Diagonally Implicit Symplectic Runge-Kutta Methods with High Algebraic and Dispersion Order
Cong, Y. H.; Jiang, C. X.
2014-01-01
The numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems with oscillating solutions is considered in this paper. A diagonally implicit symplectic nine-stages Runge-Kutta method with algebraic order 6 and dispersion order 8 is presented. Numerical experiments with some Hamiltonian oscillatory problems are presented to show the proposed method is as competitive as the existing same type Runge-Kutta methods. PMID:24977178
Diagonally implicit symplectic Runge-Kutta methods with high algebraic and dispersion order.
Cong, Y H; Jiang, C X
2014-01-01
The numerical integration of Hamiltonian systems with oscillating solutions is considered in this paper. A diagonally implicit symplectic nine-stages Runge-Kutta method with algebraic order 6 and dispersion order 8 is presented. Numerical experiments with some Hamiltonian oscillatory problems are presented to show the proposed method is as competitive as the existing same type Runge-Kutta methods. PMID:24977178
Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations. A Review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.
2016-01-01
A review of diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (DIRK) methods applied to rst-order ordinary di erential equations (ODEs) is undertaken. The goal of this review is to summarize the characteristics, assess the potential, and then design several nearly optimal, general purpose, DIRK-type methods. Over 20 important aspects of DIRKtype methods are reviewed. A design study is then conducted on DIRK-type methods having from two to seven implicit stages. From this, 15 schemes are selected for general purpose application. Testing of the 15 chosen methods is done on three singular perturbation problems. Based on the review of method characteristics, these methods focus on having a stage order of two, sti accuracy, L-stability, high quality embedded and dense-output methods, small magnitudes of the algebraic stability matrix eigenvalues, small values of aii, and small or vanishing values of the internal stability function for large eigenvalues of the Jacobian. Among the 15 new methods, ESDIRK4(3)6L[2]SA is recommended as a good default method for solving sti problems at moderate error tolerances.
Minimally implicit Runge-Kutta methods for Resistive Relativistic MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aloy, Miguel-Á.; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel
2016-05-01
The Relativistic Resistive Magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) equations are a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations used to describe the dynamics of relativistic magnetized fluids with a finite conductivity. Close to the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime, the source term proportional to the conductivity becomes potentially stiff and cannot be handled with standard explicit time integration methods. We propose a new class of methods to deal with the stiffness fo the system, which we name Minimally Implicit Runge-Kutta methods. These methods avoid the development of numerical instabilities without increasing the computational costs in comparison with explicit methods, need no iterative extra loop in order to recover the primitive (physical) variables, the analytical inversion of the implicit operator is trivial and the several stages can actually be viewed as stages of explicit Runge-Kutta methods with an effective time-step. We test these methods with two different one-dimensional test beds in varied conductivity regimes, and show that our second-order schemes satisfy the theoretical expectations.
On implicit Runge-Kutta methods for parallel computations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeling, Stephen L.
1987-01-01
Implicit Runge-Kutta methods which are well-suited for parallel computations are characterized. It is claimed that such methods are first of all, those for which the associated rational approximation to the exponential has distinct poles, and these are called multiply explicit (MIRK) methods. Also, because of the so-called order reduction phenomenon, there is reason to require that these poles be real. Then, it is proved that a necessary condition for a q-stage, real MIRK to be A sub 0-stable with maximal order q + 1 is that q = 1, 2, 3, or 5. Nevertheless, it is shown that for every positive integer q, there exists a q-stage, real MIRK which is I-stable with order q. Finally, some useful examples of algebraically stable MIRKs are given.
A Low-Dispersion and Low-Dissipation Implicit Runge-Kutta Scheme
Najafi-Yazdi, A.; Mongeau, L.
2012-01-01
A fourth-order, implicit, low-dispersion, and low-dissipation Runge-Kutta scheme is introduced. The scheme is optimized for minimal dissipation and dispersion errors. High order accuracy is achieved with fewer stages than standard explicit Runge-Kutta schemes. The scheme is designed to be As table for highly stiff problems. Possible applications include wall-bounded flows with solid boundaries in the computational domain, and sound generation by reacting flows. PMID:23243319
A Low-Dispersion and Low-Dissipation Implicit Runge-Kutta Scheme.
Najafi-Yazdi, A; Mongeau, L
2013-01-15
A fourth-order, implicit, low-dispersion, and low-dissipation Runge-Kutta scheme is introduced. The scheme is optimized for minimal dissipation and dispersion errors. High order accuracy is achieved with fewer stages than standard explicit Runge-Kutta schemes. The scheme is designed to be As table for highly stiff problems. Possible applications include wall-bounded flows with solid boundaries in the computational domain, and sound generation by reacting flows. PMID:23243319
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langer, Stefan
2014-11-01
For unstructured finite volume methods an agglomeration multigrid with an implicit multistage Runge-Kutta method as a smoother is developed for solving the compressible Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The implicit Runge-Kutta method is interpreted as a preconditioned explicit Runge-Kutta method. The construction of the preconditioner is based on an approximate derivative. The linear systems are solved approximately with a symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. To significantly improve this solution method grid anisotropy is treated within the Gauss-Seidel iteration in such a way that the strong couplings in the linear system are resolved by tridiagonal systems constructed along these directions of strong coupling. The agglomeration strategy is adapted to this procedure by taking into account exactly these anisotropies in such a way that a directional coarsening is applied along these directions of strong coupling. Turbulence effects are included by a Spalart-Allmaras model, and the additional transport-type equation is approximately solved in a loosely coupled manner with the same method. For two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical examples and a variety of differently generated meshes we show the wide range of applicability of the solution method. Finally, we exploit the GMRES method to determine approximate spectral information of the linearized RANS equations. This approximate spectral information is used to discuss and compare characteristics of multistage Runge-Kutta methods.
A stiffly-stable implicit Runge-Kutta algorithm for CFD applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, A. J.; Iannelli, G. S.
1988-01-01
A stiffly-stable implicit Runge-Kutta integration algorithm is derived for CFD applications spanning the range of semidiscrete theories. The algorithm family contains the one-step 'theta' algorithms, including backwards Euler and the trapezoidal rule, and provides a versatile framework to identify expressions governing algorithm stability characteristics. Parameters of a Runge-Kutta optimal implicit algorithm, second-order accurate in time and stiffly-stable, are established. This algorithm is implemented within a weak statement finite element semidiscrete formulation for one- and two-dimensional conservation law systems. Numerical results are compared to theta-algorithm solutions, for unsteady quasi-one-dimensional Euler predictions with shocks, and for a specially derived two-dimensional conservation law system modeling the Euler equations.
Generalized disks of contractivity for explicit and implicit Runge-Kutta methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dahlquist, G.; Jeltsch, R.
1979-01-01
The A-contractivity of Runge-Kutta methods with respect to an inner product norm was investigated thoroughly by Butcher and Burrage (who used the term B-stability). Their theory is extended to contractivity in a region bounded by a circle through the origin. The largest possible circle is calculated for many known explicit Runge-Kutta methods. As a rule it is considerably smaller than the stability region, and in several cases it degenerates to a point. It is shown that an explicit Runge-Kutta method cannot be contractive in any circle of this class if it is more than fourth order accurate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas
2015-04-01
Implicit/explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes are effective for time-marching ODE systems with both stiff and nonstiff terms on the RHS; such schemes implement an (often A-stable or better) implicit RK scheme for the stiff part of the ODE, which is often linear, and, simultaneously, a (more convenient) explicit RK scheme for the nonstiff part of the ODE, which is often nonlinear. Low-storage RK schemes are especially effective for time-marching high-dimensional ODE discretizations of PDE systems on modern (cache-based) computational hardware, in which memory management is often the most significant computational bottleneck. In this paper, we develop and characterize eight new low-storage implicit/explicit RK schemes which have higher accuracy and better stability properties than the only low-storage implicit/explicit RK scheme available previously, the venerable second-order Crank-Nicolson/Runge-Kutta-Wray (CN/RKW3) algorithm that has dominated the DNS/LES literature for the last 25 years, while requiring similar storage (two, three, or four registers of length N) and comparable floating-point operations per timestep.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulikov, G. Yu.
2015-06-01
A technique for constructing nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods in the class of mono-implicit formulas of this type is studied. These formulas are highly efficient in practice, since the dimension of the original system of differential equations is preserved, which is not possible in the case of implicit multistage Runge-Kutta formulas of the general from. On the other hand, nested implicit Runge-Kutta methods inherit all major properties of general formulas of this form, such as A-stability, symmetry, and symplecticity in a certain sense. Moreover, they can have sufficiently high stage and classical orders and, without requiring high extra costs, can ensure dense output of integration results of the same accuracy as the order of the underlying method. Thus, nested methods are efficient when applied to the numerical integration of differential equations of various sorts, including stiff and nonstiff problems, Hamiltonian systems, and invertible equations. In this paper, previously proposed nested methods based on the Gauss quadrature formulas are generalized to Lobatto-type methods. Additionally, a unified technique for constructing all such methods is proposed. Its performance is demonstrated as applied to embedded examples of nested implicit formulas of various orders. All the methods constructed are supplied with tools for local error estimation and automatic variable-stepsize mesh generation based on an optimal stepsize selection. These numerical methods are verified by solving test problems with known solutions. Additionally, a comparative analysis of these methods with Matlab built-in solvers is presented.
Elkina, N V; Fedotov, A M; Herzing, C; Ruhl, H
2014-05-01
The Landau-Lifshitz equation provides an efficient way to account for the effects of radiation reaction without acquiring the nonphysical solutions typical for the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation. We solve the Landau-Lifshitz equation in its covariant four-vector form in order to control both the energy and momentum of radiating particles. Our study reveals that implicit time-symmetric collocation methods of the Runge-Kutta-Nyström type are superior in accuracy and better at maintaining the mass-shell condition than their explicit counterparts. We carry out an extensive study of numerical accuracy by comparing the analytical and numerical solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation. Finally, we present the results of the simulation of particle scattering by a focused laser pulse. Due to radiation reaction, particles are less capable of penetrating into the focal region compared to the case where radiation reaction is neglected. Our results are important for designing forthcoming experiments with high intensity laser fields. PMID:25353922
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kanevsky, Alex
2004-01-01
My goal is to develop and implement efficient, accurate, and robust Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta (IMEX RK) methods [9] for overcoming geometry-induced stiffness with applications to computational electromagnetics (CEM), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational aeroacoustics (CAA). IMEX algorithms solve the non-stiff portions of the domain using explicit methods, and isolate and solve the more expensive stiff portions using implicit methods. Current algorithms in CEM can only simulate purely harmonic (up to lOGHz plane wave) EM scattering by fighter aircraft, which are assumed to be pure metallic shells, and cannot handle the inclusion of coatings, penetration into and radiation out of the aircraft. Efficient MEX RK methods could potentially increase current CEM capabilities by 1-2 orders of magnitude, allowing scientists and engineers to attack more challenging and realistic problems.
Additive Runge-Kutta Schemes for Convection-Diffusion-Reaction Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.
2002-01-01
Additive Runge-Kutta (ARK) methods are investigated for application to the spatially discretized one- dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) equations. Accuracy, stability, conservation, and dense-output are first considered for the general case when N different Runge-Kutta methods are grouped into a single composite method. Then, implicit-explicit, (N = 2), additive Runge-Kutta (ARK(sub 2)) methods from third- to fifth-order are presented that allow for integration of stiff terms by an L-stable, stiffly-accurate explicit, singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method while the nonstiff terms are integrated with a traditional explicit Runge-Kutta method (ERK). Coupling error terms of the partitioned method are of equal order to those of the elemental methods. Derived ARK(sub 2) methods have vanishing stability functions for very large values of the stiff scaled eigenvalue, z['] yields -infinity, and retain high stability efficiency in the absence of stiffness, z['] yield 0. Extrapolation-type stage- value predictors are provided based on dense-output formulae. Optimized methods minimize both leading order ARK(sub 2) error terms and Butcher coefficient magnitudes as well as maximize conservation properties. Numerical tests of the new schemes on a CDR problem show negligible stiffness leakage and near classical order convergence rates. However, tests on three simple singular-perturbation problems reveal generally predictable order reduction. Error control is best managed with a PID-controller. While results for the fifth-order method are disappointing, both the new third- and fourth-order methods are at least as efficient as existing ARK(sub 2) methods.
Additive Runge-Kutta Schemes for Convection-Diffusion-Reaction Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.
2001-01-01
Additive Runge-Kutta (ARK) methods are investigated for application to the spatially discretized one-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction (CDR) equations. First, accuracy, stability, conservation, and dense output are considered for the general case when N different Runge-Kutta methods are grouped into a single composite method. Then, implicit-explicit, N = 2, additive Runge-Kutta ARK2 methods from third- to fifth-order are presented that allow for integration of stiff terms by an L-stable, stiffly-accurate explicit, singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) method while the nonstiff terms are integrated with a traditional explicit Runge-Kutta method (ERK). Coupling error terms are of equal order to those of the elemental methods. Derived ARK2 methods have vanishing stability functions for very large values of the stiff scaled eigenvalue, z(exp [I]) goes to infinity, and retain high stability efficiency in the absence of stiffness, z(exp [I]) goes to zero. Extrapolation-type stage-value predictors are provided based on dense-output formulae. Optimized methods minimize both leading order ARK2 error terms and Butcher coefficient magnitudes as well as maximize conservation properties. Numerical tests of the new schemes on a CDR problem show negligible stiffness leakage and near classical order convergence rates. However, tests on three simple singular-perturbation problems reveal generally predictable order reduction. Error control is best managed with a PID-controller. While results for the fifth-order method are disappointing, both the new third- and fourth-order methods are at least as efficient as existing ARK2 methods while offering error control and stage-value predictors.
Two-derivative Runge-Kutta methods for differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Robert P. K.; Wang, Shixiao; Tsai, Angela Y. J.
2012-09-01
Two-derivative Runge-Kutta (TDRK) methods are a special case of multi-derivative Runge-Kutta methods first studied by Kastlunger and Wanner [1, 2]. These methods incorporate derivatives of order higher than the first in their formulation but we consider only the first and second derivatives. In this paper we first present our study of both explicit [3] and implicit TDRK methods on stiff ODE problems. We then extend the applications of these TDRK methods to various partial differential equations [4]. In particular, we show how a 2-stage implicit TDRK method of order 4 and stage order 4 can be adapted to solve diffusion equations more efficiently than the popular Crank-Nicolson method.
Construction of IMEX methods with inherent Runge-Kutta stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braś, Michał; Izzo, Giuseppe; Jackiewicz, Zdzislaw
2016-06-01
We describe construction of implicit-explicit (IMEX) general linear methods (GLMs) with inherent Runge-Kutta stability (IRKS) for differential systems with non-stiff and stiff processes. We will use the extrapolation approach to remove implicitness in the non-stiff terms to compute unknown stage values in terms of stage derivatives at the previous step and those already computed in the current step. Highly stable IMEX GLMs of stage order equal to the order were derived up to the order four. These methods do not suffer from order reduction phenomenon which is confirmed by numerical experiments.
Runge-Kutta based generalized convolution quadrature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez-Fernandez, Maria; Sauter, Stefan
2016-06-01
We present the Runge-Kutta generalized convolution quadrature (gCQ) with variable time steps for the numerical solution of convolution equations for time and space-time problems. We present the main properties of the method and a convergence result.
A Runge-Kutta Nystrom algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bettis, D. G.
1973-01-01
A Runge-Kutta algorithm of order five is presented for the solution of the initial value problem where the system of ordinary differential equations is of second order and does not contain the first derivative. The algorithm includes the Fehlberg step control procedure.
An unconditionally stable Runge-Kutta method for unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1989-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional analysis was developed for unsteady rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. Implicit residual smoothing was employed to accelerate the solution of the time accurate computations. The scheme is described and accuracy analyses are given. Results are shown for a supersonic through-flow fan designed for NASA Lewis. The rotor:stator blade ratio was taken as 1:1. Results are also shown for the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. Here the blade ratio is 2:3. Implicit residual smoothing was used to increase the time step limit of the unsmoothed scheme by a factor of six with negligible differences in the unsteady results. It is felt that the implicitly smoothed Runge-Kutta scheme is easily competitive with implicit schemes for unsteady flows while retaining the simplicity of an explicit scheme.
An unconditionally stable Runge-Kutta method for unsteady flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1988-01-01
A quasi-three dimensional analysis was developed for unsteady rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using a four stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. Implicit residual smoothing was employed to accelerate the solution of the time accurate computations. The scheme is described and accuracy analyses are given. Results are shown for a supersonic through-flow fan designed for NASA Lewis. The rotor:stator blade ratio was taken as 1:1. Results are also shown for the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. Here the blade ratio is 2:3. Implicit residual smoothing was used to increase the time step limit of the unsmoothed scheme by a factor of six with negligible differences in the unsteady results. It is felt that the implicitly smoothed Runge-Kutta scheme is easily competitive with implicit schemes for unsteady flows while retaining the simplicity of an explicit scheme.
Amplification and Suppression of Round-Off Error in Runge-Kutta Methods
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prentice, J. S. C.
2011-01-01
A simple nonstiff linear initial-value problem is used to demonstrate the amplification of round-off error in the course of using a second-order Runge-Kutta method. This amplification is understood in terms of an appropriate expression for the global error. An implicit method is then used to show how the roundoff error may actually be suppressed.…
Obtaining Runge-Kutta Solutions Between Time Steps
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horn, M. K.
1984-01-01
New interpolation method used with existing Runge-Kutta algorithms. Algorithm evaluates solution at intermediate point within integration step. Only few additional computations required to produce intermediate solution data. Runge-Kutta method provides accurate solution with larger time steps than allowable in other methods.
Scaled Runge-Kutta algorithms for handling dense output
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horn, M. K.
1981-01-01
Low order Runge-Kutta algorithms are developed which determine the solution of a system of ordinary differential equations at any point within a given integration step, as well as at the end of each step. The scaled Runge-Kutta methods are designed to be used with existing Runge-Kutta formulas, using the derivative evaluations of these defining algorithms as the core of the system. For a slight increase in computing time, the solution may be generated within the integration step, improving the efficiency of the Runge-Kutta algorithms, since the step length need no longer be severely reduced to coincide with the desired output point. Scaled Runge-Kutta algorithms are presented for orders 3 through 5, along with accuracy comparisons between the defining algorithms and their scaled versions for a test problem.
Composite group of explicit Runge-Kutta methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamid, Fatin Nadiah Abd; Rabiei, Faranak; Ismail, Fudziah
2016-06-01
In this paper,the composite groups of Runge-Kutta (RK) method are proposed. The composite group of RK method of third and second order, RK3(2) and fourth and third order RK4(3) base on classical Runge-Kutta method are derived. The proposed methods are two-step in nature and have less number of function evaluations compared to the existing Runge-Kutta method. The order conditions up to order four are obtained using rooted trees and composite rule introduced by J. C Butcher. The stability regions of RK3(2) and RK4(3) methods are presented and initial value problems of first order ordinary differential equations are carried out. Numerical results are compared with existing Runge-Kutta method.
A third order Runge-Kutta algorithm on a manifold
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouch, P. E.; Grossman, R. G.; Yan, Y.
1992-01-01
A third order Runge-Kutta type algorithm is described with the property that it preserves certain geometric structures. In particular, if the algorithm is initialized on a Lie group, then the resulting iterates remain on the Lie group.
Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for semilinear parabolic equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeling, Stephen L.
1987-01-01
A new class of fully discrete Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods is constructed and analyzed for semilinear parabolic initial boundary value problems. Unlike any classical counterpart, this class offers arbitrarily high, optimal order convergence. In support of this claim, error estimates are proved, and computational results are presented. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low order method.
Convergence Acceleration of Runge-Kutta Schemes for Solving the Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, Roy C., Jr.; Turkel, Eli; Rossow, C.-C.
2007-01-01
The convergence of a Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid is accelerated by preconditioning with a fully implicit operator. With the extended stability of the Runge-Kutta scheme, CFL numbers as high as 1000 can be used. The implicit preconditioner addresses the stiffness in the discrete equations associated with stretched meshes. This RK/implicit scheme is used as a smoother for multigrid. Fourier analysis is applied to determine damping properties. Numerical dissipation operators based on the Roe scheme, a matrix dissipation, and the CUSP scheme are considered in evaluating the RK/implicit scheme. In addition, the effect of the number of RK stages is examined. Both the numerical and computational efficiency of the scheme with the different dissipation operators are discussed. The RK/implicit scheme is used to solve the two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Turbulent flows over an airfoil and wing at subsonic and transonic conditions are computed. The effects of the cell aspect ratio on convergence are investigated for Reynolds numbers between 5:7 x 10(exp 6) and 100 x 10(exp 6). It is demonstrated that the implicit preconditioner can reduce the computational time of a well-tuned standard RK scheme by a factor between four and ten.
Functional continuous Runge-Kutta methods for special systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremin, A. S.; Olemskoy, I. V.
2016-06-01
We consider here numerical methods for systems of retarded functional differential equations of two equations in which the right-hand sides are cross-dependent of the unknown functions, i.e. the derivatives of unknowns don't depend on the same unknowns. It is shown that using the special structure of the system one can construct functional continuous methods of Runge-Kutta type with fewer stages than it is necessary in case of general Runge-Kutta functional continuous methods. Order conditions and example methods of orders three and four are presented. Test problems are solved, demonstrating the declared convergence order of the new methods.
An unconditionally stable Runge-Kutta method for unsteady rotor-stator interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.
1989-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional analysis has been developed for unsteady rotor-stator interaction in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stress-surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using an explicit four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant time step. Implicit residual smoothing is used to increase the stability limit of the time-accurate computations. The scheme is described, and stability and accuracy analyses are given.
Runge-Kutta Methods for Linear Ordinary Differential Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zingg, David W.; Chisholm, Todd T.
1997-01-01
Three new Runge-Kutta methods are presented for numerical integration of systems of linear inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODES) with constant coefficients. Such ODEs arise in the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing linear wave phenomena. The restriction to linear ODEs with constant coefficients reduces the number of conditions which the coefficients of the Runge-Kutta method must satisfy. This freedom is used to develop methods which are more efficient than conventional Runge-Kutta methods. A fourth-order method is presented which uses only two memory locations per dependent variable, while the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method uses three. This method is an excellent choice for simulations of linear wave phenomena if memory is a primary concern. In addition, fifth- and sixth-order methods are presented which require five and six stages, respectively, one fewer than their conventional counterparts, and are therefore more efficient. These methods are an excellent option for use with high-order spatial discretizations.
Optimized fourth-order Runge-Kutta method for solving oscillatory problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hussain, Kasim; Ismail, Fudziah; Senu, Norazak; Rabiei, Faranak
2016-06-01
In this article, we develop a Runge-Kutta method with invalidation of phase lag, phase lag's derivatives and amplification error to solve second-order initial value problem (IVP) with oscillating solutions. The new method depends on the explicit Runge-Kutta method of algebraic order four. Numerical tests from its implementation to well-known oscillatory problems illustrate the robustness and competence of the new method as compared to the well-known Runge-Kutta methods in the scientific literature.
Generation and application of the equations of condition for high order Runge-Kutta methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haley, D. C.
1972-01-01
This thesis develops the equations of condition necessary for determining the coefficients for Runge-Kutta methods used in the solution of ordinary differential equations. The equations of condition are developed for Runge-Kutta methods of order four through order nine. Once developed, these equations are used in a comparison of the local truncation errors for several sets of Runge-Kutta coefficients for methods of order three up through methods of order eight.
Accurate Monotonicity - Preserving Schemes With Runge-Kutta Time Stepping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Suresh, A.; Huynh, H. T.
1997-01-01
A new class of high-order monotonicity-preserving schemes for the numerical solution of conservation laws is presented. The interface value in these schemes is obtained by limiting a higher-order polynominal reconstruction. The limiting is designed to preserve accuracy near extrema and to work well with Runge-Kutta time stepping. Computational efficiency is enhanced by a simple test that determines whether the limiting procedure is needed. For linear advection in one dimension, these schemes are shown as well as the Euler equations also confirm their high accuracy, good shock resolution, and computational efficiency.
An explicit Runge-Kutta method for 3D turbulent incompressible flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sung, Chao-Ho; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Hung, C. M.
1988-01-01
A computer code has been developed to solve for the steady-state solution of the 3D incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The approach is based on the cell-center, central-difference, finite-volume formulation and an explicit one-step, multistage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme. The Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model is used. Techniques to accelerate the rate of convergence to a steady-state solution include the preconditioned method, the local time stepping, and the implicit residual smoothing. Improvements in computational efficiency have been demonstrated in several areas. This numerical procedure has been used to simulate the turbulent horseshoe vortex flow around an airfoil/flat-plate juncture.
A diagonally inverted LU implicit multigrid scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.; Caughey, David A.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1988-01-01
A new Diagonally Inverted LU Implicit scheme is developed within the framework of the multigrid method for the 3-D unsteady Euler equations. The matrix systems that are to be inverted in the LU scheme are treated by local diagonalizing transformations that decouple them into systems of scalar equations. Unlike the Diagonalized ADI method, the time accuracy of the LU scheme is not reduced since the diagonalization procedure does not destroy time conservation. Even more importantly, this diagonalization significantly reduces the computational effort required to solve the LU approximation and therefore transforms it into a more efficient method of numerically solving the 3-D Euler equations.
Multirate Runge-Kutta schemes for advection equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlegel, Martin; Knoth, Oswald; Arnold, Martin; Wolke, Ralf
2009-04-01
Explicit time integration methods can be employed to simulate a broad spectrum of physical phenomena. The wide range of scales encountered lead to the problem that the fastest cell of the simulation dictates the global time step. Multirate time integration methods can be employed to alter the time step locally so that slower components take longer and fewer time steps, resulting in a moderate to substantial reduction of the computational cost, depending on the scenario to simulate [S. Osher, R. Sanders, Numerical approximations to nonlinear conservation laws with locally varying time and space grids, Math. Comput. 41 (1983) 321-336; H. Tang, G. Warnecke, A class of high resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws and convection-diffusion equations with varying time and pace grids, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 26 (4) (2005) 1415-1431; E. Constantinescu, A. Sandu, Multirate timestepping methods for hyperbolic conservation laws, SIAM J. Sci. Comput. 33 (3) (2007) 239-278]. In air pollution modeling the advection part is usually integrated explicitly in time, where the time step is constrained by a locally varying Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) number. Multirate schemes are a useful tool to decouple different physical regions so that this constraint becomes a local instead of a global restriction. Therefore it is of major interest to apply multirate schemes to the advection equation. We introduce a generic recursive multirate Runge-Kutta scheme that can be easily adapted to an arbitrary number of refinement levels. It preserves the linear invariants of the system and is of third order accuracy when applied to certain explicit Runge-Kutta methods as base method.
Flux-vector splitting and Runge-Kutta methods for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, E.; Vanleer, B.
1984-01-01
Runge-Kutta schemes have been used as a method of solving the Euler equations exterior to an airfoil. In the past this has been coupled with central differences and an artificial vesocity in space. In this study the Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme is coupled with an upwinded space approximation based on flux-vector splitting. Several acceleration techniques are also considered including a local time step, residual smoothing and multigrid.
Runge-Kutta methods combined with compact difference schemes for the unsteady Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, S. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Hsieh, K. C.
1992-01-01
An investigation of the Runge-Kutta time-stepping, combined with compact difference schemes to solve the unsteady Euler equations, is presented. Initially, a generalized form of a N-step Runge-Kutta technique is derived. By comparing this generalized form with its Taylor's series counterpart, the criteria for the three-step and four-step schemes to be of third- and fourth-order accurate are obtained.
On the improvement of deconvolution with digitized data using a Runge-Kutta integration scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houghton, J. R.; Townsend, M. A.; Packman, P. F.
1977-01-01
A relatively simple change in the treatment of the input function in numerical integration of high-order differential equations by Runge-Kutta methods provides substantial improvements in accuracy, particularly when the forcing function is in digitized form. The Runge-Kutta-Gill coefficients are modified to incorporate the changes; with pulse-type excitations, improvements on the order of 2 to 50 times greater accuracy are demonstrated.
Low-dissipation and -dispersion Runge-Kutta schemes for computational acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, F. Q.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Manthey, J.
1994-01-01
In this paper, we investigate accurate and efficient time advancing methods for computational acoustics, where non-dissipative and non-dispersive properties are of critical importance. Our analysis pertains to the application of Runge-Kutta methods to high-order finite difference discretization. In many CFD applications multi-stage Runge-Kutta schemes have often been favored for their low storage requirements and relatively large stability limits. For computing acoustic waves, however, the stability consideration alone is not sufficient, since the Runge-Kutta schemes entail both dissipation and dispersion errors. The time step is now limited by the tolerable dissipation and dispersion errors in the computation. In the present paper, it is shown that if the traditional Runge-Kutta schemes are used for time advancing in acoustic problems, time steps greatly smaller than that allowed by the stability limit are necessary. Low-Dissipation and -Dispersion Runge-Kutta (LDDRE) schemes are proposed, based on an optimization that minimizes the dissipation and dispersion errors for wave propagation. Order optimizations of both single-step and two-step alternating schemes are considered. The proposed LDDRK schemes are remarkably more efficient than the classical Runge-Kutta schemes for acoustic computations. Moreover, low storage implementations of the optimized schemes are discussed. Special issues of implementing numerical boundary conditions in the LDDRK schemes are also addressed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, F. Q.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Manthey, J.
1995-01-01
We investigate accurate and efficient time advancing methods for computational aeroacoustics, where non-dissipative and non-dispersive properties are of critical importance. Our analysis pertains to the application of Runge-Kutta methods to high-order finite difference discretization. In many CFD applications, multi-stage Runge-Kutta schemes have often been favored for their low storage requirements and relatively large stability limits. For computing acoustic waves, however, the stability consideration alone is not sufficient, since the Runge-Kutta schemes entail both dissipation and dispersion errors. The time step is now limited by the tolerable dissipation and dispersion errors in the computation. In the present paper, it is shown that if the traditional Runge-Kutta schemes are used for time advancing in acoustic problems, time steps greatly smaller than that allowed by the stability limit are necessary. Low Dissipation and Dispersion Runge-Kutta (LDDRK) schemes are proposed, based on an optimization that minimizes the dissipation and dispersion errors for wave propagation. Optimizations of both single-step and two-step alternating schemes are considered. The proposed LDDRK schemes are remarkably more efficient than the classical Runge-Kutta schemes for acoustic computations. Numerical results of each Category of the Benchmark Problems are presented. Moreover, low storage implementations of the optimized schemes are discussed. Special issues of implementing numerical boundary conditions in the LDDRK schemes are also addressed.
Rendering log aesthetic curves via Runge-Kutta method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gobithaasan, R. U.; Meng, T. Y.; Piah, A. R. M.; Miura, K. T.
2014-07-01
Log Aesthetic Curves (LAC) are visually pleasing curves which has been developed using monotonic curvature profile. Hence, it can be easily implemented in product design environment, e.g, Rhino 3D CAD systems. LAC is generally represented in an integral form of its turning angle. Traditionally, Gaussian-Kronrod method has been used to render this curve which consumes less than one second for a given interval. Recently, Incomplete Gamma Function was proposed to represent LAC analytically which decreases the computation time up to 13 times. However, only certain value of shape parameters (denoted as α) which dictates the types of curves generated for LAC, can be used to compute LAC. In this paper, the classical Runge-Kutta (RK4) method is proposed to evaluate LAC numerically to reduce the LAC computation time for arbitrary, α. The preliminary result looks promising where the evaluation time is decreased tremendously. This paper also demonstrates the accuracy control of LAC by reducing the stepsize of RK4. The computation time and the accuracy for various α, are also illustrated in the last section of this paper.
High-order implicit time-marching methods for unsteady fluid flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boom, Pieter David
Unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is increasingly becoming a critical tool in the development of emerging technologies and modern aircraft. In spite of rapid mathematical and technological advancement, these simulations remain computationally intensive and time consuming. More efficient temporal integration will promote a wider use of unsteady analysis and extend its range of applicability. This thesis presents an investigation of efficient high-order implicit time-marching methods for application in unsteady compressible CFD. A generalisation of time-marching methods based on summation-by-parts (SBP) operators is described which reduces the number of stages required to obtain a prescribed order of accuracy, thus improving their efficiency. The classical accuracy and stability theory is formally extended for these generalised SBP (GSBP) methods, including superconvergence and nonlinear stability. Dual-consistent SBP and GSBP time-marching methods are shown to form a subclass of implicit Runge-Kutta methods, which enables extensions of nonlinear accuracy and stability results. A novel family of fully-implicit GSBP Runge-Kutta schemes based on Gauss quadrature are derived which are both algebraically stable and L-stable with order 2s - 1, where s is the number of stages. In addition, a numerical tool is developed for the construction and optimisation of general linear time-marching methods. The tool is applied to the development of several low-stage-order L-stable diagonally-implicit methods, including a diagonally-implicit GSBP Runge-Kutta scheme. The most notable and efficient method developed is a six-stage fifth-order L-stable stiffly-accurate explicit-first-stage singly-diagonally-implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK5) method with stage order two. The theoretical results developed in this thesis are supported by numerical simulations, and the predicted relative efficiency of the schemes is realised.
Scaled Runge-Kutta algorithms for treating the problem of dense output
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horn, M. K.
1982-01-01
A set of scaled Runge-Kutta algorithms for the third- through fifth-orders are developed to determine the solution at any point within the integration step at a relatively small increase in computing time. Each scaled algorithm is designed to be used with an existing Runge-Kutta formula, using the derivative evaluations of the defining algorithm along with an additional derivative evaluation (or two). Third-order, scaled algorithms are embedded within the existing formulas at no additional derivative expense. Such algorithms can easily be adopted to generate interpolating polynomials (or dependent variable stops) efficiently.
A Family of Trigonometrically-fitted Partitioned Runge-Kutta Symplectic Methods
Monovasilis, Th.; Kalogiratou, Z.; Simos, T. E.
2007-12-26
We are presenting a family of trigonometrically fitted partitioned Runge-Kutta symplectic methods of fourth order with six stages. The solution of the one dimensional time independent Schroedinger equation is considered by trigonometrically fitted symplectic integrators. The Schroedinger equation is first transformed into a Hamiltonian canonical equation. Numerical results are obtained for the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator and the exponential potential.
Using 4th order Runge-Kutta method for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hadi, Miftachul; Anderson, Malcolm; Husein, Andri
2016-03-01
We study numerical solution, especially using 4th order Runge-Kutta method, for solving a twisted Skyrme string equation. We find numerically that the value of minimum energy per unit length of vortex solution for a twisted Skyrmion string is 20.37 × 1060 eV/m.
Modified Runge-Kutta methods for solving ODES. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vanvu, T.
1981-01-01
A class of Runge-Kutta formulas is examined which permit the calculation of an accurate solution anywhere in the interval of integration. This is used in a code which seldom has to reject a step; rather it takes a reduced step if the estimated error is too large. The absolute stability implications of this are examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalogiratou, Z.; Monovasilis, Th.; Psihoyios, G.; Simos, T. E.
2014-03-01
In this work we review single step methods of the Runge-Kutta type with special properties. Among them are methods specially tuned to integrate problems that exhibit a pronounced oscillatory character and such problems arise often in celestial mechanics and quantum mechanics. Symplectic methods, exponentially and trigonometrically fitted methods, minimum phase-lag and phase-fitted methods are presented. These are Runge-Kutta, Runge-Kutta-Nyström and Partitioned Runge-Kutta methods. The theory of constructing such methods is given as well as several specific methods. In order to present the performance of the methods we have tested 58 methods from all categories. We consider the two dimensional harmonic oscillator, the two body problem, the pendulum problem and the orbital problem studied by Stiefel and Bettis. Also we have tested the methods on the computation of the eigenvalues of the one dimensional time independent Schrödinger equation with the harmonic oscillator, the doubly anharmonic oscillator and the exponential potentials.
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin approach to solve reactive flows: The hyperbolic operator
Billet, G.; Ryan, J.
2011-02-20
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method to solve the hyperbolic part of reactive Navier-Stokes equations written in conservation form is presented. Complex thermodynamics laws are taken into account. Particular care has been taken to solve the stiff gaseous interfaces correctly with no restrictive hypothesis. 1D and 2D test cases are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cockrell, C. R.
1989-01-01
Numerical solutions of the differential equation which describe the electric field within an inhomogeneous layer of permittivity, upon which a perpendicularly-polarized plane wave is incident, are considered. Richmond's method and the Runge-Kutta method are compared for linear and exponential profiles of permittivities. These two approximate solutions are also compared with the exact solutions.
Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for parabolic equations with time-dependent coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeling, Stephen L.
1989-01-01
A new class of fully discrete Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods is constructed and analyzed for linear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time dependent coefficients. Unlike any classical counterpart, this class offers arbitrarily high order convergence while significantly avoiding what has been called order reduction. In support of this claim, error estimates are proved, and computational results are presented. Additionally, since the time stepping equations involve coefficient matrices changing at each time step, a preconditioned iterative technique is used to solve the linear systems only approximately. Nevertheless, the resulting algorithm is shown to preserve the original convergence rate while using only the order of work required by the base scheme applied to a linear parabolic problem with time independent coefficients. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low order method.
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous finite element method for high speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. T.
1991-01-01
A Runge-Kutta discontinuous finite element method is developed for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in two space variables. The discontinuous Galerkin spatial approximation to the conservation laws results in a system of ordinary differential equations which are marched in time using Runge-Kutta methods. Numerical results for the two-dimensional Burger's equation show that the method is (p+1)-order accurate in time and space, where p is the degree of the polynomial approximation of the solution within an element and is capable of capturing shocks over a single element without oscillations. Results for this problem also show that the accuracy of the solution in smooth regions is unaffected by the local projection and that the accuracy in smooth regions increases as p increases. Numerical results for the Euler equations show that the method captures shocks without oscillations and with higher resolution than a first-order scheme.
Galerkin/Runge-Kutta discretizations for parabolic equations with time dependent coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keeling, Stephen L.
1987-01-01
A new class of fully discrete Galerkin/Runge-Kutta methods is constructed and analyzed for linear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time dependent coefficients. Unlike any classical counterpart, this class offers arbitrarily high order convergence while significantly avoiding what has been called order reduction. In support of this claim, error estimates are proved, and computational results are presented. Additionally, since the time stepping equations involve coefficient matrices changing at each time step, a preconditioned iterative technique is used to solve the linear systems only approximately. Nevertheless, the resulting algorithm is shown to preserve the original convergence rate while using only the order of work required by the base scheme applied to a linear parabolic problem with time independent coefficients. Furthermore, it is noted that special Runge-Kutta methods allow computations to be performed in parallel so that the final execution time can be reduced to that of a low order method.
Fourth-order 2N-storage Runge-Kutta schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Kennedy, Christopher A.
1994-01-01
A family of five-stage fourth-order Runge-Kutta schemes is derived; these schemes required only two storage locations. A particular scheme is identified that has desirable efficiency characteristics for hyperbolic and parabolic initial (boundary) value problems. This scheme is competitive with the classical fourth-order method (high-storage) and is considerably more efficient and accurate than existing third-order low-storage schemes.
Third-order 2N-storage Runge-Kutta schemes with error control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Kennedy, Christopher A.
1994-01-01
A family of four-stage third-order explicit Runge-Kutta schemes is derived that requires only two storage locations and has desirable stability characteristics. Error control is achieved by embedding a second-order scheme within the four-stage procedure. Certain schemes are identified that are as efficient and accurate as conventional embedded schemes of comparable order and require fewer storage locations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fehlberg, E.
1972-01-01
The formulas include a stepsize control procedure, based on a complete coverage of the leading term of the truncation error in x. The formulas require fewer evaluations per stop than other Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas if the latter are operated by using the standard procedure for stepsize control. An example is presented. With results being of the same accuracy, Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas discussed save 50 percent or more computer time compared with other Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yong; Shi, Guo-Dong; Zhu, Ke-Yong
2016-06-01
This paper adopts the Runge-Kutta ray tracing method to obtain the ray-trajectory numerical solution in a two-dimensional gradient index medium. The emitting, absorbing and scattering processes are simulated by the Monte Carlo method. The temperature field and ray trajectory in the medium are obtained by the three methods, the Runge-Kutta ray tracing method, the ray tracing method with the cell model and the discrete curved ray tracing method with the linear refractive index cell model. Comparing the results of the three methods, it is found that the results by the Monte Carlo Runge-Kutta ray tracing method are of the highest accuracy. To improve the computational speed, the variable step-size Runge-Kutta ray tracing method is proposed, and the maximum relative error between the temperature field in the nonscattering medium by this method and the benchmark solution is less than 0.5%. The results also suggest that the Runge-Kutta ray tracing method would make the radiative transfer solution in the three-dimensional graded index media much easier.
Equations of condition for high order Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bettis, D. G.
1974-01-01
Derivation of the equations of condition of order eight for a general system of second-order differential equations approximated by the basic Runge-Kutta-Nystrom algorithm. For this general case, the number of equations of condition is considerably larger than for the special case where the first derivative is not present. Specifically, it is shown that, for orders two through eight, the number of equations for each order is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 9 for the special case and is 1, 1, 2, 5, 13, 34, and 95 for the general case.
Application of Runge-Kutta scheme for high-speed inviscid internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, A.; Turkel, E.; Kumar, A.
1986-01-01
A multi-stage Runge-Kutta method is analyzed for solving the two-dimensional Euler equations for external and internal flow problems. Subsonic, supersonic and, highly supersonic flows are studied. Various techniques for accelerating the convergence to a steady state are described and analyzed. Effects of the grid aspect ratio on the rate of convergence are evaluated. An enthalpy damping technique applicable to supersonic flows is described in detail. Numerical results for supersonic flows containing both oblique and normal shocks are presented confirming the efficiency of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jameson, A.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Turkel, Eli
1981-01-01
A new combination of a finite volume discretization in conjunction with carefully designed dissipative terms of third order, and a Runge Kutta time stepping scheme, is shown to yield an effective method for solving the Euler equations in arbitrary geometric domains. The method has been used to determine the steady transonic flow past an airfoil using an O mesh. Convergence to a steady state is accelerated by the use of a variable time step determined by the local Courant member, and the introduction of a forcing term proportional to the difference between the local total enthalpy and its free stream value.
Application of a Runge-Kutta scheme for high-speed inviscid internal flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moitra, A.; Turkel, E.; Kumar, A.
1986-01-01
A multi-stage Runge-Kutta method is analyzed for solving the two-dimensional Euler equations for external and internal flow problems. Subsonic, supersonic and, highly supersonic flows are studied. Various techniques for accelerating the convergence to a steady state are described and analyzed. Effects of the grid aspect ratio on the rate of convergence are evaluated. An enthalpy damping technique applicable to supersonic flows is described in detail. Numerical results for supersonic flows containing both oblique and normal shocks are presented confirming the efficiency of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lear, W. M.
1974-01-01
The integration is discussed of the vector differential equation X = F(x, t) from time t sub i to t sub (i = 1) where only the values of x sub i are available for the the integration. No previous values of x or x prime are used. Using an orbit integration problem, comparisons are made between Taylor series integrators and various types and orders of Runge-Kutta integrators. A fourth order Runge-Kutta type integrator for orbital work is presented, and approximate (there may be no exact) fifth order Runge-Kutta integrators are discussed. Also discussed and compared is a self starting integrator ising delta f/delta x. A numerical method for controlling the accuracy of integration is given, and the special equations for accurately integrating accelerometer data are shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cannizzaro, Frank E.; Ash, Robert L.
1992-01-01
A state-of-the-art computer code has been developed that incorporates a modified Runge-Kutta time integration scheme, upwind numerical techniques, multigrid acceleration, and multi-block capabilities (RUMM). A three-dimensional thin-layer formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations is employed. For turbulent flow cases, the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used. Two different upwind techniques are available: van Leer's flux-vector splitting and Roe's flux-difference splitting. Full approximation multi-grid plus implicit residual and corrector smoothing were implemented to enhance the rate of convergence. Multi-block capabilities were developed to provide geometric flexibility. This feature allows the developed computer code to accommodate any grid topology or grid configuration with multiple topologies. The results shown in this dissertation were chosen to validate the computer code and display its geometric flexibility, which is provided by the multi-block structure.
Tremblay, Jean Christophe; Carrington, Tucker Jr.
2004-12-15
If the Hamiltonian is time dependent it is common to solve the time-dependent Schroedinger equation by dividing the propagation interval into slices and using an (e.g., split operator, Chebyshev, Lanczos) approximate matrix exponential within each slice. We show that a preconditioned adaptive step size Runge-Kutta method can be much more efficient. For a chirped laser pulse designed to favor the dissociation of HF the preconditioned adaptive step size Runge-Kutta method is about an order of magnitude more efficient than the time sliced method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fehlberg, E.
1973-01-01
New Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas of the eighth, seventh, sixth, and fifth order are derived for the special second-order (vector) differential equation x = f (t,x). In contrast to Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas of an earlier NASA report, these formulas provide a stepsize control procedure based on the leading term of the local truncation error in x. This new procedure is more accurate than the earlier Runge-Kutta-Nystrom procedure (with stepsize control based on the leading term of the local truncation error in x) when integrating close to singularities. Two central orbits are presented as examples. For these orbits, the accuracy and speed of the formulas of this report are compared with those of Runge-Kutta-Nystrom and Runge-Kutta formulas of earlier NASA reports.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subramanian, S. V.; Bozzola, R.
1987-01-01
Numerical solutions of the unsteady Euler equations are obtained using the classical fourth order Runge Kutta time marching scheme. This method is fully explicit and is applied to the governing equations in the finite volume, conservation law form. In order to determine the efficiency of this scheme for solving turbomachinery flows, steady blade-to-blade solutions are obtained for compressor and turbine cascades under subsonic and transonic flow conditions. Computed results are compared with other numerical methods and wind tunnel measurements. The study also focuses on other important numerical aspects influencing the performance of the algorithm and the solution accuracy such as grid types, boundary conditions and artificial viscosity. For this purpose, H, O, and C type computational grids as well as characteristic and extrapolation type boundary conditions are included in solution procedures.
An explicit Runge-Kutta method for unsteady rotor/stator interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Chima, Rodrick V.
1988-01-01
A quasi-three-dimensional rotor/stator analysis has been developed for blade-to-blade flows in turbomachinery. The analysis solves the unsteady Euler or thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations in a body-fitted coordinate system. It accounts for the effects of rotation, radius change, and stream-surface thickness. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy-viscosity model is used for turbulent flows. The equations are integrated in time using a four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with a constant timestep. Results are shown for the first stage of the Space Shuttle Main Engine high pressure fuel turbopump. Euler and Navier-Stokes results are compared on the scaled single- and multi-passage machine. The method is relatively fast and the quasi-three-dimensional formulation is applicable to a wide range of turbomachinery geometries.
Steady and Unsteady Numerical Solution of Generalized Newtonian Fluids Flow by Runge-Kutta method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keslerová, R.; Kozel, K.; Prokop, V.
2010-09-01
In this paper the laminar viscous incompressible flow for generalized Newtonian (Newtonian and non-Newtonian) fluids is considered. The governing system of equations is the system of Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation. The steady and unsteady numerical solution for this system is computed by finite volume method combined with an artificial compressibility method. For time discretization the explicit multistage Runge-Kutta numerical scheme is considered. Steady state solution is achieved for t→∞ using steady boundary conditions and followed by steady residual behavior. The dual time-stepping method is considered for unsteady computation. The high artificial compressibility coefficient is used in the artificial compressibility method applied in the dual time τ. The steady and unsteady numerical results of Newtonian and non-Newtonian (shear thickening and shear thinning) fluids flow in the branching channel are presented.
Qualitatively stability of nonstandard 2-stage explicit Runge-Kutta methods of order two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalsaraei, M. M.; Khodadosti, F.
2016-02-01
When one solves differential equations, modeling physical phenomena, it is of great importance to take physical constraints into account. More precisely, numerical schemes have to be designed such that discrete solutions satisfy the same constraints as exact solutions. Nonstandard finite differences (NSFDs) schemes can improve the accuracy and reduce computational costs of traditional finite difference schemes. In addition NSFDs produce numerical solutions which also exhibit essential properties of solution. In this paper, a class of nonstandard 2-stage Runge-Kutta methods of order two (we call it nonstandard RK2) is considered. The preservation of some qualitative properties by this class of methods are discussed. In order to illustrate our results, we provide some numerical examples.
Recent advances in Runge-Kutta schemes for solving 3-D Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, Veer N.; Wedan, Bruce W.; Abid, Ridha
1989-01-01
A thin-layer Navier-Stokes has been developed for solving high Reynolds number, turbulent flows past aircraft components under transonic flow conditions. The computer code has been validated through data comparisons for flow past isolated wings, wing-body configurations, prolate spheroids and wings mounted inside wind-tunnels. The basic code employs an explicit Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme to obtain steady state solution to the unsteady governing equations. Significant gain in the efficiency of the code has been obtained by implementing a multigrid acceleration technique to achieve steady-state solutions. The improved efficiency of the code has made it feasible to conduct grid-refinement and turbulence model studies in a reasonable amount of computer time. The non-equilibrium turbulence model of Johnson and King has been extended to three-dimensional flows and excellent agreement with pressure data has been obtained for transonic separated flow over a transport type of wing.
On spurious steady-state solutions of explicit Runge-Kutta schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sweby, P. K.; Yee, H. C.; Griffiths, D. F.
1990-01-01
The bifurcation diagram associated with the logistic equation v sup n+1 = av sup n (1-v sup n) is by now well known, as is its equivalence to solving the ordinary differential equation u prime = alpha u (1-u) by the explicit Euler difference scheme. It has also been noted by Iserles that other popular difference schemes may not only exhibit period doubling and chaotic phenomena but also possess spurious fixed points. Runge-Kutta schemes applied to both the equation u prime = alpha u (1-u) and the cubic equation u prime = alpha u (1-u)(b-u) were studied computationally and analytically and their behavior was contrasted with the explicit Euler scheme. Their spurious fixed points and periodic orbits were noted. In particular, it was observed that these may appear below the linearized stability limits of the scheme and, consequently, computation may lead to erroneous results.
Runge-Kutta model-based nonlinear observer for synchronization and control of chaotic systems.
Beyhan, Selami
2013-07-01
This paper proposes a novel nonlinear gradient-based observer for synchronization and observer-based control of chaotic systems. The model is based on a Runge-Kutta model of the chaotic system where the evolution of the states or parameters is derived based on the error-square minimization. The stability and convergence conditions of observer and control methods are analyzed using a Lyapunov stability approach. In numerical simulations, the proposed observer and well-known sliding-mode observer are compared for the synchronization of a Lü chaotic system and observer-based stabilization of a Chen chaotic system. The noisy case for synchronization and parameter uncertainty case for stabilization are also considered for both observer-based methods. PMID:23672740
An explicit Runge-Kutta method for turbulent reacting flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boretti, A. A.
1989-01-01
The paper presents a numerical method for the solution of the conservation equations governing steady, reacting, turbulent viscous flow in two-dimensional geometries, in both Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinates. These equations are written in Favre-averaged form and closed with a first order model. A two-equation K-epsilon model, where low Reynolds number and compressibility effects are included, and a modified eddy-break up model are used to simulate fluid mechanics turbulence, chemistry and turbulence-combustion interaction. The solution is obtained by using a pseudo-unsteady method with improved perturbation propagation properties. The equations are discretized in space by using a finite volume formulation. An explicit multi-stage dissipative Runge-Kutta algorithm is then used to advance the flow equations in the pseudo-time. The method is applied to the computation of both diffusion and premixed turbulent reacting flows. The computed temperature distributions compare favorably with experimental data.
A computer program for determining truncation error coefficients for Runge-Kutta methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horn, M. K.
1980-01-01
The basic structure of a program to generate the truncation error coefficients for Runge-Kutta (RK) methods is reformulated to reduce storage requirements significantly and to accommodate variable dimensioning. This FORTRAN program, SUBROUTINE RKEQ, determines truncation error coefficients for RK algorithms for orders 1 through 10 and extends the order of coefficients through 12 with the 11th- and 12th-order terms determined following the patterns used to establish the lower order coefficients. Both subroutines (the original and RKEQ) are also written to treat RK m-fold methods which utilize m known derivatives of f to increase the order of the algorithm. Setting m = 0 gives the classical RK algorithm.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Subramanian, S. V.; Bozzola, R.
1985-01-01
Numerical solutions of the unsteady Euler equations are obtained using the classical fourth order Runge Kutta time marching scheme. This method is fully explicit and is applied to the governing equations in the finite volume, conservation law form. In order to determine the efficiency of this scheme for solving turbomachinery flows, steady blade-to-blade solutions are obtained for compressor and turbine cascades under subsonic and transonic flow conditions. Computed results are compared with other numerical methods and wind tunnel measurements. The present study also focuses on other important numerical aspects influencing the performance of the algorithm and the solution accuracy such as grid types, boundary conditions, and artificial viscosity. For this purpose, H, O, and C type computational grids as well as characteristic and extrapolation type boundary conditions are included in the solution procedure.
GPU acceleration of Runge Kutta-Fehlberg and its comparison with Dormand-Prince method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seen, Wo Mei; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, Kenjiro T.
2014-07-01
There is a significant reduction of processing time and speedup of performance in computer graphics with the emergence of Graphic Processing Units (GPUs). GPUs have been developed to surpass Central Processing Unit (CPU) in terms of performance and processing speed. This evolution has opened up a new area in computing and researches where highly parallel GPU has been used for non-graphical algorithms. Physical or phenomenal simulations and modelling can be accelerated through General Purpose Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU) and Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) implementations. These phenomena can be represented with mathematical models in the form of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) which encompasses the gist of change rate between independent and dependent variables. ODEs are numerically integrated over time in order to simulate these behaviours. The classical Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme is the common method used to numerically solve ODEs. The Runge Kutta Fehlberg (RKF) scheme has been specially developed to provide an estimate of the principal local truncation error at each step, known as embedding estimate technique. This paper delves into the implementation of RKF scheme for GPU devices and compares its result with Dorman Prince method. A pseudo code is developed to show the implementation in detail. Hence, practitioners will be able to understand the data allocation in GPU, formation of RKF kernels and the flow of data to/from GPU-CPU upon RKF kernel evaluation. The pseudo code is then written in C Language and two ODE models are executed to show the achievable speedup as compared to CPU implementation. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed implementation method is discussed in the final section of this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Igumnov, Leonid; Ipatov, Aleksandr; Belov, Aleksandr; Petrov, Andrey
2015-09-01
The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary) and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diele, F.; Marangi, C.; Ragni, S.
2009-08-01
Direct numerical approximation of a continuous-time infinite horizon control problem, requires to recast the model as a discrete-time, finite-horizon control model. The quality of the optimization results can be heavily degraded if the discretization process does not take into account features of the original model to be preserved. Restricting their attention to optimal growh problems with a steady state, Mercenier and Michel in [1] and [2], studied the conditions to be imposed for ensuring that discrete first-order approximation models have the same steady states as the infinite-horizon continuous-times counterpart. Here we show that Mercenier and Michel scheme is a first order partitioned Runge-Kutta method applied to the state-costate differential system which arises from the Pontryagin maximum principle. The main consequence is that it is possible to consider high order schemes which generalize that algorithm by preserving the steady-growth invariance of the solutions with respect to the discretization process. Numerical examples show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed methods when applied to the classical Ramsey growth model.
Low-Storage, Explicit Runge-Kutta Schemes for the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, Chistopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Lewis, R. Michael
1999-01-01
The derivation of storage explicit Runge-Kutta (ERK) schemes has been performed in the context of integrating the compressible Navier-Stokes equations via direct numerical simulation. Optimization of ERK methods is done across the broad range of properties, such as stability and accuracy efficiency, linear and nonlinear stability, error control reliability, step change stability, and dissipation/dispersion accuracy, subject to varying degrees of memory economization. Following van der Houwen and Wray, 16 ERK pairs are presented using from two to five registers of memory per equation, per grid point and having accuracies from third- to fifth-order. Methods have been assessed using the differential equation testing code DETEST, and with the 1D wave equation. Two of the methods have been applied to the DNS of a compressible jet as well as methane-air and hydrogen-air flames. Derived 3(2) and 4(3) pairs are competitive with existing full-storage methods. Although a substantial efficiency penalty accompanies use of two- and three-register, fifth-order methods, the best contemporary full-storage methods can be pearl), matched while still saving two to three registers of memory.
Exponential Runge-Kutta integrators for modelling Predator-Prey interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diele, F.; Marangi, C.; Ragni, S.
2012-09-01
Spatially explicit models consisting of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations are considered in order to model prey-predator interactions, since it is known that the role of spatial processes reveals of great interest in the study of the effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. As almost all of the realistic models in biology, these models are nonlinear and their solution is not known in closed form. Our aim is approximating the solution itself by means of exponential Runge-Kutta integrators. Moreover, we apply the shift-and-invert Krylov approach in order to evaluate the entire functions needed for implementing the exponential method. This numerical procedure reveals to be very eff cient in avoiding numerical instability during the simulation, since it allows us to adopt high order in the accuracy. This work has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013, SPA.2010.1.1-04: "Stimulating the development of GMES services in specif c are", under grant agreement 263435, project title: Biodiversity Multi-Source Monitoring System:from Space To Species (BIOSOS) coordinated by CNR-ISSIA, Bari-Italy (http://www.biosos.eu).
Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method using a new type of WENO limiters on unstructured meshes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jun; Zhong, Xinghui; Shu, Chi-Wang; Qiu, Jianxian
2013-09-01
In this paper we generalize a new type of limiters based on the weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) finite volume methodology for the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) methods solving nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws, which were recently developed in [32] for structured meshes, to two-dimensional unstructured triangular meshes. The key idea of such limiters is to use the entire polynomials of the DG solutions from the troubled cell and its immediate neighboring cells, and then apply the classical WENO procedure to form a convex combination of these polynomials based on smoothness indicators and nonlinear weights, with suitable adjustments to guarantee conservation. The main advantage of this new limiter is its simplicity in implementation, especially for the unstructured meshes considered in this paper, as only information from immediate neighbors is needed and the usage of complicated geometric information of the meshes is largely avoided. Numerical results for both scalar equations and Euler systems of compressible gas dynamics are provided to illustrate the good performance of this procedure.
Navier-Stokes calculations for DFVLR F5-wing in wind tunnel using Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, V. N.; Wedan, B. W.
1988-01-01
A three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code using an explicit multistage Runge-Kutta type of time-stepping scheme is used for solving the transonic flow past a finite wing mounted inside a wind tunnel. Flow past the same wing in free air was also computed to assess the effect of wind-tunnel walls on such flows. Numerical efficiency is enhanced through vectorization of the computer code. A Cyber 205 computer with 32 million words of internal memory was used for these computations.
Runge-Kutta methods combined with compact difference schemes for the unsteady Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Sheng-Tao
1992-01-01
Recent development using compact difference schemes to solve the Navier-Stokes equations show spectral-like accuracy. A study was made of the numerical characteristics of various combinations of the Runge-Kutta (RK) methods and compact difference schemes to calculate the unsteady Euler equations. The accuracy of finite difference schemes is assessed based on the evaluations of dissipative error. The objectives are reducing the numerical damping and, at the same time, preserving numerical stability. While this approach has tremendous success solving steady flows, numerical characteristics of unsteady calculations remain largely unclear. For unsteady flows, in addition to the dissipative errors, phase velocity and harmonic content of the numerical results are of concern. As a result of the discretization procedure, the simulated unsteady flow motions actually propagate in a dispersive numerical medium. Consequently, the dispersion characteristics of the numerical schemes which relate the phase velocity and wave number may greatly impact the numerical accuracy. The aim is to assess the numerical accuracy of the simulated results. To this end, the Fourier analysis is to provide the dispersive correlations of various numerical schemes. First, a detailed investigation of the existing RK methods is carried out. A generalized form of an N-step RK method is derived. With this generalized form, the criteria are derived for the three and four-step RK methods to be third and fourth-order time accurate for the non-linear equations, e.g., flow equations. These criteria are then applied to commonly used RK methods such as Jameson's 3-step and 4-step schemes and Wray's algorithm to identify the accuracy of the methods. For the spatial discretization, compact difference schemes are presented. The schemes are formulated in the operator-type to render themselves suitable for the Fourier analyses. The performance of the numerical methods is shown by numerical examples. These examples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fehlberg, E.
1974-01-01
Runge-Kutta-Nystrom formulas of the seventh, sixth, and fifth order were derived for the general second order (vector) differential equation written as the second derivative of x = f(t, x, the first derivative of x). The formulas include a stepsize control procedure, based on a complete coverage of the leading term of the local truncation error in x, and they require no more evaluations per step than the earlier Runge-Kutta formulas for the first derivative of x = f(t, x). The developed formulas are expected to be time saving in comparison to the Runge-Kutta formulas for first-order differential equations, since it is not necessary to convert the second-order differential equations into twice as many first-order differential equations. The examples shown saved from 25 percent to 60 percent more computer time than the earlier formulas for first-order differential equations, and are comparable in accuracy.
Cui, Hengfei; Wang, Desheng; Wan, Min; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Zhao, Xiaodan; Tan, Ru San; Huang, Weimin; Xiong, Wei; Duan, Yuping; Zhou, Jiayin; Luo, Tong; Kassab, Ghassan S; Zhong, Liang
2016-06-01
The CT angiography (CTA) is a clinically indicated test for the assessment of coronary luminal stenosis that requires centerline extractions. There is currently no centerline extraction algorithm that is automatic, real-time and very accurate. Therefore, we sought to (i) develop a hybrid approach by incorporating fast marching and Runge-Kutta based methods for the extraction of coronary artery centerlines from CTA; (ii) evaluate the accuracy of the present method compared to Van's method by using ground truth centerline as a reference; (iii) evaluate the coronary lumen area of our centerline method in comparison with the intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as the standard of reference. The proposed method was found to be more computationally efficient, and performed better than the Van's method in terms of overlap measures (i.e., OV: [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]; OF: [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text]; and OT: [Formula: see text] vs. [Formula: see text], all [Formula: see text]). In comparison with IVUS derived coronary lumen area, the proposed approach was more accurate than the Van's method. This hybrid approach by incorporating fast marching and Runge-Kutta based methods could offer fast and accurate extraction of centerline as well as the lumen area. This method may garner wider clinical potential as a real-time coronary stenosis assessment tool. PMID:27140197
Evolutionary generation of 7th order Runge - Kutta - Nyström type methods for solving y(4) = f(x,y)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papakostas, S. N.; Tsitmidelis, S.; Tsitouras, Ch.
2015-12-01
We present a 7th algebraic order Runge - Kutta - Nyström method for the solution of a special fourth order initial value problem. To achieve this, a set of non - linear equations is solved using differential evolution technique. Various numerical tests justify our efforts.
Evolutionary generation of high order Runge - Kutta - Nyström type pairs for solving y(4) = f (x,y)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Famelis, I. Th.; Tsitmidelis, S.; Tsitouras, Ch.
2016-06-01
We present a new Runge - Kutta - Nyström type pair of orders 8(6) for the solution of a special fourth order initial value problem. To achieve this, a set of non - linear equations is solved using differential evolution technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneev, B. A.; Levchenko, V. D.
2016-03-01
In this paper we present the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin method (RKDG method) for the numerical solution of the Euler equations of gas dynamics. The method is being tested on a series of Riemann problems in the one-dimensional case. For the implementation of the method in the three-dimensional case, a DiamondTorre algorithm is proposed. It belongs to the class of the locally recursive non-locally asynchronous algorithms (LRnLA). With the help of this algorithm a significant increase of speed of calculations is achieved. As an example of the three-dimensional computing, a problem of the interaction of a bubble with a shock wave is considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, C. C.
1973-01-01
A theoretical investigation of gas flow inside a multilayer insulation system has been made for the case of the broadside pumping process. A set of simultaneous first-order differential equations for the temperature and pressure of the gas mixture was obtained by considering the diffusion mechanism of the gas molecules through the perforations on the insulation layers. A modified Runge-Kutta method was used for numerical experiment. The numerical stability problem was investigated. It has been shown that when the relaxation time is small compared with the time period over which the gas properties change appreciably, the set of differential equations can be replaced by a set of algebraic equations for solution. Numerical examples were given, and comparisons with experimental data were made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaoqiang; Ju, Lili; Du, Qiang
2016-07-01
The Willmore flow formulated by phase field dynamics based on the elastic bending energy model has been widely used to describe the shape transformation of biological lipid vesicles. In this paper, we develop and investigate some efficient and stable numerical methods for simulating the unconstrained phase field Willmore dynamics and the phase field Willmore dynamics with fixed volume and surface area constraints. The proposed methods can be high-order accurate and are completely explicit in nature, by combining exponential time differencing Runge-Kutta approximations for time integration with spectral discretizations for spatial operators on regular meshes. We also incorporate novel linear operator splitting techniques into the numerical schemes to improve the discrete energy stability. In order to avoid extra numerical instability brought by use of large penalty parameters in solving the constrained phase field Willmore dynamics problem, a modified augmented Lagrange multiplier approach is proposed and adopted. Various numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate accuracy and stability of the proposed methods.
Xu, Zhiliang; Chen, Xu-Yan; Liu, Yingjie
2014-12-01
We present a new formulation of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method [9, 8, 7, 6] for solving conservation Laws with increased CFL numbers. The new formulation requires the computed RKDG solution in a cell to satisfy additional conservation constraint in adjacent cells and does not increase the complexity or change the compactness of the RKDG method. Numerical computations for solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar and systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws are performed with approximate solutions represented by piecewise quadratic and cubic polynomials, respectively. The hierarchical reconstruction [17, 33] is applied as a limiter to eliminate spurious oscillations in discontinuous solutions. From both numerical experiments and the analytic estimate of the CFL number of the newly formulated method, we find that: 1) this new formulation improves the CFL number over the original RKDG formulation by at least three times or more and thus reduces the overall computational cost; and 2) the new formulation essentially does not compromise the resolution of the numerical solutions of shock wave problems compared with ones computed by the RKDG method. PMID:25414520
Starting methods for two-step Runge-Kutta methods of stage-order 3 and order 6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verner, J. H.
2006-01-01
Jackiewicz and Tracogna [SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 32 (1995) 1390-1427] proposed a general formulation of two step Runge-Kutta (TSRK) methods. Using formulas for two-step pairs of TSRK methods constructed in [Japan JIAM 19 (2002) 227-248], Jackiewicz and Verner obtain results for order 8 pairs that fail to show this designated order. Hairer and Wanner [SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 34 (1997) 2087-2089] identify the problem by using B-series to formulate a complete set of order conditions for TSRK methods, and emphasize that special starting methods are necessary for the first step of implementation. They observe that for methods with stage order at least p-1, and design order p, starting methods of order at least p are sufficient. In this paper, the more general challenge to provide correct starting values for methods of low stage-order is met by showing how perturbed starting values should be selected for methods of order 6 and stage-order 3. The approach is sufficiently general that it may (and later will) be provided for such methods of higher orders. Evidence of the accompanying improvement in the implementation of TSRK methods illustrates that carefully designed starting methods are essential for efficient production codes based on methods of low stage-order.
Xu, Zhiliang; Chen, Xu-Yan; Liu, Yingjie
2014-01-01
We present a new formulation of the Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method [9, 8, 7, 6] for solving conservation Laws with increased CFL numbers. The new formulation requires the computed RKDG solution in a cell to satisfy additional conservation constraint in adjacent cells and does not increase the complexity or change the compactness of the RKDG method. Numerical computations for solving one-dimensional and two-dimensional scalar and systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws are performed with approximate solutions represented by piecewise quadratic and cubic polynomials, respectively. The hierarchical reconstruction [17, 33] is applied as a limiter to eliminate spurious oscillations in discontinuous solutions. From both numerical experiments and the analytic estimate of the CFL number of the newly formulated method, we find that: 1) this new formulation improves the CFL number over the original RKDG formulation by at least three times or more and thus reduces the overall computational cost; and 2) the new formulation essentially does not compromise the resolution of the numerical solutions of shock wave problems compared with ones computed by the RKDG method. PMID:25414520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romeo, A.; Finocchio, G.; Carpentieri, M.; Torres, L.; Consolo, G.; Azzerboni, B.
2008-02-01
The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation is the fundamental equation to describe magnetization dynamics in microscale and nanoscale magnetic systems. In this paper we present a brief overview of a time-domain numerical method related to the fifth order Runge-Kutta formula, which has been applied to the solution of the LLG equation successfully. We discuss advantages of the method, describing the results of a numerical experiment based on the standard problem #4. The results are in good agreement with the ones present in literature. By including thermal effects in our framework, our simulations show magnetization dynamics slightly dependent on the spatial discretization.
A diagonal implicit scheme for computing flows with finite-rate chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberhardt, Scott; Imlay, Scott
1990-01-01
A new algorithm for solving steady, finite-rate chemistry, flow problems is presented. The new scheme eliminates the expense of inverting large block matrices that arise when species conservation equations are introduced. The source Jacobian matrix is replaced by a diagonal matrix which is tailored to account for the fastest reactions in the chemical system. A point-implicit procedure is discussed and then the algorithm is included into the LU-SGS scheme. Solutions are presented for hypervelocity reentry and Hydrogen-Oxygen combustion. For the LU-SGS scheme a CFL number in excess of 10,000 has been achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Im, Dong-Kyun; Choi, Seongim; Hyuck Kwon, Jang
2015-01-01
The diagonally implicit harmonic balance method is developed in an overset mesh topology and applied to unsteady rotor flows analysis. Its efficiency is by reducing the complexity of a fully implicit harmonic balance method which becomes more flexible in handling the higher harmonics of the flow solutions. Applied to the overset mesh topology, the efficiency of the method becomes greater by reducing the number of solution interpolations required during the entire solution procedure as the method reduces the unsteady computation into periodic steady state. To verify the accuracy and efficiency of the method, both hovering and unsteady forward flight of Caradonna and Tung and AH-1G rotors are solved. Compared with wind-tunnel experiments, the numerical results demonstrate good agreements at computational cost an order of magnitude more efficient than the conventional time-accurate computation method. The proposed method has great potential in other engineering applications, including flapping wing vehicles, turbo-machinery, wind-turbines, etc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Rossow, C.-C.
2008-01-01
A three-stage Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid and an implicit preconditioner has been shown to be an effective solver for the fluid dynamic equations. This scheme has been applied to both the compressible and essentially incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations using the algebraic turbulence model of Baldwin and Lomax (BL). In this paper we focus on the convergence of the RK/implicit scheme when the effects of turbulence are represented by either the Spalart-Allmaras model or the Wilcox k-! model, which are frequently used models in practical fluid dynamic applications. Convergence behavior of the scheme with these turbulence models and the BL model are directly compared. For this initial investigation we solve the flow equations and the partial differential equations of the turbulence models indirectly coupled. With this approach we examine the convergence behavior of each system. Both point and line symmetric Gauss-Seidel are considered for approximating the inverse of the implicit operator of the flow solver. To solve the turbulence equations we use a diagonally dominant alternating direction implicit (DDADI) scheme. Computational results are presented for three airfoil flow cases and comparisons are made with experimental data. We demonstrate that the two-dimensional RANS equations and transport-type equations for turbulence modeling can be efficiently solved with an indirectly coupled algorithm that uses the RK/implicit scheme for the flow equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Mark H.; Gottlieb, David; Abarbanel, Saul; Don, Wai-Sun
1993-01-01
The conventional method of imposing time dependent boundary conditions for Runge-Kutta (RK) time advancement reduces the formal accuracy of the space-time method to first order locally, and second order globally, independently of the spatial operator. This counter intuitive result is analyzed in this paper. Two methods of eliminating this problem are proposed for the linear constant coefficient case: (1) impose the exact boundary condition only at the end of the complete RK cycle, (2) impose consistent intermediate boundary conditions derived from the physical boundary condition and its derivatives. The first method, while retaining the RK accuracy in all cases, results in a scheme with much reduced CFL condition, rendering the RK scheme less attractive. The second method retains the same allowable time step as the periodic problem. However it is a general remedy only for the linear case. For non-linear hyperbolic equations the second method is effective only for for RK schemes of third order accuracy or less. Numerical studies are presented to verify the efficacy of each approach.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Shu-Cheng; Liu, Nan-Suey; Kim, Hyun Dae
1991-01-01
Presented here is an algorithm for solving the multidimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. It is based on a diagonally-dominant approximate factorization procedure. The factorization error and the timewise linearization error associated with this procedure are reduced by performing Newton-type inner iterations at each time step. The inviscid fluxes are evaluated by the fourth-order central differencing scheme amended with a numerical dissipation directly proportional to the entire dissipative part of the truncation error intrinsic to the third order biased upwind scheme. The important features of the proposed solution are elucidated by the numerical results of the convection of a vortex and the backward-facing step flows.
Acceleration on stretched meshes with line-implicit LU-SGS in parallel implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otero, Evelyn; Eliasson, Peter
2015-02-01
The implicit lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) solver is combined with the line-implicit technique to improve convergence on the very anisotropic grids necessary for resolving the boundary layers. The computational fluid dynamics code used is Edge, a Navier-Stokes flow solver for unstructured grids based on a dual grid and edge-based formulation. Multigrid acceleration is applied with the intention to accelerate the convergence to steady state. LU-SGS works in parallel and gives better linear scaling with respect to the number of processors, than the explicit scheme. The ordering techniques investigated have shown that node numbering does influence the convergence and that the orderings from Delaunay and advancing front generation were among the best tested. 2D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computations have clearly shown the strong efficiency of our novel approach line-implicit LU-SGS which is four times faster than implicit LU-SGS and line-implicit Runge-Kutta. Implicit LU-SGS for Euler and line-implicit LU-SGS for Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes are at least twice faster than explicit and line-implicit Runge-Kutta, respectively, for 2D and 3D cases. For 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes, multigrid did not accelerate the convergence and therefore may not be needed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yokota, Jeffrey W.
1988-01-01
An LU implicit multigrid algorithm is developed to calculate 3-D compressible viscous flows. This scheme solves the full 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation kappa-epsilon model of turbulence. The flow equations are integrated by an efficient, diagonally inverted, LU implicit multigrid scheme while the kappa-epsilon equations are solved, uncoupled from the flow equations, by a block LU implicit algorithm. The flow equations are solved within the framework of the multigrid method using a four-grid level W-cycle, while the kappa-epsilon equations are iterated only on the finest grid. This treatment of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations proves to be an efficient method for calculating 3-D compressible viscous flows.
Satellite attitude dynamics and estimation with the implicit midpoint method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hellström, Christian; Mikkola, Seppo
2009-07-01
We describe the application of the implicit midpoint integrator to the problem of attitude dynamics for low-altitude satellites without the use of quaternions. Initially, we consider the satellite to rotate without external torques applied to it. We compare the numerical solution with the exact solution in terms of Jacobi's elliptic functions. Then, we include the gravity-gradient torque, where the implicit midpoint integrator proves to be a fast, simple and accurate method. Higher-order versions of the implicit midpoint scheme are compared to Gauss-Legendre Runge-Kutta methods in terms of accuracy and processing time. Finally, we investigate the performance of a parameter-adaptive Kalman filter based on the implicit midpoint integrator for the determination of the principal moments of inertia through observations.
Explicit and implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes equations on a massively parallel computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levit, Creon; Jespersen, Dennis
1988-01-01
The design, implementation, and performance of a two-dimensional time-accurate Navier-Stokes solver for the CM2 supercomputer are described. The program uses a single processor for each grid point. Two different time-stepping methods have so far been implemented: an explicit third-order Runge-Kutta method and an implicit approximation-factorization method. The CM2 results are checked against those of a mature well-vectorized Cray 2 program, both for correctness and performance. The code is found to be correct, and the performance in some cases is up to several times that of the Cray 2.
A new alternating bi-diagonal compact scheme for non-uniform grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengupta, Tapan K.; Sengupta, Aditi
2016-04-01
A new compact scheme has been developed for any non-uniform grid. The compact scheme has been developed for spatial discretization and is analyzed here in conjunction with four-stage, fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) scheme for time integration while solving the one-dimensional convection equation. The space-time discretization combination is calibrated by subjecting the system to global spectral analysis (GSA) which was developed by the authors' group. Here, the compact scheme has been obtained by using a combination of two bi-diagonal schemes. The novel aspect of this scheme is its application in the physical plane directly without the necessity of mapping or transformations. Some typical cases for problems in acoustics, as well as fluid mechanics, have been studied here and potential use in large eddy simulations (LES) has been demonstrated by solving Navier-Stokes equation for lid driven cavity.
Semi-implicit spectral deferred correction methods for ordinary differential equations
Minion, Michael L.
2002-10-06
A semi-implicit formulation of the method of spectral deferred corrections (SISDC) for ordinary differential equations with both stiff and non-stiff terms is presented. Several modifications and variations to the original spectral deferred corrections method by Dutt, Greengard, and Rokhlin concerning the choice of integration points and the form of the correction iteration are presented. The stability and accuracy of the resulting ODE methods are explored analytically and numerically. The SISDC methods are intended to be combined with the method of lines approach to yield a flexible framework for creating higher-order semi-implicit methods for partial differential equations. A discussion and numerical examples of the SISDC method applied to advection-diffusion type equations are included. The results suggest that higher-order SISDC methods are more efficient than semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods for moderately stiff problems in terms of accuracy per function evaluation.
Global Asymptotic Behavior of Iterative Implicit Schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Sweby, P. K.
1994-01-01
The global asymptotic nonlinear behavior of some standard iterative procedures in solving nonlinear systems of algebraic equations arising from four implicit linear multistep methods (LMMs) in discretizing three models of 2 x 2 systems of first-order autonomous nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is analyzed using the theory of dynamical systems. The iterative procedures include simple iteration and full and modified Newton iterations. The results are compared with standard Runge-Kutta explicit methods, a noniterative implicit procedure, and the Newton method of solving the steady part of the ODEs. Studies showed that aside from exhibiting spurious asymptotes, all of the four implicit LMMs can change the type and stability of the steady states of the differential equations (DEs). They also exhibit a drastic distortion but less shrinkage of the basin of attraction of the true solution than standard nonLMM explicit methods. The simple iteration procedure exhibits behavior which is similar to standard nonLMM explicit methods except that spurious steady-state numerical solutions cannot occur. The numerical basins of attraction of the noniterative implicit procedure mimic more closely the basins of attraction of the DEs and are more efficient than the three iterative implicit procedures for the four implicit LMMs. Contrary to popular belief, the initial data using the Newton method of solving the steady part of the DEs may not have to be close to the exact steady state for convergence. These results can be used as an explanation for possible causes and cures of slow convergence and nonconvergence of steady-state numerical solutions when using an implicit LMM time-dependent approach in computational fluid dynamics.
Implicit integration methods for dislocation dynamics
Gardner, D. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Reynolds, D. R.; Hommes, G.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.
2015-01-20
In dislocation dynamics simulations, strain hardening simulations require integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations in time with expensive force calculations, discontinuous topological events, and rapidly changing problem size. Current solvers in use often result in small time steps and long simulation times. Faster solvers may help dislocation dynamics simulations accumulate plastic strains at strain rates comparable to experimental observations. Here, this paper investigates the viability of high order implicit time integrators and robust nonlinear solvers to reduce simulation run times while maintaining the accuracy of the computed solution. In particular, implicit Runge-Kutta time integrators are explored as a way of providing greater accuracy over a larger time step than is typically done with the standard second-order trapezoidal method. In addition, both accelerated fixed point and Newton's method are investigated to provide fast and effective solves for the nonlinear systems that must be resolved within each time step. Results show that integrators of third order are the most effective, while accelerated fixed point and Newton's method both improve solver performance over the standard fixed point method used for the solution of the nonlinear systems.
Implicit integration methods for dislocation dynamics
Gardner, D. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Reynolds, D. R.; Hommes, G.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.
2015-01-20
In dislocation dynamics simulations, strain hardening simulations require integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations in time with expensive force calculations, discontinuous topological events, and rapidly changing problem size. Current solvers in use often result in small time steps and long simulation times. Faster solvers may help dislocation dynamics simulations accumulate plastic strains at strain rates comparable to experimental observations. Here, this paper investigates the viability of high order implicit time integrators and robust nonlinear solvers to reduce simulation run times while maintaining the accuracy of the computed solution. In particular, implicit Runge-Kutta time integrators are explored as a waymore » of providing greater accuracy over a larger time step than is typically done with the standard second-order trapezoidal method. In addition, both accelerated fixed point and Newton's method are investigated to provide fast and effective solves for the nonlinear systems that must be resolved within each time step. Results show that integrators of third order are the most effective, while accelerated fixed point and Newton's method both improve solver performance over the standard fixed point method used for the solution of the nonlinear systems.« less
Implicit integration methods for dislocation dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardner, D. J.; Woodward, C. S.; Reynolds, D. R.; Hommes, G.; Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.
2015-03-01
In dislocation dynamics simulations, strain hardening simulations require integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations in time with expensive force calculations, discontinuous topological events and rapidly changing problem size. Current solvers in use often result in small time steps and long simulation times. Faster solvers may help dislocation dynamics simulations accumulate plastic strains at strain rates comparable to experimental observations. This paper investigates the viability of high-order implicit time integrators and robust nonlinear solvers to reduce simulation run times while maintaining the accuracy of the computed solution. In particular, implicit Runge-Kutta time integrators are explored as a way of providing greater accuracy over a larger time step than is typically done with the standard second-order trapezoidal method. In addition, both accelerated fixed point and Newton's method are investigated to provide fast and effective solves for the nonlinear systems that must be resolved within each time step. Results show that integrators of third order are the most effective, while accelerated fixed point and Newton's method both improve solver performance over the standard fixed point method used for the solution of the nonlinear systems.
Parallel implicit unstructured grid Euler solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1994-01-01
A mesh-vertex finite volume scheme for solving the Euler equations on triangular unstructured meshes is implemented on an MIMD (multiple instruction/multiple data stream) parallel computer. An explicit four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used to solve two-dimensional flow problems. A family of implicit schemes is also developed to solve these problems, where the linear system that arises at each time step is solved by a preconditioned GMRES algorithm. Two partitioning strategies are employed, one that partitions triangles and the other that partitions vertices. The choice of the preconditioner in a distributed memory setting is discussed. All the methods are compared both in terms of elapsed times and convergence rates. It is shown that the implicit schemes offer adequate parallelism at the expense of minimal sequential overhead. The use of a global coarse grid to further minimize this overhead is also investigated. The schemes are implemented on a distributed memory parallel computer, the iPSC/860.
Parallel implicit unstructured grid Euler solvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1994-01-01
A mesh-vertex finite volume scheme for solving the Euler equations on triangular unstructured meshes is implemented on a multiple-instruction/multiple-data stream parallel computer. An explicit four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used to solve two-dimensional flow problems. A family of implicit schemes is also developed to solve these problems, where the linear system that arises at each time step is solved by a preconditioned GMRES algorithm. Two partitioning strategies are employed: one that partitions triangles and the other that partitions vertices. The choice of the preconditioner in a distributed memory setting is discussed. All of the methods are compared both in terms of elapsed times and convergence rates. It is shown that the implicit schemes offer adequate parallelism at the expense of minimal sequential overhead. The use of a global coarse grid to further minimize this overhead is also investigated. The schemes are implemented on a distributed memory parallel computer, the Intel iPSC/860.
High-Order Implicit-Explicit Multi-Block Time-stepping Method for Hyperbolic PDEs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Tanner B.; Carpenter, Mark H.; Fisher, Travis C.; Frankel, Steven H.
2014-01-01
This work seeks to explore and improve the current time-stepping schemes used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in order to reduce overall computational time. A high-order scheme has been developed using a combination of implicit and explicit (IMEX) time-stepping Runge-Kutta (RK) schemes which increases numerical stability with respect to the time step size, resulting in decreased computational time. The IMEX scheme alone does not yield the desired increase in numerical stability, but when used in conjunction with an overlapping partitioned (multi-block) domain significant increase in stability is observed. To show this, the Overlapping-Partition IMEX (OP IMEX) scheme is applied to both one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) problems, the nonlinear viscous Burger's equation and 2D advection equation, respectively. The method uses two different summation by parts (SBP) derivative approximations, second-order and fourth-order accurate. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed using the Simultaneous Approximation Term (SAT) penalty method. The 6-stage additive Runge-Kutta IMEX time integration schemes are fourth-order accurate in time. An increase in numerical stability 65 times greater than the fully explicit scheme is demonstrated to be achievable with the OP IMEX method applied to 1D Burger's equation. Results from the 2D, purely convective, advection equation show stability increases on the order of 10 times the explicit scheme using the OP IMEX method. Also, the domain partitioning method in this work shows potential for breaking the computational domain into manageable sizes such that implicit solutions for full three-dimensional CFD simulations can be computed using direct solving methods rather than the standard iterative methods currently used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borazjani, Iman; Asgharzadeh, Hafez
2015-11-01
Flow simulations involving complex geometries and moving boundaries suffer from time-step size restriction and low convergence rates with explicit and semi-implicit schemes. Implicit schemes can be used to overcome these restrictions. However, implementing implicit solver for nonlinear equations including Navier-Stokes is not straightforward. Newton-Krylov subspace methods (NKMs) are one of the most advanced iterative methods to solve non-linear equations such as implicit descritization of the Navier-Stokes equation. The efficiency of NKMs massively depends on the Jacobian formation method, e.g., automatic differentiation is very expensive, and matrix-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. Analytical Jacobian is inexpensive method, but derivation of analytical Jacobian for Navier-Stokes equation on staggered grid is challenging. The NKM with a novel analytical Jacobian was developed and validated against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend. The developed method successfully handled the complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, and immersed boundaries. It is shown that the NKM with an analytical Jacobian is 3 to 25 times faster than the fixed-point implicit Runge-Kutta method, and more than 100 times faster than automatic differentiation depending on the grid (size) and the flow problem. The developed methods are fully parallelized with parallel efficiency of 80-90% on the problems tested.
Solving the Bateman equations in CASMO5 using implicit ode numerical methods for stiff systems
Hykes, J. M.; Ferrer, R. M.
2013-07-01
The Bateman equations, which describe the transmutation of nuclides over time as a result of radioactive decay, absorption, and fission, are often numerically stiff. This is especially true if short-lived nuclides are included in the system. This paper describes the use of implicit numerical methods for o D Es applied to the stiff Bateman equations, specifically employing the Backward Differentiation Formulas (BDF) form of the linear multistep method. As is true in other domains, using an implicit method removes or lessens the (sometimes severe) step-length constraints by which explicit methods must abide. To gauge its accuracy and speed, the BDF method is compared to a variety of other solution methods, including Runge-Kutta explicit methods and matrix exponential methods such as the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM). A preliminary test case was chosen as representative of a PWR lattice depletion step and was solved with numerical libraries called from a Python front-end. The Figure of Merit (a combined measure of accuracy and efficiency) for the BDF method was nearly identical to that for CRAM, while explicit methods and other matrix exponential approximations trailed behind. The test case includes 319 nuclides, in which the shortest-lived nuclide is {sup 98}Nb with a half-life of 2.86 seconds. Finally, the BDF and CRAM methods were compared within CASMO5, where CRAM had a FOM about four times better than BDF, although the BDF implementation was not fully optimized. (authors)
A non-linearly stable implicit finite element algorithm for hypersonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iannelli, G. S.; Baker, A. J.
1992-01-01
A generalized curvilinear coordinate Taylor weak statement implicit finite element algorithm is developed for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric compressible Navier-Stokes equations for ideal and reacting gases. For accurate hypersonic simulation, air is modeled as a mixture of five perfect gases, i.e., molecular and atomic oxygen and nitrogen as well as nitric oxide. The associated pressure is then determined via Newton solution of the classical chemical equilibrium equation system. The directional semidiscretization is achieved using an optimal metric data Galerkin finite element weak statement, on a developed 'companion conservation law system', permitting classical test and trial space definitions. Utilizing an implicit Runge-Kutta scheme, the terminal algorithm is then nonlinearly stable, and second-order accurate in space and time on arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Subsequently, a matrix tensor product factorization procedure permits an efficient numerical linear algebra handling for large Courant numbers. For ideal- and real-gas hypersonic flows, the algorithm generates essentially nonoscillatory numerical solutions in the presence of strong detached shocks and boundary layer-inviscid flow interactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asgharzadeh, Hafez; Borazjani, Iman
2014-11-01
Time step-size restrictions and low convergence rates are major bottle necks for implicit solution of the Navier-Stokes in simulations involving complex geometries with moving boundaries. Newton-Krylov method (NKM) is a combination of a Newton-type method for super-linearly convergent solution of nonlinear equations and Krylov subspace methods for solving the Newton correction equations, which can theoretically address both bottle necks. The efficiency of this method vastly depends on the Jacobian forming scheme e.g. automatic differentiation is very expensive and Jacobian-free methods slow down as the mesh is refined. A novel, computationally efficient analytical Jacobian for NKM was developed to solve unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes momentum equations on staggered curvilinear grids with immersed boundaries. The NKM was validated and verified against Taylor-Green vortex and pulsatile flow in a 90 degree bend and efficiently handles complex geometries such as an intracranial aneurysm with multiple overset grids, pulsatile inlet flow and immersed boundaries. The NKM method is shown to be more efficient than the semi-implicit Runge-Kutta methods and Jabobian-free Newton-Krylov methods. We believe NKM can be applied to many CFD techniques to decrease the computational cost. This work was supported partly by the NIH Grant R03EB014860, and the computational resources were partly provided by Center for Computational Research (CCR) at University at Buffalo.
A variational implementation of the implicit particle filter for the shallow water equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souopgui, I.; Morzfeld, M.; Hussaini, M.; Chorin, A. J.
2013-12-01
The estimation of initial conditions for shallow water equations is a well known test problem for operational data assimilation techniques. The state-of-the-art approach to this problem is the variational method (4D-Var), i.e. the computation of the mode of the posterior probability density function (pdf) via the adjoint technique. We add a sampling step to the variational method, thus turning a computation of the conditional mode (a biased estimator) into a computation of the conditional mean (the minimum least square error estimator). Our implementation relies on implicit sampling, which is a Monte Carlo (MC) sampling scheme. The idea in implicit sampling is to first search for the high-probability region of the posterior pdf and then to find samples in this region. Because the samples are concentrated in the high-probability region, fewer samples are required than with competing MC schemes and, thus, implicit sampling can be more efficient than other MC schemes. The search for the high-probability region can be done via a numerical minimization that is very similar to the minimization in 4D-Var. Here, we use existing 4D-Var code to implement the implicit sampling scheme. Once the minimization problem is solved, we obtain samples by solving algebraic equations with a random right-hand-side. These equations can be solved efficiently, so that the additional cost of our approach, compared to 4D-Var, is small. We present numerical experiments to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of our approach. These numerical experiments mimic physical experiments done with the CORIOLIS turntable in Grenoble (France), which are used to study the drift of a vortex. In particular we consider shallow water equations on a square domain (2.5m x 2.5m) with open boundary conditions and discretize the equations with finite differences on a staggered grid of size 256 x 256 and a fourth order Runge-Kutta time integrator. Our goal is to estimate the initial state (velocities and
IMEX-a : an adaptive, fifth order implicit-explicit integration scheme.
Brake, Matthew Robert
2013-05-01
This report presents an efficient and accurate method for integrating a system of ordinary differential equations, particularly those arising from a spatial discretization of partially differential equations. The algorithm developed, termed the IMEX a algorithm, belongs to a class of algorithms known as implicit-explicit (IMEX) methods. The explicit step is based on a fifth order Runge-Kutta explicit step known as the Dormand-Prince algorithm, which adaptively modifies the time step by calculating the error relative to a fourth order estimation. The implicit step, which follows the explicit step, is based on a backward Euler method, a special case of the generalized trapezoidal method. Reasons for choosing both of these methods, along with the algorithm development are presented. In applications that have less stringent accuracy requirements, several other methods are available through the IMEX a toolbox, each of which simplify the fifth order Dormand-Prince explicit step: the third order Bogacki-Shampine method, the second order Midpoint method, and the first order Euler method. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated on to examples. First, a two pawl system with contact is modeled. Results predicted by the IMEX a algorithm are compared to those predicted by six widely used integration schemes. The IMEX a algorithm is demonstrated to be significantly faster (by up to an order of magnitude) and at least as accurate as all of the other methods considered. A second example, an acoustic standing wave, is presented in order to assess the accuracy of the IMEX a algorithm. Finally, sample code is given in order to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed algorithm.
Explicit Runge-Kutta method with trigonometrically-fitted for solving first order ODEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fawzi, Firas Adel; Senu, N.; Ismail, F.; Majid, Z. A.
2016-06-01
In this note, an explicit trigonometrically-fitted (RK) method is developed to determine the approximate solution of the first-order IVPs with oscillatory solution. The proposed method solves first order ODEs by first converting the second order ODEs to an equivalent first order; which is based on the RK method of order four. The numerical experiment performed shows the efficacy of our newly developed method.
Analysis of numerical stability and amplification matrices: Fourth-order Runge-Kutta methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kennedy, E. W.
1979-01-01
Amplification matrices, numerical kernels, stable, and exponentially stable numerical solutions are examined. The various techniques involved in these concepts are applied to certain systems that have Jordan forms, which are nondiagonal, with particular interest in the case of imaginary or zero eigenvalues.
Chen, Zhaoxia; Li, Juan; Zhang, Ruqiang; You, Xiong
2015-01-01
Oscillation is one of the most important phenomena in the chemical reaction systems in living cells. The general purpose simulation algorithms fail to take into account this special character and produce unsatisfying results. In order to enhance the accuracy of the integrator, the second-order derivative is incorporated in the scheme. The oscillatory feature of the solution is captured by the integrators with an exponential fitting property. Three practical exponentially fitted TDRK (EFTDRK) methods are derived. To test the effectiveness of the new EFTDRK methods, the two-gene system with cross-regulation and the circadian oscillation of the period protein in Drosophila are simulated. Each EFTDRK method has the best fitting frequency which minimizes the global error. The numerical results show that the new EFTDRK methods are more accurate and more efficient than their prototype TDRK methods or RK methods of the same order and the traditional exponentially fitted RK method in the literature. PMID:26633991
Chen, Zhaoxia; Li, Juan; Zhang, Ruqiang; You, Xiong
2015-01-01
Oscillation is one of the most important phenomena in the chemical reaction systems in living cells. The general purpose simulation algorithms fail to take into account this special character and produce unsatisfying results. In order to enhance the accuracy of the integrator, the second-order derivative is incorporated in the scheme. The oscillatory feature of the solution is captured by the integrators with an exponential fitting property. Three practical exponentially fitted TDRK (EFTDRK) methods are derived. To test the effectiveness of the new EFTDRK methods, the two-gene system with cross-regulation and the circadian oscillation of the period protein in Drosophila are simulated. Each EFTDRK method has the best fitting frequency which minimizes the global error. The numerical results show that the new EFTDRK methods are more accurate and more efficient than their prototype TDRK methods or RK methods of the same order and the traditional exponentially fitted RK method in the literature. PMID:26633991
IMEX Runge-Kutta Schemes and Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws with Stiff Diffusive Relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boscarino, S.; Pareschi, L.; Russo, G.
2009-09-01
Hyperbolic system of conservation laws often have relaxation terms that, under a suitable scaling, lead to a reduced system of parabolic or hyperbolic type. The development of numerical methods to solve systems of this form his an active area of research. These systems in addition to the stiff relaxation term have the convection term stiff too. In this paper we will mainly concentrate on the study of the stiff regime. In fact in this stiff regime most of the popular methods for the solution of these system fail to capture the correct behavior of the relaxation limit unless the small relaxation rate is numericaly resolved. We will show how to overcome this difficulties and how to construct numerical schemes with the correct asymnptotic limit, i.e., the correct zero-relaxation limit should be preserved at a discrete level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baird, Henry S.; Bentley, Jon L.
2004-12-01
We propose a design methodology for "implicit" CAPTCHAs to relieve drawbacks of present technology. CAPTCHAs are tests administered automatically over networks that can distinguish between people and machines and thus protect web services from abuse by programs masquerading as human users. All existing CAPTCHAs' challenges require a significant conscious effort by the person answering them -- e.g. reading and typing a nonsense word -- whereas implicit CAPTCHAs may require as little as a single click. Many CAPTCHAs distract and interrupt users, since the challenge is perceived as an irrelevant intrusion; implicit CAPTCHAs can be woven into the expected sequence of browsing using cues tailored to the site. Most existing CAPTCHAs are vulnerable to "farming-out" attacks in which challenges are passed to a networked community of human readers; by contrast, implicit CAPTCHAs are not "fungible" (in the sense of easily answerable in isolation) since they are meaningful only in the specific context of the website that is protected. Many existing CAPTCHAs irritate or threaten users since they are obviously tests of skill: implicit CAPTCHAs appear to be elementary and inevitable acts of browsing. It can often be difficult to detect when CAPTCHAs are under attack: implicit CAPTCHAs can be designed so that certain failure modes are correlated with failed bot attacks. We illustrate these design principles with examples.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baird, Henry S.; Bentley, Jon L.
2005-01-01
We propose a design methodology for "implicit" CAPTCHAs to relieve drawbacks of present technology. CAPTCHAs are tests administered automatically over networks that can distinguish between people and machines and thus protect web services from abuse by programs masquerading as human users. All existing CAPTCHAs' challenges require a significant conscious effort by the person answering them -- e.g. reading and typing a nonsense word -- whereas implicit CAPTCHAs may require as little as a single click. Many CAPTCHAs distract and interrupt users, since the challenge is perceived as an irrelevant intrusion; implicit CAPTCHAs can be woven into the expected sequence of browsing using cues tailored to the site. Most existing CAPTCHAs are vulnerable to "farming-out" attacks in which challenges are passed to a networked community of human readers; by contrast, implicit CAPTCHAs are not "fungible" (in the sense of easily answerable in isolation) since they are meaningful only in the specific context of the website that is protected. Many existing CAPTCHAs irritate or threaten users since they are obviously tests of skill: implicit CAPTCHAs appear to be elementary and inevitable acts of browsing. It can often be difficult to detect when CAPTCHAs are under attack: implicit CAPTCHAs can be designed so that certain failure modes are correlated with failed bot attacks. We illustrate these design principles with examples.
Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li
2016-01-01
We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li
2016-02-01
We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality.
Steering Bell-diagonal states.
Quan, Quan; Zhu, Huangjun; Liu, Si-Yuan; Fei, Shao-Ming; Fan, Heng; Yang, Wen-Li
2016-01-01
We investigate the steerability of two-qubit Bell-diagonal states under projective measurements by the steering party. In the simplest nontrivial scenario of two projective measurements, we solve this problem completely by virtue of the connection between the steering problem and the joint-measurement problem. A necessary and sufficient criterion is derived together with a simple geometrical interpretation. Our study shows that a Bell-diagonal state is steerable by two projective measurements iff it violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, in sharp contrast with the strict hierarchy expected between steering and Bell nonlocality. We also introduce a steering measure and clarify its connections with concurrence and the volume of the steering ellipsoid. In particular, we determine the maximal concurrence and ellipsoid volume of Bell-diagonal states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Finally, we explore the steerability of Bell-diagonal states under three projective measurements. A simple sufficient criterion is derived, which can detect the steerability of many states that are not steerable by two projective measurements. Our study offers valuable insight on steering of Bell-diagonal states as well as the connections between entanglement, steering, and Bell nonlocality. PMID:26911250
Direct Numerical Simulation of Interfacial Flows: Implicit Sharp-Interface Method (I-SIM)
Robert Nourgaliev; Theo Theofanous; HyeongKae Park; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll
2008-01-01
In recent work (Nourgaliev, Liou, Theofanous, JCP in press) we demonstrated that numerical simulations of interfacial flows in the presence of strong shear must be cast in dynamically sharp terms (sharp interface treatment or SIM), and that moreover they must meet stringent resolution requirements (i.e., resolving the critical layer). The present work is an outgrowth of that work aiming to overcome consequent limitations on the temporal treatment, which become still more severe in the presence of phase change. The key is to avoid operator splitting between interface motion, fluid convection, viscous/heat diffusion and reactions; instead treating all these non-linear operators fully-coupled within a Newton iteration scheme. To this end, the SIM’s cut-cell meshing is combined with the high-orderaccurate implicit Runge-Kutta and the “recovery” Discontinuous Galerkin methods along with a Jacobian-free, Krylov subspace iteration algorithm and its physics-based preconditioning. In particular, the interfacial geometry (i.e., marker’s positions and volumes of cut cells) is a part of the Newton-Krylov solution vector, so that the interface dynamics and fluid motions are fully-(non-linearly)-coupled. We show that our method is: (a) robust (L-stable) and efficient, allowing to step over stability time steps at will while maintaining high-(up to the 5th)-order temporal accuracy; (b) fully conservative, even near multimaterial contacts, without any adverse consequences (pressure/velocity oscillations); and (c) highorder-accurate in spatial discretization (demonstrated here up to the 12th-order for smoothin-the-bulk-fluid flows), capturing interfacial jumps sharply, within one cell. Performance is illustrated with a variety of test problems, including low-Mach-number “manufactured” solutions, shock dynamics/tracking with slow dynamic time scales, and multi-fluid, highspeed shock-tube problems. We briefly discuss preconditioning, and we introduce two physics
Numerical experiments with an implicit particle filter for the shallow water equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souopgui, I.; Chorin, A. J.; Hussaini, M.
2012-12-01
The estimation of initial conditions for the shallow water equations for a given set of later data is a well known test problem for data assimilation codes. A popular approach to this problem is the variational method (4D-Var), i.e. the computation of the mode of the posterior probability density function (pdf) via the adjoint technique. Here, we improve on 4D-Var by computing the conditional mean (the minimum least square error estimator) rather than the mode (a biased estimator) and we do so with implicit sampling, a Monte Carlo (MC) importance sampling method. The idea in implicit sampling is to first search for the high-probability region of the posterior pdf and then to find samples in this region. Because the samples are concentrated in the high-probability region, fewer samples are required than with competing MC schemes. The search for the high-probability region can be implemented by a minimization that is very similar to the minimization in 4D-Var, and we make use of a 4D-Var code in our implementation. The samples are obtained by solving algebraic equations with a random right-hand-side. These equations can be solved efficiently, so that the additional cost of our approach, compared to traditional 4D-Var, is small. The long-term goal is to assimilate experimental data, obtained with the CORIOLIS turntable in Grenoble (France), to study the drift of a vortex. We present results from numerical twin experiments as a first step towards our long-term goal. We discretize the shallow water equations on a square domain (2.5m× 2.5m) using finite differences on a staggered grid of size 28× 28 and a fourth order Runge-Kutta. We assume open boundary conditions and estimate the initial state (velocities and surface height) given noisy observations of the state. We solve the optimization problem using a 4D-Var code that relies on a L-BFGS method; the random algebraic equations are solved with random maps, i.e. we look for solutions in given, but random, directions
Nondestructive identification of the Bell diagonal state
Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui; Song Heshan
2011-03-15
We propose a scheme for identifying an unknown Bell diagonal state. In our scheme the measurements are performed on the probe qubits instead of the Bell diagonal state. The distinct advantage is that the quantum state of the evolved Bell diagonal state ensemble plus probe states will still collapse on the original Bell diagonal state ensemble after the measurement on probe states; i.e., our identification is quantum state nondestructive. How to realize our scheme in the framework of cavity electrodynamics is also shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abarbanel, Saul; Gottlieb, David; Carpenter, Mark H.
1994-01-01
It has been previously shown that the temporal integration of hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDE's) may, because of boundary conditions, lead to deterioration of accuracy of the solution. A procedure for removal of this error in the linear case has been established previously. In the present paper we consider hyperbolic (PDE's) (linear and non-linear) whose boundary treatment is done via the SAT-procedure. A methodology is present for recovery of the full order of accuracy, and has been applied to the case of a 4th order explicit finite difference scheme.
The delayed coupling method: An algorithm for solving banded diagonal matrix problems in parallel
Mattor, N.; Williams, T.J.; Hewett, D.W.; Dimits, A.M.
1997-09-01
We present a new algorithm for solving banded diagonal matrix problems efficiently on distributed-memory parallel computers, designed originally for use in dynamic alternating-direction implicit partial differential equation solvers. The algorithm optimizes efficiency with respect to the number of numerical operations and to the amount of interprocessor communication. This is called the ``delayed coupling method`` because the communication is deferred until needed. We focus here on tridiagonal and periodic tridiagonal systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, S. E.; Kwak, D.; Chang, J. L. C.
1986-01-01
The method of pseudocompressibility has been shown to be an efficient method for obtaining a steady-state solution to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Recent improvements to this method include the use of a diagonal scheme for the inversion of the equations at each iteration. The necessary transformations have been derived for the pseudocompressibility equations in generalized coordinates. The diagonal algorithm reduces the computing time necessary to obtain a steady-state solution by a factor of nearly three. Implicit viscous terms are maintained in the equations, and it has become possible to use fourth-order implicit dissipation. The steady-state solution is unchanged by the approximations resulting from the diagonalization of the equations. Computed results for flow over a two-dimensional backward-facing step and a three-dimensional cylinder mounted normal to a flat plate are presented for both the old and new algorithms. The accuracy and computing efficiency of these algorithms are compared.
Parallelization of implicit finite difference schemes in computational fluid dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Decker, Naomi H.; Naik, Vijay K.; Nicoules, Michel
1990-01-01
Implicit finite difference schemes are often the preferred numerical schemes in computational fluid dynamics, requiring less stringent stability bounds than the explicit schemes. Each iteration in an implicit scheme involves global data dependencies in the form of second and higher order recurrences. Efficient parallel implementations of such iterative methods are considerably more difficult and non-intuitive. The parallelization of the implicit schemes that are used for solving the Euler and the thin layer Navier-Stokes equations and that require inversions of large linear systems in the form of block tri-diagonal and/or block penta-diagonal matrices is discussed. Three-dimensional cases are emphasized and schemes that minimize the total execution time are presented. Partitioning and scheduling schemes for alleviating the effects of the global data dependencies are described. An analysis of the communication and the computation aspects of these methods is presented. The effect of the boundary conditions on the parallel schemes is also discussed.
Implicit solvers for unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.
1991-01-01
Implicit methods were developed and tested for unstructured mesh computations. The approximate system which arises from the Newton linearization of the nonlinear evolution operator is solved by using the preconditioned GMRES (Generalized Minimum Residual) technique. Three different preconditioners were studied, namely, the incomplete LU factorization (ILU), block diagonal factorization, and the symmetric successive over relaxation (SSOR). The preconditioners were optimized to have good vectorization properties. SSOR and ILU were also studied as iterative schemes. The various methods are compared over a wide range of problems. Ordering of the unknowns, which affects the convergence of these sparse matrix iterative methods, is also studied. Results are presented for inviscid and turbulent viscous calculations on single and multielement airfoil configurations using globally and adaptively generated meshes.
23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL ...
23. INCLINED END POST / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / PORTAL BRACING DETAIL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE
30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND ...
30. BEARING SHOE / VERTICAL / DIAGONAL / UPPER AND LOWER CHORD DETAIL OF DECK TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE
Energy patterns in coupled α-helix protein chains with diagonal and off-diagonal couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabi, C. B.; Ondoua, R. Y.; Ekobena Fouda, H. P.; Kofané, T. C.
2016-07-01
We introduce off-diagonal effects in the three-stranded model of α-helix chains, which bring about additional nonlinear terms to enhance the way energy spreads among the coupled spines. This is analyzed through the modulational instability theory. The linear stability analysis of plane wave solutions is performed and the competitive effects of diagonal and off-diagonal interactions are studied, followed by direct numerical simulations. Some features of the obtained solitonic structures are discussed.
Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications.
Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris
2016-08-01
An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and thereby allows for the enrichment of specific, though different types of peptides. Here, we focus on the application of diagonal chromatography for the study of modifications of plant proteins. In particular, we show how diagonal chromatography allows for studying proteins processed by proteases, protein ubiquitination, and the oxidation of protein-bound methionines. We discuss the actual sorting steps needed for each of these applications and the obtained results. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics- a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. PMID:26772901
Dual Diagonalization of Reactive Transport Equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, G.; Tsai, C.
2013-12-01
One solves a system of species transport equations in the primitive approach to reactive transport modeling. This approach is not able to decouple equilibrium reaction rates from species concentrations. This problem has been overcome with the approach to diagonalizing the reaction matrix since mid 1990's, which yields the same number of transport equations for reaction-extents. In the diagonalization approach, first, a subset of reaction- extent transport equations is solved for concentrations of components and kinetic-variables. Then, the component, kinetic-variable, and mass action equations are solved for all species concentrations. Finally, the equilibrium reaction rates are posterior computed. The difficulty in this approach is that the solution of species concentrations in the second step is a stiff problem when the concentrations of master species are small compared to those of equilibrium species. To overcome the problem of stiffness, we propose a dual diagonalization approach. Here, a second diagonalization is performed on the decomposed unit matrix to yield species concentrations, each as a linear function of reaction extents. In this dual diagonalization approach, four steps are needed to complete the modeling. First, component and kinetic-variable transport equations are solved for the concentrations of components (a subset of reaction-extents) and kinetic-variables (another subset of reaction-extents). Second, the set of mass action equations written in terms of reaction extents are solved for equilibrium-variables (yet another subset of reaction-extents). Third, species concentrations are posterior obtained by solving the set of linear equations defining reaction-extents. Fourth, equilibrium rates are posterior calculated with transport equations for equilibrium-variables. Several example problems will be used to demonstrate the efficiency of this approach. Keywords: Reactive Transport, Reaction-Extent, Component, Kinetic-Variable, Equilibrium
Multigrid calculation of three-dimensional turbomachinery flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Caughey, David A.
1989-01-01
Research was performed in the general area of computational aerodynamics, with particular emphasis on the development of efficient techniques for the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations for transonic flows through the complex blade passages associated with turbomachines. In particular, multigrid methods were developed, using both explicit and implicit time-stepping schemes as smoothing algorithms. The specific accomplishments of the research have included: (1) the development of an explicit multigrid method to solve the Euler equations for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows based upon the multigrid implementation of Jameson's explicit Runge-Kutta scheme (Jameson 1983); (2) the development of an implicit multigrid scheme for the three-dimensional Euler equations based upon lower-upper factorization; (3) the development of a multigrid scheme using a diagonalized alternating direction implicit (ADI) algorithm; (4) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid method to solve the Euler equations of inviscid flow for three-dimensional turbomachinery flows; and also (5) the extension of the diagonalized ADI multigrid scheme to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two-dimensional turbomachinery flows.
Implicit and semi-implicit schemes: Algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keppens, R.; Tóth, G.; Botchev, M. A.; van der Ploeg, A.
1999-06-01
This study formulates general guidelines to extend an explicit code with a great variety of implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes. The discussion is based on their specific implementation in the Versatile Advection Code, which is a general purpose software package for solving systems of non-linear hyperbolic (and/or parabolic) partial differential equations, using standard high resolution shock capturing schemes. For all combinations of explicit high resolution schemes with implicit and semi-implicit treatments, it is shown how second-order spatial and temporal accuracy for the smooth part of the solutions can be maintained. Strategies to obtain steady state and time accurate solutions implicitly are discussed. The implicit and semi-implicit schemes require the solution of large linear systems containing the Jacobian matrix. The Jacobian matrix itself is calculated numerically to ensure the generality of this implementation. Three options are discussed in terms of applicability, storage requirements and computational efficiency. One option is the easily implemented matrix-free approach, but the Jacobian matrix can also be calculated by using a general grid masking algorithm, or by an efficient implementation for a specific Lax-Friedrich-type total variation diminishing (TVD) spatial discretization. The choice of the linear solver depends on the dimensionality of the problem. In one dimension, a direct block tridiagonal solver can be applied, while in more than one spatial dimension, a conjugate gradient (CG)-type iterative solver is used. For advection-dominated problems, preconditioning is needed to accelerate the convergence of the iterative schemes. The modified block incomplete LU-preconditioner is implemented, which performs very well. Examples from two-dimensional hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic computations are given. They model transonic stellar outflow and recover the complex magnetohydrodynamic bow shock flow in the switch-on regime
Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Rezaee, M.; Seyed Yagoobi, S. K. A.
2005-12-15
It has been shown that finding generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for d{sub 1}xd{sub 2}x{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}xd{sub n} systems reduces to linear programming if the feasible region is a polygon by itself, and it can be solved approximately via linear programming if the feasible region is encircled by a polygon. Since solving linear programming for the generic case is difficult, multiqubit, 2xN and 3x3 systems for the special case of generic Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses for some particular choice of parameters have been considered. We obtain the optimal nondecomposable entanglement witness for a 3x3 system for some particular choice of parameters. By proving the optimality of the well-known reduction map and combining it with the optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses (named critical entanglement witnesses) the family of optimal and nondecomposable 3x3 Bell-state diagonal-entanglement witnesses has also been obtained. Using the approximately critical entanglement witnesses, some 3x3 bound entangled states are so detected. So the well-known Choi map as a particular case of the positive map in connection with this witness via Jamiolkowski isomorphism has been considered.
Diagonal Pade approximations for initial value problems
Reusch, M.F.; Ratzan, L.; Pomphrey, N.; Park, W.
1987-06-01
Diagonal Pade approximations to the time evolution operator for initial value problems are applied in a novel way to the numerical solution of these problems by explicitly factoring the polynomials of the approximation. A remarkable gain over conventional methods in efficiency and accuracy of solution is obtained. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Development of a variable time-step transient NEW code: SPANDEX
Aviles, B.N. )
1993-01-01
This paper describes a three-dimensional, variable time-step transient multigroup diffusion theory code, SPANDEX (space-time nodal expansion method). SPANDEX is based on the static nodal expansion method (NEM) code, NODEX (Ref. 1), and employs a nonlinear algorithm and a fifth-order expansion of the transverse-integrated fluxes. The time integration scheme in SPANDEX is a fourth-order implicit generalized Runge-Kutta method (GRK) with on-line error control and variable time-step selection. This Runge-Kutta method has been applied previously to point kinetics and one-dimensional finite difference transient analysis. This paper describes the application of the Runge-Kutta method to three-dimensional reactor transient analysis in a multigroup NEM code.
Numerical precision of the solution to the running-coupling Balitsky-Kovchegov equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matas, Marek; Cepila, Jan; Guillermo Contreras Nuno, Jesus
2016-03-01
We use the running coupling Balitsky-Kovchegov (rcBK) equation to study the rapidity dependence of saturation in inclusive HERA data and we discuss the behaviour of its numerical solution. The rcBK equation has been solved using Runge-Kutta methods. The influence of the parameters implicit in the numerical evolution has been studied. They include, among others, the order of the Runge-Kutta evolution, the size of the different grids and the step in the numerical evolution. Some suggestions on the minimum value of these parameters are put forward.
Langdon, A.B.
1985-03-03
Implicit time integration methods have been used extensively in numerical modelling of slowly varying phenomena in systems that also support rapid variation. Examples include diffusion, hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. This article discussed implementation of implicit time integration in plasma codes of the ''particle-in-cell'' family, and the benefits to be gained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skliar, M.; Ramirez, W. F.
1997-01-01
For an implicitly defined discrete system, a new algorithm for Kalman filtering is developed and an efficient numerical implementation scheme is proposed. Unlike the traditional explicit approach, the implicit filter can be readily applied to ill-conditioned systems and allows for generalization to descriptor systems. The implementation of the implicit filter depends on the solution of the congruence matrix equation (A1)(Px)(AT1) = Py. We develop a general iterative method for the solution of this equation, and prove necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence. It is shown that when the system matrices of an implicit system are sparse, the implicit Kalman filter requires significantly less computer time and storage to implement as compared to the traditional explicit Kalman filter. Simulation results are presented to illustrate and substantiate the theoretical developments.
Diagonal-transition quantum cascade detector
Reininger, Peter Schwarz, Benedikt; Detz, Hermann; MacFarland, Don; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried; Baumgartner, Oskar; Kosina, Hans
2014-09-01
We demonstrate the concept of diagonal transitions for quantum cascade detectors (QCD). Different to standard, vertical QCDs, here the active transition takes place between two energy levels in adjacent wells. Such a scheme has versatile advantages. Diagonal transitions generally yield a higher extraction efficiency and a higher resistance than vertical transitions. This leads to an improved overall performance, although the absorption strength of the active transition is smaller. Since the extraction is not based on resonant tunneling, the design is more robust, with respect to deviations from the nominal structure. In a first approach, a peak responsivity of 16.9 mA/W could be achieved, which is an improvement to the highest shown responsivity of a QCD for a wavelength of 8 μm at room-temperature by almost an order of magnitude.
Diagonal multisoliton matrix elements in finite volume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pálmai, T.; Takács, G.
2013-02-01
We consider diagonal matrix elements of local operators between multisoliton states in finite volume in the sine-Gordon model and formulate a conjecture regarding their finite size dependence which is valid up to corrections exponential in the volume. This conjecture extends the results of Pozsgay and Takács which were only valid for diagonal scattering. In order to test the conjecture, we implement a numerical renormalization group improved truncated conformal space approach. The numerical comparisons confirm the conjecture, which is expected to be valid for general integrable field theories. The conjectured formula can be used to evaluate finite temperature one-point and two-point functions using recently developed methods.
Time integration algorithms for the two-dimensional Euler equations on unstructured meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slack, David C.; Whitaker, D. L.; Walters, Robert W.
1994-01-01
Explicit and implicit time integration algorithms for the two-dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids are presented. Both cell-centered and cell-vertex finite volume upwind schemes utilizing Roe's approximate Riemann solver are developed. For the cell-vertex scheme, a four-stage Runge-Kutta time integration, a fourstage Runge-Kutta time integration with implicit residual averaging, a point Jacobi method, a symmetric point Gauss-Seidel method and two methods utilizing preconditioned sparse matrix solvers are presented. For the cell-centered scheme, a Runge-Kutta scheme, an implicit tridiagonal relaxation scheme modeled after line Gauss-Seidel, a fully implicit lower-upper (LU) decomposition, and a hybrid scheme utilizing both Runge-Kutta and LU methods are presented. A reverse Cuthill-McKee renumbering scheme is employed for the direct solver to decrease CPU time by reducing the fill of the Jacobian matrix. A comparison of the various time integration schemes is made for both first-order and higher order accurate solutions using several mesh sizes, higher order accuracy is achieved by using multidimensional monotone linear reconstruction procedures. The results obtained for a transonic flow over a circular arc suggest that the preconditioned sparse matrix solvers perform better than the other methods as the number of elements in the mesh increases.
Awareness of Implicit Attitudes
Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.
2013-01-01
Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868
Investigations on the Incompletely Developed Plane Diagonal-Tension Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Paul
1940-01-01
This report presents the results of an investigation on the incompletely developed diagonal-tension field. Actual diagonal-tension beams work in an intermediate stage between pure shear and pure diagonal tension; the theory developed by wagner for diagonal tension is not directly applicable. The first part of the paper reviews the most essential items of the theory of pure diagonal tension as well as previous attempts to formulate a theory of incomplete diagonal tension. The second part of the paper describes strain measurement made by the N. A. C. A. to obtain the necessary coefficients for the proposed theory. The third part of the paper discusses the stress analysis of diagonal-tension beams by means of the proposed theory.
Simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal order in the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian
Scalettar, R.T.; Batrouni, G.G.; Kampf, A.P.; Zimanyi, G.T.
1995-04-01
The Bose-Hubbard model exhibits a rich phase diagram consisting both of insulating regimes where diagonal long-range (solid) order dominates as well as conducting regimes where off-diagonal long-range order (superfluidity) is present. In this paper we describe the results of quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the phase diagram, both for the hard- and soft-core cases, with a particular focus on the possibility of simultaneous superfluid and solid order. We also discuss the appearance of phase separation in the model. The simulations are compared with analytic calculations of the phase diagram and spin-wave dispersion.
Electromagnetic direct implicit PIC simulation
Langdon, A.B.
1983-03-29
Interesting modelling of intense electron flow has been done with implicit particle-in-cell simulation codes. In this report, the direct implicit PIC simulation approach is applied to simulations that include full electromagnetic fields. The resulting algorithm offers advantages relative to moment implicit electromagnetic algorithms and may help in our quest for robust and simpler implicit codes.
LU decompositions of generalized diagonally dominant matrices
Funderlic, R.E.; Neumann, M.; Plemmons, R.J.
1982-02-01
Using the simple vehicle of M-matrices, the existence and stability of LU decompositions of matrices A which can be scaled to diagonally dominant (possibly singular) matrices are investigated. Bounds on the growth factor for Gaussian elimination on A are derived. Motivation for this study is provided in part by applications to solving homogeneous systems of linear equations Ax = 0, arising in Markov queuing networks, input-output models in economics and compartmental systems, where A or -A is an irreducible, singular M-matrix.
Universal single level implicit algorithm for gasdynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lombard, C. K.; Venkatapthy, E.
1984-01-01
A single level effectively explicit implicit algorithm for gasdynamics is presented. The method meets all the requirements for unconditionally stable global iteration over flows with mixed supersonic and supersonic zones including blunt body flow and boundary layer flows with strong interaction and streamwise separation. For hyperbolic (supersonic flow) regions the method is automatically equivalent to contemporary space marching methods. For elliptic (subsonic flow) regions, rapid convergence is facilitated by alternating direction solution sweeps which bring both sets of eigenvectors and the influence of both boundaries of a coordinate line equally into play. Point by point updating of the data with local iteration on the solution procedure at each spatial step as the sweeps progress not only renders the method single level in storage but, also, improves nonlinear accuracy to accelerate convergence by an order of magnitude over related two level linearized implicit methods. The method derives robust stability from the combination of an eigenvector split upwind difference method (CSCM) with diagonally dominant ADI(DDADI) approximate factorization and computed characteristic boundary approximations.
An Ancient Egyptian Diagonal Star Table in Mallawi, Egypt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Symons, Sarah; Cockcroft, Robert
2013-11-01
A coffin belonging to an Egyptian Middle Kingdom official Hor-em-hetepu, on public display in the Mallawi Monuments Museum, Egypt, contains a previously-unpublished diagonal star table (or "diagonal star clock"). This table adds to the other twenty-four examples of this type of astronomical record or calendar from around 2100 B.C. The table displays a regular diagonal pattern of decan (star or asterism) names, with some interesting points of content, epigraphy, and typology.
Implicit Attitudes in Prosopagnosia
Knutson, Kristine M.; DeTucci, Karen A.; Grafman, Jordan
2011-01-01
We studied a male with acquired prosopagnosia using a battery of implicit association tests (IATs) to investigate whether observing faces varying by social category would activate the patient’s implicit social biases. We also asked him to categorize faces explicitly by race, gender, and political party. The patient, G.B., was marginally slower to categorize black compared to white faces. He showed congruency effects in the race and celebrity IATs, but not in the gender or political IATs. These results indicate that G.B. possesses an implicit social sensitivity to certain facial stimuli despite an inability to overtly recognize familiar faces. The results demonstrate that social biases can be retrieved based on facial stimuli via pathways bypassing the fusiform gyri. Thus the IAT effect can be added to the list of covert recognition effects found in prosopagnosia. PMID:21414330
Implicit Spacecraft Gyro Calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.
2003-01-01
This paper presents an implicit algorithm for spacecraft onboard instrument calibration, particularly to onboard gyro calibration. This work is an extension of previous work that was done where an explicit gyro calibration algorithm was applied to the AQUA spacecraft gyros. The algorithm presented in this paper was tested using simulated data and real data that were downloaded from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft. The calibration tests gave very good results. A comparison between the use of the implicit calibration algorithm used here with the explicit algorithm used for AQUA spacecraft indicates that both provide an excellent estimation of the gyro calibration parameters with similar accuracies.
Sexual Murderers' Implicit Theories
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beech, Anthony; Fisher, Dawn; Ward, Tony
2005-01-01
Interviews with 28 sexual murderers were subjected to grounded theory analysis. Five implicit theories (ITs) were identified: dangerous world, male sex drive is uncontrollable, entitlement, women as sexual objects, and women as unknowable. These ITs were found to be identical to those identified in the literature as being present in rapists. The…
Droit-Volet, Sylvie
2016-01-01
This study examined the effects of emotion on implicit timing. In the implicit timing task used, the participants did not receive any temporal instructions. Instead they were simply asked and trained to press a key as quickly as possible after a stimulus (response stimulus) that was separated from a preceding stimulus by a given temporal interval (reference interval duration). However, in the testing phase, the interval duration was the reference interval duration or a shorter or longer interval duration. In addition, the participants attended two sessions: a first baseline session in which no stimulus was presented during the inter-stimulus intervals, and a second emotional session in which emotional facial expressions (angry, neutral and sad facial expressions) were presented during these intervals. Results showed faster RTs for interval durations close to the reference duration in both the baseline and the emotional conditions and yielded a U-shaped curve. This suggests that implicit processing of time persists in emotional contexts. In addition, the RT was faster for the facial expressions of anger than for those of neutrality and sadness. However, the U-shaped RT curve did not peak clearly at a shorter interval duration for the angry than for the other facial expressions. This lack of time distortion in an implicit timing task in response to arousing emotional stimuli questions the idea of an automatic speeding-up of the interval clock system involved in the representation of time. PMID:27380409
3. VIEW OF EAST PORTION OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 ...
3. VIEW OF EAST PORTION OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN LOOKING TOWARDS THE CENTRAL BEND, LOOKING 2742 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...
7. VIEW OF WEAPONS DELIVERY ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 522 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
6. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...
6. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 2502 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
4. VIEW OF EAST PORTION OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 ...
4. VIEW OF EAST PORTION OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN LOOKING TOWARDS THE CENTRAL BEND, LOOKING 270t EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
5. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL ...
5. VIEW OF WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 323' EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
2. VIEW OF CENTRAL BEND OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 ...
2. VIEW OF CENTRAL BEND OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN, LOOKING 2932 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
1. VIEW OF WEST PORTION OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 ...
1. VIEW OF WEST PORTION OF LOWER DIAGONAL NO. 1 DRAIN LOOKING TOWARDS THE WEST GATE ROAD CULVERT, LOOKING 3052 EAST OF NORTH. - Truckee-Carson Irrigation District, Lower Diagonal No. 1 Drain, Bounded by West Gate Road & Weapons Delivery Road, Naval Air Station Fallon, Fallon, Churchill County, NV
Precision measurement of the off-diagonal hyperfine interaction
Gilbert, S.L.; Masterson, B.P.; Noecker, M.C.; Wieman, C.E.
1986-10-01
We have measured the hyperfine mixing of the 6S and 7S states of cesium using a new high-precision experimental technique. By comparing the diagonal and off-diagonal hyperfine interaction for these states, we find that a single-particle description of the states is accurate to better than 2%.
Covariant Perturbation Expansion of Off-Diagonal Heat Kernel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gou, Yu-Zi; Li, Wen-Du; Zhang, Ping; Dai, Wu-Sheng
2016-07-01
Covariant perturbation expansion is an important method in quantum field theory. In this paper an expansion up to arbitrary order for off-diagonal heat kernels in flat space based on the covariant perturbation expansion is given. In literature, only diagonal heat kernels are calculated based on the covariant perturbation expansion.
Generalized coordinate Bethe ansatz for non-diagonal boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crampe, N.; Ragoucy, E.
2012-05-01
We compute the spectrum and the eigenstates of the open XXX model with non-diagonal (triangular) boundary matrices. Since the boundary matrices are not diagonal, the usual coordinate Bethe ansatz does not work anymore, and we use a generalization of it to solve the problem.
Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...
Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN
A Finite-Element Approach for Modeling Inviscid and Viscous Compressible Flows using Prismatic Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, S. A.; Hefez, M.
2000-01-01
The Galerkin finite-element method is used to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on prismatic meshes. It is shown that the prismatic grid is advantageous for correctly and efficiently capturing the boundary layers in high Reynolds number flows. It can be captured accurately because of the ability to cluster grid points normal to the body. The efficiency derives from the implicit treatment of the normal direction. To treat the normal direction implicitly, a semi-implicit Runge-Kutta time stepping scheme is developed. The semi-implicit algorithm is validated on simple geometries for inviscid and viscous flows and its convergence history is compared to that of the explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. The semi-implicit scheme is shown to be a factor of 3 to 4 faster in terms of CPU time to convergence.
Implicit Learning as an Ability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas
2010-01-01
The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…
Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable
Menkov, V.
1996-12-31
An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.
Numerical solution of 3D Navier-Stokes equations with upwind implicit schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marx, Yves P.
1990-01-01
An upwind MUSCL type implicit scheme for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is presented. Comparison between different approximate Riemann solvers (Roe and Osher) are performed and the influence of the reconstructions schemes on the accuracy of the solution as well as on the convergence of the method is studied. A new limiter is introduced in order to remove the problems usually associated with non-linear upwind schemes. The implementation of a diagonal upwind implicit operator for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is also discussed. Finally the turbulence modeling is assessed. Good prediction of separated flows are demonstrated if a non-equilibrium turbulence model is used.
Iterative diagonalization for orbital optimization in natural orbital functional theory.
Piris, M; Ugalde, J M
2009-10-01
A challenging task in natural orbital functional theory is to find an efficient procedure for doing orbital optimization. Procedures based on diagonalization techniques have confirmed its practical value since the resulting orbitals are automatically orthogonal. In this work, a new procedure is introduced, which yields the natural orbitals by iterative diagonalization of a Hermitian matrix F. The off-diagonal elements of the latter are determined explicitly from the hermiticity of the matrix of the Lagrange multipliers. An expression for diagonal elements is absent so a generalized Fockian is undefined in the conventional sense, nevertheless, they may be determined from an aufbau principle. Thus, the diagonal elements are obtained iteratively considering as starting values those coming from a single diagonalization of the matrix of the Lagrange multipliers calculated with the Hartree-Fock orbitals after the occupation numbers have been optimized. The method has been tested on the G2/97 set of molecules for the Piris natural orbital functional. To help the convergence, we have implemented a variable scaling factor which avoids large values of the off-diagonal elements of F. The elapsed times of the computations required by the proposed procedure are compared with a full sequential quadratic programming optimization, so that the efficiency of the method presented here is demonstrated. PMID:19219918
Resonant energy transfer assisted by off-diagonal coupling.
Wu, Ning; Sun, Ke-Wei; Chang, Zhe; Zhao, Yang
2012-03-28
Dynamics of resonant energy transfer of a single excitation in a molecular dimer system are studied in the simultaneous presence of diagonal and off-diagonal exciton-phonon coupling. It is found that, at given temperatures, the off-diagonal coupling can enhance both the coherence of the resonant energy transfer and the net quantity of energy transferred from an initially excited monomer to the other. Also studied is the dynamics of entanglement between the dimer system and the phonon bath as measured by the von Neumann entanglement entropy, and the inter-monomer entanglement dynamics for the excitonic system. PMID:22462880
Teleportation of an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqudit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Qian-Hua; Lin, Xiu-Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Gong-Wei; Chen, Li-Bo; Gu, Yong-Jian
2008-03-01
This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqutrit via classical correlation and classical communication. To teleport an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of N qutrits, N classically correlated pairs of two qutrits are used as channel. The sender (Alice) makes Fourier transform and conditional gate (i.e., XOR(3) gate) on her qutrits and does measurement in appropriate computation bases. Then she sends N ctrits to the receiver (Bob). Based on the received information, Bob performs the corresponding unitary transformation on his qutrits and obtains the teleported state. Teleportation of an arbitrary mixture of diagonal states of multiqudit is also discussed.
Block-diagonal similarity renormalization group and effective nucleon-nucleon interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szpigel, S.; Timóteo, V. S.; Ruiz Arriola, E.
2016-04-01
We apply the block-diagonal similarity renormalization group to a simple toy-model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction in the 1 S 0 channel, aiming to analyze the complementarity between the explicit and the implicit renormalization approaches in nuclear physics. By explicit renormalization we mean the methods based on the wilsonian renormalization group in which high-energy modes above a given cutoff scale are integrated out while their effects are replaced by scale dependent effective interactions consistently generated in the process. We call implicit renormalization the usual procedure of cutoff effective theories in which the high-energy modes above the cutoff scale are simply removed and their effects are included through parametrized cutoff dependent counterterms whose strengths are fixed by fitting low-energy data. We compare the effective interactions obtained in both schemes and find a wide range of cutoff scales where they overlap. We further analyze the role played by the one-pion exchange (OPE) considering a δ-shell plus OPE representation for the NN interaction.
13. VIEW OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING DIAGONAL AND VERTICAL ...
13. VIEW OF TOP CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING DIAGONAL AND VERTICAL WEB MEMBERS AND TOP LATERAL BRACING, SOUTHEAST SPAN, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Linden Avenue Bridge, Spanning Purgatoire River on Linden Avenue, Trinidad, Las Animas County, CO
33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...
33. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (right) Photographs taken by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA
Detail view of turnbuckle in diagonal member, with kodachrome film ...
Detail view of turnbuckle in diagonal member, with kodachrome film box on right turnbuckle for scale. - Pennsylvania Railroad, Whitford Bridge, Spanning Amtrak tracks at Whitford Road, Whitford, Chester County, PA
10. View of end portals, top chords, diagonals, verticals and ...
10. View of end portals, top chords, diagonals, verticals and strut connections. Looking from east span to east end of west span. - Boomershine Bridge, Spanning Twin Creek, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH
3. VIEW OF CENTER PANEL SHOWING DIAGONAL TENSION MEMBERS AND ...
3. VIEW OF CENTER PANEL SHOWING DIAGONAL TENSION MEMBERS AND LOWER CHORD CONNECTIONS. EAST BANK LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Cunningham Lane Bridge, Spanning Pine River on Cunningham Lane near Highway 80, Rockbridge, Richland County, WI
8. SOUTH VIEW, RIVETED CONNECTION POINT OF TOP CHORD, DIAGONAL ...
8. SOUTH VIEW, RIVETED CONNECTION POINT OF TOP CHORD, DIAGONAL TENSION MEMBER, INCLINED END POST AND VERTICAL MEMBER - Jordan Narrows Bridge, Crossing Jordan River at 9600 North, Lehi, Utah County, UT
15. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT END POSTS WITH DIAGONAL TENSION ...
15. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT END POSTS WITH DIAGONAL TENSION MEMBERS. NOTE: MODERN VEHICULAR BRIDGE TO RIGHT. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Bollman Truss Bridge, Spanning Little Patuxent River, Savage, Howard County, MD
Average diagonal entropy in nonequilibrium isolated quantum systems.
Giraud, Olivier; García-Mata, Ignacio
2016-07-01
The diagonal entropy was introduced as a good entropy candidate especially for isolated quantum systems out of equilibrium. Here we present an analytical calculation of the average diagonal entropy for systems undergoing unitary evolution and an external perturbation in the form of a cyclic quench. We compare our analytical findings with numerical simulations of various quantum systems. Our calculations elucidate various heuristic relations proposed recently in the literature. PMID:27575092
Implicit measure for yoga research: Yoga implicit association test
Ilavarasu, Judu V; Rajesh, Sasidharan K; Hankey, Alex
2014-01-01
Context: The implicit association test (IAT), a new tool for yoga research is presented. Implicit measures could be used in those situations where (1) The construct is difficult to self-report, (2) there is a threat of social desirability. Clinically, we can assess cognitive dissonance by evaluating incongruence between implicit and explicit measures. Explicit preferences are self-reported. Implicit preferences are what we inherently believe, often without our conscious awareness. Aims: The primary objective of this study is to provide a bird's eye view of the field, implicit cognition, with emphasis on the IAT and the secondary objective is to illustrate through an example of our study to develop an implicit tool to assess implicit preference toward yoga. Settings and Design: A total of 5 independent samples of total 69 students undergoing short and long-term yoga courses in a Yoga University were assessed for their implicit and explicit preferences towards yoga. Materials and Methods: The yoga-IAT (Y-IAT), explicit self-rating scale was administered through computers using the Inquisit program by Millisecond Software. Experimental and scoring materials are provided. Results: A moderate preference toward yoga was detected, with a lower implicit-explicit congruence, reflecting possible confound of social desirability in the self-report of preference toward yoga. Conclusions: Implicit measures may be used in the yoga field to assess constructs, which are difficult to self-report or may have social desirability threat. Y-IAT may be used to evaluate implicit preference toward yoga. PMID:25035621
A multigrid nonoscillatory method for computing high speed flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, C. P.; Shieh, T. H.
1993-01-01
A multigrid method using different smoothers has been developed to solve the Euler equations discretized by a nonoscillatory scheme up to fourth order accuracy. The best smoothing property is provided by a five-stage Runge-Kutta technique with optimized coefficients, yet the most efficient smoother is a backward Euler technique in factored and diagonalized form. The singlegrid solution for a hypersonic, viscous conic flow is in excellent agreement with the solution obtained by the third order MUSCL and Roe's method. Mach 8 inviscid flow computations for a complete entry probe have shown that the accuracy is at least as good as the symmetric TVD scheme of Yee and Harten. The implicit multigrid method is four times more efficient than the explicit multigrid technique and 3.5 times faster than the single-grid implicit technique. For a Mach 8.7 inviscid flow over a blunt delta wing at 30 deg incidence, the CPU reduction factor from the three-level multigrid computation is 2.2 on a grid of 37 x 41 x 73 nodes.
Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grantham, D. Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Erpenbeck, Eric A.
2003-08-01
Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60°) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10°, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.
The Neuropharmacology of Implicit Learning
Uddén, Julia; Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus
2010-01-01
Two decades of pharmacologic research on the human capacity to implicitly acquire knowledge as well as cognitive skills and procedures have yielded surprisingly few conclusive insights. We review the empirical literature of the neuropharmacology of implicit learning. We evaluate the findings in the context of relevant computational models related to neurotransmittors such as dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine and noradrenalin. These include models for reinforcement learning, sequence production, and categorization. We conclude, based on the reviewed literature, that one can predict improved implicit acquisition by moderately elevated dopamine levels and impaired implicit acquisition by moderately decreased dopamine levels. These effects are most prominent in the dorsal striatum. This is supported by a range of behavioral tasks in the empirical literature. Similar predictions can be made for serotonin, although there is yet a lack of support in the literature for serotonin involvement in classical implicit learning tasks. There is currently a lack of evidence for a role of the noradrenergic and cholinergic systems in implicit and related forms of learning. GABA modulators, including benzodiazepines, seem to affect implicit learning in a complex manner and further research is needed. Finally, we identify allosteric AMPA receptors modulators as a potentially interesting target for future investigation of the neuropharmacology of procedural and implicit learning. PMID:21629444
Implicit Sequence Learning in Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meulemans, Thierry; Van der Linden, Martial; Perruchet, Pierre
1998-01-01
Examined implicit learning ability in 6- and 10-year olds and adults as assessed by a serial reaction-time task, along with retention of knowledge after one week and explicit knowledge developed by children. Found no age-related difference in serial reaction-time performance, consistent with the idea that implicit learning abilities may be…
Implicit Theories of Peer Relationships
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rudolph, Karen D.
2010-01-01
This research investigated the role of children's implicit theories of peer relationships in their psychological, emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants included 206 children (110 girls; 96 boys; M age = 10.13 years, SD = 1.16) who reported on their implicit theories of peer relationships, social goal orientation, need for approval,…
Development of Implicit Methods in CFD NASA Ames Research Center 1970's - 1980's
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pulliam, Thomas H.
2010-01-01
The focus here is on the early development (mid 1970's-1980's) at NASA Ames Research Center of implicit methods in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). A class of implicit finite difference schemes of the Beam and Warming approximate factorization type will be addressed. The emphasis will be on the Euler equations. A review of material pertinent to the solution of the Euler equations within the framework of implicit methods will be presented. The eigensystem of the equations will be used extensively in developing a framework for various methods applied to the Euler equations. The development and analysis of various aspects of this class of schemes will be given along with the motivations behind many of the choices. Various acceleration and efficiency modifications such as matrix reduction, diagonalization and flux split schemes will be presented.
Diagonal unitary entangling gates and contradiagonal quantum states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakshminarayan, Arul; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol
2014-09-01
Nonlocal properties of an ensemble of diagonal random unitary matrices of order N2 are investigated. The average Schmidt strength of such a bipartite diagonal quantum gate is shown to scale as lnN, in contrast to the lnN2 behavior characteristic of random unitary gates. Entangling power of a diagonal gate U is related to the von Neumann entropy of an auxiliary quantum state ρ =AA†/N2, where the square matrix A is obtained by reshaping the vector of diagonal elements of U of length N2 into a square matrix of order N. This fact provides a motivation to study the ensemble of non-Hermitian unimodular matrices A, with all entries of the same modulus and random phases and the ensemble of quantum states ρ, such that all their diagonal entries are equal to 1/N. Such a state is contradiagonal with respect to the computational basis, in the sense that among all unitary equivalent states it maximizes the entropy copied to the environment due to the coarse-graining process. The first four moments of the squared singular values of the unimodular ensemble are derived, based on which we conjecture a connection to a recently studied combinatorial object called the "Borel triangle." This allows us to find exactly the mean von Neumann entropy for random phase density matrices and the average entanglement for the corresponding ensemble of bipartite pure states.
Net efficiency of roller skiing with a diagonal stride.
Nakai, Akira; Ito, Akira
2011-02-01
The aims of this study were: (a) to determine net efficiency during roller skiing with a diagonal stride at various speeds; (b) to assess the development of net efficiency across speeds; and (c) to examine the characteristics of efficiency in diagonal roller skiing. Two-dimensional kinematics and oxygen uptake were determined in eight male collegiate cross-country ski athletes who roller skied with the diagonal stride at various speeds on a level track. Net efficiency was calculated from rates of internal and external work and net energy expenditure. Individual net efficiency ranged from 17.7% to 52.1%. Net efficiency in the entire group of athletes increased with increasing speed, reached a maximum value of 37.3% at 3.68 m · s(-1), before slowly decreasing. These findings indicate that roller skiing with the diagonal stride at high speed is a highly efficient movement and that an optimal speed exists at which net efficiency can be maximally enhanced in diagonal roller skiing. PMID:21184346
Improving DTI tractography by including diagonal tract propagation.
Taylor, Paul A; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Ching-Po; Biswal, Bharat B
2012-01-01
Tractography algorithms have been developed to reconstruct likely WM pathways in the brain from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. In this study, an elegant and simple means for improving existing tractography algorithms is proposed by allowing tracts to propagate through diagonal trajectories between voxels, instead of only rectilinearly to their facewise neighbors. A series of tests (using both real and simulated data sets) are utilized to show several benefits of this new approach. First, the inclusion of diagonal tract propagation decreases the dependence of an algorithm on the arbitrary orientation of coordinate axes and therefore reduces numerical errors associated with that bias (which are also demonstrated here). Moreover, both quantitatively and qualitatively, including diagonals decreases overall noise sensitivity of results and leads to significantly greater efficiency in scanning protocols; that is, the obtained tracts converge much more quickly (i.e., in a smaller amount of scanning time) to those of data sets with high SNR and spatial resolution. Importantly, the inclusion of diagonal propagation adds essentially no appreciable time of calculation or computational costs to standard methods. This study focuses on the widely-used streamline tracking method, FACT (fiber assessment by continuous tracking), and the modified method is termed "FACTID" (FACT including diagonals). PMID:22970125
Diagonal free homonuclear correlation using heteronuclei at natural abundance.
Baishya, Bikash
2015-07-01
Homonuclear correlated spectroscopy such as COSY and TOCSY provides crucial structural information. In all homonuclear correlation, the most intense peaks are represented by the diagonal. As a result, the useful cross peaks close to the diagonal get obscured by the huge tails of diagonal peaks. Herein, we show that by editing the proton magnetization by a 13C nucleus in natural abundance, it is possible to eliminate the inphase coherence or untransferred magnetization that leads to the diagonal peak while retaining the antiphase coherence or transferred magnetization required for creation of cross peak. After the coherence transfer step, the untransferred magnetization directly attached to 13C evolves under one bond heteronuclear coupling while the transferred transverse magnetization directly attached to remote 12C does not. As a result, the untransferred magnetization directly attached to 13C can be converted to an unobservable heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence leading to a diagonal free correlated spectrum with a sensitivity penalty of two orders of magnitude but comparable to HSQC kind of experiments at natural abundance. The method demonstrated for COSY and TOCSY allows all proton-proton correlations to be observed except the geminal proton-proton correlations. Further, protons directly attached to heteronuclei other than 13C must be scalar coupled to protons directly attached to 13C to have a detectable cross peak. PMID:26001137
Implicit emotion perception in schizophrenia.
Trémeau, Fabien; Antonius, Daniel; Todorov, Alexander; Rebani, Yasmina; Ferrari, Kelsey; Lee, Sang Han; Calderone, Daniel; Nolan, Karen A; Butler, Pamela; Malaspina, Dolores; Javitt, Daniel C
2015-12-01
Explicit but not implicit facial emotion perception has been shown to be impaired in schizophrenia. In this study, we used newly developed technology in social neuroscience to examine implicit emotion processing. It has been shown that when people look at faces, they automatically infer social traits, and these trait judgments rely heavily on facial features and subtle emotion expressions even with neutral faces. Eighty-one individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 62 control subjects completed a computer task with 30 well-characterized neutral faces. They rated each face on 10 trait judgments: attractive, mean, trustworthy, intelligent, dominant, fun, sociable, aggressive, emotionally stable and weird. The degree to which trait ratings were predicted by objectively-measured subtle emotion expressions served as a measure of implicit emotion processing. Explicit emotion recognition was also examined. Trait ratings were significantly predicted by subtle facial emotional expressions in controls and patients. However, impairment in the implicit emotion perception of fear, happiness, anger and surprise was found in patients. Moreover, these deficits were associated with poorer everyday problem-solving skills and were relatively independent of explicit emotion recognition. Implicit emotion processing is impaired in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Deficits in implicit and explicit emotion perception independently contribute to the patients' poor daily life skills. More research is needed to fully understand the role of implicit and explicit processes in the functional deficits of patients, in order to develop targeted and useful remediation interventions. PMID:26473695
Neural network based diagonal decoupling control of powered wheelchair systems.
Nguyen, Tuan Nghia; Su, Steven; Nguyen, Hung T
2014-03-01
This paper proposes an advanced diagonal decoupling control method for powered wheelchair systems. This control method is based on a combination of the systematic diagonalization technique and the neural network control design. As such, this control method reduces coupling effects on a multivariable system, leading to independent control design procedures. Using an obtained dynamic model, the problem of the plant's Jacobian calculation is eliminated in a neural network control design. The effectiveness of the proposed control method is verified in a real-time implementation on a powered wheelchair system. The obtained results confirm that robustness and desired performance of the overall system are guaranteed, even under parameter uncertainty effects. PMID:23981543
Quantum Discord of 2 n -Dimensional Bell-Diagonal States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Amidi, D.; Zahir Olyaei, H.
2016-03-01
In this study, using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations we investigate the important issue of evaluating quantum correlations such as entanglement, dissonance and classical correlations for 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. We provide an analytical technique, which describes how we find the closest classical states(CCS) and the closest separable states(CSS) for these states. Then analytical results are obtained for quantum discord of 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. As illustration, some special cases are examined. Finally, we investigate the additivity relation between the different correlations for the separable generalized Bloch sphere states.
Spectral sharpening of color sensors: diagonal color constancy and beyond.
Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo
2014-01-01
It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years. PMID:24577523
Spectral Sharpening of Color Sensors: Diagonal Color Constancy and Beyond
Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo
2014-01-01
It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years. PMID:24577523
The efficient calculation of chemically reacting flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eklund, D. R.; Hassan, H. A.; Drummond, J. P.
1986-01-01
A semi-implicit finite volume formulation is used to study flows with chemical reactions. In this formulation the source terms resulting from the chemical reactions are treated implicitly and the resulting system of partial differential equations is solved using two time-stepping schemes. The first is based on the Runge-Kutta method while the second is based on an Adams predictor-corrector method. Results show that improvements in computational efficiency depend to a large extent on the manner in which the source term is treated. Further, analysis and computation indicate that the Runge-Kutta method is more efficient than the Adams methods. Finally, an adaptive time stepping scheme is developed to study problems involving shock ignition. Calculations for a hydrogen-air system agree well with other methods.
Improving stochastic estimates with inference methods: calculating matrix diagonals.
Selig, Marco; Oppermann, Niels; Ensslin, Torsten A
2012-02-01
Estimating the diagonal entries of a matrix, that is not directly accessible but only available as a linear operator in the form of a computer routine, is a common necessity in many computational applications, especially in image reconstruction and statistical inference. Here, methods of statistical inference are used to improve the accuracy or the computational costs of matrix probing methods to estimate matrix diagonals. In particular, the generalized Wiener filter methodology, as developed within information field theory, is shown to significantly improve estimates based on only a few sampling probes, in cases in which some form of continuity of the solution can be assumed. The strength, length scale, and precise functional form of the exploited autocorrelation function of the matrix diagonal is determined from the probes themselves. The developed algorithm is successfully applied to mock and real world problems. These performance tests show that, in situations where a matrix diagonal has to be calculated from only a small number of computationally expensive probes, a speedup by a factor of 2 to 10 is possible with the proposed method. PMID:22463179
Penguins and Pandas: A Note on Teaching Cantor's Diagonal Argument
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rauff, James V.
2008-01-01
Cantor's diagonal proof that the set of real numbers is uncountable is one of the most famous arguments in modern mathematics. Mathematics students usually see this proof somewhere in their undergraduate experience, but it is rarely a part of the mathematical curriculum of students of the fine arts or humanities. This note describes contexts that…
34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), ...
34. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in foreground), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA
35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), ...
35. Coal Fuel Elevator (diagonal in center), Fuel Elevator (left), Fuel Storage Bins (center), and Power Plant (far center), and Retail Coal Storage Bins (right) Photograph taken by George Harven - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA
View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of ...
View, from south showing verticals, diagonals, and overhead bracing of south span Pratt through trusses, south portal of north span, pipe rails and posts, and concrete deck with bituminous wearing surface - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA
1. Aerial view of turnpike path running diagonally up from ...
1. Aerial view of turnpike path running diagonally up from lower left (present-day Orange Turnpike alignment) and containing on towards upper right through tree clump in center of the bare spot on the landscape, and on through the trees. View looking south. - Orange Turnpike, Parallel to new Orange Turnpike, Monroe, Orange County, NY
5. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST DOOR SHOWING DIAGONAL WOOD PATTERN OF ...
5. DETAIL OF SOUTHEAST DOOR SHOWING DIAGONAL WOOD PATTERN OF PANELS AND RINGS IN BRICK WALL USED FOR SECURING THE DOORS WITH CHAINS WHEN OPEN. - Presidio of San Francisco, Cavalry Stables, Cowles Street, between Lincoln Boulevard & McDowell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA
Semi-implicit finite difference methods for three-dimensional shallow water flow
Casulli, Vincenzo; Cheng, Ralph T.
1992-01-01
A semi-implicit finite difference method for the numerical solution of three-dimensional shallow water flows is presented and discussed. The governing equations are the primitive three-dimensional turbulent mean flow equations where the pressure distribution in the vertical has been assumed to be hydrostatic. In the method of solution a minimal degree of implicitness has been adopted in such a fashion that the resulting algorithm is stable and gives a maximal computational efficiency at a minimal computational cost. At each time step the numerical method requires the solution of one large linear system which can be formally decomposed into a set of small three-diagonal systems coupled with one five-diagonal system. All these linear systems are symmetric and positive definite. Thus the existence and uniquencess of the numerical solution are assured. When only one vertical layer is specified, this method reduces as a special case to a semi-implicit scheme for solving the corresponding two-dimensional shallow water equations. The resulting two- and three-dimensional algorithm has been shown to be fast, accurate and mass-conservative and can also be applied to simulate flooding and drying of tidal mud-flats in conjunction with three-dimensional flows. Furthermore, the resulting algorithm is fully vectorizable for an efficient implementation on modern vector computers.
Stiff modes in spinvalve simulations with OOMMF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitropoulos, Spyridon; Tsiantos, Vassilis; Ovaliadis, Kyriakos; Kechrakos, Dimitris; Donahue, Michael
2016-04-01
Micromagnetic simulations are an important tool for the investigation of magnetic materials. Micromagnetic software uses various techniques to solve differential equations, partial or ordinary, involved in the dynamic simulations. Euler, Runge-Kutta, Adams, and BDF (Backward Differentiation Formulae) are some of the methods used for this purpose. In this paper, spinvalve simulations are investigated. Evidence is presented showing that these systems have stiff modes, and that implicit methods such as BDF are more effective than explicit methods in such cases.
Multigrid time-accurate integration of Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arnone, Andrea; Liou, Meng-Sing; Povinelli, Louis A.
1993-01-01
Efficient acceleration techniques typical of explicit steady-state solvers are extended to time-accurate calculations. Stability restrictions are greatly reduced by means of a fully implicit time discretization. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme with local time stepping, residual smoothing, and multigridding is used instead of traditional time-expensive factorizations. Some applications to natural and forced unsteady viscous flows show the capability of the procedure.
Stable time integration suppresses unphysical oscillations in the bidomain model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torabi Ziaratgahi, Saeed; Marsh, Megan; Sundnes, Joakim; Spiteri, Raymond
2014-07-01
The bidomain model is a popular model for simulating electrical activity in cardiac tissue. It is a continuum-based model consisting of non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing spatially averaged cellular reactions and a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) describing electrodiffusion on tissue level. Because of this multi-scale, ODE/PDE structure of the model, operator-splitting methods that treat the ODEs and PDEs in separate steps are natural candidates as numerical solution methods. Second-order methods can generally be expected to be more effective than first-order methods under normal accuracy requirements. However, the simplest and the most commonly applied second-order method for the PDE step, the Crank--Nicolson (CN) method, may generate unphysical oscillations. In this paper, we investigate the performance of a two-stage, L-stable singly diagonally implicit Runge--Kutta method for solving the PDEs of the bidomain model. Numerical experiments show that the enhanced stability property of this method leads to more physically realistic numerical simulations compared to both the CN and backward Euler methods.
[Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit shyness].
Aikawa, Atsushi; Fujii, Tsutomu
2011-04-01
Previous research has shown that implicitly measured shyness predicted spontaneous shy behavior in social situations, while explicit self-ratings of shyness predicted controlled shy behavior (Asendorpf, Banse, & Mücke, 2002). The present study examined whether these same results would be replicated in Japan. In Study 1, college students (N=47) completed a shyness Implicit Association Test (IAT for shyness) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. In Study 2, friends (N=69) of the Study 1 participants rated those participants on various personality scales. Covariance structure analysis, revealed that only implicit self-concept measured by the shyness IAT predicted other-rated high interpersonal tension (spontaneous shy behavior). Also, only explicit self-concept predicted other-rated low praise seeking (controlled shy behavior). The results of this study are similar to the findings of the previous research. PMID:21706822
Algebraic methods for diagonalization of a quaternion matrix in quaternionic quantum theory
Jiang Tongsong
2005-05-01
By means of complex representation and real representation of a quaternion matrix, this paper studies the problem of diagonalization of a quaternion matrix, gives two algebraic methods for diagonalization of quaternion matrices in quaternionic quantum theory.
Posture modulates implicit hand maps.
Longo, Matthew R
2015-11-01
Several forms of somatosensation require that afferent signals be informed by stored representations of body size and shape. Recent results have revealed that position sense relies on a highly distorted body representation. Changes of internal hand posture produce plastic alterations of processing in somatosensory cortex. This study therefore investigated how such postural changes affect implicit body representations underlying position sense. Participants localised the knuckles and tips of each finger in external space in two postures: the fingers splayed (Apart posture) or pressed together (Together posture). Comparison of the relative locations of the judgments of each landmark were used to construct implicit maps of represented hand structure. Spreading the fingers apart produced increases in the implicit representation of hand size, with no apparent effect on hand shape. Thus, changes of internal hand posture produce rapid modulation of how the hand itself is represented, paralleling the known effects on somatosensory cortical processing. PMID:26117153
A CLT on the SNR of Diagonally Loaded MVDR Filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubio, Francisco; Mestre, Xavier; Hachem, Walid
2012-08-01
This paper studies the fluctuations of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of minimum variance distorsionless response (MVDR) filters implementing diagonal loading in the estimation of the covariance matrix. Previous results in the signal processing literature are generalized and extended by considering both spatially as well as temporarily correlated samples. Specifically, a central limit theorem (CLT) is established for the fluctuations of the SNR of the diagonally loaded MVDR filter, under both supervised and unsupervised training settings in adaptive filtering applications. Our second-order analysis is based on the Nash-Poincar\\'e inequality and the integration by parts formula for Gaussian functionals, as well as classical tools from statistical asymptotic theory. Numerical evaluations validating the accuracy of the CLT confirm the asymptotic Gaussianity of the fluctuations of the SNR of the MVDR filter.
Block-bordered diagonalization and parallel iterative solvers
Alvarado, F.; Dag, H.; Bruggencate, M. ten
1994-12-31
One of the most common techniques for enhancing parallelism in direct sparse matrix methods is the reorganization of a matrix into a blocked-bordered structure. Incomplete LDU factorization is a very good preconditioner for PCG in serial environments. However, the inherent sequential nature of the preconditioning step makes it less desirable in parallel environments. This paper explores the use of BBD (Blocked Bordered Diagonalization) in connection with ILU preconditioners. The paper shows that BBD-based ILU preconditioners are quite amenable to parallel processing. Neglecting entries from the entire border can result in a blocked diagonal matrix. The result is a great increase in parallelism at the expense of additional iterations. Experiments on the Sequent Symmetry shared memory machine using (mostly) power system that matrices indicate that the method is generally better than conventional ILU preconditioners and in many cases even better than partitioned inverse preconditioners, without the initial setup disadvantages of partitioned inverse preconditioners.
Off-diagonal Jacobian support for Nodal BCs
Peterson, John W.; Andrs, David; Gaston, Derek R.; Permann, Cody J.; Slaughter, Andrew E.
2015-01-01
In this brief note, we describe the implementation of o-diagonal Jacobian computations for nodal boundary conditions in the Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) [1] framework. There are presently a number of applications [2{5] based on the MOOSE framework that solve complicated physical systems of partial dierential equations whose boundary conditions are often highly nonlinear. Accurately computing the on- and o-diagonal Jacobian and preconditioner entries associated to these constraints is crucial for enabling ecient numerical solvers in these applications. Two key ingredients are required for properly specifying the Jacobian contributions of nonlinear nodal boundary conditions in MOOSE and nite element codes in general: 1. The ability to zero out entire Jacobian matrix rows after \
INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...
INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engles main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA
Covariant diagonalization of the perfect fluid stress-energy tensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garat, Alcides
2015-02-01
We introduce new tetrads that manifestly and covariantly diagonalize the stress-energy tensor for a perfect fluid with vorticity at every spacetime point. This new tetrad can be applied to introduce simplification in the analysis of astrophysical relativistic problems where vorticity is present through the Carter-Lichnerowicz equation. We also discuss the origin of inertia in this special case from the standpoint of our new local tetrads.
A Summary of Diagonal Tension Part I : Methods of Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Paul; Peterson, James P; Levin, L Ross
1952-01-01
Previously published methods for stress and strength analysis of plane and curved shear webs working in diagonal tension are presented as a unified method. The treatment is sufficiently comprehensive and detailed to make the paper self-contained. Part 1 discusses the theory and methods for calculating the stresses and shear deflections of web systems as well as the strengths of the web, the stiffeners, and the riveting. Part 2, published separately, presents the experimental evidence. (author)
A Partitioning Algorithm for Block-Diagonal Matrices With Overlap
Guy Antoine Atenekeng Kahou; Laura Grigori; Masha Sosonkina
2008-02-02
We present a graph partitioning algorithm that aims at partitioning a sparse matrix into a block-diagonal form, such that any two consecutive blocks overlap. We denote this form of the matrix as the overlapped block-diagonal matrix. The partitioned matrix is suitable for applying the explicit formulation of Multiplicative Schwarz preconditioner (EFMS) described in [3]. The graph partitioning algorithm partitions the graph of the input matrix into K partitions, such that every partition {Omega}{sub i} has at most two neighbors {Omega}{sub i-1} and {Omega}{sub i+1}. First, an ordering algorithm, such as the reverse Cuthill-McKee algorithm, that reduces the matrix profile is performed. An initial overlapped block-diagonal partition is obtained from the profile of the matrix. An iterative strategy is then used to further refine the partitioning by allowing nodes to be transferred between neighboring partitions. Experiments are performed on matrices arising from real-world applications to show the feasibility and usefulness of this approach.
Polaronic discontinuities induced by off-diagonal coupling.
Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liwei; Chen, Qinghu; Zhao, Yang
2012-07-21
In this paper, we study a form of the Holstein molecular crystal model in which the influence of lattice vibrations on the transfers of electronic excitations between neighboring sites (off-diagonal coupling) is taken into account. Using the Toyozawa Ansatz and the Lanczos algorithm, the Holstein Hamiltonian with two types of off-diagonal coupling is studied focusing on a number of analyticity issues in the ground state. For finite-sized lattices and antisymmetric coupling, a sequence of discontinuities are found in the polaron energy dispersion, the size of the ground-state phonon cloud, and the linearized von Neumann entropy used to quantify the quantum entanglement between the exciton and the phonons in the ground state. Such behavior is accompanied by a shift of the ground-state crystal momentum from zero to nonzero values as the coupling strength is increased. In the thermodynamic limit, all discontinuities associated with antisymmetric coupling vanish except the one corresponding to the initial departure of the ground-state wavevector from the Brillouin zone center. For the case of symmetric off-diagonal coupling, a smooth crossover is found to exist in all parameters regimes. PMID:22830684
Polaronic discontinuities induced by off-diagonal coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liwei; Chen, Qinghu; Zhao, Yang
2012-07-01
In this paper, we study a form of the Holstein molecular crystal model in which the influence of lattice vibrations on the transfers of electronic excitations between neighboring sites (off-diagonal coupling) is taken into account. Using the Toyozawa Ansatz and the Lanczos algorithm, the Holstein Hamiltonian with two types of off-diagonal coupling is studied focusing on a number of analyticity issues in the ground state. For finite-sized lattices and antisymmetric coupling, a sequence of discontinuities are found in the polaron energy dispersion, the size of the ground-state phonon cloud, and the linearized von Neumann entropy used to quantify the quantum entanglement between the exciton and the phonons in the ground state. Such behavior is accompanied by a shift of the ground-state crystal momentum from zero to nonzero values as the coupling strength is increased. In the thermodynamic limit, all discontinuities associated with antisymmetric coupling vanish except the one corresponding to the initial departure of the ground-state wavevector from the Brillouin zone center. For the case of symmetric off-diagonal coupling, a smooth crossover is found to exist in all parameters regimes.
Diagonal dominance for the multivariable Nyquist array using function minimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leininger, G. G.
1977-01-01
A new technique for the design of multivariable control systems using the multivariable Nyquist array method was developed. A conjugate direction function minimization algorithm is utilized to achieve a diagonal dominant condition over the extended frequency range of the control system. The minimization is performed on the ratio of the moduli of the off-diagonal terms to the moduli of the diagonal terms of either the inverse or direct open loop transfer function matrix. Several new feedback design concepts were also developed, including: (1) dominance control parameters for each control loop; (2) compensator normalization to evaluate open loop conditions for alternative design configurations; and (3) an interaction index to determine the degree and type of system interaction when all feedback loops are closed simultaneously. This new design capability was implemented on an IBM 360/75 in a batch mode but can be easily adapted to an interactive computer facility. The method was applied to the Pratt and Whitney F100 turbofan engine.
Yao, Yao; Zhou, Nengji; Prior, Javier; Zhao, Yang
2015-01-01
It has long been a puzzle on what drives charge separation in artificial polymeric solar cells as a consensus has yet to emerge among rivaling theories based upon electronic localization and delocalization pictures. Here we propose an alternative using the two-bath spin-boson model with simultaneous diagonal and off-diagonal coupling: the critical phase, which is born out of the competition of the two coupling types, and is neither localized nor delocalized. The decoherence-free feature of the critical phase also helps explain sustained coherence of the charge-transfer state. Exploiting Hamiltonian symmetries in an enhanced algorithm of density-matrix renormalization group, we map out boundaries of the critical phase to a precision previously unattainable, and determine the bath spectral densities inducive to the existence of the charge-transfer state. PMID:26412693
Rosta, Edina; Warshel, Arieh
2012-01-01
Understanding the relationship between the adiabatic free energy profiles of chemical reactions and the underlining diabatic states is central to the description of chemical reactivity. The diabatic states form the theoretical basis of Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFERs) and thus play a major role in physical organic chemistry and related fields. However, the theoretical justification for some of the implicit LFER assumptions has not been fully established by quantum mechanical studies. This study follows our earlier works(1,2) and uses the ab initio frozen density functional theory (FDFT) method(3) to evaluate both the diabatic and adiabatic free energy surfaces and to determine the corresponding off-diagonal coupling matrix elements for a series of S(N)2 reactions. It is found that the off-diagonal coupling matrix elements are almost the same regardless of the nucleophile and the leaving group but change upon changing the central group. Furthermore, it is also found that the off diagonal elements are basically the same in gas phase and in solution, even when the solvent is explicitly included in the ab initio calculations. Furthermore, our study establishes that the FDFT diabatic profiles are parabolic to a good approximation thus providing a first principle support to the origin of LFER. These findings further support the basic approximation of the EVB treatment. PMID:23329895
Rosta, Edina; Warshel, Arieh
2012-01-01
Understanding the relationship between the adiabatic free energy profiles of chemical reactions and the underlining diabatic states is central to the description of chemical reactivity. The diabatic states form the theoretical basis of Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFERs) and thus play a major role in physical organic chemistry and related fields. However, the theoretical justification for some of the implicit LFER assumptions has not been fully established by quantum mechanical studies. This study follows our earlier works1,2 and uses the ab initio frozen density functional theory (FDFT) method3 to evaluate both the diabatic and adiabatic free energy surfaces and to determine the corresponding off-diagonal coupling matrix elements for a series of SN2 reactions. It is found that the off-diagonal coupling matrix elements are almost the same regardless of the nucleophile and the leaving group but change upon changing the central group. Furthermore, it is also found that the off diagonal elements are basically the same in gas phase and in solution, even when the solvent is explicitly included in the ab initio calculations. Furthermore, our study establishes that the FDFT diabatic profiles are parabolic to a good approximation thus providing a first principle support to the origin of LFER. These findings further support the basic approximation of the EVB treatment. PMID:23329895
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atkins, Harold
1991-01-01
A multiple block multigrid method for the solution of the three dimensional Euler and Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The basic flow solver is a cell vertex method which employs central difference spatial approximations and Runge-Kutta time stepping. The use of local time stepping, implicit residual smoothing, multigrid techniques and variable coefficient numerical dissipation results in an efficient and robust scheme is discussed. The multiblock strategy places the block loop within the Runge-Kutta Loop such that accuracy and convergence are not affected by block boundaries. This has been verified by comparing the results of one and two block calculations in which the two block grid is generated by splitting the one block grid. Results are presented for both Euler and Navier-Stokes computations of wing/fuselage combinations.
A brief introduction to symplectic integrators and recent results
Channell, P.J.
1994-02-01
The author begins with a brief synopsis about Hamiltonian systems and symplectic maps. A symplectic integrator is a symplectic map {phi}(q,p;t) that systematically approximates the time t flow of a Hamiltonian system. Systematic means: (1) in time step, t, i.e. the error should vanish as some power of the time step, and (2) in order of approximation, i.e. one would like a hierarchy of such {phi} that have errors that vanish as successively higher powers of the time step. At present the authors known two general types of symplectic integrators: (1) implicit integrators that are derived from a generating function or from algebraic conditions on Runge-Kutta schemes, and (2) explicit integrators that are derived from integrable Hamiltonians or from algebraic conditions on Runge-Kutta schemes.
Navier-Stokes cascade analysis with a stiff Kappa-Epsilon turbulence solver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jong-Shang; Sockol, Peter M.; Prahl, Joseph M.
1987-01-01
The two dimensional, compressible, thin layer Navier-Stokes equations with the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model and the kinetic energy-energy dissipation (k-epsilon) model are solved numerically to simulate the flow through a cascade. The governing equations are solved for the entire flow domain, without the boundary layer assumptions. The stiffness of the k-epsilon equations is discussed. A semi-implicit, Runge-Kutta, time-marching scheme is developed to solve the k-epsilon equations. The impact of the k-epsilon solver on the explicit Runge-Kutta Navier-Stokes solver is discussed. Numerical solutions are presented for two dimensional turbulent flow over a flat plate and a double circular arc cascade and compared with experimental data.
Semantic Generalization in Implicit Language Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.
2015-01-01
Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether…
Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test.
Greenwald, A G; McGhee, D E; Schwartz, J L
1998-06-01
An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names), and the attribute in a 2nd task (e.g., pleasant vs. unpleasant words for an evaluation attribute). When instructions oblige highly associated categories (e.g., flower + pleasant) to share a response key, performance is faster than when less associated categories (e.g., insect & pleasant) share a key. This performance difference implicitly measures differential association of the 2 concepts with the attribute. In 3 experiments, the IAT was sensitive to (a) near-universal evaluative differences (e.g., flower vs. insect), (b) expected individual differences in evaluative associations (Japanese + pleasant vs. Korean + pleasant for Japanese vs. Korean subjects), and (c) consciously disavowed evaluative differences (Black + pleasant vs. White + pleasant for self-described unprejudiced White subjects). PMID:9654756
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Zhen-Hua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian
2013-08-01
Two types of implicit algorithms have been improved for high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to solve compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations on triangular grids. A block lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (BLU-SGS) approach is implemented as a nonlinear iterative scheme. And a modified LU-SGS (LLU-SGS) approach is suggested to reduce the memory requirements while retain the good convergence performance of the original LU-SGS approach. Both implicit schemes have the significant advantage that only the diagonal block matrix is stored. The resulting implicit high-order DG methods are applied, in combination with Hermite weighted essentially non-oscillatory (HWENO) limiters, to solve viscous flow problems. Numerical results demonstrate that the present implicit methods are able to achieve significant efficiency improvements over explicit counterparts and for viscous flows with shocks, and the HWENO limiters can be used to achieve the desired essentially non-oscillatory shock transition and the designed high-order accuracy simultaneously.
Applications and accuracy of the parallel diagonal dominant algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sun, Xian-He
1993-01-01
The Parallel Diagonal Dominant (PDD) algorithm is a highly efficient, ideally scalable tridiagonal solver. In this paper, a detailed study of the PDD algorithm is given. First the PDD algorithm is introduced. Then the algorithm is extended to solve periodic tridiagonal systems. A variant, the reduced PDD algorithm, is also proposed. Accuracy analysis is provided for a class of tridiagonal systems, the symmetric, and anti-symmetric Toeplitz tridiagonal systems. Implementation results show that the analysis gives a good bound on the relative error, and the algorithm is a good candidate for the emerging massively parallel machines.
A deterministic global optimization using smooth diagonal auxiliary functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.; Kvasov, Dmitri E.
2015-04-01
In many practical decision-making problems it happens that functions involved in optimization process are black-box with unknown analytical representations and hard to evaluate. In this paper, a global optimization problem is considered where both the goal function f (x) and its gradient f‧ (x) are black-box functions. It is supposed that f‧ (x) satisfies the Lipschitz condition over the search hyperinterval with an unknown Lipschitz constant K. A new deterministic 'Divide-the-Best' algorithm based on efficient diagonal partitions and smooth auxiliary functions is proposed in its basic version, its convergence conditions are studied and numerical experiments executed on eight hundred test functions are presented.
Reducing Memory Cost of Exact Diagonalization using Singular Value Decomposition
Weinstein, Marvin; Auerbach, Assa; Chandra, V.Ravi; /Technion
2011-11-04
We present a modified Lanczos algorithm to diagonalize lattice Hamiltonians with dramatically reduced memory requirements. The lattice of size N is partitioned into two subclusters. At each iteration the Lanczos vector is projected into a set of n{sub svd} smaller subcluster vectors using singular value decomposition. For low entanglement entropy S{sub ee}, (satisfied by short range Hamiltonians), we expect the truncation error to vanish as exp(-n{sup 1/S{sub ee}}{sub svd}). Convergence is tested for the Heisenberg model on Kagome clusters of up to 36 sites, with no symmetries exploited, using less than 15GB of memory. Generalization to multiple partitioning is discussed.
Diagonal-Axes Stage for Pointing an Optical Communications Transceiver
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Regehr, Martin W.; Garkanian, Vachik
2011-01-01
Traditional azimuth-elevation ("az-el") stages are used to point a variety of devices ranging from large optical telescopes to tank guns. Such a stage typically has an elevation stage having a horizontal axis mounted on an azimuth stage with a vertical axis. Both stages are often motorized. Optical communications transceivers often require two-axis motorized control, as when the communications link is between a ground station and an aircraft or satellite. In such applications, the traditional azimuth-elevation stage has two important drawbacks: a gimbal lock exclusion zone at zenith and susceptibility to pointing errors caused by backlash. Az-el stages in which the azimuth stage cannot rotate a full 360deg have the additional drawback of an azimuth exclusion zone. The diagonal-axes stage described here mitigates or eliminates all of these problems. Instead of one vertical axis and one horizontal axis, a diagonal-axes stage has two horizontal axes, both oriented at 45 to the trajectory of the target. For example, a ground station located on the equator tracking a satellite with an equatorial orbit would have one axis parallel to northeast and southwest, and the other axis parallel to northwest and southeast. The diagonal-axes stage is considerably less vulnerable to backlash. If it is correctly oriented, its axes rotate in only one direction during an overhead pass by a satellite. As a result, the effects of backlash may be inherently eliminated. If the gravity-induced torque on either axis changes during the pass, then backlash may become important during the part of the pass where the gravity torque, instead of opposing the motion of the stage, pushes the stage in the direction of motion. This can result in the loss of gear-to-gear contact in one or more stages of the gear reduction mechanism. In this case, a preload spring used to eliminate backlash need only be sufficiently strong to overcome the gravity torque, i.e. it need not overcome friction in the gear
Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall MHD Accelerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litchford, R. J.
2003-01-01
The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm's law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm's law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities lead to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed field accelerator operation.
Supersonic flow in an expanding MHD channel of diagonal type
Likhachev, A.P.; Medin, S.A.
1983-03-01
A quasi-two-dimensional numerical analysis of the supersonic flow of a nonviscous, non-heat-conducting gas in an expanding (with respect to the insulation walls) MHD channel of diagonal type is performed. The induced magnetic fields are neglected. The influence of the conditions of channel loading and the commutation angle of the short-circuited, ideally sectioned electrodes on the flow structure, the distribution of the electrodynamic parameters, and the integral characteristics of the generator is considered. The results of quasi-two-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional calculations are compared.
Subsonic flow in the channel of a diagonal MHD generator
Isakova, N.P.; Medin, S.A.
1981-05-01
A numerical study has been made of the local and integral characteristics of the planar subsonic flow in the channel of an MHD generator with diagonal electrode connection. It is shown that the inhomogeneity in the parameter distribution is dependent on the electrical loading, and the largest deviations from homogeneous flow occur on open circuit and short circuit. A comparison is made with a channel of Faraday type as regards the main integral characteristics. The data from two-dimensional analysis are compared with those from a one-dimensional flow model.
Revealing children's implicit spelling representations.
Critten, Sarah; Pine, Karen J; Messer, David J
2013-06-01
Conceptualizing the underlying representations and cognitive mechanisms of children's spelling development is a key challenge for literacy researchers. Using the Representational Redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith), Critten, Pine and Steffler (2007) demonstrated that the acquisition of phonological and morphological knowledge may be underpinned by increasingly explicit levels of spelling representation. However, their proposal that implicit representations may underlie early 'visually based' spelling remains unresolved. Children (N = 101, aged 4-6 years) were given a recognition task (Critten et al., 2007) and a novel production task, both involving verbal justifications of why spellings are correct/incorrect, strategy use and word pattern similarity. Results for both tasks supported an implicit level of spelling characterized by the ability to correctly recognize/produce words but the inability to explain operational strategies or generalize knowledge. Explicit levels and multiple representations were also in evidence across the two tasks. Implications for cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling development are discussed. PMID:23659891
Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.
Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J
2014-01-01
Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517
Force irradiation effects during upper limb diagonal exercises on contralateral muscle activation.
Abreu, Rosa; Lopes, Alfredo Alexandre; Sousa, Andreia S P; Pereira, Soraia; Castro, Marcelo P
2015-04-01
The aim of this study was to explore the force irradiation effects of upper limb isometric diagonal exercises on shoulder muscle activities. Interactions among diagonal directions, contraction intensities (moderate and maximum) and sex were assessed. Thirty healthy subjects (11 males) performed isometric unilateral diagonal exercises based on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique in an isokinetic dynamometer with their dominant upper limbs. The second diagonal for flexion and for extension were assessed while the participants performed their maximum isometric torque (MIT) and at 25% of their MIT. During the exercise the muscle activity of the medial deltoid, pectoralis major and upper trapezius in the non-dominant (non-exercised) upper limbs of the participants was recorded by surface electromyography. The highest muscle activity occurred in the upper trapezius during the diagonal for flexion (27% of maximum isometric voluntary contractions). Upper trapezius and pectoralis major were more active during the diagonal for flexion than diagonal for extension (p < 0.001), while similar values between both diagonals were observed for the medial deltoid (p > 0.05). In conclusion, we observed that force irradiation during upper limb diagonal exercises is affected by diagonal direction, contraction intensity and sex when performed by healthy participants. PMID:25592384
[Psychological theory and implicit sociology.].
Sévigny, R
1983-01-01
This text is based on the hypothesis that every theory on the psychology of personality must inevitably, in one manner or another, have a sociological referent, that is to say, it must refer to a body of knowledge which deals with a diversity of social contexts and their relations to individuals. According to this working hypothesis, such a sociology is implicit. This text then discusses a group of theoretical approaches in an effort to verify this hypothesis. This approach allows the extrication of diverse forms or diverse expressions of this implicit sociology within this context several currents are rapidly explored : psychoanalysis, behaviorism, gestalt, classical theory of needs. The author also comments on the approach, inspired by oriental techniques or philosophies, which employs the notion of myth to deepen self awareness. Finally, from the same perspective, he comments at greater length on the work of Carl Rogers, highlighting the diverse form of implicit sociology. In addition to Carl Rogers, this text refers to Freud, Jung, Adler, Reich, Perls, Goodman, Skinner as well as to Ginette Paris and various analysts of Taoism. In conclusion, the author indicates the significance of his analysis from double viewpoint of psychological theory and practice. PMID:17093766
Distributions of off-diagonal scattering matrix elements: Exact results
Nock, A. Kumar, S. Sommers, H.-J. Guhr, T.
2014-03-15
Scattering is a ubiquitous phenomenon which is observed in a variety of physical systems which span a wide range of length scales. The scattering matrix is the key quantity which provides a complete description of the scattering process. The universal features of scattering in chaotic systems is most generally modeled by the Heidelberg approach which introduces stochasticity to the scattering matrix at the level of the Hamiltonian describing the scattering center. The statistics of the scattering matrix is obtained by averaging over the ensemble of random Hamiltonians of appropriate symmetry. We derive exact results for the distributions of the real and imaginary parts of the off-diagonal scattering matrix elements applicable to orthogonally-invariant and unitarily-invariant Hamiltonians, thereby solving a long standing problem. -- Highlights: •Scattering problem in complex or chaotic systems. •Heidelberg approach to model the chaotic nature of the scattering center. •A novel route to the nonlinear sigma model based on the characteristic function. •Exact results for the distributions of off-diagonal scattering-matrix elements. •Universal aspects of the scattering-matrix fluctuations.
Permuting sparse rectangular matrices into block-diagonal form
Aykanat, Cevdet; Pinar, Ali; Catalyurek, Umit V.
2002-12-09
This work investigates the problem of permuting a sparse rectangular matrix into block diagonal form. Block diagonal form of a matrix grants an inherent parallelism for the solution of the deriving problem, as recently investigated in the context of mathematical programming, LU factorization and QR factorization. We propose graph and hypergraph models to represent the nonzero structure of a matrix, which reduce the permutation problem to those of graph partitioning by vertex separator and hypergraph partitioning, respectively. Besides proposing the models to represent sparse matrices and investigating related combinatorial problems, we provide a detailed survey of relevant literature to bridge the gap between different societies, investigate existing techniques for partitioning and propose new ones, and finally present a thorough empirical study of these techniques. Our experiments on a wide range of matrices, using state-of-the-art graph and hypergraph partitioning tools MeTiS and PaT oH, revealed that the proposed methods yield very effective solutions both in terms of solution quality and run time.
A second-order parareal algorithm for fractional PDEs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Shu-Lin
2016-02-01
We are concerned with using the parareal (parallel-in-time) algorithm for large scale ODEs system U‧ (t) + AU (t) + dAα U (t) = F (t) arising frequently in semi-discretizing time-dependent PDEs with spatial fractional operators, where d > 0 is a constant, α ∈ (0 , 1) and A is a spare and symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrix. The parareal algorithm is iterative and is characterized by two propagators F and G, which are respectively associated with small temporal mesh size Δt and large temporal mesh size ΔT. The two mesh sizes satisfy ΔT = JΔt with J ≥ 2 being an integer, which is called mesh ratio. Let Tunitf and Tunitg be respectively the computational cost of the two propagators for moving forward one time step. Then, it is well understood that the speedup of the parareal algorithm, namely E, satisfies E = O (clog (1 / ρ)) , where c : = Tunitf / Tunitg and ρ is the convergence factor. A larger E corresponds a more efficient parareal solver. For G = Backward-Euler and some choices of F, previous studies show that ρ can be a satisfactory quantity. Particularly, for F = 2nd-order DIRK (diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta), it holds ρ ≈1/3 for any choice of the mesh ratio J. In this paper, we continue to consider F = 2nd-order DIRK, but with a new choice for G, the IMEX (implicit-explicit) Euler method, where the 'implicit' and 'explicit' computation is respectively associated with A and dAα. Compared to the widely used Backward-Euler method, this choice on the one hand increases c (this point is apparent), and interestingly on the other hand it can also make the convergence factor ρ smaller: ρ ≈1/5! Numerical results are provided to support our conclusions.
Search for Off-Diagonal Density Matrix Elements for Atoms in a Supersonic Beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubenstein, Richard A.; Dhirani, Al-Amin; Kokorowski, David A.; Roberts, Tony D.; Smith, Edward T.; Smith, Winthrop W.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Lehner, Jana; Gupta, Subhadeep; Pritchard, David E.
1999-03-01
We demonstrate the absence of off-diagonal elements for the density matrix of a supersonic Na atomic beam, thus showing that there are no coherent wave packets emerging from this source. We used a differentially detuned separated oscillatory field longitudinal interferometer to search for off-diagonal density matrix elements in the longitudinal energy/momentum basis. Our study places a stringent lower bound on their possible size over an off-diagonal energy range from 0 to 100 kHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Sanghyun; You, Donghyun
2015-11-01
Utility of the computational power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) is elaborated for solutions of both incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A semi-implicit ADI finite-volume method for integration of the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations, which are discretized on a structured arbitrary grid, is parallelized for GPU computations using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). In the semi-implicit ADI finite-volume method, the nonlinear convection terms and the linear diffusion terms are integrated in time using a combination of an explicit scheme and an ADI scheme. Inversion of multiple tri-diagonal matrices is found to be the major challenge in GPU computations of the present method. Some of the algorithms for solving tri-diagonal matrices on GPUs are evaluated and optimized for GPU-acceleration of the present semi-implicit ADI computations of incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations. Supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning Grant NRF-2014R1A2A1A11049599.
Diagnosis of Interaction-driven Topological Phase via Exact Diagonalization.
Wu, Han-Qing; He, Yuan-Yao; Fang, Chen; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2016-08-01
We propose a general scheme for diagnosing interaction-driven topological phases in the weak interaction regime using exact diagonalization (ED). The scheme comprises the analysis of eigenvalues of the point-group operators for the many-body eigenstates and the correlation functions for physical observables to extract the symmetries of the order parameters and the topological numbers of the underlying ground states at the thermodynamic limit from a relatively small size system afforded by ED. As a concrete example, we investigate the interaction effects on the half-filled spinless fermions on the checkerboard lattice with a quadratic band crossing point. Numerical results support the existence of a spontaneous quantum anomalous Hall phase purely driven by a nearest-neighbor weak repulsive interaction, separated from a nematic Mott insulator phase at strong repulsive interaction by a first-order phase transition. PMID:27541471
Diagnosis of Interaction-driven Topological Phase via Exact Diagonalization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Han-Qing; He, Yuan-Yao; Fang, Chen; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2016-08-01
We propose a general scheme for diagnosing interaction-driven topological phases in the weak interaction regime using exact diagonalization (ED). The scheme comprises the analysis of eigenvalues of the point-group operators for the many-body eigenstates and the correlation functions for physical observables to extract the symmetries of the order parameters and the topological numbers of the underlying ground states at the thermodynamic limit from a relatively small size system afforded by ED. As a concrete example, we investigate the interaction effects on the half-filled spinless fermions on the checkerboard lattice with a quadratic band crossing point. Numerical results support the existence of a spontaneous quantum anomalous Hall phase purely driven by a nearest-neighbor weak repulsive interaction, separated from a nematic Mott insulator phase at strong repulsive interaction by a first-order phase transition.
Reducing Memory Cost of Exact Diagonalization using Singular Value Decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weinstein, Marvin; Chandra, Ravi; Auerbach, Assa
2012-02-01
We present a modified Lanczos algorithm to diagonalize lattice Hamiltonians with dramatically reduced memory requirements. In contrast to variational approaches and most implementations of DMRG, Lanczos rotations towards the ground state do not involve incremental minimizations, (e.g. sweeping procedures) which may get stuck in false local minima. The lattice of size N is partitioned into two subclusters. At each iteration the rotating Lanczos vector is compressed into two sets of nsvd small subcluster vectors using singular value decomposition. For low entanglement entropy See, (satisfied by short range Hamiltonians), the truncation error is bounded by (-nsvd^1/See). Convergence is tested for the Heisenberg model on Kagom'e clusters of 24, 30 and 36 sites, with no lattice symmetries exploited, using less than 15GB of dynamical memory. Generalization of the Lanczos-SVD algorithm to multiple partitioning is discussed, and comparisons to other techniques are given. Reference: arXiv:1105.0007
Coordinate Bethe ANSÄTZE for Non-Diagonal Boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragoucy, Eric
2013-11-01
Bethe ansatz goes back to 1931, when H. Bethe invented it to solve some one-dimensional models, such as XXX spin chain, proposed by W. Heisenberg in 1928. Although it is a very powerful method to compute eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the corresponding Hamiltonian, it can be applied only for very specific boundary conditions: periodic boundary ones, and so-called open-diagonal boundary ones. After reviewing this method, we will present a generalization of it that applies also to open-triangular boundary conditions. This short note presents only the basic ideas of the technique, and does not attend to give a general overview of the subject. Interested readers should refer to the original papers and references therein.
Eye movements during mental time travel follow a diagonal line.
Hartmann, Matthias; Martarelli, Corinna S; Mast, Fred W; Stocker, Kurt
2014-11-01
Recent research showed that past events are associated with the back and left side, whereas future events are associated with the front and right side of space. These spatial-temporal associations have an impact on our sensorimotor system: thinking about one's past and future leads to subtle body sways in the sagittal dimension of space (Miles, Nind, & Macrae, 2010). In this study we investigated whether mental time travel leads to sensorimotor correlates in the horizontal dimension of space. Participants were asked to mentally displace themselves into the past or future while measuring their spontaneous eye movements on a blank screen. Eye gaze was directed more rightward and upward when thinking about the future than when thinking about the past. Our results provide further insight into the spatial nature of temporal thoughts, and show that not only body, but also eye movements follow a (diagonal) "time line" during mental time travel. PMID:25307523
Performance Theory of Diagonal Conducting Wall Magnetohydrodynamic Accelerators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Litchford, R. J.
2004-01-01
The theoretical performance of diagonal conducting wall crossed-field accelerators is examined on the basis of an infinite segmentation assumption using a cross-plane averaged generalized Ohm s law for a partially ionized gas, including ion slip. The desired accelerator performance relationships are derived from the cross-plane averaged Ohm s law by imposing appropriate configuration and loading constraints. A current-dependent effective voltage drop model is also incorporated to account for cold-wall boundary layer effects, including gasdynamic variations, discharge constriction, and electrode falls. Definition of dimensionless electric fields and current densities leads to the construction of graphical performance diagrams, which further illuminate the rudimentary behavior of crossed-field accelerator operation.
Implicit Social Biases in People With Autism.
Birmingham, Elina; Stanley, Damian; Nair, Remya; Adolphs, Ralph
2015-11-01
Implicit social biases are ubiquitous and are known to influence social behavior. A core diagnostic criterion of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is abnormal social behavior. We investigated the extent to which individuals with ASD might show a specific attenuation of implicit social biases, using Implicit Association Tests (IATs) involving social (gender, race) and nonsocial (nature, shoes) categories. High-functioning adults with ASD showed intact but reduced IAT effects relative to healthy control participants. We observed no selective attenuation of implicit social (vs. nonsocial) biases in our ASD population. To extend these results, we supplemented our healthy control data with data collected from a large online sample from the general population and explored correlations between autistic traits and IAT effects. We observed no systematic relationship between autistic traits and implicit social biases in our online and control samples. Taken together, these results suggest that implicit social biases, as measured by the IAT, are largely intact in ASD. PMID:26386014
Implicit Media Knowledge Experiments & Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ly, Muy-Chu; Germaneau, Alexis
2011-08-01
Implicit Media Knowledge aims to provide relevant information related to visual media without effort. It is based on the analysis of media usage from several users (e.g. a community). Algorithms based on clustering methods that extract relevant information (e.g. tags, taxonomy trees) related to a media from its usage are detailed. To validate our new approach, we propose to apply our concept and algorithms on a specific media use such as the analysis of how multiple users organize their media files. Significant results of two experiments will be highlighted. Perspectives of our work will be finally presented.
Age Differences in Implicit Interference
Ikier, Simay; Hasher, Lynn
2006-01-01
We assessed age differences in interference effects in priming by using fragment completion. In Experiment 1, noninterfering filler words preceded critical targets at study, and priming was age invariant. In Experiment 2, the same target items had interfering competitors at the beginning of the list, such that both the target and the competitor were legitimate solutions to a fragment. Having two responses to a cue was disruptive for older adults, but not for younger adults. Younger and older adults differ in their susceptibility to interference in implicit tasks, and interference may play a role in influencing the magnitude of age differences in priming. PMID:16960231
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, G. Q.; Zhu, Z. H.
2015-12-01
Dynamic modeling of tethered spacecraft with the consideration of elasticity of tether is prone to the numerical instability and error accumulation over long-term numerical integration. This paper addresses the challenges by proposing a globally stable numerical approach with the nodal position finite element method (NPFEM) and the implicit, symplectic, 2-stage and 4th order Gaussian-Legendre Runge-Kutta time integration. The NPFEM eliminates the numerical error accumulation by using the position instead of displacement of tether as the state variable, while the symplectic integration enforces the energy and momentum conservation of the discretized finite element model to ensure the global stability of numerical solution. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach is assessed by an elastic pendulum problem, whose dynamic response resembles that of tethered spacecraft, in comparison with the commonly used time integrators such as the classical 4th order Runge-Kutta schemes and other families of non-symplectic Runge-Kutta schemes. Numerical results show that the proposed approach is accurate and the energy of the corresponding numerical model is conservative over the long-term numerical integration. Finally, the proposed approach is applied to the dynamic modeling of deorbiting process of tethered spacecraft over a long period.
The development of implicit gender attitudes.
Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Banaji, Mahzarin R
2016-09-01
The development course of implicit and explicit gender attitudes between the ages of 5 and adulthood is investigated. Findings demonstrate that implicit and explicit own-gender preferences emerge early in both boys and girls, but implicit own-gender preferences are stronger in young girls than boys. In addition, female participants' attitudes remain largely stable over development, whereas male participants' implicit and explicit attitudes show an age-related shift towards increasing female positivity. Gender attitudes are an anomaly in that social evaluations dissociate from social status, with both male and female participants tending to evaluate female more positively than male. PMID:26260250
An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code
Charles E. Knapp
2000-04-01
An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.
The "exaptation" of linguistic implicit strategies.
Lombardi Vallauri, Edoardo
2016-01-01
Implicit strategies are known to increase persuasion performances. Implicits of content (vagueness, implicatures) and implicits of responsibility (presuppositions, topics) will be compared semiotically to non-linguistic implicits such as images and sounds. The results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments will be used to propose that presuppositions and topics arose in language as means to spare addressees processing effort on already known contents, but they were subsequently "exapted" to spare effort on unknown marginal contents, and eventually to reduce the probability for doubtful contents to be processed thoroughly and rejected. This will be shown by many examples from commercial advertising and political propaganda. PMID:27478723
Implicit dose-response curves.
Pérez Millán, Mercedes; Dickenstein, Alicia
2015-06-01
We develop tools from computational algebraic geometry for the study of steady state features of autonomous polynomial dynamical systems via elimination of variables. In particular, we obtain nontrivial bounds for the steady state concentration of a given species in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. This species is understood as the output of the network and we thus bound the maximal response of the system. The improved bounds give smaller starting boxes to launch numerical methods. We apply our results to the sequential enzymatic network studied in Markevich et al. (J Cell Biol 164(3):353-359, 2004) to find nontrivial upper bounds for the different substrate concentrations at steady state. Our approach does not require any simulation, analytical expression to describe the output in terms of the input, or the absence of multistationarity. Instead, we show how to extract information from effectively computable implicit dose-response curves, with the use of resultants and discriminants. We moreover illustrate in the application to an enzymatic network, the relation between the exact implicit dose-response curve we obtain symbolically and the standard hysteresis diagram provided by a numerical ode solver. The setting and tools we propose could yield many other results adapted to any autonomous polynomial dynamical system, beyond those where it is possible to get explicit expressions. PMID:25008963
Using Implicit Measures to Highlight Science Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mascret, Nicolas; Roussel, Peggy; Cury, François
2015-01-01
Using an innovative method, a Single-Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) was created to explore the implicit theories of intelligence among science and liberal arts teachers and their relationships with their gender. The results showed that for science teachers--especially for male teachers--there was a negative implicit association between…
O'Shea, Brian; Watson, Derrick G; Brown, Gordon D A
2016-02-01
How can implicit attitudes best be measured? The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), unlike the Implicit Association Test (IAT), claims to measure absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes. In the IRAP, participants make congruent (Fat Person-Active: false; Fat Person-Unhealthy: true) or incongruent (Fat Person-Active: true; Fat Person-Unhealthy: false) responses in different blocks of trials. IRAP experiments have reported positive or neutral implicit attitudes (e.g., neutral attitudes toward fat people) in cases in which negative attitudes are normally found on explicit or other implicit measures. It was hypothesized that these results might reflect a positive framing bias (PFB) that occurs when participants complete the IRAP. Implicit attitudes toward categories with varying prior associations (nonwords, social systems, flowers and insects, thin and fat people) were measured. Three conditions (standard, positive framing, and negative framing) were used to measure whether framing influenced estimates of implicit attitudes. It was found that IRAP scores were influenced by how the task was framed to the participants, that the framing effect was modulated by the strength of prior stimulus associations, and that a default PFB led to an overestimation of positive implicit attitudes when measured by the IRAP. Overall, the findings question the validity of the IRAP as a tool for the measurement of absolute implicit attitudes. A new tool (Simple Implicit Procedure:SIP) for measuring absolute, not just relative, implicit attitudes is proposed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26075407
Parallel Explicit and Implicit Control of Reaching
Mazzoni, Pietro; Wexler, Nancy S.
2009-01-01
Background Human movement can be guided automatically (implicit control) or attentively (explicit control). Explicit control may be engaged when learning a new movement, while implicit control enables simultaneous execution of multiple actions. Explicit and implicit control can often be assigned arbitrarily: we can simultaneously drive a car and tune the radio, seamlessly allocating implicit or explicit control to either action. This flexibility suggests that sensorimotor signals, including those that encode spatially overlapping perception and behavior, can be accurately segregated to explicit and implicit control processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested human subjects' ability to segregate sensorimotor signals to parallel control processes by requiring dual (explicit and implicit) control of the same reaching movement and testing for interference between these processes. Healthy control subjects were able to engage dual explicit and implicit motor control without degradation of performance compared to explicit or implicit control alone. We then asked whether segregation of explicit and implicit motor control can be selectively disrupted by studying dual-control performance in subjects with no clinically manifest neurologic deficits in the presymptomatic stage of Huntington's disease (HD). These subjects performed successfully under either explicit or implicit control alone, but were impaired in the dual-control condition. Conclusion/Significance The human nervous system can exert dual control on a single action, and is therefore able to accurately segregate sensorimotor signals to explicit and implicit control. The impairment observed in the presymptomatic stage of HD points to a possible crucial contribution of the striatum to the segregation of sensorimotor signals to multiple control processes. PMID:19847295
Off-diagonal Bethe ansatz solution of the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2013-10-01
Employing the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method proposed recently by the present authors, we exactly diagonalize the XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields. By constructing a functional relation between the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and the quantum determinant, the associated T-Q relation and the Bethe ansatz equations are derived.
Diagonalization and Jordan Normal Form--Motivation through "Maple"[R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaister, P.
2009-01-01
Following an introduction to the diagonalization of matrices, one of the more difficult topics for students to grasp in linear algebra is the concept of Jordan normal form. In this note, we show how the important notions of diagonalization and Jordan normal form can be introduced and developed through the use of the computer algebra package…
A Semi-Implicit, Three-Dimensional Model for Estuarine Circulation
Smith, Peter E.
2006-01-01
A semi-implicit, finite-difference method for the numerical solution of the three-dimensional equations for circulation in estuaries is presented and tested. The method uses a three-time-level, leapfrog-trapezoidal scheme that is essentially second-order accurate in the spatial and temporal numerical approximations. The three-time-level scheme is shown to be preferred over a two-time-level scheme, especially for problems with strong nonlinearities. The stability of the semi-implicit scheme is free from any time-step limitation related to the terms describing vertical diffusion and the propagation of the surface gravity waves. The scheme does not rely on any form of vertical/horizontal mode-splitting to treat the vertical diffusion implicitly. At each time step, the numerical method uses a double-sweep method to transform a large number of small tridiagonal equation systems and then uses the preconditioned conjugate-gradient method to solve a single, large, five-diagonal equation system for the water surface elevation. The governing equations for the multi-level scheme are prepared in a conservative form by integrating them over the height of each horizontal layer. The layer-integrated volumetric transports replace velocities as the dependent variables so that the depth-integrated continuity equation that is used in the solution for the water surface elevation is linear. Volumetric transports are computed explicitly from the momentum equations. The resulting method is mass conservative, efficient, and numerically accurate.
Evidence for Implicit Learning in Syntactic Comprehension
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian
2013-01-01
This study provides evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension. By reanalyzing data from a syntactic priming experiment (Thothathiri & Snedeker, 2008), we find that the error signal associated with a syntactic prime influences comprehenders' subsequent syntactic expectations. This follows directly from error-based implicit learning…
Understanding Implicit Bias: What Educators Should Know
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Staats, Cheryl
2016-01-01
The desire to ensure the best for children is precisely why educators should become aware of the concept of implicit bias: the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. Operating outside of our conscious awareness, implicit biases are pervasive, and they can challenge even the most…
Implicit and Explicit Exercise and Sedentary Identity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, Tanya R.; Strachan, Shaelyn M.
2012-01-01
We examined the relationship between implicit and explicit "exerciser" and "sedentary" self-identity when activated by stereotypes. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) wrote essays about university students who either liked to exercise or engage in sedentary activities. This was followed by an implicit identity task and an explicit measure of…
Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.
2012-01-01
The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…
Altered Implicit Category Learning in Anorexia Nervosa
Shott, Megan E.; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Jappe, Leah M.; Pryor, Tamara; Maddox, W. Todd; Rollin, Michael D.H.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Frank, Guido K.W.
2012-01-01
Objective Recent research has identified specific cognitive deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), including impairment in executive functioning and attention. Another such cognitive process, implicit category learning has been less studied in AN. This study examined whether implicit category learning is impaired in AN. Method Twenty-one women diagnosed with AN and 19 control women (CW) were administered an implicit category learning task in which they were asked to categorize simple perceptual stimuli (Gabor patches) into one of two categories. Category membership was based on a linear integration (i.e., an implicit task) of two stimulus dimensions (orientation and spatial frequency of the stimulus). Results AN individuals were less accurate on implicit category learning relative to age-matched CW. Model-based analyses indicated that, even when AN individuals used the appropriate (i.e., implicit) strategy they were still impaired relative to CW who also used the same strategy. In addition, task performance in AN patients was worse the higher they were in self-reported novelty seeking and the lower they were in sensitivity to punishment. Conclusions These results indicate that AN patients have implicit category learning deficits, and given this type of learning is thought to be mediated by striatal dopamine pathways, AN patients may have deficits in these neural systems. The finding of significant correlations with novelty seeking and sensitivity to punishment suggests that feedback sensitivity is related to implicit learning in AN. PMID:22201300
Psychometric Intelligence Dissociates Implicit and Explicit Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gebauer, Guido F.; Mackintosh, Nicholas J.
2007-01-01
The hypothesis that performance on implicit learning tasks is unrelated to psychometric intelligence was examined in a sample of 605 German pupils. Performance in artificial grammar learning, process control, and serial learning did not correlate with various measures of intelligence when participants were given standard implicit instructions.…
Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McDermott, James E.
1999-01-01
Discusses theoretical and practical issues connected with implicit and explicit learning of languages. Explicit learning is knowledge expressed in the form of rules or definitions; implicit knowledge can be inferred to exist because of observed performance but cannot be clearly described. Hypothesizes why explicit learning can lead to implicit…
Implicit restart Lanczos as an eigensolver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajaie Khorasani, Reza; Dumont, Randall S.
2009-03-01
This paper investigates the efficiency of the implicit restart Lanczos and simple (without reorthogonalization) Lanczos algorithms, as eigensolvers for large scale computations in molecular and chemical physics. Using the cardioid billiard and the hydrogen cyanide/hydrogen isocyanide (HCN/HNC) molecule as model systems we demonstrate superior efficiency of implicit restart Lanczos compared to the simple Lanczos algorithm. A modified implementation of implicit restart Lanczos is also presented which works with a smaller Krylov space—with associated savings in memory—and can handle larger basis sets than the usual implicit restart Lanczos. It also enables getting all eigenpairs of a matrix, or all eigenvalues below a threshold (where the number of such is not known before hand), which is more difficult with the usual implicit restart algorithm.
Implicit restart Lanczos as an eigensolver.
Rajaie Khorasani, Reza; Dumont, Randall S
2009-03-01
This paper investigates the efficiency of the implicit restart Lanczos and simple (without reorthogonalization) Lanczos algorithms, as eigensolvers for large scale computations in molecular and chemical physics. Using the cardioid billiard and the hydrogen cyanide/hydrogen isocyanide (HCN/HNC) molecule as model systems we demonstrate superior efficiency of implicit restart Lanczos compared to the simple Lanczos algorithm. A modified implementation of implicit restart Lanczos is also presented which works with a smaller Krylov space-with associated savings in memory-and can handle larger basis sets than the usual implicit restart Lanczos. It also enables getting all eigenpairs of a matrix, or all eigenvalues below a threshold (where the number of such is not known before hand), which is more difficult with the usual implicit restart algorithm. PMID:19392082
Implicit social cognition: From measures to mechanisms
Nosek, Brian A.; Hawkins, Carlee Beth; Frazier, Rebecca S.
2011-01-01
Most of human cognition occurs outside of conscious awareness or conscious control. Some of these implicit processes influence social perception, judgment and action. The last fifteen years of research in implicit social cognition can be characterized as the Age of Measurement because of a proliferation of measurement methods and research evidence demonstrating their practical value for predicting human behavior. Implicit measures assess constructs that are distinct, but related, to self-report assessments, and predict variation in behavior that is not accounted for by those explicit measures. The present state of knowledge provides a foundation for the next age of implicit social cognition – clarification of the mechanisms underlying implicit measurement and how the measured constructs influence behavior. PMID:21376657
A stable FSI algorithm for light rigid bodies in compressible flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banks, J. W.; Henshaw, W. D.; Sjögreen, B.
2013-07-01
In this article we describe a stable partitioned algorithm that overcomes the added mass instability arising in fluid-structure interactions of light rigid bodies and inviscid compressible flow. The new algorithm is stable even for bodies with zero mass and zero moments of inertia. The approach is based on a local characteristic projection of the force on the rigid body and is a natural extension of the recently developed algorithm for coupling compressible flow and deformable bodies [1-3]. The new algorithm advances the solution in the fluid domain with a standard upwind scheme and explicit time-stepping. The Newton-Euler system of ordinary differential equations governing the motion of the rigid body is augmented by added mass correction terms. This system, which is very stiff for light bodies, is solved with an A-stable diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta scheme. The implicit system (there is one independent system for each body) consists of only 3d+d2 scalar unknowns in d=2 or d=3 space dimensions and is fast to solve. The overall cost of the scheme is thus dominated by the cost of the explicit fluid solver. Normal mode analysis is used to prove the stability of the approximation for a one-dimensional model problem and numerical computations confirm these results. In multiple space dimensions the approach naturally reveals the form of the added mass tensors in the equations governing the motion of the rigid body. These tensors, which depend on certain surface integrals of the fluid impedance, couple the translational and angular velocities of the body. Numerical results in two space dimensions, based on the use of moving overlapping grids and adaptive mesh refinement, demonstrate the behavior and efficacy of the new scheme. These results include the simulation of the difficult problems of shock impingement on an ellipse and a more complex body with appendages, both with zero mass.
Microscopic diagonal entropy and its connection to basic thermodynamic relations
Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2011-02-15
We define a diagonal entropy (d-entropy) for an arbitrary Hamiltonian system as S{sub d}=-{Sigma}{sub n{rho}nn}ln{rho}{sub nn} with the sum taken over the basis of instantaneous energy states. In equilibrium this entropy coincides with the conventional von Neumann entropy S{sub n} = -Tr{rho} ln {rho}. However, in contrast to S{sub n}, the d-entropy is not conserved in time in closed Hamiltonian systems. If the system is initially in stationary state then in accord with the second law of thermodynamics the d-entropy can only increase or stay the same. We also show that the d-entropy can be expressed through the energy distribution function and thus it is measurable, at least in principle. Under very generic assumptions of the locality of the Hamiltonian and non-integrability the d-entropy becomes a unique function of the average energy in large systems and automatically satisfies the fundamental thermodynamic relation. This relation reduces to the first law of thermodynamics for quasi-static processes. The d-entropy is also automatically conserved for adiabatic processes. We illustrate our results with explicit examples and show that S{sub d} behaves consistently with expectations from thermodynamics.
Haptics-based dynamic implicit solid modeling.
Hua, Jing; Qin, Hong
2004-01-01
This paper systematically presents a novel, interactive solid modeling framework, Haptics-based Dynamic Implicit Solid Modeling, which is founded upon volumetric implicit functions and powerful physics-based modeling. In particular, we augment our modeling framework with a haptic mechanism in order to take advantage of additional realism associated with a 3D haptic interface. Our dynamic implicit solids are semi-algebraic sets of volumetric implicit functions and are governed by the principles of dynamics, hence responding to sculpting forces in a natural and predictable manner. In order to directly manipulate existing volumetric data sets as well as point clouds, we develop a hierarchical fitting algorithm to reconstruct and represent discrete data sets using our continuous implicit functions, which permit users to further design and edit those existing 3D models in real-time using a large variety of haptic and geometric toolkits, and visualize their interactive deformation at arbitrary resolution. The additional geometric and physical constraints afford more sophisticated control of the dynamic implicit solids. The versatility of our dynamic implicit modeling enables the user to easily modify both the geometry and the topology of modeled objects, while the inherent physical properties can offer an intuitive haptic interface for direct manipulation with force feedback. PMID:15794139
Cognitive control: a role for implicit learning?
Deroost, Natacha; Vandenbossche, Jochen; Zeischka, Peter; Coomans, Daphné; Soetens, Eric
2012-09-01
We investigated the influence of implicit learning on cognitive control. In a sequential Stroop task, participants implicitly learned a sequence placed on the color of the Stroop words. In Experiment 1, Stroop conflict was lower in sequenced than in random trials (learning-improved control). However, as these results were derived from an interaction between learning and conflict, they could also be explained by improved implicit learning (difference between random and sequenced trials), under incongruent compared with congruent trials (control-improved learning). Therefore, we further unraveled the direction of the interaction in 2 additional experiments. In Experiment 2, participants who learned the color sequence were no better at resolving conflict than participants who did not undergo sequence training. This shows that implicit knowledge does not directly reduce conflict (no learning-improved control). In Experiment 3, the amount of conflict did not directly improve learning either (no control-improved learning). However, conflict had a significant impact on the expression of implicit learning, as most knowledge was expressed under the highest amount of conflict. Thus, task-optimization was accomplished by an increased reliance on implicit sequence knowledge under high conflict. These findings demonstrate that implicit learning processes can be flexibly recruited to support cognitive control functions. PMID:22428719
Evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension.
Fine, Alex B; Florian Jaeger, T
2013-04-01
This study provides evidence for implicit learning in syntactic comprehension. By reanalyzing data from a syntactic priming experiment (Thothathiri & Snedeker, 2008), we find that the error signal associated with a syntactic prime influences comprehenders' subsequent syntactic expectations. This follows directly from error-based implicit learning accounts of syntactic priming, but it is unexpected under accounts that consider syntactic priming a consequence of temporary increases in base-level activation. More generally, the results raise questions about the principles underlying the maintenance of implicit statistical knowledge relevant to language processing, and about possible functional motivations for syntactic priming. PMID:23363004
Block-Diagonalization of Operators with Gaps, with Applications to Dirac Operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuenin, Jean-Claude
2012-09-01
We present new results on the block-diagonalization of operators with spectral gaps, based on a method of Langer and Tretter, and apply them to Dirac operators on three-dimensional Euclidean space with unbounded potentials. For the Coulomb potential, we achieve an exact diagonalization up to nuclear charge Z = 124 (which covers all chemical elements) and prove the convergence of an approximate block-diagonalization up to Z = 62, thus considerably improving the upper bounds Z = 93 and Z = 51, respectively, established by Siedentop and Stockmeyer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhat, Charbel; Crivelli, Luis
1993-01-01
Explicit codes are often used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of large-scale structural systems, even for low frequency response, because the storage and CPU requirements entailed by the repeated factorizations traditionally found in implicit codes rapidly overwhelm the available computing resources. With the advent of parallel processing, this trend is accelerating because explicit schemes are also easier to parallellize than implicit ones. However, the time step restriction imposed by the Courant stability condition on all explicit schemes cannot yet and perhaps will never be offset by the speed of parallel hardware. Therefore, it is essential to develop efficient and robust alternatives to direct methods that are also amenable to massively parallel processing because implicit codes using unconditionally stable time-integration algorithms are computationally more efficient than explicit codes when simulating low-frequency dynamics. Here we present a domain decomposition method for implicit schemes that requires significantly less storage than factorization algorithms, that is several times faster than other popular direct and iterative methods, that can be easily implemented on both shared and local memory parallel processors, and that is both computationally and communication-wise efficient. The proposed transient domain decomposition method is an extension of the method of Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) developed by Farhat and Roux for the solution of static problems. Serial and parallel performance results on the CRAY Y-MP/8 and the iPSC-860/128 systems are reported and analyzed for realistic structural dynamics problems. These results establish the superiority of the FETI method over both the serial/parallel conjugate gradient algorithm with diagonal scaling and the serial/parallel direct method, and contrast the computational power of the iPSC-860/128 parallel processor with that of the CRAY Y-MP/8 system.
A transient FETI methodology for large-scale parallel implicit computations in structural mechanics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farhat, Charbel; Crivelli, Luis; Roux, Francois-Xavier
1992-01-01
Explicit codes are often used to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of large-scale structural systems, even for low frequency response, because the storage and CPU requirements entailed by the repeated factorizations traditionally found in implicit codes rapidly overwhelm the available computing resources. With the advent of parallel processing, this trend is accelerating because explicit schemes are also easier to parallelize than implicit ones. However, the time step restriction imposed by the Courant stability condition on all explicit schemes cannot yet -- and perhaps will never -- be offset by the speed of parallel hardware. Therefore, it is essential to develop efficient and robust alternatives to direct methods that are also amenable to massively parallel processing because implicit codes using unconditionally stable time-integration algorithms are computationally more efficient when simulating low-frequency dynamics. Here we present a domain decomposition method for implicit schemes that requires significantly less storage than factorization algorithms, that is several times faster than other popular direct and iterative methods, that can be easily implemented on both shared and local memory parallel processors, and that is both computationally and communication-wise efficient. The proposed transient domain decomposition method is an extension of the method of Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) developed by Farhat and Roux for the solution of static problems. Serial and parallel performance results on the CRAY Y-MP/8 and the iPSC-860/128 systems are reported and analyzed for realistic structural dynamics problems. These results establish the superiority of the FETI method over both the serial/parallel conjugate gradient algorithm with diagonal scaling and the serial/parallel direct method, and contrast the computational power of the iPSC-860/128 parallel processor with that of the CRAY Y-MP/8 system.
Implicit collaboration of sensor systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hintz, Kenneth J.
2004-08-01
The concept of goal lattices for the evaluation of potential sensor actions can be used to cause a multiplicity of heterogeneous sensor systems to collaborate. Previously goal lattices have been used to compute the value to a sensor system of taking a particular action in terms of how well that action contributes to the accomplishment of the topmost goals. This assumes that each sensor system is autonomous and only responsible to itself. If the topmost goals of each sensor system's goal lattice has adjoined to it two additional goals, namely "collaboration" and "altruism", then the value system is extended to include servicing requests from other systems. Two aircraft on a common mission can each benefit from measurements taken by the other aircraft either to confirm their own measurements, to create a pseudo-sensor, or to extend the area of coverage. The altruism goal indicates how much weight a sensor management system (SMS) will give in responding to a measurement request from any other system. The collaboration goal indicates how much weight will be given to responding to a measurement request from specific systems which are defined as being part of a collaborating group. By varying the values of the altruism and collaboration goals of each system, either locally or globally, various levels of implicit cooperation among sensor systems can be caused to emerge.
Lay dispositionism and implicit theories of personality.
Chiu, C Y; Hong, Y Y; Dweck, C S
1997-07-01
Lay dispositionism refers to lay people's tendency to use traits as the basic unit of analysis in social perception (L. Ross & R. E. Nisbett, 1991). Five studies explored the relation between the practices indicative of lay dispositionism and people's implicit theories about the nature of personal attributes. As predicted, compared with those who believed that personal attributes are malleable (incremental theorists), those who believed in fixed traits (entity theorists) used traits or trait-relevant information to make stronger future behavioral predictions (Studies 1 and 2) and made stronger trait inferences from behavior (Study 3). Moreover, the relation between implicit theories and lay dispositionism was found in both the United States (a more individualistic culture) and Hong Kong (a more collectivistic culture), suggesting this relation to be generalizable across cultures (Study 4). Finally, an experiment in which implicit theories were manipulated provided preliminary evidence for the possible causal role of implicit theories in lay dispositionism (Study 5). PMID:9216077
Parallelizing alternating direction implicit solver on GPUs
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We present a parallel Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) solver on GPUs. Our implementation significantly improves existing implementations in two aspects. First, we address the scalability issue of existing Parallel Cyclic Reduction (PCR) implementations by eliminating their hardware resource con...
Implicit learning and acquisition of music.
Rohrmeier, Martin; Rebuschat, Patrick
2012-10-01
Implicit learning is a core process for the acquisition of a complex, rule-based environment from mere interaction, such as motor action, skill acquisition, or language. A body of evidence suggests that implicit knowledge governs music acquisition and perception in nonmusicians and musicians, and that both expert and nonexpert participants acquire complex melodic, harmonic, and other features from mere exposure. While current findings and computational modeling largely support the learning of chunks, some results indicate learning of more complex structures. Despite the body of evidence, more research is required to support the cross-cultural validity of implicit learning and to show that core and more complex music theoretical features are acquired implicitly. PMID:23060126
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bidadi, Shreyas; Rani, Sarma L.
2016-01-01
The authors regret that in Fig. 8(c) of the paper, the labels for the dimensionless time t* and flatness S4, as well as the plot legend are incorrect. In place of the original figure, the following figure should be used.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Stuart J.; Hubbard, Raymond
1986-01-01
In order to make parallel analysis more accessible to researchers employing principal component techniques, regression equations are presented for the logarithms of the latent roots of random data correlation matrices with unities on the diagonal. (Author/LMO)
A Summary of Design Formulas for Beams Having Thin Webs in Diagonal Tension
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhn, Paul
1933-01-01
This report presents an explanation of the fundamental principles and a summary of the essential formulas for the design of diagonal-tension field beams, i.e. beams with very thin webs, as developed by Professor Wagner of Germany.
16. DIAGONAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF 1895 ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE SHOWING ...
16. DIAGONAL VIEW TO NORTHWEST OF 1895 ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE SHOWING REPLACEMENT DIESEL ENGINE LOCATIONS AND ASSOCIATED COOLING EQUIPMENT WITH PIPING - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA
Predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes.
Perugini, Marco
2005-03-01
Explicit attitudes have long been assumed to be central factors influencing behaviour. A recent stream of studies has shown that implicit attitudes, typically measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT), can also predict a significant range of behaviours. This contribution is focused on testing different predictive models of implicit and explicit attitudes. In particular, three main models can be derived from the literature: (a) additive (the two types of attitudes explain different portion of variance in the criterion), (b) double dissociation (implicit attitudes predict spontaneous whereas explicit attitudes predict deliberative behaviour), and (c) multiplicative (implicit and explicit attitudes interact in influencing behaviour). This paper reports two studies testing these models. The first study (N = 48) is about smoking behaviour, whereas the second study (N = 109) is about preferences for snacks versus fruit. In the first study, the multiplicative model is supported, whereas the double dissociation model is supported in the second study. The results are discussed in light of the importance of focusing on different patterns of prediction when investigating the directive influence of implicit and explicit attitudes on behaviours. PMID:15901390
Gifted Students' Implicit Beliefs about Intelligence and Giftedness
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Makel, Matthew C.; Snyder, Kate E.; Thomas, Chandler; Malone, Patrick S.; Putallaz, Martha
2015-01-01
Growing attention is being paid to individuals' implicit beliefs about the nature of intelligence. However, implicit beliefs about giftedness are currently underexamined. In the current study, we examined academically gifted adolescents' implicit beliefs about both intelligence and giftedness. Overall, participants' implicit beliefs about…
Implicit Association Tests of Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thomas, Adrian; Vaughn, Edwin D.; Doyle, Andrea; Bubb, Robert
2014-01-01
The authors assessed 3 of the currently available implicit association tests designed to measure attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The Revised Multiple Disability Implicit Association Test, the Implicit Association Test for Attitudes Toward Athletes With Disabilities, and the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test were related to…
Implicit solution of large-scale radiation diffusion problems
Brown, P N; Graziani, F; Otero, I; Woodward, C S
2001-01-04
In this paper, we present an efficient solution approach for fully implicit, large-scale, nonlinear radiation diffusion problems. The fully implicit approach is compared to a semi-implicit solution method. Accuracy and efficiency are shown to be better for the fully implicit method on both one- and three-dimensional problems with tabular opacities taken from the LEOS opacity library.
Taking correlations in GPS least squares adjustments into account with a diagonal covariance matrix
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kermarrec, Gaël; Schön, Steffen
2016-05-01
Based on the results of Luati and Proietti (Ann Inst Stat Math 63:673-686, 2011) on an equivalence for a certain class of polynomial regressions between the diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) and the generalized least squares (GLS) estimator, an alternative way to take correlations into account thanks to a diagonal covariance matrix is presented. The equivalent covariance matrix is much easier to compute than a diagonalization of the covariance matrix via eigenvalue decomposition which also implies a change of the least squares equations. This condensed matrix, for use in the least squares adjustment, can be seen as a diagonal or reduced version of the original matrix, its elements being simply the sums of the rows elements of the weighting matrix. The least squares results obtained with the equivalent diagonal matrices and those given by the fully populated covariance matrix are mathematically strictly equivalent for the mean estimator in terms of estimate and its a priori cofactor matrix. It is shown that this equivalence can be empirically extended to further classes of design matrices such as those used in GPS positioning (single point positioning, precise point positioning or relative positioning with double differences). Applying this new model to simulated time series of correlated observations, a significant reduction of the coordinate differences compared with the solutions computed with the commonly used diagonal elevation-dependent model was reached for the GPS relative positioning with double differences, single point positioning as well as precise point positioning cases. The estimate differences between the equivalent and classical model with fully populated covariance matrix were below the mm for all simulated GPS cases and below the sub-mm for the relative positioning with double differences. These results were confirmed by analyzing real data. Consequently, the equivalent diagonal covariance matrices, compared with the often used elevation
PROPOSED PREDICTIVE EQUATION FOR DIAGONAL COMPRESSIVE CAPACITY OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tantipidok, Patarapol; Kobayashi, Chikaharu; Matsumoto, Koji; Watanabe, Ken; Niwa, Junichiro
The current standard specifications of JSCE fo r the diagonal compressive capacity of RC beams only consider the effect of the compressive strength of conc rete and are not applicable to high strength concrete. This research aims to investigate the effect of vari ous parameters on the diagonal compressive capacity and propose a predictive equation. Twenty five I-beams were tested by three-point bending. The verification of the effects of concrete strength, stirrup ratio and spacing, shear span to effective depth ratio, flange width to web width ratio and effective depth was performed. The diagonal compressive capacity had a linear relationship to stirrup spacing regardless of its diameter. The effect of spacing became more significant with higher concrete strength. Thus, the effect of concrete strength and stirrup spacing was interrelated. On the other hand, there were slight effects of the other parameters on the diagonal compressive capacity. Finally, a simple empirical equation for predicting the diagonal compressive capacity of RC beams was proposed. The proposed equation had an adequate simplicity and can provide an accurate estimation of the diagonal compressive capacity than the existing equations.
Early LLNL Application Scaling Results on BlueGene/L
Cook, A W; Greenough, J A; Gygi, F; Streitz, F H; Kubota, A; Bulatov, V V; Louis, S
2004-11-01
Miranda is a high order hydrodynamics code for computing fluid instabilities and turbulent mixing. It employs FFTs and band-diagonal matrix solvers for computing spectrally-accurate derivatives, combined with high-order integration methods for time advancement; e.g., fourth-order Runge-Kutta. Fluid properties, i.e., viscosity, diffusivity and thermal conductivity, are computed from kinetic theory. The code contains solvers for both compressible and incompressible flows. It has been used primarily for studying Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (R-M) instabilities, which occur in supernovae and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF).
Using the Implicit Association Test to Assess Children's Implicit Attitudes toward Smoking
Andrews, Judy A.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Gordon, Judith; Widdop, Chris
2009-01-01
The development and psychometric properties of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) measuring implicit attitude toward smoking among fifth grade children were described. The IAT with “sweets” as the contrast category resulted in higher correlations with explicit attitudes than did the IAT with “healthy foods” as the contrast category. Children with family members who smoked (versus non-smoking) and children who were high in sensation seeking (versus low) had a significantly more favorable implicit attitude toward smoking. Further, implicit attitudes became less favorable after engaging in tobacco prevention activities targeting risk perceptions of addiction. Results support the reliability and validity of this version of the IAT and illustrate its usefulness in assessing young children's implicit attitude toward smoking. PMID:21566676
How Explicit and Implicit Test Instructions in an Implicit Learning Task Affect Performance
Witt, Arnaud; Puspitawati, Ira; Vinter, Annie
2013-01-01
Typically developing children aged 5 to 8 years were exposed to artificial grammar learning. Following an implicit exposure phase, half of the participants received neutral instructions at test while the other half received instructions making a direct, explicit reference to the training phase. We first aimed to assess whether implicit learning operated in the two test conditions. We then evaluated the differential impact of age on learning performances as a function of test instructions. The results showed that performance did not vary as a function of age in the implicit instructions condition, while age effects emerged when explicit instructions were employed at test. However, performance was affected differently by age and the instructions given at test, depending on whether the implicit learning of short or long units was assessed. These results suggest that the claim that the implicit learning process is independent of age needs to be revised. PMID:23326409
Measurement of off-diagonal transport coefficients in two-phase flow in porous media.
Ramakrishnan, T S; Goode, P A
2015-07-01
The prevalent description of low capillary number two-phase flow in porous media relies on the independence of phase transport. An extended Darcy's law with a saturation dependent effective permeability is used for each phase. The driving force for each phase is given by its pressure gradient and the body force. This diagonally dominant form neglects momentum transfer from one phase to the other. Numerical and analytical modeling in regular geometries have however shown that while this approximation is simple and acceptable in some cases, many practical problems require inclusion of momentum transfer across the interface. Its inclusion leads to a generalized form of extended Darcy's law in which both the diagonal relative permeabilities and the off-diagonal terms depend not only on saturation but also on the viscosity ratio. Analogous to application of thermodynamics to dynamical systems, any of the extended forms of Darcy's law assumes quasi-static interfaces of fluids for describing displacement problems. Despite the importance of the permeability coefficients in oil recovery, soil moisture transport, contaminant removal, etc., direct measurements to infer the magnitude of the off-diagonal coefficients have been lacking. The published data based on cocurrent and countercurrent displacement experiments are necessarily indirect. In this paper, we propose a null experiment to measure the off-diagonal term directly. For a given non-wetting phase pressure-gradient, the null method is based on measuring a counter pressure drop in the wetting phase required to maintain a zero flux. The ratio of the off-diagonal coefficient to the wetting phase diagonal coefficient (relative permeability) may then be determined. The apparatus is described in detail, along with the results obtained. We demonstrate the validity of the experimental results and conclude the paper by comparing experimental data to numerical simulation. PMID:25748636
Implicit Associations Have a Circadian Rhythm
Zadra, Jonathan R.; Proffitt, Dennis R.
2014-01-01
The current study shows that people's ability to inhibit implicit associations that run counter to their explicit views varies in a circadian pattern. The presence of this rhythmic variation suggests the involvement of a biological process in regulating automatic associations—specifically, with the current data, associations that form undesirable social biases. In 1998, Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz introduced the Implicit Association Test as a means of measuring individual differences in implicit cognition. The IAT is a powerful tool that has become widely used. Perhaps most visibly, studies employing the IAT demonstrate that people generally hold implicit biases against social groups, which often conflict with their explicitly held views. The IAT engages inhibitory processes similar to those inherent in self-control tasks. Because the latter processes are known to be resource-limited, we considered whether IAT scores might likewise be resource dependent. Analyzing IAT performance from over a million participants across all times of day, we found a clear circadian pattern in scores. This finding suggests that the IAT measures not only the strength of implicit associations, but also the effect of variations in the physiological resources available to inhibit their undesirable influences on explicit behavior. PMID:25365254
Parallel Implicit Kinetic Simulation with PARSEK
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefano, Markidis; Giovanni, Lapenta
2004-11-01
Kinetic plasma simulation is the ultimate tool for plasma analysis. One of the prime tools for kinetic simulation is the particle in cell (PIC) method. The explicit or semi-implicit (i.e. implicit only on the fields) PIC method requires exceedingly small time steps and grid spacing, limited by the necessity to resolve the electron plasma frequency, the Debye length and the speed of light (for fully explicit schemes). A different approach is to consider fully implicit PIC methods where both particles and fields are discretized implicitly. This approach allows radically larger time steps and grid spacing, reducing the cost of a simulation by orders of magnitude while keeping the full kinetic treatment. In our previous work, simulations impossible for the explicit PIC method even on massively parallel computers have been made possible on a single processor machine using the implicit PIC code CELESTE3D [1]. We propose here another quantum leap: PARSEK, a parallel cousin of CELESTE3D, based on the same approach but sporting a radically redesigned software architecture (object oriented C++, where CELESTE3D was structured and written in FORTRAN77/90) and fully parallelized using MPI for both particle and grid communication. [1] G. Lapenta, J.U. Brackbill, W.S. Daughton, Phys. Plasmas, 10, 1577 (2003).
An upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for viscous, compressible perfect-gas flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
1990-01-01
An upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for three-dimensional, viscous, compressible, perfect-gas flows is described. The algorithm is derived using a finite-volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. Viscous terms are discretized using central differences. The relaxation strategy is well suited for computers employing either vector or parallel architectures. It is also well suited to the numerical solution of the governing equations on unstructured grids. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large, block tri-diagonal systems. Convergence rates and grid refinement studies are conducted for Mach 5 flow through an inlet with a 10 deg compression ramp and Mach 14 flow over a 15 deg ramp. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamics coefficients compare well with experiment data for Mach 10 flow over a blunt body.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
1989-01-01
An upwind-biased, point-implicit relaxation algorithm for obtaining the numerical solution to the governing equations for three-dimensional, viscous, hypersonic flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium is described. The algorithm is derived using a finite-volume formulation in which the inviscid components of flux across cell walls are described with Roe's averaging and Harten's entropy fix with second-order corrections based on Yee's Symmetric Total Variation Diminishing scheme. The relaxation strategy is well suited for computers employing either vector or parallel architectures, and the relation between computer architecture and algorithm is emphasized. It is also well suited to the numerical solution of the governing equations on unstructured grids. Because of the point-implicit relaxation strategy, the algorithm remains stable at large Courant numbers without the necessity of solving large. block tri-diagonal systems. A single relaxation step depends only on information from nearest neighbors. Predictions for pressure distributions, surface heating, and aerodynamic coefficients compare well with experimental data for Mach 10 flow over a blunt body. Predictions for the hypersonic flow of air in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium (velocity = 8917 m/s, altitude = 78 km.) over the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) configuration obtained on a multi-domain grid are discussed.
Implicit verbal memory in Alzheimer's disease.
Russo, R; Spinnler, H
1994-09-01
Word stem completion and word identification were used in two repetition priming experiments to evaluate the implicit memory performance of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. This issue was also approached using various meta-analyses combining and contrasting previously reported data. While the experimental results suggested that AD patients present preserved repetition priming in both tasks, the meta-analytic approach showed an impairment in stem completion in comparison to word identification. Converging evidence cautiously suggested to accept the results of the meta-analysis. The above dissociation has been interpreted as showing differences in the specific contribution of data- and conceptually-driven processes in the two implicit tasks. A further meta-analysis on the effect of reduced perceptual availability of the study material on the same two tasks indicated that this variable affected repetition priming in word identification more heavily than in stem completion. The impact of such a dissociation on theories of implicit memory is discussed. PMID:7805380
Implicit solvent methods for free energy estimation
Decherchi, Sergio; Masetti, Matteo; Vyalov, Ivan; Rocchia, Walter
2014-01-01
Solvation is a fundamental contribution in many biological processes and especially in molecular binding. Its estimation can be performed by means of several computational approaches. The aim of this review is to give an overview of existing theories and methods to estimate solvent effects giving a specific focus on the category of implicit solvent models and their use in Molecular Dynamics. In many of these models, the solvent is considered as a continuum homogenous medium, while the solute can be represented at the atomic detail and at different levels of theory. Despite their degree of approximation, implicit methods are still widely employed due to their trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Their derivation is rooted in the statistical mechanics and integral equations disciplines, some of the related details being provided here. Finally, methods that combine implicit solvent models and molecular dynamics simulation, are briefly described. PMID:25193298
Teachers' implicit "theories" of children's intelligence.
Murrone, J; Gynther, M D
1991-12-01
Information about teachers' implicit notions of children's intelligence was obtained by having 50 student-teachers and 79 teachers with 1 to 4 years of experience rate 150 descriptors on applicability to an hypothetical child described as above average, average, or below average in intellectual functioning. Each teacher-subject was classified by dogmatism score and by years of teaching experience. A factor analysis disclosed that Academic Skills and Interpersonal Competencies summarize the implicit notions. Analysis of variance showed that all levels of hypothesized intelligence only affected teachers' expectations of academic skills and that the effect of intelligence was dependent upon the teachers' dogmatism. There were no clear-cut findings associated with years of experience. Results supported previous observations that people have implicit "theories" of intelligence; however, the specific composition of their ideas varies according to the context within which the rater and the person observed are placed. PMID:1792291
State-Based Implicit Coordination and Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.
2011-01-01
In air traffic management, pairwise coordination is the ability to achieve separation requirements when conflicting aircraft simultaneously maneuver to solve a conflict. Resolution algorithms are implicitly coordinated if they provide coordinated resolution maneuvers to conflicting aircraft when only surveillance data, e.g., position and velocity vectors, is periodically broadcast by the aircraft. This paper proposes an abstract framework for reasoning about state-based implicit coordination. The framework consists of a formalized mathematical development that enables and simplifies the design and verification of implicitly coordinated state-based resolution algorithms. The use of the framework is illustrated with several examples of algorithms and formal proofs of their coordination properties. The work presented here supports the safety case for a distributed self-separation air traffic management concept where different aircraft may use different conflict resolution algorithms and be assured that separation will be maintained.
Précis of implicit nationalism.
Hassin, Ran R; Ferguson, Melissa J; Kardosh, Rasha; Porter, Shanette C; Carter, Travis J; Dudareva, Veronika
2009-06-01
While the study of nationalism has received much attention throughout the social sciences and humanities, the experimental investigation of it lags behind. In this paper we review recent advances in the examination of implicit nationalism. In the first set of experiments we survey, the Palestinian, Israeli, Italian, and Russian flags were primed (or not, in the control conditions) and their effects on political thought and behavior were tested. In the second set the American or the Israeli flag was primed (or not) and prejudice toward African-Americans or Palestinians (respectively) was examined. The results of all experiments suggest that the implicit activation of national cues has far-reaching implications on political thought and behavior as well as on attitudes toward minorities. Under the assumption that the image of national flags is associated in memory with national ideologies, these results suggest that national ideologies can be implicitly pursued in a way that significantly affects our thoughts and behaviors. PMID:19580560
Testosterone abolishes implicit subordination in social anxiety.
Terburg, David; Syal, Supriya; Rosenberger, Lisa A; Heany, Sarah J; Stein, Dan J; Honk, Jack van
2016-10-01
Neuro-evolutionary theories describe social anxiety as habitual subordinate tendencies acquired through a recursive cycle of social defeat and submissive reactions. If so, the steroid hormone testosterone might be of therapeutic value, as testosterone is a main force behind implicit dominance drive in many species including humans. We combined these two theories to investigate whether the tendency to submit to the dominance of others is an implicit mechanism in social anxiety (Study-1), and whether this can be relieved through testosterone administration (Study-2). Using interactive eye-tracking we demonstrate that socially anxious humans more rapidly avert gaze from subliminal angry eye contact (Study-1). We replicate this effect of implicit subordination in social anxiety in an independent sample, which is subsequently completely abolished after a single placebo-controlled sublingual testosterone administration (Study-2). These findings provide crucial evidence for hormonal and behavioral treatment strategies that specifically target mechanisms of dominance and subordination in social anxiety. PMID:27448713
Implicit Memory in Music and Language
Ettlinger, Marc; Margulis, Elizabeth H.; Wong, Patrick C. M.
2011-01-01
Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system. PMID:21927608
Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times
McCourt, Michael; Green, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Ellen; Williams, Alexander
2015-01-01
Sentences such as “The ship was sunk to collect the insurance” exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The non-finite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit vs. explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: “The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance.” Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1–4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive) and explicit (active or long passive) control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either “3 days ago” or “just in order” to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus, efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in
The Intergenerational Transmission of Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Smoking
Sherman, Steven J.; Chassin, Laurie; Presson, Clark; Seo, Dong-Chul; Macy, Jonathan T.
2009-01-01
This study examined the intergenerational transmission of implicit and explicit attitudes toward smoking, as well as the role of these attitudes in adolescents’ smoking initiation. There was evidence of intergenerational transmission of implicit attitudes. Mothers who had more positive implicit attitudes had children with more positive implicit attitudes. In turn, these positive implicit attitudes of adolescents predicted their smoking initiation 18-months later. Moreover, these effects were obtained above and beyond the effects of explicit attitudes. These findings provide the first evidence that the intergenerational transmission of implicit cognition may play a role in the intergenerational transmission of an addictive behavior. PMID:20126293
Phase-context decomposition of diagonal unitaries for higher-dimensional systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beer, Kerstin; Dziemba, Friederike Anna
2016-05-01
We generalize the efficient decomposition method for phase-sparse diagonal operators of J. Welch et al. [Quantum Info. Comput. 16, 87 (2016)] to qudit systems. The phase-context-aware method focuses on cascaded entanglers, whose decomposition into multicontrolled inc gates can be optimized by the choice of a proper signed base-d representation for the natural numbers. While the gate count of the best-known decomposition method for general diagonal operators on qubit systems scales with O (2n) , the circuits synthesized by the Welch algorithm for diagonal operators with k distinct phases are upper-bounded by O (n2k ) , which is generalized to O (d n2k ) for the qudit case in this paper.
186 K Operation of Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers Based on a Diagonal Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kumar, Sushil; Hu, Qing; Reno, John L.
2009-01-01
Resonant-phonon terahertz quantum-cascade lasers operating up to a heat-sink temperature of 186 K are demonstrated. This record temperature performance is achieved based on a diagonal design, with the objective to increase the upper-state lifetime and therefore the gain at elevated temperatures. The increased diagonality also lowers the operating current densities by limiting the flow of parasitic leakage current. Quantitatively, the diagonality is characterized by a radiative oscillator strength that is smaller by a factor of two from the least of any previously published designs. At the lasing frequency of 3.9 THz, 63 mW of peak optical power was measured at 5 K, and approximately 5 mW could still be detected at 180 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroz, Alexander
2016-03-01
A discrete parity {Z}2 -symmetry of a two-parameter extension of the quantum Rabi model which smoothly interpolates between the latter and the Jaynes-Cummings model, and of the two-photon and the two-mode quantum Rabi models, enables their diagonalization in the spin subspace. A more general statement is that the respective sets of 2× 2 Hermitian operators of the Fulton-Gouterman type and those diagonal in the spin subspace are unitary equivalent. The diagonalized representation makes it transparent that any question about integrability and solvability can be addressed only at the level of ordinary differential operators of Dunkl type. Braak's definition of integrability is shown i) to contradict earlier numerical studies and ii) to imply that any physically reasonable differential operator of Fulton-Gouterman type is integrable.
A New Algorithm for Complex Non-Orthogonal Joint Diagonalization Based on Shear and Givens Rotations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mesloub, Ammar; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel
2014-04-01
This paper introduces a new algorithm to approximate non orthogonal joint diagonalization (NOJD) of a set of complex matrices. This algorithm is based on the Frobenius norm formulation of the JD problem and takes advantage from combining Givens and Shear rotations to attempt the approximate joint diagonalization (JD). It represents a non trivial generalization of the JDi (Joint Diagonalization) algorithm (Souloumiac 2009) to the complex case. The JDi is first slightly modified then generalized to the CJDi (i.e. Complex JDi) using complex to real matrix transformation. Also, since several methods exist already in the literature, we propose herein a brief overview of existing NOJD algorithms then we provide an extensive comparative study to illustrate the effectiveness and stability of the CJDi w.r.t. various system parameters and application contexts.
On the inclusion of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction in surface hopping methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gherib, Rami; Ye, Liyuan; Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Izmaylov, Artur F.
2016-04-01
The diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction (DBOC) stems from the diagonal second derivative coupling term in the adiabatic representation, and it can have an arbitrary large magnitude when a gap between neighbouring Born-Oppenheimer (BO) potential energy surfaces (PESs) is closing. Nevertheless, DBOC is typically neglected in mixed quantum-classical methods of simulating nonadiabatic dynamics (e.g., fewest-switch surface hopping (FSSH) method). A straightforward addition of DBOC to BO PESs in the FSSH method, FSSH+D, has been shown to lead to numerically much inferior results for models containing conical intersections. More sophisticated variation of the DBOC inclusion, phase-space surface-hopping (PSSH) was more successful than FSSH+D but on model problems without conical intersections. This work comprehensively assesses the role of DBOC in nonadiabatic dynamics of two electronic state problems and the performance of FSSH, FSSH+D, and PSSH methods in variety of one- and two-dimensional models. Our results show that the inclusion of DBOC can enhance the accuracy of surface hopping simulations when two conditions are simultaneously satisfied: (1) nuclei have kinetic energy lower than DBOC and (2) PESs are not strongly nonadiabatically coupled. The inclusion of DBOC is detrimental in situations where its energy scale becomes very high or even diverges, because in these regions PESs are also very strongly coupled. In this case, the true quantum formalism heavily relies on an interplay between diagonal and off-diagonal nonadiabatic couplings while surface hopping approaches treat diagonal terms as PESs and off-diagonal ones stochastically.
Implicit Assumptions in High Potentials Recruitment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Posthumus, Jan; Bozer, Gil; Santora, Joseph C.
2016-01-01
Purpose: Professionals of human resources (HR) use different criteria in practice than they verbalize. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the implicit criteria used for the selection of high-potential employees in recruitment and development settings in the pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-structured…
Implicit Training of Nonnative Speech Stimuli
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vlahou, Eleni L.; Protopapas, Athanassios; Seitz, Aaron R.
2012-01-01
Learning nonnative speech contrasts in adulthood has proven difficult. Standard training methods have achieved moderate effects using explicit instructions and performance feedback. In this study, the authors question preexisting assumptions by demonstrating a superiority of implicit training procedures. They trained 3 groups of Greek adults on a…
An Implicit Test of Chinese Orthographic Satiation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lan, Ying-Hsiang
2011-01-01
In this research, an implicit test using a lexical-decision task, in which words were discriminated from homophonic pseudo-words, was developed to detect the phenomenon of "Chinese orthographic satiation." The phenomenon is defined as a sense of uncertainty of the composition of a well-learned Chinese character through a prolonged visual…
Crosslinguistic Differences in Implicit Language Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.
2014-01-01
We report three experiments that explore the effect of prior linguistic knowledge on implicit language learning. Native speakers of English from the United Kingdom and native speakers of Cantonese from Hong Kong participated in experiments that involved different learning materials. In Experiment 1, both participant groups showed evidence of…
Implicit theories and ability emotional intelligence.
Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
2015-01-01
Previous research has shown that people differ in their implicit theories about the essential characteristics of intelligence and emotions. Some people believe these characteristics to be predetermined and immutable (entity theorists), whereas others believe that these characteristics can be changed through learning and behavior training (incremental theorists). The present study provides evidence that in healthy adults (N = 688), implicit beliefs about emotions and emotional intelligence (EI) may influence performance on the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Adults in our sample with incremental theories about emotions and EI scored higher on the MSCEIT than entity theorists, with implicit theories about EI showing a stronger relationship to scores than theories about emotions. Although our participants perceived both emotion and EI as malleable, they viewed emotions as more malleable than EI. Women and young adults in general were more likely to be incremental theorists than men and older adults. Furthermore, we found that emotion and EI theories mediated the relationship of gender and age with ability EI. Our findings suggest that people's implicit theories about EI may influence their emotional abilities, which may have important consequences for personal and professional EI training. PMID:26052309
Thinking Styles in Implicit and Explicit Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xie, Qiuzhi; Gao, Xiangping; King, Ronnel B.
2013-01-01
This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles)…
Implicit Memory, Age, and Time of Day
May, Cynthia P.; Hasher, Lynn; Foong, Natalie
2006-01-01
Memory retrieval can occur by at least two routes: a deliberate one, as when one attempts to retrieve an event or fact, and an unintentional one, as when one’s behavior is triggered by the past without one’s knowledge or awareness. We assessed the efficacy of these retrieval systems as a function of circadian arousal and time of day. Evening-type younger adults and morning-type older adults were tested at either peak (morning for old; evening for young) or off-peak times on implicit and explicit stem completion (Experiment 1) or on implicit category generation (Experiment 2). Results for explicit stem-cued recall replicated better performance for each age group at its peak time. In stark contrast, implicit performance was better at off-peak than at peak times of day, raising the possibility that the processes that serve explicit and implicit retrieval are on different circadian schedules, and highlighting the need to consider individual differences in circadian arousal when assessing either memory system. PMID:15686574
Strategic Game Moves Mediate Implicit Science Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi
2015-01-01
Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…
Implicit Reading in Chinese Pure Alexia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shan, Chunlei; Zhu, Renjing; Xu, Mingwei; Luo, Benyan; Weng, Xuchu
2010-01-01
A number of recent studies have shown that some patients with pure alexia display evidence of implicit access to lexical and semantic information about words that they cannot read explicitly. This phenomenon has not been investigated systematically in Chinese patients. We report here a case study of a Chinese patient who met the criteria for pure…
Implicit Learning of Semantic Preferences of Verbs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N.
2015-01-01
Previous studies of semantic implicit learning in language have only examined learning grammatical form-meaning connections in which learning could have been supported by prior linguistic knowledge. In this study we target the domain of verb meaning, specifically semantic preferences regarding novel verbs (e.g., the preference for a novel verb to…
Identifying, Quantifying, Extracting and Enhancing Implicit Parallelism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Agarwal, Mayank
2009-01-01
The shift of the microprocessor industry towards multicore architectures has placed a huge burden on the programmers by requiring explicit parallelization for performance. Implicit Parallelization is an alternative that could ease the burden on programmers by parallelizing applications "under the covers" while maintaining sequential semantics…
Measuring Gifted Adolescents' Implicit Theories of Creativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wickes, Katherine N. Saunders; Ward, Thomas B.
2006-01-01
This paper examines the structure of implicit theories of creativity in a sample of gifted adolescents and describes the development and use of the Creative Self Checklist and the Creative Individual Checklist, adjective checklists designed to assess endorsement of creativity-related personality and behavioral attributes. Findings indicate that…
Affective Objectives--Implicit or Explicit?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Hayden R.; Enos, Donald F.
The author discusses the importance of affective objectives in the educational process, and the difficulties in formulating, providing activities in, and evaluating the attainment of these objectives. A distinction is drawn between explicit objectives (those that should be revealed to the student) and implicit objectives (those that are…
Age effects on explicit and implicit memory
Ward, Emma V.; Berry, Christopher J.; Shanks, David R.
2013-01-01
It is well-documented that explicit memory (e.g., recognition) declines with age. In contrast, many argue that implicit memory (e.g., priming) is preserved in healthy aging. For example, priming on tasks such as perceptual identification is often not statistically different in groups of young and older adults. Such observations are commonly taken as evidence for distinct explicit and implicit learning/memory systems. In this article we discuss several lines of evidence that challenge this view. We describe how patterns of differential age-related decline may arise from differences in the ways in which the two forms of memory are commonly measured, and review recent research suggesting that under improved measurement methods, implicit memory is not age-invariant. Formal computational models are of considerable utility in revealing the nature of underlying systems. We report the results of applying single and multiple-systems models to data on age effects in implicit and explicit memory. Model comparison clearly favors the single-system view. Implications for the memory systems debate are discussed. PMID:24065942
Adapting implicit methods to parallel processors
Reeves, L.; McMillin, B.; Okunbor, D.; Riggins, D.
1994-12-31
When numerically solving many types of partial differential equations, it is advantageous to use implicit methods because of their better stability and more flexible parameter choice, (e.g. larger time steps). However, since implicit methods usually require simultaneous knowledge of the entire computational domain, these methods axe difficult to implement directly on distributed memory parallel processors. This leads to infrequent use of implicit methods on parallel/distributed systems. The usual implementation of implicit methods is inefficient due to the nature of parallel systems where it is common to take the computational domain and distribute the grid points over the processors so as to maintain a relatively even workload per processor. This creates a problem at the locations in the domain where adjacent points are not on the same processor. In order for the values at these points to be calculated, messages have to be exchanged between the corresponding processors. Without special adaptation, this will result in idle processors during part of the computation, and as the number of idle processors increases, the lower the effective speed improvement by using a parallel processor.
Semantic generalization in implicit language learning.
Paciorek, Albertyna; Williams, John N
2015-07-01
Despite many years of investigation into implicit learning in nonlinguistic domains, the potential for implicit learning to deliver the kinds of generalizations that underlie natural language competence remains unclear. In a series of experiments, we investigated implicit learning of the semantic preferences of novel verbs, specifically, whether they collocate with abstract or concrete nouns. After reading sentences containing the verbs, participants were required to judge the familiarity of pairs of novel verbs and nouns and to indicate their confidence or the basis of their judgment (i.e., guess, intuition, memory). Although all of the words had occurred in the texts, none of the critical items had actually occurred together. However, endorsement rates were significantly higher for pairs that respected the semantic preference rules than those that did not. Through analysis of subjective measures and verbal report, we argue that, for the majority of participants, this effect was based on unconscious knowledge. We argue that implicit learning of the kind of generalizations underlying semantic preferences is possible even after limited exposure. PMID:25581225
Can Musical Transformations Be Implicitly Learned?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dienes, Zoltan; Longuet-Higgins, Christopher
2004-01-01
The dominant theory of what people can learn implicitly is that they learn chunks of adjacent elements in sequences. A type of musical grammar that goes beyond specifying allowable chunks is provided by serialist or 12-tone music. The rules constitute operations over variables and could not be appreciated as such by a system that can only chunk…
Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.
2011-01-01
Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…
Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.
Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia
2015-06-01
Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404
Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong
2015-08-15
In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Daniels, Andrew D.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.
1999-01-01
Recently, several linear scaling approaches have been introduced which replace the time dominating diagonalization step in semiempirical methods, enabling practical calculations to be performed, on very large molecules. This paper compares the accuracy and performance of pseudodiagonalization (PD), conjugate gradient density matrix search (CG-DMS), the Chebyshev polynomial expansion method (CEM), and purification of the density matrix (PDM) as linear scaling substitutions for diagonalization. The scaling, speed, and reliability of these methods are compared for AMI single point energy calculations on polyglycine chains (up to 20,000 atoms), water clusters (up to 12,300 atoms), and nucleic acids (up to 6300 atoms).
Boundary energy of the open XXX chain with a non-diagonal boundary term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Wang, Chunguang
2014-01-01
We analyze the ground state of the open spin-1/2 isotropic quantum spin chain with a non-diagonal boundary term using a recently proposed Bethe ansatz solution. As the coefficient of the non-diagonal boundary term tends to zero, the Bethe roots split evenly into two sets: those that remain finite, and those that become infinite. We argue that the former satisfy conventional Bethe equations, while the latter satisfy a generalization of the Richardson-Gaudin equations. We derive an expression for the leading correction to the boundary energy in terms of the boundary parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Tongsong; Jiang, Ziwu; Zhang, Zhaozhong
2015-08-01
In the study of the relation between complexified classical and non-Hermitian quantum mechanics, physicists found that there are links to quaternionic and split quaternionic mechanics, and this leads to the possibility of employing algebraic techniques of split quaternions to tackle some problems in complexified classical and quantum mechanics. This paper, by means of real representation of a split quaternion matrix, studies the problem of diagonalization of a split quaternion matrix and gives algebraic techniques for diagonalization of split quaternion matrices in split quaternionic mechanics.
Exact solution of the trigonometric SU(3) spin chain with generic off-diagonal boundary reflections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Guang-Liang; Cao, Junpeng; Hao, Kun; Wen, Fakai; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie
2016-09-01
The nested off-diagonal Bethe ansatz is generalized to study the quantum spin chain associated with the SUq (3)R-matrix and generic integrable non-diagonal boundary conditions. By using the fusion technique, certain closed operator identities among the fused transfer matrices at the inhomogeneous points are derived. The corresponding asymptotic behaviors of the transfer matrices and their values at some special points are given in detail. Based on the functional analysis, a nested inhomogeneous T-Q relations and Bethe ansatz equations of the system are obtained. These results can be naturally generalized to cases related to the SUq (n) algebra.
Guehne, Otfried; Jungnitsch, Bastian; Moroder, Tobias; Weinstein, Yaakov S.
2011-11-15
The characterization of genuine multiparticle entanglement is important for entanglement theory as well as experimental studies related to quantum-information theory. Here, we completely characterize genuine multiparticle entanglement for four-qubit states diagonal in the cluster-state basis. In addition, we give a complete characterization of multiparticle entanglement for all five-qubit graph states mixed with white noise, for states diagonal in the basis corresponding to the five-qubit Y-shaped graph, and for a family of graph states with an arbitrary number of qubits.
Characteristic-based algorithms for flows in thermo-chemical nonequilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walters, Robert W.; Cinnella, Pasquale; Slack, David C.; Halt, David
1990-01-01
A generalized finite-rate chemistry algorithm with Steger-Warming, Van Leer, and Roe characteristic-based flux splittings is presented in three-dimensional generalized coordinates for the Navier-Stokes equations. Attention is placed on convergence to steady-state solutions with fully coupled chemistry. Time integration schemes including explicit m-stage Runge-Kutta, implicit approximate-factorization, relaxation and LU decomposition are investigated and compared in terms of residual reduction per unit of CPU time. Practical issues such as code vectorization and memory usage on modern supercomputers are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsov, E. B.; Leonov, S. S.
2016-03-01
The strain-strength characteristics of aerostructures made of hardening materials under uniaxial tension in creep conditions are determined. The problem is reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations of the kinetic theory of creep with one scalar damage parameter. The approximate solutions of the problem are obtained with the help of the implicit Euler method and of the arc length method in combination with the explicit methods of the Runge-Kutta family for cylindrical St.45 steel samples and 3V titanium alloy plates.
Convergence speeding up in the calculation of the viscous flow about an airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Radespiel, R.; Rossow, C.
1988-01-01
A finite volume method to solve the three dimensional Navier-Stokes equations was developed. It is based on a cell-vertex scheme with central differences and explicit Runge-Kutta time steps. A good convergence for a stationary solution was obtained by the use of local time steps, implicit smoothing of the residues, a multigrid algorithm, and a carefully controlled artificial dissipative term. The method is illustrated by results for transonic profiles and airfoils. The method allows a routine solution of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Ultrasonic Waves Due to Bi-material Interface Contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirose, S.; Saitoh, T.
2014-06-01
Boundary integral equations are formulated to investigate nonlinear waves generated by a debonding interface of bi-material subjected to an incident plane wave. For the numerical simulation, the IRK (Implicit Runge-Kutta method) based CQ-BEM (Convolution Quadrature-Boundary Element Method) is developed. The interface conditions for a debonding area, consisting of three phases of separation, stick, and slip, are developed for the simulation of nonlinear ultrasonic waves. Numerical results are obtained and discussed for normal incidence of a plane longitudinal wave onto the nonlinear interface with a static compressive stress.
Propulsion-related flowfields using the preconditioned Navier-Stokes equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkateswaran, S.; Weiss, J. M.; Merkle, C. L.; Choi, Y.-H.
1992-01-01
A previous time-derivative preconditioning procedure for solving the Navier-Stokes is extended to the chemical species equations. The scheme is implemented using both the implicit ADI and the explicit Runge-Kutta algorithms. A new definition for time-step is proposed to enable grid-independent convergence. Several examples of both reacting and non-reacting propulsion-related flowfields are considered. In all cases, convergence that is superior to conventional methods is demonstrated. Accuracy is verified using the example of a backward facing step. These results demonstrate that preconditioning can enhance the capability of density-based methods over a wide range of Mach and Reynolds numbers.
Spectral methods for modeling supersonic chemically reacting flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Drummond, J. P.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, T. A.
1985-01-01
A numerical algorithm was developed for solving the equations describing chemically reacting supersonic flows. The algorithm employs a two-stage Runge-Kutta method for integrating the equations in time and a Chebyshev spectral method for integrating the equations in space. The accuracy and efficiency of the technique were assessed by comparison with an existing implicit finite-difference procedure for modeling chemically reacting flows. The comparison showed that the procedure presented yields equivalent accuracy on much coarser grids as compared to the finite-difference procedure with resultant significant gains in computational efficiency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenbaum, J. S.
1976-01-01
If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jentink, Thomas Neil; Usab, William J., Jr.
1990-01-01
An explicit, Multigrid algorithm was written to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with special consideration given to the coarse mesh boundary conditions. These are formulated in a manner consistent with the interior solution, utilizing forcing terms to prevent coarse-mesh truncation error from affecting the fine-mesh solution. A 4-Stage Hybrid Runge-Kutta Scheme is used to advance the solution in time, and Multigrid convergence is further enhanced by using local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Details of the algorithm are presented along with a description of Jameson's standard Multigrid method and a new approach to formulating the Multigrid equations.
The single category implicit association test as a measure of implicit social cognition.
Karpinski, Andrew; Steinman, Ross B
2006-07-01
The Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) is a modification of the Implicit Association Test that measures the strength of evaluative associations with a single attitude object. Across 3 different attitude domains--soda brand preferences, self-esteem, and racial attitudes--the authors found evidence that the SC-IAT is internally consistent and makes unique contributions in the ability to understand implicit social cognition. In a 4th study, the authors investigated the susceptibility of the SC-IAT to faking or self-presentational concerns. Once participants with high error rates were removed, no significant self-presentation effect was observed. These results provide initial evidence for the reliability and validity of the SC-IAT as an individual difference measure of implicit social cognition. PMID:16834477
Convergence Acceleration for Multistage Time-Stepping Schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C.; Turkel, Eli L.; Rossow, C-C; Vasta, V. N.
2006-01-01
The convergence of a Runge-Kutta (RK) scheme with multigrid is accelerated by preconditioning with a fully implicit operator. With the extended stability of the Runge-Kutta scheme, CFL numbers as high as 1000 could be used. The implicit preconditioner addresses the stiffness in the discrete equations associated with stretched meshes. Numerical dissipation operators (based on the Roe scheme, a matrix formulation, and the CUSP scheme) as well as the number of RK stages are considered in evaluating the RK/implicit scheme. Both the numerical and computational efficiency of the scheme with the different dissipation operators are discussed. The RK/implicit scheme is used to solve the two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) compressible, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. In two dimensions, turbulent flows over an airfoil at subsonic and transonic conditions are computed. The effects of mesh cell aspect ratio on convergence are investigated for Reynolds numbers between 5.7 x 10(exp 6) and 100.0 x 10(exp 6). Results are also obtained for a transonic wing flow. For both 2-D and 3-D problems, the computational time of a well-tuned standard RK scheme is reduced at least a factor of four.
Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias
2015-10-01
Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. PMID:26026385
Implicit Statistical Learning and Language Skills in Bilingual Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yim, Dongsun; Rudoy, John
2013-01-01
Purpose: Implicit statistical learning in 2 nonlinguistic domains (visual and auditory) was used to investigate (a) whether linguistic experience influences the underlying learning mechanism and (b) whether there are modality constraints in predicting implicit statistical learning with age and language skills. Method: Implicit statistical learning…
Examining the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure: Four Preliminary Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Drake, Chad E.; Kellum, Karen Kate; Wilson, Kelly G.; Luoma, Jason B.; Weinstein, Jonathan H.; Adams, Catherine H.
2010-01-01
The Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) is a relatively new measure of implicit cognition that tests cognition as relational behavior instead of an associative activity and thus may provide a more specific measure of cognitive repertoires, including those for social biases, than better known implicit measures such as the Implicit…
Questioning Children: Interactional Evidence of Implicit Bias in Medical Interviews
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stivers, Tanya; Majid, Asifa
2007-01-01
Social psychologists have shown experimentally that implicit race bias can influence an individual's behavior. Implicit bias has been suggested to be more subtle and less subject to cognitive control than more explicit forms of racial prejudice. Little is known about how implicit bias is manifest in naturally occurring social interaction. This…
Implicit Learning in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vinter, Annie; Detable, Christelle
2003-01-01
A study compared the implicit learning of 58 children (ages 7-14) with mental retardation and 53 controls (ages 3-8). Individuals with mental retardation modified their behavior after an implicit training procedure similar to the controls. The effect of implicit learning did not vary as a function of IQ or age. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan
2004-01-01
Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…
Constraints on Implicit Learning of Grammatical Form-Meaning Connections
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leung, Janny H. C.; Williams, John N.
2012-01-01
Although there is good evidence for implicit learning of associations between forms, little work has investigated implicit learning of form-meaning connections, and the findings are somewhat contradictory. Two experiments were carried out using a novel reaction time methodology to investigate implicit learning of grammatical form-meaning…
Implicit Referential Meaning with Reference to English Arabic Translation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Al-Zughoul, Basem
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate how English implicit referential meaning is translated into Arabic by analyzing sentences containing implicit referential meanings found in the novel "Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban". The analysis shows that the translation of English implicit referential meaning into Arabic can be…
Chinese Undergraduates' Explicit and Implicit Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Shuang; Ma, Li; Zhang, Jian-Xin
2011-01-01
The present study is aimed at examining implicit and explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities among Chinese college students. The "Implicit Association Test" was used to measure their implicit attitudes, whereas their explicit attitudes toward persons with disabilities were measured by using a scale of three items. Participants were 56…
Off-diagonal ekpyrotic scenarios and equivalence of modified, massive and/or Einstein gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2016-01-01
Using our anholonomic frame deformation method, we show how generic off-diagonal cosmological solutions depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates and undergoing a phase of ultra-slow contraction can be constructed in massive gravity. In this paper, there are found and studied new classes of locally anisotropic and (in)homogeneous cosmological metrics with open and closed spatial geometries. The late time acceleration is present due to effective cosmological terms induced by nonlinear off-diagonal interactions and graviton mass. The off-diagonal cosmological metrics and related Stückelberg fields are constructed in explicit form up to nonholonomic frame transforms of the Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates. We show that the solutions include matter, graviton mass and other effective sources modeling nonlinear gravitational and matter fields interactions in modified and/or massive gravity, with polarization of physical constants and deformations of metrics, which may explain certain dark energy and dark matter effects. There are stated and analyzed the conditions when such configurations mimic interesting solutions in general relativity and modifications and recast the general Painlevé-Gullstrand and FLRW metrics. Finally, we elaborate on a reconstruction procedure for a subclass of off-diagonal cosmological solutions which describe cyclic and ekpyrotic universes, with an emphasis on open issues and observable signatures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yildiz Ulus, Aysegul
2013-01-01
This paper examines experimental and algorithmic contributions of advanced calculators (graphing and computer algebra system, CAS) in teaching the concept of "diagonalization," one of the key topics in Linear Algebra courses taught at the undergraduate level. Specifically, the proposed hypothesis of this study is to assess the effective…
Positive Definiteness via Off-Diagonal Scaling of a Symmetric Indefinite Matrix
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bentler, Peter M.; Yuan, Ke-Hai
2011-01-01
Indefinite symmetric matrices that are estimates of positive-definite population matrices occur in a variety of contexts such as correlation matrices computed from pairwise present missing data and multinormal based methods for discretized variables. This note describes a methodology for scaling selected off-diagonal rows and columns of such a…
Diagonal Earlobe Creases, Type A Behavior and the Death of Emperor Hadrian
Petrakis, Nicholas L.
1980-01-01
Classical writings suggest that the Roman emperor Hadrian died from congestive heart failure resulting from hypertension and coronary atherosclerosis. This diagnosis is supported by the identification of bilateral diagonal ear creases on sculptures of several busts of Hadrian as well as literary evidence of behavior pattern A. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:6990626
Diagonal earlobe creases, type A behavior and the death of Emperor Hadrian.
Petrakis, N L
1980-01-01
Classical writings suggest that the Roman emperor Hadrian died from congestive heart failure resulting from hypertension and coronary atherosclerosis. This diagnosis is supported by the identification of bilateral diagonal ear creases on sculptures of several busts of Hadrian as well as literary evidence of behavior pattern A. PMID:6990626
Some Effects of Row, Diagonal, and Column Screen Formats on Search Time and Strategy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Emurian, Henry H.; Seborg, Brian H.
1990-01-01
Describes a study of undergraduates that examined differences in computer screen formats and their effects on search time and strategy. Row, diagonal, and column information formats are compared, as well as tightly packed and loosely packed displays, and results of regression and residual analyses are discussed. (38 references) (LRW)
A Collocation Method for Volterra Integral Equations with Diagonal and Boundary Singularities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolk, Marek; Pedas, Arvet; Vainikko, Gennadi
2009-08-01
We propose a smoothing technique associated with piecewise polynomial collocation methods for solving linear weakly singular Volterra integral equations of the second kind with kernels which, in addition to a diagonal singularity, may have a singularity at the initial point of the interval of integration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hughes, Sean; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
2011-01-01
Research increasingly supports the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) as a measure capable of providing a sensitive index of preexisting implicit attitudes and cognitions. The current study constitutes the first attempt to determine if the IRAP is also sensitive to implicit attitudes engineered through either direct relational…
Youdas, James W; Adams, Kady E; Bertucci, John E; Brooks, Koel J; Steiner, Meghan M; Hollman, John H
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to simultaneously quantify electromyographic (EMG) activation levels (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) within the gluteus medius muscles on both moving and stance limbs across the performance of four proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) spiral-diagonal patterns in standing using resistance provided by elastic tubing. Differential EMG activity was recorded from the gluteus medius muscle of 26 healthy participants. EMG signals were collected with surface electrodes at a sampling frequency of 1000 Hz during three consecutive repetitions of each spiral-diagonal movement pattern. Significant differences existed among the four-spiral-diagonal movement patterns (F3,75 = 19.8; p < 0.001). The diagonal two flexion [D2F] pattern produced significantly more gluteus medius muscle recruitment (50 SD 29.3% MVIC) than any of the other three patterns and the diagonal one extension [D1E] (39 SD 37% MVIC) and diagonal two extension [D2E] (35 SD 29% MVIC) patterns generated more gluteus medius muscle recruitment than diagonal one flexion [D1F] (22 SD 21% MVIC). From a clinical efficiency standpoint, a fitness professional using the spiral-diagonal movement pattern of D2F and elastic tubing with an average peak tension of about 9% body mass may be able to concurrently strengthen the gluteus medius muscle on both stance and moving lower limbs. PMID:25625644
Reducing implicit racial preferences: II. Intervention effectiveness across time.
Lai, Calvin K; Skinner, Allison L; Cooley, Erin; Murrar, Sohad; Brauer, Markus; Devos, Thierry; Calanchini, Jimmy; Xiao, Y Jenny; Pedram, Christina; Marshburn, Christopher K; Simon, Stefanie; Blanchar, John C; Joy-Gaba, Jennifer A; Conway, John; Redford, Liz; Klein, Rick A; Roussos, Gina; Schellhaas, Fabian M H; Burns, Mason; Hu, Xiaoqing; McLean, Meghan C; Axt, Jordan R; Asgari, Shaki; Schmidt, Kathleen; Rubinstein, Rachel; Marini, Maddalena; Rubichi, Sandro; Shin, Jiyun-Elizabeth L; Nosek, Brian A
2016-08-01
Implicit preferences are malleable, but does that change last? We tested 9 interventions (8 real and 1 sham) to reduce implicit racial preferences over time. In 2 studies with a total of 6,321 participants, all 9 interventions immediately reduced implicit preferences. However, none were effective after a delay of several hours to several days. We also found that these interventions did not change explicit racial preferences and were not reliably moderated by motivations to respond without prejudice. Short-term malleability in implicit preferences does not necessarily lead to long-term change, raising new questions about the flexibility and stability of implicit preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454041
Believing Is Seeing: Fixation Duration Predicts Implicit Negative Attitudes
2014-01-01
A prototypical finding of social cognition is that social experiences influence later performance even though those experiences are not introspectively available. Building on social cognition research on implicit attitudes, we evaluate whether ethnic category/attribute pairs influence eye movements during the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz 1998). Results show that fixation duration predicted implicit attitudes such that when the category/attribute pairs disconfirmed one's implicit negative attitude fixation duration toward that pair increased. The present research provides evidence that eye movements and implicit processes inherent in the IAT are more broadly connected than previously thought. PMID:25133639
Implicit Multibody Penalty-BasedDistributed Contact.
Xu, Hongyi; Zhao, Yili; Barbic, Jernej
2014-09-01
The penalty method is a simple and popular approach to resolving contact in computer graphics and robotics. Penalty-based contact, however, suffers from stability problems due to the highly variable and unpredictable net stiffness, and this is particularly pronounced in simulations with time-varying distributed geometrically complex contact. We employ semi-implicit integration, exact analytical contact gradients, symbolic Gaussian elimination and a SVD solver to simulate stable penalty-based frictional contact with large, time-varying contact areas, involving many rigid objects and articulated rigid objects in complex conforming contact and self-contact. We also derive implicit proportional-derivative control forces for real-time control of articulated structures with loops. We present challenging contact scenarios such as screwing a hexbolt into a hole, bowls stacked in perfectly conforming configurations, and manipulating many objects using actively controlled articulated mechanisms in real time. PMID:26357376
Orbit-averaged implicit particle codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, B. I.; Freis, R. P.; Thomas, V.
1982-03-01
The merging of orbit-averaged particle code techniques with recently developed implicit methods to perform numerically stable and accurate particle simulations are reported. Implicitness and orbit averaging can extend the applicability of particle codes to the simulation of long time-scale plasma physics phenomena by relaxing time-step and statistical constraints. Difference equations for an electrostatic model are presented, and analyses of the numerical stability of each scheme are given. Simulation examples are presented for a one-dimensional electrostatic model. Schemes are constructed that are stable at large-time step, require fewer particles, and, hence, reduce input-output and memory requirements. Orbit averaging, however, in the unmagnetized electrostatic models tested so far is not as successful as in cases where there is a magnetic field. Methods are suggested in which orbit averaging should achieve more significant improvements in code efficiency.
The implicit structure of positive characteristics.
Haslam, Nick; Bain, Paul; Neal, David
2004-04-01
The implicit structure of positive character traits was examined in two studies of 190 and 100 undergraduates. Participants judged the pairwise covariation or semantic similarity of 42 positive characteristics using a sorting or a rating task. Characteristics were drawn from a new classification of strengths and virtues, the Five-Factor Model, and a taxonomy of values. Participants showed consistent patterns of perceived association among the characteristics across the study conditions. Multidimensional scaling yielded three consistent dimensions underlying these judgments ("warmth vs. self-control," "vivacity vs. decency," and "wisdom vs. power"). Cluster analyses yielded six consistent groupings-"self-control," "love," "wisdom," "drive," "vivacity," and "collaboration"-that corresponded only moderately to the virtue classification. All three taxonomies were systematically related to this implicit structure, but none captured it satisfactorily on its own. Revisions to positive psychology's classification of strengths are proposed. PMID:15070480
The neural correlates of implicit theory violation.
Xu, Xiaowen; Plaks, Jason E
2015-08-01
The present study examined whether perceivers' implicit theories about the fixedness of intelligence would modulate neurophysiological responses to stereotype-violating and stereotype-confirming information. Brain activity was recorded using EEG as participants read a series of stereotype-confirming or stereotype-violating behaviors performed by a target character. Compared to incremental theorists (who believe that intelligence is malleable), entity theorists (who believe that intelligence is fixed) displayed more pronounced N400 responses to stereotype-violating behaviors. In contrast, incremental theorists exhibited more pronounced N400 responses than entity theorists to stereotype-confirming behaviors. These results shed light on basic processes in Person Memory by suggesting that perceivers make a distinction at the neurocognitive level between stereotype violations versus implicit theory violations. PMID:25650726
Extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping.
Constantinescu, E. M.; Sandu, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.
2010-01-01
This paper constructs extrapolated implicit-explicit time stepping methods that allow one to efficiently solve problems with both stiff and nonstiff components. The proposed methods are based on Euler steps and can provide very high order discretizations of ODEs, index-1 DAEs, and PDEs in the method-of-lines framework. Implicit-explicit schemes based on extrapolation are simple to construct, easy to implement, and straightforward to parallelize. This work establishes the existence of perturbed asymptotic expansions of global errors, explains the convergence orders of these methods, and studies their linear stability properties. Numerical results with stiff ODE, DAE, and PDE test problems confirm the theoretical findings and illustrate the potential of these methods to solve multiphysics multiscale problems.
Implicit Extrapolation Methods for Variable Coefficient Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, M.; Ruede, U.
1996-01-01
Implicit extrapolation methods for the solution of partial differential equations are based on applying the extrapolation principle indirectly. Multigrid tau-extrapolation is a special case of this idea. In the context of multilevel finite element methods, an algorithm of this type can be used to raise the approximation order, even when the meshes are nonuniform or locally refined. Here previous results are generalized to the variable coefficient case and thus become applicable for nonlinear problems. The implicit extrapolation multigrid algorithm converges to the solution of a higher order finite element system. This is obtained without explicitly constructing higher order stiffness matrices but by applying extrapolation in a natural form within the algorithm. The algorithm requires only a small change of a basic low order multigrid method.
Implicitly modelled stratigraphic surfaces using generalized interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hillier, Michael; de Kemp, Eric; Schetselaar, Ernst
2016-06-01
Stratigraphic surfaces implicitly modelled using a generalized interpolation approach in various geological settings is presented to demonstrate its modelling capabilities and limitations. The generalized interpolation approach provides a useful mathematical framework in modelling continuous surfaces from scattered data consisting of the following geological constraints: contact locations and planar orientations. Examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the method in generating plausible representations of geological structures in sparse data environments. One of the major advantages of implicit surface modelling has long been claimed as its ability to model geometries with arbitrary topology. It is, however, demonstrated that this is in fact a disadvantage in robustly generating geologically realistic surfaces in structurally complex domains with a known topology.
An advanced implicit solver for MHD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udrea, Bogdan
A new implicit algorithm has been developed for the solution of the time-dependent, viscous and resistive single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The algorithm is based on an approximate Riemann solver for the hyperbolic fluxes and central differencing applied on a staggered grid for the parabolic fluxes. The algorithm employs a locally aligned coordinate system that allows the solution to the Riemann problems to be solved in a natural direction, normal to cell interfaces. The result is an original scheme that is robust and reduces the complexity of the flux formulas. The evaluation of the parabolic fluxes is also implemented using a locally aligned coordinate system, this time on the staggered grid. The implicit formulation employed by WARP3 is a two level scheme that was applied for the first time to the single fluid MHD model. The flux Jacobians that appear in the implicit scheme are evaluated numerically. The linear system that results from the implicit discretization is solved using a robust symmetric Gauss-Seidel method. The code has an explicit mode capability so that implementation and test of new algorithms or new physics can be performed in this simpler mode. Last but not least the code was designed and written to run on parallel computers so that complex, high resolution runs can be per formed in hours rather than days. The code has been benchmarked against analytical and experimental gas dynamics and MHD results. The benchmarks consisted of one-dimensional Riemann problems and diffusion dominated problems, two-dimensional supersonic flow over a wedge, axisymmetric magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) thruster simulation and three-dimensional supersonic flow over intersecting wedges and spheromak stability simulation. The code has been proven to be robust and the results of the simulations showed excellent agreement with analytical and experimental results. Parallel performance studies showed that the code performs as expected when run on parallel
Implicit and explicit ethnocentrism: revisiting the ideologies of prejudice.
Cunningham, William A; Nezlek, John B; Banaji, Mahzarin R
2004-10-01
Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans' prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism. In both studies, mean explicit attitudes toward out groups were positive, whereas implicit attitudes were negative, suggesting that implicit and explicit prejudices are distinct; however, in both studies, implicit and explicit attitudes were related (r = .37, .47). Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentric system, with variables organized in order of specificity. These results lead to the conclusion that (a) implicit ethnocentrism exists and (b) it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism. PMID:15466605
Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping.
Amodio, David M; Hamilton, Holly K
2012-12-01
How does intergroup anxiety affect the activation of implicit racial evaluations and stereotypes? Given the common basis of social anxiety and implicit evaluative processes in memory systems linked to classical conditioning and affect, we predicted that intergroup anxiety would amplify implicit negative racial evaluations. Implicit stereotyping, which is associated primarily with semantic memory systems, was not expected to increase as a function of intergroup anxiety. This pattern was observed among White participants preparing to interact with Black partners, but not those preparing to interact with White partners. These findings shed new light on how anxiety, often elicited in real-life intergroup interactions, can affect the operation of implicit racial biases, suggesting that intergroup anxiety has more direct implications for affective and evaluative forms of implicit bias than for implicit stereotyping. These findings also support a memory-systems model of the interplay between emotion and cognition in the context of social behavior. PMID:22775128
Fully implicit adaptive mesh refinement MHD algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Philip, Bobby
2005-10-01
In the macroscopic simulation of plasmas, the numerical modeler is faced with the challenge of dealing with multiple time and length scales. The former results in stiffness due to the presence of very fast waves. The latter requires one to resolve the localized features that the system develops. Traditional approaches based on explicit time integration techniques and fixed meshes are not suitable for this challenge, as such approaches prevent the modeler from using realistic plasma parameters to keep the computation feasible. We propose here a novel approach, based on implicit methods and structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR). Our emphasis is on both accuracy and scalability with the number of degrees of freedom. To our knowledge, a scalable, fully implicit AMR algorithm has not been accomplished before for MHD. As a proof-of-principle, we focus on the reduced resistive MHD model as a basic MHD model paradigm, which is truly multiscale. The approach taken here is to adapt mature physics-based technologyootnotetextL. Chac'on et al., J. Comput. Phys. 178 (1), 15- 36 (2002) to AMR grids, and employ AMR-aware multilevel techniques (such as fast adaptive composite --FAC-- algorithms) for scalability. We will demonstrate that the concept is indeed feasible, featuring optimal scalability under grid refinement. Results of fully-implicit, dynamically-adaptive AMR simulations will be presented on a variety of problems.
Implicit Shape Parameterization for Kansei Design Methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordgren, Andreas Kjell; Aoyama, Hideki
Implicit shape parameterization for Kansei design is a procedure that use 3D-models, or concepts, to span a shape space for surfaces in the automotive field. A low-dimensional, yet accurate shape descriptor was found by Principal Component Analysis of an ensemble of point-clouds, which were extracted from mesh-based surfaces modeled in a CAD-program. A theoretical background of the procedure is given along with step-by-step instructions for the required data-processing. The results show that complex surfaces can be described very efficiently, and encode design features by an implicit approach that does not rely on error-prone explicit parameterizations. This provides a very intuitive way to explore shapes for a designer, because various design features can simply be introduced by adding new concepts to the ensemble. Complex shapes have been difficult to analyze with Kansei methods due to the large number of parameters involved, but implicit parameterization of design features provides a low-dimensional shape descriptor for efficient data collection, model-building and analysis of emotional content in 3D-surfaces.
Toward a meaningful metric of implicit prejudice.
Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Strauts, Erin; Mitchell, Gregory; Tetlock, Philip E
2015-09-01
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 100(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2015-40760-001). there are errors in some of the values listed in Table 6 that do not alter any of the conclusions or substantive statements in the original article. The corrected portion of Table 6 is in the correction. The positive intercepts in this table represent the estimated IAT score when the criterion has a value of zero (suggesting attitudinal neutrality), except in the equation examining voter preference in Greenwald et al. (2009), where the intercept estimated the IAT score of Obama voters.] The modal distribution of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is commonly interpreted as showing high levels of implicit prejudice among Americans. These interpretations have fueled calls for changes in organizational and legal practices, but such applications are problematic because the IAT is scored on an arbitrary psychological metric. The present research was designed to make the IAT metric less arbitrary by determining the scores on IAT measures that are associated with observable racial or ethnic bias. By reexamining data from published studies, we found evidence that the IAT metric is "right biased," such that individuals who are behaviorally neutral tend to have positive IAT scores. Current scoring conventions fail to take into account these dynamics and can lead to faulty inferences about the prevalence of implicit prejudice. PMID:25602125
Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies
Bustamante, R.; Rajagopal, K. R.
2015-01-01
Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder. PMID:25792968
Two-dimensional diagonal summing of coincidence spectra for bulk PGNAA applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metwally, W. A.; Gardner, R. P.; Mayo, C. W.
2004-06-01
In the past 10 years, new electronic devices have been developed that allow fast coincidence measurements to be performed that are capable of simultaneously recording the individual spectra as well as the coincidence spectra of multiple detectors. Utilizing these devices with computer software allows multiparameter data acquisition which adds much more flexibility in data analysis. One of the capabilities that is enabled is that of obtaining two-dimensional spectra. In this work, the use of this equipment and the two-dimensional spectra obtained with it are used to allow two-dimensional diagonal summing. The main advantages of this approach are improved peak resolution and very low background (Compton continuum). Possible uses of the two-dimensional diagonal summing are identifying coincidence schemes, performing elemental analysis, and identifying trace elements in bulk samples. The spectra obtained are very promising for these applications.
Theoretical analysis of three-dimensional bifurcated flow inside a diagonally lid-driven cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, Yuri
2015-08-01
The instability mechanism of fully three-dimensional, highly separated, shear-driven confined flow inside a diagonally lid-driven cavity was investigated. The analysis was conducted on 1003 and 2003 stretched grids by a series of direct numerical simulations utilizing a standard second-order accuracy finite volume code, openFoam. The observed oscillatory instability was found to set in via a subcritical symmetry breaking Hopf bifurcation. Critical values of the Reynolds number Re cr = 2320 and the non-dimensional angular oscillating frequency for the transition from steady to oscillatory flow were accurately determined. An oscillatory regime of the bifurcated flow was analyzed in depth, revealing and characterizing the spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism. Characteristic spatial patterns of the base flow and the main flow harmonic were determined for the velocity, vorticity and helicity fields. Lagrangian particle tracers were utilized to visualize the mixing phenomenon of the flow from both sides of the diagonal symmetry plane.
Effective interactions, large-scale diagonalization, and one-dimensional quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kvaal, Simen; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Nilsen, Halvor Møll
2007-08-01
The widely used large-scale diagonalization method using harmonic oscillator basis functions (an instance of the Rayleigh-Ritz method [S. Gould, Variational Methods for Eigenvalue Problems: An Introduction to the Methods of Rayleigh, Ritz, Weinstein, and Aronszajn (Dover, New York, 1995)], also called a spectral method, configuration-interaction method, or “exact diagonalization” method) is systematically analyzed using results for the convergence of Hermite function series. We apply this theory to a Hamiltonian for a one-dimensional model of a quantum dot. The method is shown to converge slowly, and the nonsmooth character of the interaction potential is identified as the main problem with the chosen basis, while, on the other hand, its important advantages are pointed out. An effective interaction obtained by a similarity transformation is proposed for improving the convergence of the diagonalization scheme, and numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the improvement. Generalizations to more particles and dimensions are discussed.
Marušič, Maja; Šket, Primož; Bauer, Lubos; Viglasky, Viktor; Plavec, Janez
2012-01-01
We herein report on the formation and high-resolution NMR solution-state structure determination of a G-quadruplex adopted by d[G3ATG3ACACAG4ACG3] comprised of four G-tracts with the third one consisting of four guanines that are intervened with non-G streches of different lengths. A single intramolecular antiparallel (3+1) G-quadruplex exhibits three stacked G-quartets connected with propeller, diagonal and edgewise loops of different lengths. The propeller and edgewise loops are well structured, whereas the longer diagonal loop is more flexible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first high-resolution G-quadruplex structure where all of the three main loop types are present. PMID:22532609
Cai, Yunfeng; Bai, Zhaojun; Pask, John E.; Sukumar, N.
2013-12-15
The iterative diagonalization of a sequence of large ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems is a computational bottleneck in quantum mechanical methods employing a nonorthogonal basis for ab initio electronic structure calculations. We propose a hybrid preconditioning scheme to effectively combine global and locally accelerated preconditioners for rapid iterative diagonalization of such eigenvalue problems. In partition-of-unity finite-element (PUFE) pseudopotential density-functional calculations, employing a nonorthogonal basis, we show that the hybrid preconditioned block steepest descent method is a cost-effective eigensolver, outperforming current state-of-the-art global preconditioning schemes, and comparably efficient for the ill-conditioned generalized eigenvalue problems produced by PUFE as the locally optimal block preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for the well-conditioned standard eigenvalue problems produced by planewave methods.
Gong, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Ke; Lin, Qiu-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Wen; Xu, You-Gen
2012-01-01
Joint estimation of direction-of-arrival (DOA) and polarization with electromagnetic vector-sensors (EMVS) is considered in the framework of complex-valued non-orthogonal joint diagonalization (CNJD). Two new CNJD algorithms are presented, which propose to tackle the high dimensional optimization problem in CNJD via a sequence of simple sub-optimization problems, by using LU or LQ decompositions of the target matrices as well as the Jacobi-type scheme. Furthermore, based on the above CNJD algorithms we present a novel strategy to exploit the multi-dimensional structure present in the second-order statistics of EMVS outputs for simultaneous DOA and polarization estimation. Simulations are provided to compare the proposed strategy with existing tensorial or joint diagonalization based methods. PMID:22737015
Workshop report on large-scale matrix diagonalization methods in chemistry theory institute
Bischof, C.H.; Shepard, R.L.; Huss-Lederman, S.
1996-10-01
The Large-Scale Matrix Diagonalization Methods in Chemistry theory institute brought together 41 computational chemists and numerical analysts. The goal was to understand the needs of the computational chemistry community in problems that utilize matrix diagonalization techniques. This was accomplished by reviewing the current state of the art and looking toward future directions in matrix diagonalization techniques. This institute occurred about 20 years after a related meeting of similar size. During those 20 years the Davidson method continued to dominate the problem of finding a few extremal eigenvalues for many computational chemistry problems. Work on non-diagonally dominant and non-Hermitian problems as well as parallel computing has also brought new methods to bear. The changes and similarities in problems and methods over the past two decades offered an interesting viewpoint for the success in this area. One important area covered by the talks was overviews of the source and nature of the chemistry problems. The numerical analysts were uniformly grateful for the efforts to convey a better understanding of the problems and issues faced in computational chemistry. An important outcome was an understanding of the wide range of eigenproblems encountered in computational chemistry. The workshop covered problems involving self- consistent-field (SCF), configuration interaction (CI), intramolecular vibrational relaxation (IVR), and scattering problems. In atomic structure calculations using the Hartree-Fock method (SCF), the symmetric matrices can range from order hundreds to thousands. These matrices often include large clusters of eigenvalues which can be as much as 25% of the spectrum. However, if Cl methods are also used, the matrix size can be between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 9} where only one or a few extremal eigenvalues and eigenvectors are needed. Working with very large matrices has lead to the development of
Generalized Coordinate Bethe Ansatz for open spin chains with non-diagonal boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragoucy, E.
2012-02-01
We introduce a generalization of the original Coordinate Bethe Ansatz that allows to treat the case of open spin chains with non-diagonal boundary matrices. We illustrate it on two cases: the XXX and XXZ chains. Short review on a joint work with N. Crampe (L2C) and D. Simon (LPMA), see arXiv:1009.4119, arXiv:1105.4119 and arXiv:1106.3264.
Effect of diagonal disorder on the upper critical field of the local electron pair system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yan-Min; Zhang, Li-Yuan
1989-06-01
The effect of diagonal disorder on the upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) of the local electron pair system is studied in the framework of the mean-field approximation. It is found that the disorder strongly perturbs the temperature dependences of Hc2. The theoretical calculations are also compared with experimental Hc2 data on the heavy fermion superconductors CeCu2Si2 and UPt3. Similar temperature dependences are found.
The R-matrix of quantum doubles of Nichols algebras of diagonal type
Angiono, Iván
2015-02-15
Let H be the quantum double of a Nichols algebra of diagonal type. We compute the R-matrix of 3-tuples of modules for general finite-dimensional highest weight modules over H. We also calculate a multiplicative formula for the universal R-matrix when H is finite dimensional. We show the unicity of a PBW basis (or a Lusztig-type Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt basis) with a given convex order.
Diagonalization and Many-Body Localization for a Disordered Quantum Spin Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imbrie, John Z.
2016-07-01
We consider a weakly interacting quantum spin chain with random local interactions. We prove that many-body localization follows from a physically reasonable assumption that limits the extent of level attraction in the statistics of eigenvalues. In a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser-style construction, a sequence of local unitary transformations is used to diagonalize the Hamiltonian by deforming the initial tensor-product basis into a complete set of exact many-body eigenfunctions.
Mohallem, José R
2008-04-14
Recent post-Hartree-Fock calculations of the diagonal-Born-Oppenheimer correction empirically show that it behaves quite similar to atomic nuclear mass corrections. An almost constant contribution per electron is identified, which converges with system size for specific series of organic molecules. This feature permits pocket-calculator evaluation of the corrections within thermochemical accuracy (10(-1) mhartree or kcal/mol). PMID:18412429
Implicit and Explicit Timing in Oculomotor Control
Ameqrane, Ilhame; Pouget, Pierre; Wattiez, Nicolas; Carpenter, Roger; Missal, Marcus
2014-01-01
The passage of time can be estimated either explicitly, e.g. before leaving home in the morning, or implicitly, e.g. when catching a flying ball. In the present study, the latency of saccadic eye movements was used to evaluate differences between implicit and explicit timing. Humans were required to make a saccade between a central and a peripheral position on a computer screen. The delay between the extinction of a central target and the appearance of an eccentric target was the independent variable that could take one out of four different values (400, 900, 1400 or 1900 ms). In target trials, the delay period lasted for one of the four durations randomly. At the end of the delay, a saccade was initiated by the appearance of an eccentric target. Cue&target trials were similar to target trials but the duration of the delay was visually cued. In probe trials, the duration of the upcoming delay was cued, but there was no eccentric target and subjects had to internally generate a saccade at the estimated end of the delay. In target and cue&target trials, the mean and variance of latency distributions decreased as delay duration increased. In cue&target trials latencies were shorter. In probe trials, the variance increased with increasing delay duration and scalar variability was observed. The major differences in saccadic latency distributions were observed between visually-guided (target and cue&target trials) and internally-generated saccades (probe trials). In target and cue&target trials the timing of the response was implicit. In probe trials, the timing of the response was internally-generated and explicitly based on the duration of the visual cue. Scalar timing was observed only during probe trials. This study supports the hypothesis that there is no ubiquitous timing system in the brain but independent timing processes active depending on task demands. PMID:24728140
Neural Patterns of the Implicit Association Test
Healy, Graham F.; Boran, Lorraine; Smeaton, Alan F.
2015-01-01
The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a reaction time based categorization task that measures the differential associative strength between bipolar targets and evaluative attribute concepts as an approach to indexing implicit beliefs or biases. An open question exists as to what exactly the IAT measures, and here EEG (Electroencephalography) has been used to investigate the time course of ERPs (Event-related Potential) indices and implicated brain regions in the IAT. IAT-EEG research identifies a number of early (250–450 ms) negative ERPs indexing early-(pre-response) processing stages of the IAT. ERP activity in this time range is known to index processes related to cognitive control and semantic processing. A central focus of these efforts has been to use IAT-ERPs to delineate the implicit and explicit factors contributing to measured IAT effects. Increasing evidence indicates that cognitive control (and related top-down modulation of attention/perceptual processing) may be components in the effective measurement of IAT effects, as factors such as physical setting or task instruction can change an IAT measurement. In this study we further implicate the role of proactive cognitive control and top-down modulation of attention/perceptual processing in the IAT-EEG. We find statistically significant relationships between D-score (a reaction-time based measure of the IAT-effect) and early ERP-time windows, indicating where more rapid word categorizations driving the IAT effect are present, they are at least partly explainable by neural activity not significantly correlated with the IAT measurement itself. Using LORETA, we identify a number of brain regions driving these ERP-IAT relationships notably involving left-temporal, insular, cingulate, medial frontal and parietal cortex in time regions corresponding to the N2- and P3-related activity. The identified brain regions involved with reduced reaction times on congruent blocks coincide with those of previous studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2015-04-01
We reinvestigate how generic off-diagonal cosmological solutions depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates can be constructed in massive and -modified gravity using the anholonomic frame deformation method. New classes of locally anisotropic and (in-) homogeneous cosmological metrics are constructed with open and closed spatial geometries. By resorting to such solutions, we show that they describe the late time acceleration due to effective cosmological terms induced by nonlinear off-diagonal interactions, possible modifications of the gravitational action and graviton mass. The cosmological metrics and related Stückelberg fields are constructed in explicit form up to nonholonomic frame transforms of the Friedmann-Lamaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates. The solutions include matter, graviton mass, and other effective sources modeling nonlinear gravitational and matter field interactions with polarization of physical constants and deformations of metrics, which may explain dark energy and dark matter effects. However, we argue that it is not always necessary to modify gravity if we consider the effective generalized Einstein equations with nontrivial vacuum and/or non-minimal coupling with matter. Indeed, we state certain conditions when such configurations mimic interesting solutions in general relativity and modifications, for instance, when we can extract the general Painlevé-Gullstrand and FLRW metrics. In a more general context, we elaborate on a reconstruction procedure for off-diagonal cosmological solutions which describe cyclic and ekpyrotic universes. Finally, open issues and further perspectives are discussed.
Iterative diagonalization in augmented plane wave based methods in electronic structure calculations
Blaha, P.; Laskowski, R.; Schwarz, K.
2010-01-20
Due to the increased computer power and advanced algorithms, quantum mechanical calculations based on Density Functional Theory are more and more widely used to solve real materials science problems. In this context large nonlinear generalized eigenvalue problems must be solved repeatedly to calculate the electronic ground state of a solid or molecule. Due to the nonlinear nature of this problem, an iterative solution of the eigenvalue problem can be more efficient provided it does not disturb the convergence of the self-consistent-field problem. The blocked Davidson method is one of the widely used and efficient schemes for that purpose, but its performance depends critically on the preconditioning, i.e. the procedure to improve the search space for an accurate solution. For more diagonally dominated problems, which appear typically for plane wave based pseudopotential calculations, the inverse of the diagonal of (H - ES) is used. However, for the more efficient 'augmented plane wave + local-orbitals' basis set this preconditioning is not sufficient due to large off-diagonal terms caused by the local orbitals. We propose a new preconditioner based on the inverse of (H - {lambda}S) and demonstrate its efficiency for real applications using both, a sequential and a parallel implementation of this algorithm into our WIEN2k code.
Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.
2013-01-01
Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present study investigated implicit and explicit learning of an auditory word sequence in 10 individuals with stroke-induced agrammatic aphasia and 18 healthy age-matched participants using an adaptation of the Serial Reaction Time task. Individuals with aphasia showed significant learning under implicit, but not explicit, conditions, whereas age-matched participants learned under both conditions. These results suggest significant implicit learning ability in agrammatic aphasia. Furthermore, results of an auditory sentence span task indicated working memory deficits in individuals with agrammatic aphasia, which are discussed in relation to explicit and implicit learning processes. PMID:23532578
Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.
Olney, Andrew McGregor
2012-01-01
We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823
Adaptive Implicit Non-Equilibrium Radiation Diffusion
Philip, Bobby; Wang, Zhen; Berrill, Mark A; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Manuel; Pernice, Michael
2013-01-01
We describe methods for accurate and efficient long term time integra- tion of non-equilibrium radiation diffusion systems: implicit time integration for effi- cient long term time integration of stiff multiphysics systems, local control theory based step size control to minimize the required global number of time steps while control- ling accuracy, dynamic 3D adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to minimize memory and computational costs, Jacobian Free Newton-Krylov methods on AMR grids for efficient nonlinear solution, and optimal multilevel preconditioner components that provide level independent solver convergence.
Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals
Olney, Andrew McGregor
2013-01-01
We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823
Development of Implicit and Explicit Category Learning
Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Maddox, W. Todd; Karalunas, Sarah L.
2011-01-01
We present two studies that examine developmental differences in the implicit and explicit acquisition of category knowledge. College-attending adults consistently outperformed school-aged children on two separate information integration paradigms due to children’s more frequent use of an explicit rule-based strategy. Accuracy rates were also higher for adults on a unidimensional rule-based task due to children’s more frequent use of the irrelevant dimension to guide their behavior. Results across these two studies suggest that the ability to learn categorization structures may be dependent upon a child’s ability to inhibit output from the explicit system. PMID:21377688
Disentangling Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Methotrexate.
Linn, Annemiek J; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J F
2016-01-01
Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an 'invisible epidemic.' Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients' attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients' implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is worthwhile
Disentangling Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients’ Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Methotrexate
Linn, Annemiek J.; Vandeberg, Lisa; Wennekers, Annemarie M.; Vervloet, Marcia; van Dijk, Liset; van den Bemt, Bart J. F.
2016-01-01
Medication non-adherence is a major public health problem that has been termed an ‘invisible epidemic.’ Non-adherence is not only associated with negative clinical consequences but can also result in substantial healthcare costs. Up to now, effective adherence interventions are scarce and a more comprehensive model of adherence determinants is required to target the determinants for not taking the medication as prescribed. Current approaches only included explicit attitudes such as self-reported evaluations of medication as determinants, neglecting the role of associative processes that shape implicit attitudes. Implicit processes can predict daily behavior more accurately than explicit attitudes. Our aim is to assess explicit and implicit attitudes toward medication and explore the relation with beliefs, adherence and clinical (laboratory) outcomes in chronically ill patients. Fifty two Rheumatic Arthritis (RA) patients’ attitudes toward Methotrexate (MTX) were explicitly (self-reported) and implicitly (Single-Category Implicit Association Test) assessed and related to the Beliefs about Medicine Questionnaire, the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology and laboratory parameters [Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), C-Reactive Protein (CRP)]. Results show that explicit attitudes were positive and health-related. Implicit attitudes were, however, negative and sickness-related. Half of the patients displayed explicitly positive but implicitly negative attitudes. Explicit attitudes were positively related to ESR. A positive relationship between implicit attitudes and disease duration was observed. In this study, we have obtained evidence suggesting that the measurement of implicit attitudes and associations provides different information than explicit, self-reported attitudes toward medication. Since patients’ implicit attitudes deviated from explicit attitudes, we can conclude that the relationship between implicit attitudes and medication adherence is
Applications of implicit restarting in optimization and control Dan Sorensen
Sorensen, D.
1996-12-31
Implicit restarting is a technique for combining the implicitly shifted QR mechanism with a k-step Arnoldi or Lanczos factorization to obtain a truncated form of the implicitly shifted QR-iteration suitable for large scale eigenvalue problems. The software package ARPACK based upon this technique has been successfully used to solve large scale symmetric and nonsymmetric (generalized) eigenvalue problems arising from a variety of applications.
A unified discontinuous Galerkin framework for time integration.
Zhao, Shan; Wei, G W
2014-05-15
We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin approach for time integration. On the basis of the method of weighted residual, numerical quadratures are employed in the finite element time discretization to account for general nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Many different conditions, including explicit, implicit, and symplectic conditions, are enforced for the test functions in the variational analysis to obtain desirable features of the resulting time-stepping scheme. The proposed discontinuous Galerkin approach provides a unified framework to derive various time-stepping schemes, such as low-order one-step methods, Runge-Kutta methods, and multistep methods. On the basis of the proposed framework, several explicit Runge-Kutta methods of different orders are constructed. The derivation of symplectic Runge-Kutta methods has also been realized. The proposed framework allows the optimization of new schemes in terms of several characteristics, such as accuracy, sparseness, and stability. The accuracy optimization is performed on the basis of an analytical form of the error estimation function for a linear test initial value problem. Schemes with higher formal order of accuracy are found to provide more accurate solutions. We have also explored the optimization potential of sparseness, which is related to the general compressive sensing in signal/imaging processing. Two critical dimensions of the stability region, that is, maximal intervals along the imaginary and negative real axes, are employed as the criteria for stability optimization. This gives the largest Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time steps in solving hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations, respectively. Numerical experiments are conducted to validate the optimized time-stepping schemes. PMID:25382889
Chubala, Chrissy M; Johns, Brendan T; Jamieson, Randall K; Mewhort, D J K
2016-06-01
Studies of implicit learning often examine peoples' sensitivity to sequential structure. Computational accounts have evolved to reflect this bias. An experiment conducted by Neil and Higham [Neil, G. J., & Higham, P. A.(2012). Implicit learning of conjunctive rule sets: An alternative to artificial grammars. Consciousness and Cognition, 21, 1393-1400] points to limitations in the sequential approach. In the experiment, participants studied words selected according to a conjunctive rule. At test, participants discriminated rule-consistent from rule-violating words but could not verbalize the rule. Although the data elude explanation by sequential models, an exemplar model of implicit learning can explain them. To make the case, we simulate the full pattern of results by incorporating vector representations for the words used in the experiment, derived from the large-scale semantic space models LSA and BEAGLE, into an exemplar model of memory, MINERVA 2. We show that basic memory processes in a classic model of memory capture implicit learning of non-sequential rules, provided that stimuli are appropriately represented. PMID:26730987
Measuring Implicit Attitudes of 4-Year-Olds: The Preschool Implicit Association Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cvencek, Dario; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.
2011-01-01
The Preschool Implicit Association Test (PSIAT) is an adaptation of an established social cognition measure (IAT) for use with preschool children. Two studies with 4-year-olds found that the PSIAT was effective in evaluating (a) attitudes toward commonly liked objects ("flowers"="good") and (b) gender attitudes ("girl"="good" or "boy"="good"). The…
The Effects of Implicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit Knowledge Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Godfroid, Aline
2016-01-01
This study extends the evidence for implicit second language (L2) learning, which comes largely from (semi-)artificial language research, to German. Upper-intermediate L2 German learners were flooded with spoken exemplars of a difficult morphological structure, namely strong, vowel-changing verbs. Toward the end of exposure, the mandatory vowel…
Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Stacy, Alan W.; Xiao, Lin; He, Qinghua; Wong, Savio W.; Xue, Gui; Wiers, Reinout W.; Bechara, Antoine
2013-01-01
This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe differences in neural activity of associative memory effects, this study compared 13 heavy marijuana users and 15 non-using controls, ranging in age from 18 to 25, during performance of a marijuana Implicit Association Test (IAT). Group by condition interactions in the putamen, caudate, and right inferior frontal gyrus were observed. Relative to non-users, marijuana users showed greater bilateral activity in the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen) during compatible trials focused on perceived positive outcomes of use. Alternatively, relative to the marijuana-using group, the non-users showed greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus during incompatible trials, which require more effortful processing of information. Further, relative to fixation, heavy users showed bilateral activity in the caudate and putamen, hippocampus and some frontal regions during compatible trials and no significant activity during incompatible trials. The non-using group showed greater activity in frontal regions during incompatible trials relative to fixation and no significant activity during compatible trials. These findings are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) deliberative/controlled behaviors are mediated through circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. PMID:24029699
Implicit TVD schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws in curvilinear coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Harten, A.
1985-01-01
The Harten (1983, 1984) total variation-diminishing (TVD) schemes, constituting a one-parameter explicit and implicit, second-order-accurate family, have the property of not generating spurious oscillations when applied to one-dimensional, nonlinear scalar hyperbolic conservation laws and constant coefficient hyperbolic systems. These methods are presently extended to the multidimensional hyperbolic conservation laws in curvilinear coordinates. Means by which to linearize the implicit operator and solution strategies, in order to improve the computation efficiency of the implicit algorithm, are discussed. Numerical experiments with steady state airfoil calculations indicate that the proposed linearized implicit TVD schemes are accurate and robust.
Implicit schemes and parallel computing in unstructured grid CFD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnam, V.
1995-01-01
The development of implicit schemes for obtaining steady state solutions to the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured grids is outlined. Applications are presented that compare the convergence characteristics of various implicit methods. Next, the development of explicit and implicit schemes to compute unsteady flows on unstructured grids is discussed. Next, the issues involved in parallelizing finite volume schemes on unstructured meshes in an MIMD (multiple instruction/multiple data stream) fashion are outlined. Techniques for partitioning unstructured grids among processors and for extracting parallelism in explicit and implicit solvers are discussed. Finally, some dynamic load balancing ideas, which are useful in adaptive transient computations, are presented.
Enhancing implicit change detection through action.
Tseng, Philip; Tuennermann, Jan; Roker-Knight, Nancy; Winter, Dorina; Scharlau, Ingrid; Bridgeman, Bruce
2010-01-01
Implicit change detection demonstrates how the visual system can benefit from stored information that is not immediately available to conscious awareness. We investigated the role of motor action in this context. In the first two experiments, using a one-shot implicit change-detection paradigm, participants responded to unperceived changes either with an action (jabbing the screen at the guessed location of a change) or with words (verbal report), and sat either 60 cm or 300 cm (with a laser pointer) away from the display. Our observers guessed the locations of changes at a reachable distance better with an action than with a verbal judgment. At 300 cm, beyond reach, the motor advantage disappeared. In experiment 3, this advantage was also unavailable when participants sat at a reachable distance but responded with hand-held laser pointers near their bodies. We conclude that a motor system specialized for real-time visually guided behavior has access to additional visual information. Importantly, this system is not activated by merely executing an action (experiment 2) or presenting stimuli in one's near space (experiment 3). It is activated only when both conditions are fulfilled, which implies that it is the actual contact that matters to the visual system. PMID:21180353
Fully implicit particle-in-cell algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Hyung; Chacon, Luis
2005-10-01
Most current particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithms employ an explicit approach. Explicit PIC approaches are not only time-step limited for numerical stability, but also grid-intensive due to the so-called finite-grid instability.ootnotetextC. Birdsall and A. Langdon, Plasma physics via computer simulation, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985 As a result, explicit PIC methods are very hardware-intensive, and become prohibitive for system scale simulations even with modern supercomputers. To avoid such stringent time-step and grid-size requirements, the implicit moment method PIC approach (IM-PIC) was developed.ootnotetextJ. Brackbill and D. Forslund, J. Comput. Phys. 46, 271 (1982). IM-PIC advances the required moments (density, current) using Chapman-Enskop-based fluid equations, and then advances the particles with such moments. While being able to employ much larger time steps and grid spacings than explicit PIC methods, IM-PIC is limited in that the time-advanced moments and the particle moments are inconsistent, resulting in lack of energy conservation. To remedy this, we propose here a fully implicit, fully nonlinear PIC approach (FI-PIC) where the particles and the moments are converged simultaneously using Newton-Krylov techniques. This guarantees the consistency of moments and particles upon convergence. We will demonstrate the feasibility of the concept using a purely electrostatic Vlasov-Poisson model, and will show its effectiveness with several fully kinetic examples.
An Implicit Characteristic Based Method for Electromagnetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beggs, John H.; Briley, W. Roger
2001-01-01
An implicit characteristic-based approach for numerical solution of Maxwell's time-dependent curl equations in flux conservative form is introduced. This method combines a characteristic based finite difference spatial approximation with an implicit lower-upper approximate factorization (LU/AF) time integration scheme. This approach is advantageous for three-dimensional applications because the characteristic differencing enables a two-factor approximate factorization that retains its unconditional stability in three space dimensions, and it does not require solution of tridiagonal systems. Results are given both for a Fourier analysis of stability, damping and dispersion properties, and for one-dimensional model problems involving propagation and scattering for free space and dielectric materials using both uniform and nonuniform grids. The explicit Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) algorithm is used as a convenient reference algorithm for comparison. The one-dimensional results indicate that for low frequency problems on a highly resolved uniform or nonuniform grid, this LU/AF algorithm can produce accurate solutions at Courant numbers significantly greater than one, with a corresponding improvement in efficiency for simulating a given period of time. This approach appears promising for development of dispersion optimized LU/AF schemes for three dimensional applications.
Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma
Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.
2013-01-01
Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one’s attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness. PMID:24311820
The implicit association between odors and illness.
Bulsing, Patricia J; Smeets, Monique A M; Van den Hout, Marcel A
2009-02-01
Some individuals ascribe health symptoms to odor exposures, even when none would be expected based on toxicological dose-effect relationships. In these situations, symptoms are believed to have been mediated by beliefs regarding the potential health effects from odorants, which implies a controlled type of information processing. From an evolutionary perspective, such a form of processing may hardly be the only route. The aim of the present study was to explore the viability of a fast and implicit route, by investigating automatic odor-related associations in the context of health. An Implicit Association Test assessing association strengths between the concept odor and the concepts healthy and sick was conducted. Three experiments (N=66, N=64, and N=64) showed a significantly stronger association between the concepts odor and sick than between odor and healthy. These results did not match explicit associations and provide evidence for a fast and automatic route of processing that may complement consciously controlled processes. A dual-processing theory of olfactory information is proposed leading to new hypotheses regarding the development and maintenance of odor-induced health symptoms. PMID:18936154
On state representations of nonlinear implicit systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira da Silva, Paulo Sergio; Batista, Simone
2010-03-01
This work considers a semi-implicit system Δ, that is, a pair (S, y), where S is an explicit system described by a state representation ? , where x(t) ∈ ℝ n and u(t) ∈ ℝ m , which is subject to a set of algebraic constraints y(t) = h(t, x(t), u(t)) = 0, where y(t) ∈ ℝ l . An input candidate is a set of functions v = (v 1, …, v s ), which may depend on time t, on x, and on u and its derivatives up to a finite order. The problem of finding a (local) proper state representation ż = g(t, z, v) with input v for the implicit system Δ is studied in this article. The main result shows necessary and sufficient conditions for the solution of this problem, under mild assumptions on the class of admissible state representations of Δ. These solvability conditions rely on an integrability test that is computed from the explicit system S. The approach of this article is the infinite-dimensional differential geometric setting of Fliess, Lévine, Martin, and Rouchon (1999) ('A Lie-Bäcklund Approach to Equivalence and Flatness of Nonlinear Systems', IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 44(5), (922-937)).
Green, James A; Hohmann, Cynthia; Lister, Kelsi; Albertyn, Riani; Bradshaw, Renee; Johnson, Christine
2016-06-01
This study examined associations between anticipated future health behaviour and participants' attitudes. Three Implicit Association Tests were developed to assess safety, efficacy and overall attitude. They were used to examine preference associations between conventional versus complementary and alternative medicine among 186 participants. A structural equation model suggested only a single implicit association, rather than three separate domains. However, this single implicit association predicted additional variance in anticipated future use of complementary and alternative medicine beyond explicit. Implicit measures should give further insight into motivation for complementary and alternative medicine use. PMID:25104784
Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol.
Mossink, Joram C L; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M; Tollenaar, Marieke S; Brosschot, Jos F
2015-01-01
One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550
Ambulatory assessed implicit affect is associated with salivary cortisol
Mossink, Joram C. L.; Verkuil, Bart; Burger, Andreas M.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Brosschot, Jos F.
2015-01-01
One of the presumed pathways linking negative emotions to adverse somatic health is an overactive HPA-axis, usually indicated by elevated cortisol levels. Traditionally, research has focused on consciously reported negative emotions. Yet, given that the majority of information processing occurs without conscious awareness, stress physiology might also be influenced by affective processes that people are not aware of. In a 24-h ambulatory study we examined whether cortisol levels were associated with two implicit measures. Implicit affect was assessed using the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test, and implicit negative memory bias was assessed with the word fragment completion tasks. In 55 healthy participants, we measured subjective stress levels, worries, implicit, and explicit affect each hour during waking hours. Also, saliva samples were collected at three fixed times during the day, as well as upon waking and 30 min thereafter (cortisol awakening response). Multilevel analyses of the daytime cortisol levels revealed that the presence of an implicit negative memory bias was associated with increased cortisol levels. Additionally, implicit PA and, unexpectedly, implicit NA were negatively associated with cortisol levels. Finally, participants demonstrating higher levels of implicit sadness during the first measurement day, had a stronger cortisol rise upon awakening at the next day. Contrary to previous research, no associations between explicit affect and cortisol were apparent. The current study was the first to examine the concurrent relation between implicit measures and stress physiology in daily life. The results suggest that the traditional focus on consciously reported feelings and emotions is limited, and that implicit measures can add to our understanding of how stress and emotions contribute to daily physiological activity and, in the long term, health problems. PMID:25713550
New developments in the numerical solution of differential/algebraic systems
Petzold, L.R.
1987-04-01
In this paper we survey some recent developments in the numerical solution of nonlinear differential/algebraic equation (DAE) systems of the form 0 = F(t,y,y'), where the initial values of y are known and par. deltaF/par. deltay' may be singular. These systems arise in the simulation of electrical networks, as well as in many other applications. DAE systems include standard form ODEs as a special case, but they also include problems which are in many ways quite different from ODEs. We examine the classification of DAE systems according to the degree of singularity of the system, and present some results on the analytical structure of these systems. We give convergence results for backward differentiation formulas applied to DAEs and examine some of the software issues involved in the numerical solution of DAEs. One-step methods are potentially advantageous for solving DAE systems with frequent discontinuities. However, recent results indicate that there is a reduction in the order of accuracy of many implicit Runge-Kutta methods even for simple DAE systems. We examine the current state of solving DAE systems by implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Finding a consistent set of initial conditions is often a problem for DAEs arising in applications. We explore some numerical methods for obtaining a consistent set of initial conditions. 21 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglieri, Daniele; Bewley, Thomas; Mashayek, Ali
2015-11-01
We present a new code, Diablo 2.0, for the simulation of the incompressible NSE in channel and duct flows with strong grid stretching near walls. The code leverages the fractional step approach with a few twists. New low-storage IMEX (implicit-explicit) Runge-Kutta time-marching schemes are tested which are superior to the traditional and widely-used CN/RKW3 (Crank-Nicolson/Runge-Kutta-Wray) approach; the new schemes tested are L-stable in their implicit component, and offer improved overall order of accuracy and stability with, remarkably, similar computational cost and storage requirements. For duct flow simulations, our new code also introduces a new smoother for the multigrid solver for the pressure Poisson equation. The classic approach, involving alternating-direction zebra relaxation, is replaced by a new scheme, dubbed tweed relaxation, which achieves the same convergence rate with roughly half the computational cost. The code is then tested on the simulation of a shear flow instability in a duct, a classic problem in fluid mechanics which has been the object of extensive numerical modelling for its role as a canonical pathway to energetic turbulence in several fields of science and engineering.
An h-adaptive local discontinuous Galerkin method for the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tian, Lulu; Xu, Yan; Kuerten, J. G. M.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.
2016-08-01
In this article, we develop a mesh adaptation algorithm for a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) discretization of the (non)-isothermal Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations modeling liquid-vapor flows with phase change. This work is a continuation of our previous research, where we proposed LDG discretizations for the (non)-isothermal NSK equations with a time-implicit Runge-Kutta method. To save computing time and to capture the thin interfaces more accurately, we extend the LDG discretization with a mesh adaptation method. Given the current adapted mesh, a criterion for selecting candidate elements for refinement and coarsening is adopted based on the locally largest value of the density gradient. A strategy to refine and coarsen the candidate elements is then provided. We emphasize that the adaptive LDG discretization is relatively simple and does not require additional stabilization. The use of a locally refined mesh in combination with an implicit Runge-Kutta time method is, however, non-trivial, but results in an efficient time integration method for the NSK equations. Computations, including cases with solid wall boundaries, are provided to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and capabilities of the adaptive LDG discretizations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousserez, Nicolas; Henze, Daven; Bowman, Kevin; Liu, Junjie; Jones, Dylan; Keller, Martin; Deng, Feng
2013-04-01
This work presents improved analysis error estimates for 4D-Var systems. From operational NWP models to top-down constraints on trace gas emissions, many of today's data assimilation and inversion systems in atmospheric science rely on variational approaches. This success is due to both the mathematical clarity of these formulations and the availability of computationally efficient minimization algorithms. However, unlike Kalman Filter-based algorithms, these methods do not provide an estimate of the analysis or forecast error covariance matrices, these error statistics being propagated only implicitly by the system. From both a practical (cycling assimilation) and scientific perspective, assessing uncertainties in the solution of the variational problem is critical. For large-scale linear systems, deterministic or randomization approaches can be considered based on the equivalence between the inverse Hessian of the cost function and the covariance matrix of analysis error. For perfectly quadratic systems, like incremental 4D-Var, Lanczos/Conjugate-Gradient algorithms have proven to be most efficient in generating low-rank approximations of the Hessian matrix during the minimization. For weakly non-linear systems though, the Limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS), a quasi-Newton descent algorithm, is usually considered the best method for the minimization. Suitable for large-scale optimization, this method allows one to generate an approximation to the inverse Hessian using the latest m vector/gradient pairs generated during the minimization, m depending upon the available core memory. At each iteration, an initial low-rank approximation to the inverse Hessian has to be provided, which is called preconditioning. The ability of the preconditioner to retain useful information from previous iterations largely determines the efficiency of the algorithm. Here we assess the performance of different preconditioners to estimate the inverse Hessian of a
Zhou, Yunkai; Chelikowsky, James R.; Saad, Yousef
2014-10-01
First-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the electronic structure problem require a solution of the Kohn–Sham equation, which requires one to solve a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. Solving the eigenvalue problem is usually the most expensive part in DFT calculations. Sparse iterative diagonalization methods that compute explicit eigenvectors can quickly become prohibitive for large scale problems. The Chebyshev-filtered subspace iteration (CheFSI) method avoids most of the explicit computation of eigenvectors and results in a significant speedup over iterative diagonalization methods for the DFT self-consistent field (SCF) calculations. However, the original formulation of the CheFSI method utilizes a sparse iterative diagonalization at the first SCF step to provide initial vectors for subspace filtering at latter SCF steps. This diagonalization is expensive for large scale problems. We develop a new initial filtering step to avoid completely this diagonalization, thus making the CheFSI method free of sparse iterative diagonalizations at all SCF steps. Our new approach saves memory usage and can be two to three times faster than the original CheFSI method.
The Ms. Stereotype Revisited: Implicit and Explicit Facets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malcolmson, Kelly A.; Sinclair, Lisa
2007-01-01
Implicit and explicit stereotypes toward the title Ms. were examined. Participants read a short description of a target person whose title of address varied (Ms., Mrs., Miss, Mr.). They then rated the person on agentic and communal traits and completed an Implicit Association Test. Replicating earlier research (Dion, 1987), at an explicit level,…
Implicit Approach-Avoidance Associations for Craved Food Cues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Martin, Rachel; Elliott, Mecia
2013-01-01
Implicit approach associations are well documented for substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. This study reports two experiments designed to establish and modify such associations specifically in the food craving domain. Experiment 1 used a pictorial implicit association task to examine approach-avoidance associations with…
Measuring Implicit and Explicit Attitudes toward Foreign-Accented Speech
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pantos, Andrew J.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this research was to investigate the nature of listeners' attitudes toward foreign-accented speech and the manner in which those attitudes are formed. This study measured 165 participants' implicit and explicit attitudes toward US- and foreign-accented audio stimuli. Implicit attitudes were measured with an audio Implicit…
Explicit versus Implicit Questioning: Inviting All Children to Think Mathematically
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parks, Amy Noelle
2010-01-01
Background/Context: Open-ended, or implicit, questioning has been described as central to reform teaching in mathematics. However, concerns about equity have caused some researchers to question whether this kind of teaching is productive for all children. Purpose: This study explores the role that implicit and explicit questions played in…
Does Conceptual Implicit Memory Develop? The Role of Processing Demands
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barry, Elaine S.
2007-01-01
The author investigated the importance of processing considerations within implicit memory in a developmental design. Second-graders (n = 87) and college students (n = 81) completed perceptual (word stem completion) and conceptual (category generation) implicit memory tests after studying target items either nonsemantically (read) or semantically…
High School Students' Implicit Theories of What Facilitates Science Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Miles, Rhea; Petersen, Michael
2011-01-01
Background: Research has primarily concentrated on adults' implicit theories about high quality science education for all students. Little work has considered the students' perspective. This study investigated high school students' implicit theories about what helped them learn science. Purpose: This study addressed (1) What characterizes high…
Fluency Does Not Express Implicit Knowledge of Artificial Grammars
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Ryan B.; Dienes, Zoltan
2010-01-01
It is commonly held that implicit knowledge expresses itself as fluency. A perceptual clarification task was used to examine the relationship between perceptual processing fluency, subjective familiarity, and grammaticality judgments in a task frequently used to produce implicit knowledge, artificial grammar learning (AGL). Four experiments…
Teaching about Implicit Prejudices and Stereotypes: A Pedagogical Demonstration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, Virgil H., III; Devos, Thierry; Rivera, Luis M.; Smith, Heather; Vega, Luis A.
2014-01-01
Social psychology instructors from five distinct state universities in California examined the effect of incorporating the implicit association test (IAT) in a teaching module on students' perceived knowledge of implicit biases and motivation to control prejudice. Students (N = 258) completed a knowledge survey on prejudice, stereotypes, and…
Preservice and Inservice Teachers' Implicit Theories of Intelligence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Brett D.; Bryant, Lauren H.; Snyder, Jennifer Dee; Malone, David
2012-01-01
Implicit theories of intelligence (i.e., individuals' beliefs about the nature of intelligence, such as whether it is fixed or changeable) are important because they are related to individuals' behaviors and their beliefs in other areas (Sternberg, 2000). Implicit theories of intelligence are especially important in educational settings because…
Implicit and Explicit Learning in Individuals with Agrammatic Aphasia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schuchard, Julia; Thompson, Cynthia K.
2014-01-01
Implicit learning is a process of acquiring knowledge that occurs without conscious awareness of learning, whereas explicit learning involves the use of overt strategies. To date, research related to implicit learning following stroke has been largely restricted to the motor domain and has rarely addressed implications for language. The present…
Implicit and Explicit Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rebuschat, Patrick; Williams, John N.
2012-01-01
Language development is frequently characterized as a process where learning proceeds implicitly, that is, incidentally and in absence of awareness of what was learned. This article reports the results of two experiments that investigated whether second language acquisition can also result in implicit knowledge. Adult learners were trained on an…
Assessment of implicit sexual associations in non-incarcerated pedophiles.
van Leeuwen, Matthijs L; van Baaren, Rick B; Chakhssi, Farid; Loonen, Marijke G M; Lippman, Maarten; Dijksterhuis, Ap
2013-11-01
Offences committed by pedophiles are crimes that evoke serious public concern and outrage. Although recent research using implicit measures has shown promise in detecting deviant sexual associations, the discriminatory and predictive quality of implicit tasks has not yet surpassed traditional assessment methods such as questionnaires and phallometry. The current research extended previous findings by examining whether a combination of two implicit tasks, the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Picture Association Task (PAT), was capable of differentiating pedophiles from non-pedophiles, and whether the PAT, which allows separate analysis for male, female, boy and girl stimulus categories, was more sensitive to specific sexual associations in pedophiles than the IAT. A total of 20 male self-reported pedophiles (10 offender and 10 non-offenders) and 20 male self-reported heterosexual controls completed the two implicit measures. Results indicated that the combination of both tasks produced the strongest results to date in detecting implicit pedophilic preferences (AUC = .97). Additionally, the PAT showed promise in decomposing the sexual associations in pedophiles. Interestingly, as there was an equal distribution of offenders and non-offenders in the pedophile group, it was possible to test for implicit association differences between these groups. This comparison showed no clear link between having these implicit sexual associations and actual offending. PMID:23613137
Implicit and Explicit Recasts in L2 Oral French Interaction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn
2010-01-01
This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…
The Existence of Implicit Racial Bias in Nursing Faculty
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fitzsimmons, Kathleen A.
2009-01-01
This study examined the existence of implicit racial bias in nursing faculty using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). It was conducted within a critical race theory framework where race was seen as a permanent, pervasive, and systemic condition, not an individual process. The study was fueled by data showing continued disparate academic and…
Implicit Learning of Local Context in Autism Spectrum Disorder
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kourkoulou, Anastasia; Leekam, Susan R.; Findlay, John M.
2012-01-01
Although previous research has reported impairments in implicit learning in individuals with ASD, research using one implicit learning paradigm, the contextual cueing task (Chun and Jiang in Cognitive Psychol 36:28-71, 1998), shows evidence of intact ability to integrate spatial contextual information. Using an adaptation of this paradigm, we…
Explicit- and Implicit Bullying Attitudes in Relation to Bullying Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Goethem, Anne A. J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Wiers, Reinout W.
2010-01-01
The main aim of this study was to examine whether an assessment of implicit bullying attitudes could add to the prediction of bullying behavior after controlling for explicit bullying attitudes. Primary school children (112 boys and 125 girls, M age = 11 years, 5 months) completed two newly developed measures of implicit bullying attitudes (a…
Measuring Explicit and Implicit Knowledge: A Psychometric Study in SLA
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebadi, Mandana Rohollahzadeh; Abedalaziz, Nabeel; Saad, Mohd Rashid Mohd
2015-01-01
Lack of valid means of measuring explicit and implicit knowledge in acquisition of second language is a concern issue in investigations of explicit and implicit learning. This paper endeavors to validate the use of four tests (i.e., Untimed Judgment Grammatical Test, UJGT; Test of Metalinguistic Knowledge, TMK; Elicited Oral Imitation Test, EOIT;…
Implicit Race/Ethnic Prejudice in Mexican Americans
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garza, Christelle Fabiola; Gasquoine, Philip Gerard
2013-01-01
Implicit race/ethnic prejudice was assessed using Spanish- and English-language versions of an Implicit Association Test that used Hispanic/Anglo first names and pleasant/unpleasant words as stimuli. This test was administered to a consecutive sample of Mexican American adults residing in the Rio Grande Valley region of Texas of whom about…
Unlearning Implicit Social Biases During Sleep **
Hu, Xiaoqing; Antony, James W.; Creery, Jessica D.; Vargas, Iliana M.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.; Paller, Ken A.
2015-01-01
Although people may endorse egalitarianism and tolerance, social biases can remain operative and drive harmful actions in an unconscious manner. Here we investigated training to reduce implicit racial and gender bias. Forty participants processed counter-stereotype information paired with one sound for each type of bias. Biases were reduced immediately after training. During subsequent slow-wave sleep, one sound was unobtrusively presented to each participant, repeatedly, to reactivate one type of training. Corresponding bias reductions were fortified in comparison to the social bias not externally reactivated during sleep. This advantage remained one week later, the magnitude of which was associated with time in slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep after training. We conclude that memory reactivation during sleep enhances counter-stereotype training, and that maintaining a bias reduction is sleep-dependent. PMID:26023137
Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction.
Dovidio, John F; Kawakami, Kerry; Gaertner, Samuel L
2002-01-01
The present research examined how implicit racial associations and explicit racial attitudes of Whites relate to behaviors and impressions in interracial interactions. Specifically, the authors examined how response latency and self-report measures predicted bias and perceptions of bias in verbal and nonverbal behavior exhibited by Whites while they interacted with a Black partner. As predicted, Whites' self-reported racial attitudes significantly predicted bias in their verbal behavior to Black relative to White confederates. Furthermore, these explicit attitudes predicted how much friendlier Whites felt that they behaved toward White than Black partners. In contrast, the response latency measure significantly predicted Whites' nonverbal friendliness and the extent to which the confederates and observers perceived bias in the participants' friendliness. PMID:11811635
The Implicit Hyprid/PIC Code AMTHEM.
Mason, R. J.
2002-01-01
Recent inventions in pulse power switching, fast laser-driven thermonuclear ignition, and short pulse radiography have demanded a dramatic increase in the capabilities of plasma simulation tools. Multifluid, multi-component, fluid and kinetic models are needed for plasmas spanning thousands of Debye lengths and thousands of plasma periods. Such plasmas manifest both dense and tenuous regions, including or excluding magnetic fields and collisional resistivity. The problems of interest can dwell in a transition regime with limits traditionally treated by resistive MHD and and/or collisional particle-in-cell (PIC) methods. The ANTHEM implicit hybrid simulation model is under development to meet these challenges. This presentation will outline its past and current features, and review results typical of short-pulse laser applications.
Implicit B-spline surface reconstruction.
Rouhani, Mohammad; Sappa, Angel D; Boyer, Edmond
2015-01-01
This paper presents a fast and flexible curve, and surface reconstruction technique based on implicit B-spline. This representation does not require any parameterization and it is locally supported. This fact has been exploited in this paper to propose a reconstruction technique through solving a sparse system of equations. This method is further accelerated to reduce the dimension to the active control lattice. Moreover, the surface smoothness and user interaction are allowed for controlling the surface. Finally, a novel weighting technique has been introduced in order to blend small patches and smooth them in the overlapping regions. The whole framework is very fast and efficient and can handle large cloud of points with very low computational cost. The experimental results show the flexibility and accuracy of the proposed algorithm to describe objects with complex topologies. Comparisons with other fitting methods highlight the superiority of the proposed approach in the presence of noise and missing data. PMID:25373084
Angular biasing in implicit Monte-Carlo
Zimmerman, G.B.
1994-10-20
Calculations of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion target experiments require an integrated approach in which laser irradiation and radiation transport in the hohlraum are solved simultaneously with the symmetry, implosion and burn of the fuel capsule. The Implicit Monte Carlo method has proved to be a valuable tool for the two dimensional radiation transport within the hohlraum, but the impact of statistical noise on the symmetric implosion of the small fuel capsule is difficult to overcome. We present an angular biasing technique in which an increased number of low weight photons are directed at the imploding capsule. For typical parameters this reduces the required computer time for an integrated calculation by a factor of 10. An additional factor of 5 can also be achieved by directing even smaller weight photons at the polar regions of the capsule where small mass zones are most sensitive to statistical noise.
Implicit phonological priming during visual word recognition
Wilson, Lisa B.; Tregellas, Jason R.; Slason, Erin; Pasko, Bryce E.; Rojas, Donald C.
2011-01-01
Phonology is a lower-level structural aspect of language involving the sounds of a language and their organization in that language. Numerous behavioral studies utilizing priming, which refers to an increased sensitivity to a stimulus following prior experience with that or a related stimulus, have provided evidence for the role of phonology in visual word recognition. However, most language studies utilizing priming in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have focused on lexical-semantic aspects of language processing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the automatic, implicit stages of phonological processing. While undergoing fMRI, eighteen individuals performed a lexical decision task (LDT) on prime-target pairs including word-word homophone and pseudoword-word pseudohomophone pairs with a prime presentation below perceptual threshold. Whole-brain analyses revealed several cortical regions exhibiting hemodynamic response suppression due to phonological priming including bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG), middle temporal gyri (MTG), and angular gyri (AG) with additional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealing response suppression in left lateralized supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Homophone and pseudohomophone priming also resulted in different patterns of hemodynamic responses relative to one another. These results suggest that phonological processing plays a key role in visual word recognition. Furthermore, enhanced hemodynamic responses for unrelated stimuli relative to primed stimuli were observed in midline cortical regions corresponding to the default-mode network (DMN) suggesting that DMN activity can be modulated by task requirements within the context of an implicit task. PMID:21159322
Averaged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments.
Chandran, Preethi L; Mofrad, Mohammad R K
2010-03-01
We introduce a method to incorporate hydrodynamic interaction in a model of semiflexible filament dynamics. Hydrodynamic screening and other hydrodynamic interaction effects lead to nonuniform drag along even a rigid filament, and cause bending fluctuations in semiflexible filaments, in addition to the nonuniform Brownian forces. We develop our hydrodynamics model from a string-of-beads idealization of filaments, and capture hydrodynamic interaction by Stokes superposition of the solvent flow around beads. However, instead of the commonly used first-order Stokes superposition, we do an equivalent of infinite-order superposition by solving for the true relative velocity or hydrodynamic velocity of the beads implicitly. We also avoid the computational cost of the string-of-beads idealization by assuming a single normal, parallel and angular hydrodynamic velocity over sections of beads, excluding the beads at the filament ends. We do not include the end beads in the averaging and solve for them separately instead, in order to better resolve the drag profiles along the filament. A large part of the hydrodynamic drag is typically concentrated at the filament ends. The averaged implicit hydrodynamics methods can be easily incorporated into a string-of-rods idealization of semiflexible filaments that was developed earlier by the authors. The earlier model was used to solve the Brownian dynamics of semiflexible filaments, but without hydrodynamic interactions incorporated. We validate our current model at each stage of development, and reproduce experimental observations on the mean-squared displacement of fluctuating actin filaments . We also show how hydrodynamic interaction confines a fluctuating actin filament between two stationary lateral filaments. Finally, preliminary examinations suggest that a large part of the observed velocity in the interior segments of a fluctuating filament can be attributed to induced solvent flow or hydrodynamic screening. PMID:20365783
The nondiscriminating heart: lovingkindness meditation training decreases implicit intergroup bias.
Kang, Yoona; Gray, Jeremy R; Dovidio, John F
2014-06-01
Although meditation is increasingly accepted as having personal benefits, less is known about the broader impact of meditation on social and intergroup relations. We tested the effect of lovingkindness meditation training on improving implicit attitudes toward members of 2 stigmatized social outgroups: Blacks and homeless people. Healthy non-Black, nonhomeless adults (N = 101) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: 6-week lovingkindness practice, 6-week lovingkindness discussion (a closely matched active control), or waitlist control. Decreases in implicit bias against stigmatized outgroups (as measured by Implicit Association Test) were observed only in the lovingkindness practice condition. Reduced psychological stress mediated the effect of lovingkindness practice on implicit bias against homeless people, but it did not mediate the reduced bias against Black people. These results suggest that lovingkindness meditation can improve automatically activated, implicit attitudes toward stigmatized social groups and that this effect occurs through distinctive mechanisms for different stigmatized social groups. PMID:23957283
The time course of explicit and implicit categorization.
Smith, J David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Herberger, Eric R; Boomer, Joseph; Roeder, Jessica L; Ashby, F Gregory; Church, Barbara A
2015-10-01
Contemporary theory in cognitive neuroscience distinguishes, among the processes and utilities that serve categorization, explicit and implicit systems of category learning that learn, respectively, category rules by active hypothesis testing or adaptive behaviors by association and reinforcement. Little is known about the time course of categorization within these systems. Accordingly, the present experiments contrasted tasks that fostered explicit categorization (because they had a one-dimensional, rule-based solution) or implicit categorization (because they had a two-dimensional, information-integration solution). In Experiment 1, participants learned categories under unspeeded or speeded conditions. In Experiment 2, they applied previously trained category knowledge under unspeeded or speeded conditions. Speeded conditions selectively impaired implicit category learning and implicit mature categorization. These results illuminate the processing dynamics of explicit/implicit categorization. PMID:26025556
Measuring individual and cultural differences in implicit trait theories.
Church, A Timothy; Ortiz, Fernando A; Katigbak, Marcia S; Avdeyeva, Tatyana V; Emerson, Alice M; Vargas Flores, José de Jesús; Ibáñez Reyes, Joselina
2003-08-01
A new measure of implicit theories or beliefs regarding the traitedness versus contextuality of behavior was developed and tested across cultures. In Studies 1 (N = 266) and 2 (N = 266), these implicit beliefs dimensions were reliably measured and replicated across U.S. college student samples and validity evidence was provided. In Study 3, their structure replicated well across an individualistic culture (the United States; N = 249) and a collectivistic culture (Mexico; N = 268). Implicit trait and contextual beliefs overlapped only modestly with implicit entity theory beliefs and were predicted by self-construals in ways that generally supported cultural psychology hypotheses. Implicit trait beliefs were fairly strongly endorsed in both cultures, suggesting that such beliefs may be universally held. PMID:12916574
Talbott, Nancy; Kotowski, Susan
2011-01-01
Purpose/Background: Abnormalities in glenohumeral rhythm and neuromuscular control of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles have been identified in individuals with shoulder pain. Upper extremity diagonal or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) patterns have been suggested as effective means of activating scapular muscles, yet few studies have compared muscular activation during diagonal patterns with varying modes of resistance. The purpose of this study is to determine which type of resistance and PNF pattern combination best elicits electromyographic (EMG) activity of the scapular muscles. Methods: Twenty one healthy subjects with no history of scapulohumeral dysfunction were recruited from a population of convenience. Surface electrodes were applied to the SA, UT, MT and LT and EMG data collected for each muscle as the subject performed resisted UE D1 flexion, UE D1 extension, UE D2 flexion and UE D2 extension with elastic resistance and a three pound weight. Results: No significant differences were found between scapular muscle activity during D1 flexion when using elastic resistance and when using a weight. UT, MT and LT values were also not significantly different during D2 flexion when using elastic resistance vs. using a weight. The activity of the SA remained relatively the same during all patterns. The LT activity was significantly greater during D2 flexion with elastic resistance than during the D1 flexion and D1 extension with elastic resistance. MT activity was significantly greater during D2 flexion with elastic resistance as compared to all other patterns except D2 flexion with a weight. UT activity was significantly greater during flexion patterns than extension patterns. Conclusions: The upper extremity PNF pattern did significantly affect the mean UT, MT and LT activity but was not found to significantly affect SA activity. The type of resistance did not significantly
Tunneling splitting in double-proton transfer: Direct diagonalization results for porphycene
Smedarchina, Zorka; Siebrand, Willem; Fernández-Ramos, Antonio
2014-11-07
Zero-point and excited level splittings due to double-proton tunneling are calculated for porphycene and the results are compared with experiment. The calculation makes use of a multidimensional imaginary-mode Hamiltonian, diagonalized directly by an effective reduction of its dimensionality. Porphycene has a complex potential energy surface with nine stationary configurations that allow a variety of tunneling paths, many of which include classically accessible regions. A symmetry-based approach is used to show that the zero-point level, although located above the cis minimum, corresponds to concerted tunneling along a direct trans − trans path; a corresponding cis − cis path is predicted at higher energy. This supports the conclusion of a previous paper [Z. Smedarchina, W. Siebrand, and A. Fernández-Ramos, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 174513 (2007)] based on the instanton approach to a model Hamiltonian of correlated double-proton transfer. A multidimensional tunneling Hamiltonian is then generated, based on a double-minimum potential along the coordinate of concerted proton motion, which is newly evaluated at the RI-CC2/cc-pVTZ level of theory. To make it suitable for diagonalization, its dimensionality is reduced by treating fast weakly coupled modes in the adiabatic approximation. This results in a coordinate-dependent mass of tunneling, which is included in a unique Hermitian form into the kinetic energy operator. The reduced Hamiltonian contains three symmetric and one antisymmetric mode coupled to the tunneling mode and is diagonalized by a modified Jacobi-Davidson algorithm implemented in the Jadamilu software for sparse matrices. The results are in satisfactory agreement with the observed splitting of the zero-point level and several vibrational fundamentals after a partial reassignment, imposed by recently derived selection rules. They also agree well with instanton calculations based on the same Hamiltonian.
Vibrational Properties of Random Alloys: a Formalism to Treat Off-diagonal Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Subhradip; Leath, Paul L.; Cohen, Morrel H.
2002-03-01
A substitutional defect at a site in a crystal produces three types of disorder. In the electronic tight-binding model the diagonal perturbations correspond to changes in the energy level at the defect site, the off-diagonal perturbations changes the interatomic hopping to and from the defect site and the environmental disorder brings in changes in the vicinity of the defects due to effects such as charge transfer and lattice relaxation. In the case of phonon or other Goldstone systems, the treatment of environmental disorder is a necessity because there, it is coupled with other types of disorder by translational or rotational symmetry of the system. The most successful analytic theory for disordered systems has been the single-site coherent-potential approximation(CPA). Due to its single site nature, it fails to include the effects of off-diagonal and environmental disorders in case of phonons in random alloys. However, a realistic study of phonons in random alloys should capture the effects of random force constants and multisite scattering. Various generalizations of the single-site CPA work only for certain limiting cases or are non-analytic. Here, we propose a generalized formalism capable of tackling all three kinds of disorder and producing reliable results for phonon properties. We have applied the formalism to study phonons in substitutionally-disordered NiPt alloys which have large force-constant disorder. We have calculated dispersion curves, spectral densities and densities of states and compare our results with those of single-site CPA and with experiment.
Retrieve the Bethe states of quantum integrable models solved via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xin; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2015-05-01
Based on the inhomogeneous T-Q relation constructed via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz, a systematic method for retrieving the Bethe-type eigenstates of integrable models without obvious reference state is developed by employing certain orthogonal basis of the Hilbert space. With the XXZ spin torus model and the open XXX spin- \\frac{1}{2} chain as examples, we show that for a given inhomogeneous T-Q relation and the associated Bethe Ansatz equations, the constructed Bethe-type eigenstate has a well-defined homogeneous limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroeter, Darrell; Kapit, Eliot; Thomale, Ronny; Greiter, Martin
2007-03-01
We have recently constructed a Hamiltonian that singles out the chiral spin liquid on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions as the exact and, apart from the two-fold topological degeneracy, unique ground state [1]. The talk will present a kernel-sweeping method that greatly reduces the numerical effort required to perform the exact diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. Results from the calculation of the model on a 4x4 lattice, including the spectrum of the model, will be presented. [1] D. F. Schroeter, E. Kapit, R. Thomale, and M. Greiter, Phys. Rev. Lett. in review.
Invariants of triangular Lie algebras with one nil-independent diagonal element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyko, Vyacheslav; Patera, Jiri; Popovych, Roman
2007-08-01
The invariants of solvable triangular Lie algebras with one nil-independent diagonal element are studied exhaustively. Bases of the invariant sets of all such algebras are constructed using an original algebraic algorithm based on Cartan's method of moving frames and the special technique developed for triangular and closed algebras in Boyko et al (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 2007 40 7557). The conjecture of Tremblay and Winternitz (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 2001 34 9085) on the number and form of elements in the bases is completed and proved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balabanyan, Karén; Prokof'ev, Nikolay; Svistunov, Boris
2005-03-01
We analyze the superfluid--insulator transition in a system of one-dimensional (1D) lattice bosons with off-diagonal disorder in the limit of large commensurate filling. We argue---in contrast to the recent prediction (E. Altman, Y. Kafri, A. Polkovnikov, and G. Refael, cond-mat/0402177) of strong- randomness fixed point for this system---that at any strength of disorder the universality class of the transition on the superfluid side coincides with that of the superfluid--Mott- insulator transition in a pure system. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations for two strongly disordered models that are in excellent agreement with the advocated scenario.
Off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz solution of the τ 2-model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaotian; Cao, Junpeng; Cui, Shuai; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng
2015-09-01
The generic quantum τ 2-model (also known as Baxter-Bazhanov-Stroganov (BBS) model) with periodic boundary condition is studied via the off-diagonal Bethe Ansatz method. The eigenvalues of the corresponding transfer matrix (solutions of the recursive functional relations in τ j -hierarchy) with generic site-dependent inhomogeneity parameters are given in terms of an inhomogeneous T - Q relation with polynomial Q-functions. The associated Bethe Ansatz equations are obtained. Numerical solutions of the Bethe Ansatz equations for small number of sites indicate that the inhomogeneous T - Q relation does indeed give the complete spectrum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Dong; Yuan, Ding; Li, Tan; Sidan, Du
2015-12-01
A novel nonlinear adaptive algorithm named as diagonal structure bilinear filtered-x least mean square (DBFXLMS) for multichannel nonlinear active noise control is proposed in this paper. The performances of the proposed algorithm are shown below and the computational complexity is compared with the second-order Volterra filtered-x LMS (VFXLMS) algorithm and the filtered-s least mean square (FSLMS) algorithm, in terms of normalized mean square error (NMSE), for multichannel active control of nonlinear noise processes. Both the simulations and the computational complexity analyses demonstrate that the proposed method has an improvement as compared to the proposed algorithms.
Supersonic flow of an anisotropically conducting gas in a planar MHD diagonal-type channel
Likhachev, A.P.; Medin, S.A.
1982-03-01
Supersonic planar flows of a nonviscous nonthermally conducting gas in diagonal-type MHD generator channels (Re/sub m/<<1) are numerically analyzed. The distribution of electrical and gasdynamical parameters are determined and the two-dimensional effects in the ends of the channel and in the constant magnetic field zone are analyzed. The effect of a loading regime (current in an external circuit), the commutation angle for short-circuited ideally sectioned electrodes, and Hall's parameter on the integral characteristics of the generator is examined. The results of two-dimensional and one-dimensional calculations are compared.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hussey, Ian; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
2012-01-01
A broad implicit measure of depressive emotional reactions was created by mapping the content of the depression scale from the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) on to the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Participants were asked to relate pairings of antecedents and emotional reactions that followed the formula "When X…
Keng, Shian-Ling; Seah, Stanley T H; Tong, Eddie M W; Smoski, Moria
2016-08-01
Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to be effective in alleviating depressive symptoms. While much work has examined the effects of mindfulness training on subjective symptoms and experiences, and less is known regarding whether mindfulness training may alter relatively uncontrollable cognitive processes associated with depressed mood, particularly implicit dysfunctional attitudes. The present study examined the effects of a brief mindful acceptance induction on implicit dysfunctional attitudes and degree of concordance between implicit and explicit dysfunctional attitudes in the context of sad mood. A total of 79 adult participants with elevated depressive symptoms underwent an autobiographical mood induction procedure before being randomly assigned to mindful acceptance or thought wandering inductions. Results showed that the effect of mindful acceptance on implicit dysfunctional attitude was significantly moderated by trait mindfulness. Participants high on trait mindfulness demonstrated significant improvements in implicit dysfunctional attitudes following the mindful acceptance induction. Those low on trait mindfulness demonstrated significantly worse implicit dysfunctional attitudes following the induction. Significantly greater levels of concordance between implicit and explicit dysfunctional attitudes were observed in the mindful acceptance condition versus the thought wandering condition. The findings highlight changes in implicit dysfunctional attitudes and improvements in self-concordance as two potential mechanisms underlying the effects of mindfulness-based interventions. PMID:27236073
Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G; Nosek, Brian A
2013-01-01
Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels. PMID:24358291
Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Nosek, Brian A.
2013-01-01
Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context – particularly the national prevalence of obesity – predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels. PMID:24358291
On a Criterion for Simultaneous Block-Diagonalization of Normal Matrices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pastuszak, G.; Kamizawa, T.; Jamiołkowski, A.
2016-03-01
Assume that A1, … , As are complex normal n × n matrices, p is a natural number and S2p is the standard polynomial in 2p non-commutative variables. It follows from classical results of S. Amitsur, J. Levitzki and H. Shapiro that A1, … , As can be simultaneously block-diagonalized by a unitary matrix with blocks of sizes not greater than p if and only if the algebra generated by A1, … , As satisfies the polynomial identity S2p = 0. We call this theorem the ALS-criterion for simultaneous block-diagonalization of normal matrices. In this paper, we present some application of the ALS-criterion in quantum theory. Namely, we give another proof of the renowned Morris-Shore transformation. Moreover, we discuss computable versions of the ALS-criterion. These versions allow one to verify the condition S2p = 0 in a finite number of steps. Such an approach is more useful in practical applications than the original one.
Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity
Mateeva, N.; Testardi, L.; Niculescu, H. ||
1998-12-01
Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal paths can be orthogonal due to off-diagonal thermoelectricity (ODTE). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for device applications and describe a search for suitable thermoelectric properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find, at 300K for diagonal (ordinary) thermoelectricity (DTE), the general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity varies linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping, but with a proportionality in excess of a prediction from theory. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable in its consequences for applications in DTE and ODTE. A standard model suggests that conduction by carriers of both signs occurs in these polymers, which thus leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also discuss polyacetylene (which is not air-stable), where this ambipolar conduction does not occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.
Hubbard Model study of Off Diagonally Confined fermions in a 2D Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cone, Dave; Chiesa, Simone; Scalettar, Richard; Batrouni, George
2010-03-01
We report Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of a Hubbard Hamiltonian which incorporates a proposed new method for confining atoms in an optical lattice employing an inhomogeneous array of hopping matrix elements which trap atoms by going to zero at the lattice edges. This has been termed ``Off Diagonal Confinement (ODC)'' [1] to distinguish it from the more conventional use of a parabolic trap coupling to (diagonal) density operators. It has the advantage of producing systems which, while still being inhomogeneous, are entirely in the Mott phase, and allow simulations which are free of the sign problem at low temperatures. We analyze the effects of using ODC traps on the local density, density fluctuation, spin, and pairing correlation functions. Finally, we will discuss the advantages and importance of this new confinement technique for modeling correlated systems. Research supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science SCIDAC program, DOE-DE-FC0206ER25793. [1] V.G. Rousseau et al., arXiv:0909.3543
Xie, Benhuai; Shen, Xiaotong
2009-01-01
Clustering analysis is one of the most widely used statistical tools in many emerging areas such as microarray data analysis. For microarray and other high-dimensional data, the presence of many noise variables may mask underlying clustering structures. Hence removing noise variables via variable selection is necessary. For simultaneous variable selection and parameter estimation, existing penalized likelihood approaches in model-based clustering analysis all assume a common diagonal covariance matrix across clusters, which however may not hold in practice. To analyze high-dimensional data, particularly those with relatively low sample sizes, this article introduces a novel approach that shrinks the variances together with means, in a more general situation with cluster-specific (diagonal) covariance matrices. Furthermore, selection of grouped variables via inclusion or exclusion of a group of variables altogether is permitted by a specific form of penalty, which facilitates incorporating subject-matter knowledge, such as gene functions in clustering microarray samples for disease subtype discovery. For implementation, EM algorithms are derived for parameter estimation, in which the M-steps clearly demonstrate the effects of shrinkage and thresholding. Numerical examples, including an application to acute leukemia subtype discovery with microarray gene expression data, are provided to demonstrate the utility and advantage of the proposed method. PMID:19920875
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nataf, Pierre; Mila, Frédéric
2016-04-01
Motivated by recent experimental progress in the context of ultracold multicolor fermionic atoms in optical lattices, we have developed a method to exactly diagonalize the Heisenberg SU (N ) Hamiltonian with several particles per site living in a fully symmetric or antisymmetric representation of SU (N ) . The method, based on the use of standard Young tableaux, takes advantage of the full SU (N ) symmetry, allowing one to work directly in each irreducible representation of the global SU (N ) group. Since the SU (N ) singlet sector is often much smaller than the full Hilbert space, this enables one to reach much larger system sizes than with conventional exact diagonalizations. The method is applied to the study of Heisenberg chains in the symmetric representation with two and three particles per site up to N =10 and up to 20 sites. For the length scales accessible to this approach, all systems except the Haldane chain [SU (2 ) with two particles per site] appear to be gapless, and the central charge and scaling dimensions extracted from the results are consistent with a critical behavior in the SU (N ) level k Wess-Zumino-Witten universality class, where k is the number of particles per site. These results point to the existence of a crossover between this universality class and the asymptotic low-energy behavior with a gapped spectrum or a critical behavior in the SU (N ) level 1 WZW universality class.
Borštnik, Urban; Miller, Benjamin T; Brooks, Bernard R; Janežič, Dušanka
2011-11-15
Parallelization is an effective way to reduce the computational time needed for molecular dynamics simulations. We describe a new parallelization method, the distributed-diagonal force decomposition method, with which we extend and improve the existing force decomposition methods. Our new method requires less data communication during molecular dynamics simulations than replicated data and current force decomposition methods, increasing the parallel efficiency. It also dynamically load-balances the processors' computational load throughout the simulation. The method is readily implemented in existing molecular dynamics codes and it has been incorporated into the CHARMM program, allowing its immediate use in conjunction with the many molecular dynamics simulation techniques that are already present in the program. We also present the design of the Force Decomposition Machine, a cluster of personal computers and networks that is tailored to running molecular dynamics simulations using the distributed diagonal force decomposition method. The design is expandable and provides various degrees of fault resilience. This approach is easily adaptable to computers with Graphics Processing Units because it is independent of the processor type being used. PMID:21793007
Nooijen, Marcel; Demel, Ondřej; Datta, Dipayan; Kong, Liguo; Shamasundar, K R; Lotrich, V; Huntington, Lee M; Neese, Frank
2014-02-28
The novel multireference equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (MREOM-CC) approaches provide versatile and accurate access to a large number of electronic states. The methods proceed by a sequence of many-body similarity transformations and a subsequent diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian over a compact subspace. The transformed Hamiltonian is a connected entity and preserves spin- and spatial symmetry properties of the original Hamiltonian, but is no longer Hermitean. The final diagonalization spaces are defined in terms of a complete active space (CAS) and limited excitations (1h, 1p, 2h, …) out of the CAS. The methods are invariant to rotations of orbitals within their respective subspaces (inactive, active, external). Applications to first row transition metal atoms (Cr, Mn, and Fe) are presented yielding results for up to 524 electronic states (for Cr) with an rms error compared to experiment of about 0.05 eV. The accuracy of the MREOM family of methods is closely related to its favorable extensivity properties as illustrated by calculations on the O2-O2 dimer. The computational costs of the transformation steps in MREOM are comparable to those of closed-shell Coupled Cluster Singles and Doubles (CCSD) approach. PMID:24588141
Nooijen, Marcel; Huntington, Lee M.; Demel, Ondřej; Datta, Dipayan; Kong, Liguo; Shamasundar, K. R.; Lotrich, V.; Neese, Frank
2014-02-28
The novel multireference equation-of-motion coupled-cluster (MREOM-CC) approaches provide versatile and accurate access to a large number of electronic states. The methods proceed by a sequence of many-body similarity transformations and a subsequent diagonalization of the transformed Hamiltonian over a compact subspace. The transformed Hamiltonian is a connected entity and preserves spin- and spatial symmetry properties of the original Hamiltonian, but is no longer Hermitean. The final diagonalization spaces are defined in terms of a complete active space (CAS) and limited excitations (1h, 1p, 2h, …) out of the CAS. The methods are invariant to rotations of orbitals within their respective subspaces (inactive, active, external). Applications to first row transition metal atoms (Cr, Mn, and Fe) are presented yielding results for up to 524 electronic states (for Cr) with an rms error compared to experiment of about 0.05 eV. The accuracy of the MREOM family of methods is closely related to its favorable extensivity properties as illustrated by calculations on the O{sub 2}–O{sub 2} dimer. The computational costs of the transformation steps in MREOM are comparable to those of closed-shell Coupled Cluster Singles and Doubles (CCSD) approach.
Forces and mechanical energy fluctuations during diagonal stride roller skiing; running on wheels?
Kehler, Alyse L; Hajkova, Eliska; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Kram, Rodger
2014-11-01
Mechanical energy can be conserved during terrestrial locomotion in two ways: the inverted pendulum mechanism for walking and the spring-mass mechanism for running. Here, we investigated whether diagonal stride cross-country roller skiing (DIA) utilizes similar mechanisms. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that running and DIA would share similar phase relationships and magnitudes of kinetic energy (KE), and gravitational potential energy (GPE) fluctuations, indicating elastic energy storage and return, as if roller skiing is like 'running on wheels'. Experienced skiers (N=9) walked and ran at 1.25 and 3 m s(-1), respectively, and roller skied with DIA at both speeds on a level dual-belt treadmill that recorded perpendicular and parallel forces. We calculated the KE and GPE of the center of mass from the force recordings. As expected, the KE and GPE fluctuated with an out-of-phase pattern during walking and an in-phase pattern during running. Unlike walking, during DIA, the KE and GPE fluctuations were in phase, as they are in running. However, during the glide phase, KE was dissipated as frictional heat and could not be stored elastically in the tendons, as in running. Elastic energy storage and return epitomize running and thus we reject our hypothesis. Diagonal stride cross-country skiing is a biomechanically unique movement that only superficially resembles walking or running. PMID:25189366
A combined joint diagonalization-MUSIC algorithm for subsurface targets localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yinlin; Sigman, John B.; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Shubitidze, Fridon
2014-06-01
This paper presents a combined joint diagonalization (JD) and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for estimating subsurface objects locations from electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data, without solving ill-posed inverse-scattering problems. JD is a numerical technique that finds the common eigenvectors that diagonalize a set of multistatic response (MSR) matrices measured by a time-domain EMI sensor. Eigenvalues from targets of interest (TOI) can be then distinguished automatically from noise-related eigenvalues. Filtering is also carried out in JD to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the data. The MUSIC algorithm utilizes the orthogonality between the signal and noise subspaces in the MSR matrix, which can be separated with information provided by JD. An array of theoreticallycalculated Green's functions are then projected onto the noise subspace, and the location of the target is estimated by the minimum of the projection owing to the orthogonality. This combined method is applied to data from the Time-Domain Electromagnetic Multisensor Towed Array Detection System (TEMTADS). Examples of TEMTADS test stand data and field data collected at Spencer Range, Tennessee are analyzed and presented. Results indicate that due to its noniterative mechanism, the method can be executed fast enough to provide real-time estimation of objects' locations in the field.
Implicit negotiation beliefs and performance: experimental and longitudinal evidence.
Kray, Laura J; Haselhuhn, Michael P
2007-07-01
The authors argue that implicit negotiation beliefs, which speak to the expected malleability of negotiating ability, affect performance in dyadic negotiations. They expected negotiators who believe negotiating attributes are malleable (incremental theorists) to outperform negotiators who believe negotiating attributes are fixed (entity theorists). In Study 1, they gathered evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the implicit negotiation belief construct. In Study 2, they examined the impact of implicit beliefs on the achievement goals that negotiators pursue. In Study 3, they explored the causal role of implicit beliefs on negotiation performance by manipulating negotiators' implicit beliefs within dyads. They also identified perceived ability as a moderator of the link between implicit negotiation beliefs and performance. In Study 4, they measured negotiators' beliefs in a classroom setting and examined how these beliefs affected negotiation performance and overall performance in the course 15 weeks later. Across all performance measures, incremental theorists outperformed entity theorists. Consistent with the authors' hypotheses, incremental theorists captured more of the bargaining surplus and were more integrative than their entity theorist counterparts, suggesting implicit theories are important determinants of how negotiators perform. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:17605588
Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes
Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham
2014-01-01
Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809