions to the interaction with potentially allergenic materials. (laser biophotonics)

  20. Applications of swept-frequency acoustic interferometry technique in chemical diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, D.N.; Springer, K.; Lizon, D.; Hasse, R.

    1996-09-01

    Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry (SFAI) is a noninvasive fluid characterization technique currently being developed for chemical weapons treaty verification. The SFAI technique determines sound speed and sound attenuation in a fluid over a wide frequency range completely noninvasively from outside a container (e.g., pipe, tank, reactor vessel, etc.,). These acoustic parameters, along with their frequency-dependence, can be used to identify various chemicals. This technique can be adapted for a range of chemical diagnostic applications, particularly, in process control where monitoring of acoustic properties of chemicals may provide appropriate feedback information. Both experimental data and theoretical modeling are presented. Examples of several novel applications of the SFAI technique are discussed.

  1. TOF technique for laser-driven proton beam diagnostics for the ELIMED beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milluzzo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Dostal, J.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Velyhan, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Time of Flight (TOF) method for laser-driven ion beam diagnostics has been extensively investigated so far for low energy ion diagnostics and several works, reported in literature [1,2], have shown its efficiency in the measurement of particle beam characteristics such as ion species, energy spectrum and current. Moreover, such technique allows obtaining a shot-to-shot on-line monitoring of optically accelerated particles, necessary to control the reproducibility of the accelerated beam and to deliver a beam suitable for any kind of applications. For this reason, the ELIMED beamline [3,4], which will be entirely developed at INFN-LNS and installed in 2017 within the ion beamline ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration) experimental hall at ELI-Beamlines in Prague, will be equipped with an on-line diagnostics system composed by silicon carbide and diamond detectors, using the TOF technique. In this contribution, the procedure developed for TOF signal analysis will be briefly reported.

  2. Cost-effectiveness analysis for imaging techniques with a focus on cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the need for healthcare cost-containment, increased scrutiny will be placed on new medical therapeutic or diagnostic technologies. Several challenges exist for a new diagnostic test to demonstrate cost-effectiveness. New diagnostic tests differ from therapeutic procedures due to the fact that diagnostic tests do not generally directly affect long-term patient outcomes. Instead, the results of diagnostic tests can influence management decisions for patients and by this route, diagnostic tests indirectly affect long-term outcomes. The benefits from a specific diagnostic technology depend therefore not only on its performance characteristics, but also on other factors such as prevalence of disease, and effectiveness of existing treatments for the disease of interest. We review the concepts and theories of cost-effectiveness analyses (CEA) as they apply to diagnostic tests in general. The limitations of CEA across different study designs and geographic regions are discussed, and we also examine the strengths and weakness of the existing publications where CMR was the focus of CEA compared to other diagnostic options. PMID:23767423

  3. Potential application of emerging diagnostic techniques to the diagnosis of bovine Johne's disease (paratuberculosis).

    PubMed

    Britton, Louise E; Cassidy, Joseph P; O'Donovan, Jim; Gordon, Stephen V; Markey, Bryan

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease (paratuberculosis), a chronic wasting disease in cattle with important welfare, economic and potential public health implications. Current tests are unable to recognise all stages of the disease, which makes it difficult to diagnose and control. This review explores emerging diagnostic techniques that could complement and enhance the diagnosis of MAP infection, including bacteriophage analysis, new MAP-specific antigens, host protein expression in response to infection, transcriptomic studies, analysis of microRNAs and investigation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. It emphasises the inherent challenges of diagnosing bovine Johne's disease and investigates novel areas which may have the potential both to advance our understanding of the immunopathology of MAP infection and to augment current diagnostic tests.

  4. The LeRC rail accelerators: Test designs and diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.; Sturman, J. C.; Wang, S. Y.; Terdan, F. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed.

  5. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  6. A diagnostic technique used to obtain cross range radiation centers from antenna patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. H.; Burnside, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    A diagnostic technique to obtain cross range radiation centers based on antenna radiation patterns is presented. This method is similar to the synthetic aperture processing of scattered fields in the radar application. Coherent processing of the radiated fields is used to determine the various radiation centers associated with the far-zone pattern of an antenna for a given radiation direction. This technique can be used to identify an unexpected radiation center that creates an undesired effect in a pattern; on the other hand, it can improve a numerical simulation of the pattern by identifying other significant mechanisms. Cross range results for two 8' reflector antennas are presented to illustrate as well as validate that technique.

  7. Evaluation of ovine abortion associated with Toxoplasma gondii in Spain by different diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Bueno, J; Quintanilla-Gozalo, A; Pérez-Pérez, V; Alvarez-García, G; Collantes-Fernández, E; Ortega-Mora, L M

    2004-05-07

    A total of 173 aborted ovine foetuses and seven aborted caprine foetuses, submitted from different points of north and central Spain, were analysed to determine the role of T. gondii in abortion and to compare the utility of the most widely used techniques in diagnosis of the congenital infection (histopathology, serology--IFAT and ELISA--and a nested-PCR). Parasite infection was diagnosed in 40 (23.1%; n = 173) ovine foetuses by at least one of the diagnostic techniques used. A higher percentage of foetuses were diagnosed using serological techniques (IFAT and ELISA) (28.3%; n = 106) than by histologic examination (8.7%; n = 173) or PCR (6.9%; n = 173). No significant association between infection and the foetal age categories was found (P > 0.05). In this study, 106 aborted foetuses were analysed by all of the three diagnostic techniques. When we compared serological results, perfect agreement between ELISA and IFAT was obtained. On the contrary, slight to fair agreements were observed when histology results were compared with those obtained by serology and PCR techniques. All the positive foetuses were aborted in the mid (60%) or last (40%) term of pregnancy, but no significant differences were found between ages of the infected and non-infected foetuses (P > 0.05). This report indicates that toxoplasmosis may be a common cause of small ruminant abortion and neonatal death in Spain and points out the necessity of using different and complementary techniques to increase the probability of detecting Toxoplasma infection in an aborted foetus.

  8. Imaging techniques used in the diagnostic workup of acute venous thromboembolic disease.

    PubMed

    Tilve-Gómez, A; Rodríguez-Fernández, P; Trillo-Fandiño, L; Plasencia-Martínez, J M

    2016-12-13

    Early diagnosis is one of the most important factors affecting the prognosis of pulmonary embolism (PE); however, the clinical presentation of PE is often very unspecific and it can simulate other diseases. For these reasons, imaging tests, especially computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the pulmonary arteries, have become the keystone in the diagnostic workup of PE. The wide availability and high diagnostic performance of pulmonary CTA has led to an increase in the number of examinations done and a consequent increase in the population's exposure to radiation and iodinated contrast material. Thus, other techniques such as scintigraphy and venous ultrasonography of the lower limbs, although less accurate, continue to be used in certain circumstances, and optimized protocols have been developed for CTA to reduce the dose of radiation (by decreasing the kilovoltage) and the dose of contrast agents. We describe the technical characteristics and interpretation of the findings for each imaging technique used to diagnose PE and discuss their advantages and limitations; this knowledge will help the best technique to be chosen for each case. Finally, we comment on some data about the increased use of CTA, its clinical repercussions, its "overuse", and doubts about its cost-effectiveness.

  9. A diagnostic analysis of the VVP single-doppler retrieval technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    1995-01-01

    A diagnostic analysis of the VVP (volume velocity processing) retrieval method is presented, with emphasis on understanding the technique as a linear, multivariate regression. Similarities and differences to the velocity-azimuth display and extended velocity-azimuth display retrieval techniques are discussed, using this framework. Conventional regression diagnostics are then employed to quantitatively determine situations in which the VVP technique is likely to fail. An algorithm for preparation and analysis of a robust VVP retrieval is developed and applied to synthetic and actual datasets with high temporal and spatial resolution. A fundamental (but quantifiable) limitation to some forms of VVP analysis is inadequate sampling dispersion in the n space of the multivariate regression, manifest as a collinearity between the basis functions of some fitted parameters. Such collinearity may be present either in the definition of these basis functions or in their realization in a given sampling configuration. This nonorthogonality may cause numerical instability, variance inflation (decrease in robustness), and increased sensitivity to bias from neglected wind components. It is shown that these effects prevent the application of VVP to small azimuthal sectors of data. The behavior of the VVP regression is further diagnosed over a wide range of sampling constraints, and reasonable sector limits are established.

  10. The Incremental Diagnostic Performance of Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Added to Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients with Intermediate-to-High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Pei-Ying; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Cheng, Mei-Fang; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Wu, Yen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have suggested that a combined approach of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can provide diagnostic results with excellent accuracy. We aimed to explore whether the addition of CCTA to stress MPI provides incremental diagnostic value in intermediate-to-high cardiovascular risk patients. Methods A total of 106 consecutive patients (93 male, 65 ± 10.4 years) underwent coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS), CCTA and 201Thallium stress MPI before coronary angiography was reviewed. Thirty-seven patients (34.9%) had a history of proven coronary artery disease (CAD) or revascularization procedures, and four had documented non-significant CAD (3.8%). The remaining patients consisted of 17 (16.0%) classified as intermediate, and 48 (45.3%) as the high-risk groups. Results Obstructive CAD was diagnosed by invasive coronary angiography in 88 patients with 161 vessels. The sensitivity and specificity in a patient-based analysis for obstructive CAD were 99% and 17% for CCTA, 80% and 50% for MPI and 91% and 67% for the combined method, respectively. The per-vessel diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 54% for CCTA, 59% and 75% for MPI and 84% and 76% for the combined method. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) when comparing the combined method with MPI or CCTA by areas under the curve in a patient- or vessel-based analysis. However, CACS of 400 or more could not further stratify the patients with obstructive CAD. Conclusions CCTA, not CACS, provided additional diagnostic values to stress MPI in patients with intermediate-to-high cardiovascular risk. PMID:27122945

  11. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques and Serological Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Loens, Katherine; Ieven, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0 to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies. Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews, have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice. PMID:27064893

  12. A comparison of diagnostic techniques for postpartum endometritis in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Barlund, C S; Carruthers, T D; Waldner, C L; Palmer, C W

    2008-04-01

    Holstein cows (n=221) from eight commercial dairy herds were examined for endometritis between 28 and 41 days postpartum using 5 diagnostic techniques: (1) vaginoscopy; (2) ultrasonographic assessment of uterine fluid volume; (3) ultrasonographic assessment of endometrial thickness; (4) endometrial cytology collected by cytobrush; and (5) endometrial cytology collected by uterine lavage. Concordance correlation was used to evaluate the reliability of cytobrush and lavage cytology. Cytobrush cytology was found to have the greatest intraobserver repeatability (cytobrush, rho(c)=0.85 versus lavage, rho(c)=0.76) and was chosen as the reference diagnostic test. Pregnancy data at 150 days postpartum was available for 189 cows. Survival analysis was used to determine the lowest percentage of polymorphonuclear cells associated with time to pregnancy. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic techniques was determined using pregnancy status at 150 days and cytobrush cytology as the diagnostic standards. The risk of non-pregnancy at 150 days was 1.9 times higher in cows with more than 8% PMNs identified using cytobrush cytology than in cows with less than 8% PMNs (P=0.04). Twenty-one cows of 189 cows (11.1%) had >8% PMNs and were considered to be positive for endometritis. Cows with endometritis had a 17.9% lower first service conception rate (P=0.03) and a 24-day increase in median days open (P=0.04). The sensitivities of all five diagnostic tests relative to 150-day pregnancy status ranged from 7.1 to 14.3% and the specificities from 84.0 to 93.3%. Relative to cytobrush cytology, the respective sensitivity and specificity values are as follows: vaginoscopy (53.9%, 95.4%); lavage cytology (92.3%, 93.9%); ultrasonographic assessment of uterine fluid (30.8%, 92.8%); and ultrasonographic assessment of endometrial thickness (3.9%, 89.2%). Endometritis impaired reproductive performance. Cytobrush cytology was the most reliable method of diagnosing endometritis in cattle.

  13. [Mesenteric ischemia: update of new diagnostic techniques for an old disease, and review of radiological signs].

    PubMed

    Palma Baro, A; Caldevilla Bernardo, D; Parrondo Muiños, C

    2013-01-01

    Acute arterial mesenteric ischemia is a medical emergency associated with a high rate of mortality (> 60%). A diagnostic delay may lead to disease progression, thus it is important to recognize this condition as early as possible. The development of imaging techniques, such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) allows an early diagnosis to be made as it detects typical radiographic signs such as, the presence of a thrombus within the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), pneumatosis in bowel loops, and air in the interior of the superior mesenteric and portal veins. It is important to know of these new imaging techniques applications and the typical radiographic signs of this disease as it is an emergency which, if confirmed, could lead to performing urgent surgery to prevent progression to intestinal necrosis and a possible fatal outcome.

  14. A pattern-recognition-based, fault-tolerant monitoring and diagnostic technique

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; King, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    A properly designed monitoring and diagnostic system must be capable of detecting and distinguishing sensor and process malfunctions in the presence of signal noise, varying process states and multiple faults. The technique presented in this paper addresses these objectives through the implementation of a multivariate state estimation algorithm based upon pattern recognition methodology coupled with a statistically-based hypothesis test. Utilizing a residual signal vector generated from the difference between the estimated and measured current states of a process, disturbances are detected and identified with statistical hypothesis testing. Since the hypothesis testing utilizes the inherent noise on the signals to obtain a conclusion and the state estimation algorithm requires only a majority of the sensors to be functioning to ascertain the current state, this technique has proven to be quite robust and fault-tolerant. Several examples of its application are presented.

  15. Diagnostic procedures in tularaemia with special focus on molecular and immunological techniques.

    PubMed

    Splettstoesser, W D; Tomaso, H; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Schuff-Werner, P

    2005-08-01

    Tularaemia is a severe bacterial zoonosis caused by the highly infectious agent Francisella tularensis. It is endemic in countries of the northern hemisphere ranging from North America to Europe, Asia and Japan. Very recently, Francisella-like strains causing disease in humans were described from tropical northern Australia. In the last decade, efforts have been made to develop sensitive and specific immunological and molecular techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of tularaemia and also for the definite identification of members of the species F. tularensis and its four subspecies. Screening for the keyword 'Francisella' a Medline search over the last decade was performed and articles describing diagnostic methods for tularaemia and its causative agent were selected. Besides classical microbiological techniques (cultivation, biochemical profiling, susceptibility testing) several new immunological and molecular approaches to identify F. tularensis have been introduced employing highly specific antibodies and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Whereas direct antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence might allow early presumptive diagnosis of tularaemia, these methods--like all PCR techniques--still await further evaluation. Therefore, diagnosis of tularaemia still relies mainly on the demonstration of specific antibodies in the host. ELISA and immunoblot methods started to replace the standard tube or micro-agglutination assays. However, the diagnostic value of antibody detection in the very early clinical phase of tularaemia is limited. Francisella tularensis is regarded as a 'highest priority' biological agent (category 'A' according to the CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA), thus rapid and reliable diagnosis of tularaemia is required not only for a timely onset of therapy, the handling of outbreak investigations but also for the surveillance of endemic foci. Only very recently, evaluated test kits for

  16. The Role of Flow Diagnostic Techniques in Fan and Open Rotor Noise Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2016-01-01

    A principal source of turbomachinery noise is the interaction of the rotating and stationary blade rows with the perturbations in the airstream through the engine. As such, a lot of research has been devoted to the study of the turbomachinery noise generation mechanisms. This is particularly true of fan and open rotors, both of which are the major contributors to the overall noise output of modern aircraft engines. Much of the research in fan and open rotor noise has been focused on developing theoretical models for predicting their noise characteristics. These models, which run the gamut from the semi-empirical to fully computational ones, are, in one form or another, informed by the description of the unsteady flow-field in which the propulsors (i.e., the fan and open rotors) operate. Not surprisingly, the fidelity of the theoretical models is dependent, to a large extent, on capturing the nuances of the unsteady flowfield that have a direct role in the noise generation process. As such, flow diagnostic techniques have proven to be indispensible in identifying the shortcoming of theoretical models and in helping to improve them. This presentation will provide a few examples of the role of flow diagnostic techniques in assessing the fidelity and robustness of the fan and open rotor noise prediction models.

  17. Electron density measurements in very electronegative plasmas using different diagnostic techniques: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Lafleur, Trevor; Aanesland, Ane

    2016-09-01

    Very electronegative plasmas (known as ``ion-ion'' plasmas) are used in different applications including material processing, space propulsion and thermonuclear fusion. Diagnostics of ion-ion plasmas can be performed using different probe techniques, including Langmuir and hairpin probes, RF, microwave and optical diagnostics. However, in certain applications (for example, in the electronegative thruster PEGASES), the electron density is too low (<1012m-3) to be reliably measured by these standard techniques. This is further complicated by the presence of strong, non-homogeneous, magnetic fields in the plasma ( 200 G) and the relatively small plasma size (few cm). In this work we compare results achieved with a Langmuir probe, and with an independent measurement of the electron density using a matched dipole probe. Measurements are performed in an SF6 plasma with an electronegativity in the range between a few hundred to a few thousand. We show here that though the model itself can correctly describe the plasma-probe interactions, there is a critical value of plasma electronegativity above which the electron density measured with a Langmuir probe can give only an upper limit estimation.

  18. Application of Data Mining techniques to relate Cardiovascular Risk and Coronary Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lujan, F. N.; Cymberknop, L. J.; Alfonso, M.; Legnani, W.; Armentano Feijoo, R.

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) constitutes a process that allows data sets to be modeled and analyzed in an automated and exploratory manner. In this sense, data mining can be considered the main core of this procedure. Objective: In this study, a classification of clinical subjects (cluster) based on the comparison of parameters associated to cardiovascular risk factors was performed by means of KDD-based algorithms. Materials and Methods: the K-means algorithm, Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering and Kohonen’s Self-organizing Maps were applied to the database in order to obtain relationships based on the dissimilarity of its constitutive fields. Results: Four different clusters were obtained, represented by a group of well-defined clustering rules. Conclusion: KDD can be used to extract relevant data from clinical databases, which are strongly correlated with well-known cardiovascular risk markers.

  19. Comparison of Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Combined with Relaxation and Meditation Techniques on Reduction of Depression and Anxiety of Cardiovascular Patients

    PubMed Central

    Delui, Mahdy Hassanzadeh; Yari, Maliheh; khouyinezhad, Gholamreza; Amini, Maral; Bayazi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death in developed countries. Most cardiac rehabilitation programs include psychological interventions. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation techniques in cardiac patients including psychological-physical interventions such as Meditation and Relaxation. We enrolled 45 patients with CVD and depression. The patients were allocated to 3 groups (Relaxation, Meditation and Control). There was a significant reduction on depression, systolic blood pressure and heart rate in the Meditation group compared with the control group. Our findings suggest that meditation techniques have better outcomes in cardiac patients for improving depression, reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate than relaxation techniques. PMID:24179555

  20. Modification of a Common BAL Technique to Enhance Sample Diagnostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Singletary, Morgan L; Phillippi-Falkenstein, Kathrine M; Scanlon, Elizabeth; Bohm, Rudolf P; Veazey, Ronald S; Gill, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by means of bronchoscopy is a diagnostic tool frequently used for clinical and research purposes in nonhuman primates. Although many institutions use this procedure, the technique is not standardized. One technical aspect that can vary is the method by which fluid is recovered. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences between 2 different BAL aspiration techniques. Bronchoscopy and BAL fluid collection were performed on 20 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Data collected for comparison included heart rate, oxygen saturation levels, rectal temperature, volume of fluid collected, total cell count, cell viability, differential cell count, and flow cytometry. Results showed no significant differences in the heart rate, oxygen saturation, or body temperature between the 2 groups. Likewise, differential cell counts and cell viability studies of the retrieved fluid did not differ between methods. Compared with the conventional technique, the modified aspiration technique led to an 8.3% increase in overall fluid yield and a higher concentration of cells recovered. These differences are statistically significant and likely will be clinically relevant in the context of diagnosis. PMID:18947171

  1. Polarization-based optical imaging and processing techniques with application to the cancer diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang L.; Li, Yanfang; Cameron, Brent D.

    2002-06-01

    In this investigation, a polarization-based imaging system is developed and described that measures the two-dimensional effective backscattering Mueller matrix of a sample in near real-time. As is well known, a Mueller matrix can provide considerable information on the makeup and optical characteristics of a sample and also directly describes how the sample transforms an incident light beam. The ability to measure the two-dimensional Mueller matrix of a biological sample, therefore, can provide considerable information on the sample composition as well as the potential to reveal significant structural information that normally would not be visible through standard imaging techniques. Additional information can also be obtained through the application of image-processing, decomposition, and reconstruction techniques that operate directly on the 2D Mueller matrix. Using the developed system, it is shown how the induction of internal strain within the sample coupled with image reconstruction and decomposition techniques can further improve image contrast and aid in the detection of boundaries between tissues of different biomechanical and structural properties. The studies presented were performed with both rat tissue and a melanoma-based tissue culture. The results demonstrate how these techniques could provide information that may be of diagnostic value in the physical detection of malignant lesion boundaries.

  2. Application of multivariate data-analysis techniques to biomedical diagnostics based on mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqun; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this contribution is to review the application of advanced multivariate data-analysis techniques in the field of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic biomedical diagnosis. MIR spectroscopy is a powerful chemical analysis tool for detecting biomedically relevant constituents such as DNA/RNA, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, etc., and even diseases or disease progression that may induce changes in the chemical composition or structure of biological systems including cells, tissues, and bio-fluids. However, MIR spectra of multiple constituents are usually characterized by strongly overlapping spectral features reflecting the complexity of biological samples. Consequently, MIR spectra of biological samples are frequently difficult to interpret by simple data-analysis techniques. Hence, with increasing complexity of the sample matrix more sophisticated mathematical and statistical data analysis routines are required for deconvoluting spectroscopic data and for providing useful results from information-rich spectroscopic signals. A large body of work relates to the combination of multivariate data-analysis techniques with MIR spectroscopy, and has been applied by a variety of research groups to biomedically relevant areas such as cancer detection and analysis, artery diseases, biomarkers, and other pathologies. The reported results indeed reveal a promising perspective for more widespread application of multivariate data analysis in assisting MIR spectroscopy as a screening or diagnostic tool in biomedical research and clinical studies. While the authors do not mean to ignore any relevant contributions to biomedical analysis across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, they confine the discussion in this contribution to the mid-infrared spectral range as a potentially very useful, yet underutilized frequency region. Selected representative examples without claiming completeness will demonstrate a range of biomedical diagnostic applications with particular

  3. Upgrades of Diagnostic Techniques and Technologies for JET next D-T Campaigns

    SciTech Connect

    Murari, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    . With regard to the fusion products, JET now can deploy a consistent set of techniques to measure the neutron yield and neutron spectra and to diagnose the fast particles. A full calibration of the neutron diagnostics with a 14 MeV source is being considered, after the recent very successful calibration for the 2.45 MeV neutrons. Vertical and horizontal lines of sight are foreseen for neutron and gamma spectrometry, in order to better determine the thermal neutron yield and to separate the trapped and passing components of the alphas. Various gamma ray spectrometers are being developed to cover all the various operational scenarios, from trace tritium to 50-50 D-T operation. The redistribution of the alphas will be measured with the gamma ray cameras, recently upgraded with full digital electronics; new detectors are being considered to bring the time resolution of the system in the ten of ms range. The lost alphas will also be diagnosed with improved spatial and temporal resolution, using Faraday cups and a scintillator probe. From a technological perspective, the D-T campaign will provide a unique opportunity to test ITER relevant technologies. From radiation hard detectors, for example Hall probes, to neutron absorbers and to shielding concepts, the potential of various solutions in a realistic 14 MeV radiation field will be assessed. The effects of neutrons and gamma on ancillary technologies and systems, such as fibre optics and electronics circuits, are also expected to be sufficiently high to derive useful information about the competitive advantage of various alternatives.

  4. Evaluation of Temporal Diagnostic Techniques for Two-Bunch Facet Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, M.D.; Bionta, M.R.; Dolgashev, V.A.; England, R.J.; Fritz, D.; Gilevich, S.; Hering, Ph.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Three temporal diagnostic techniques are considered for use in the FACET facility at SLAC, which will incorporate a unique two-bunch beam for plasma wakefield acceleration experiments. The results of these experiments will depend strongly on the the inter-bunch spacing as well as the longitudinal profiles of the two bunches. A reliable, singleshot, high resolution measurement of the beam's temporal profile is necessary to fully quantify the physical mechanisms underlying the beam driven plasma wakefield acceleration. In this study we show that a transverse deflecting cavity is the diagnostic which best meets our criteria. Based on our laboratory testing, numerical calculations, and simulations of the three single-shot temporal diagnostic devices, the X-band TCAV system is the best candidate for resolving FACET's two-bunch beam, with an estimated resolution of 7 {micro}m. Both the S-band TCAV system and the EO system could resolve the peak-to-peak separation of the two bunches in the FACET beam with estimated resolutions of 25 {micro}m and 30 {micro}m, respectively, but would be unable to resolve the temporal profiles of the individual bunches themselves. Because the TCAV signal is more easily interpreted and because the reliability of the EO system is less well known, however, the S-band TCAV system would be the next preferred option after the X-band TCAV system. The Fesca-200 streak camera, though simple, compact, and reliable, is unable to achieve a resolution that would be of use to FACET.

  5. Investigation of Lamp Mapping Technique for Calibration and Diagnostics of Raman LIDAR Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Monique

    Raman Lidar systems provide water vapor measurements that can be used for weather forecasting and atmospheric modeling. Most of the accuracy of Raman Lidar water vapor data is dependent on a secondary instrument such as the radiosonde. Here we discuss the use of the standard lamp mapping technique as it applies to Raman Lidar data. Using the standard lamp mapping technique causes the Raman Lidar water vapor data to rely on the accuracy of the fundamental Raman cross sections and the accuracy of the detection system. To be more specific we discuss how the lamp mapping technique (LMT) is used to determine a Raman Lidar water vapor mixing ratio calibration constant, correct a look-up table that could potentially be used to determine atmospheric temperatures based on Lidar measurements, determine a Lidar overlap function, determine Lidar glue coefficients and serve as a Raman Lidar diagnostic test. The mapping technique discussed here is a standard lamp being scanned over the aperture of a Raman Lidar telescope. From the mapping technique we are able to determine a system efficiency for the Lidar detection system, which allows us to perform the functions mentioned above. These various studies were conducted on two Raman Lidar systems with different optical detection systems and configurations. The water vapor mixing ratio calibration determined using the LMT and glue coefficients determined using the LMT showed good agreement with the traditional methods. In addition the LMT has shown to be an excellent diagnostic tool for Lidar systems. Furthermore, we were able to determine an overlap function for the Lidar system single optical channels and also the overlap function for water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) using the LMT. Lastly, there was a limitation that did not allow us to obtain temperature calibration constants for Lidar-based temperature measurements using a look-up table corrected by the LMT. However, we were able to determine the detector response of the two

  6. Z-pinch diagnostics, plasma and liner instabilities and new x-ray techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Oona, H.; Anderson, B.; Benage, J.

    1996-09-01

    Pulse power experiments of the last several decades have contributed greatly to the understanding of high temperature and high density plasmas and, more recently, to the study of hydrodynamic effects in thick imploding cylinders. Common to all these experiments is the application of a large current pulse to a cylindrically symmetric load, with the resulting Lorenz force compressing the load to produce hydrodynamic motion and/or high temperature, high density plasma. In Los Alamos, Pulsed power experiments are carried out at two facilities. Experiments at low current (from several million to ten million Amperes) are conducted on the Pegasus II capacitor bank. Experiments with higher currents (10`s to 100`s MA range) are performed in Ancho Canyon with the explosively driven Procyon and MAGO magnetic flux compression generator systems. In this paper, the authors present a survey of diagnostic capabilities and results from several sets of experiments. First, they discuss the initiation and growth of instabilities in plasmas generated from the implosion of hollow z-pinches in the pegasus and Procyon experiments. Next they discuss spectroscopic data from the plasmas produced by the MAGO system. They also show time resolved imaging data from thick ({approximately} .4 mm) liner implosions. Finally, the authors discuss improvements to x-ray and visible light imaging and spectrographic diagnostic techniques. The emphasis of this paper is not so much a detailed discussion of the experiments, but a presentation of imaging and spectroscopic results and the implications of these observations to the experiments.

  7. Piriformis syndrome: implications of anatomical variations, diagnostic techniques, and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Lindsey; Walters, Andrew; Bubb, Kathleen; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2012-08-01

    Details of piriformis syndrome, including the proper diagnosis and most effective form of treatment, continue to be controversial. While the cause, diagnosis, and treatment of piriformis syndrome remain elusive, many studies have been conducted to investigate newly developed diagnostic techniques as well as various treatment options for piriformis-induced sciatica. Despite the quantity of literature, few studies have demonstrated statistically significant results that support one form of treatment over another. Thus, despite the evidence supporting the newer treatment methodologies for piriformis syndrome, research should continue. It is important not only to evaluate treatment outcomes based on associated pain relief, but also to investigate the functional and anatomical return that patients experience from these studied treatments in order to fully explore the most effective form of therapy for piriformis syndrome.

  8. Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali

    2013-01-01

    Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:24575126

  9. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  10. Uncertainty Management for Diagnostics and Prognostics of Batteries using Bayesian Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Goebel, kai

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty management has always been the key hurdle faced by diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. A Bayesian treatment of this problem provides an elegant and theoretically sound approach to the modern Condition- Based Maintenance (CBM)/Prognostic Health Management (PHM) paradigm. The application of the Bayesian techniques to regression and classification in the form of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), and to state estimation as in Particle Filters (PF), provides a powerful tool to integrate the diagnosis and prognosis of battery health. The RVM, which is a Bayesian treatment of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), is used for model identification, while the PF framework uses the learnt model, statistical estimates of noise and anticipated operational conditions to provide estimates of remaining useful life (RUL) in the form of a probability density function (PDF). This type of prognostics generates a significant value addition to the management of any operation involving electrical systems.

  11. Nonlinear imaging techniques as non-destructive, high-resolution diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, G.; Tserevelakis, G. J.; Selimis, A.; Fotakis, C.

    2015-02-01

    Here, we present a review of the implementation of nonlinear imaging microscopy techniques such as second and third harmonic generation (SHG-THG) and multi-photon excitation fluorescence (MPEF), as high-resolution, non-invasive diagnostic tools for cultural heritage studies. Specifically, the above nonlinear modalities are employed for the precise three-dimensional (3D) delineation of the protective layers bulk in model multilayer painting artworks. The high axial resolution thickness determination of protective layers through the use of THG imaging and the identification of the chemical composition of the artefacts via MPEF measurements are depicted. Furthermore, we reveal the potential of MPEF imaging measurements for the identification of the corrosion layers in silver-based artefacts. Finally, nonlinear modalities are employed for the assessment of the affected region and the obtainment of depth information during laser cleaning of polymeric coatings.

  12. Evaluation of Possible Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Diagnostic Techniques for Tokamak Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    S.J. Zweben; T.W. Kornack; D. Majeski; G. Schilling; C.H. Skinner; R. Wilson

    2002-08-05

    Potential applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diagnostic techniques to tokamak experiments are evaluated. NMR frequencies for hydrogen isotopes and low-Z nuclei in such experiments are in the frequency range approximately equal to 20-200 MHz, so existing RF [radio-frequency] antennas could be used to rotate the spin polarization and to make the NMR measurements. Our tentative conclusion is that such measurements are possible if highly spin polarized H or (superscript)3He gas sources (which exist) are used to fuel these plasmas. In addition, NMR measurements of the surface layers of the first wall (without plasma) may also be possible, e.g., to evaluate the inventory of tritium inside the vessel.

  13. Profiling local optima in K-means clustering: developing a diagnostic technique.

    PubMed

    Steinley, Douglas

    2006-06-01

    Using the cluster generation procedure proposed by D. Steinley and R. Henson (2005), the author investigated the performance of K-means clustering under the following scenarios: (a) different probabilities of cluster overlap; (b) different types of cluster overlap; (c) varying samples sizes, clusters, and dimensions; (d) different multivariate distributions of clusters; and (e) various multidimensional data structures. The results are evaluated in terms of the Hubert-Arabie adjusted Rand index, and several observations concerning the performance of K-means clustering are made. Finally, the article concludes with the proposal of a diagnostic technique indicating when the partitioning given by a K-means cluster analysis can be trusted. By combining the information from several observable characteristics of the data (number of clusters, number of variables, sample size, etc.) with the prevalence of unique local optima in several thousand implementations of the K-means algorithm, the author provides a method capable of guiding key data-analysis decisions.

  14. High density lipoproteins: Measurement techniques and potential biomarkers of cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) comprises a heterogeneous family of lipoprotein species, differing in surface charge, size and lipid and protein compositions. While HDL cholesterol (C) mass is a strong, graded and coherent biomarker of cardiovascular risk, genetic and clinical trial data suggest that the simple measurement of HDL-C may not be causal in preventing atherosclerosis nor reflect HDL functionality. Indeed, the measurement of HDL-C may be a biomarker of cardiovascular health. To assess the issue of HDL function as a potential therapeutic target, robust and simple analytical methods are required. The complex pleiotropic effects of HDL make the development of a single measurement challenging. Development of laboratory assays that accurately HDL function must be developed validated and brought to high-throughput for clinical purposes. This review discusses the limitations of current laboratory technologies for methods that separate and quantify HDL and potential application to predict CVD, with an emphasis on emergent approaches as potential biomarkers in clinical practice. PMID:26674734

  15. Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

  16. Reducing beam shaper alignment complexity: diagnostic techniques for alignment and tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.

    2011-10-01

    Safe and efficient optical alignment is a critical requirement for industrial laser systems used in a high volume manufacturing environment. Of specific interest is the development of techniques to align beam shaping optics within a beam line; having the ability to instantly verify by a qualitative means that each element is in its proper position as the beam shaper module is being aligned. There is a need to reduce these types of alignment techniques down to a level where even a newbie to optical alignment will be able to complete the task. Couple this alignment need with the fact that most laser system manufacturers ship their products worldwide and the introduction of a new set of variables including cultural and language barriers, makes this a top priority for manufacturers. Tools and methodologies for alignment of complex optical systems need to be able to cross these barriers to ensure the highest degree of up time and reduce the cost of maintenance on the production floor. Customers worldwide, who purchase production laser equipment, understand that the majority of costs to a manufacturing facility is spent on system maintenance and is typically the largest single controllable expenditure in a production plant. This desire to reduce costs is driving the trend these days towards predictive and proactive, not reactive maintenance of laser based optical beam delivery systems [10]. With proper diagnostic tools, laser system developers can develop proactive approaches to reduce system down time, safe guard operational performance and reduce premature or catastrophic optics failures. Obviously analytical data will provide quantifiable performance standards which are more precise than qualitative standards, but each have a role in determining overall optical system performance [10]. This paper will discuss the use of film and fluorescent mirror devices as diagnostic tools for beam shaper module alignment off line or in-situ. The paper will also provide an overview

  17. Sportsmen’s Groin—Diagnostic Approach and Treatment With the Minimal Repair Technique

    PubMed Central

    Muschaweck, Ulrike; Berger, Luise Masami

    2010-01-01

    Context: Sportsmen’s groin, also called sports hernia and Gilmore groin, is one of the most frequent sports injuries in athletes and may place an athletic career at risk. It presents with acute or chronic groin pain exacerbated with physical activity. So far, there is little consensus regarding pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, or treatment. There have been various attempts to explain the cause of the groin pain. The assumption is that a circumscribed weakness in the posterior wall of the inguinal canal, which leads to a localized bulge, induces a compression of the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve, considered responsible for the symptoms. Methods: The authors developed an innovative open suture repair—the Minimal Repair technique—to fit the needs of professional athletes. With this technique, the circumscribed weakness of the posterior wall of the inguinal canal is repaired by an elastic suture; the compression on the nerve is abolished, and the cause of the pain is removed. In contrast with that of common open suture repairs, the defect of the posterior wall is not enlarged, the suture is nearly tension free, and the patient can return to full training and athletic activity within a shorter time. The outcome of patients undergoing operations with the Minimal Repair technique was compared with that of commonly used surgical procedures. Results: The following advantages of the Minimal Repair technique were found: no insertion of prosthetic mesh, no general anesthesia required, less traumatization, and lower risk of severe complications with equal or even faster convalescence. In 2009, a prospective cohort of 129 patients resumed training in 7 days and experienced complete pain relief in an average of 14 days. Professional athletes (67%) returned to full activity in 14 days (median). Conclusion: The Minimal Repair technique is an effective and safe way to treat sportsmen’s groin. PMID:23015941

  18. Unravelling cardiovascular disease using four dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Kamphuis, Vivian P; Westenberg, Jos J M; van der Palen, Roel L F; Blom, Nico A; de Roos, Albert; van der Geest, Rob; Elbaz, Mohammed S M; Roest, Arno A W

    2016-11-25

    Knowledge of normal and abnormal flow patterns in the human cardiovascular system increases our understanding of normal physiology and may help unravel the complex pathophysiological mechanisms leading to cardiovascular disease. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a suitable technique that enables visualization of in vivo blood flow patterns and quantification of parameters that could potentially be of prognostic value in the disease process. In this review, current image processing tools that are used for comprehensive visualization and quantification of blood flow and energy distribution in the heart and great vessels will be discussed. Also, imaging biomarkers extracted from 4D flow CMR will be reviewed that have been shown to distinguish between normal and abnormal flow patterns. Furthermore, current applications of 4D flow CMR in the heart and great vessels will be discussed, showing its potential as an additional diagnostic modality which could aid in disease management and timing of surgical intervention.

  19. A pilot study using laser-based technique for non-invasive diagnostics of hypertensive conditions in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, Karina S.; Ahmad, Shakil; Wang, Keqing; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Zhang, Lin; Rafailov, Edik U.; Ahmed, Asif

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is directly linked to preeclampsia, a maternal hypertensive condition that is life threating for both the mother and the baby. Epidemiological studies show that women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Here we report a new non-invasive diagnostic test for preeclampsia in mice that allows us to non-invasively assess the condition of the animals during the experiment and treatment in established models of preeclampsia. A laser-based multifunctional diagnostics system (LAKK-M) was chosen to carry out non-invasive analysis of multiple parameters. The device was used to simultaneously record the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen saturation, as well as fluorescence levels of endogenous fluorophores. Preliminary experiments were conducted on adenoviral (Ad-)- mediated overexpression of sFlt-1 (Ad-sFlt-1) to mimic preeclampsialike symptoms in mice. The recorded data displayed the ability of the LAKK-M diagnostics device to detect significant differences in perfusion measurements between the control and Ad-sFlt-1 treatment. Preliminary results provide a potential avenue to employ these diagnostics technology to monitor and aid in maintaining control of live animal conditions throughout the experiment and treatment.

  20. Extending battery life: A low-cost practical diagnostic technique for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merla, Yu; Wu, Billy; Yufit, Vladimir; Brandon, Nigel P.; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo F.; Offer, Gregory J.

    2016-11-01

    Modern applications of lithium-ion batteries such as smartphones, hybrid & electric vehicles and grid scale electricity storage demand long lifetime and high performance which typically makes them the limiting factor in a system. Understanding the state-of-health during operation is important in order to optimise for long term durability and performance. However, this requires accurate in-operando diagnostic techniques that are cost effective and practical. We present a novel diagnosis method based upon differential thermal voltammetry demonstrated on a battery pack made from commercial lithium-ion cells where one cell was deliberately aged prior to experiment. The cells were in parallel whilst being thermally managed with forced air convection. We show for the first time, a diagnosis method capable of quantitatively determining the state-of-health of four cells simultaneously by only using temperature and voltage readings for both charge and discharge. Measurements are achieved using low-cost thermocouples and a single voltage measurement at a frequency of 1 Hz, demonstrating the feasibility of implementing this approach on real world battery management systems. The technique could be particularly useful under charge when constant current or constant power is common, this therefore should be of significant interest to all lithium-ion battery users.

  1. A specifically designed nanoconstruct associates, internalizes, traffics in cardiovascular cells, and accumulates in failing myocardium: a new strategy for heart failure diagnostics and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Esparza, Guillermo U.; Segura-Ibarra, Victor; Cordero-Reyes, Andrea M.; Youker, Keith A.; Serda, Rita E.; Cruz-Solbes, Ana S.; Amione-Guerra, Javier; Yokoi, Kenji; Kirui, Dickson K.; Cara, Francisca E.; Paez-Mayorga, Jesus; Flores-Arredondo, Jose H.; Guerrero-Beltrán, Carlos E.; Garcia-Rivas, Gerardo; Ferrari, Mauro; Blanco, Elvin; Torre-Amione, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Aims Ongoing inflammation and endothelial dysfunction occurs within the local microenvironment of heart failure, creating an appropriate scenario for successful use and delivery of nanovectors. This study sought to investigate whether cardiovascular cells associate, internalize, and traffic a nanoplatform called mesoporous silicon vector (MSV), and determine its intravenous accumulation in cardiac tissue in a murine model of heart failure. Methods and results In vitro cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of MSVs was examined by scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, time-lapse microscopy, and flow cytometry in cardiac myocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. The MSVs were internalized within the first hours, and trafficked to perinuclear regions in all the cell lines. Cytotoxicity was investigated by annexin V and cell cycle assays. No significant evidence of toxicity was found. In vivo intravenous cardiac accumulation of MSVs was examined by high content fluorescence and confocal microscopy, with results showing increased accumulation of particles in failing hearts compared with normal hearts. Similar to observations in vitro, MSVs were able to associate, internalize, and traffic to the perinuclear region of cardiomyocytes in vivo. Conclusions Results show that MSVs associate, internalize, and traffic in cardiovascular cells without any significant toxicity. Furthermore, MSVs accumulate in failing myocardium after intravenous administration, reaching intracellular regions of the cardiomyocytes. These findings represent a novel avenue to develop nanotechnology-based therapeutics and diagnostics in heart failure. PMID:26749465

  2. Development and applications of laser spectroscopic techniques related to combustion diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldén, Marcus

    2006-07-01

    Thanks to features as non-intrusiveness combined with high spatial and temporal resolution, various laser diagnostic techniques have during the last decades become of utmost importance for characterization of combustion related phenomena. In the following presentation some further development of the techniques will be highlighted aiming at a) surface temperatures using Thermographic Phosphors, TP, b) species specific, spatially and temporally resolved detection of species absorbing in the IR spectral region using polarization spectroscopy and Laser-induced fluorescence, and finally c) high speed visualization using a special designed laser system in combination with a framing camera. In terms of surface thermometry, Thermographic Phosphors have been used for many years for temperature measurements on solid surfaces. We have during the last years further developed and applied this technique for temperature measurements on burning surfaces and on materials going through phase shifts, e.g. pyrolysis and droplets. The basic principle behind this technique is to apply micron size particles to the surface of interest. By exciting the TP with a short pulse UV laser (ns), the phosphorescence will exhibit a behaviour where the spectral emission as well as the temporal decay are dependent on the temperature. It is thus possible to measure the temperature both in one and two dimensions. The presentation will include basic description of the technique as well as various applications, e.g in fire science, IC engines and gasturbines. Several of the species of interest for combustion/flow diagnostics exhibit a molecular structure which inhibits the use of conventional laser-induced fluorescence for spatially and spectrally resolved measurements. We have during the last years investigated the use of excitation and detection in the infrared region of the spectrum. Here, it is possible to detect both carbonmono/dioxide, water as well as species specific hydrocarbons. The techniques

  3. [Animal models of cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Chorro, Francisco J; Such-Belenguer, Luis; López-Merino, Vicente

    2009-01-01

    The use of animal models to study cardiovascular disease has made a substantial contribution to increasing our understanding of disease pathogenesis, has led to the development of diagnostic techniques, and has made it possible to verify the effectiveness of different preventative and therapeutic approaches, whether pharmacological or interventional. The main limitations stem from differences between human and experimentally induced pathology, in terms of both genetic regulatory mechanisms and factors that influence cardiovascular function. The experimental models and preparations used in cardiovascular research include those based on isolated cells or tissues or structures immersed in organ baths. The Langendorff system enables isolated perfused hearts to be studied directly under conditions of either no load or controlled loading. In small mammals, a number of models have been developed of cardiovascular conditions that result from spontaneous genetic mutations or, alternatively, that may be induced by specific genomic modification. One of the techniques employed is gene transfer, which can involve the controlled induction of mutations that result in the expression of abnormalities associated with the development of a broad range of different types of cardiovascular disease. Larger animals are used in experimental models in which it is important that physiological regulatory and homeostatic mechanisms are present.

  4. The development of malaria diagnostic techniques: a review of the approaches with focus on dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Kasetsirikul, Surasak; Buranapong, Jirayut; Srituravanich, Werayut; Kaewthamasorn, Morakot; Pimpin, Alongkorn

    2016-07-12

    The large number of deaths caused by malaria each year has increased interest in the development of effective malaria diagnoses. At the early-stage of infection, patients show non-specific symptoms or are asymptomatic, which makes it difficult for clinical diagnosis, especially in non-endemic areas. Alternative diagnostic methods that are timely and effective are required to identify infections, particularly in field settings. This article reviews conventional malaria diagnostic methods together with recently developed techniques for both malaria detection and infected erythrocyte separation. Although many alternative techniques have recently been proposed and studied, dielectrophoretic and magnetophoretic approaches are among the promising new techniques due to their high specificity for malaria parasite-infected red blood cells. The two approaches are discussed in detail, including their principles, types, applications and limitations. In addition, other recently developed techniques, such as cell deformability and morphology, are also overviewed in this article.

  5. The Awareness of Health Professionals in Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Parasites in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    PubMed Central

    Hindi, AI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of intestinal parasites still depends on conventional methods in Gaza strip hospitals and private laboratories. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the opinion and the practice of physicians and medical laboratories technologists towards the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out during the period from August 2006 to December 2006. All the subjects during this period were eligible for the interview. The sample size included 371 individuals out of them 270 physicians and 101 medical laboratory technologists (MLTs). Simple random sampling was used to select the physicians and MLTs from eight hospitals and eleven primary health-care centers. Results: It was found that (57.8%) 156/270 of physicians depend on the direct smear microscopy in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza, compared to (31.7% (32/101) of MLT. Knowledge about the possible correlation of occult blood with reasons other than the presence of intestinal parasites was evident among both physicians and MLTs, reaching over 80% (P = 0.08). It was found that (54.4%, 147/270) of physicians and (73.3%. 74/101) of MLTs depend on wet mount result for of Entamoeba histolytica diagnosis (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Low awareness was found among both physicians and MLT regarding the diagnostic techniques used in the examination of intestinal parasites in Gaza Strip. Prescription of medicine by physicians sometimes depends on the clinical picture without laboratory confirmation. Advanced techniques were less used in the diagnosis of intestinal parasites in Gaza strip. PMID:24669336

  6. A software framework for diagnostic medical image perception with feedback, and a novel perception visualization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Peter W.; Manning, David J.; Donovan, Tim; Crawford, Trevor; Higham, Stephen

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a software framework and analysis tool to support the collection and analysis of eye movement and perceptual feedback data for a variety of diagnostic imaging modalities. The framework allows the rapid creation of experiment software that can display a collection of medical images of a particular modality, capture eye trace data, and record marks added to an image by the observer, together with their final decision. There are also a number of visualisation techniques for the display of eye trace information. The analysis tool supports the comparison of individual eye traces for a particular observer or traces from multiple observers for a particular image. Saccade and fixation data can be visualised, with user control of fixation identification functions and properties. Observer markings are displayed, and predefined regions of interest are supported. The software also supports some interactive and multi-image modalities. The analysis tool includes a novel visualisation of scan paths across multi-image modalities. Using an exploded 3D view of a stack of MRI scan sections, an observer's scan path can be shown traversing between images, in addition to inspecting them.

  7. Novel Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Studying Particle Deposition Upon Large Cylinders in a Sheared Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoda, M.; Bailey, B. C.

    2000-01-01

    On a twelve-month voyage to Mars, one astronaut will require at least two tons of potable water and two tons of pure oxygen. Efficient, reliable fluid reclamation is therefore necessary for manned space exploration. Space habitats require a compact, flexible, and robust apparatus capable of solid-fluid mechanical separation over a wide range of fluid and particle densities and particle sizes. In space, centrifugal filtration, where particles suspended in fluid are captured by rotating fixed-fiber mat filters, is a logical candidate for mechanical separation. Non-colloidal particles are deposited on the fibers due to inertial impaction or direct interception. Since rotation rates are easily adjustable, inertial effects are the most practical way to control separation rates for a wide variety of multiphase mixtures in variable gravity environments. Understanding how fluid inertia and differential fluid-particle inertia, characterized by the Reynolds and Stokes numbers, respectively, affect deposition is critical in optimizing filtration in a microgravity environment. This work will develop non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques for directly visualizing where and when non-colloidal particles deposit upon, or contact, solid surfaces: 'particle proximity sensors'. To model particle deposition upon a single filter fiber, these sensors will be used in ground-based experiments to study particle dynamics as in the vicinity of a large (compared with the particles) cylinder in a simply sheared (i.e., linearly-varying, zero-mean velocity profile) neutrally-buoyant, refractive-index matched solid-liquid suspension.

  8. Fungal disease detection in plants: Traditional assays, novel diagnostic techniques and biosensors.

    PubMed

    Ray, Monalisa; Ray, Asit; Dash, Swagatika; Mishra, Abtar; Achary, K Gopinath; Nayak, Sanghamitra; Singh, Shikha

    2017-01-15

    Fungal diseases in commercially important plants results in a significant reduction in both quality and yield, often leading to the loss of an entire plant. In order to minimize the losses, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at an early stage. Early detection and accurate identification of pathogens can control the spread of infection. The present article provides a comprehensive overview of conventional methods, current trends and advances in fungal pathogen detection with an emphasis on biosensors. Traditional techniques are the "gold standard" in fungal detection which relies on symptoms, culture-based, morphological observation and biochemical identifications. In recent times, with the advancement of biotechnology, molecular and immunological approaches have revolutionized fungal disease detection. But the drawback lies in the fact that these methods require specific and expensive equipments. Thus, there is an urgent need for rapid, reliable, sensitive, cost effective and easy to use diagnostic methods for fungal pathogen detection. Biosensors would become a promising and attractive alternative, but they still have to be subjected to some modifications, improvements and proper validation for on-field use.

  9. Characterisation of the properties of a negative hydrogen ion beam by several beam diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurizio, R.; Fantz, U.; Bonomo, F.; Serianni, G.

    2016-06-01

    The beam properties of the BATMAN negative ion source, which is the prototype of one module of the source for the ITER neutral beam injection system, are characterised by means of three diagnostic techniques: beam emission spectroscopy (BES), the experimental calorimeter mini-STRIKE and a copper calorimeter. The main beam parameters—beam divergence, homogeneity and top-bottom asymmetries—are studied in different operational scenarios: with different magnetic filter field setups, source settings and with different gases (hydrogen or deuterium). Among all dependences, the influence of the magnetic field configuration on the beam and the evolution of the beam features during some conditioning days are investigated in detail. Data show that the stronger the filter field in the beam region, the higher the beam top-bottom asymmetry—likely a v× B effect. During the conditioning of the source, such vertical beam asymmetry increases as well, suggesting an inhomogeneous H -production at the first grid of the extraction system.

  10. Quantitative analysis of structure and function of the cardiovascular system by roentgen-video-computer techniques.

    PubMed

    Heintzen, P H; Brennecke, R; Bürsch, J H; Hahne, H J; Lange, P E; Moldenhauer, K; Onnasch, D; Radtke, W

    1982-07-01

    A survey of the evolution of roentgen-video-computer techniques is given which was initiated by the development of videodensitometry by Wood and his associates. Following fundamental studies of the usefulness and limitations of x-ray equipment for quantitative measurements and the applicability of the Lambert-Beers law to x-ray absorption, videodensitometry has been used experimentally and clinically for various circulatory studies and has proved to be particularly valuable for the quantitation of aortic, pulmonic, and mitral valvular regurgitation. The second offspring of these techniques, so-called videometry, uses dimensional measurements from single and biplane angiocardiograms for the assessment of size, shape, and contraction pattern of the heart chambers. Volumes of the right and left ventricles can be determined clinically with a standard error of estimate below 10%. On the basis of these studies, normal values have been derived for all age groups, and they depict geometric changes of the growing heart. Cardiac index and ejection fractions proved to be age-independent biologic constants. Finally, methods for complete digital processing of video-image sequences in an off-line and real-time mode are described which allow digital image storage and documentation, dynamic background subtraction for contrast enhancement, and intravenous angiocardiography, in addition to functional imaging by parameter extraction from a matrix of pixel densitograms. Wall thickness and motion determinations, regional flow distribution measurements, and various image-composition techniques are also feasible.

  11. Machine-learning techniques for building a diagnostic model for very mild dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Herskovits, Edward H

    2010-08-01

    Many researchers have sought to construct diagnostic models to differentiate individuals with very mild dementia (VMD) from healthy elderly people, based on structural magnetic-resonance (MR) images. These models have, for the most part, been based on discriminant analysis or logistic regression, with few reports of alternative approaches. To determine the relative strengths of different approaches to analyzing structural MR data to distinguish people with VMD from normal elderly control subjects, we evaluated seven different classification approaches, each of which we used to generate a diagnostic model from a training data set acquired from 83 subjects (33 VMD and 50 control). We then evaluated each diagnostic model using an independent data set acquired from 30 subjects (13 VMD and 17 controls). We found that there were significant performance differences across these seven diagnostic models. Relative to the diagnostic models generated by discriminant analysis and logistic regression, the diagnostic models generated by other high-performance diagnostic-model-generation algorithms manifested increased generalizability when diagnostic models were generated from all atlas structures.

  12. Non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques and vascular tools for the assessment of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Djaberi, R; Beishuizen, E D; Pereira, A M; Rabelink, T J; Smit, J W; Tamsma, J T; Huisman, M V; Jukema, J W

    2008-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The criteria for the selection of those asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who should undergo cardiac screening and the therapeutic consequences of screening remain controversial. Non-invasive techniques as markers of atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemia may aid risk stratification and the implementation of tailored therapy for the patient with type 2 diabetes. In the present article we review the literature on the implementation of non-invasive vascular tools and cardiac imaging techniques in this patient group. The value of these techniques as endpoints in clinical trials and as risk estimators in asymptomatic diabetic patients is discussed. Carotid intima-media thickness, arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilation are abnormal long before the onset of type 2 diabetes. These vascular tools are therefore most likely to be useful for the identification of 'at risk' patients during the early stages of atherosclerotic disease. The additional value of these tools in risk stratification and tailored therapy in type 2 diabetes remains to be proven. Cardiac imaging techniques are more justified in individuals with a strong clinical suspicion of advanced coronary heart disease (CHD). Asymptomatic myocardial ischaemia can be detected by stress echocardiography and myocardial perfusion imaging. The more recently developed non-invasive multi-slice computed tomography angiography is recommended for exclusion of CHD, and can therefore be used to screen asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes, but has the associated disadvantages of high radiation exposure and costs. Therefore, we propose an algorithm for the screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients, the first step of which consists of coronary artery calcium score assessment and exercise ECG.

  13. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  14. Highly time-resolved evaluation technique of instantaneous amplitude and phase difference using analytic signals for multi-channel diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshima, S. Kobayashi, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kado, S.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Shi, N.; Konoshima, S.; Sano, F.; Lee, H. Y.; Zang, L.; Kenmochi, N.; Kasajima, K.; Ohtani, Y.; Nagae, Y.

    2014-11-15

    A fluctuation analysis technique using analytic signals is proposed. Analytic signals are suitable to characterize a single mode with time-dependent amplitude and frequency, such as an MHD mode observed in fusion plasmas since the technique can evaluate amplitude and frequency at a specific moment without limitations of temporal and frequency resolutions, which is problematic in Fourier-based analyses. Moreover, a concept of instantaneous phase difference is newly introduced, and error of the evaluated phase difference and its error reduction techniques using conditional/ensemble averaging are discussed. These techniques are applied to experimental data of the beam emission spectroscopic measurement in the Heliotron J device, which demonstrates that the technique can describe nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities. This technique is widely applicable to other diagnostics having necessity to evaluate phase difference.

  15. Measurement of Mean Cardiac Dose for Various Breast Irradiation Techniques and Corresponding Risk of Major Cardiovascular Event

    PubMed Central

    Merino Lara, Tomas Rodrigo; Fleury, Emmanuelle; Mashouf, Shahram; Helou, Joelle; McCann, Claire; Ruschin, Mark; Kim, Anthony; Makhani, Nadiya; Ravi, Ananth; Pignol, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    After breast conserving surgery, early stage breast cancer patients are currently treated with a wide range of radiation techniques including whole breast irradiation (WBI), accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy, or 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). This study compares the mean heart’s doses for a left breast irradiated with different breast techniques. An anthropomorphic Rando phantom was modified with gelatin-based breast of different sizes and tumors located medially or laterally. The breasts were treated with WBI, 3D-CRT, or HDR APBI. The heart’s mean doses were measured with Gafchromic films and controlled with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters. Following the model reported by Darby (1), major cardiac were estimated assuming a linear risk increase with the mean dose to the heart of 7.4% per gray. WBI lead to the highest mean heart dose (2.99 Gy) compared to 3D-CRT APBI (0.51 Gy), multicatheter (1.58 Gy), and balloon HDR (2.17 Gy) for a medially located tumor. This translated into long-term coronary event increases of 22, 3.8, 11.7, and 16% respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the tumor location had almost no effect on the mean heart dose for 3D-CRT APBI and a minimal impact for HDR APBI. In case of WBI large breast size and set-up errors lead to sharp increases of the mean heart dose. Its value reached 10.79 Gy for women with large breast and a set-up error of 1.5 cm. Such a high value could increase the risk of having long-term coronary events by 80%. Comparison among different irradiation techniques demonstrates that 3D-CRT APBI appears to be the safest one with less probability of having cardiovascular events in the future. A sensitivity analysis showed that WBI is the most challenging technique for patients with large breasts or when significant set-up errors are anticipated. In those cases, additional heart shielding techniques are required. PMID:25374841

  16. Development of a diagnostic technique based on Cherenkov effect for measurements of fast electrons in fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Plyusnin, V. V.; Duarte, P.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.

    2012-08-15

    A diagnostic technique based on the Cherenkov effect is proposed for detection and characterization of fast (super-thermal and runaway) electrons in fusion devices. The detectors of Cherenkov radiation have been specially designed for measurements in the ISTTOK tokamak. Properties of several materials have been studied to determine the most appropriate one to be used as a radiator of Cherenkov emission in the detector. This technique has enabled the detection of energetic electrons (70 keV and higher) and the determination of their spatial and temporal variations in the ISTTOK discharges. Measurement of hard x-ray emission has also been carried out in experiments for validation of the measuring capabilities of the Cherenkov-type detector and a high correlation was found between the data of both diagnostics. A reasonable agreement was found between experimental data and the results of numerical modeling of the runaway electron generation in ISTTOK.

  17. Accelerator Diagnostic Techniques Using Time-Domain Data from a Bunch-by-bunch Longitudinal Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2000-03-30

    A programmable DSP-based longitudinal damping system has been developed for the PEP-II/DAFNE/ALS machines. The DSP-based architecture allows feedback functions to coexist with data acquisition or instrumentation algorithms. The fast sampling rates in these systems (500 MHz) in conjunction with the large distributed memory of the DSP processors make possible several novel beam diagnostics complementary to traditional narrowband spectral measurements. Instantaneous spectral measurements of 250 MHz span with 70 Hz resolution can be made from 14 ms time domain data records captured by the DSP system. The authors present techniques developed for the measurement of modal growth and damping rates and other beam and system diagnostics (calibrations, measurements of the system noise floor). Results from the Advanced Light Source and PEP-II are presented to illustrate these techniques.

  18. Combined statistical analysis of vasodilation and flow curves in brachial ultrasonography: technique and its connection to cardiovascular risk factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisrobert, Loic; Laclaustra, Martin; Bossa, Matias; Frangi, Andres G.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2005-04-01

    Clinical studies report that impaired endothelial function is associated with Cardio-Vascular Diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. One commonly used mean for assessing endothelial function is Flow-Mediated Dilation (FMD). Classically, FMD is quantified using local indexes e.g. maximum peak dilation. Although such parameters have been successfully linked to CVD risk factors and other clinical variables, this description does not consider all the information contained in the complete vasodilation curve. Moreover, the relation between flow impulse and the vessel vasodilation response to this stimulus, although not clearly known, seems to be important and is not taken into account in the majority of studies. In this paper we propose a novel global parameterization for the vasodilation and the flow curves of a FMD test. This parameterization uses Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to describe independently and jointly the variability of flow and FMD curves. These curves are obtained using computerized techniques (based on edge detection and image registration, respectively) to analyze the ultrasound image sequences. The global description obtained through PCA yields a detailed characterization of the morphology of such curves allowing the extraction of intuitive quantitative information of the vasodilation process and its interplay with flow changes. This parameterization is consistent with traditional measurements and, in a database of 177 subjects, seems to correlate more strongly (and with more clinical parameters) than classical measures to CVD risk factors and clinical parameters such as LDL- and HDL-Cholesterol.

  19. Development of a neural network technique for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, J H; Yamada, I; Park, Jae Sun

    2016-11-01

    Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ(2) method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ(2) method. The best results were obtained for 10(3) training cycles and eight nodes in the hidden layer. Our neural network approach shows good agreement with the χ(2) method and performs the calculation twenty times faster.

  20. The Diagnostic Challenge Competition: Probabilistic Techniques for Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Brian W.; Mengshoel, Ole J.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable systems health management is an important research area of NASA. A health management system that can accurately and quickly diagnose faults in various on-board systems of a vehicle will play a key role in the success of current and future NASA missions. We introduce in this paper the ProDiagnose algorithm, a diagnostic algorithm that uses a probabilistic approach, accomplished with Bayesian Network models compiled to Arithmetic Circuits, to diagnose these systems. We describe the ProDiagnose algorithm, how it works, and the probabilistic models involved. We show by experimentation on two Electrical Power Systems based on the ADAPT testbed, used in the Diagnostic Challenge Competition (DX 09), that ProDiagnose can produce results with over 96% accuracy and less than 1 second mean diagnostic time.

  1. Development of a neural network technique for KSTAR Thomson scattering diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Lee, J. H.; Yamada, I.; Park, Jae Sun

    2016-11-01

    Neural networks provide powerful approaches of dealing with nonlinear data and have been successfully applied to fusion plasma diagnostics and control systems. Controlling tokamak plasmas in real time is essential to measure the plasma parameters in situ. However, the χ2 method traditionally used in Thomson scattering diagnostics hampers real-time measurement due to the complexity of the calculations involved. In this study, we applied a neural network approach to Thomson scattering diagnostics in order to calculate the electron temperature, comparing the results to those obtained with the χ2 method. The best results were obtained for 103 training cycles and eight nodes in the hidden layer. Our neural network approach shows good agreement with the χ2 method and performs the calculation twenty times faster.

  2. Hybrid Neural-Network: Genetic Algorithm Technique for Aircraft Engine Performance Diagnostics Developed and Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    As part of the NASA Aviation Safety Program, a unique model-based diagnostics method that employs neural networks and genetic algorithms for aircraft engine performance diagnostics has been developed and demonstrated at the NASA Glenn Research Center against a nonlinear gas turbine engine model. Neural networks are applied to estimate the internal health condition of the engine, and genetic algorithms are used for sensor fault detection, isolation, and quantification. This hybrid architecture combines the excellent nonlinear estimation capabilities of neural networks with the capability to rank the likelihood of various faults given a specific sensor suite signature. The method requires a significantly smaller data training set than a neural network approach alone does, and it performs the combined engine health monitoring objectives of performance diagnostics and sensor fault detection and isolation in the presence of nominal and degraded engine health conditions.

  3. Diagnostic and therapeutic techniques. For evaluation and treatment of skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Pariser, D M

    1989-09-01

    Many infectious diseases of the skin can be diagnosed accurately and rapidly by simple bedside techniques. This article describes several of the more useful and commonly performed techniques for diagnosing superficial fungus infection, herpes simplex, zoster, and varicella as well as the techniques for identification of the ectoparasite-producing scabies and pediculosis in addition to techniques of skin biopsy. Also the therapeutic techniques of cryotherapy and curettage and electrode-siccation are discussed.

  4. Diagnostics of glass fiber reinforced polymers and comparative analysis of their fabrication techniques with the use of acoustic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkov, O. V.; Bryansky, A. A.; Panin, S. V.; Zaikov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    Strength properties of the glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) fabricated by vacuum and vacuum autoclave molding techniques were analyzed. Measurements of porosity of the GFRP parts manufactured by various molding techniques were conducted with the help of optical microscopy. On the basis of experimental data obtained by means of acoustic emission hardware/software setup, the technique for running diagnostics and forecasting the bearing capacity of polymeric composite materials based on the result of three-point bending tests has been developed. The operation principle of the technique is underlined by the evaluation of the power function index change which takes place on the dependence of the total acoustic emission counts versus the loading stress.

  5. Basic aerodynamic research facility for comparative studies of flow diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregory S.; Gartrell, Luther R.; Stainback, P. Calvin

    1987-01-01

    Current flow diagnostic research efforts are focusing on higher order flow field data bases, such as those generated by laser velocimetry (LV), hot-wire anemometry, and multi-hole pressure probes. Recent low-speed comparisons of results obtained with LV and hot wires have revealed strengths and weaknesses of each instrument. A seeding study will be initiated to determine particulate tracking ability.

  6. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  7. Radionuclide Imaging of Cardiovascular Infection.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Fozia Zahir; James, Jackie; Memmott, Matthew J; Arumugam, Parthiban

    2016-02-01

    Owing to expanding clinical indications, cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are being increasingly used. Despite improved surgical techniques and the use of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy, the rate of CIED-related infection is also increasing. Infection is a potentially serious complication, with clinical manifestations ranging from surgical site infection and local symptoms in the region of the generator pocket to fulminant endocarditis. The utility of radionuclide imaging as a stand-alone noninvasive diagnostic imaging test in patients with suspected endocarditis has been less frequently examined. This article summarizes the recent advances in radionuclide imaging for evaluation of patients with suspected cardiovascular infections.

  8. Vane's blood-bathed organ technique adapted to examine the endothelial effects of cardiovascular drugs in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gryglewski, Ryszard J; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt

    2010-01-01

    This study describes a modification of Vane's blood-bathed organ technique (BBOT). This new technique consisted of replacing the cascade of contractile smooth muscle organs within the traditional BBOT by a single collagen strip cut from a rabbit's hind leg tendon. Utilizing the extracorporeal circulation of an anesthetized heparinized mongrel cat or Wistar rat, arterial blood was dripped (1-3 ml min(-1)) over a collagen strip. This resulted in a gain in weight of the strip, which was due to the deposition of platelet aggregates and a few blood cells trapped over the strip. Arterial blood that had been used for the superfusion was pumped back into the animal's venous system. However, when this technique is adapted to human volunteers, the superfusing blood should be discarded. In animal experiments, intravenous injections of a variety of classic fibrinolytic agents (e.g., streptokinase) promoted the formation of platelet thrombi. Nitric oxide donors (e.g., SIN-1) at non-hypotensive doses hardly affected the mass of platelet thrombi deposited over the collagen strip, whereas endogenous prostacyclin (e.g., released from vascular endothelium by bradykinin) or exogenous prostacyclin and its stable analogues (e.g., iloprost) dissipated platelet thrombi as measured by a loss in the weight of the blood superfused collagen strip. This model allowed us to assay numerous drugs for their releasing properties of endogenous prostacyclin from vascular endothelium. These drugs included lipophilic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), which act in vivo as bradykinin potentiating factors (BPF). Other PGI(2)-releasers included statins (e.g., atorvastatin and simvastatin), thienopyridines (e.g., ticlopidine and clopidogrel), a number of thromboxane synthase inhibitors, flavonoids, bradykinin itself, cholinergic M receptor agonists and nicotinic acid derivatives. The thrombolytic actions of lipophilic ACE-Is (e.g., quinapril and perindopril) were prevented by pretreatment

  9. Accuracy of five different diagnostic techniques in mild-to-moderate pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gaitán, Hernando; Angel, Edith; Diaz, Rodrigo; Parada, Arturo; Sanchez, Lilia; Vargas, Cara

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) compared with the diagnosis of PID made by laparoscopy, endometrial biopsy, transvaginal ultrasound, and cervical and endometrial cultures. Study design: A diagnostic performance test study was carried out by cross-sectional analysis in 61 women. A group presenting PID (n = 31) was compared with a group (n = 30) presenting another cause for non-specific lower abdominal pain (NSLAP). Diagnosis provided by an evaluated method was compared with a standard diagnosis (by surgical findings, histopathology, and microbiology). The pathologist was unaware of the visual findings and presumptive diagnoses given by other methods. RESULTS: All clinical and laboratory PID criteria showed low discrimination capacity. Adnexal tenderness showed the greatest sensitivity. Clinical diagnosis had 87% sensitivity, while laparoscopy had 81% sensitivity and 100% specificity; transvaginal ultrasound had 30% sensitivity and 67% specificity; and endometrial culture had 83% sensitivity and 26% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical criteria represent the best diagnostic method for discriminating PID. Laparoscopy showed the best specificity and is thus useful in those cases having an atypical clinical course for discarding abdominal pain when caused by another factor. The other diagnostic methods might have limited use. PMID:12648310

  10. Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Theileria annulata and comparison with conventional diagnostic techniques: its use in epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, J; Viseras, J; Adroher, F J; García-Fernández, P

    1999-03-01

    In this work we studied the ability of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Theileria annulata, the causative agent of Mediterranean theileriosis, in blood samples obtained from cattle on farms in different Spanish regions and its possible use in epidemiology studies. Of the 214 samples analyzed, 78.04%, 69.86%, and 62.26% were found to be positive by nested PCR, indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and optical microscopy of Giemsa-stained smears, respectively. The three techniques were in agreement in 68.6% of the results. The observation that the prevalence of Mediterranean theileriosis estimated using nested PCR alone (70.3%) and that obtained using all three diagnostic techniques together (80.4%) did not significantly differ verifies the utility of this technique in epidemiology studies.

  11. Comparison of advanced optical imaging techniques with current otolaryngology diagnostics for improved middle ear assessment (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Ryan M.; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Spillman, Darold R.; Novak, Michael A.; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-02-01

    Otolaryngologists utilize a variety of diagnostic techniques to assess middle ear health. Tympanometry, audiometry, and otoacoustic emissions examine the mobility of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) and ossicles using ear canal pressure and auditory tone delivery and detection. Laser Doppler vibrometry provides non-contact vibrational measurement, and acoustic reflectometry is used to assess middle ear effusion using sonar. These technologies and techniques have advanced the field beyond the use of the standard otoscope, a simple tissue magnifier, yet the need for direct visualization of middle ear disease for superior detection, assessment, and management remains. In this study, we evaluated the use of portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pneumatic low-coherence interferometry (LCI) systems with handheld probe delivery to standard tympanometry, audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, laser Doppler vibrometry, and acoustic reflectometry. Comparison of these advanced optical imaging techniques and current diagnostics was conducted with a case study subject with a history of unilateral eardrum trauma. OCT and pneumatic LCI provide novel dynamic spatiotemporal structural data of the middle ear, such as the thickness of the eardrum and quantitative detection of underlying disease pathology, which could allow for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate management than currently possible.

  12. [Will the new molecular karyotyping BACs-on-Beads technique replace the traditional cytogenetic prenatal diagnostics? Preliminary reports].

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Krzysztof; Henkelman, Małgorzata; Zajaczek, Stanisław

    2012-04-01

    Recently several attempts have been made to introduce molecular karyotyping techniques into prenatal diagnosis. These methods can be used not only for the diagnosis of classical aneuploidies, but first of all they should be employed in the diagnostics of microaberrations, which are not revealed by low resolution methods of classical cytogenetics. The new method BACs-on-Beads is designed for quick detection of broad panel of aneuploidies and microdeletions, by the specified detection of deletions and duplications in the examined fetal DNA acquired from amniocytes. Prenatal diagnostics was performed with the use of BACs-on-Beads and classical amniocyte karyotyping simultaneously in a group of 54 pregnancies. This new method proved to be fully compatible with typical karyotyping in cultures of amniocytes in 98.2%. It was confirmed that the main advantage of this method is the possibility of quick diagnosis, within 48 hours, with much wider spectrum of detected anomalies when compared to classical methods. Contrary to other molecular karyotyping methods, the BACs-on-Beads technique is more economical, less time consuming and less complex equipment is needed than in case of other methods. We suppose that this technique can replace classical karyotyping methods in the near future.

  13. Ataxic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: diagnostic techniques and neuropathologic observations in early disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, H R; Hedley-Whyte, E T; Freidberg, S R; Baker, R A

    1985-02-01

    We studied two cases of ataxic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. EEG, CT, evoked responses, and CSF were normal in one purely ataxic patient. Diagnosis was established by cerebellar biopsy. Autopsy demonstrated devastating spongiform changes in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and thalamus with rare focal changes in cerebral cortex. In the second patient, late generalized changes developed with dementia. Diagnostic studies included abnormal visual evoked responses, CSF with abnormal oligoclonal bands and IgG, and subacute spongiform encephalopathy in frontal lobe biopsy. Early diagnosis is best established by biopsy of brain areas most likely to be involved on the basis of clinical neurologic findings.

  14. Surveillance for Respiratory Infections in U.S. Military Populations Using Classic and Novel Diagnostic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    ox er US S N im itz US S P ele liu US S R us hm or e Pe rc en ta ge o f C ul tu re d Sp ec im en s Negative Influenza Adenovirus Other Figure 3...Results of diagnostic testing from samples acquired while on deployment from 4 U.S. Naval ships. Note influenza was diagnosed from samples on all 4...capabilities for influenza A, influenza B, and adenovirus. The testing takes approximately 4 hours for each pathogen. Although results were potentially

  15. Diagnostic fiberoptic bronchoscopy: Techniques and results of biopsy in 600 patients.

    PubMed

    Zavala, D C

    1975-07-01

    Six hundred patients underwent diagnostic flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FFB). The two diseases most frequently encountered were bronchogenic carcinoma in 330 patients (55 percent) and bacterial infection in 94 (16 percent). A positive cytology on biopsy material was obtained in 279 of 330 patients (85 percent) with primary lung cancer. Fluoroscopy was a valuable aid in diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma, since 42 percent of the tumors were not visible endoscopically and required fluoroscopic control for placement of the biopsy instrument. Of the 55 patients with hemoptysis and negative chest x-ray films, nine (15 percent) had fiberoptically visible endobronchial carcinomas! In addition, two patients with carcinoma of the larynx and one with carcinoma of the nasopharynx were discovered. Transbronchial biopsy (TBB) in 68 patinets with diffuse and localized disease achieved an overall 69 percent diagnostic success, including a correct diagnosis in each of four patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Brush biopsy provided additional valuable laboratory data in bacterial, mycobacterial and cytomegalovirsu infectious but had a poor yield in Pneumocystis infection. Complications as a result of forceps biopsy were minimal, except for brisk bleeding in six patients.

  16. Anesthetic Techniques Influence the Induction of Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage During Diagnostic Ultrasound Scanning in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Puhnonary apillary hemorrhage can be induced by diagnostic ultrasonnd (US) during direct pulmonary US scanning in rats. The influence of specific anesthetic tedmiques on this bioeffect was examined. Methods Ketamine plus xylazine has been used previously. In this study, the influence of intraperitoneal injections of ketamine and pentobarbital, inhalational isoflurane, and the supplemental use of xylazine with ketamine and isollurane was tested. A diagnostic US machine with a7.6-MHz linear array was used to image the right lung of anesthetized rats in a warmed water bath at different mechanical index (MI) settings. Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage was assessed by measuring comet tail artifacts in the image and by morphometry of the hemorrhagic areas on excised lungs. Results Pulmonary capillary hemorrhage was greatest for pentobarbital, lower for inhalational isoflurane, and lowest for ketamine anesthesia, with occurrence thresholds at at Mis of about 0.44, 0.8, and 0.8, respectively. Addition of xylazine produced a substantial increaseinhemorrhageanda significant proportion of hemorrhage occurrence for ketamineat an MI of 0.7 (P < .01) and forisofluraneat an MI of 0.52 (P < .01). Conclusions Ketamine plus xylazine and pentobarbital yield lower thresholds than ketamine or isoflurane alone by nearly a factor of 2 in MI. These results suggest that the choice of the anesthetic agent substantially modifies the relative risks of pulmonary capillary hemorrhage from pulmonary US. PMID:25614402

  17. 2D electron temperature diagnostic using soft x-ray imaging technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K. Sanpei, A. Tanaka, H.; Ishii, G.; Kodera, R.; Ueba, R.; Himura, H.; Masamune, S.; Ohdachi, S.; Mizuguchi, N.

    2014-03-15

    We have developed a two-dimensional (2D) electron temperature (T{sub e}) diagnostic system for thermal structure studies in a low-aspect-ratio reversed field pinch (RFP). The system consists of a soft x-ray (SXR) camera with two pin holes for two-kinds of absorber foils, combined with a high-speed camera. Two SXR images with almost the same viewing area are formed through different absorber foils on a single micro-channel plate (MCP). A 2D T{sub e} image can then be obtained by calculating the intensity ratio for each element of the images. We have succeeded in distinguishing T{sub e} image in quasi-single helicity (QSH) from that in multi-helicity (MH) RFP states, where the former is characterized by concentrated magnetic fluctuation spectrum and the latter, by broad spectrum of edge magnetic fluctuations.

  18. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox.

    PubMed

    Hammarlund, Erika; Lewis, Matthew W; Carter, Shirley V; Amanna, Ian; Hansen, Scott G; Strelow, Lisa I; Wong, Scott W; Yoshihara, Paul; Hanifin, Jon M; Slifka, Mark K

    2005-09-01

    Approximately 50% of the US population received smallpox vaccinations before routine immunization ceased in 1972 for civilians and in 1990 for military personnel. Several studies have shown long-term immunity after smallpox vaccination, but skepticism remains as to whether this will translate into full protection against the onset of orthopoxvirus-induced disease. The US monkeypox outbreak of 2003 provided the opportunity to examine this issue. Using independent and internally validated diagnostic approaches with >or=95% sensitivity and >or=90% specificity for detecting clinical monkeypox infection, we identified three previously unreported cases of monkeypox in preimmune individuals at 13, 29 and 48 years after smallpox vaccination. These individuals were unaware that they had been infected because they were spared any recognizable disease symptoms. Together, this shows that the US monkeypox outbreak was larger than previously realized and, more importantly, shows that cross-protective antiviral immunity against West African monkeypox can potentially be maintained for decades after smallpox vaccination.

  19. Unconventional low-cost fabrication and patterning techniques for point of care diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Himanshu; Nguyen, Diep; Chen, Aaron; Lew, Valerie; Khine, Michelle

    2011-04-01

    The potential of rapid, quantitative, and sensitive diagnosis has led to many innovative 'lab on chip' technologies for point of care diagnostic applications. Because these chips must be designed within strict cost constraints to be widely deployable, recent research in this area has produced extremely novel non-conventional micro- and nano-fabrication innovations. These advances can be leveraged for other biological assays as well, including for custom assay development and academic prototyping. The technologies reviewed here leverage extremely low-cost substrates and easily adoptable ways to pattern both structural and biological materials at high resolution in unprecedented ways. These new approaches offer the promise of more rapid prototyping with less investment in capital equipment as well as greater flexibility in design. Though still in their infancy, these technologies hold potential to improve upon the resolution, sensitivity, flexibility, and cost-savings over more traditional approaches.

  20. Dielectric properties of human diabetic blood: Thermodynamic characterization and new prospective for alternative diagnostic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsaci, F.; Ficarra, S.; Russo, A.; Galtieri, A.; Tellone, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we will show the possibility of studying physical properties and irreversible phenomena that occur in blood by applying the dielectric Kluitenberg's nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory. Namely, we shall use some recent extensions of this theory that allow to infer its main characteristic parameters from experimental measures. Applying these results to the study of normal and diabetic blood we show, by comparing them, that it is possible to determine the difference, in some details, of the amount of particular phenomena occurring inside them and give a biological meaning to these phenomena. Moreover, observing a correspondence between a particular value of the frequency for which state coefficients are equal and glucose levels we introduce an alternative diagnostic method to measure the values of the glucose in the blood by determining only this frequency value. The thermodynamic description will be completed by determining the trend of the entropy production.

  1. [THE MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES OF DIAGNOSTIC OF GINGIVITIS AND PERIODONTITIS IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Tsarev, V N; Nikolaeva, E N; Iagodina, E V; Trefilova, Yu A; Ippolitov, E V

    2016-01-01

    The examination was carried out in the Moscow clinical infectious hospital No 2 concerning 102 patients with verified diagnosis "AIDS-infection" and seropositive according results of detection of anti-HIV-antibodies in blood serum. The study was organized to analyze rate ofcolonization of gums with virulent anaerobic bacteria in HIV-infected (polymerase chain reaction) and antibodies to HIV in gingival fluid (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). It is established that in HIV-infected patients, in scrape from gingival sulcus dominate anaerobic bacteria P. gigngivalis and A. ctinomycetemcomitans and in case of periodontitis--P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. The received data permits recommending the test-system "Multident-5" for polymerase chain reaction diagnostic. The reagents kit "Calypte®HIV-1/2"--for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay gingival fluid. The results of polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have no impact of concomitant stomatological (periodontitis, gingivitis) and somatic pathology.

  2. Intestinal helminths in immigrants in Naples (Italy): a comparison between two different diagnostic techniques

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Silvano; Noviello, Silvana; Leone, Sebastiano; Pascale, Renato; Russo, Enrico; Gualdieri, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare two different methods for detection of intestinal parasitic in immigrants from high risk geographic areas for intestinal parasitic diseases. Methods A total of 307 stool specimens were analysed by Ridley method and FLOTAC, a new technique performing a direct count of all parasitic elements. Results : Compared to Ridley method, FLOTAC technique led to fewer negative results (P<0.05), index of a higher sensibility. Conclusions Performing a more accurate detection of parasites appears a goal to reach in terms of public health.

  3. Optical diagnostics of gas-dynamic flows using advanced laser measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    Using laser-induced fluorescence to probe nitrogen flows seeded with small amounts of nitric oxide, simultaneous measurements of all three thermodynamic scalar quantities temperature, density, and pressure, were demonstrated in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer. Instrumental uncertainty is 1% for temperature and 2% for density and pressure, making the techniques suitable for measurements of turbulent fluctuations. This technology is currently being transferred to an experimental program designed to use these optical techniques in conjunction with traditional methods to make measurements in turbulent flowfields that were not possible before. A detailed descritpion of the research progress and pertinent results are presented.

  4. Comparison of PCR and other diagnostic techniques for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, J; Mecca, J; da Silva, E; Gassner, D

    1994-01-01

    A sensitive and specific PCR-based assay to detect the Helicobacter pylori 16S rRNA gene present in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric biopsy specimens has been developed. A total of 95 patients with dyspepsia were evaluated for the presence of chronic active gastritis and an infection with H. pylori through the use of diagnostic assays based on biopsy specimens and serology. The "gold standard" for the presence of the bacteria was direct detection in histological sections of biopsy specimens by Giemsa stain. The results obtained with the PCR assay performed on the biopsy specimens (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity) were equivalent to the detection of H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies by the commercially available second-generation Cobas Core anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G enzyme immunoassay (94% sensitivity and 98% specificity) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Urease testing and bacterial culture of the biopsy specimens were inferior (88 and 70% sensitivity and 96% and 98% specificity, respectively). A Western blot (immunoblot) analysis had slightly greater sensitivity (96%), although specificity was reduced to 93%. This research prototype PCR assay was shown to be highly reliable for the detection of infection with H. pylori and the presence of chronic active gastritis in the population studied. PMID:7929755

  5. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples.

    PubMed

    Ezzaty Mirhashemi, Marzieh; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targetedat the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection.

  6. Comparison of diagnostic techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in animal samples

    PubMed Central

    Mirhashemi, Marzieh Ezzaty; Zintl, Annetta; Grant, Tim; Lucy, Frances E.; Mulcahy, Grace; De Waal, Theo

    2015-01-01

    While a large number of laboratory methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples are now available, their efficacy for identifying asymptomatic cases of cryptosporidiosis is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine a reliable screening test for epidemiological studies in livestock. In addition, three molecular tests were compared to identify Cryptosporidium species responsible for the infection in cattle, sheep and horses. A variety of diagnostic tests including microscopic (Kinyoun's staining), immunological (Direct Fluorescence Antibody tests or DFAT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and molecular methods (nested PCR) were compared to assess their ability to detect Cryptosporidium in cattle, horse and sheep faecal samples. The results indicate that the sensitivity and specificity of each test is highly dependent on the input samples; while Kinyoun's and DFAT proved to be reliable screening tools for cattle samples, DFAT and PCR analysis (targeted at the 18S rRNA gene fragment) were more sensitive for screening sheep and horse samples. Finally different PCR primer sets targeted at the same region resulted in the preferential amplification of certain Cryptosporidium species when multiple species were present in the sample. Therefore, for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in the event of asymptomatic cryptosporidiosis, the combination of different 18S rRNA nested PCR primer sets is recommended for further epidemiological applications and also tracking the sources of infection. PMID:25662435

  7. Combining polarimetry and spectropolarimetry techniques in diagnostics of cancer changes in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yermolenko, Sergey; Ivashko, Pavlo; Gruia, Ion; Gruia, Maria; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Voloshynskyi, Dmytro; Fedoruk, Olexander; Zimnyakov, Dmitry; Alonova, Marina

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is combining polarimetry and spectropolarimetry techniques for identifying the changes of opticalgeometrical structure in different kinds of biotissues with solid tumours. It is researched that a linear dichroism appears in biotissues (human esophagus, muscle tissue of rats, human prostate tissue, cervical smear) with cancer diseases, magnitude of which depends on the type of the tissue and on the time of cancer process development.

  8. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae.

  9. Advanced Molecular Diagnostic Techniques for Detection of Food-borne Pathogens; Current Applications and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Umesha, S; Manukumar, H M

    2016-01-08

    The elimination of disease-causing microbes from the food supply is a primary goal and this review deals with the overall techniques availavle for detection of food-borne pathogens. Now-a-days conventional methods are replaced by advanced methods like Biosensors, Nucleic Acid-based Tests (NAT) and different PCR based techniques used in molecular biology to identify specific pathogens. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp, Aspergillus spp. Fusarium spp. Penicillium spp., and pathogens are detected in contaminated food items which cause always diseases in human in any one or the other way. Identification of food-borne pathogens in a short period of time is still a challenge to the scientific field in general and food technology in particular. The low level of food contamination by major pathogens requires specific sensitive detection platforms and the present area of hot research looking forward to new nanomolecular techniques for nanomaterials, make them suitable for the development of assays with high sensitivity, response time and portability. With the sound of these we attemet to highlight a comprehensive overview about food-borne pathogen detection by rapid, sensitive, accurate and cost affordable in situ analytical methods from conventional methods to recent molecular approaches for advanced food and microbiology research.

  10. New diagnostic and therapeutic techniques in the management of pyogenic liver abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Ranson, J H; Madayag, M A; Localio, S A; Spencer, F C

    1975-01-01

    An unexplained increase in the frequency of pyogenic liver abscesses of unknown etiology has, fourtunately, been paralleled by significant advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods. This report reviews experience with 14 patients operated upon at NYU Medical Center since 1971. Eight cases (57%) were cryptogenic. Other abscesses were associated with biliary disease (3); abdominal sepsis (2); and trauma (1). Abscesses were present on hospitalization in 12 patients. Clinical findings included fever (101-108 F); 100%; leucocytosis, 71%; anorexia and vomiting, 50%; localized tenderness and hepatomegaly, 50%; hypoalbuminemia, 86%; hypocholesterolemia, 78%; elevated SGOT, 71%; and elevated aikaline phosphatase, 43%. Technetium hepatic scintiscans showed focal defects in 10 of 12 patients (83%), but did not detect multiple abscesses in 2 of these. Hepatic arteriography performed in 10 patients was highly accurate, outlining single abscesses in 6 and multiple abscesses in 4. Furthermore, in one patient a false positive scintiscan was demonstrated by negative arteriography, confirmed by autopsy. In 4 patients, arteriography indicated an abscess in the posterior-superior area of the right hepatic lobe. With precise anatomical localization, a trans-thoracic approach permitted uncomplicated drainage in each case. This approach provides excellent exposure and direct drainage for abscesses in this area. An additional therapeutic adjunct in two patients, with 4 and 11 abscesses each, was postoperative intraportal infusion of antibiotics through the umbilical vein. Thirteen patients (83%) recovered, one dying from pulmonary embolism. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. Primary hepatic abscesses occur with increasing frequency. The methods described allow more precise preoperative diagnosis and direct surgical drainage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:1130869

  11. Temporal changes in liver cancer incidence rates in Japan: accounting for death certificate inaccuracies and improving diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Sharp, G B; Cologne, J B; Fukuhara, T; Itakura, H; Yamamoto, M; Tokuoka, S

    2001-09-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) rates have risen dramatically during the past few decades in some regions, particularly in Japan, where PLC is now the third major cause of cancer death. PLC is one of the most difficult tumors to diagnose correctly, because (i) the liver is a frequent site of cancer metastasis and (ii) death from PLC is often attributed to cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis. Also, because the disease is often rapidly fatal, a large proportion of liver cancer cases are identified based on death certificates alone without confirmation by clinical records. Thus, worldwide differences in published incidence rates for this disease reflect regional or national differences in both the accuracy of death certificates and the sensitivity of diagnostic methods. By comparing death certificate causes of death with those based on pathology review, we were able to adjust 1958--1994 incidence rates for a large Japanese cohort for these errors. Although the death certificate false-positive error rate declined, the false-negative error rate remained high throughout the study. The introduction of improved liver cancer diagnostic methods in Japan in the early 1980s was associated with a sharp increase in PLC incidence. We conclude that errors in death certificate causes of death and changes in liver cancer diagnostic techniques have had an important impact on the reported incidence of this disease. Taking these factors into account, rates of hepatocellular carcinoma rose between 2.4- and 4.3-fold in our Japanese cohort from 1960 to 1985, peaked about 1993 and declined thereafter. Incidence rates of cholangiocarcinoma remained stable through 1987.

  12. A fiber-optic diagnostic technique for mechanical detection of the laser-metal interaction underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R. Q.; Chen, X.; Shen, Z. H.; Lu, J.; Ni, X. W.

    2004-03-01

    A new fiber-optic force sensor based on optical beam deflection for the investigation of the mechanical effects during laser-metal interaction underwater is developed. This sensor is applied to detect the laser-induced plasma ablation force and liquid-jet impact during the cavitation bubble collapse near a solid boundary when a Q-switched laser is focused on a metal in water. The experimental results indicate the liquid-jet effect outweighs the well-known laser-induced plasma ablation force. This technique has the advantages of high-frequency response, simple structure, and nondestructive examination.

  13. Do Anesthetic Techniques Influence the Threshold for Glomerular Capillary Hemorrhage induced in Rats by Contrast Enhanced Diagnostic Ultrasound?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Lu, Xiaofang; Fabiilli, Mario; Dou, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular capillary hemorrhage (GCH) can be induced by ultrasonic cavitation during contrast enhanced diagnostic ultrasound (CEDUS), an important nonthermal ultrasound bioeffect. Recent studies of pulmonary ultrasound exposure have shown that thresholds for another nonthermal bioeffect of ultrasound, pulmonary capillary hemorrhage, is strongly influenced by whether or not xylazine is included in the specific anesthetic technique. Methods In this study, anesthesia with ketamine only was compared to ketamine plus xylazine for the induction of GCH in rats by 1.6 MHz intermittent diagnostic ultrasound with contrast agent (similar to Definity). GCH was measured as a percentage of glomeruli with hemorrhage found in histological sections for groups of rats scanned at different peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes. Results There was a significant difference between the magnitude of the GCH between the two anesthetics at 2.3 MPa with 45.6 % GCH for ketamine only, increasing to 63.2 % GCH for ketamine plus xylazine anesthesia (P<0.001). However, the thresholds for the two anesthesia methods were virtually identical at 1.0 MPa, based on linear regression of the exposure response data. Conclusions Therefore, thresholds for CEDUS induced injury of the microvasculature appears to be minimally affected by anesthesia methods. PMID:26764276

  14. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  15. New imaging technique using degree of polarization for the study of polarimetric properties for non-invasive biomedical diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Isabella C.; Guyot, Steve; Lemoine, Jacques

    2012-06-01

    This research proposes a new imaging technique for near real time multispectral acquisition using CCD RGB cameras of the so called "Degree Of Polarization" (DOP) in polarimetry for future clinical investigation. The aim of exploiting the DOP as the contrast element is to demonstrate that the elliptical DOP provides more information characterizing complex medium than the more traditional linear and circular ones. The system considers an incoherent input white light beam and opportunely calibrated nematic crystals (LCVR), so no mechanical tools are necessary. The particular features of the system indicate it to be the perfect candidate for a new imaging system considering in-vivo (as well as ex-vivo) non invasive superficial diagnostic for medical application as dermatologic diagnostics, since no type of sample preparation is necessary, i.e. tissue biopsy, radiation or contrast agent injection. Thus the biomedical application of this method suggests a simple, direct, fast and also easily exploitable future employment, as a desirable mean for clinical investigation but also for digital recognition in biometrics. Further new elements to improve the model of light scattering and matter-light interaction will be acquired, in particular considering a very complete characterization of the system response using latex microspheres suspension to simulate turbid media with different concentration.

  16. New analysis methods to push the boundaries of diagnostic techniques in the environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungaroni, M.; Murari, A.; Peluso, E.; Gelfusa, M.; Malizia, A.; Vega, J.; Talebzadeh, S.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, new and more sophisticated measurements have been at the basis of the major progress in various disciplines related to the environment, such as remote sensing and thermonuclear fusion. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements, new data analysis techniques are required. First data processing tasks, such as filtering and fitting, are of primary importance, since they can have a strong influence on the rest of the analysis. Even if Support Vector Regression is a method devised and refined at the end of the 90s, a systematic comparison with more traditional non parametric regression methods has never been reported. In this paper, a series of systematic tests is described, which indicates how SVR is a very competitive method of non-parametric regression that can usefully complement and often outperform more consolidated approaches. The performance of Support Vector Regression as a method of filtering is investigated first, comparing it with the most popular alternative techniques. Then Support Vector Regression is applied to the problem of non-parametric regression to analyse Lidar surveys for the environments measurement of particulate matter due to wildfires. The proposed approach has given very positive results and provides new perspectives to the interpretation of the data.

  17. Diagnostic Value of Hook Wire Localization Technique for Non-Palpable Breast Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Demiral, Gokhan; Senol, Metin; Bayraktar, Baris; Ozturk, Hasan; Celik, Yahya; Boluk, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of hook wire localization biopsy for non-palpable breast lesions which were detected by ultrasonography (USG) or mammography (MMG). Methods In this retrospective study, USG or MMG-guided hook wire localization technique was performed on 83 patients who had non-palpable breast lesions. Then histopathological examination was performed on surgically removed specimens. All patients’ mammograms or ultrasonograms were categorized using Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification. Results Radiologically, 27 (32.53%) patients were classified as BI-RADS 3, 49 (59.04%) BI-RADS 4, one (1.2%) BIRADS 5 and six (7.23%) BI-RADS 0. Histopathological results were benign in 68 (81.9%) and malignant in 15 (18.1%) patients. Twenty-seven patients were classified as BI-RADS 3 and definitive diagnoses for all were benign. Besides, 49 patients were classified as BI-RADS 4 and histopathologically 14 of them were reported as malignant, and 35 as benign. Sensitivity of MMG was 93% and specificity was 55%. For USG, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 73%. Conclusion In early diagnosis of breast cancer, the validity of the imaging-guided hook wire localization biopsy of non-palpable breast lesions has been proved. The cooperation of surgeon, radiologist and pathologist increases the successfull results of hook wire localization technique. PMID:27081425

  18. Effects of anatomical position on esophageal transit time: A biomagnetic diagnostic technique

    PubMed Central

    Cordova-Fraga, Teodoro; Sosa, Modesto; Wiechers, Carlos; la Roca-Chiapas, Jose Maria De; Moreles, Alejandro Maldonado; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesus; Huerta-Franco, Raquel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the esophageal transit time (ETT) and compare its mean value among three anatomical inclinations of the body; and to analyze the correlation of ETT to body mass index (BMI). METHODS: A biomagnetic technique was implemented to perform this study: (1) The transit time of a magnetic marker (MM) through the esophagus was measured using two fluxgate sensors placed over the chest of 14 healthy subjects; (2) the ETT was assessed in three anatomical positions (at upright, fowler, and supine positions; 90º, 45º and 0º, respectively). RESULTS: ANOVA and Tuckey post-hoc tests demonstrated significant differences between ETT mean of the different positions. The ETT means were 5.2 ± 1.1 s, 6.1 ± 1.5 s, and 23.6 ± 9.2 s for 90º, 45º and 0º, respectively. Pearson correlation results were r = -0.716 and P < 0.001 by subjects’ anatomical position, and r = -0.024 and P > 0.05 according the subject’s BMI. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that using this biomagnetic technique, it is possible to measure the ETT and the effects of the anatomical position on the ETT. PMID:18837088

  19. An evaluation of diagnostic techniques utilized in the initial workup of pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, D J; Leonard, J C; Nitschke, R M; Vanhoutte, J J; Wilson, D A; Basmadjian, G P

    1984-07-01

    The records of 32 pediatric patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were reviewed to evaluate the role of various diagnostic techniques used to assess the extent of extramedullary disease. Our findings indicate that adequate screening for hepatosplenomegaly is obtained by clinical assessment and for bone and renal involvement by bone scintigraphy including concomitant renal imaging. We recommend that radiographs be restricted to scintigraphically abnormal areas and/or sites of bone pain. Liver-spleen scintigraphy, gallium studies, intravenous pyelography, and ultrasound studies of the abdomen and pelvis should be utilized only to answer specific clinical questions. Evaluation in this manner reduces both radiation exposure and patient expense, while it adequately defines the extent of disease in these organs.

  20. Fuel Cell Manufacturing Diagnostic Techniques: IR Thermography with Reactive Flow through Excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Manak, A. J.; Ulsh, M.; Bender, G.

    2012-01-01

    While design and material considerations for PEMFCs have a large impact on cost, it is also necessary to consider a transition to high volume production of fuel cell systems, including MEA components, to enable economies of scale and reduce per unit cost. One of the critical manufacturing tasks is developing and deploying techniques to provide in‐process measurement of fuel cell components for quality control. This effort requires a subsidiary task: The study of the effect of manufacturing defects on performance and durability with the objective to establish validated manufacturing tolerances for fuel cell components. This work focuses on the development of a potential quality control method for gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs). The method consists of infrared (IR) thermography combined with reactive flow through (RFT) excitation. Detection of catalyst loading reduction defects in GDE catalyst layers will be presented.

  1. A line-imaging velocity interferometer technique for shock diagnostics without x-ray preheat limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Liu, Shenye; Xu, Tao; Mei, Lusheng; Jiang, Xiaohua; Ding, Yongkun

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted with a line-imaging velocity interferometer on sandwich targets at the Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility in China, with the goal of eliminating the preheat effect. A sandwich target structure was used to reduce the x-ray preheat limitation (radiation temperature ˜170 eV) in a radiative drive shock experiment. With a thick ablator, the preheat effect appeared before the shock arrived at the window. After adding a shield layer of high-Z material on the ablator, x-rays which penetrated the ablator were so weak that the blank-out effect could not be measured. This experiment indicates that the sandwich target may provide a valuable technique in experiments such as equation of state and shock timing for inertial confinement fusion studies.

  2. MDR-TB screening in a setting with molecular diagnostic techniques: who got tested, who didn't and why?

    PubMed

    Shewade, H D; Govindarajan, S; Sharath, B N; Tripathy, J P; Chinnakali, P; Kumar, A M V; Muthaiah, M; Vivekananda, K; Paulraj, A K; Roy, G

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : Programme national révisé de Lutte contre la Tuberculose, Pondichéry, Inde, avec une structure de techniques de diagnostic moléculaire.Objectif : Déterminer l'abandon préalable au diagnostic et préalable au traitement et leurs raisons parmi des patients présumés atteints de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR).Méthodes : Dans cette étude utilisant plusieurs méthodes, l'élément quantitatif consistait en une analyse de cohorte rétrospective, grâce à une revue de dossiers, de tous les patients présumés atteints de TB-MDR entre octobre 2012 et septembre 2013. L'élément qualitatif incluait des entretiens approfondis avec des informateurs clés impliqués dans la gestion programmatique des services de TB pharmacorésistante.Résultats : Sur 341 patients présumés TB-MDR éligibles, le taux d'abandon avant le diagnostic et avant le traitement a été de 45,5% (155/341) et 29% (2/7), respectivement. Les patients atteints de TB extra-pulmonaire (RR = 2,3), de coïnfection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et TB (RR = 1,7), inscrits entre octobre et décembre 2012 (RR = 1,3) et identifiés à partir de centres de santé primaires/secondaires (RR = 1,8) avaient moins de chances d'être testés. Les thèmes qui ont émergé lors de l'analyse des données qualitatives ont été « l'absence d'un mécanisme systématique de suivi des patients référés pour culture et test de pharmaco sensibilité », « l'absence de services de coursier pour transporter les crachats », « le manque de connaissances et d'appropriation du personnel de santé en général », « les ruptures de stock de kits de diagnostic » et « la non-adhérence du patient ».Conclusion : En dépit de l'introduction de techniques de diagnostic moléculaire, les problèmes opérationnels de dépistage de la TB-MDR restent préoccupants et requièrent une attention urgente.

  3. Recent advances in cardiovascular proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parveen; Cosme, Jake; Gramolini, Anthony O

    2013-04-09

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the major source of global morbidity and death and more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause. These diseases can occur quickly, as seen in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or progress slowly over years as with chronic heart failure. Advances in mass spectrometry detection and analysis, together with improved isolation and enrichment techniques allowing for the separation of organelles and membrane proteins, now allow for the indepth analysis of the cardiac proteome. Here we outline current insights that have been provided through cardiovascular proteomics, and discuss studies that have developed innovative technologies which permit the examination of the protein complement in specific organelles including exosomes and secreted proteins. We highlight these foundational studies and illustrate how they are providing the technologies and tools which are now being applied to further study cardiovascular disease; provide new diagnostic markers and potentially new methods of cardiac patient management with identification of novel drug targets. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From protein structures to clinical applications.

  4. Sheep as a Potential Source of Bovine TB: Epidemiology, Pathology and Evaluation of Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mendoza, M; Romero, B; Del Cerro, A; Gortázar, C; García-Marín, J F; Menéndez, S; Mourelo, J; de Juan, L; Sáez, J L; Delahay, R J; Balseiro, A

    2016-12-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) infection is infrequently diagnosed in sheep. Most reports are from single individual cases or flock outbreaks. However, in Spain several outbreaks have been reported recently, all of which had epidemiological links with TB-infected cattle herds. A total of 897 sheep suspected of being infected with TB and belonging to 23 flocks cohabiting with TB-infected cattle herds and/or goats were tested between 2009 and 2013 in Galicia (north-western Spain), using pathological, immunological and molecular techniques. Of these, 50.44% were positive by culture, 83.23% by histopathology and 24.92%, 4.86% and 59.42% by single intradermal tuberculin test (SITT), interferon-γ and ELISA, respectively. Results suggest that in circumstances akin to those in our study, sheep may be considered as a potential source of TB. We conclude that under similar conditions, serious consideration should be given to TB testing sheep, as they may represent a potential risk to other susceptible co-habiting species. The SITT and ELISA are recommended as the simplest and most cost-effective initial approaches for the diagnosis of TB in sheep under field conditions. However, when possible, interferon-γ should be applied to increase sensitivity.

  5. Laser flash photolysis studies of atmospheric free radical chemistry using optical diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, Paul H.; Nicovich, J. M.; Hynes, Anthony J.; Stickel, Robert E.; Thorn, R. P.; Chin, Mian; Cronkhite, Jeffrey A.; Shackelford, Christie J.; Zhao, Zhizhong; Daykin, Edward P.

    1993-01-01

    Some recent studies carried out in our laboratory are described where laser flash photolytic production of reactant free radicals has been combined with reactant and/or product detection using time-resolved optical techniques to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of important atmospheric chemical reactions. Discussed are (1) a study of the radical-radical reaction O + BrO yields Br + O2 where two photolysis lasers are employed to prepare the reaction mixture and where the reactants O and BrO are monitored simultaneously using atomic resonance fluorescence to detect O and multipass UV absorption to detect BrO; (2) a study of the reaction of atomic chlorine with dimethylsulfide (CH3SCH3) where atomic resonance fluorescence detection of Cl is employed to elucidate the kinetics and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is employed to investigate the HCl product yield; and (3) a study of the aqueous phase chemistry of Cl2(-) radicals where longpath UV absorption spectroscopy is employed to investigate the kinetics of the Cl2(-) + H2O reaction.

  6. Development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for acetabular component loosening in total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Alshuhri, Abdullah A; Holsgrove, Timothy P; Miles, Anthony W; Cunningham, James L

    2015-08-01

    Current techniques for diagnosing early loosening of a total hip replacement (THR) are ineffective, especially for the acetabular component. Accordingly, new, accurate, and quantifiable methods are required. The aim of this study was to investigate the viability of vibrational analysis for accurately detecting acetabular component loosening. A simplified acetabular model was constructed using a Sawbones(®) foam block. By placing a thin silicone layer between the acetabular component and the Sawbones block, 2- and 4-mm soft tissue membranes were simulated representing different loosening scenarios. A constant amplitude sinusoidal excitation with a sweep range of 100-1500 Hz was used. Output vibration from the model was measured using an accelerometer and an ultrasound probe. Loosening was determined from output signal features such as the number and relative strength of observed harmonic frequencies. Both measurement methods were sufficient to measure the output vibration. Vibrational analysis reliably detected loosening corresponding to both 2 and 4 mm tissue membranes at driving frequencies between 100 and 1000 Hz (p < 0.01) using the accelerometer. In contrast, ultrasound detected 2-mm loosening at a frequency range of 850-1050 Hz (p < 0.01) and 4-mm loosening at 500-950 Hz (p < 0.01).

  7. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of CT-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary lesions with non-coaxial technique: a single center experience with 442 biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, Çağlar; Akkaya, Zehra; Atman, Ebru Düşünceli; Üstüner, Evren; Peker, Elif; Gülpınar, Başak; Elhan, Atilla Halil; Ceyhan, Koray; Atasoy, Kayhan Çetin

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and safety of computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of pulmonary lesions with fine needle aspiration (FNA) using non-coaxial technique. METHODS We analyzed 442 patients who underwent CT-guided lung biopsy with FNA and non-coaxial technique to determine the diagnostic outcomes, complication rates, and independent risk factors for diagnostic failure and pneumothorax. RESULTS Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 97.6%, 97.3%, and 100%, respectively. Age and >35 mm lesion size were significant risk factors for diagnostic failure. The rates of pneumothorax and chest tube placement were 19% and 2.9%, respectively. Middle and lower lobe location, lesion to pleura distance >7.5 mm, and >45° needle trajectory angle were significant risk factors for pneumothorax. CONCLUSION CT-guided FNA of pulmonary lesions with non-coaxial technique is a safe and reliable method with a relatively low pneumothorax rate and an acceptably high diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28029638

  8. The problem of sexual imbalance and techniques of the self in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Flore, Jacinthe

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the problematization of sexual appetite and its imbalances in the development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The dominant strands of historiographies of sexuality have focused on historicizing sexual object choice and understanding the emergence of sexual identities. This article emphasizes the need to contextualize these histories within a broader frame of historical interest in the problematization of sexual appetite. The first part highlights how sexual object choice, as a paradigm of sexual dysfunctions, progressively receded from medical interest in the twentieth century as the clinical gaze turned to the problem of sexual appetite and its imbalances. The second part uses the example of the newly introduced Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder in the DSM-5 to explore how the Manual functions as a technique for taking care of the self. I argue that the design of the Manual and associated inventories and questionnaires paved the way for their interpretation and application as techniques for self-examination.

  9. Identifying Students' Mathematical Skills from a Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test Using an Iterative Technique to Minimise False Positives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, S.; Dix, A.

    2008-01-01

    There is anecdotal evidence that a significant number of students studying computing related courses at degree level have difficulty with sub-GCE mathematics. Testing of students' skills is often performed using diagnostic tests and a number of computer-based diagnostic tests exist, which work, essentially, by testing one specific diagnostic skill…

  10. A comparison of the boomerang wire vascular access management system versus manual compression alone during percutaneous diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Angela; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Vascular closure devices allow for early sheath removal, allowing for earlier patient mobilization The Boomerang vascular access management system does not alter arterial integrity for future interventions Access site complications provide significant morbidity in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  11. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  12. Introduction: Cardiovascular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Ditto, William; Bauernschmitt, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The number of patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases increases unproportionally high with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop high-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Cardiovascular physics-which interconnects medicine, physics, biology, engineering, and mathematics-is based on interdisciplinary collaboration of specialists from the above scientific fields and attempts to gain deeper insights into pathophysiology and treatment options. This paper summarizes advances in cardiovascular physics with emphasis on a workshop held in Bad Honnef, Germany, in May 2005. The meeting attracted an interdisciplinary audience and led to a number of papers covering the main research fields of cardiovascular physics, including data analysis, modeling, and medical application. The variety of problems addressed by this issue underlines the complexity of the cardiovascular system. It could be demonstrated in this Focus Issue, that data analyses and modeling methods from cardiovascular physics have the ability to lead to significant improvements in different medical fields. Consequently, this Focus Issue of Chaos is a status report that may invite all interested readers to join the community and find competent discussion and cooperation partners.

  13. The Use of Behavior Change Techniques and Theory in Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment in Adults: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sandra J; Sheats, Jylana L; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    This review examined the use of health behavior change techniques and theory in technology-enabled interventions targeting risk factors and indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment. Articles targeting physical activity, weight loss, smoking cessation and management of hypertension, lipids and blood glucose were sourced from PubMed (November 2010-2015) and coded for use of 1) technology, 2) health behavior change techniques (using the CALO-RE taxonomy), and 3) health behavior theories. Of the 984 articles reviewed, 304 were relevant (240=intervention, 64=review). Twenty-two different technologies were used (M=1.45, SD=+/-0.719). The most frequently used behavior change techniques were self-monitoring and feedback on performance (M=5.4, SD=+/-2.9). Half (52%) of the intervention studies named a theory/model - most frequently Social Cognitive Theory, the Trans-theoretical Model, and the Theory of Planned Behavior/Reasoned Action. To optimize technology-enabled interventions targeting CVD risk factors, integrated behavior change theories that incorporate a variety of evidence-based health behavior change techniques are needed.

  14. Detection of Occult Lymph Node Metastases in Esophageal Cancer by Minimally Invasive Staging Combined with Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Edmund S.; Nguyen, Ninh; Shriver, Sharon P.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Schauer, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Lymph node metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. Histologic examination misses micrometastases in up to 20% of lymph nodes evaluated. In addition, non-invasive imaging modalities are not sensitive enough to detect small lymph nodes metastases. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to increase the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes from patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: RT-PCR of CEA mRNA was performed in lymph nodes from patients with malignant and benign esophageal disease. Each specimen was examined histopathologically and by RT-PCR and the results were compared. Results: Metastases were present in 29 of 60 (48%) lymph nodes sample by minimally invasive staging from 13 patients with esophageal cancer when examined histopathologically. RT-PCR identified nodal metastases in 46 of these 60 (77%) samples. RT-PCR detected CEA mRNA in all 29 histologically positive samples and in 17 histologically negative lymph nodes. All lymph nodes from patients with benign disease (n=15) were negative both histopathologically and by RT-PCR. The stage of two patients was reclassified based on the RT-PCR results, which identified lymph node spread undetected histopathologically. Both of these patients developed recurrent disease after resection of the primary tumor. Conclusions: RT-PCR is more sensitive than histologic examination in the detection of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer and can lead to diagnosis of a more advanced stage in some patients. The combination of minimally invasive surgical techniques in combination with new molecular diagnostic techniques may improve our ability to stage cancer patients. PMID:10036123

  15. Multispectral imaging techniques observing the dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations as diagnostic tool for diseased tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmands, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation imaging is a promising diagnostics tool to study the changes and dynamics of tissue perfusion reflecting pathologic and/or physiologic conditions of tissue. In clinical settings, imaging of local oxygenation or blood perfusion variations can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, effectiveness of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of the process of wound healing or localization of the cerebral area causing an epileptic attack. In this study, two oxygenation imaging methods based on multi-spectral techniques were evaluated: one system consisting of a CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420 - 730 nm or 650-1100 nm) and a broad band (white) light source, while the second system was a CCD camera in combination with a tunable multispectral LED light source (450-890nm). By collecting narrowband images at selected wavelengths, concentration changes of the different chromophores at the surface of the tissue (e.g. dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Two analyzing methods were used to calculate the concentration changes this to reduce the errors caused by movement of the tissue. In vivo measurements were obtained during skin oxygen changes induced by temporary arm clamping to validate the methods and algorithms. Functional information from the tissue surface was collected, in non-contact mode, by imaging the hemodynamic and oxygenation changes just below that surface. Both multi-spectral imaging techniques show promising results for detecting dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. The algorithms need to be optimized and image acquisition and processing needs to be developed top real time for practical clinical applications.

  16. Mutational Spectrum of DMD Mutations in Dystrophinopathy Patients: Application of Modern Diagnostic Techniques to a Large Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Flanigan, Kevin M.; Dunn, Diane; von Niederhausern, Andrew; Soltanzadeh, Payam; Gappmaier, Eduard; Howard, Michael T.; Sampson, Jacinda; Mendell, Jerry; Wall, Cheryl; King, Wendy; Pestronk, Alan; Florence, Julaine; Connolly, Anne; Mathews, Katherine D.; Stephan, Carrie; Laubenthal, Karla; Wong, Brenda; Morehart, Paula; Meyer, Amy; Finkel, Richard; Bonnemann, Carsten G.; Medne, Livija; Day, John W.; Dalton, Joline C.; Margolis, Marcia; Hinton, Veronica; Weiss, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the DMD gene, encoding the dystrophin protein, are responsible for the dystrophinopathies Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked Dilated Cardiomyopathy (XLDC). Mutation analysis has traditionally been challenging, due to the large gene size (79 exons over 2.2 Mb of genomic DNA). We report a very large aggregate data set comprised of DMD mutations detected in samples from patients enrolled in the United Dystrophinopathy Project, a multicenter research consortium, and in referral samples submitted for mutation analysis with a diagnosis of dystrophinopathy. We report 1111 mutations in the DMD gene, including 891 mutations with associated phenotypes. These results encompass 506 point mutations (including 294 nonsense mutations) and significantly expand the number of mutations associated with the dystrophinopathies, highlighting the utility of modern diagnostic techniques. Our data supports the uniform hypermutability of CGA>TGA mutations, establishes the frequency of polymorphic muscle (Dp427m) protein isoforms and reveals unique genomic haplotypes associated with `private' mutations. We note that 60% of these patients would be predicted to benefit from skipping of a single DMD exon using antisense oligonucleotide therapy, and 62% would be predicted to benefit from an inclusive multi-exon skipping approach directed toward exons 45 through 55. PMID:19937601

  17. Development of different diagnostic techniques for Endolimax piscium (archamoebae) and their applicability in Solea senegalensis clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Constenla, M; Padrós, F; Del Pozo, R; Palenzuela, O

    2016-12-01

    Systemic amoebiasis of sole is caused by Endolimax piscium, a cryptic parasitic archamoeba whose epidemiology and pathogeny are yet unknown. To establish reliable detection methods for this parasite, a battery of molecular diagnostic tools (ISH, PCR and qPCR) were developed and evaluated with a panel of clinical samples from symptomatic diseased fish and from apparently normal animals of different stocks. As there is neither enough background information on the epidemiology of the disease nor a validated reference method, comparison of tests used a composite reference method approach. The ISH technique was the most specific and sensitive in intestine samples and particularly useful as a reference confirmatory method, while the best method in muscle samples was qPCR. Application of the tests to asymptomatic fish demonstrated presence of parasites in a large proportion (>25%) of their intestines, suggesting that this is the point of entry of the amoebae and the initial stage in the development of the disease. The triggering factors that facilitate the breaching of the intestinal barrier by E. piscium, causing granulomatous lesions in other organs and systemic spreading, are not completely understood but our results point to the connective tissue as a preferential target for parasite development and migration.

  18. A New Diagnostic Mechanism of Instruction: A Dynamic, Real-Time and Non-Interference Quantitative Measurement Technique for Adaptive E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Pi-Shan; Chang, Te-Jeng; Wu, Ming-Hsiung

    2009-01-01

    The level of learners' expertise has been used as a metric and diagnostic mechanism of instruction. This metric influences mental effort directly according to the applications of cognitive load theory. Cognitive efficiency, an optimal measurement technique of expertise, was developed by Kalyuga and Sweller to replace instructional efficiency in…

  19. Cardiovascular bubble dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bull, Joseph L

    2005-01-01

    Gas bubbles can form in the cardiovascular system as a result of patho-physiological conditions or can be intentionally introduced for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The dynamic behavior of these bubbles is caused by a variety of mechanisms, such as inertia, pressure, interfacial tension, viscosity, and gravity. We review recent advances in the fundamental mechanics and applications of cardiovascular bubbles, including air embolism, ultrasound contrast agents, targeted microbubbles for drug delivery and molecular imaging, cavitation-induced tissue erosion for ultrasonic surgery, microbubble-induced angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, and gas embolotherapy.

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis Procedures and Techniques to Obtain a Diagnostic Fetal Specimen or Tissue: Maternal and Fetal Risks and Benefits.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Douglas; Gagnon, Alain; Audibert, François; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June

    2015-07-01

    Objectif : Offrir aux fournisseurs de soins de maternité et à leurs patientes des lignes directrices factuelles contemporaines en ce qui concerne les services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels propres à la tenue des interventions diagnostiques prénatales orientées par échographie (et/ou des techniques permettant l’établissement d’un diagnostic génétique) nécessaires dans les cas où il a été établi pendant la période prénatale que la grossesse serait exposée à des risques, ainsi qu’en ce qui concerne la prise de décisions subséquentes quant à la prise en charge de la grossesse (questions abordant des aspects tels que le niveau du fournisseur de soins obstétricaux, la surveillance prénatale, le lieu où devraient se dérouler les soins et l’accouchement, et la décision de poursuivre ou d’interrompre la grossesse). La présente directive clinique se limite aux services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels, et aux décisions en matière de prise en charge de la grossesse pour les femmes qui nécessitent (ou qui envisagent) la mise en œuvre d’une intervention ou d’une technique effractive orientée par échographie aux fins de l’établissement d’un diagnostic prénatal. Population de patientes : Femmes enceintes identifiées, à la suite de la mise en œuvre de protocoles établis de dépistage prénatal (taux sériques maternels ± imagerie, résultats d’analyse de l’ADN acellulaire indiquant des risques élevés, résultats anormaux au moment de l’imagerie fœtale diagnostique ou antécédents familiaux de troubles héréditaires), comme étant exposées à un risque accru d’anomalie génétique fœtale. Ces femmes pourraient nécessiter ou demander des services de counseling au sujet des risques et des avantages pour la grossesse de la tenue d’une intervention effractive orientée par échographie visant à déterminer l’étiologie, le diagnostic, et/ou la

  1. Is there a place for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases?

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-12-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a noninvasive, nonradiating imaging technique, which provides novel information for the evaluation of cardiovascular diseases. Until now it has been successfully used for the evaluation of congenital and acquired heart diseases, cardiac tumors-mass, iron overload, and myocardial fibrosis detection. Recently, its diagnostic capabilities have been extended to the evaluation of myocardial inflammation and myocardial perfusion. Currently, it is considered the gold standard for the evaluation of volumes, mass, ejection fraction of atriums and ventricles, quantification of iron overload in different organs, detection and follow-up of myocardial inflammation, myocardial infarction and its complications, evaluation of the aorta, detection of anomalous coronary arteries, and ectatic or aneurysmatic coronary arteries. All the above applications and mainly the CMR ability to detect myocardial inflammation, perfusion defects, fibrosis, coronary and great arteries aneurysms make it a valuable tool for cardiovascular system assessment, commonly affected during the course of rheumatic diseases. The technique has been already successfully used in the evaluation of vasculitides, systemic lupus erythematosus, myositis, and scleroderma. However, further studies are needed to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic and monitoring tool of cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic patients.

  2. “How many times must a man look up before he can really see the sky?” Rheumatic cardiovascular disease in the era of multimodality imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Heutemann, David; van Wijk, Kees; Reiber, Hans J; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases (RD) is the result of various pathophysiologic mechanisms including inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, due to micro- or macro-vascular lesions and fibrosis. Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, including echocardiography, nuclear techniques, cardiovascular computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance, represents the main diagnostic tool for early, non-invasive diagnosis of heart disease in RD. However, in the era of multimodality imaging and financial crisis there is an imperative need for rational use of imaging techniques in order to obtain the maximum benefit at the lowest possible cost for the health insurance system. The oligo-asymptomatic cardiovascular presentation and the high cardiovascular mortality of RD necessitate a reliable and reproducible diagnostic approach to catch early cardiovascular involvement. Echocardiography remains the routine cornerstone of cardiovascular evaluation. However, a normal echocardiogram can not always exclude cardiac involvement and/or identify heart disease acuity and pathophysiology. Therefore, cardiovascular magnetic resonance is a necessary adjunct complementary to echocardiography, especially in new onset heart failure and when there are conflicting data from clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation of RD patients. PMID:26413486

  3. "How many times must a man look up before he can really see the sky?" Rheumatic cardiovascular disease in the era of multimodality imaging.

    PubMed

    Mavrogeni, Sophie I; Markousis-Mavrogenis, George; Heutemann, David; van Wijk, Kees; Reiber, Hans J; Kolovou, Genovefa

    2015-09-26

    Cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases (RD) is the result of various pathophysiologic mechanisms including inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, myocardial ischemia, due to micro- or macro-vascular lesions and fibrosis. Noninvasive cardiovascular imaging, including echocardiography, nuclear techniques, cardiovascular computed tomography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance, represents the main diagnostic tool for early, non-invasive diagnosis of heart disease in RD. However, in the era of multimodality imaging and financial crisis there is an imperative need for rational use of imaging techniques in order to obtain the maximum benefit at the lowest possible cost for the health insurance system. The oligo-asymptomatic cardiovascular presentation and the high cardiovascular mortality of RD necessitate a reliable and reproducible diagnostic approach to catch early cardiovascular involvement. Echocardiography remains the routine cornerstone of cardiovascular evaluation. However, a normal echocardiogram can not always exclude cardiac involvement and/or identify heart disease acuity and pathophysiology. Therefore, cardiovascular magnetic resonance is a necessary adjunct complementary to echocardiography, especially in new onset heart failure and when there are conflicting data from clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation of RD patients.

  4. Access to Diagnostic Tests and Essential Medicines for Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Care: Cost, Availability and Affordability in the West Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Jingi, Ahmadou M.; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Ewane Onana, Arnold; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N.; Wang, Binhuan; Kingue, Samuel; Kengne, André Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the availability and affordability of medicines and routine tests for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in the West region of Cameroon, a low-income setting. Methods A survey was conducted on the availability and cost of twelve routine tests and twenty medicines for CVD and diabetes in eight health districts (four urban and four rural) covering over 60% of the population of the region (1.8 million). We analyzed the percentage of tests and medicines available, the median price against the international reference price (median price ratio) for the medicines, and affordability in terms of the number of days’ wages it would cost the lowest-paid unskilled government worker for initial investigation tests and procurement for one month of treatment. Results The availability of tests varied between 10% for the ECG to 100% for the fasting blood sugar. The average cost for the initial investigation using the minimum tests cost 29.76 days’ wages. The availability of medicines varied from 36.4% to 59.1% in urban and from 9.1% to 50% in rural settings. Only metformin and benzathine-benzylpenicilline had a median price ratio of ≤1.5, with statins being largely unaffordable (at least 30.51 days’ wages). One month of combination treatment for coronary heart disease costs at least 40.87 days’ wages. Conclusion The investigation and management of patients with medium-to-high cardiovascular risk remains largely unavailable and unaffordable in this setting. An effective non-communicable disease program should lay emphasis on primary prevention, and improve affordable access to essential medicines in public outlets. PMID:25369455

  5. Fabry disease and cardiovascular involvement.

    PubMed

    Anastasakis, Aris; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Steriotis, Alexandros Klavdios

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease (FD, OMIM 301500) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of the glycosphigolipid metabolism caused by total or partial deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). Progressive intralysosomal accumulation of neutral glycosphingolipids in a variety of cell types triggers a cascade of pathophysiological events including cellular death, compromised energy metabolism, small vessel injury, K(Ca)3.1 channel dysfunction in endothelial cells, oxidative stress, impaired autophagosome maturation, tissue ischemia and, importantly, development of irreversible cardiac and renal tissue fibrosis, leading to major multisystemic manifestations. Cardiovascular complications of the disease are very frequent and contribute substantially to disease-related morbidity and mortality in men. Cardiovascular involvement is the leading cause of premature death in heterozygous female patients with FD. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent cardiac manifestation followed by conduction system disease, valve dysfunction, arrhythmias, vessel disease and coronary microvascular dysfunction. The diagnosis of subclinical forms of the disease, before the development of cardiac hypertrophy, using newer techniques (tissue doppler imaging, strain rate and cardiac magnetic resonance) is crucial to the early initation of the treatment. Greatest benefit of the enzyme replacement treatment is achieved when started at an early stage of the disease before extensive fibrosis or other irreversible tissue damage takes place. Fabry disease should be included in the differential diagnosis algorithm of idiopathic hypertrophy. Determination of Alpha-Gal A activity on plasma and peripheral leukocytes in males and genetic testing in females are the diagnostic gold-standards.

  6. Superior diagnostic performance of perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance versus SPECT to detect coronary artery disease: The secondary endpoints of the multicenter multivendor MR-IMPACT II (Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Myocardial Perfusion Assessment in Coronary Artery Disease Trial)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is generally accepted as an alternative to SPECT to assess myocardial ischemia non-invasively. However its performance vs gated-SPECT and in sub-populations is not fully established. The goal was to compare in a multicenter setting the diagnostic performance of perfusion-CMR and gated-SPECT for the detection of CAD in various populations using conventional x-ray coronary angiography (CXA) as the standard of reference. Methods In 33 centers (in US and Europe) 533 patients, eligible for CXA or SPECT, were enrolled in this multivendor trial. SPECT and CXA were performed within 4 weeks before or after CMR in all patients. Prevalence of CAD in the sample was 49% and 515 patients received MR contrast medium. Drop-out rates for CMR and SPECT were 5.6% and 3.7%, respectively (ns). The study was powered for the primary endpoint of non-inferiority of CMR vs SPECT for both, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CAD (using a single-threshold reading), the results for the primary endpoint were reported elsewhere. In this article secondary endpoints are presented, i.e. the diagnostic performance of CMR versus SPECT in subpopulations such as multi-vessel disease (MVD), in men, in women, and in patients without prior myocardial infarction (MI). For diagnostic performance assessment the area under the receiver-operator-characteristics-curve (AUC) was calculated. Readers were blinded versus clinical data, CXA, and imaging results. Results The diagnostic performance (= area under ROC = AUC) of CMR was superior to SPECT (p = 0.0004, n = 425) and to gated-SPECT (p = 0.018, n = 253). CMR performed better than SPECT in MVD (p = 0.003 vs all SPECT, p = 0.04 vs gated-SPECT), in men (p = 0.004, n = 313) and in women (p = 0.03, n = 112) as well as in the non-infarct patients (p = 0.005, n = 186 in 1–3 vessel disease and p = 0.015, n = 140 in MVD). Conclusion

  7. Fundamentals of quality assessment of molecular amplification methods in clinical diagnostics. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry Scientific Division Committee on Molecular Biology Techniques.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, M; Braun, A; Wagener, C

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interest in molecular biology diagnostics is a result of the tremendous gain of scientific knowledge in genetics, made possible especially since the introduction of amplification techniques. High expectations have been placed on genetic testing, and the number of laboratories now using the relevant technology is rapidly increasing--resulting in an obvious need for standardization and definition of laboratory organization. This communication is an effort towards that end. We address aspects that should be considered when structuring a new molecular diagnostic laboratory, and we discuss individual preanalytical and analytical procedures, from sampling to evaluation of assay results. In addition, different means of controlling contamination are discussed. Because the methodology is in constant change, no general standards can be defined. Accordingly, this publication is intended to serve as a recommendation for good laboratory practice and internal quality control and as a guide to troubleshooting, primarily in amplification techniques.

  8. Laser beam and tissue interactions: use of advanced therapeutic and diagnostic techniques: in-vitro experiments and in-vivo trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2001-04-01

    The mechanism of laser beam and tissue interaction is governed by the technical characteristics of the laser beam and the optical properties of the tissue. The therapeutic laser wavelength, pulse duration and beam quality, as well as the laser radiation delivery systems, the ablation mechanisms and the diagnostic techniques to monitor a surgical process are studied in this work. Advanced therapeutic and diagnostic techniques, such as integrating sphere, atomic force microscopy and beam profiling are used in the experimental study. In vitro experiments on tissue, laser ablation and diagnosis using laser induced fluorescence are performed. Finally, in vivo animal trials of an endoscopic/laparoscopic laser prototype are realized, in the framework of the appropriate protocols.

  9. Cardiovascular Deconditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Wood, Margie L.; Brown, Troy E.; Fortner, G. William

    1999-01-01

    Spaceflight causes adaptive changes in cardiovascular function that may deleteriously affect crew health and safety. Over the last three decades, symptoms of cardiovascular changes have ranged from postflight orthostatic tachycardia and decreased exercise capacity to serious cardiac rhythm disturbances during extravehicular activities (EVA). The most documented symptom of cardiovascular dysfunction, postflight orthostatic intolerance, has affected a significant percentage of U.S. Space Shuttle astronauts. Problems of cardiovascular dysfunction associated with spaceflight are a concern to NASA. This has been particularly true during Shuttle flights where the primary concern is the crew's physical health, including the pilot's ability to land the Orbiter, and the crew's ability to quickly egress and move to safety should a dangerous condition arise. The study of astronauts during Shuttle activities is inherently more difficult than most human research. Consequently, sample sizes have been small and results have lacked consistency. Before the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP), there was a lack of normative data on changes in cardiovascular parameters during and after spaceflight. The EDOMP for the first time allowed studies on a large enough number of subjects to overcome some of these problems. There were three primary goals of the Cardiovascular EDOMP studies. The first was to establish, through descriptive studies, a normative data base of cardiovascular changes attributable to spaceflight. The second goal was to determine mechanisms of cardiovascular changes resulting from spaceflight (particularly orthostatic hypotension and cardiac rhythm disturbances). The third was to evaluate possible countermeasures. The Cardiovascular EDOMP studies involved parallel descriptive, mechanistic, and countermeasure evaluations.

  10. Rheumatoid cachexia and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Summers, Gregory D; Metsios, Giorgos S; Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, Antonios; Kitas, George D

    2010-08-01

    Both cachexia and cardiovascular disease are strongly associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and linked to the chronic inflammatory process. Typically, rheumatoid cachexia occurs in individuals with normal or increased BMI (reduced muscle mass and increased fat mass). Classic cachexia (reduced muscle mass and reduced fat mass) is rare in RA but is associated with high inflammatory activity and aggressive joint destruction in patients with a poor cardiovascular prognosis. Conversely, obesity is linked to hypertension and dyslipidemia but, paradoxically, lower RA disease activity and less cardiovascular disease-related mortality. Rheumatoid cachexia might represent the 'worst of both worlds' with respect to cardiovascular outcome, but until diagnostic criteria for this condition are agreed upon, its effect on cardiovascular disease risk remains controversial.

  11. Non-invasive, photonics-based diagnostic, imaging, monitoring, and light delivery techniques for the recognition, quantification and treatment of malignant and chronic inflammatory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, N.; Davies-Shaw, D.; Shaw, J. D.

    2007-02-01

    We report firsthand on innovative developments in non-invasive, biophotonic techniques for a wide range of diagnostic, imaging and treatment options, including the recognition and quantification of cancerous, pre-cancerous cells and chronic inflammatory conditions. These techniques have benefited from the ability to target the affected site by both monochromatic light and broad multiple wavelength spectra. The employment of such wavelength or color-specific properties embraces the fluorescence stimulation of various photosensitizing drugs, and the instigation and detection of identified fluorescence signatures attendant upon laser induced fluorescence (LIF) phenomena as transmitted and propagated by precancerous, cancerous and normal tissue. In terms of tumor imaging and therapeutic and treatment options, we have exploited the abilities of various wavelengths to penetrate to different depths, through different types of tissues, and have explored quantifiable absorption and reflection characteristics upon which diagnostic assumptions can be reliably based and formulated. These biophotonic-based diagnostic, sensing and imaging techniques have also benefited from, and have been further enhanced by, the integrated ability to provide various power levels to be employed at various stages in the procedure. Applications are myriad, including non-invasive, non destructive diagnosis of in vivo cell characteristics and functions; light-based tissue analysis; real-time monitoring and mapping of brain function and of tumor growth; real time monitoring of the surgical completeness of tumor removal during laser-imaged/guided brain resection; diagnostic procedures based on fluorescence life-time monitoring, the monitoring of chronic inflammatory conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis), and continuous blood glucose monitoring in the control of diabetes.

  12. Investigation of PACVD protective coating processes using advanced diagnostics techniques. Performance report, 1 September 1992--30 April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, W.C.

    1993-05-07

    Objective is to understand the mechanisms governing nonequilibrium plasma atomistic or molecular deposition of hard face coatings. Laser diagnostic methods include coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and laser-induced fluorescence. TiB{sub 2} and diamonds were used as the hard face coating materials. Diborane was used as precursor to TiB{sub 2}.

  13. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  14. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  15. Semi-Empirical Calibration Technique for the MSE Diagnostic on the JET and DIII-D Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, M A; Brix, M; Hawkes, N C

    2008-06-02

    Calibration of the MSE diagnostic is technically straightforward but complicated by a number of practical considerations that potentially introduce systematic errors. We have developed a semi-empirical method to optimize calibrations that is based on constraining the calibration to agree with equilibria derived from simple current-ramp discharges. The optimized calibrations quantitatively improve the equilibrium reconstructions and yield good agreement between the onset of a variety of MHD phenomena and the predicted appearance of corresponding mode rational surfaces.

  16. [THE TECHNIQUE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR SIMULTANEOUS DIAGNOSTIC OF INHERENT HYPERPLASIA OF ADRENAL GLANDS TYPE I AND II].

    PubMed

    Dutov, A A; Nikitin, D A; Lukyanova, Yu L; Shemiakina, N A

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the technique of high-performance liquid chromatography making it possible simultaneously detect cortisol, cortisone and secondary steroids in serum for consequent analysis of common reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet under 240 nm. The liquid-liquid extraction from alkaline medium in diethyl ether The separation using column of 150x4.6 size ODS 3.5 mkm in isocratic mode. The eluent acetonitrile--0.02 M phosphate buffer pH 8.0--isopropanol (40:60:1). The application of proposed technique managed to separate cortisol, cortisone, dexamethasone, corticosterone, 11-desoxicortisol, testosterone, desoxicorticosterone, 17α-gidroxiprogesterone and androstendion in 20 minutes. The simplicity, reproducibility and sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of technique permit implement it in clinical practice for simultaneous diagnostic of inherent hyperplasia of adrenal glands type I and II.

  17. Synchronisation and coupling analysis: applied cardiovascular physics in sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Niels; Riedl, Maik; Kramer, Jan; Muller, Andreas; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is a physiological process with an internal program of a number of well defined sleep stages and intermediate wakefulness periods. The sleep stages modulate the autonomous nervous system and thereby the sleep stages are accompanied by different regulation regimes for the cardiovascular and respiratory system. The differences in regulation can be distinguished by new techniques of cardiovascular physics. The number of patients suffering from sleep disorders increases unproportionally with the increase of the human population and aging, leading to very high expenses in the public health system. Therefore, the challenge of cardiovascular physics is to develop highly-sophisticated methods which are able to, on the one hand, supplement and replace expensive medical devices and, on the other hand, improve the medical diagnostics with decreasing the patient's risk. Methods of cardiovascular physics are used to analyze heart rate, blood pressure and respiration to detect changes of the autonomous nervous system in different diseases. Data driven modeling analysis, synchronization and coupling analysis and their applications to biosignals in healthy subjects and patients with different sleep disorders are presented. Newly derived methods of cardiovascular physics can help to find indicators for these health risks.

  18. Plan of Action for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases: Synthesis of Recommendations and Action Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Barriales-Villa, Roberto; Gimeno-Blanes, Juan Ramón; Zorio-Grima, Esther; Ripoll-Vera, Tomás; Evangelista-Masip, Artur; Moya-Mitjans, Angel; Serratosa-Fernández, Luis; Albert-Brotons, Dimpna C; García-Pinilla, José Manuel; García-Pavía, Pablo

    2016-03-01

    The term inherited cardiovascular disease encompasses a group of cardiovascular diseases (cardiomyopathies, channelopathies, certain aortic diseases, and other syndromes) with a number of common characteristics: they have a genetic basis, a familial presentation, a heterogeneous clinical course, and, finally, can all be associated with sudden cardiac death. The present document summarizes some important concepts related to recent advances in sequencing techniques and understanding of the genetic bases of these diseases. We propose diagnostic algorithms and clinical practice recommendations and discuss controversial aspects of current clinical interest. We highlight the role of multidisciplinary referral units in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

  19. EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF NANOMEDICINE FOR THERAPY AND DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Biana; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Bouamrani, Ali; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Nanomedicine is an emerging field of medicine which utilizes nanotechnology concepts for advanced therapy and diagnostics. This convergent discipline, which merges research areas such as chemistry, biology, physics, mathematics and engineering thus bridging the gap between molecular and cellular interactions, has a potential to revolutionize current medical practice. This review presents recent developments in nanomedicine research, which are poised to have an important impact on cardiovascular disease and treatment by improving therapy and diagnosis of such cardiovascular disorders as atherosclerosis, restenosis and myocardial infarction. Specifically, we discuss the use of nanoparticles for molecular imaging and advanced therapeutics, specially designed drug eluting stents and in vivo/ex vivo early detection techniques. PMID:20172613

  20. Investigation of ionospheric disturbances and associated diagnostic techniques. Final report, 1 January 1992-31 December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, L.M.

    1995-12-12

    The objectives of this research and development program were to conduct simulation modeling of the generation and propagation of atmospheric acoustic signals associated with surface and subsurface ground disturbances; to construct an experimental measurement system for exploratory research studies of acoustic generated ionospheric disturbances; to model high power radio wave propagation through the ionosphere, including nonlinear wave plasma interaction effects; and to assist in the assessment of diagnostic systems for observation of ionospheric modification experiments using existing and planned high latitude high power RF transmitting facilities. A computer simulation of ionospheric response to ground launched acoustic pulses was constructed and results compared to observational data associated with HF and incoherent scatter radar measurements of ionospheric effects produced by earthquakes and ground level explosions. These results were then utilized to help define the design, construct and test for an HF Doppler radar system. In addition, an assessment was conducted of ionospheric diagnostic instruments proposed for the Air Force/Navy High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP).

  1. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    PubMed

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops".

  2. Clinical application of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging with Virtual Touch IQ in breast ultrasound: diagnostic performance and reproducibility of a new technique.

    PubMed

    Kapetas, Panagiotis; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Woitek, Ramona; Clauser, Paola; Bernathova, Maria; Spick, Claudio; Helbich, Thomas; Baltzer, Pascal A

    2017-02-01

    Background Virtual Touch IQ (VTIQ) is a novel technique of quantitative sonoelastography that applies acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI). Purpose To evaluate breast ARFI imaging with VTIQ in the clinical setting, with regard to reproducibility and diagnostic performance, and to specify cutoff limits for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions. Material and Methods This retrospective study included 83 patients with 85 breast lesions (51 benign, 34 malignant) who received ARFI imaging with VTIQ. Two independent ARFI measurements of each lesion were performed and shear wave velocities (SWV) of the lesion and the adjacent tissues were measured. A lesion-to-fat velocity ratio (L/F Ratio) was calculated for each lesion. Diagnostic performance of SWV measurements and L/F Ratios was evaluated with receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate measurement reproducibility. Results All measurements showed equal diagnostic performance, as measured by the area under the ROC curve (0.853 for SWV, 0.882 for the L/F Ratio). At a cutoff value of 3.23 m/s, sensitivity and specificity were 82.4% and 80.4%, respectively. An L/F Ratio cutoff value of 2.23 revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 89.7% and 76.5%. The reproducibility of the SWV measurements was moderate (limits of agreement, 40.3-44.4%) and higher than that of the L/F Ratios (54.5-60.2%). Conclusion ARFI imaging with VTIQ is a novel, moderately reproducible, quantitative elastography technique, which provides useful information for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions in the clinical setting.

  3. Cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Renier; Hochfeld, Warren E; Dodgen, Tyren M; Ker, James; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-03-01

    Human genetic variation in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms as well as more complex structural variations such as insertions, deletions and copy number variants, is partially responsible for the clinical variation seen in response to pharmacotherapeutic drugs. This affects the likelihood of experiencing adverse drug reactions and also of achieving therapeutic success. In this paper, we review key studies in cardiovascular pharmacogenetics that reveal genetic variations underlying the outcomes of drug treatment in cardiovascular disease. Examples of genetic associations with drug efficacy and toxicity are described, including the roles of genetic variability in pharmacokinetics (e.g. drug metabolizing enzymes) and pharmacodynamics (e.g. drug targets). These findings have functional implications that could lead to the development of genetic tests aimed at minimizing drug toxicity and optimizing drug efficacy in cardiovascular medicine.

  4. Cardiovascular Cine Film Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Carl C.

    1983-12-01

    The detection of a cardiovascular stenosis involves the complex interaction of technique selection, system performance and anatomy. Technique selection for instance involves choosing the correct focal spot, pulse width, KVp, and frame rate for a given patient and projection angle. In order to provide guidance in this selection process, these variables were investigated in terms of their impact on image quality. Conclusions which were confirmed clinically are summarized in terms of recommended techniques for a range of patient sizes. The confirmation includes clinical films which demonstrates the effects of parameter changes.

  5. Ante- and postmortem diagnostic techniques for anthrax: rethinking pathogen exposure and the geographic extent of the disease in wildlife.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Alexander, Kathleen A; Hadfield, Ted L; Blackburn, Jason K

    2013-10-01

    Although antemortem approaches in wildlife disease surveillance are common for most zoonoses, they have been used infrequently in anthrax surveillance. Classically, anthrax is considered a disease with extremely high mortality. This is because anthrax outbreaks are often detected ex post facto through wildlife or livestock fatalities or spillover transmission to humans. As a result, the natural prevalence of anthrax infection in animal populations is largely unknown. However, in the past 20 yr, antemortem serologic surveillance in wildlife has indicated that not all species exposed succumb to infection, and anthrax exposure may be more widespread than originally appreciated. These studies brought about a multitude of new questions, many of which can be addressed by increased antemortem serologic surveillance in wildlife populations. To fully understand anthrax transmission dynamics and geographic extent, it is important to identify exposure in wildlife hosts and associated factors and, in turn, understand how these influences may drive environmental reservoir dynamics and concurrent disease risk in livestock and humans. Here we review our current understanding of the serologic response to anthrax among wildlife hosts and serologic diagnostic assays used to augment traditional postmortem anthrax surveillance strategies. We also provide recommendations for the use of serology and sentinel species surveillance approaches in anthrax research and management.

  6. Cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Rupert A

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major, growing, worldwide problem. It is important that individuals at risk of developing cardiovascular disease can be effectively identified and appropriately stratified according to risk. This review examines what we understand by the term risk, traditional and novel risk factors, clinical scoring systems, and the use of risk for informing prescribing decisions. Many different cardiovascular risk factors have been identified. Established, traditional factors such as ageing are powerful predictors of adverse outcome, and in the case of hypertension and dyslipidaemia are the major targets for therapeutic intervention. Numerous novel biomarkers have also been described, such as inflammatory and genetic markers. These have yet to be shown to be of value in improving risk prediction, but may represent potential therapeutic targets and facilitate more targeted use of existing therapies. Risk factors have been incorporated into several cardiovascular disease prediction algorithms, such as the Framingham equation, SCORE and QRISK. These have relatively poor predictive power, and uncertainties remain with regards to aspects such as choice of equation, different risk thresholds and the roles of relative risk, lifetime risk and reversible factors in identifying and treating at-risk individuals. Nonetheless, such scores provide objective and transparent means of quantifying risk and their integration into therapeutic guidelines enables equitable and cost-effective distribution of health service resources and improves the consistency and quality of clinical decision making. PMID:22348281

  7. Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly CHD (coronary heart disease) and stroke, remain the leading causes of death of women in America and most developed countries. In recent years the rate of CVD has declined in men but not in women. This is contributed to by an under-recognition of women’s C...

  8. Cardiovascular and pulmonary dynamics by quantitative imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    The accuracy and range of studies on cardiovascular and pulmonary functions can be greatly facilitated if the motions of the underlying organ systems throughout individual cycles can be directly visualized and readily measured with minimum or preferably no effect on these motions. Achievement of this objective requires development of techniques for quantitative noninvasive or minimally invasive dynamic and stop-action imaging of the organ systems. A review of advances in dynamic quantitative imaging of moving organs reveals that the revolutionary value of cross-sectional and three-dimensional images produced by various types of radiant energy such as X-rays and gamma rays, positrons, electrons, protons, light, and ultrasound for clinical diagnostic and biomedical research applications is just beginning to be realized. The fabrication of a clinically useful cross-section reconstruction device with sensing capabilities for both anatomical structural composition and chemical composition may be possible and awaits future development.

  9. Diagnostic performance of the Forced Oscillation Technique in the detection of early respiratory changes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Faria, A D; Lopes, A J; Jansen, J M; Pinheiro, G C; Melo, P L

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical potential of the Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT) in the detection of the early alterations in respiratory mechanics of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 36 individuals were analyzed, 18 healthy and 18 with RA. The clinical usefulness of the parameters was evaluated investigating sensibility (Se), specificity (Sp) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). In the RA group, all the 3 studied parameters obtained high accuracy for clinical use (AUC>0.9), while in spirometric parameters, no parameter obtained appropriate accuracy for clinical use (AUC < 0.7). In conclusion, the parameters obtained by FOT presented adequate Se and Sp, indicating that this technique can be helpful in the evaluation of the early respiratory mechanical alterations in patients with RA.

  10. How valuable is physical examination of the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed

    Elder, Andrew; Japp, Alan; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-07-27

    Physical examination of the cardiovascular system is central to contemporary teaching and practice in clinical medicine. Evidence about its value focuses on its diagnostic accuracy and varies widely in methodological quality and statistical power. This makes collation, analysis, and understanding of results difficult and limits their application to daily clinical practice. Specific factors affecting interpretation and clinical application include poor standardisation of observers' technique and training, the study of single signs rather than multiple signs or signs in combination with symptoms, and the tendency to compare physical examination directly with technological aids to diagnosis rather than explore diagnostic strategies that combine both. Other potential aspects of the value of physical examination, such as cost effectiveness or patients' perceptions, are poorly studied. This review summarises the evidence for the clinical value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system. The best was judged to relate to the detection and evaluation of valvular heart disease, the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure, the jugular venous pulse in the assessment of central venous pressure, and the detection of atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, impaired perfusion, and aortic and carotid disease. Although technological aids to diagnosis are likely to become even more widely available at the point of care, the evidence suggests that further research into the value of physical examination of the cardiovascular system is needed, particularly in low resource settings and as a potential means of limiting inappropriate overuse of technological aids to diagnosis.

  11. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor

    2003-03-01

    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  12. MEMS shear stress sensors for cardiovascular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Gopikrishnan; Hsiai, Tzung K; DeMaio, Lucas; Chang, Michael; Chang, Stanley

    2004-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized nations. Both biochemical and biomechanical stimuli modulate the pathogenesis of coronary artery diseases. Shear stress acting on the lumen of blood vessels intimately modulates the biological activities of vascular endothelial cells (ECs). We hereby develop microelectro mechanical system (MEMS)-based sensors at the dimension comparable to a single EC to monitor realtime shear stress in fluidic channel. Our goal is to fabricate sensors for ex vivo or in vivo shear stress measurement at Reynolds number commonly encountered in human circulation. The MEMS sensors were designed based on the previously described heat transfer principles. The polysilicon was doped with phosphorous to render the sensing element a high resistivity at 2.5 KOmega. The development of backside wire bonding enabled the application for the vascular geometry. The small dimension (80x2 mum) and the gain amplitude at 71 KHz offered an entry point to measure shear stress with high spatial and temporal resolution.

  13. Assessment of African Swine Fever Diagnostic Techniques as a Response to the Epidemic Outbreaks in Eastern European Union Countries: How To Improve Surveillance and Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, C; Nieto, R; Soler, A; Pelayo, V; Fernández-Pinero, J; Markowska-Daniel, I; Pridotkas, G; Nurmoja, I; Granta, R; Simón, A; Pérez, C; Martín, E; Fernández-Pacheco, P; Arias, M

    2015-08-01

    This study represents a complete comparative analysis of the most widely used African swine fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in the European Union (EU) using field and experimental samples from animals infected with genotype II ASF virus (ASFV) isolates circulating in Europe. To detect ASFV, three different PCRs were evaluated in parallel using 785 field and experimental samples. The results showed almost perfect agreement between the Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL-PCR) and the real-time (κ = 0.94 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.91 to 0.97]) and conventional (κ = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.83 to 0.92]) World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-prescribed PCRs. The UPL-PCR had greater diagnostic sensitivity for detecting survivors and allows earlier detection of the disease. Compared to the commercial antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), good-to-moderate agreement (κ = 0.67 [95% CI, 0.58 to 0.76]) was obtained, with a sensitivity of 77.2% in the commercial test. For ASF antibody detection, five serological methods were tested, including three commercial ELISAs, the OIE-ELISA, and the confirmatory immunoperoxidase test (IPT). Greater sensitivity was obtained with the IPT than with the ELISAs, since the IPT was able to detect ASF antibodies at an earlier point in the serological response, when few antibodies are present. The analysis of the exudate tissues from dead wild boars showed that IPT might be a useful serological tool for determining whether or not animals had been exposed to virus infection, regardless of whether antibodies were present. In conclusion, the UPL-PCR in combination with the IPT was the most trustworthy method for detecting ASF during the epidemic outbreaks affecting EU countries in 2014. The use of the most appropriate diagnostic tools is critical when implementing effective control programs.

  14. Arrestins in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Lymperopoulos, Anastasios; Bathgate, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Of the four mammalian arrestins, only the β-arrestins (βarrs; Arrestin2 and -3) are expressed throughout the cardiovascular system, where they regulate, as either desensitizers/internalizers or signal transducers, several G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) critical for cardiovascular homeostasis. The cardiovascular roles of βarrs have been delineated at an accelerated pace via a variety of techniques and tools, such as knockout mice, siRNA knockdown, artificial or naturally occurring polymorphic GPCRs, and availability of new βarr "biased" GPCR ligands. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of cardiovascular arrestin physiology and pharmacology, addressing the individual cardiovascular receptors affected by βarrs in vivo, as well as the individual cell types, tissues, and organs of the cardiovascular system in which βarr effects are exerted; for example, cardiac myocyte or fibroblast, vascular smooth muscle, adrenal gland and platelet. In the broader scope of cardiovascular βarr pharmacology, a discussion of the βarr "bias" of certain cardiovascular GPCR ligands is also included.

  15. Development of a temporal filtering technique for suppression of interferences in applied laser-induced fluorescence diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Andreas; Kaldvee, Billy; Bood, Joakim; Aldén, Marcus

    2009-04-20

    A temporal filtering technique, complementary to spectral filtering, has been developed for laser-induced fluorescence measurements. The filter is applicable in cases where the laser-induced interfering signals and the signal of interest have different temporal characteristics. For the interfering-signal discrimination a picosecond laser system along with a fast time-gated intensified CCD camera were used. In order to demonstrate and evaluate the temporal filtering concept two measurement situations were investigated; one where toluene fluorescence was discriminated from interfering luminescence of an aluminum surface, and in the other one Mie scattering signals from a water aerosol were filtered out from acetone fluorescence images. A mathematical model was developed to simulate and evaluate the temporal filter for a general measurement situation based on pulsed-laser excitation together with time-gated detection. Using system parameters measured with a streak camera, the model was validated for LIF imaging of acetone vapor inside a water aerosol. The results show that the temporal filter is capable of efficient suppression of interfering signal contributions. The photophysical properties of several species commonly studied by LIF in combustion research have been listed and discussed to provide guidelines for optimum use of the technique.

  16. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  17. Electromagnetic diagnostic techniques for hypervelocity projectile detection, velocity measurement, and size characterization: Theoretical concept and first experimental test

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlig, W. Casey; Heine, Andreas

    2015-11-14

    A new measurement technique is suggested to augment the characterization and understanding of hypervelocity projectiles before impact. The electromagnetic technique utilizes magnetic diffusion principles to detect particles, measure velocity, and indicate relative particle dimensions. It is particularly suited for detection of small particles that may be difficult to track utilizing current characterization methods, such as high-speed video or flash radiography but can be readily used for large particle detection, where particle spacing or location is not practical for other measurement systems. In this work, particles down to 2 mm in diameter have been characterized while focusing on confining the detection signal to enable multi-particle characterization with limited particle-to-particle spacing. The focus of the paper is on the theoretical concept and the analysis of its applicability based on analytical and numerical calculation. First proof-of-principle experimental tests serve to further validate the method. Some potential applications are the characterization of particles from a shaped-charge jet after its break-up and investigating debris in impact experiments to test theoretical models for the distribution of particles size, number, and velocity.

  18. Re-exploring the high-throughput potential of microextraction techniques, SPME and MEPS, as powerful strategies for medical diagnostic purposes. Innovative approaches, recent applications and future trends.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jorge; Silva, Catarina Luís; Perestrelo, Rosa; Gonçalves, João; Alves, Vera; Câmara, José S

    2014-03-01

    The human population continues to grow exponentially in the fast developing and most populated countries, whereas in Western Europe it is getting older and older each year. This inevitably raises the demand for better and more efficient medical services without increasing the economic burden in the same proportion. To meet these requirements, improvement of medical diagnosis is certainly a key aspect to consider. Therefore, we need powerful analytical methodologies able to go deeper and further in the characterization of human metabolism and identification of disease biomarkers and endogenous molecules in body fluids and tissues. The ultimate goal is to have a reliable and early medical diagnosis, mitigating the disease complications as much as possible. Microextraction techniques (METs) represent a key step in these analytical methodologies by providing samples in the suitable volumes and purification levels necessary for the characterization of the target analytes. In this aspect, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and, more recently, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS), are powerful sample preparation techniques, characterized by their reduced time of analysis, low solvent consumption, and broad application. Moreover, as miniaturized techniques, they can be easily automatized to have a high-throughput performance in the clinical environment. In this review, we explore some of the most interesting MEPS and SPME applications, focusing on recent trends and applications to medical diagnostic, particularly the in vivo and near real time applications.

  19. Novel Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Studying Particle Contact and Deposition Upon a Large Cylinder in a Sheared Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashidnia, Nasser (Technical Monitor); Yoda, Minami

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this research project were: 1) To study the fluid dynamics of sheared particle-liquid suspensions and the impact of differential particle-fluid inertia; 2) To develop new techniques for observing suspension particle contact and deposition upon solid surfaces. Dr. Yoda was supported by the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research on a four-year grant from March 2000 through November 2004 for a ground-based study on the fluid dynamics of sheared particle-liquid suspensions and the impact of differential particle-fluid inertia on such flows. Such inertial effects can only be observed in reduced-gravity environments since they are overwhelmed by buoyancy effects on Earth. Moreover, these inertial effects will have a significant impact upon suspension flows in microgravity. Suspension dynamics are of importance in a wide variety of advanced life systems applications, including water reclamation and dust mitigation in confined habitats.

  20. Fuel Injector Patternation Evaluation in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors, Using Nonintrusive Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three diverse fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. Further comparison is also made for one injector with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  1. Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carolynne M; Forbes, Raeburn B

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic Lumbar Puncture is one of the most commonly performed invasive tests in clinical medicine. Evaluation of an acute headache and investigation of inflammatory or infectious disease of the nervous system are the most common indications. Serious complications are rare, and correct technique will minimise diagnostic error and maximise patient comfort. We review the technique of diagnostic Lumbar Puncture including anatomy, needle selection, needle insertion, measurement of opening pressure, Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) specimen handling and after care. We also make some quality improvement suggestions for those designing services incorporating diagnostic Lumbar Puncture. PMID:25075138

  2. [Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics].

    PubMed

    Scibona, Paula; Angriman, Federico; Simonovich, Ventura; Heller, Martina M; Belloso, Waldo H

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current medical practice takes into account information based on population studies and benefits observed in large populations or cohorts. However, individual patients present great differences in both toxicity and clinical efficacy that can be explained by variations in adherence, unknown drug to drug interactions and genetic variability. The latter seems to explain from 20% up to 95% of patient to patient variability. Treating patients with cardiovascular disorders faces the clinician with the challenge to include genomic analysis into daily practice. There are several examples within cardiovascular disease of treatments that can vary in toxicity or clinical usefulness based on genetic changes. One of the main factors affecting the efficacy of Clopidogrel is the phenotype associated with polymorphisms in the gene CYP 2C9. Furthermore, regarding oral anticoagulants, changes in CYP2C9 and VKORC1 play an important role in changing the clinical response to anticoagulation. When analyzing statin treatment, one of their main toxicities (myopathy) can be predicted by the SLCO1B1 polymorphism. The potential for prediction of toxicity and clinical efficacy from the use of genetic analysis warrants further studies aiming towards its inclusion in daily clinical practice.

  3. Cardiovascular imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiotoxicity: cardiovascular magnetic resonance and nuclear cardiology.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alessia; Pizzino, Fausto; Gargiulo, Paola; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Cadeddu, Christian; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Zito, Concetta; Di Bella, Gianluca

    2016-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (CTX) is a determining factor for the quality of life and mortality of patients administered potentially cardiotoxic drugs and in long-term cancer survivors. Therefore, prevention and early detection of CTX are highly desirable, as is the exploration of alternative therapeutic strategies and/or the proposal of potentially cardioprotective treatments. In recent years, cardiovascular imaging has acquired a pivotal role in this setting. Although echocardiography remains the diagnostic method most used to monitor cancer patients, the need for more reliable, reproducible and accurate detection of early chemotherapy-induced CTX has encouraged the introduction of second-line advanced imaging modalities, such as cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear techniques, into the clinical setting. This review of the Working Group on Drug Cardiotoxicity and Cardioprotection of the Italian Society of Cardiology aims to afford an overview of the most important findings from the literature about the role of CMR and nuclear techniques in the management of chemotherapy-treated patients, describe conventional and new parameters for detecting CTX from both diagnostic and prognostic perspectives and provide integrated insight into the role of CMR and nuclear techniques compared with other imaging tools and versus the positions of the most important international societies.

  4. Trichomonas vaginalis: investigation of a novel diagnostic method in urine samples using cysteine proteinase 4 gene and PCR technique.

    PubMed

    Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Rezaie, Sassan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Niromand, Nasrin; Kazemi, Bahram; Babaei, Zahra; Rezaeian, Mostafa

    2010-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the agent of a highly prevalent sexually transmitted disease that leads to vaginitis, urethritis, ectocervicitis and has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Detection of T. vaginalis based on wet-mount microscopy and culture methods is insensitive and time consuming, respectively. Thus the quest for reliable PCR techniques of T. vaginalis in vaginal discharge and urine sample is more importance. In this study, 500 urine and vaginal-discharge samples were collected from women referred to Sexual Transmitted Disease Clinic of Mirzakuchakkhan Hospital in Tehran, Iran between May 2008 and March 2009. Wet-mount and culture methods were done on the vaginal discharges, and PCR assay targeting cysteine proteinase 4 (CP4) was performed on the urine samples. The present study demonstrated 16 (3.2%) of patients were infected with T. vaginalis using culture and wet-mount, whereas PCR assay using CP4 could detect 12 (2.4%) positivity. Sensitivity and specificity of urine PCR assay compared to culture were 80% (95% CI, 54-96) and 99.6% (95% CI, 98.96-100), respectively. These results indicate that using urine-based detection method for T. vaginalis may not be appropriate in women.

  5. Novel Applications of Lanthanoides as Analytical or Diagnostic Tools in the Life Sciences by ICP-MS-based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Larissa; Traub, Heike; Jakubowski, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a well-established analytical method for multi-elemental analysis in particular for elements at trace and ultra-trace levels. It has found acceptance in various application areas during the last decade. ICP-MS is also more and more applied for detection in the life sciences. For these applications, ICP-MS excels by a high sensitivity, which is independent of the molecular structure of the analyte, a wide linear dynamic range and by excellent multi-element capabilities. Furthermore, methods based on ICP-MS offer simple quantification concepts, for which usually (liquid) standards are applied, low matrix effects compared to other conventional bioanalytical techniques, and relative limits of detection (LODs) in the low pg g-1 range and absolute LODs down to the attomol range. In this chapter, we focus on new applications where the multi-element capability of ICP-MS is used for detection of lanthanoides or rare earth elements, which are applied as elemental stains or tags of biomolecules and in particular of antibodies.

  6. An ion thruster internal discharge chamber electrostatic probe diagnostic technique using a high-speed probe positioning system.

    PubMed

    Herman, Daniel A; Gallimore, Alec D

    2008-01-01

    Extensive resources have been allocated to diagnose and minimize lifetime-limiting factors in gridded ion thrusters. While most of this effort has focused on grid erosion, results from wear tests indicate that discharge cathode erosion may also play an important role in limiting the lifetime of ring-cusp ion thrusters proposed for future large flagship missions. The detailed characterization of the near-cathode discharge plasma is essential for mitigating discharge cathode erosion. However, severe difficulty is encountered when attempting to measure internal discharge plasma parameters during thruster operation with conventional probing techniques. These difficulties stem from the high-voltage, high-density discharge cathode plume, which is a hostile environment for probes. A method for interrogating the discharge chamber plasma of a working ion thruster over a two-dimensional grid is demonstrated. The high-speed axial reciprocating probe positioning system is used to minimize thruster perturbation during probe insertion and to reduce heating of the probe. Electrostatic probe measurements from a symmetric double Langmuir probe are presented over a two-dimensional spatial array in the near-discharge cathode assembly region of a 30-cm-diameter ring-cusp ion thruster. Electron temperatures, 2-5 eV, and number density contours, with a maximum of 8 x 10(12) cm(-3) on centerline, are measured. These data provide detailed electron temperature and number density contours which, when combined with plasma potential measurements, may shed light on discharge cathode erosion processes and the effect of thruster operating conditions on erosion rates.

  7. The Rule of Histology in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Infection: Specific Granulocyte Counting Methods and New Immunohistologic Staining Techniques may Increase the Diagnostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Boettner, Friedrich; Koehler, Gabriele; Wegner, Alexander; Schmidt-Braekling, Tom; Gosheger, Georg; Goetze, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigates the diagnostic accuracy of the criteria described for frozen sections and whether modern leukocyte specific staining techniques including leukocyte peroxidase and Naphtol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase will improve the accuracy of the intra-operative histology. Method: 77 patients undergoing revision total hip and knee arthroplasty were included in this retrospective study. Patients were grouped into septic and aseptic based on intraoperative cultures. Tissue samples were analyzed utilizing the Mirra, Feldman, Lonner, Banit and Athanasou criteria. Results: An experienced pathologist had a high specificity (96%), but rather low sensitivity (57%) diagnosing infection. By using the Banit-, Mirra-, or Athanasou-criteria the sensitivity is increased to 0.90. The Feldman- and Lonner-criteria have a lower sensitivity (0.48 and 0.38), however, an increased specificity of 0.96 and 0.98, respectively. The Banit cut off has the highest accuracy (86%). MPOX and NACE staining increased the sensitivity and accuracy up to 100% and 92% respectively. Conclusion: Banit’s cut off is the most accurate histologic criteria to diagnose infection. Modern leukocyte specific staining techniques slightly improve the accuracy. The synovial fluid white blood cell count appears to be the most accurate intraoperative test. PMID:27708741

  8. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  9. Comparison of the Kato-Katz, Wet Mount, and Formol-Ether Concentration Diagnostic Techniques for Intestinal Helminth Infections in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Endris, Mengistu; Tekeste, Zinaye; Lemma, Wossenseged; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational characteristics (sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV)) of wet mount, formol-ether concentration (FEC), and Kato-Katz techniques for the determination of intestinal parasitic infections. Method. A total of 354 faecal specimens were collected from students in Northwest Ethiopia and screened with Kato-Katz, wet mount, and FEC for the presence of intestinal parasitic infection. Since a gold standard test is not available for detection of intestinal parasites, the combined results from the three methods were used as diagnostic gold standard. Result. The prevalences of intestinal parasites using the single wet mount, FEC, and Kato-Katz thick smear techniques were 38.4%, 57.1%, and 59%, respectively. Taking the combined results of three techniques as a standard test for intestinal parasitic infection, the sensitivity and negative predictive value of Kato-Katz is 81.0% (confidence interval (CI) = 0.793-0.810) and 66.2% (CI = 0.63-0.622), respectively. The FEC detected 56 negative samples that were positive by the gold standard, indicating 78.3% (CI = 0.766-0.783) and 63.2% (CI = 0.603-63) sensitivity and NPV, respectively. Furthermore, Kato-Katz detects 113 cases that were negative by a single wet mount. The κ agreement between the wet mount and Kato-Katz methods for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm was substantial (κ = 0.61 for Ascaris lumbricoides, κ = 0.65 for hookworm).

  10. Fluorescence Lifetime Techniques in Medical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of time-resolved (lifetime) fluorescence techniques used in biomedical diagnostics. In particular, we review the development of time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) instrumentation and associated methodologies which allows for in vivo characterization and diagnosis of biological tissues. Emphasis is placed on the translational research potential of these techniques and on evaluating whether intrinsic fluorescence signals provide useful contrast for the diagnosis of human diseases including cancer (gastrointestinal tract, lung, head and neck, and brain), skin and eye diseases, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:22273730

  11. Nuclear Techniques for Plasma Diagnostics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-23

    ers ar e ’ usually u’~ett t o s ep ar a t e ’ t h e n eu t cons and x rays . In e x p e r i r n ’n t s w her e I ic x — r a \\ pu iso is Sn I S ic...DAViS EGSG , INC. ALBU QUER QUE D IV IS ION P.O. BOX 10218 ALBUQUERQUE, NM 87114 1 CV ATTN: TECHNICAL LIBRARY FORD AEROSPACE & COMMUNICATIONS CORP

  12. Novel Nonlinear Laser Diagnostic Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-26

    possible. Measurement of ASE in a variety of flames demonstrate that the ASE signal intensity can be influenced by gas collisions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS...LASER B. MEASUREMENTS OF ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN LOW-PRESSURE FLAMES J40Dc IAccession For DT1i" TABRF .. . .. . .. . .. . ... 3L i ttr c Dis OBJECTIVES...beam splitter on, the beam path is evacuated. Light passing through the gas cell is collimated with a MgF2 lens and continues into a vacuum

  13. Novel Nonlinear Laser Diagnostic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    spectrometer, we found that much of the energy we generate is absorbed by the MgF2 optics we use, apparently through color center formation. 14 To take better... test this idea, we made measurements and developed a model of the bandwidth of hydrogen and oxygen atoms in low-pressure flames as a function of...Hermes Testing Facilities, Le Fauga, France, July 1990. D. E. Heard and J. B. Jeffries, "Measurements of Atomic Hydrogen in Low-Pressure Flames ," Western

  14. Novel Nonlinear Laser Diagnostic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-10

    feasible from a variety of low-pressure flames . These environments have previously been well characterized and can now provide a testing ground for... flames were compared with simultaneous ASE observations. The band width of H atom ASE at 1200 and 1800 K was measured. Simultaneous 0 atom ASE and...evacuated. Light passing through the gas cell is collimated with a MgF2 lens and continues into a vacuum spectrometer or is dispersed with a MgF2 Pellin

  15. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  16. A pulsed electron-photon fluorescence diagnostic technique for temperature and specie concentration measurement at points in relatively dense, unseedded air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muntz, E. P.; Kunc, J. A.; Erwin, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented on the use of the fluorescence stimulated by combined pulsed electron and photon beams for the study of gas flows up to densities equivalent to an altitude of about 20 km (number density of about 3 x 10 to the 18th/cu cm). The electron beam acts as a pump, requiring no seed gas, to provide a localized concentration of ions or excited state neutrals that can be probed by saturation optical pulses. A short pulse (10ns) electron beam can be used by itself to provide effectively quench-free emission up to number densities of around 10 to the 18th/cm, but is is difficult to maintain satisfactory spatial resolution at this high density. The use of a nearly simultaneous strong optical pulse increases the flexibility of the diagnostic technique, permitting use at densities greater than 10 to the 18th/cu cm with good spatial resolution. The use of flash X-ray sources combined with optical probing also appears promising for densities above 10 to the 19th/cu cm.

  17. Validation of multiple diagnostic techniques to detect Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in free-ranging western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and observations on the prevalence of these protozoan infections in two populations in Gabon.

    PubMed

    van Zijll Langhout, Martine; Reed, Patricia; Fox, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Anthropozoonotic diseases threaten the survival of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Use of accurate diagnostic techniques in gorilla health monitoring contributes to the conservation of gorillas by providing robust information for appropriate management decisions. To identify suitable protozoa diagnostic techniques for wild gorillas, 95 fecal specimens were collected in Lopé National Park and east of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park in Gabon, areas with high and low levels of human activity, respectively. The samples were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. by using the following diagnostic techniques: a commercially available immunofluorescent antibody test kit, Merifluor, and a rapid immune-assay, ImmunoCard STAT!, to detect Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp., and a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain to detect Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results obtained from the Merifluor test, considered the "gold standard" in human studies, were used to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in Lopé National Park (19.0% and 22.6%, respectively) and east of Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (0% and 9.1%, respectively). The difference in prevalence in both areas may be associated with differing levels of anthropogenic disturbance. The sensitivity and specificity of the latter two diagnostic techniques were calculated by using the Merifluor test as a control. The ImmunoCard STAT! was found suitable for Giardia sp. antigen detection (specific but not sensitive) and inappropriate for Cryptosporidium sp. antigen detection (not specific or sensitive). The modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain was found to be highly specific but not sensitive in the detection of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. These results underline the necessity of using ancillary tests and concentration methods to correctly identify positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. infections in free-ranging western lowland gorillas

  18. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  19. Cutting edge clinical applications in cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    De Cecco, Carlo N; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2017-01-28

    Today, the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is widespread in clinical practice. The increased need to evaluate of subtle myocardial changes, coronary artery anatomy, and hemodynamic assessment has prompted the development of novel CMR techniques including T1 and T2 mapping, non-contrast angiography and four dimensional (4D) flow. T1 mapping is suitable for diagnosing pathologies affecting extracellular volume such as myocarditis, diffuse myocardial fibrosis and amyloidosis, and is a promising diagnostic tool for patients with iron overload and Fabry disease. T2 mapping is useful in depicting acute myocardial edema and estimating the amount of salvageable myocardium following an ischemic event. Novel angiography techniques, such as the self-navigated whole-heart or the quiescent-interval single-shot sequence, enable the visualization of the great vessels and coronary artery anatomy without the use of contrast material. The 4D flow technique overcomes the limitations of standard phase-contrast imaging and allows for the assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics in the great arteries and flow patterns in the cardiac chambers. In conclusion, the future of CMR is heading toward a more reliable quantitative assessment of the myocardium, an improved non-contrast visualization of the coronary artery anatomy, and a more accurate evaluation of the cardiac hemodynamics.

  20. Cutting edge clinical applications in cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    De Cecco, Carlo N; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Today, the use of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is widespread in clinical practice. The increased need to evaluate of subtle myocardial changes, coronary artery anatomy, and hemodynamic assessment has prompted the development of novel CMR techniques including T1 and T2 mapping, non-contrast angiography and four dimensional (4D) flow. T1 mapping is suitable for diagnosing pathologies affecting extracellular volume such as myocarditis, diffuse myocardial fibrosis and amyloidosis, and is a promising diagnostic tool for patients with iron overload and Fabry disease. T2 mapping is useful in depicting acute myocardial edema and estimating the amount of salvageable myocardium following an ischemic event. Novel angiography techniques, such as the self-navigated whole-heart or the quiescent-interval single-shot sequence, enable the visualization of the great vessels and coronary artery anatomy without the use of contrast material. The 4D flow technique overcomes the limitations of standard phase-contrast imaging and allows for the assessment of cardiovascular hemodynamics in the great arteries and flow patterns in the cardiac chambers. In conclusion, the future of CMR is heading toward a more reliable quantitative assessment of the myocardium, an improved non-contrast visualization of the coronary artery anatomy, and a more accurate evaluation of the cardiac hemodynamics. PMID:28144400

  1. SCCT guidelines for the performance and acquisition of coronary computed tomographic angiography: A report of the society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee: Endorsed by the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging (NASCI).

    PubMed

    Abbara, Suhny; Blanke, Philipp; Maroules, Christopher D; Cheezum, Michael; Choi, Andrew D; Han, B Kelly; Marwan, Mohamed; Naoum, Chris; Norgaard, Bjarne L; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Schoenhagen, Paul; Villines, Todd; Leipsic, Jonathon

    In response to recent technological advancements in acquisition techniques as well as a growing body of evidence regarding the optimal performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (coronary CTA), the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee has produced this update to its previously established 2009 "Guidelines for the Performance of Coronary CTA" (1). The purpose of this document is to provide standards meant to ensure reliable practice methods and quality outcomes based on the best available data in order to improve the diagnostic care of patients. Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines for the Interpretation is published separately (2). The Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography Guidelines Committee ensures compliance with all existing standards for the declaration of conflict of interest by all authors and reviewers for the purpose ofclarity and transparency.

  2. Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis in Madagascar: Comparison of immuno-diagnostic techniques and estimation of the prevalence in pork carcasses traded in Antananarivo city.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, V; Betson, M; Rabezanahary, H; Mboussou, Y; Zafindraibe, N J; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Costard, S; Pfeiffer, D U; Michault, A

    2016-03-30

    Taenia solium cysticercosis was reported in official veterinary and medical statistics to be highly prevalent in pigs and humans in Madagascar, but few estimates are available for pigs. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis among pigs slaughtered in Antananarivo abattoirs. Firstly, the diagnostic performance of two antigen-ELISA techniques (B158B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an immunoblotting method were compared with meat inspection procedures on a sample of pigs suspected to be infected with (group 1; n=250) or free of (group 2; n=250) T. solium based on direct veterinary inspection in Madagascar. Sensitivity and specificity of the antigen ELISAs were then estimated using a Bayesian approach for detection of porcine cysticercosis in the absence of a gold standard. Then, a third set of pig sera (group 3, n=250) was randomly collected in Antananarivo slaughterhouses and tested to estimate the overall prevalence of T. solium contamination in pork meat traded in Antananarivo. The antigen ELISAs showed a high sensitivity (>84%), but the B158B60 Ag-ELISA appeared to be more specific than the HP10 Ag-ELISA (model 1: 95% vs 74%; model 2: 87% vs 71%). The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Antananarivo slaughterhouses was estimated at 2.3% (95% credibility interval [95%CrI]: 0.09-9.1%) to 2.6% (95%CrI: 0.1-10.3%) depending on the model and priors used. Since the sample used in this study is not representative of the national pig population, village-based surveys and longitudinal monitoring at slaughter are needed to better estimate the overall prevalence, geographical patterns and main risk factors for T. solium contamination, in order to improve control policies.

  3. Animal models of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Carlos; Gomez-Guerrero, Carmen; Martin-Ventura, Jose Luis; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Lavin, Begoña; Mallavia, Beñat; Tarin, Carlos; Mas, Sebastian; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. The use of animal models have contributed to increase our knowledge, providing new approaches focused to improve the diagnostic and the treatment of these pathologies. Several models have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including atherothrombotic and cardiac diseases, and the same pathology have been successfully recreated in different species, including small and big animal models of disease. However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. Therefore, no exclusive method perfectly recreates the human complication, and depending on the model, additional considerations of cost, infrastructure, and the requirement for specialized personnel, should also have in mind. Considering all these facts, and depending on the budgets available, models should be selected that best reproduce the disease being investigated. Here we will describe models of atherothrombotic diseases, including expanding and occlusive animal models, as well as models of heart failure. Given the wide range of models available, today it is possible to devise the best strategy, which may help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions against human cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Integrated diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunthausen, Roger J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently completed projects in which advanced diagnostic concepts were explored and/or demonstrated are summarized. The projects begin with the design of integrated diagnostics for the Army's new gas turbine engines, and advance to the application of integrated diagnostics to other aircraft subsystems. Finally, a recent project is discussed which ties together subsystem fault monitoring and diagnostics with a more complete picture of flight domain knowledge.

  5. [Cardiovascular diseases in workers engaged into metal mining industry and mechanical engineering].

    PubMed

    Korzeneva, E V; Sineva, E L

    2007-01-01

    Peculiarities of cardiovascular diseases among workers exposed to noise and vibration include hyperkinetic hemodynamic type supporting early terms of cardiovascular functions disorder. Veloergometry and echocardiography are highly informative and diagnostic value, so helpful in early diagnosis of circulatory disorders. The authors specified objective criteria of risk associated with occupationally related cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelc, Norbert

    2000-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Early detection of disease can often be used to improved outcomes, either through direct interventions (e.g. surgical corrections) or by causing the patient to modify his or her behavior (e.g. smoking cessation or dietary changes). Ideally, the detection process should be noninvasive (i.e. it should not be associated with significant risk). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) refers to the formation of images by localizing NMR signals, typically from protons in the body. As in other applications of NMR, a homogeneous static magnetic field ( ~0.5 to 4 T) is used to create ``longitudinal" magnetization. A magnetic field rotating at the Larmor frequency (proportional to the static field) excites spins, converting longitudinal magnetization to ``transverse" magnetization and generating a signal. Localization is performed using pulsed gradients in the static field. MRI can produce images of 2-D slices, 3-D volumes, time-resolved images of pseudo-periodic phenomena such as heart function, and even real-time imaging. It is also possible to acquire spatially localized NMR spectra. MRI has a number of advantages, but perhaps the most fundamental is the richness of the contrast mechanisms. Tissues can be differentiated by differences in proton density, NMR properties, and even flow or motion. We also have the ability to introduce substances that alter NMR signals. These contrast agents can be used to enhance vascular structures and measure perfusion. Cardiovascular MRI allows the reliable diagnosis of important conditions. It is possible to image the blood vessel tree, quantitate flow and perfusion, and image cardiac contraction. Fundamentally, the power of MRI as a diagnostic tool stems from the richness of the contrast mechanisms and the flexibility in control of imaging parameters.

  7. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  8. A comparative study of two techniques (electrocardiogram- and landmark-guided) for correct depth of the central venous catheter placement in paediatric patients undergoing elective cardiovascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Barnwal, Neeraj Kumar; Dave, Sona T; Dias, Raylene

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The complications of central venous catheterisation can be minimized by ensuring catheter tip placement just above the superior vena cava-right atrium junction. We aimed to compare two methods, using an electrocardiogram (ECG) or landmark as guides, for assessing correct depth of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. Methods: In a prospective randomised study of sixty patients of <12 years of age, thirty patients each were allotted randomly to two groups (ECG and landmark). After induction, central venous catheterisation was performed by either of the two techniques and position of CVC tip was compared in post-operative chest X-ray with respect to carina. Unpaired t-test was used for quantitative data and Chi-square test was used for qualitative data. Results: In ECG group, positions of CVC tip were above carina in 12, at carina in 9 and below carina in 9 patients. In landmark group, the positions of CVC tips were above carina in 10, at carina in 4 and below carina in 16 patients. Mean distance of CVC tip in ECG group was 0.34 ± 0.23 cm and 0.66 ± 0.35 cm in landmark group (P = 0.0001). Complications occurred in one patient in ECG group and in nine patients in landmark group (P = 0.0056). Conclusion: Overall, landmark-guided technique was comparable with ECG technique. ECG-guided technique was more precise for CVC tip placement closer to carina. The incidence of complications was more in the landmark group. PMID:27512162

  9. Adipose Tissue Dysfunction: Clinical Relevance and Diagnostic Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Schrover, I M; Spiering, W; Leiner, T; Visseren, F L J

    2016-04-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction is defined as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines, causing insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation, hypercoagulability, and elevated blood pressure. These can lead to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 2. Although quantity of adipose tissue is an important determinant of adipose tissue dysfunction, it can be diagnosed in both obese and lean individuals. This implies that not only quantity of adipose tissue should be used as a measure for adipose tissue dysfunction. Instead, focus should be on measuring quality of adipose tissue, which can be done with diagnostic modalities ranging from anthropometric measurements to tissue biopsies and advanced imaging techniques. In daily clinical practice, high quantity of visceral adipose tissue (reflected in high waist circumference or adipose tissue imaging), insulin resistance, or presence of the metabolic syndrome are easy and low-cost diagnostic modalities to evaluate presence or absence of adipose tissue dysfunction.

  10. Cardiovascular manifestations of autonomic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Roy

    2006-02-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic manifestations of seizures occur frequently in the epileptic population. Common manifestations include alterations in heart rate and rhythm, blood pressure, ECG changes and chest pain. The neuroanatomical and neurophysiological underpinnings of these autonomic manifestations are not been fully elucidated. Diagnostic confusion may arise when ictal symptoms are confined to the autonomic nervous system; conversely, such symptoms in association with convulsions or altered consciousness are more readily recognized as concomitant ictal features. Awareness of the diverse autonomic manifestations of epilepsy will enhance diagnosis and lead to more effective therapy of these patients.

  11. Biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in women.

    PubMed

    Manson, JoAnn E; Bassuk, Shari S

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death among U.S. women and men. Established cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated total cholesterol, and risk prediction models based on such factors, perform well but do not perfectly predict future risk of CVD. Thus, there has been much recent interest among cardiovascular researchers in identifying novel biomarkers to aid in risk prediction. Such markers include alternative lipids, B-type natriuretic peptides, high-sensitivity troponin, coronary artery calcium, and genetic markers. This article reviews the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, risk prediction tools, and selected novel biomarkers and other exposures in predicting risk of developing CVD in women. The predictive role of novel cardiovascular biomarkers for women in primary prevention settings requires additional study, as does the diagnostic and prognostic utility of cardiac troponins for acute coronary syndromes in clinical settings. Sex differences in the clinical expression and physiology of metabolic syndrome may have implications for cardiovascular outcomes. Consideration of exposures that are unique to, or more prevalent in, women may also help to refine cardiovascular risk estimates in this group.

  12. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Soroush; Bradley, Christopher P; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R; Omholt, Stig W; Chase, J Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O; Watanabe, Sansuke M; Blanco, Pablo J; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well-established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo-skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real-time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model.

  13. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  14. Nanomedical Theranostics in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Lobatto, Mark E; Read, Joanna C; Mieszawska, Aneta J; Fayad, Zahi A; Mulder, Willem J M

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. New diagnostic and therapeutic strategies are needed to mitigate this public health issue. Advances in nanotechnology have generated innovative strategies for diagnosis and therapy in a variety of diseases, foremost in cancer. Based on these studies, a novel concept referred to as nanomedical theranostics, or the combinatory application of nanoparticulate agents to allow diagnostic therapy, is being explored to enable image-guided, personalized, or targeted treatment. Preclinically, theranostics have been gradually applied to CVD with several interesting and encouraging findings. This article summarizes studies and challenges of nanotheranostic strategies in CVD. It also evaluates nanotheranostic strategies that may potentially be utilized to benefit patients.

  15. [Mass spectrometry analysis of blood plasma lipidome as method of disease diagnostics, evuation of effectiveness and optimization of drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Balashova, E E; Trifonova, O P; Medvedeva, N V; Torkhovskaya, T I; Ipatova, O M; Archakov, A I; Malyshev, P P; Kukharchuk, V V; Shestakova, E A; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of blood lipid based on direct mass spectrometry of lipophilic low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma has been considered. Such technique allows quantification of hundreds of various types of lipids and this changes existing concepts on diagnostics of lipid disorders and related diseases. The versatility and quickness of the method significantly simplify its wide use. This method is applicable for diagnostics of atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Detalization of plasma lipid composition at the molecular level by means of mass spectrometry allows to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to optimize the drug treatment of cardiovascular diseases by phospholipid preparations.

  16. Diagnostics for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Diagnostic techniques for neutral-beam-heated tokamak plasmas fall into three categories: (1) magnetic diagnostics for measurements of gross stored energy, (2) profile diagnostics for measurements of stored thermal and beam energy, impurity content and plasma rotation, and (3) fast time resolution diagnostics to study MHD fluctuations and micro-turbulence.

  17. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Nov 4,2016 The following statistics speak ... disease. This content was last reviewed August 2015. Diabetes • Home • About Diabetes • Why Diabetes Matters Introduction Cardiovascular ...

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance artefacts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The multitude of applications offered by CMR make it an increasing popular modality to study the heart and the surrounding vessels. Nevertheless the anatomical complexity of the chest, together with cardiac and respiratory motion, and the fast flowing blood, present many challenges which can possibly translate into imaging artefacts. The literature is wide in terms of papers describing specific MR artefacts in great technical detail. In this review we attempt to summarise, in a language accessible to a clinical readership, some of the most common artefacts found in CMR applications. It begins with an introduction of the most common pulse sequences, and imaging techniques, followed by a brief section on typical cardiovascular applications. This leads to the main section on common CMR artefacts with examples, a short description of the mechanisms behind them, and possible solutions. PMID:23697969

  19. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  20. [The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of technique of detection of C-reactive protein under diagnostic of infectious complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis receiving chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Vladimirova, S G; Tarasova, L N; Dokshina, I A; Cherepanova, V A

    2014-11-01

    The C-reactive protein is a generally recognized marker of inflammation and bacterial infection. However, issue of diagnostic effectiveness of this indicator is still open-ended in case of patients with oncologic hematological diseases. The level of C-reactive protein can increase under neoplastic processes. On the contrary, the inhibition of immune response observed under cytoplastic therapy can decrease synthesis of this protein. The study was organized to establish levels of C-reactive protein as markers of infection in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis under application of chemotherapy and to evaluate their diagnostic effectiveness. The sampling included 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis all patients had infectious complications at various stages of treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein in groups of patients with localized infections (mucositis, abscess, pneumonia, etc.) or fever of unknown genesis had no statistical differences but were reliably higher in patients without infectious complications. The concentrations of C-reactive protein in patients with syndrome of systemic inflammatory response and sepsis had no differences. At the same time, level of C-reactive protein under systemic infection (syndrome of systemic inflammatory response, sepsis) was reliably higher than in case of localized infection. The diagnostically reliable levels of C-reactive protein were established as follows: lower than 11 mg/l--infectious complications are lacking; higher than 11 mg/l--availability of infectious process; higher than 82 mg/l--generalization of infection. The given levels are characterized by high diagnostic sensitivity (92% and 97% correspondingly) and specificity (97% and 97%) when patients receive therapy without application of L-asparaginase. At the stages of introduction of this preparation effecting protein synthesizing function of liver sensitivity of proposed criteria are decreased (69% and 55% correspondingly). However; due

  1. Applications of 3D printing in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Liu, Peter P; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Rybicki, Frank J

    2016-12-01

    3D-printed models fabricated from CT, MRI, or echocardiography data provide the advantage of haptic feedback, direct manipulation, and enhanced understanding of cardiovascular anatomy and underlying pathologies. Reported applications of cardiovascular 3D printing span from diagnostic assistance and optimization of management algorithms in complex cardiovascular diseases, to planning and simulating surgical and interventional procedures. The technology has been used in practically the entire range of structural, valvular, and congenital heart diseases, and the added-value of 3D printing is established. Patient-specific implants and custom-made devices can be designed, produced, and tested, thus opening new horizons in personalized patient care and cardiovascular research. Physicians and trainees can better elucidate anatomical abnormalities with the use of 3D-printed models, and communication with patients is markedly improved. Cardiovascular 3D bioprinting and molecular 3D printing, although currently not translated into clinical practice, hold revolutionary potential. 3D printing is expected to have a broad influence in cardiovascular care, and will prove pivotal for the future generation of cardiovascular imagers and care providers. In this Review, we summarize the cardiovascular 3D printing workflow, from image acquisition to the generation of a hand-held model, and discuss the cardiovascular applications and the current status and future perspectives of cardiovascular 3D printing.

  2. The aged cardiovascular risk patient.

    PubMed

    Priebe, H J

    2000-11-01

    factors contribute most of the increased perioperative risk related to advanced age. First, physiological ageing is accompanied by a progressive decline in resting organ function. Consequently, the reserve capacity to compensate for impaired organ function, drug metabolism and added physiological demands is increasingly impaired. Functional disability will occur more quickly and take longer to be cured. Second, ageing is associated with progressive manifestation of chronic disease which further limits baseline function and accelerates loss of functional reserve in the affected organ. Some of the age-related decline in organ function (e.g. impaired pulmonary gas exchange, diminished renal capacity to conserve and eliminate water and salt, or disturbed thermoregulation) will increase cardiovascular risk. The unpredictable interaction between age-related and disease-associated changes in organ functions, and the altered neurohumoral response to various forms of stress in the elderly may result in a rather atypical clinical presentation of a disease. This may, in turn, delay the correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment and, ultimately, worsen outcome. Third, related to the increased intake of medications and altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, the incidence of untoward reactions to medications, anaesthetic agents, and medical and surgical interventions increases with advancing age. On the basis of various clinical studies and observations, it must be concluded that advanced age is an independent predictor of adverse perioperative cardiac outcome. It is to be expected that the aged cardiovascular risk patient carries an even higher perioperative cardiac risk than the younger cardiovascular risk patient. Although knowledge of the physiology of ageing should help reduce age-related complications, successful prophylaxis is hindered by the heterogeneity of age-related changes, unpredictable physiological and pharmacological interactions and diagnostic difficultie

  3. Can nocturnal hypertension predict cardiovascular risk?

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Oded; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-01-01

    Nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping of blood pressure during sleep are distinct entities that often occur together and are regarded as important harbingers of poor cardiovascular prognosis. This review addresses several aspects related to these blood pressure abnormalities including definitions, diagnostic limitations, pathogenesis and associated patient profiles, prognostic significance, and therapeutic strategies. Taken together, persistent nocturnal hypertension and non-dipping blood pressure pattern, perhaps secondary to abnormal renal sodium handling and/or altered nocturnal sympathovagal balance, are strongly associated with deaths, cardiovascular events, and progressive loss of renal function, independent of daytime and 24-hour blood pressure. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches may restore nocturnal blood pressure and circadian blood pressure rhythm to normal; however, whether this translates to a clinically meaningful reduction in unfavorable cardiovascular and renal consequences remains to be seen. PMID:21949613

  4. Endothelial progenitor cells in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Poay Sian Sabrina; Poh, Kian Keong

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Adult endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are derived from hematopoietic stem cells and are capable of forming new blood vessels through a process of vasculogenesis. There are studies which report correlations between circulating EPCs and cardiovascular risk factors. There are also studies on how pharmacotherapies may influence levels of circulating EPCs. In this review, we discuss the potential role of endothelial progenitor cells as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. In addition, we look at the interaction between cardiovascular pharmacotherapies and endothelial progenitor cells. We also discuss how EPCs can be used directly and indirectly as a therapeutic agent. Finally, we evaluate the challenges facing EPC research and how these may be overcome. PMID:25126384

  5. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  6. Low-dose cardiovascular computed tomography: where are the limits?

    PubMed

    Schoenhagen, Paul; Thompson, Carla M; Halliburton, Sandra S

    2012-02-01

    Since its introduction in the 1970s, diagnostic computed tomography (CT) imaging has grown rapidly and developed into a standard diagnostic test for a wide variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although this has undoubtedly led to improved medical care, it has also been associated with a significant increase in population-based radiation exposure and the potential downstream increase in cancer is a justified concern. For cardiovascular CT, new CT scanner technologies were initially directed toward maximizing image quality rather than minimizing radiation exposure. Only more recently have technologic advances yielded dose-saving protocols for cardiovascular applications, with impressive reduction of radiation exposure. The achievable limits of population-based exposure are dependent on responsible, evidence-based use of CT for cardiovascular imaging as well as exploitation of available and emerging dose-saving strategies.

  7. A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.E.; Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T.; Allen, P.A.

    1995-07-01

    A novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  8. The role of noninvasive and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of extra-cranial venous system anomalies and developmental variants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The extra-cranial venous system is complex and not well studied in comparison to the peripheral venous system. A newly proposed vascular condition, named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), described initially in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has triggered intense interest in better understanding of the role of extra-cranial venous anomalies and developmental variants. So far, there is no established diagnostic imaging modality, non-invasive or invasive, that can serve as the “gold standard” for detection of these venous anomalies. However, consensus guidelines and standardized imaging protocols are emerging. Most likely, a multimodal imaging approach will ultimately be the most comprehensive means for screening, diagnostic and monitoring purposes. Further research is needed to determine the spectrum of extra-cranial venous pathology and to compare the imaging findings with pathological examinations. The ability to define and reliably detect noninvasively these anomalies is an essential step toward establishing their incidence and prevalence. The role for these anomalies in causing significant hemodynamic consequences for the intra-cranial venous drainage in MS patients and other neurologic disorders, and in aging, remains unproven. PMID:23806142

  9. Diagnostic optique de la température dans des moteurs-fusée à l'aide de techniques Raman cohérentes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, Frédéric; Michaut, Xavier; Saint-Loup, Robert; Berger, Hubert; Bouchardy, Paul; Grisch, Frédéric

    2004-03-01

    This article reviews the study of Raman line shapes of molecular species involved in reactive media, such flames or engines, at high temperature and high pressure. This study is of interest from a fundamental as well as from a practical point of view with regards to the CARS temperature diagnostic of GH 2-LOX combustion systems. We will particularly draw attention to recent investigations by means of Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy (SRS) in H 2-H 2O mixtures at temperature up to 1800 K. Whereas H 2-X systems usually exhibit large inhomogeneous effects, due to the speed dependence of the collisional parameters, the absence of such apparent inhomogeneous signatures in the H 2-H 2O system allowed us to model the broadening coefficients with simple polynomial laws. These laws permit extrapolations with a narrow confidence interval, as required for temperature measurements. The applications of these results to the temperature diagnostic on the small-scale facility MASCOTTE at ONERA will be described. To cite this article: F. Chaussard et al., C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  10. The role of noninvasive and invasive diagnostic imaging techniques for detection of extra-cranial venous system anomalies and developmental variants.

    PubMed

    Dolic, Kresimir; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Karmon, Yuval; Marr, Karen; Zivadinov, Robert

    2013-06-27

    The extra-cranial venous system is complex and not well studied in comparison to the peripheral venous system. A newly proposed vascular condition, named chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI), described initially in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has triggered intense interest in better understanding of the role of extra-cranial venous anomalies and developmental variants. So far, there is no established diagnostic imaging modality, non-invasive or invasive, that can serve as the "gold standard" for detection of these venous anomalies. However, consensus guidelines and standardized imaging protocols are emerging. Most likely, a multimodal imaging approach will ultimately be the most comprehensive means for screening, diagnostic and monitoring purposes. Further research is needed to determine the spectrum of extra-cranial venous pathology and to compare the imaging findings with pathological examinations. The ability to define and reliably detect noninvasively these anomalies is an essential step toward establishing their incidence and prevalence. The role for these anomalies in causing significant hemodynamic consequences for the intra-cranial venous drainage in MS patients and other neurologic disorders, and in aging, remains unproven.

  11. Surgical extraction of lower third molars: diagnostic tests and operative technique in the prevention of inferior alveolar nerve injury. Case study

    PubMed Central

    MELEO, D.; PACIFICI, L.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Increased knowledge and technical refinement have broadened the limits of outpatient oral surgery; however, these changes have at the same time led to a greater number of complications and poor outcomes and, accordingly, to legal action for professional responsibility. Oral surgery represents 10% of all actions, and almost all of these are attributable to exodontic surgery, of which around a third are related to inferior alveolar nerve injury following the extraction of lower third molars. The aim of this case study is to suggest operative technical strategies in accordance with a correct clinical-diagnostic pathway in order to prevent neurological complications involving the inferior alveolar nerve subsequent to lower third molar extraction. Cases should be carefully selected and surgical intervention undertaken solely when genuinely necessary. The patient should be informed of the risks, the methods and the possible results of the treatment. These are the bases for correct indication, along with a sufficient diagnostic path and a good level of communication between operator and patient. PMID:23285341

  12. Exosomes and Cardiovascular Protection.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sean M; Takov, Kaloyan; Yellon, Derek M

    2017-02-01

    Most, if not all, cells of the cardiovascular system secrete small, lipid bilayer vesicles called exosomes. Despite technical challenges in their purification and analysis, exosomes from various sources have been shown to be powerfully cardioprotective. Indeed, it is possible that much of the so-called "paracrine" benefit in cardiovascular function obtained by stem cell therapy can be replicated by the injection of exosomes produced by stem cells. However, exosomes purified from plasma appear to be just as capable of activating cardioprotective pathways. We discuss the potential roles of endogenous exosomes in the cardiovascular system, how this is perturbed in cardiovascular disease, and evaluate their potential as therapeutic agents to protect the heart.

  13. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Torres, Tiago; Sales, Rita; Vasconcelos, Carlos; Selores, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic and systemic inflammatory disease associated with several comorbidities, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome, but also with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, like myocardial infarction or stroke. The chronic inflammatory nature of psoriasis has been suggested to be a contributing and potentially independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular comorbidities and precocious atherosclerosis. Aiming at alerting clinicians to the need of screening and monitoring cardiovascular diseases and its risk factors in psoriatic patients, this review will focus on the range of cardiometabolic comorbidities and increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with psoriasis.

  14. Protocol for a systematic review of the diagnostic and prognostic utility of tests currently available for the detection of aspirin resistance in patients with established cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of aspirin as an anti-platelet agent are well established; however, there has been much debate about the lack of uniformity in the efficacy of aspirin to inhibit platelet function. In some patients, aspirin fails to inhibit platelets even where compliance has been verified, a phenomenon which has been termed “aspirin resistance”. These patients may in turn be at a higher risk of future vascular events. The proportion of “resistant” patients identified depends on the type of platelet function test. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to determine which, if any, platelet function test has utility in terms of identifying patients with a high risk of vascular events. The review has been registered with PROSPERO (CRD42012002151). Methods Relevant studies will be sought from bibliographic databases. Trials registers will be searched for ongoing studies. Reference lists will be checked and subject experts contacted. There will be no date or language restrictions. Standard reviewing methodology to minimise bias will be employed. Any prospective studies in patients on aspirin therapy and assessing platelet function in relation to relevant clinical outcomes will be included, as will studies reporting prognostic models. Risk of bias assessment will be based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines, and suitable criteria for assessing quality of prognostic studies. Data on test accuracy measures, relative risks, odds or hazard ratios will be extracted and meta-analysed, where possible, using a random-effects model to account for between-study heterogeneity. Where appropriate, the causes of heterogeneity will be explored through meta-regression and sub-group or sensitivity analyses. If platelet function testing is demonstrated to have diagnostic/predictive utility in a specific population, the potential for a cost-effectiveness analysis will be considered and, if possible, an economic model constructed. This

  15. Spectroscopy to improve identification of vulnerable plaques in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Janneke L M; Meerwaldt, Robbert; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Lefrandt, Joop D; Slart, Riemer H J A; Tio, René A; Smit, Andries J; Zeebregts, Clark J

    2010-01-01

    Many apparent healthy persons die from cardiovascular disease, despite major advances in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are able to predict cardiovascular events in the long run, but fail to assess current disease activity or nearby cardiovascular events. There is a clear relation between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and the presence of so-called vulnerable plaques. These vulnerable plaques are characterized by active inflammation, a thin cap and a large lipid pool. Spectroscopy is an optical imaging technique which depicts the interaction between light and tissues, and thereby shows the biochemical composition of tissues. In recent years, impressive advances have been made in spectroscopy technology and intravascular spectroscopy is able to assess the composition of plaques of interest and thereby to identify and actually quantify plaque vulnerability. This review summarizes the current evidence for spectroscopy as a measure of plaque vulnerability and discusses the potential role of intravascular spectroscopic imaging techniques.

  16. Physics of the human cardiovascular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanovska, Aneta

    1999-01-01

    Contemporary measurement techniques permit the non-invasive observation of several cardiovascular functions, both from the central and peripheral points of view. We show that, within one cycle of blood through the cardiovascular system, the same dynamics characterizes heart function as well as blood flow in the capillary bed where cells exchange energy and matter. Analyses of several quite different signals derived from respiration, cardiac function and blood flow, all reveal the existence of five almost periodic frequency components. This result is interpreted as evidence that cardiovascular dynamics is governed by five coupled oscillators. The couplings provide co-ordination among the physiological processes involved, and are essential for efficient cardiovascular function. Understanding the dynamics of a system of five coupled oscillators not only represents a theoretical challenge, but also carries practical implications for diagnosis and for predicting the future behaviour of this life giving system.

  17. Cardiovascular genetic medicine: evolving concepts, rationale, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Ray E

    2008-06-01

    Cardiovascular genetic medicine is devoted to the identification and understanding of cardiac conditions resulting from genetic and genomic mechanisms and to the development and validation of diagnostic and treatment algorithms and guidelines. Cardiovascular genetic medicine clinics now provide expert cardiovascular subspecialty care, genetic counseling and clinical genetic testing, and will eventually provide disease-specific gene or genetic therapies. Currently, the most tractable diagnoses for cardiovascular genetic medicine are the single-gene disorders: the cardiomyopathies, the channelopathies, and others. The recent explosion of genetic knowledge within the single-gene disorders and consequent rapid proliferation of genetic testing enables far greater numbers of individuals to directly benefit from this progress. A compelling rationale exists for this approach: cardiovascular single-gene diseases commonly present with life-threatening events (e.g., sudden cardiac death, heart failure, stroke, etc.), but identification, evaluation, and treatment of individuals with presymptomatic genetic risk has the promise to prevent or ameliorate cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular genetic medicine programs also anchor training and research, thereby enabling the next generation of academic specialists in cardiovascular genetic medicine to continue to improve cardiovascular health.

  18. Understanding changes in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Chummun, Harry

    Cardiovascular pathophysiological changes, such as hypertension and enlarged ventricles, reflect the altered functions of the heart and its circulation during ill-health. This article examines the normal and altered anatomy of the cardiac valves, the contractile elements and enzymes of the myocardium, the significance of the different factors associated with cardiac output, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in the heart beat. It also explores how certain diseases alter these functions and result in cardiac symptoms. Nurses can benefit from knowledge of these specific changes, for example, by being able to ask relevant questions in order to ascertain the nature of a patients condition, by being able to take an effective patient history and by being able to read diagnostic results, such as electrocardiograms and cardiac enzyme results. All this will help nurses to promote sound cardiac care based on a physiological rationale.

  19. Preoperative Diagnostic Angiogram and Endovascular Aortic Stent Placement for Appleby Resection Candidates: A Novel Surgical Technique in the Management of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Trabulsi, N.; Pelletier, J. S.; Abraham, C.; Vanounou, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body and tail usually presents late and is typically unresectable. The modified Appleby procedure allows resection of pancreatic body carcinoma with celiac axis (CA) invasion. Given that the feasibility of this technique is based on the presence of collateral circulation, it is crucial to confirm the presence of an anatomical and functional collateral system. Methods. We here describe a novel technique used in two patients who were candidates for Appleby resection. We present their clinical scenario, imaging, operative findings, and postoperative course. Results. Both patients had a preoperative angiogram for assessment of anatomical circulation and placement of an endovascular stent to cover the CA. We hypothesize that this new technique allows enhancement of collateral circulation and helps minimize intraoperative blood loss when transecting the CA at its takeoff. Moreover, extra length on the CA margin may be gained, as the artery can be transected at its origin without the need for vascular clamp placement. Conclusion. We propose this novel technique in the preoperative management of patients who are undergoing a modified Appleby procedure. While further experience with this technique is required, we believe that it confers significant advantages to the current standard of care. PMID:26491217

  20. Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.

    PubMed

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising.

  1. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  2. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  3. Development of new source diagnostic methods and variance reduction techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems with a focus on high dominance ratio problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, Michael T.

    Obtaining the solution to the linear Boltzmann equation is often is often a daunting task. The time-independent form is an equation of six independent variables which cannot be solved analytically in all but some special problems. Instead, numerical approaches have been devised. This work focuses on improving Monte Carlo methods for its solution in eigenvalue form. First, a statistical method of stationarity detection called the KPSS test adapted as a Monte Carlo eigenvalue source convergence test. The KPSS test analyzes the source center of mass series which was chosen since it should be indicative of overall source behavior, and is physically easy to understand. A source center of mass plot alone serves as a good visual source convergence diagnostic. The KPSS test and three different information theoretic diagnostics were implemented into the well known KENOV.a code inside of the SCALE (version 5) code package from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and compared through analysis of a simple problem and several difficult source convergence benchmarks. Results showed that the KPSS test can add to the overall confidence by identifying more problematic simulations than without its usage. Not only this, the source center of mass information on hand visually aids in the understanding of the problem physics. The second major focus of this dissertation concerned variance reduction methodologies for Monte Carlo eigenvalue problems. The CADIS methodology, based on importance sampling, was adapted to the eigenvalue problems. It was shown that the straight adaption of importance sampling can provide a significant variance reduction in determination of keff (in cases studied up to 30%?). A modified version of this methodology was developed which utilizes independent deterministic importance simulations. In this new methodology, each particle is simulated multiple times, once to every other discretized source region utilizing the importance for that region only. Since each particle

  4. A Dual-Line Detection Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic Technique for the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels and Filtered UV Rayleigh Scattering for Gas Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otugen, M. Volkan

    1997-01-01

    Non-intrusive techniques for the dynamic measurement of gas flow properties such as density, temperature and velocity, are needed in the research leading to the development of new generation high-speed aircraft. Accurate velocity, temperature and density data obtained in ground testing and in-flight measurements can help understand the flow physics leading to transition and turbulence in supersonic, high-altitude flight. Such non-intrusive measurement techniques can also be used to study combustion processes of hydrocarbon fuels in aircraft engines. Reliable, time and space resolved temperature measurements in various combustor configurations can lead to a better understanding of high temperature chemical reaction dynamics thus leading to improved modeling and better prediction of such flows. In view of this, a research program was initiated at Polytechnic University's Aerodynamics Laboratory with support from NASA Lewis Research Center through grants NAG3-1301 and NAG3-1690. The overall objective of this program has been to develop laser-based, non-contact, space- and time-resolved temperature and velocity measurement techniques. In the initial phase of the program a ND:YAG laser-based dual-line Rayleigh scattering technique was developed and tested for the accurate measurement of gas temperature in the presence of background laser glare. Effort was next directed towards the development of a filtered, spectrally-resolved Rayleigh/Mie scattering technique with the objective of developing an interferometric method for time-frozen velocity measurements in high-speed flows utilizing the uv line of an ND:YAG laser and an appropriate molecular absorption filter. This effort included both a search for an appropriate filter material for the 266 nm laser line and the development and testing of several image processing techniques for the fast processing of Fabry-Perot images for velocity and temperature information. Finally, work was also carried out for the development of

  5. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  6. Diagnostic correlation between RET proto-oncogene mutation, imaging techniques, biochemical markers and morphological examination in MEN2A syndrome: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sovrea, Alina Simona; Dronca, Eleonora; Galatâr, Mihaela; Radian, Serban; Vornicescu, Corina; Georgescu, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is a rare autosomal dominant monogenic disorder caused mostly by missense mutations in the RET (REarranged during Transfection) proto-oncogene on chromosome 10q11.2. MEN2A represents more than 50% of all MEN2 cases, having a regular pattern with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) incidence of 90-100%, bilateral pheochromocytoma (PCC) incidence of 40-50% and primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) incidence of 10-25%. Until recently, the diagnosis of MTC was most frequently based on fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules, after an ultrasound examination and endocrine evaluation of serum calcitonin levels. Nowadays, RET gene screening (starting with exons 10 and 11) is a mandatory test used for identification of both symptomatic and non-symptomatic MTC carriers or for exclusion of healthy individuals from subsequent periodical clinical/biochemical screening. In this context, and in the idea of PCC preceding MTC, the early detection of germline RET mutations are highly suggestive for hereditary disease. PCC diagnosis is established in classical manner by abdominal ultrasound imaging or computed tomography confirming the presence of adrenal gland masses, elevated plasma metanephrines and normetanephrines values and histopathological examination. Additional HPT diagnosis is acknowledged by serum ionized calcium and parathormone levels. Here we report a hereditary case of MEN2A in a two-generation Romanian family, along with data presenting the importance of correlative plurifactorial diagnostic scheme in this syndrome and a short literature review.

  7. Cardiovascular responses to hypogravic environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, H.

    1983-01-01

    The cardiovascular deconditioning observed during and after space flight is characterized in a review of human space and simulation studies and animal simulations. The various simulation techniques (horizontal bed rest, head-down tilt, and water immersion in man, and immobilization of animals) are examined, and sample results are presented in graphs. Countermeasures such as exercise regimens, fluid replacement, drugs, venous pooling, G-suits, oscillating beds, electrostimulation of muscles, lower-body negative pressure, body-surface cooling, and hypoxia are reviewed and found to be generally ineffective or unreliable. The need for future space experimentation in both humans and animals is indicated.

  8. Application of a laser-induced breakdown time-of-flight technique in a flow diagnostic in a CO/sub 2/ free-jet expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Wantuck, P.J.; Hof, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight velocity technique utilizing ions formed by the process of laser-induced (1.064 ..mu..m) breakdown has been used to measure axial flow speeds in a CO/sub 2/ free-jet expansion. For the nozzle stagnation pressure and temperature employed (p0 approx. = 200 torr, T0 approx. = 298K), the axial flow speed is on the order of 630 m/s. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Development of a Microsphere-based Immunoassay for Serological Detection of African Horse Sickness Virus and Comparison with Other Diagnostic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Matamoros, A; Beck, C; Kukielka, D; Lecollinet, S; Blaise-Boisseau, S; Garnier, A; Rueda, P; Zientara, S; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-12-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that causes high morbidity and mortality rates in susceptible Equidae and therefore significant economic losses. More rapid, sensitive and specific assays are required by diagnostic laboratories to support effective surveillance programmes. A novel microsphere-based immunoassay (Luminex assay) in which beads are coated with recombinant AHS virus (AHSV) structural protein 7 (VP7) has been developed for serological detection of antibodies against VP7 of any AHSV serotype. The performance of this assay was compared with that of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and commercial lateral flow assay (LFA) on a large panel of serum samples from uninfected horses (n = 92), from a reference library of all AHSV serotypes (n = 9), on samples from horses experimentally infected with AHSV (n = 114), and on samples from West African horses suspected of having AHS (n = 85). The Luminex assay gave the same negative results as ELISA when used to test the samples from uninfected horses. Both assays detected antibodies to all nine AHSV serotypes. In contrast, the Luminex assay detected a higher rate of anti-VP7 positivity in the West African field samples than did ELISA or LFA. The Luminex assay detected anti-VP7 positivity in experimentally infected horses at 7 days post-infection, compared to 13 days for ELISA. This novel immunoassay provides a platform for developing multiplex assays, in which the presence of antibodies against multiple ASHV antigens can be detected simultaneously. This would be useful for serotyping or for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.

  10. Practical tips and tricks in cardiovascular computed tomography: patient preparation for optimization of cardiovascular CT data acquisition.

    PubMed

    Halliburton, Sandra Simon; Abbara, Suhny

    2007-07-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) images requires careful preparation of the patient before scanning. Guidelines for patient preparation are largely dictated by scanner capabilities and the technical limits they impose on patient-specific characteristics. The objective of this paper is to highlight procedures for patient screening, premedication, instruction, positioning, and electrocardiographic (ECG) lead placement. Awareness of scanner limitations and adherence to patient preparation guidelines can significantly improve CT image quality and diagnostic yield.

  11. [Current and future diagnostic strategies in venous thromboembolic disease].

    PubMed

    Gabriel Botella, F; Labiós Gómez, M; Brasó Aznar, J V; Llavador Ros, G; Bort Martí, J

    1999-08-01

    Thromboembolic disease (TD), which includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), is the most common acute cardiovascular condition after ischemic cardiopathy and stroke. It is often difficult to diagnose, as it is well-known that half of PE episodes appear are recognized while the patient is still alive and which appear in 30-40% of symptomatic patients. Nonetheless, there are two well-differentiated phases in the diagnosis of TD: the suspicion, and the diagnosis. The first is very important, and is within the competence of any physician. The second can be ratified when carrying out specific tests. We have developed successive steps in the two phases of diagnosis, we critically review the distinct parts currently implicated in the strategic diagnosis of TD. Finally, we analyze the new diagnostic techniques to substitute, possibly, angiography in many cases, and perhaps to include ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) pulmonary gammagraphy, once become generally available.

  12. Remote magnetic targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles for cardiovascular diagnosis and therapeutic drug delivery: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Bietenbeck, Michael; Florian, Anca; Faber, Cornelius; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for an accurate assessment of both functional and structural cardiac parameters, and thereby appropriate diagnosis and validation of cardiovascular diseases. The diagnostic yield of cardiovascular MRI examinations is often increased by the use of contrast agents that are almost exclusively based on gadolinium compounds. Another clinically approved contrast medium is composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs). These particles may expand the field of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI as recently shown in clinical studies focusing on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, IONs open up new research opportunities such as remote magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The approach of MDT relies on the coupling of bioactive molecules and magnetic nanoparticles to form an injectable complex. This complex, in turn, can be attracted to and retained at a desired target inside the body with the help of applied magnetic fields. In comparison to common systemic drug applications, MDT techniques promise both higher concentrations at the target site and lower concentrations elsewhere in the body. Moreover, concurrent or subsequent MRI can be used for noninvasive monitoring of drug distribution and successful delivery to the desired organ in vivo. This review does not only illustrate the basic conceptual and biophysical principles of IONs, but also focuses on new research activities and achievements in the cardiovascular field, mainly in the management of AMI. Based on the presentation of successful MDT applications in preclinical models of AMI, novel approaches and the translational potential of MDT are discussed.

  13. Remote magnetic targeting of iron oxide nanoparticles for cardiovascular diagnosis and therapeutic drug delivery: where are we now?

    PubMed Central

    Bietenbeck, Michael; Florian, Anca; Faber, Cornelius; Sechtem, Udo; Yilmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows for an accurate assessment of both functional and structural cardiac parameters, and thereby appropriate diagnosis and validation of cardiovascular diseases. The diagnostic yield of cardiovascular MRI examinations is often increased by the use of contrast agents that are almost exclusively based on gadolinium compounds. Another clinically approved contrast medium is composed of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONs). These particles may expand the field of contrast-enhanced cardiovascular MRI as recently shown in clinical studies focusing on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and atherosclerosis. Furthermore, IONs open up new research opportunities such as remote magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The approach of MDT relies on the coupling of bioactive molecules and magnetic nanoparticles to form an injectable complex. This complex, in turn, can be attracted to and retained at a desired target inside the body with the help of applied magnetic fields. In comparison to common systemic drug applications, MDT techniques promise both higher concentrations at the target site and lower concentrations elsewhere in the body. Moreover, concurrent or subsequent MRI can be used for noninvasive monitoring of drug distribution and successful delivery to the desired organ in vivo. This review does not only illustrate the basic conceptual and biophysical principles of IONs, but also focuses on new research activities and achievements in the cardiovascular field, mainly in the management of AMI. Based on the presentation of successful MDT applications in preclinical models of AMI, novel approaches and the translational potential of MDT are discussed. PMID:27486321

  14. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information. PMID:25678827

  15. Teaching Cardiovascular Integrations with Computer Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Nils S.; Campbell, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a computer-based instructional unit in cardiovascular physiology. The program (which employs simulated laboratory experimental techniques with a problem-solving format is designed to supplement an animal laboratory and to offer students an integrative approach to physiology through use of microcomputers. Also presents an overview of the…

  16. Tracking stem cells in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Elie R; Yoneyama, Ryuichi; Frangioni, John V; Hajjar, Roger J

    2005-11-01

    Stem cells are a promising approach to cardiovascular therapeutics. Animal experiments have assessed the fate of injected stem cells through ex vivo methods on sacrificed animals. Approaches are needed for in vivo tracking of stem cells. Various imaging techniques and contrast agents for stem cell tracking will be reviewed.

  17. Beat to beat variability in cardiovascular variables: noise or music?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appel, M. L.; Berger, R. D.; Saul, J. P.; Smith, J. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiovascular variables such as heart rate, arterial blood pressure, stroke volume and the shape of electrocardiographic complexes all fluctuate on a beat to beat basis. These fluctuations have traditionally been ignored or, at best, treated as noise to be averaged out. The variability in cardiovascular signals reflects the homeodynamic interplay between perturbations to cardiovascular function and the dynamic response of the cardiovascular regulatory systems. Modern signal processing techniques provide a means of analyzing beat to beat fluctuations in cardiovascular signals, so as to permit a quantitative, noninvasive or minimally invasive method of assessing closed loop hemodynamic regulation and cardiac electrical stability. This method promises to provide a new approach to the clinical diagnosis and management of alterations in cardiovascular regulation and stability.

  18. Cocaine and Cardiovascular Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, John D.; Rose, Fred D.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 21-year-old man who suffered a myocardial infarction after using cocaine and amphetamines is reported. A brief literature review provides evidence of cocaine's potential cardiovascular effects. (Author/MT)

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of semi-quantitative and quantitative culture techniques for the diagnosis of catheter-related infections in newborns and molecular typing of isolated microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) have become the most common cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units (ICUs). Microbiological evidence implicating catheters as the source of bloodstream infection is necessary to establish the diagnosis of CR-BSIs. Semi-quantitative culture is used to determine the presence of microorganisms on the external catheter surface, whereas quantitative culture also isolates microorganisms present inside the catheter. The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two techniques for the diagnosis of CR-BSIs in newborns from a neonatal ICU. In addition, PFGE was used for similarity analysis of the microorganisms isolated from catheters and blood cultures. Methods Semi-quantitative and quantitative methods were used for the culture of catheter tips obtained from newborns. Strains isolated from catheter tips and blood cultures which exhibited the same antimicrobial susceptibility profile were included in the study as positive cases of CR-BSI. PFGE of the microorganisms isolated from catheters and blood cultures was performed for similarity analysis and detection of clones in the ICU. Results A total of 584 catheter tips from 399 patients seen between November 2005 and June 2012 were analyzed. Twenty-nine cases of CR-BSI were confirmed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms, including S. epidermidis as the most prevalent species (65.5%), followed by S. haemolyticus (10.3%), yeasts (10.3%), K. pneumoniae (6.9%), S. aureus (3.4%), and E. coli (3.4%). The sensitivity of the semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques was 72.7% and 59.3%, respectively, and specificity was 95.7% and 94.4%. The diagnosis of CR-BSIs based on PFGE analysis of similarity between strains isolated from catheter tips and blood cultures showed 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusion The semi

  20. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Andrew M; Morris, Pamela B; Barnard, Neal; Esselstyn, Caldwell B; Ros, Emilio; Agatston, Arthur; Devries, Stephen; O'Keefe, James; Miller, Michael; Ornish, Dean; Williams, Kim; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2017-03-07

    The potential cardiovascular benefits of several trending foods and dietary patterns are still incompletely understood, and nutritional science continues to evolve. However, in the meantime, a number of controversial dietary patterns, foods, and nutrients have received significant media exposure and are mired by hype. This review addresses some of the more popular foods and dietary patterns that are promoted for cardiovascular health to provide clinicians with accurate information for patient discussions in the clinical setting.

  1. Violence and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Sapra, Katherine J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Context Violence, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, has been associated with physical health outcomes including cardiovascular disease. However, the consistency of the existing literature has not been evaluated. Evidence acquisition In 2013, the authors conducted a PubMed and Web of Science review of peer reviewed articles published prior to August 2013 on the relation between violence exposure, experienced in either childhood or adulthood, and cardiovascular outcomes. To meet inclusion criteria, articles had to present estimates for the relation between violence exposure and cardiovascular outcomes (hypertension, blood pressure, stroke, coronary disease, or myocardial infarction) adjusted for demographic factors. Articles focusing on violence from TV, video games, natural disasters, terrorism, or war were excluded. Evidence synthesis The initial search yielded 2,273 articles; after removing duplicates and applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 30 articles were selected for review. A consistent positive relation was noted on the association between violence experienced during childhood and cardiovascular outcomes in adulthood (i.e., hypertension, coronary heart disease, and myocardial infarction). Associations across genders with varying types of violence exposure were also noted. By contrast, findings were mixed on the relation between adult violence exposure and cardiovascular outcome. Conclusions Despite varying definitions of violence exposure and cardiovascular endpoints, a consistent relation exists between childhood violence exposure, largely assessed retrospectively, and cardiovascular endpoints. Findings are mixed for the adult violence–cardiovascular health relation. The cross-sectional nature of most adult studies and the reliance of self-reported outcomes can potentially be attributed to the lack of findings among adult violence exposure studies. PMID:25599905

  2. Indirect CT venography of the abdominal cavity and lower limbs in patients with the suspicion of pulmonary embolism--indications, technique, diagnostic possibilities.

    PubMed

    Czekajska-Chehab, Elzbieta; Drop, Andrzej; Terlecka, Barbara; Trzeciak, Jadwiga; Trojanowska, Agnieszka; Odój, Magdalena

    2004-01-01

    Multi-slice computed tomography has become the main method to diagnose and evaluate the intensity of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). The most common cause of PE is thrombosis of veins of the lower limbs and pelvis. The paper presents various aspects of the use of combined pulmonary artery arteriography and indirect venography performed using multi-slice tomography in relation to other methods imaging the venous system used so far. The authors presented the techniques of CT examination of venous vessels of the lower limbs, abdominal cavity and pelvis in patients with the suspicion of PE, typical images of lesions, results of studies concerning these issues conducted to date and their own experience based on clinical practice.

  3. Spiral computed tomography angiography (SCTA) and color coded duplex ultrasound (CCDUS): two complementary diagnostic techniques for assessment of extracranial cerebral artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Scaroni, Reana; Cardaioli, Gabriela; Pelliccioli, Gian Piero; Gallai, Virgilio

    2002-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions of the extracranial cerebral arteries account for ischemic stroke in over half of all cases. The risk of stroke associated with symptomatic carotid artery disease is related to the severity of the stenosis. Results of the two major clinical trials, North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) and European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST), showed that patients with symptomatic carotid artery disease may benefit from carotid endarterectomy. Therefore, detection and quantification of stenosis are essential. Discrepancies in the angiographic criteria used in both NASCET and ECST trials resulted in continued controversy about the most accurate method of measuring carotid artery stenosis. Moreover, to avoid complications related to the angiography procedure, a good evaluation of vessel wall and plaque composition need to be considered. Both SCTA and CCDUS are non invasive techniques that could overcome angiographic complications and give detailed information on stenosis grading and plaque characteristics. They have been used to evaluate carotid stenosis as a single or combined methods.

  4. Current Approaches to Quantifying Tonic and Reflex Autonomic Outflows Controlling Cardiovascular Function in Humans and Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Salman, Ibrahim M

    2015-11-01

    The role of the autonomic nervous system in the pathophysiology of human and experimental models of cardiovascular disease is well established. In the recent years, there have been some rapid developments in the diagnostic approaches used to assess and monitor autonomic functions. Although most of these methods are devoted for research purposes in laboratory animals, many have still found their way to routine clinical practice. To name a few, direct long-term telemetry recording of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in rodents, single-unit SNA recording using microneurography in human subjects and spectral analysis of blood pressure and heart rate in both humans and animals have recently received an overwhelming attention. In this article, we therefore provide an overview of the methods and techniques used to assess tonic and reflex autonomic functions in humans and experimental animals, highlighting current advances available and procedure description, limitations and usefulness for diagnostic purposes.

  5. The Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS): characterising patients with high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Lehtinen, Rami; Viik, Jari; Lehtimäki, Terho; Niemelä, Kari; Nikus, Kjell; Niemi, Mari; Kallio, Janne; Kööbi, Tiit; Turjanmaa, Väinö; Kähönen, Mika

    2006-01-01

    Background The purpose of the Finnish Cardiovascular Study (FINCAVAS) is to construct a risk profile – using genetic, haemodynamic and electrocardiographic (ECG) markers – of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular diseases, events and deaths. Methods and design All patients scheduled for an exercise stress test at Tampere University Hospital and willing to participate have been and will be recruited between October 2001 and December 2007. The final number of participants is estimated to reach 5,000. Technically successful data on exercise tests using a bicycle ergometer have been collected of 2,212 patients (1,400 men and 812 women) by the end of 2004. In addition to repeated measurement of heart rate and blood pressure, digital high-resolution ECG at 500 Hz is recorded continuously during the entire exercise test, including the resting and recovery phases. About 20% of the patients are examined with coronary angiography. Genetic variations known or suspected to alter cardiovascular function or pathophysiology are analysed to elucidate the effects and interactions of these candidate genes, exercise and commonly used cardiovascular medications. Discussion FINCAVAS compiles an extensive set of data on patient history, genetic variation, cardiovascular parameters, ECG markers as well as follow-up data on clinical events, hospitalisations and deaths. The data enables the development of new diagnostic and prognostic tools as well as assessments of the importance of existing markers. PMID:16515696

  6. [Cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Cuende, José I; Pérez de Diego, Ignacio J; Godoy, Diego

    2016-01-01

    More than a century of research has shown that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process more than an infiltrative or thrombogenic process. It has been demonstrated epidemiologically and by imaging techniques, that systemic inflammatory diseases (in particular, but not exclusively, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus) increase the atherosclerotic process, and has a demonstrated pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, treatments to control inflammatory diseases can modify the course of the atherosclerotic process. Although there are no specific scales for assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with these diseases, cardiovascular risk is high. A number of specific risk scales are being developed, that take into account specific factors such as the degree of inflammatory activity.

  7. Investigating the transcriptional control of cardiovascular development

    PubMed Central

    Kathiriya, Irfan S.; Nora, Elphege P.; Bruneau, Benoit G.

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of thousands of genes instructs complex morphogenetic and molecular events for heart development. Cardiac transcription factors (TFs) choreograph gene expression at each stage of differentiation by interacting with co-factors, including chromatin-modifying enzymes, and by binding to a constellation of regulatory DNA elements. Here, we present salient examples relevant to cardiovascular development and heart disease and review techniques that can sharpen our understanding of cardiovascular biology. We discuss the interplay between cardiac TFs, cis-regulatory elements and chromatin as dynamic regulatory networks, to orchestrate sequential deployment of the cardiac gene expression program. PMID:25677518

  8. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  9. [Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    Mayer, Otto

    2012-05-01

    The pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease is without any doubt multifactorial, and it is generally accepted, that conventional risk factors determined only about 80% of cardiovascular risk. There is accumulating evidence that vitamin D exerts important pathophysiological effects on cardiovascular system. Low vitamin D was associated with increased cardiovascular risk in several reports. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence and possible pathophysiological mechanism for a role of low vitamin D in cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, available data concerning vitamin D supplementation are depicted.

  10. ADMA, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2008-12-15

    The endogenous competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an emerging risk marker for future cardiovascular events. Elevated ADMA concentrations have been described in patients with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Recently, various studies investigated the independent role of ADMA as a cardiovascular risk predictor in several patient cohorts. In addition, ADMA might not only be a risk marker but also a causative factor for cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the literature on the relationship between ADMA, cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  11. The EnVision++ system: a new immunohistochemical method for diagnostics and research. Critical comparison with the APAAP, ChemMate, CSA, LABC, and SABC techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Sabattini, E; Bisgaard, K; Ascani, S; Poggi, S; Piccioli, M; Ceccarelli, C; Pieri, F; Fraternali-Orcioni, G; Pileri, S A

    1998-01-01

    AIM: To assess a newly developed immunohistochemical detection system, the EnVision++. METHODS: A large series of differently processed normal and pathological samples and 53 relevant monoclonal antibodies were chosen. A chessboard titration assay was used to compare the results provided by the EnVision++ system with those of the APAAP, CSA, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate methods, when applied either manually or in a TechMate 500 immunostainer. RESULTS: With the vast majority of the antibodies, EnVision++ allowed two- to fivefold higher dilutions than the APAAP, LSAB, SABC, and ChemMate techniques, the staining intensity and percentage of expected positive cells being the same. With some critical antibodies (such as the anti-CD5), it turned out to be superior in that it achieved consistently reproducible results with differently fixed or overfixed samples. Only the CSA method, which includes tyramide based enhancement, allowed the same dilutions as the EnVision++ system, and in one instance (with the anti-cyclin D1 antibody) represented the gold standard. CONCLUSIONS: The EnVision++ is an easy to use system, which avoids the possibility of disturbing endogenous biotin and lowers the cost per test by increasing the dilutions of the primary antibodies. Being a two step procedure, it reduces both the assay time and the workload. Images PMID:9797726

  12. [Patent ductus arteriosus in the dog: a retrospective study of clinical presentation, diagnostics and comparison of interventional techniques in 102 dogs (2003-2011)].

    PubMed

    Meijer, M; Beijerink, N J

    2012-06-01

    A left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a common congenital heart defect in dogs. If it is left uncorrected, life expectancy in most cases is decreased due to the development of left-sided congestive heart failure. The aim of this study was to describe the dogs diagnosed with PDA in the Utrecht University Companion Animal Clinic from 2003 to 2011. The medical records of 102 patients were retrieved, and the clinical presentation and outcome of PDA closure by surgical ligation or transarterial catheter occlusion (TCO) were reviewed. In the TCO group, the result of coiling was compared with the placement of an Amplatz Canine Duct Occluder (ACDO). A predisposition to PDA was found in the German Brak, Stabyhoun, and Schapendoes. Dogs treated with surgical ligation were significantly older and heavier than those treated with TCO; within the TCO group, dogs treated with ACDO were significantly older and heavier The initial success rate (complete disappearance of the audible murmur in a patient that survived the procedure) was not significantly different between the different treatment modalities. Major complications were more common with surgical ligation, but the incidence of minor complications was not significantly different. There was no diference in survival between dogs treated with surgical ligation and dogs treated with TCO. This study shows a previously unreported predisposition to PDA in certain breeds. Both surgical ligation and TCO are suitable techniques for PDA closure, although major complications were more common with surgical ligation. ACDO appears to be the method with the least complications and thus can be considered the safest method.

  13. Salivary diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.M.; Garon, E.; Wong, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to monitor health status, disease onset and progression, and treatment outcome through non-invasive means is a most desirable goal in the health care promotion and delivery. There are three prerequisites to materialize this goal: specific biomarkers associated with a health or disease state; a non-invasive approach to detect and monitor the biomarkers; and the technologies to discriminate the biomarkers. A national initiative catalyzed by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) has created a roadmap to achieve these goals through the use of oral fluids as the diagnostic medium to scrutinize the health and/or disease status of individuals. Progress has shown this is an ideal opportunity to bridge state of the art saliva-based biosensors, optimized to disease discriminatory salivary biomarkers, for diagnostic applications. Oral fluid being the ‘mirror of body’ is a perfect medium to be explored for health and disease surveillance. The translational applications and opportunities are enormous. PMID:19627522

  14. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  15. Implementation of a new atomic basis for the He I equilibrium line ratio technique for electron temperature and density diagnostic in the SOL for H-mode plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos, JMM; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the ratio of selected helium lines allows for measurement of electron densities and temperatures. This technique is applied for L-mode plasmas at TEXTOR (O. Schmitz et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 (2008) 115004). We report our first efforts to extend it to H-mode plasma diagnostics in DIII-D. This technique depends on the accuracy of the atomic data used in the collisional radiative model (CRM). We present predictions for the electron temperatures and densities by using recently calculated R-Matrix With Pseudostates (RMPS) and Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) electron-impact excitation and ionization data. We include contributions from higher Rydberg states by means of the projection matrix. These effects become significant for high electron density conditions, which are typical in H-mode. We apply a non-equilibrium model for the time propagation of the ionization balance to predict line emission profiles from experimental H-mode data from DIII-D. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutrition and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Berciano, Silvia; Ordovás, José M

    2014-09-01

    A multitude of studies have been published on the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and a variety of nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns. Despite the well-accepted notion that diet has a significant influence on the development and prevention of cardiovascular disease, the foods considered healthy and harmful have varied over the years. This review aims to summarize the current scientific evidence on the cardioprotective effect of those foods and nutrients that have been considered healthy as well as those that have been deemed unhealthy at any given time in history. For this purpose, we reviewed the most recent literature using as keywords foods and nutrients (ie, meat, omega-3) and cardiovascular disease-related terms (ie, cardiovascular diseases, stroke). Emphasis has been placed on meta-analyses and Cochrane reviews. In general, there is a paucity of intervention studies with a high level of evidence supporting the benefits of healthy foods (ie, fruits and vegetables), whereas the evidence supporting the case against those foods considered less healthy (ie, saturated fat) seems to be weakened by most recent evidence. In summary, most of the evidence supporting the benefits and harms of specific foods and nutrients is based on observational epidemiological studies. The outcome of randomized clinical trials reveals a more confusing picture with most studies providing very small effects in one direction or another; the strongest evidence comes from dietary patterns. The current status of the relationship between diet and cardiovascular disease risk calls for more tailored recommendations based on genomic technologies.

  17. Cardiovascular Pharmacology of Cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Pacher, P.; Bátkai, S.; Kunos, G.

    2008-01-01

    Cannabinoids and their synthetic and endogenous analogs affect a broad range of physiological functions, including cardiovascular variables, the most important component of their effect being profound hypotension. The mechanisms of the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids in vivo are complex and may involve modulation of autonomic outflow in both the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as direct effects on the myocardium and vasculature. Although several lines of evidence indicate that the cardiovascular depressive effects of cannabinoids are mediated by peripherally localized CB1 receptors, recent studies provide strong support for the existence of as-yet-undefined endothelial and cardiac receptor(s) that mediate certain endocannabinoid-induced cardiovascular effects. The endogenous cannabinoid system has been recently implicated in the mechanism of hypotension associated with hemorrhagic, endotoxic, and cardiogenic shock, and advanced liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, cannabinoids have been considered as novel antihypertensive agents. A protective role of endocannabinoids in myocardial ischemia has also been documented. In this chapter, we summarize current information on the cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids and highlight the importance of these effects in a variety of pathophysiological conditions. PMID:16596789

  18. ICF diagnostics. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, L.W.

    1982-12-17

    In the past several years there have been significant advances and accomplishments in the field of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research which are directly attributable to an active experimental program supported by the development and applications of sophisticated and specialized diagnostics instruments and techniques. The continued development of high temporal-and spatial-resolution diagnostics, although with a somewhat different technical emphasis than previously, is essential for maintaining progress in ICF. With the generation of inertial fusion drivers now becoming available progress toward higher density compression of fusion fuel will be attained at the expense of temperature, and consequently emissions from the targets will be limited. At the same time since the targets are being driven to higher density they are more opaque to the low-to-moderate energy x-rays (up to a few keV) and particles (alpha particles, protons, and knock-on charged particles) that have been utilized for diagnosing target performance.

  19. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration. PMID:27302713

  20. Diabetes Drugs and Cardiovascular Safety.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji Cheol

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is a well-known risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and the beneficial effect of improved glycemic control on cardiovascular complications has been well established. However, the rosiglitazone experience aroused awareness of potential cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes drugs and prompted the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to issue new guidelines about cardiovascular risk. Through postmarketing cardiovascular safety trials, some drugs demonstrated cardiovascular benefits, while some antidiabetic drugs raised concern about a possible increased cardiovascular risk associated with drug use. With the development of new classes of drugs, treatment options became wider and the complexity of glycemic management in type 2 diabetes has increased. When choosing the appropriate treatment strategy for patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, not only the glucose-lowering effects, but also overall benefits and risks for cardiovascular disease should be taken into consideration.

  1. Cardiovascular disease mortality in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, E S; Peruga, A; Restrepo, H E

    1993-01-01

    Despite subregional differences, mortality profiles have undergone major changes in most countries of the Americas. While the proportion of deaths caused by noncommunicable diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, has increased, overall age-adjusted mortality rates attributable to all cardiovascular disease are declining in 13 of the 15 countries selected for the present study. About half the countries showed decreasing mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease; the other half had increasing rates. The mortality rates for cerebrovascular disease and hypertensive disease declined in all but four countries. The ischaemic heart disease/cerebrovascular disease mortality ratio increased as a consequence of a greater decline in deaths due to cerebrovascular disease, except in two countries that exhibited a greater decline for ischaemic heart disease. With few exceptions the male-to-female mortality ratios increased for all cardiovascular disease, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, reflecting a greater decline in female mortality. In general there was a decline in all cardiovascular disease mortality for almost every age group in the North American, Southern Cone, English-speaking Caribbean, and Andean subregions, while there were increases in the Central American and Latin Caribbean subregions. The magnitude of the changes was related to the initial level of mortality and the date of onset of the decline. Change began earlier and the declines were largest in the countries with the highest initial mortality levels, whereas in the countries that initially had comparatively low values the mortality rates are still increasing. Insufficient information is available to permit elucidation of the determinants of the changes reported. There has been speculation about the possible role of factors such as demographic and sociocultural changes, changes in lifestyle and subsequently in the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and the

  2. Ultrasound-based lectures on cardiovascular physiology and reflexes for medical students.

    PubMed

    Paganini, M; Rubini, A

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound has become a widely used diagnostic technique. While its role in patient evaluation is well known, its utility during preclinical courses such as anatomy and physiology is becoming increasingly recognized. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility/utility of integrating ultrasound-based sessions into conventional undergraduate medical school programs of physiology of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular reflexes and to evaluate student perceptions of an ultrasound-based didactic session. Second-year medical students enrolled in the University of Padova attended a didactic session during which basic concepts regarding ultrasound instrumentation, image production, and spatial orientation were presented. Five anatomic sectors (the heart, aorta, neck vessels, inferior vena cava, and femoral veins) were then examined on a volunteer. Student perceptions of the images that were projected, the usefulness of the presentation, and the reproducibility of the experience were assessed at the end of the lecture with an anonymous questionnaire consisting of positive and negative items that were rated using a 5-point Likert scale and with two questions. One hundred eleven students attended the lecture; 99% of them found it very interesting, and none considered it boring or a waste of time. More than 96% thought it helped them to gain a better comprehension of the subject and would recommend it to a colleague. In conclusion, as ultrasound has been found to be a valuable resource for the teaching of physiology of the cardiovascular system and cardiovascular reflexes, efforts should be made to integrate ultrasound sessions into the traditional human physiology curriculum.

  3. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers and Cardiovascular Technologists, Technicians, Including Vascular Technologists

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prices » Consumer Price Index Producer Price Indexes Import/Export Price Indexes Employment Cost Index Contract Escalation Price ... Research Productivity Overview International » International Technical Cooperation Import/Export Price Indexes International Overview REGIONAL OFFICES » New England ( ...

  4. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.

  5. Advancing cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Truskey, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering offers the promise of biologically based repair of injured and damaged blood vessels, valves, and cardiac tissue. Major advances in cardiovascular tissue engineering over the past few years involve improved methods to promote the establishment and differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), scaffolds from decellularized tissue that may produce more highly differentiated tissues and advance clinical translation, improved methods to promote vascularization, and novel in vitro microphysiological systems to model normal and diseased tissue function. iPSC technology holds great promise, but robust methods are needed to further promote differentiation. Differentiation can be further enhanced with chemical, electrical, or mechanical stimuli. PMID:27303643

  6. Cardiovascular adaptation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Richard; Baggish, Aaron L

    2016-01-01

    Millions of athletes train for and participate in competitive athletics each year. Many of these athletes will present to a cardiovascular specialist with signs or symptoms that might indicate heart disease and these athletes/patients will ask for advice on their ability to continue to train and compete safely. By virtue of their training, athletes׳ hearts may undergo significant structural and electrical change, presenting a special challenge for the cardiovascular specialist. It is important to understand normal adaptive changes in order to separate normal physiology from pathology.

  7. [Sugar and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Gómez Morales, Luis; Beltrán Romero, Luis Matías; García Puig, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the Spanish population and may be a relationship between the prevalence of these and excessive sugar consumption. In recent years, researchers have focused on the properties of these nutrients. Although there are many studies examining this association, the results are not unanimous. In any case there is sufficient basis for designing public health strategies in order to reduce the consumption of sugary drinks as part of a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, the question we address is: sugar intake in abundant amounts, is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease? We use as the focus of the discussion SAFO analysis model.

  8. Myeloperoxidase and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Hazen, Stanley L

    2005-06-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a number of reactive oxidant species. In addition to being an integral component of the innate immune response, evidence has emerged that MPO-derived oxidants contribute to tissue damage during inflammation. MPO-catalyzed reactions have been attributed to potentially proatherogenic biological activities throughout the evolution of cardiovascular disease, including during initiation, propagation, and acute complication phases of the atherosclerotic process. As a result, MPO and its downstream inflammatory pathways represent attractive targets for both prognostication and therapeutic intervention in the prophylaxis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

  9. Clocks and cardiovascular function

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Sarah C.; Haines, Philip; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2016-01-01

    Circadian clocks in central and peripheral tissues enable the temporal synchronization and organization of molecular and physiological processes of rhythmic animals, allowing optimum functioning of cells and organisms at the most appropriate time of day. Disruption of circadian rhythms, from external or internal forces, leads to widespread biological disruption and is postulated to underlie many human conditions, such as the incidence and timing of cardiovascular disease. Here, we describe in vivo and in vitro methodology relevant to studying the role of circadian rhythms in cardiovascular function and dysfunction PMID:25707279

  10. Four-dimensional MR cardiovascular imaging: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Anthony G; Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Haosen; Ho, Chien; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been recognized as a powerful tool for cardiovascular imaging because of its unique potential to measure blood flow, cardiac wall motion and tissue properties jointly. However, many clinical applications of cardiac MRI have been limited by low imaging speed. Three-dimensional cardiovascular MRI in real-time, or 4D cardiovascular MRI without cardiac and respiratory gating or triggering, remains an important technological goal of the MR cardiovascular research community. In this paper, we present a novel technique to achieve 4D cardiovascular MR imaging in unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. This breakthrough is made possible through a creative use of sparse sampling theory and parallel imaging with phased array coils and a novel implementation of data acquisition and image reconstruction. We have successfully used the technique to perform 4D cardiovascular imaging on rats, achieving 0.65 mm × 0.65 mm × 0.31 mm spatial resolution with a frame rate of 67 fps. This capability enables simultaneous imaging of cardiac motion, respiratory motion, and first-pass myocardial perfusion. This in turn allows multiple cardiac assessments including measurement of ejection fraction, cardiac output, and myocardial blood flow in a single experiment. We believe that the proposed technique can open up many important applications of cardiovascular imaging and have significant impact on the field.

  11. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Planetary Transmission Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor); Samuel, Paul D.; Conroy, Joseph K.; Pines, Darryll J.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a methodology for detecting and diagnosing gear faults in the planetary stage of a helicopter transmission. This diagnostic technique is based on the constrained adaptive lifting algorithm. The lifting scheme, developed by Wim Sweldens of Bell Labs, is a time domain, prediction-error realization of the wavelet transform that allows for greater flexibility in the construction of wavelet bases. Classic lifting analyzes a given signal using wavelets derived from a single fundamental basis function. A number of researchers have proposed techniques for adding adaptivity to the lifting scheme, allowing the transform to choose from a set of fundamental bases the basis that best fits the signal. This characteristic is desirable for gear diagnostics as it allows the technique to tailor itself to a specific transmission by selecting a set of wavelets that best represent vibration signals obtained while the gearbox is operating under healthy-state conditions. However, constraints on certain basis characteristics are necessary to enhance the detection of local wave-form changes caused by certain types of gear damage. The proposed methodology analyzes individual tooth-mesh waveforms from a healthy-state gearbox vibration signal that was generated using the vibration separation (synchronous signal-averaging) algorithm. Each waveform is separated into analysis domains using zeros of its slope and curvature. The bases selected in each analysis domain are chosen to minimize the prediction error, and constrained to have the same-sign local slope and curvature as the original signal. The resulting set of bases is used to analyze future-state vibration signals and the lifting prediction error is inspected. The constraints allow the transform to effectively adapt to global amplitude changes, yielding small prediction errors. However, local wave-form changes associated with certain types of gear damage are poorly adapted, causing a significant change in the

  13. Epigenetics and cardiovascular disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite advances in the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), this group of multifactorial disorders remains a leading cause of mortality worldwide. CVD is associated with multiple genetic and modifiable risk factors; however, known environmental and genetic influences can only...

  14. Photonics in cardiovascular medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soest, Gijs; Regar, Evelyn; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.

    2015-10-01

    The use of photonics technology is bringing new capabilities and insights to cardiovascular medicine. Intracoronary imaging and sensing, laser ablation and optical pacing are just some of the functions being explored to help diagnose and treat conditions of the heart and arteries.

  15. Pharmacogenetics of cardiovascular drugs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie A; Humma, Larisa M

    2002-02-01

    Pharmacogenetics is a field aimed at understanding the genetic contribution to inter-patient variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Treatment of cardiovascular disease is, in most cases, guided by evidence from well-controlled clinical trials. Given the solid scientific basis for the treatment of most cardiovascular diseases, it is common for patients with a given disease to be treated in essentially the same manner. Thus, the clinical trials have been very informative about treating large groups of patients with a given disease, but are slightly less informative about the treatment of individual patients. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics have the potential of taking the information derived from large clinical trials and further refining it to select the drugs with the greatest likelihood for benefit, and least likelihood for harm, in individual patients, based on their genetic make-up. In this paper, the current literature on cardiovascular pharmacogenetics is emphasised, and how the use of pharmacogenetic/pharmacogenomic information may be particularly useful in the future in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases is also highlighted.

  16. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  17. Neuropeptides in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    1984-12-01

    Neuropeptides can affect cardiovascular function in various ways. They can serve as cotransmitters in the autonomic nervous system; for example, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is released with acetylcholine and neuropeptide Y with norepinephrine from postganglionic neurons. Substance P and, presumably, other peptides can can affect cardiovascular function when released near blood vessels by antidromically conducted impulses in branches of stimulated sensory neurons. In the central nervous system, many different neuropeptides appear to function as transmitters or contransmittes in the neural pathways that regulate the cardiovascular system. In addition neuropeptides such as vasopressin and angiotensin II also circulate as hormones that are involved in cardiovascular control. Large doses of exogenous vasopressin are required to increase blood pressure in normal animals because the increase in total peripheral resistance produced by the hormones is accompanied by a decrease in cardiac output. However, studies with synthetic peptides that selectively antagonize the vasopressor action of vasopressin indicate that circulating vasopressin is important in maintaining blood pressure when animals are hypovolemic due to dehydration, haemorrhage or adrenocortical insufficiency. VIP dilates blood vessels and stimulates renin secretion by a direct action on the juxtaglomerular cells. Renin secretion is stimulated when the concentration of VIP in plasma exceeds 75 pmol/litre, and higher values are seen in a number of conditions. Neostigmine, a drug which increases the secretion of endogenous VIP, also increases renin secretion, and this increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Thus, VIP may be a physiologically significant renin stimulating hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. [Cardiovascular prevention: begin young].

    PubMed

    Visseren, Frank L J

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease is rare in the young. Nevertheless, the foundations for atherosclerotic disease in later life are laid early by a harmful lifestyle including overweight and smoking. Adolescents who are overweight or have the metabolic syndrome are at increased cardiovascular risk later in life.

  19. Microfluidic technology for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tom; Dittrich, Petra S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics have helped to improve the lives of millions of patients worldwide by allowing clinicians to diagnose patients earlier as well as providing better ongoing therapies. Point-of-care (POC) testing can bring these laboratory-based techniques to the patient in a home setting or to remote settings in the developing world. However, despite substantial progress in the field, there still remain many challenges. Progress in molecular diagnostics has benefitted greatly from microfluidic technology. This chapter aims to summarise the more recent advances in microfluidic-based molecular diagnostics. Sections include an introduction to microfluidic technology, the challenges of molecular diagnostics, how microfluidic advances are working to solve these issues, some alternative design approaches, and detection within these systems.

  20. The rise of cardiovascular medicine.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2012-04-01

    Modern cardiology was born at the turn of the nineteenth to twentieth centuries with three great discoveries: the X ray, the sphygmomanometer, and the electrocardiograph. This was followed by cardiac catheterization, which led to coronary angiography and to percutaneous coronary intervention. The coronary care units and early reperfusion reduced the early mortality owing to acute myocardial infarction, and the discovery of coronary risk factors led to the development of Preventive Cardiology. Other major advances include several cardiac imaging techniques, the birth and development of cardiac surgery, and the control of cardiac arrhythmias. The treatment of heart failure, although greatly improved, remains a challenge. Current cardiology practice is evidence-based and global in scope. Research and practice are increasingly conducted in cardiovascular centres and institutes. It is likely that in the future, a greater emphasis will be placed on prevention, which will be enhanced by genetic information.

  1. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  2. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  3. Oral cancer: current and future diagnostic techniques.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Bagan, José V; Hopper, Colin; Epstein, Joel B

    2008-08-01

    Oral cancer is among the 10 most common cancers worldwide, and is especially seen in disadvantaged elderly males. Early detection and prompt treatment offer the best chance for cure. As patient awareness regarding the danger of oral cancer increases, the demand for "screening" is expected to increase. The signs and symptoms of oral cancer often resemble less serious conditions more commonly found and similarly usually presenting as a lump, red or white patch or ulcer. If any such lesion does not heal within 3 weeks, a malignancy or some other serious disorder must be excluded and a biopsy may be indicated. Dental health care workers have a duty to detect benign and potentially malignant oral lesions such as oral cancer and are generally the best trained health care professionals in this field. Prompt referral to an appropriate specialist allows for the best management but, if this is not feasible, the dental practitioner should take the biopsy which should be sent to an oral/head and neck pathologist for histological evaluation.

  4. Survey of Diagnostic Techniques for Dynamic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Bearing Condition. Applied Acoustics 1998, 53 (1–3), 221–226. 10. Randall, R. B. Cepstrum Analysis and Gearbox Fault Diagnosis . B&K Instruments...with gearbox faults ) 4. It is non-dimensional in a way that makes it relatively insensitive to load changes, but not speed. 5. It is also fairly...traditional methods for fault diagnosis are categorized as pattern classification, knowledge- based inference, and numerical modeling. Pattern

  5. Wiring System Diagnostic Techniques for Legacy Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    hydrolysis) and ultra- violet radiation Alternative wire insulation materials include cross-linked TefzelTM (MIL-W- 22759 /33- 44) which is a cross-linked...with conductor corrosion in silver plated wire (red plague). Another widely used type of insulation in Air Force aircraft is Teflon (MIL- W- 22759 ...primarily Teflon with a small percentage of a modified aromatic polyimide (MIL-W- 22759 /88-). Much of the original development and testing was part of an

  6. Novel Chemical and Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    acid is commercially available in anhydrous To determine the amount of hydrazine and hydrazine form. in monohydrate form. and in other hydrated...with amonia day prior to UOMH exposure. 1H3(): Tubing cleaned with ammonia irmediately prior to UDMH exposure, "IIi Im I Ii II lI 37 PFA Tubing Exposures

  7. Assessment of Diagnostic Techniques of Urinary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghaleb, Khaled; Afifi, Magdy; El-Gohary, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of active tuberculosis remains an elusive challenge. In addition, one third of the world’s population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and up to 10% of infected individuals develop tuberculosis (TB) in their lifetime. In this investigation, the incidence of urinary tuberculosis among renal patients was studied. Three hundreds urine samples were processed for detection of Mtb by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) smear examination, Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium, radiometric BACTEC460 system as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Enzyme Immunoassay (DEIA) test. Out of 300 urine samples, 2 were positive by both ZN smears and LJ medium with incidence rate of 0.66 %, 3 positive samples by BACTEC460 culture system with incidence of 1%. PCR assay gave more positive results than smear and culture examination (i.e. 8 positive samples with incidence rate of 2.6%). The specificities were 25% for both ZN smears and LJ medium, 37.5% for BACTEC460 culture system, and 100% for PCR test, while sensitivities of all assays were 100%. Thus PCR is a rapid and sensitive method for the early diagnosis of urinary tuberculosis. PMID:23795272

  8. [Cardiovascular system and aging].

    PubMed

    Saner, H

    2005-12-01

    Aging is one of the most important cardiovascular risk factors. Age-related morphologic changes in large resistance vessels include an intima-media-thickening and increased deposition of matrix substance, ultimately leading to a reduced compliance and an increased stiffness of the vessels. Aging of the heart is mainly characterized by an increase of the left ventricular mass in relation to the chamber volume and a decrease of diastolic function. There is some controversy in regard to the question if these changes in the vessel wall are the consequence of aging or if a decrease in physical activity is a major contributor of this process. With age the cardiovascular profile is changing. Whereas smoking is less prominent, arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus are more often encountered. Primary and secondary prevention through cardiovascular risk factor management is also very important in the aging population due to the increased risk of acute vascular complications with age. Preventive measures have to include life style factor interventions as well as optimized drug therapy. There is no scientific evidence that vascular aging can be prevented by administration of supplements such as antioxidant vitamins. Aspirin is effective for cardiovascular prevention up to a higher age. Betablockers and ACE-inhibitors are generally underused in older patients after myocardial infarctions. Statins are effective in reducing cardiovascular complications up to an age of 80 years. Myocardial infarction in elderly patients is often characterized by atypical symptoms and may be even silent. Interventional therapy in elderly patients is as successful as in younger patients but has an increased complication rate. Ambulatory cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients leads to significant improvements of physical capacity, well-being and quality of life and may help to prevent social isolation.

  9. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of a 16S ribosomal DNA gene-based molecular technique (RT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing) for bacterial meningitis, early-onset neonatal sepsis, and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Esparcia, Oscar; Montemayor, Michel; Ginovart, Gemma; Pomar, Virginia; Soriano, Germán; Pericas, Roser; Gurgui, Mercedes; Sulleiro, Elena; Prats, Guillem; Navarro, Ferran; Coll, Pere

    2011-02-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of a 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene-based molecular technique for bacterial meningitis (BM), early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS), and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is evaluated. The molecular approach gave better results for BM diagnosis: sensitivity (S) was 90.6% compared to 78.1% for the bacterial culture. Percentages of cases correctly diagnosed (CCD) were 91.7% and 80.6%, respectively. For EONS diagnosis, S was 60.0% for the molecular approach and 70.0% for the bacterial culture; and CCD was 95.2% and 96.4%, respectively. For SPB diagnosis, the molecular approach gave notably poorer results than the bacterial cultures. S and CCD were 48.4% and 56.4% for the molecular approach and 80.6% and 89.1% for bacterial cultures. Nevertheless, bacterial DNA was detected in 53.3% of culture-negative samples. Accuracy of the 16S rDNA PCR approach differs depending on the sample, the microorganisms involved, the expected bacterial load, and the presence of bacterial DNA other than that from the pathogen implied in the infectious disease.

  11. Translational In Vivo Models for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Fliegner, Daniela; Gerdes, Christoph; Meding, Jörg; Stasch, Johannes-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the first leading cause of death and morbidity in developed countries. Experimental cardiology research and preclinical drug development in cardiology call for appropriate and especially clinically relevant in vitro and in vivo studies. The use of animal models has contributed to expand our knowledge and our understanding of the underlying mechanisms and accordingly provided new approaches focused on the improvement of diagnostic and treatment strategies of various cardiac pathologies.Numerous animal models in different species as well as in small and large animals have been developed to address cardiovascular complications, including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and thrombotic diseases. However, a perfect model of heart failure or other indications that reproduces every aspect of the natural disease does not exist. The complexity and heterogeneity of cardiac diseases plus the influence of genetic and environmental factors limit to mirror a particular disease with a single experimental model.Thus, drug development in the field of cardiology is not only very challenging but also inspiring; therefore animal models should be selected that reflect as best as possible the disease being investigated. Given the wide range of animal models, reflecting critical features of the human pathophysiology available nowadays increases the likelihood of the translation to the patients. Furthermore, this knowledge and the increase of the predictive value of preclinical models help us to find more efficient and reliable solutions as well as better and innovative treatment strategies for cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Computational biology for cardiovascular biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Azuaje, Francisco; Devaux, Yvan; Wagner, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Computational biology is essential in the process of translating biological knowledge into clinical practice, as well as in the understanding of biological phenomena based on the resources and technologies originating from the clinical environment. One such key contribution of computational biology is the discovery of biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes using 'omic' information. This process involves the predictive modelling and integration of different types of data and knowledge for screening, diagnostic or prognostic purposes. Moreover, this requires the design and combination of different methodologies based on statistical analysis and machine learning. This article introduces key computational approaches and applications to biomarker discovery based on different types of 'omic' data. Although we emphasize applications in cardiovascular research, the computational requirements and advances discussed here are also relevant to other domains. We will start by introducing some of the contributions of computational biology to translational research, followed by an overview of methods and technologies used for the identification of biomarkers with predictive or classification value. The main types of 'omic' approaches to biomarker discovery will be presented with specific examples from cardiovascular research. This will include a review of computational methodologies for single-source and integrative data applications. Major computational methods for model evaluation will be described together with recommendations for reporting models and results. We will present recent advances in cardiovascular biomarker discovery based on the combination of gene expression and functional network analyses. The review will conclude with a discussion of key challenges for computational biology, including perspectives from the biosciences and clinical areas.

  13. Genetic Variation in Cardiomyopathy and Cardiovascular Disorders.

    PubMed

    McNally, Elizabeth M; Puckelwartz, Megan J

    2015-01-01

    With the wider deployment of massively-parallel, next-generation sequencing, it is now possible to survey human genome data for research and clinical purposes. The reduced cost of producing short-read sequencing has now shifted the burden to data analysis. Analysis of genome sequencing remains challenged by the complexity of the human genome, including redundancy and the repetitive nature of genome elements and the large amount of variation in individual genomes. Public databases of human genome sequences greatly facilitate interpretation of common and rare genetic variation, although linking database sequence information to detailed clinical information is limited by privacy and practical issues. Genetic variation is a rich source of knowledge for cardiovascular disease because many, if not all, cardiovascular disorders are highly heritable. The role of rare genetic variation in predicting risk and complications of cardiovascular diseases has been well established for hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy, where the number of genes that are linked to these disorders is growing. Bolstered by family data, where genetic variants segregate with disease, rare variation can be linked to specific genetic variation that offers profound diagnostic information. Understanding genetic variation in cardiomyopathy is likely to help stratify forms of heart failure and guide therapy. Ultimately, genetic variation may be amenable to gene correction and gene editing strategies.

  14. [Update - health risks induced by ionizing radiation from diagnostic imaging].

    PubMed

    Knüsli, Claudio; Walter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most thoroughly investigated exogenous noxa. Since the early 20th century it is well known that using ionizing radiation in diagnostic procedures causes cancer - physicians themselves frequently being struck by this disease in those early days of radiology. Radiation protection therefore plays an important role. Below doses of 100 Millisievert (mSv) however much research has to be accomplished yet because not only malignant tumors, but cardiovascular diseases, malformations and genetic sequelae attributable to low dose radiation have been described. Unborns, children and adolescents are highly vulnerable. Dose response correlations are subject to continuing discussions because data stem mostly from calculations studying Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Radiation exposure is not exactly known, and it is unknown, if observations of radiation induced diseases in this ethnicity can be generalized. Nowadays the main source of low dose ionizing radiation from medical diagnostics is due to computertomography (CT). Large recent clinical studies from the UK and Australia investigating cancer incidence after exposition to CT in childhood and adolescence confirm that low doses in the range of 5 mSv already significantly increase the risk of malignant diseases during follow up. Imaging techniques as ultrasound and magnetic resonance tomography therefore should be preferred whenever appropriate.

  15. Cardiovascular Regenerative Technologies: Update and Future Outlook

    PubMed Central

    Mallone, Anna; Weber, Benedikt; Hoerstrup, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    In the effort of improving treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD), scientists struggle with the lack of the regenerative capacities of finally differentiated cardiovascular tissues. In this context, the advancements in regenerative medicine contributed to the development of cell-based therapies as well as macro- and micro-scale tissue-engineering technologies. The current experimental approaches focus on different regenerative strategies including a broad spectrum of techniques such as paracrine-based stimulation of autologous cardiac stem cells, mesenchymal cell injections, 3D microtissue culture techniques and vascular tissue-engineering methods. These potential next-generation strategies are leading the way to a revolution in addressing CVD, and numerous studies are now undertaken to assess their therapeutic value. With this review, we provide an update on the current research directions, on their major challenges, limitations, and achievements. PMID:27721705

  16. Imaging Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current clinical techniques that rely on stenosis measurement alone appear to be insufficient for risk prediction in atherosclerosis patients. Many novel imaging methods have been developed to study atherosclerosis progression and to identify new features that can predict future clinical risk. MRI of atherosclerotic vessel walls is one such method. It has the ability to non-invasively evaluate multiple biomarkers of the disease such as luminal stenosis, plaque burden, tissue composition and plaque activity. In addition, the accuracy of in vivo MRI has been validated against histology with high reproducibility, thus paving the way for application to epidemiological studies of disease pathogenesis and, by serial MRI, in monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic intervention. In this review, we describe the various MR techniques used to evaluate aspects of plaque progression, discuss imaging based measurements (imaging biomarkers), and also detail their validation. The application of plaque MRI in clinical trials as well as emerging imaging techniques used to evaluate plaque compositional features and biological activities are also discussed. PMID:20815049

  17. Pattern classification approach to rocket engine diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Tulpule, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a systems level approach to integrate state-of-the-art rocket engine technology with advanced computational techniques to develop an integrated diagnostic system (IDS) for future rocket propulsion systems. The key feature of this IDS is the use of advanced diagnostic algorithms for failure detection as opposed to the current practice of redline-based failure detection methods. The paper presents a top-down analysis of rocket engine diagnostic requirements, rocket engine operation, applicable diagnostic algorithms, and algorithm design techniques, which serve as a basis for the IDS. The concepts of hierarchical, model-based information processing are described, together with the use uf signal processing, pattern recognition, and artificial intelligence techniques which are an integral part of this diagnostic system. 27 refs.

  18. Radiation as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, John E.; Hopewell, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Humans are continually exposed to ionizing radiation from terrestrial sources. The two major contributors to radiation exposure of the U.S. population are ubiquitous background radiation and medical exposure of patients. From the early 1980s to 2006, the average dose per individual in the United States for all sources of radiation increased by a factor of 1.7–6.2 mSv, with this increase due to the growth of medical imaging procedures. Radiation can place individuals at an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs a long time after exposure to lower doses of radiation as demonstrated in Japanese atomic bomb survivors. This review examines sources of radiation (atomic bombs, radiation accidents, radiological terrorism, cancer treatment, space exploration, radiosurgery for cardiac arrhythmia, and computed tomography) and the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. The evidence presented suggests an association between cardiovascular disease and exposure to low-to-moderate levels of radiation, as well as the well-known association at high doses. Studies are needed to define the extent that diagnostic and therapeutic radiation results in increased risk factors for cardiovascular disease, to understand the mechanisms involved, and to develop strategies to mitigate or treat radiation-induced cardiovascular disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 1945–1956. PMID:21091078

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy of the murine cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Akki, Ashwin; Gupta, Ashish; Weiss, Robert G

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a powerful and reliable tool to noninvasively study the cardiovascular system in clinical practice. Because transgenic mouse models have assumed a critical role in cardiovascular research, technological advances in MRI have been extended to mice over the last decade. These have provided critical insights into cardiac and vascular morphology, function, and physiology/pathophysiology in many murine models of heart disease. Furthermore, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has allowed the nondestructive study of myocardial metabolism in both isolated hearts and in intact mice. This article reviews the current techniques and important pathophysiological insights from the application of MRI/MRS technology to murine models of cardiovascular disease.

  20. Radiological features of uncommon aneurysms of the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Kalisz, Kevin; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Although aortic aneurysms are the most common type encountered clinically, they do not span the entire spectrum of possible aneurysms of the cardiovascular system. As cross sectional imaging techniques with cardiac computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging continue to improve and becomes more commonplace, once rare cardiovascular aneurysms are being encountered at higher rates. In this review, a series of uncommon, yet clinically important, cardiovascular aneurysms will be presented with review of epidemiology, clinical presentation and complications, imaging features and relevant differential diagnoses, and aneurysm management. PMID:27247710

  1. Diagnostic neuroradiology for the interventional neuroradiologist

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Marcos, Ana; Bijlenga, Philippe; Narata, Ana Paula; Haller, Sven; Lövblad, Karl-Olof

    2013-01-01

    In order to further improve the impact of the continuously evolving neurointerventional techniques, the interventional neuroradiologist needs to have at his disposal more powerful techniques to image the central nervous system. With the recent development of diagnostics techniques that are computed tomography and magnetic resonance based we are now able to assess not just morphology, but also physiology, physiopathology and function. This review discusses the place of diagnostic techniques in the evaluation that the interventional neuroradiologist hast to make when confronted with patients. We provide an overview of current techniques for the brain and spine. PMID:24349643

  2. Cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent flight and ground-based studies of cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight. Prominent features of microgravity exposure include loss of gravitational pressures, relatively low venous pressures, headward fluid shifts, plasma volume loss, and postflight orthostatic intolerance and reduced exercise capacity. Many of these short-term responses to microgravity extend themselves during long-duration microgravity exposure and may be explained by altered pressures (blood and tissue) and fluid balance in local tissues nourished by the cardiovascular system. In this regard, it is particularly noteworthy that tissues of the lower body (e.g., foot) are well adapted to local hypertension on Earth, whereas tissues of the upper body (e.g., head) are not as well adapted to increase in local blood pressure. For these and other reasons, countermeasures for long-duration flight should include reestablishment of higher, Earth-like blood pressures in the lower body.

  3. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  4. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine. PMID:26170595

  5. Slow breathing and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chaddha, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women worldwide. Much emphasis has been placed on the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. While depression and anxiety increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular disease also increases the risk of developing anxiety and depression. Thus, promoting optimal mental health may be important for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Like lowering blood pressure, lipids, and body weight, lowering anger and hostility and improving depression and anxiety may also be an important intervention in preventive cardiology. As we strive to further improve cardiovascular outcomes, the next bridge to cross may be one of offering patients nonpharmacologic means for combating daily mental stress and promoting mental health, such as yoga and pranayama. Indeed, the best preventive cardiovascular medicine may be a blend of both Western and Eastern medicine.

  6. Timely Diagnostic Feedback for Database Concept Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng; Chuang, Yuh-Shy

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently learn database concepts, this work adopts association rules to provide diagnostic feedback for drawing an Entity-Relationship Diagram (ERD). Using association rules and Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) techniques, this work implements a novel Web-based Timely Diagnosis System (WTDS), which provides timely diagnostic feedback…

  7. Computer model of cardiovascular control system responses to exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croston, R. C.; Rummel, J. A.; Kay, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches of systems analysis and mathematical modeling together with computer simulation techniques are applied to the cardiovascular system in order to simulate dynamic responses of the system to a range of exercise work loads. A block diagram of the circulatory model is presented, taking into account arterial segments, venous segments, arterio-venous circulation branches, and the heart. A cardiovascular control system model is also discussed together with model test results.

  8. Cardiovascular Imaging in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Phoon, Colin K.L.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The mouse is the mammalian model of choice for investigating cardiovascular biology, given our ability to manipulate it by genetic, pharmacologic, mechanical, and environmental means. Imaging is an important approach to phenotyping both function and structure of cardiac and vascular components. This review details commonly used imaging approaches, with a focus on echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging and brief overviews of other imaging modalities. We also briefly outline emerging imaging approaches but caution that reliability and validity data may be lacking. PMID:26928662

  9. Cardiovascular studies using the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, J. E.; Cothran, L. N.; Hawthorne, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    Despite the phylogenetic similarities between chimpanzees and man, there exists a paucity of reliable data on normal cardiovascular function and the physiological responses of the system to standard interventions. Totally implanted biotelemetry systems or hardwire analog techniques were used to examine the maximum number of cardiovascular variables which could be simultaneously monitored without significantly altering the system's performance. This was performed in order to acquire base-line data not previously obtained in this species, to determine cardiovascular response to specific forcing functions such as ventricular pacing, drug infusions, and lower body negative pressure. A cardiovascular function profile protocol was developed in order to adjust independently the three major factors which modify ventricular performance, namely, left ventricular performance, left ventricular preload, afterload, and contractility. Cardiac pacing at three levels above the ambient rate was used to adjust end diastolic volume (preload). Three concentrations of angiotensin were infused continuously to evaluate afterload in a stepwide fashion. A continuous infusion of dobutamine was administered to raise the manifest contractile state of the heart.

  10. Adventures in cardiovascular research.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2009-07-14

    This article, derived from an invited Distinguished Scientist lecture presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions in 2007, reviews 4 themes (adventures) in clinical cardiovascular research carried out over a period of 58 years. It begins with the author's introduction to cardiovascular hemodynamics during a medical school elective in 1951. The 4 adventures include valvular heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, heart failure (HF), and myocardial ischemia. In each of these adventures, the author describes briefly what was known when he entered each field, followed by the author's contribution to the field (the adventure), and ends with comments about the current status of the field. Of particular interest are the changes in the technologies used in clinical cardiovascular research over the past half century, commencing with pressure tracings in left heart chambers with the use of needle puncture in the operating room to genetic technologies designed to understand differences between drugs that inhibit platelet activation. The article ends with some general comments on conducting research and the rewards that can come with this activity.

  11. Antioxidants, inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mangge, Harald; Becker, Kathrin; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M

    2014-06-26

    humans primarily by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Highly toxic peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is formed solely in the presence of superoxide anion (O2 (-)). Neopterin and kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as an estimate of IDO enzyme activity, are robust markers of immune activation in vitro and in vivo. Both these diagnostic parameters are able to predict cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients at risk. Likewise, a significant association exists between increase of neopterin concentrations and Kyn/Trp ratio values and the lowering of plasma levels of vitamin-C, -E and -B. Vitamin-B deficiency is usually accompanied by increased plasma homoycsteine. Additional determination of NO metabolites, BH4 and plasma antioxidants in patients with CVD and related clinical settings can be helpful to improve the understanding of redox-regulation in health and disease and might provide a rationale for potential antioxidant therapies in CVD.

  12. [Trends and current questions of cardiovascular prevention in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Ilyés, István; Jancsó, Zoltán; Simay, Attila

    2012-09-30

    Although an impressive progress has been achieved in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, they are at the top of the mortality statistics in Hungary. Prevention of these diseases is an essential task of the primary health care. Cardiovascular prevention is carried out at primary, secondary and tertiary levels using risk group and population preventive strategies. The two main tasks of primary cardiovascular prevention are health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention, and its main programs are ensuring healthy nutrition, improving physical training and accomplishing an anti-smoking program. The essential form of secondary prevention is the screening activity of the primary health care. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors can be discovered during the doctor-patient consultation, but laboratory screening is needed for assessing metabolic risks. The official screening rules of the cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are based on diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome; however, nowadays revealing of global cardiometabolic risks is also necessary. In patients without cardiovascular diseases but with risk factors, a cardiovascular risk estimation has to be performed. In primary care, there is a possibility for long term follow-up and continuous care of patients with chronic diseases, which is the main form of the tertiary prevention. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, ranking to cardiovascular risk groups is a very important task since target values of continuous care depend on which risk group they belong to. The methods used during continuous care are lifestyle therapy, specific pharmacotherapy and organ protection with drugs. Combined health education and counselling is the next element of the primary health care prevention; it is a tool that helps primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Changes needed for improving cardiovascular prevention in primary care are the following: appropriate evaluation of primary prevention

  13. MicroRNAs Expression Profiles in Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    The current search for new markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is explained by the high morbidity and mortality still observed in developed and developing countries due to cardiovascular events. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have emerged as potential new biomarkers and are small sequences of RNAs that regulate gene expression at posttranscriptional level by inhibiting translation or inducing degradation of the target mRNAs. Circulating miRNAs are involved in the regulation of signaling pathways associated to aging and can be used as novel diagnostic markers for acute and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular pathologies. This review summarizes the biogenesis, maturation, and stability of miRNAs and their use as potential biomarkers for coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), and heart failure (HF). PMID:25013816

  14. Microengineering in cardiovascular research: new developments and translational applications

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Juliana M.; Wong, Keith H.K.; Richards, Arthur Mark; Drum, Chester L.

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic, cellular co-cultures that approximate macro-scale biology are important tools for refining the in vitro study of organ-level function and disease. In recent years, advances in technical fabrication and biological integration have provided new insights into biological phenomena, improved diagnostic measurements, and made major steps towards de novo tissue creation. Here we review applications of these technologies specific to the cardiovascular field, emphasizing three general categories of use: reductionist vascular models, tissue-engineered vascular models, and point-of-care diagnostics. With continued progress in the ability to purposefully control microscale environments, the detailed study of both primary and cultured cells may find new relevance in the general cardiovascular research community. PMID:25691539

  15. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  16. [Cardiovascular involvement in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Driazhenko, I V

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular system involvement with early development of atherosclerosis is characteristic for rheumatic diseases. Among causes of death in various rheumatic diseases cardiovascular pathology also prevails. This paper contains a review of most important studies of impairment of the heart, arterial and venous parts of cardiovascular system in patients with diffuse diseases of connective tissue, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic vasculitides. The role of immune mechanisms, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disturbances with development of myocardial and vascular remodeling in rheumatic diseases is also discussed. Major risk factors of cardiovascular pathology in rheumatic patients are presented. Treatment of a cardiovascular pathology in these patients presumes the use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists and statins.

  17. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Giovannucci, Edward

    2009-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that deficient vitamin D status may increase risk of both ischemic and nonischemic cardiovascular diseases independently of established cardiovascular risk factors. The role of vitamin D in potentially regulating many functions in the cardiovascular system is just beginning to be understood. Among the potentially relevant mechanisms for cardiovascular diseases, vitamin D may influence blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system, parathyroid hormone levels, myocardial function, inflammation, and vascular calcification. Cardiovascular risk appears especially elevated at 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels below 10 or 15 ng/mL, and optimal levels may be at least 30 ng/mL. Among individuals who are not receiving substantial exposure to sun, intakes of 1000 to 2000 IU may be needed to achieve levels of at least 30 ng/mL. Further study, including properly designed randomized control trials, is required to further establish the role of vitamin D on cardiovascular diseases.

  18. AST Combustion Workshop: Diagnostics Working Group Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was convened under NASA's Advanced Subsonics Technologies (AST) Program. Many of the principal combustion diagnosticians from industry, academia, and government laboratories were assembled in the Diagnostics/Testing Subsection of this workshop to discuss the requirements and obstacles to the successful implementation of advanced diagnostic techniques to the test environment of the proposed AST combustor. The participants, who represented the major relevant areas of advanced diagnostic methods currently applied to combustion and related fields, first established the anticipated AST combustor flowfield conditions. Critical flow parameters were then examined and prioritized as to their importance to combustor/fuel injector design and manufacture, environmental concerns, and computational interests. Diagnostic techniques were then evaluated in terms of current status, merits and obstacles for each flow parameter. All evaluations are presented in tabular form and recommendations are made on the best-suited diagnostic method to implement for each flow parameter in order of applicability and intrinsic value.

  19. ASICs and cardiovascular homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Abboud, François M; Benson, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    In this review we address primarily the role of ASICs in determining sensory signals from arterial baroreceptors, peripheral chemoreceptors, and cardiopulmonary and somatic afferents. Alterations in these sensory signals during acute cardiovascular stresses result in changes in sympathetic and parasympathetic activities that restore cardiovascular homeostasis. In pathological states, however, chronic dysfunctions of these afferents result in serious sympatho-vagal imbalances with significant increases in mortality and morbidity. We identified a role for ASIC2 in the mechano-sensitivity of aortic baroreceptors and of ASIC3 in the pH sensitivity of carotid bodies. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, we reported decreased expression of ASIC2 in nodose ganglia neurons and overexpression of ASIC3 in carotid bodies. This reciprocal expression of ASIC2 and ASIC3 results in reciprocal changes in sensory sensitivity of baro- and chemoreceptors and a consequential synergistic exaggeration sympathetic nerve activity. A similar reciprocal sensory dysautonomia prevails in heart failure and increases the risk of mortality. There is also evidence that ASIC heteromers in skeletal muscle afferents contribute significantly to the exercise pressor reflex. In cardiac muscle afferents of the dorsal root ganglia, they contribute to nociception and to the detrimental sympathetic activation during ischemia. Finally, we report that an inhibitory influence of ASIC2-mediated baroreceptor activity suppresses the sympatho-excitatory reflexes of the chemoreceptors and skeletal muscle afferents, as well as the ASIC1a-mediated excitation of central neurons during fear, threat, or panic. The translational potential of activation of ASIC2 in cardiovascular disease states may be a beneficial sympatho-inhibition and parasympathetic activation. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Acid-Sensing Ion Channels in the Nervous System'.

  20. Diagnostic errors in interactive telepathology.

    PubMed

    Stauch, G; Schweppe, K W; Kayser, K

    2000-01-01

    Telepathology (TP) as a service in pathology at a distance is now widely used. It is integrated in the daily workflow of numerous pathologists. Meanwhile, in Germany 15 departments of pathology are using the telepathology technique for frozen section service; however, a common recognised quality standard in diagnostic accuracy is still missing. In a first step, the working group Aurich uses a TP system for frozen section service in order to analyse the frequency and sources of errors in TP frozen section diagnoses for evaluating the quality of frozen section slides, the important components of image quality and their influences an diagnostic accuracy. The authors point to the necessity of an optimal training program for all participants in this service in order to reduce the risk of diagnostic errors. In addition, there is need for optimal cooperation of all partners involved in TP service.

  1. Laboratory Diagnostics of Botulism

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Korkeala, Hannu

    2006-01-01

    Botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. Human pathogenic neurotoxins of types A, B, E, and F are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including Clostridium botulinum groups I and II, Clostridium butyricum, and Clostridium baratii. The routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. Detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms the diagnosis. The neurotoxin detection is based on the mouse lethality assay. Sensitive and rapid in vitro assays have been developed, but they have not yet been appropriately validated on clinical and food matrices. Culture methods for C. botulinum are poorly developed, and efficient isolation and identification tools are lacking. Molecular techniques targeted to the neurotoxin genes are ideal for the detection and identification of C. botulinum, but they do not detect biologically active neurotoxin and should not be used alone. Apart from rapid diagnosis, the laboratory diagnostics of botulism should aim at increasing our understanding of the epidemiology and prevention of the disease. Therefore, the toxin-producing organisms should be routinely isolated from the patient and the vehicle. The physiological group and genetic traits of the isolates should be determined. PMID:16614251

  2. [Diagnostic Management of Exophthalmos].

    PubMed

    Klingenstein, A; Hintschich, C

    2017-01-01

    Exophthalmos is a common and important symptom in orbital consultation. It can be either uni- or bilateral. A wide spectrum of benign and malignant diseases has to be considered and evaluated for differential diagnosis, in order to maintain complete ocular function and to lead the patient to adequate therapy. Exophthalmos can be accompanied by variable symptoms, ranging from neurogenic or myogenic to corneal alterations. Symptoms at presentation depend on the underlying disease and may manifest systemically. Interdisciplinary teamwork is essential for diagnostics and therapy of exophthalmos. In addition to ophthalmological routine diagnostics, various supplementary examinations are available which are of importance for disease monitoring. Exact radiological imaging is important for the detailed visualisation of the pathology, surgery as well as treatment planning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are the standard imaging techniques used. Contrast enhancement and specific sequences can answer specific problems in detail. Combined positron emission tomography (PET) with CT permits evaluation of metabolic and morphological data and is employed in diagnosis of meningioma, lymphoma and metastases. In summary, the reader should learn important differential diagnoses and accompanying symptoms of exophthalmos, thus enabling essential clinical examinations and adequate imaging.

  3. Role of genomics in cardiovascular medicine

    PubMed Central

    Novelli, Giuseppe; Predazzi, Irene M; Mango, Ruggiero; Romeo, Francesco; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2010-01-01

    As all branches of science grow and new experimental techniques become readily accessible, our knowledge of medicine is likely to increase exponentially in the coming years. Recently developed technologies have revolutionized our analytical capacities, leading to vast knowledge of many genes or genomic regions involved in the pathogenesis of congenital heart diseases, which are often associated with other genetic syndromes, coronary artery disease and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. The knowledge-base of the genesis of cardiovascular diseases is likely going to be further revolutionized in this new era of genomic medicine. Here, we review the advances that have been made over the last several years in this field and discuss different genetic mechanisms that have been shown to underlie a variety of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:21191544

  4. [Sleep rhythm and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maemura, Koji

    2012-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem in general adult population. Recent evidence suggests the link between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and several sleep disturbances including sleep apnea syndrome, insomnia and periodic limb movements during sleep. Sleep duration may affect the cardiovascular outcome. Shift work also may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Normalization of sleep rhythm has a potential to be a therapeutic target of ischemic heart diseases, although further study is required to evaluate the preventive effect on cardiovascular events. Here we describe the current understandings regarding the roles of sleep disorders during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events.

  5. Resveratrol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES), a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH), an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…); however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure) should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials. PMID:27144581

  6. Cardiovascular Implications of Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Adriane; Founds, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death of women in the United States. Many healthcare providers are unaware of sex-specific factors that affect the development of CVD. Nursing care for women with a history of preeclampsia and their children is presented. Preeclampsia affects 4% to 8% of all pregnancies. Rates have increased by 25% over the past 2 decades. Research supports the link between preeclampsia and risk of future CVD in women and the children of affected pregnancies. Appropriate preconception, prenatal and postpartum education, and surveillance are necessary to improve the long-term health of both mother and infant. Currently, there are no evidence-based interventions specific to the prevention of CVD for women and their children who have been affected by preeclampsia. However, women who have had preeclampsia may require yearly risk factor assessment and education regarding cardiovascular prevention strategies such as smoking cessation, increased physical activity, importance of a healthy diet, and maintenance of a healthy weight. Preeclampsia should be acknowledged by healthcare providers as a CVD risk factor. Appropriate monitoring, education, and CVD preventive strategies need to be implemented with this population and their children.

  7. Cardiovascular Effects of Felypressin

    PubMed Central

    Cecanho, Rodrigo; De Luca, Laurival Antonio; Ranali, José

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of felypressin (FEL) were studied in Wistar rats. Heart rate and mean arterial pressure measurements were taken in awake rats treated with vasopressin (AVP), FEL, or epinephrine (EPI). Each group received either an intravenous (IV) or an intracerebroventricular V1 receptor antagonist, saline, area postrema removal, or sham surgery. Analysis of variance and Student-Newman-Keuls (P < .05) were applied. Felypressin and AVP induced a pressor effect, and bradycardia was inhibited by IV V1 antagonist. Intracerebroventricular V1 antagonist and area postrema removal enhanced their pressor effects. Epinephrine induced a higher pressor effect and a similar bradycardia that was not affected by the treatments. It was concluded that FEL depends on V1 receptors to induce pressor and bradycardic effects, and that it produces a high relationship between bradycardia and mean arterial pressure variation depending on area postrema and central V1 receptors. These effects are potentially less harmful to the cardiovascular system than the effects of EPI. PMID:17177590

  8. Optimization in Cardiovascular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid mechanics plays a key role in the development, progression, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Advances in imaging methods and patient-specific modeling now reveal increasingly detailed information about blood flow patterns in health and disease. Building on these tools, there is now an opportunity to couple blood flow simulation with optimization algorithms to improve the design of surgeries and devices, incorporating more information about the flow physics in the design process to augment current medical knowledge. In doing so, a major challenge is the need for efficient optimization tools that are appropriate for unsteady fluid mechanics problems, particularly for the optimization of complex patient-specific models in the presence of uncertainty. This article reviews the state of the art in optimization tools for virtual surgery, device design, and model parameter identification in cardiovascular flow and mechanobiology applications. In particular, it reviews trade-offs between traditional gradient-based methods and derivative-free approaches, as well as the need to incorporate uncertainties. Key future challenges are outlined, which extend to the incorporation of biological response and the customization of surgeries and devices for individual patients.

  9. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman’s physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up. PMID:26473833

  10. Cardiovascular Complications of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Maria Carolina; Wenger, Nanette K

    2015-10-09

    Pregnancy causes significant metabolic and hemodynamic changes in a woman's physiology to allow for fetal growth. The inability to adapt to these changes might result in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (hypertension, preeclampsia or eclampsia), gestational diabetes and preterm birth. Contrary to previous beliefs these complications are not limited to the pregnancy period and may leave permanent vascular and metabolic damage. There is in addition, a direct association between these disorders and increased risk of future cardiovascular disease (CVD, including hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke) and diabetes mellitus. Despite abundant evidence of this association, women who present with these complications of pregnancy do not receive adequate postpartum follow up and counseling regarding their increased risk of future CVD. The postpartum period in these women represents a unique opportunity to intervene with lifestyle modifications designed to reduce the development of premature cardiovascular complications. In some cases it allows early diagnosis and treatment of chronic hypertension or diabetes mellitus. The awareness of this relationship is growing in the medical community, especially among obstetricians and primary care physicians, who play a pivotal role in detecting these complications and assuring appropriate follow up.

  11. Clinically based diagnostic wax-up for optimal esthetics: the diagnostic mock-up.

    PubMed

    Simon, Harel; Magne, Pascal

    2008-05-01

    A diagnostic wax-up can enhance the predictability of treatment by modeling the desired result in wax prior to treatment. It is critical to correlate the wax-up to the patient to avoid a result that appears optimal on the casts but does not correspond to the patient's smile. This article reviews the applications and techniques for clinically based diagnostic wax-up, and focuses on the diagnostic mock-up philosophy as a means to obtain predictable esthetics and function.

  12. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Becker, S L; van Lieshout, L; van Dam, G J; Knopp, S

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease that affects over 250 million people. Control efforts have long been in vain, which is one reason why schistosomiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease. However, since the new millennium, interventions against schistosomiasis are escalating. The initial impetus stems from a 2001 World Health Assembly resolution, urging member states to scale-up deworming of school-aged children with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Because praziquantel is safe, efficacious and inexpensive when delivered through the school platform, diagnosis before drug intervention was deemed unnecessary and not cost-effective. Hence, there was little interest in research and development of novel diagnostic tools. With the recent publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, we have entered a new era. Elimination of schistosomiasis has become the buzzword and this has important ramifications for diagnostic tools. Indeed, measuring progress towards the WHO Roadmap and whether local elimination has been achieved requires highly accurate diagnostic assays. Here, we introduce target product profiles for diagnostic tools that are required for different stages of a schistosomiasis control programme. We provide an update of the latest developments in schistosomiasis diagnosis, including microscopic techniques, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and proxy markers for morbidity assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on challenges and solutions for new technologies to enter clinical practice.

  13. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  14. Cyclic nucleotide imaging and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Filip; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O

    2017-02-16

    The universal second messengers cyclic nucleotides 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) play central roles in cardiovascular function and disease. They act in discrete, functionally relevant subcellular microdomains which regulate, for example, calcium cycling and excitation-contraction coupling. Such localized cAMP and cGMP signals have been difficult to measure using conventional biochemical techniques. Recent years have witnessed the advent of live cell imaging techniques which allow visualization of these functionally relevant second messengers with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution at cellular, subcellular and tissue levels. In this review, we discuss these new imaging techniques and give examples how they are used to visualize cAMP and cGMP in physiological and pathological settings to better understand cardiovascular function and disease. Two primary techniques include the use of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) based cyclic nucleotide biosensors and nanoscale scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM). These methods can provide deep mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP and cGMP signaling.

  15. Invited review-Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the thoracic cardiovascular system in companion animals.

    PubMed

    Drees, Randi; François, Christopher J; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) of the thoracic cardiovascular system is offering new diagnostic opportunities in companion animal patients with the increasing availability of multidetector-row computed tomographic (MDCT) units in veterinary facilities. Optimal investigation of the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary circulation provides unique challenges due to the constant movement of the heart, the small size of several of the structures of interest, and the dependence of angiographic quality on various contrast bolus design and patient factors. Technical and practical aspects of thoracic cardiovascular CTA are reviewed in light of the currently available veterinary literature and future opportunities given utilizing MDCT in companion animal patients with suspected thoracic cardiovascular disease.

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: deeper insights through bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Young, A A; Prince, J L

    2013-01-01

    Heart disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with coronary artery disease, diabetes, and obesity being major contributing factors. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can provide a wealth of quantitative information on the performance of the heart, without risk to the patient. Quantitative analyses of these data can substantially augment the diagnostic quality of CMR examinations and can lead to more effective characterization of disease and quantification of treatment benefit. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art in CMR with particular regard to the quantification of motion, both microscopic and macroscopic, and the application of bioengineering analysis for the evaluation of cardiac mechanics. We discuss the current clinical practice and the likely advances in the next 5-10 years, as well as the ways in which clinical examinations can be augmented by bioengineering analysis of strain, compliance, and stress.

  17. Ketone body metabolism and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, David G.; Schugar, Rebecca C.

    2013-01-01

    Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply. The metabolism of ketone bodies interfaces with the tricarboxylic acid cycle, β-oxidation of fatty acids, de novo lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, hormonal signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and the microbiome. Here we review the mechanisms through which ketone bodies are metabolized and how their signals are transmitted. We focus on the roles this metabolic pathway may play in cardiovascular disease states, the bioenergetic benefits of myocardial ketone body oxidation, and prospective interactions among ketone body metabolism, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis. Ketone body metabolism is noninvasively quantifiable in humans and is responsive to nutritional interventions. Therefore, further investigation of this pathway in disease models and in humans may ultimately yield tailored diagnostic strategies and therapies for specific pathological states. PMID:23396451

  18. Dysbetalipoproteinemia: Two cases report and a diagnostic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kei, Anastazia; Miltiadous, George; Bairaktari, Eleni; Hadjivassiliou, Marilena; Cariolou, Marios; Elisaf, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Dysbetalipoproteinemia is a rare familial dyslipidemia characterized by approximately equally elevated serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels due to accumulated remnant lipoproteins in apolipoprotein E2/E2 homozygotes. It is associated with an increased risk for premature cardiovascular disease. Thus, making a diagnosis of dysbetalipoproteinemia aids in assessing cardiovascular risk correctly and allows for genetic counseling. However, the diagnostic work-up can be challenging. Diagnosis of dysbetalipoproteinemia should be considered in patients mixed dyslipidemia when the apolipoprotein B concentration is relatively low in relation to the total cholesterol concentration or when there is significant disparity between the calculated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and directly measured LDL cholesterol concentrations. Other indices are also informative in the diagnostic process. We present herein two phenotypically different cases (a 44-year-old man with severe hypertriglyceridemia and a 49-year-old woman with mixed dyslipidemia) of genotypically proven familial dysbetalipoproteinemia and a diagnostic algorithm of the disease. PMID:25879010

  19. The Cardiovascular Curriculum Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, R. C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The National Heart and Blood Vessel Research and Demonstration Center has developed a program called the Cardiovascular Curriculum Education Project, designed for secondary school students, which consists of self-instructional education units on cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. Describes its three major components and method of…

  20. Cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Soubrier, Martin; Barber Chamoux, Nicolas; Tatar, Zuzana; Couderc, Marion; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Mathieu, Sylvain

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this review are to discuss data on the cardiovascular risk increase associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the effects of RA treatments on the cardiovascular risk level, and the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with RA. Overall, the risk of cardiovascular disease is increased 2-fold in RA patients compared to the general population, due to the combined effects of RA and conventional risk factors. There is some evidence that the cardiovascular risk increase associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy may be smaller in RA patients than in the general population. Glucocorticoid therapy increases the cardiovascular risk in proportion to both the current dose and the cumulative dose. Methotrexate and TNFα antagonists diminish cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates. The management of dyslipidemia remains suboptimal. Risk equations may perform poorly in RA patients even when corrected using the multiplication factors suggested by the EUropean League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) (multiply the score by 1.5 when two of the following three criteria are met: disease duration longer than 10 years, presence of rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies, and extraarticular manifestations). Doppler ultrasonography of the carotid arteries in patients at moderate cardiovascular risk may allow a more aggressive approach to dyslipidemia management via reclassification into the high-risk category of patients with an intima-media thickness greater than 0.9 mm or atheroma plaque.

  1. Low lymphocyte count and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Núñez, J; Miñana, G; Bodí, V; Núñez, E; Sanchis, J; Husser, O; Llàcer, A

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation plays a crucial pathophysiological role in the entire continuum of the atherosclerotic process, from its initiation, progression, and plaque destabilization leading ultimately to an acute coronary event. Furthermore, once the clinical event has occurred, inflammation also influences the left ventricular remodelling process. Under the same paradigm, there is evidence that lymphocytes play an important role in the modulation of the inflammatory response at every level of the atherosclerotic process. Low lymphocyte count (LLC) is a common finding during the systemic inflammatory response, and clinical and animal studies suggest that LCC plays a putative role in accelerated atherosclerosis. For instance, there is recent evidence that LLC is associated with worse outcomes in patients with heart failure, chronic ischemic heart disease and acute coronary syndromes. Further indirect evidence supports the pathologic role of LLC related to the fact that 1) lymphopenia--due to a decreased count of lymphocyte T cells--normally occurs as a part of the human ageing process, and 2) increased incidence of cardiovascular events has been reported in conditions where lymphopenia is common, such as renal transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus infection, survivors of nuclear disasters and autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present article is to review: a) the pathophysiological mechanisms that have been proposed for the observed association between LLC and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), b) the available evidence regarding the diagnostic and prognostic role attributable to LLC in patients with CVD, and; c) the potential therapeutic implications of these findings.

  2. Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Hwan; Nicholls, Stephen J; Sakuma, Ichiro; Zhao, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids continue to be evaluated and new specialized targeting treatment modulating triglyceride pathways, such as inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III and angiopoietin-like proteins, are being tested with regard to their effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the role of hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and remnant cholesterol on cardiovascular disease, and the potential implications for treatment stargeting hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27014342

  3. Indian poverty and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ramaraj, Radhakrishnan; Alpert, Joseph Stephen

    2008-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the world's leading causes of death, and nearly 80% of deaths occur in developing countries. Cardiovascular disease is becoming a major health problem in India, where life expectancy has increased with decreases in infectious disease and childhood mortality. It is well established that this population experiences coronary artery disease at a younger age than other populations. With infectious diseases still endemic, noncommunicable diseases are a lower priority for the governments of developing countries. There is a clear progression to degenerative and lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease as a result of current social and economic change. The lack of a public response to the increasing risk for cardiovascular disease thus far is due mostly to a perception among policy makers and the public that cardiovascular disease is largely a problem of the urban rich. In conclusion, this review addresses the imminent threats and ways to tackle the epidemic in India.

  4. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    PubMed

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  5. Molecular diagnostics and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Vasoo, Shawn; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-09-01

    Molecular parasitology represents an emerging field in microbiology diagnostics. Although most assays use nonstandardized, laboratory-developed methods, a few commercial systems have recently become available and are slowly being introduced into larger laboratories. In addition, a few methodologies show promise for use in field settings in which parasitic infections are endemic. This article reviews the available techniques and their applications to major parasitic diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and trichomoniasis.

  6. Cardiovascular preclinical imaging.

    PubMed

    Nekolla, Stephan G; Rischpler, Christoph; Paschali, Anna; Anagnostopoulos, Constantinos

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive imaging in the form of single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT), positron-emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), echocardiography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very useful tool for cardiovascular research as it allows assessment of biological processes in vivo. Nuclear imaging with SPECT and PET offers the advantage of high sensitivity, the potential for serial imaging, and reliable quantification. Currently a wide range of established as well as innovative agents is available and can be imaged with dedicated preclinical and clinical SPECT and PET imaging systems. These scanners can be equipped with CT and MRI components to form hybrid imaging systems. This review provides an outline on SPECT and PET as capable tools for translational research in cardiology as part of a workflow similar to the one used in clinical imaging illustrating the concept "from bench to bedside".

  7. Epigenetics in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Shirodkar, Apurva V.; Marsden, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of the biological processes implicated in chromatin-based pathways that control endothelial gene expression patterns in both health and disease and highlight how these processes are relevant to cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Epigenetics refers to chromatin-based pathways important in the regulation of gene expression and includes three distinct, but highly interrelated, mechanisms: DNA methylation, histone density and posttranslational modifications, and RNA-based mechanisms. It is of great interest that epigenetic regulation of genes enriched in the vascular endothelium is a prominent regulatory pathway. How environmental cues within the vasculature, such as hemodynamic forces or hypoxia, influence these epigenetic mechanisms will be reviewed. Summary Although a newer area for study, exciting new evidence identifies that epigenetic processes are highly dynamic and respond to a myriad of environmental stimuli. Integrating chromatin-based pathways into our understanding of gene expression offers newer insight into disease processes. PMID:21415727

  8. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  9. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ164, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  10. Yoga and meditation in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, S C; Madan, Kushal

    2014-09-01

    Yoga is a holistic mind-body intervention aimed at physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well being. Several studies have shown that yoga and/or meditation can control risk factors for cardiovascular disease like hypertension, type II diabetes and insulin resistance, obesity, lipid profile, psychosocial stress and smoking. Some randomized studies suggest that yoga/meditation could retard or even regress early and advanced coronary atherosclerosis. A recent study suggests that transcendental meditation may be extremely useful in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and may reduce cardiovascular events by 48% over a 5-year period. Another small study suggests that yoga may be helpful in prevention of atrial fibrillation. However, most studies have several limitations like lack of adequate controls, small sample size, inconsistencies in baseline and different methodologies, etc. and therefore large trials with improved methodologies are required to confirm these findings. However, in view of the existing knowledge and yoga being a cost-effective technique without side effects, it appears appropriate to incorporate yoga/meditation for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2009-03-01

    Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date.

  12. Drug releasing systems in cardiovascular tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Genovese, Jorge A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Heart disease and atherosclerosis are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The lack of suitable autologous grafts has produced a need for artificial grafts; however, current artificial grafts carry significant limitations, including thrombosis, infection, limited durability and the inability to grow. Tissue engineering of blood vessels, cardiovascular structures and whole organs is a promising approach for creating replacement tissues to repair congenital defects and/or diseased tissues. In an attempt to surmount the shortcomings of artificial grafts, tissue-engineered cardiovascular graft (TECVG), constructs obtained using cultured autologous vascular cells seeded onto a synthetic biodegradable polymer scaffold, have been developed. Autologous TECVGs have the potential advantages of growth, durability, resistance to infection, and freedom from problems of rejection, thrombogenicity and donor scarcity. Moreover polymers engrafted with growth factors, cytokines, drugs have been developed allowing drug-releasing systems capable of focused and localized delivery of molecules depending on the environmental requirements and the milieu in which the scaffold is placed. A broad range of applications for compound-releasing, tissue-engineered grafts have been suggested ranging from drug delivery to gene therapy. This review will describe advances in the development of drug-delivery systems for cardiovascular applications focusing on the manufacturing techniques and on the compounds delivered by these systems to date. PMID:19379142

  13. Diagnostics for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Donne, A. J. H.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Barnsley, R.

    2008-10-22

    After an introduction into the specific challenges in the field of diagnostics for ITER (specifically high level of nuclear radiation, long pulses, high fluxes of particles to plasma facing components, need for reliability and robustness), an overview will be given of the spectroscopic diagnostics foreseen for ITER. The paper will describe both active neutral-beam based diagnostics as well as passive spectroscopic diagnostics operating in the visible, ultra-violet and x-ray spectral regions.

  14. Verification of Loop Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

  15. Nuclear diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1997-11-01

    This abstract contains viewgraphs on nuclear diagnostic techniques for inertial confinement fusion implosions. The viewgraphs contain information on: reactions of interest in ICF; advantages and disadvantages of these methods; the properties nuclear techniques can measure; and some specifics on the detectors used.

  16. Calibration issues for neutron diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, G.J.; Adams, J.M.; Barnes, C.W.

    1997-12-01

    The performance of diagnostic systems are limited by their weakest constituents, including their calibration issues. Neutron diagnostics are notorious for problems encountered while determining their absolute calibrations, due mainly to the nature of the neutron transport problem. In order to facilitate the determination of an accurate and precise calibration, the diagnostic design should be such as to minimize the scattered neutron flux. ITER will use a comprehensive set of neutron diagnostics--comprising radial and vertical neutron cameras, neutron spectrometers, a neutron activation system and internal and external fission chambers--to provide accurate measurements of fusion power and power densities as a function of time. The calibration of such an important diagnostic system merits careful consideration. Some thoughts have already been given to this subject during the conceptual design phase in relation to the time-integrated neutron activation and time-dependent neutron yield monitors. However, no overall calibration strategy has been worked out so far. This paper represents a first attempt to address this vital issue. Experience gained from present large tokamaks (JET, TFTR and JT60U) and proposals for ITER are reviewed. The need to use a 14-MeV neutron generator as opposed to radioactive sources for in-situ calibration of D-T diagnostics will be stressed. It is clear that the overall absolute determination of fusion power will have to rely on a combination of nuclear measuring techniques, for which the provision of accurate and independent calibrations will constitute an ongoing process as ITER moves from one phase of operation to the next.

  17. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  18. Toxoplasma gondii: history and diagnostic test development.

    PubMed

    Wyrosdick, Heidi M; Schaefer, John J

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoa that causes toxoplasmosis in people and other animals. It is considered one of the most common parasitic infections in the world due to its impressive range of hosts, widespread environmental contamination and the diverse means by which animals can be infected. Despite its ubiquity and numerous ongoing research efforts into both its basic biology and clinical management, many aspects of diagnosis and management of this disease are poorly understood. The range of diagnostic options that is available for veterinary diagnostic investigators are notably more limited than those available to medical diagnosticians, making accurate interpretation of each test result critical. The current review joins other reviews on the parasite with a particular emphasis on the history and continued development of diagnostic tests that are useful for veterinary diagnostic investigations. An understanding of the strengths and shortcomings of current diagnostic techniques will assist veterinary and public health officials in formulating effective treatment and control strategies in diverse animal populations.

  19. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in pericardial diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Jan; Francone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The pericardium and pericardial diseases in particular have received, in contrast to other topics in the field of cardiology, relatively limited interest. Today, despite improved knowledge of pathophysiology of pericardial diseases and the availability of a wide spectrum of diagnostic tools, the diagnostic challenge remains. Not only the clinical presentation may be atypical, mimicking other cardiac, pulmonary or pleural diseases; in developed countries a shift for instance in the epidemiology of constrictive pericarditis has been noted. Accurate decision making is crucial taking into account the significant morbidity and mortality caused by complicated pericardial diseases, and the potential benefit of therapeutic interventions. Imaging herein has an important role, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is definitely one of the most versatile modalities to study the pericardium. It fuses excellent anatomic detail and tissue characterization with accurate evaluation of cardiac function and assessment of the haemodynamic consequences of pericardial constraint on cardiac filling. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge how CMR can be used to study the most common pericardial diseases. PMID:19413898

  20. Exercise and the cardiovascular system: clinical science and cardiovascular outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Arena, Ross; Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-Chul; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S; O'Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2015-07-03

    Substantial evidence has established the value of high levels of physical activity, exercise training (ET), and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews some basics of exercise physiology and the acute and chronic responses of ET, as well as the effect of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular diseases. This review also surveys data from epidemiological and ET studies in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease and heart failure. These data strongly support the routine prescription of ET to all patients and referrals for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease and heart failure, to specific cardiac rehabilitation and ET programs.

  1. Undergraduates' understanding of cardiovascular phenomena.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joel A; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Modell, Harold I; Cliff, William; Horwitz, Barbara; McHale, Philip; Richardson, Daniel; Silverthorn, Dee; Williams, Stephen; Whitescarver, Shirley

    2002-12-01

    Undergraduates students in 12 courses at 8 different institutions were surveyed to determine the prevalence of 13 different misconceptions (conceptual difficulties) about cardiovascular function. The prevalence of these misconceptions ranged from 20 to 81% and, for each misconception, was consistent across the different student populations. We also obtained explanations for the students' answers either as free responses or with follow-up multiple-choice questions. These results suggest that students have a number of underlying conceptual difficulties about cardiovascular phenomena. One possible source of some misconceptions is the students' inability to apply simple general models to specific cardiovascular phenomena. Some implications of these results for teachers of physiology are discussed.

  2. Applying Diagnostics to Enhance Cable System Reliability (Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative, Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, Rick; Hampton, Nigel; Perkel, Josh; Hernandez, JC; Elledge, Stacy; del Valle, Yamille; Grimaldo, Jose; Deku, Kodzo

    2016-02-01

    The Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative (CDFI) played a significant and powerful role in clarifying the concerns and understanding the benefits of performing diagnostic tests on underground power cable systems. This project focused on the medium and high voltage cable systems used in utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems. While many of the analysis techniques and interpretations are applicable to diagnostics and cable systems outside of T&D, areas such as generating stations (nuclear, coal, wind, etc.) and other industrial environments were not the focus. Many large utilities in North America now deploy diagnostics or have changed their diagnostic testing approach as a result of this project. Previous to the CDFI, different diagnostic technology providers individually promoted their approach as the “the best” or “the only” means of detecting cable system defects.

  3. Abnormalities in Alternative Splicing of Apoptotic Genes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Dlamini, Zodwa; Tshidino, Shonisani C.; Hull, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is required for normal heart development in the embryo, but has also been shown to be an important factor in the occurrence of heart disease. Alternative splicing of apoptotic genes is currently emerging as a diagnostic and therapeutic target for heart disease. This review addresses the involvement of abnormalities in alternative splicing of apoptotic genes in cardiac disorders including cardiomyopathy, myocardial ischemia and heart failure. Many pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family have alternatively spliced isoforms that lack important active domains. These isoforms can play a negative regulatory role by binding to and inhibiting the pro-apoptotic forms. Alternative splicing is observed to be increased in various cardiovascular diseases with the level of alternate transcripts increasing elevated in diseased hearts compared to healthy subjects. In many cases these isoforms appear to be the underlying cause of the disease, while in others they may be induced in response to cardiovascular pathologies. Regardless of this, the detection of alternate splicing events in the heart can serve as useful diagnostic or prognostic tools, while those splicing events that seem to play a causative role in cardiovascular disease make attractive future drug targets. PMID:26580598

  4. The Biology of Circulating MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Min, Pil-Ki; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Since their first description in mammalian cells, more than 2,500 microRNA molecules have been predicted or verified within human cells. Recently, extracellular microRNAs have been described, protected from degradation by specialized packaging in extracellular vesicles or RNA-binding proteins. Such microRNAs, circulating in the bloodstream and extracellular space, have been proposed as attractive candidates as both diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in various diseases, including a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions. Moreover, consistent with our evolving appreciation of the role of exosomes and microvesicles in intercellular communication, it has been proposed that delivery of active microRNAs to recipient tissues may serve as a primary mode of intercellular communication. Indeed, the transfer of functional microRNAs has been demonstrated in in vitro models and has been reported in a few in vivo contexts. In this review, we will discuss the recent data of circulating microRNAs in cardiovascular disease with an emphasis on their potential roles as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as the challenges of proving their potential clinical utility. In addition, we will discuss the evidence regarding the role of circulating microRNAs in intercellular communication as well as known molecular factors affecting their packaging, transfer, and uptake in recipient cardiovascular cell types. PMID:26046787

  5. Diagnostic procedures in immunodermatology.

    PubMed

    Cormane, R H; Asghar, S S

    1976-07-01

    Most immunologic diseases are caused by the derailment of the humoral or cellular pathways of the immunologic defense system. This derailment results from numerous factors such as the inability of the patient to remove the pathogen; the consumption, defect, or deficiency in any component of these pathways, and the overproduction of any of the components. To diagnose these immunologic disorders one has to detect the pathogen and the reactions caused by it and to determine the cause of its nonclearance. The immunofluorescence techniques has been invaluable in detecting both the antigen that causes the disease and the reactions initiated by the antigen, such as the production of antibodies and the activation of the complement system. The immunoperoxidase technique has also been used for these purposes in certain instances. For detecting the circulating immune complexes which occur as intermediates in the chain of reactions initiated by the antigen, various physiochemical and biologic techniques have been used. However, none of these tests seems to be totally reliable for determining whether circulating immune complexes are present. The consumption of complement was detected by hemolytic estimations and radial immunodiffusion or rocket electrphoresis. These techniques were also useful in detecting the hereditary deficiencies in immunoglobulins and components of classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. Since these techniques cannot be used to estimate IgE, the radioallergosorbent test was used to measure such levels in the atopic patients. Cellular hypersensitivity was detected with skin tests together with methods which assess the ability of lymphocytes to produce mediators in response to antigen. Many of these mediator assays, however, are not suitable for this purpose. A satisfactory substitute appears to be to determine the factor in antigen-stimulated, lymphocyte culture supernatants which activates macrophages to take up radiolabeled colloidal

  6. Quantitative proteomics in cardiovascular research: global and targeted strategies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Young, Rebeccah; Canty, John M.; Qu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Extensive technical advances in the past decade have substantially expanded quantitative proteomics in cardiovascular research. This has great promise for elucidating the mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the discovery of cardiac biomarkers used for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Global and targeted proteomics are the two major avenues of quantitative proteomics. While global approaches enable unbiased discovery of altered proteins via relative quantification at the proteome level, targeted techniques provide higher sensitivity and accuracy, and are capable of multiplexed absolute quantification in numerous clinical/biological samples. While promising, technical challenges need to be overcome to enable full utilization of these techniques in cardiovascular medicine. Here we discuss recent advances in quantitative proteomics and summarize applications in cardiovascular research with an emphasis on biomarker discovery and elucidating molecular mechanisms of disease. We propose the integration of global and targeted strategies as a high-throughput pipeline for cardiovascular proteomics. Targeted approaches enable rapid, extensive validation of biomarker candidates discovered by global proteomics. These approaches provide a promising alternative to immunoassays and other low-throughput means currently used for limited validation. PMID:24920501

  7. Quantitative proteomics in cardiovascular research: global and targeted strategies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaomeng; Young, Rebeccah; Canty, John M; Qu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Extensive technical advances in the past decade have substantially expanded quantitative proteomics in cardiovascular research. This has great promise for elucidating the mechanisms of cardiovascular diseases and the discovery of cardiac biomarkers used for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Global and targeted proteomics are the two major avenues of quantitative proteomics. While global approaches enable unbiased discovery of altered proteins via relative quantification at the proteome level, targeted techniques provide higher sensitivity and accuracy, and are capable of multiplexed absolute quantification in numerous clinical/biological samples. While promising, technical challenges need to be overcome to enable full utilization of these techniques in cardiovascular medicine. Here, we discuss recent advances in quantitative proteomics and summarize applications in cardiovascular research with an emphasis on biomarker discovery and elucidating molecular mechanisms of disease. We propose the integration of global and targeted strategies as a high-throughput pipeline for cardiovascular proteomics. Targeted approaches enable rapid, extensive validation of biomarker candidates discovered by global proteomics. These approaches provide a promising alternative to immunoassays and other low-throughput means currently used for limited validation.

  8. [Thyroid and cardiovascular system].

    PubMed

    Gallowitsch, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-10-01

    The cardiocirculatory changes in hyperthyroidism seem to be an accommodation to the increased metabolic demands and lead to an increased perfusion of the peripheral tissues. Due to the influence of elevated thyroid hormone levels, contractility, stroke volume, resting heart rate, and contraction and relaxation velocity of the left ventricle increase. Caused by direct effect on the smooth vascular muscle, systemic vascular resistance is decreased with the consequence of a diminished afterload and an increased cardiac efficiency. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosteron system and the increased production of erythropoietin additionally lead to an increased blood volume, which increases cardiac preload together with the increased venous backflow. Manifest hypothyroidism is characterized by bradycardia and diastolic dysfunction in rest and systolic dysfunction at stress. Despite a slight increase of diastolic blood pressure due to an increased systemic vascular resistance, blood pressure remains nearly stable because of diminished cardiac output. Hypercholesterinaemia and diastolic hypertension in hypothyroid patients can lead to the development of arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Also subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a significantly higher risk for arteriosclerosis and CHD, whereas subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to be associated with an increased mortality for all reasons, especially for cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Epigenetics in Cardiovascular Regulation.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Claudio; Rimoldi, Stefano F; Rexhaj, Emrush; Allemann, Yves; Scherrer, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between pathologic events occurring during early life and the development of cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. These observations have led to the so-called fetal programming of adult disease hypothesis. In line with this hypothesis, short-term exposure to hypoxia after birth predisposes to exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction later in life in rats, and transient perinatal hypoxia predisposes to exaggerated pulmonary hypertension during short-term exposure to high altitude in humans. Along the same lines, in recent studies in Bolivian high-altitude dwellers, we found that preeclampsia predisposes the offspring to pulmonary and systemic endothelial dysfunction possibly related to impaired NO bioavailability and augmented oxidative stress. Very recent data from our lab suggest that assisted reproductive technologies may represent another important example consistent with this hypothesis. The mechanisms underpinning the developmental origin of this vascular dysfunction are poorly understood. Increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations, such as DNA methylation or histone acetylation may play a role.

  10. Depression and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Elderon, Larkin; Whooley, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    Approximately one out of every five patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) suffers from major depressive disorder (MDD). Both MDD and depressive symptoms are risk factors for CVD incidence, severity and outcomes. Great progress has been made in understanding potential mediators between MDD and CVD, particularly focusing on health behaviors. Investigators have also made considerable strides in the diagnosis and treatment of depression among patients with CVD. At the same time, many research questions remain. In what settings is depression screening most effective for patients with CVD? What is the optimal screening frequency? Which therapies are safe and effective? How can we better integrate the care of mental health conditions with that of CVD? How do we motivate depressed patients to change health behaviors? What technological tools can we use to improve care for depression? Gaining a more thorough understanding of the links between MDD and heart disease, and how best to diagnose and treat depression among these patients, has the potential to substantially reduce morbidity and mortality from CVD.

  11. Carotenoids and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Sari; Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Rissanen, Tiina H

    2006-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in Western countries. Nutrition has a significant role in the prevention of many chronic diseases such as CVD, cancers, and degenerative brain diseases. The major risk and protective factors in the diet are well recognized, but interesting new candidates continue to appear. It is well known that a greater intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent heart diseases and mortality. Because fruit, berries, and vegetables are chemically complex foods, it is difficult to pinpoint any single nutrient that contributes the most to the cardioprotective effects. Several potential components that are found in fruit, berries, and vegetables are probably involved in the protective effects against CVD. Potential beneficial substances include antioxidant vitamins, folate, fiber, and potassium. Antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetables, such as vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids, may influence the risk of CVD by preventing the oxidation of cholesterol in arteries. In this review, the role of main dietary carotenoids, ie, lycopene, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of heart diseases is discussed. Although it is clear that a higher intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with heart diseases, more information is needed to ascertain the association between the intake of single nutrients, such as carotenoids, and the risk of CVD. Currently, the consumption of carotenoids in pharmaceutical forms for the treatment or prevention of heart diseases cannot be recommended.

  12. Anxiety Disorders and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Celano, Christopher M; Daunis, Daniel J; Lokko, Hermioni N; Campbell, Kirsti A; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety and its associated disorders are common in patients with cardiovascular disease and may significantly influence cardiac health. Anxiety disorders are associated with the onset and progression of cardiac disease, and in many instances have been linked to adverse cardiovascular outcomes, including mortality. Both physiologic (autonomic dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, changes in platelet aggregation) and health behavior mechanisms may help to explain the relationships between anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Given the associations between anxiety disorders and poor cardiac health, the timely and accurate identification and treatment of these conditions is of the utmost importance. Fortunately, pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic interventions for the management of anxiety disorders are generally safe and effective. Further study is needed to determine whether interventions to treat anxiety disorders ultimately impact both psychiatric and cardiovascular health.

  13. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vale, S

    2005-01-01

    Fifty five years after the first finding relating mood disturbances and cardiovascular diseases, there is still debate on the formation of a cogent conception embracing all the fragments of insight within the various aspects relating psychosocial stress to cardiovascular diseases. The clinical comorbidity is empirically evident, but there are ambiguous research results limiting the value of the proposed pathophysiological mechanisms. Psychosocial stress represents here any event that relates psychological phenomena to the social environment and to the associated pathophysiological changes. Stress denotes the external or environmental factors to which people are exposed, as well as the behavioural or biological reaction to it (response that some authors call "distress"). Cardiovascular diseases will be considered here only when being the consequence of chronic inflammatory disease of arteries (atherosclerosis).The question is: Are there pathophysiological reliable mechanisms relating psychosocial stress to the development of cardiovascular diseases? PMID:15998817

  14. [Subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular risk].

    PubMed

    López Rubio, María Antonia; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rodríguez Montes, José Antonio; Frías López, María del Carmen; Solera Albero, Juan; Bermejo López, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    Objetivos: Valorar si el hipotiroidismo subclínico puede comportarse como un factor de riesgo cardiovascular o un modificador del mismo, identificando variables epidemiológicas y riesgo cardiovascular estimado en una muestra de sujetos diagnosticados en la provincia de Albacete. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal realizado en Albacete durante la primera quincena de enero de 2012 en pacientes de ambos géneros con hipotiroidismo subclínico. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: glucemia basal, colesterol total, colesterol HDL, colesterol LDL, triglicéridos, TSH, T4, peso, talla, I.M.C., tensión arterial, antecedentes de patología cardiovascular, factores de riesgo cardiovascular y riesgo cardiovascular estimado. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 326 pacientes, con predominio femenino (79,2 %), menores de 65 años en el 78% y sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en el 48,61%. La prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular identificados fué: tabaquismo (33,2%), diabetes mellitus (24,9%), hipertensión arterial (23,4%), alteraciones lipídicas (28,9%) y fibrilación auricular (4,9 %). No se encontró asociación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico y la mayoría de los parámetros del perfil lipídico que condicionan un perfil pro-aterogénico, salvo con la hipertrigliceridemia. Asimismo, tampoco se constató asociación con riesgo cardiovascular aumentado. Conclusiones: El perfil del paciente con hipotiroidismo subclínico es una mujer de mediana edad sin factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la mitad de casos. Se ha encontrado relación entre hipotiroidismo subclínico e hipertrigliceridemia, pero no con el resto de parámetros del perfil lipídico, otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular o con aumento de dicho riesgo. Sin embargo, un 25% de diabéticos y un 22% de no diabéticos están en situación de riesgo cardiovascular moderado-alto.

  15. Cardiovascular physiology in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of space flight on the cardiovascular system have been studied since the first manned flights. In several instances, the results from these investigations have directly contradicted the predictions based on established models. Results suggest associations between space flight's effects on other organ systems and those on the cardiovascular system. Such findings provide new insights into normal human physiology. They must also be considered when planning for the safety and efficiency of space flight crewmembers.

  16. Glucocorticoids and the Cardiovascular System.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Julie E

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids affect the developing and mature cardiovascular system in profound and, at times, contradictory ways. The glucocorticoid receptor is ubiquitous in most cell types and conserved across species, highlighting its importance in development and homeostasis. Despite the fact that the glucocorticoid receptor is widely expressed, tissue-specific effects of glucocorticoids may have pronounced effects on whole organism phenotypes. Here we will review the interactions between glucocorticoids and the cardiovascular system.

  17. Cardiovascular biomarkers and sex: the case for women.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lori B; Maisel, Alan S

    2015-10-01

    Measurement of biomarkers is a critical component of cardiovascular care. Women and men differ in their cardiac physiology and manifestations of cardiovascular disease. Although most cardiovascular biomarkers are used by clinicians without taking sex into account, sex-specific differences in biomarkers clearly exist. Baseline concentrations of many biomarkers (including cardiac troponin, natriuretic peptides, galectin-3, and soluble ST2) differ in men versus women, but these sex-specific differences do not generally translate into a need for differential sex-based cut-off points. Furthermore, most biomarkers are similarly diagnostic and prognostic, regardless of sex. Two potential exceptions are cardiac troponins measured by high-sensitivity assay, and proneurotensin. Troponin levels are lower in women than in men and, with the use of high-sensitivity assays, sex-specific cut-off points might improve the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Proneurotensin is a novel biomarker that was found to be predictive of incident cardiovascular disease in women, but not men, and was also predictive of incident breast cancer. If confirmed, proneurotensin might be a unique biomarker of disease risk in women. With any biomarker, an understanding of sex-specific differences might improve its use and might also lead to an enhanced understanding of the physiological differences between the hearts of men and women.

  18. Human cardiovascular model and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K Y; Ang, Alvin; Acharya U, Rajendra; Lim, C M

    2011-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be known as a class of diseases which affect different parts of the cardiovascular system such as the heart or blood vessels. Hemodynamic signals are an important tool used by doctors to diagnose the type of CVD occurred in a patient. Diagnosing the correct type of CVD in a patient early will allow the patient to have the suitable medical treatment. Some examples of CVDs include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease. A human cardiovascular model is developed in order to simulate different hemodynamic signals of the cardiovascular system. The hemodynamic signals include the blood pressures, flow rates and volumes in various part of the cardiovascular system. This paper presents a model which is able to simulate hemodynamic signals and they are able to represent the human arterial blood pressure accurately. Hence this model can also be used to simulate hypertensive patients in order to design control systems for regulation of blood pressure. Signal verification has been performed and the stability of the model is being investigated. Applications of the human cardiovascular model are also presented.

  19. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations.

  20. Osteoporosis and ischemic cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Michel; Pécourneau, Virginie; Blain, Hubert; Breuil, Véronique; Chapurlat, Roland; Cortet, Bernard; Sutter, Bruno; Degboe, Yannick

    2016-11-09

    Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease were long viewed as independent of each other. However, numerous epidemiological studies, which are discussed in the first part of this review, have provided incontrovertible evidence of a link. Thus, the risk of coronary artery disease and stroke is higher in patients with a history of osteoporotic fracture or low bone mineral density than in non-osteoporotic patients. In the other direction, patients with cardiovascular disease are at higher risk for bone loss and osteoporotic fracture. The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease is due in part to shared conventional risk factors such as estrogen deprivation in women, smoking, low physical activity, and diabetes. In addition, atheroma plaque calcification involves cytokines and growth factors that also play a role in bone turnover, including proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα), osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, matrix GLA protein, and FGF-23. Several recent studies have provided support for these pathophysiological hypotheses. Thus, elevation of osteoprotegerin, sclerostin, or FGF-23 levels may explain and predict the occurrence of both osteoporotic fractures and cardiovascular events. The association between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease found in most epidemiological and pathophysiological studies suggests a need for evaluating potential benefits from routine bone absorptiometry and osteoporotic fracture detection in patients with cardiovascular disease and from exercise testing and arterial Doppler imaging in patients with osteoporosis.

  1. Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tune, Johnathan D; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-09

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. While advances in understanding the etiology and consequences of this complex disorder have been made, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood, and it is unclear how these concurrent risk factors conspire to produce the variety of obesity-associated adverse cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the pathophysiological consequences of obesity and the MetS on cardiovascular function and disease, including considerations of potential physiological and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to these adverse outcomes.

  2. Recent advances in diagnostic bronchoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Philip G.; Debiane, Labib G.

    2016-01-01

    The field of diagnostic bronchoscopy has been revolutionized in the last decade primarily with the advent of endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) but also with the addition of multiple different techniques for “guided-bronchoscopy”. These advances have had a substantial impact in the management of lung cancer with bronchoscopy now providing both diagnosis and mediastinal staging in a single procedure. EBUS has, in fact, become the first choice for staging of the mediastinum over cervical mediastinoscopy (CM). Although EBUS is now a well-established technique, there are continuous efforts from the scientific community to improve its diagnostic performance, and these will be reviewed in this manuscript. The term “guided-bronchoscopy” was recently coined to describe a myriad of techniques that guide our bronchoscopes or bronchoscopic tools into the periphery of the lungs in addition to our conventional fluoroscopy. Electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic navigation, thin and ultrathin scopes, as well as radial-probe EBUS have collectively increased our yield for smaller peripheral lung lesions and continue to evolve. Despite this improved diagnostic yield, there is still ample room for improvement and newer techniques are under way. With new therapies available for patients with interstitial lung disease, achieving a specific histologic diagnosis is now of paramount importance. Given the high morbidity and mortality of surgical biopsies, bronchoscopic cryobiopsy is being rapidly adopted as a safer and effective alternative, and it is likely going to play a major role in the management of these diseases in the near future. This manuscript we will focus on recent advances in EBUS, guided-bronchoscopy, and the use of cryobiopsy. PMID:28149581

  3. Adaptive life simulator: A novel approach to modeling the cardiovascular system

    SciTech Connect

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.

    1995-06-01

    In this paper, an adaptive life simulator (ALS) is introduced. The ALS models a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. These models are developed for use in applications that require simulations of cardiovascular systems, such as medical mannequins, and in medical diagnostic systems. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the actual variables of an individual can subsequently be used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion applied to biomedical sensors. Sensor fusion optimizes the utilization of the sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  4. Ceruloplasmin and cardiovascular disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, P. L.; Mazumder, B.; Ehrenwald, E.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.

    2000-01-01

    Transition metal ion-mediated oxidation is a commonly used model system for studies of the chemical, structural, and functional modifications of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The physiological relevance of studies using free metal ions is unclear and has led to an exploration of free metal ion-independent mechanisms of oxidation. We and others have investigated the role of human ceruloplasmin (Cp) in oxidative processes because it the principal copper-containing protein in serum. There is an abundance of epidemiological data that suggests that serum Cp may be an important risk factor predicting myocardial infarction and cardiovascular disease. Biochemical studies have shown that Cp is a potent catalyst of LDL oxidation in vitro. The pro-oxidant activity of Cp requires an intact structure, and a single copper atom at the surface of the protein, near His(426), is required for LDL oxidation. Under conditions where inhibitory protein (such as albumin) is present, LDL oxidation by Cp is optimal in the presence of superoxide, which reduces the surface copper atom of Cp. Cultured vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells also oxidize LDL in the presence of Cp. Superoxide release by these cells is a critical factor regulating the rate of oxidation. Cultured monocytic cells, when activated by zymosan, can oxidize LDL, but these cells are unique in their secretion of Cp. Inhibitor studies using Cp-specific antibodies and antisense oligonucleotides show that Cp is a major contributor to LDL oxidation by these cells. The role of Cp in lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerotic lesion progression in vivo has not been directly assessed and is an important area for future studies.

  5. Cardioproteomics: advancing the discovery of signaling mechanisms involved in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ziyou; Dewey, Shannamar; Gomes, Aldrin V

    2011-01-01

    Cardioproteomics (Cardiovascular proteomics) is fast becoming an indispensible technique in deciphering changes in signaling pathways that occur in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The quality and availability of the instruments and bioinformatics software used for cardioproteomics continues to improve, and these techniques are now available to most cardiovascular researchers either directly or indirectly via university core centers. The heart and aorta are specialized tissues which present unique challenges to investigate. Currently, the diverse range of proteomic techniques available for cardiovascular research makes the choice of the best method or best combination of methods for the disease parameter(s) being investigated as important as the equipment used. This review focuses on proteomic techniques and their applications which have advanced our understanding of the signaling mechanisms involved in CVDs at the levels of protein complex/protein-protein interaction, post-translational modifications and signaling induced protein changes. PMID:22254205

  6. [Pioneers of invasive cardiovascular medicine--Charles Theodore Dotter and colleagues: short historical review].

    PubMed

    Kostić, Jelena; Beleslin, Branko; Nedeljković, Milan; Ostojić, Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Within modern medicine at the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a revolutionary development of the invasive diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular system diseases. With the discovery of X-rays at the end of 19th century by Wilhelm Roentgen, it is appropriate to reflect on the gifted individuals whose efforts drastically altered radiology and cardiology. The early techniques used in peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty form the basis for subsequent percutaneous intervention both in the peripheral and coronary arteries and are largely the contribution of Charles Dotter. The main goal of his work was the use of catheters for diagnosis and treatment in an attempt to replace the scalpel. He was 20 years ahead of his time, especially with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty marked a new era in the treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. This practical genius dedicated his considerable energy to the belief that there is always a better way to treat disease. His personal contributions to clinical medicine, research, and teaching have saved millions of limbs and lives all over the world. European physicians, who were more open to unproven techniques, almost immediately embraced percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Without the contribution and help of his colleagues, Forssmann, Sones and Gruntzig, all of them pioneers, nothing would be done.They were all ahead of there time and opened completely new chapter in medicine.

  7. Characteristics and Roles of Exosomes in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Hu, Yan-Wei; Zheng, Lei; Wang, Qian

    2017-03-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized biological membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain a cell-specific cargo of proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids that are released and taken up by most cell types, thereby inducing expression and functional changes via horizontal transfer of cargos between cells. Thus, exosomes present a largely unknown "cell-to-cell" communication system, which is now increasingly being investigated for diagnostic and therapeutic use in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on the properties and roles of exosomes in a variety of physiological and pathological settings related to CVD. We focus on available information on exosome-mediated intercellular communication relevant to myocardial injury, repair, and regeneration. Finally, we address the promise of exosomes as valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and their potential use as therapeutic tools in CVD. Exosomes remain largely unexplored for therapeutic use in the field of cardiovascular diagnosis and medicine. A more detailed characterization of cardiac exosomes shed by different components of the heart will be of fundamental importance to address specific changes in the profile of exosomal microRNAs and proteins, which will enable the clinical use of exosomes as minimally invasive diagnostic tools and vehicles for delivery of targeted therapies for CVD.

  8. [Diagnostic imaging of lying].

    PubMed

    Lass, Piotr; Sławek, Jarosław; Sitek, Emilia; Szurowska, Edyta; Zimmermann, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Functional diagnostic imaging has been applied in neuropsychology for more than two decades. Nowadays, the functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) seems to be the most important technique. Brain imaging in lying has been performed and discussed since 2001. There are postulates to use fMRI for forensic purposes, as well as commercially, e.g. testing the loyalty of employees, especially because of the limitations of traditional polygraph in some cases. In USA fMRI is performed in truthfulness/lying assessment by at least two commercial companies. Those applications are a matter of heated debate of practitioners, lawyers and specialists of ethics. The opponents of fMRI use for forensic purposes indicate the lack of common agreement on it and the lack of wide recognition and insufficient standardisation. Therefore it cannot serve as a forensic proof, yet. However, considering the development of MRI and a high failure rate of traditional polygraphy, forensic applications of MRI seem to be highly probable in future.

  9. Nanoimaging in cardiovascular diseases: Current state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Suryyani; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati Dharmapal

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been integrated into healthcare system in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy. The massive impact of imaging nanotechnology has a deeper intervention in cardiology i.e. as contrast agents, to target vulnerable plaques with site specificity and in a theranostic approach to treat these plaques, stem cell delivery in necrotic myocardium, etc. Thus cardiovascular nanoimaging is not limited to simple diagnosis but also can help real time tracking during therapy as well as surgery. The present review provides a comprehensive description of the molecular imaging techniques for cardiovascular diseases with the help of nanotechnology and the potential clinical implications of nanotechnology for future applications. PMID:25963489

  10. Contrast ultrasound molecular imaging of inflammation in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Jonathan R

    2009-11-01

    The cellular immune response plays an important role in almost every major form of cardiovascular disease. The ability to image the key aspects of the immune response in the clinical setting could be used to improve diagnostic information, to provide important prognostic or risk information, and to customize therapy according to disease phenotype. Accordingly, targeted imaging probes for assessing inflammation have been developed for essentially all forms of medical imaging. Molecular imaging of inflammation with contrast ultrasound relies on the detection of targeted microbubble or other gas-filled particle contrast agents. These agents are confined to the vascular space and, hence, have been targeted to either activated leucocytes or endothelial cell adhesion molecules that are upregulated in inflammation and mediate leucocyte recruitment and adhesion. This review focuses on the inflammation-targeting strategies for ultrasound contrast agents and how they have been matched to cardiovascular disease states such as myocardial ischaemia, infarction, atherosclerosis, transplant rejection, and arteriogenesis.

  11. TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.; Persons, R.

    1981-01-01

    The TFTR diagnostic vacuum controller (DVC) provides in conjunction with the Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA), control and monitoring for the pumps, valves and gauges associated with each individual diagnostic vacuum system. There will be approximately 50 systems on TFTR. Two standard versions of the controller (A and B) wil be provided in order to meet the requirements of two diagnostic manifold arrangements. All pump and valve sequencing, as well as protection features, will be implemented by the controller.

  12. Highlights from the 7th European meeting on molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Loonen, Anne Jm; Schuurman, Rob; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the highlights of the 7th European Meeting on Molecular Diagnostics held in Scheveningen, The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-14 October 2011. The areas covered included molecular diagnostics applications in medical microbiology, virology, pathology, hemato-oncology, clinical genetics and forensics. Novel real-time amplification approaches, novel diagnostic applications and new technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, PCR electrospray-ionization TOF mass spectrometry and techniques based on the detection of proteins or other molecules, were discussed. Furthermore, diagnostic companies presented their future visions for molecular diagnostics in human healthcare.

  13. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  14. Diagnostics for Dust Monitoring in Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Hong, S. H.; Worms, J.

    2008-03-12

    During ITER lifetime, dusts and flakes will be produced due to the interaction of plasmas with the in-vessel materials or due to maintenance. They will be made of carbon, beryllium and tungsten and will be activated, tritiated and chemically reactive and toxic. Safety limits have been set in order to reduce dust hazards. Thus dust diagnostics and removal methods need to be developed for ITER within the constraints linked to magnetic field, radiation, vacuum and temperature. This paper reviews potential diagnostics to monitor the dust content using techniques already used for erosion or deposition monitoring or techniques specially developed for measuring dust in suspension.

  15. Instrumentation for localized superconducting cavity diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, Z. A.; Ge, M.; Iwashita, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Superconducting accelerator cavities are now routinely operated at levels approaching the theoretical limit of niobium. To achieve these operating levels more information than is available from the RF excitation signal is required to characterize and determine fixes for the sources of performance limitations. This information is obtained using diagnostic techniques which complement the analysis of the RF signal. In this paper we describe the operation and select results from three of these diagnostic techniques: the use of large scale thermometer arrays, second sound wave defect location and high precision cavity imaging with the Kyoto camera.

  16. Point-of-Care Technologies for Precision Cardiovascular Care and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    King, Kevin; Grazette, Luanda P.; Paltoo, Dina N.; McDevitt, John T.; Sia, Samuel K.; Barrett, Paddy M.; Apple, Fred S.; Gurbel, Paul A.; Weissleder, Ralph; Leeds, Hilary; Iturriaga, Erin J.; Rao, Anupama; Adhikari, Bishow; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Galis, Zorina S.; Libby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Point-of-care technologies (POC or POCT) are enabling innovative cardiovascular diagnostics that promise to improve patient care across diverse clinical settings. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group to discuss POCT in cardiovascular medicine. The multidisciplinary working group, which included clinicians, scientists, engineers, device manufacturers, regulatory officials, and program staff, reviewed the state of the POCT field; discussed opportunities for POCT to improve cardiovascular care, realize the promise of precision medicine, and advance the clinical research enterprise; and identified barriers facing translation and integration of POCT with existing clinical systems. A POCT development roadmap emerged to guide multidisciplinary teams of biomarker scientists, technologists, health care providers, and clinical trialists as they: 1) formulate needs assessments; 2) define device design specifications; 3) develop component technologies and integrated systems; 4) perform iterative pilot testing; and 5) conduct rigorous prospective clinical testing to ensure that POCT solutions have substantial effects on cardiovascular care. PMID:26977455

  17. Cone-beam computed tomography versus digital periapical radiography in the detection of artificially created periapical lesions: A pilot study of the diagnostic accuracy of endodontists using both techniques

    PubMed Central

    Campello, Andrea Fagundes; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; Guedes, Fábio Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of previously trained endodontists in the detection of artificially created periapical lesions using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital periapical radiography (DPR). Materials and Methods An ex vivo model using dry skulls was used, in which simulated apical lesions were created and then progressively enlarged using #1/2, #2, #4, and #6 round burs. A total of 11 teeth were included in the study, and 110 images were obtained with CBCT and with an intraoral digital periapical radiographic sensor (Instrumentarium dental, Tuusula, Finland) initially and after each bur was used. Specificity and sensitivity were calculated. All images were evaluated by 10 previously trained, certified endodontists. Agreement was calculated using the kappa coefficient. The accuracy of each method in detecting apical lesions was calculated using the chi-square test. Results The kappa coefficient between examiners showed low agreement (range, 0.17-0.64). No statistical difference was found between CBCT and DPR in teeth without apical lesions (P=.15). The accuracy for CBCT was significantly higher than for DPR in all corresponding simulated lesions (P<.001). The correct diagnostic rate for CBCT ranged between 56.9% and 73.6%. The greatest difference between CBCT and DPR was seen in the maxillary teeth (CBCT, 71.4%; DPR, 28.6%; P<.01) and multi-rooted teeth (CBCT, 83.3%; DPR, 33.3%; P<.01). Conclusion CBCT allowed higher accuracy than DPR in detecting simulated lesions for all simulated lesions tested. Endodontists need to be properly trained in interpreting CBCT scans to achieve higher diagnostic accuracy. PMID:28361026

  18. Bioinformatics of cardiovascular miRNA biology.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Meik; Xiao, Ke; Liang, Chunguang; Viereck, Janika; Pachel, Christina; Frantz, Stefan; Thum, Thomas; Dandekar, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ~22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs and are highly conserved among species. Moreover, miRNAs regulate gene expression of a large number of genes associated with important biological functions and signaling pathways. Recently, several miRNAs have been found to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. Thus, investigating the complex regulatory effect of miRNAs may lead to a better understanding of their functional role in the heart. To achieve this, bioinformatics approaches have to be coupled with validation and screening experiments to understand the complex interactions of miRNAs with the genome. This will boost the subsequent development of diagnostic markers and our understanding of the physiological and therapeutic role of miRNAs in cardiac remodeling. In this review, we focus on and explain different bioinformatics strategies and algorithms for the identification and analysis of miRNAs and their regulatory elements to better understand cardiac miRNA biology. Starting with the biogenesis of miRNAs, we present approaches such as LocARNA and miRBase for combining sequence and structure analysis including phylogenetic comparisons as well as detailed analysis of RNA folding patterns, functional target prediction, signaling pathway as well as functional analysis. We also show how far bioinformatics helps to tackle the unprecedented level of complexity and systemic effects by miRNA, underlining the strong therapeutic potential of miRNA and miRNA target structures in cardiovascular disease. In addition, we discuss drawbacks and limitations of bioinformatics algorithms and the necessity of experimental approaches for miRNA target identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Non-coding RNAs'.

  19. Clinical application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation induced cardiovascular exercise.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Brian; Crowe, Louis; Coughlan, Garrett; Minogue, Conor

    2011-01-01

    We need to find novel ways of increasing exercise participation, particularly in those populations who find it difficult to participate in voluntary exercise. In recent years researchers have started to investigate the potential for using electrical stimulation to artificially stimulate a pattern of muscle activity that would induce a physiological response consistent with cardiovascular exercise. Work to date has indicated that this is best achieved by using a stimulation protocol that results in rapid rhythmical isometric contractions of the large leg muscle groups at sub tetanic frequencies. Studies completed by our group indicate that this technique can serve as a viable alternative to voluntary cardiovascular exercise. Apart from being able to induce a cardiovascular exercise effect in patient populations (e.g. heart failure, COPD, spinal cord injury, obesity), this approach may also have value in promotion of exercise activity in a microgravity environment.

  20. Enhancing and evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Swets, J A; Getty, D J; Pickett, R M; D'Orsi, C J; Seltzer, S E; McNeil, B J

    1991-01-01

    Techniques that may enhance diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings were tested in the context of mammography. Statistical information about the relevant features among those visible in a mammogram and about their relative importances in the diagnosis of breast cancer was the basis of two decision aids for radiologists: a checklist that guides the radiologist in assigning a scale value to each significant feature of the images of a particular case, and a computer program that merges those scale values optimally to estimate a probability of malignancy. A test set of approximately 150 proven cases (including normals and benign and malignant lesions) was interpreted by six radiologists, first in their usual manner and later with the decision aids. The enhancing effect of these feature-analytic techniques was analyzed across subsets of cases that were restricted progressively to more and more difficult cases, where difficulty was defined in terms of the radiologists' judgements in the standard reading condition. Accuracy in both standard and enhanced conditions decreased regularly and substantially as case difficulty increased, but differentially, such that the enhancement effect grew regularly and substantially. For the most difficult case sets, the observed increases in accuracy translated into an increase of about 0.15 in sensitivity (true-positive proportion) for a selected specificity (true-negative proportion) of 0.85 or a similar increase in specificity for a selected sensitivity of 0.85. That measured accuracy can depend on case-set difficulty to different degrees for two diagnostic approaches has general implications for evaluation in clinical medicine. Comparative, as well as absolute, assessments of diagnostic performances--for example, of alternative imaging techniques--may be distorted by inadequate treatments of this experimental variable. Subset analysis, as defined and illustrated here, can be useful in alleviating the problem.