Science.gov

Sample records for diagram algebras hecke

  1. Chain models on hecke algebra for corner type representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.; Os'kin, A. F.

    2008-04-01

    We consider the integrable open chain models formulated in terms of generators of the Hecke algebra. The spectrum of Hamiltonians for the open Hecke chains of finite size with free boundary conditions is deduced for special (comer type) irreducible representations of the Hecke algebra.

  2. On Ternary Quotients of Cubic Hecke Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanes, Marc; Marin, Ivan

    2012-08-01

    We prove that the quotient of the group algebra of the braid group introduced by Funar (Commun Math Phys 173:513-558, 1995) collapses in characteristic distinct from 2. In characteristic 2 we define several quotients of it, which are connected to the classical Hecke and Birman-Wenzl-Murakami quotients, but which admit in addition a symmetry of order 3. We also establish conditions on the possible Markov traces factorizing through it.

  3. Baxter Operator and Archimedean Hecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, A.; Lebedev, D.; Oblezin, S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we introduce Baxter integral {mathcal{Q}} -operators for finite-dimensional Lie algebras {mathfrak{gl}_{ell+1}} and {mathfrak{so}_{2ell+1}} . Whittaker functions corresponding to these algebras are eigenfunctions of the {mathcal{Q}}-operators with the eigenvalues expressed in terms of Gamma-functions. The appearance of the Gamma-functions is one of the manifestations of an interesting connection between Mellin-Barnes and Givental integral representations of Whittaker functions, which are in a sense dual to each other. We define a dual Baxter operator and derive a family of mixed Mellin-Barnes-Givental integral representations. Givental and Mellin-Barnes integral representations are used to provide a short proof of the Friedberg-Bump and Bump conjectures for G = GL( ℓ + 1) proved earlier by Stade. We also identify eigenvalues of the Baxter {mathcal{Q}}-operator acting on Whittaker functions with local Archimedean L-factors. The Baxter {mathcal{Q}}-operator introduced in this paper is then described as a particular realization of the explicitly defined universal Baxter operator in the spherical Hecke algebra {mathcal {H}(G(mathbb{R}), K)} , K being a maximal compact subgroup of G. Finally we stress an analogy between {mathcal{Q}}-operators and certain elements of the non-Archimedean Hecke algebra {mathcal {H}(G(mathbb{Q}_p),G(mathbb{Z}_p))}.

  4. On boundary fusion and functional relations in the Baxterized affine Hecke algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, A.; Regelskis, V.

    2014-04-15

    We construct boundary type operators satisfying fused reflection equation for arbitrary representations of the Baxterized affine Hecke algebra. These operators are analogues of the fused reflection matrices in solvable half-line spin chain models. We show that these operators lead to a family of commuting transfer matrices of Sklyanin type. We derive fusion type functional relations for these operators for two families of representations.

  5. A Family of Finite-Dimensional Representations of Generalized Double Affine Hecke Algebras of Higher Rank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yuchen; Shelley-Abrahamson, Seth

    2016-06-01

    We give explicit constructions of some finite-dimensional representations of generalized double affine Hecke algebras (GDAHA) of higher rank using R-matrices for U_q(sl_N). Our construction is motivated by an analogous construction of Silvia Montarani in the rational case. Using the Drinfeld-Kohno theorem for Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov differential equations, we prove that the explicit representations we produce correspond to Montarani's representations under a monodromy functor introduced by Etingof, Gan, and Oblomkov.

  6. On certain Hecke rings

    PubMed Central

    Evens, Sam; Bressler, Paul

    1987-01-01

    We examine rings that embed into the smash product of the group algebra of the Weyl group with the field of meromorphic functions on the Cartan subalgebra and are generated by elements that satisfy braid relations. We prove that every such ring is isomorphic to either the Hecke algebra, the nil Hecke ring, or the group algebra of the Weyl group. PMID:16593804

  7. Selection and identity rules for subductions of type A quantum Iwahori-Hecke algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Chilla, Vincenzo

    2007-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the subduction problem of type A quantum Iwahori-Hecke algebras CH(S{sub f},q{sup 2}) with a real deformation parameter q, i.e., the problem of decomposing irreducible representations of such algebras as direct sum of irreducible representations of the subalgebras CH(S{sub f{sub 1}},q{sup 2})xCH(S{sub f{sub 2}},q{sup 2}), with f{sub 1}+f{sub 2}=f. After giving a suitable combinatorial description for the subduction issue, we provide a selection rule, based on the Richardson-Littlewood criterion, which allows to determine the vanishing coupling coefficients between standard basis vectors for such representations, and we also present an equivariance condition for the subduction coefficients. Such results extend those ones corresponding to the subduction problem in symmetric group algebras CS{sub f}{down_arrow}CS{sub f{sub 1}}xCS{sub f{sub 2}} which are obtained by q approaching the value of 1.

  8. The Fermion Representation of Quantum Toroidal Algebra on 3D Young Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    We develop an equivalence between the diagonal slices and the perpendicular slices of 3D Young diagrams via Maya diagrams. Furthermore, we construct the fermion representation of quantum toroidal algebra on the 3D Young diagrams perpendicularly sliced.

  9. From Bar Diagrams to Letter-Symbolic Algebra: A Technology-Enabled Bridging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, C. -K.; Lim, K. -S.

    2009-01-01

    In the Singapore primary school Mathematics curriculum, students are taught the model method that uses bar diagrams to visualize the problem structure in a given word problem. When these students progress to secondary school, they learn the algebraic way of solving word problems. Studies (e.g. Ng et al.) have shown that poor bridging of students…

  10. Phase diagrams of hard spheres with algebraic attractive interactions.

    PubMed

    Camp, Philip J

    2003-01-01

    The phase diagrams of systems made up of hard spheres interacting with attractive potentials of the form -1/r(3+sigma) are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, second-order thermodynamic perturbation theory, and an augmented van der Waals theory. In simulations of the systems with sigma=0.1, 1, and 3, fluid-solid coexistence results are obtained using the Gibbs-Duhem integration technique; simulation data for the vapor-liquid coexistence envelopes and critical points are taken from previously published work [P. J. Camp and G. N. Patey, J. Chem. Phys. 114, 399 (2001)]. It is shown that the agreement between the theoretical and simulated phase diagrams improves as the range of the potential is increased, reflecting the decreasing role of short-range correlations in determining the bulk thermodynamics. In the extreme case of sigma=0.1 both theories are in excellent agreement with simulations. Phase diagrams for systems with sigma=4, 5, and 6 are computed using second-order thermodynamic perturbation theory. The results indicate that the vapor-liquid transition becomes metastable with respect to freezing when sigma > or approximately equal to 5, in broad agreement with results for the hard-sphere attractive Yukawa system which is commonly used to model colloidal particles, globular proteins, and nanoparticles.

  11. Bifurcation diagram and the discriminant of a spectral curve of integrable systems on Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Konyaev, Andrei Yu

    2010-11-11

    A bifurcation diagram is a stratified (in general, nonclosed) set and is one of the efficient tools of studying the topology of the Liouville foliation. In the framework of the present paper, the coincidence of the closure of a bifurcation diagram {Sigma}-bar of the moment map defined by functions obtained by the method of argument shift with the closure of the discriminant D-bar{sub z} of a spectral curve is proved for the Lie algebras sl(n+1), sp(2n), so(2n+1), and g{sub 2}. Moreover, it is proved that these sets are distinct for the Lie algebra so(2n). Bibliography: 22 titles.

  12. Visual Thinking, Algebraic Thinking, and a Full Unit-Circle Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shear, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    The study of trigonometric functions in terms of the unit circle offer an example of how students can learn algebraic relations and operations while using visually oriented thinking. Illustrations are included. (MNS)

  13. Heck's disease: diagnosis and susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lindsey K; Hinshaw, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is an uncommon proliferation of oral mucosa that presents primarily in Native Central and South American populations. It presents as asymptomatic papules or nodules on the oral mucosa, gingiva, tongue, and lips. In the majority of cases, human papilloma virus 13 or 32 is detected. Factors that determine disease susceptibility are unclear, but genetics, and having the human lymphocytic antigen-DR4 (DRB1*0404) allele in particular, are thought to play a major role in disease vulnerability. We report another case of focal epithelial hyperplasia, hypothesize on disease susceptibility, and review the current understanding of this uncommon disorder.

  14. An algebraic/graphical tool to compare ecosystems with respect to their pollution V: cluster analysis and Hasse diagrams.

    PubMed

    Pudenz, S; Brüggemann, R; Luther, B; Kaune, A; Kreimes, K

    2000-06-01

    In case of large data matrices comparative evaluations of objects/regions with the technique of Hasse diagrams may be troublesome due to a messy system of lines in the graphical representation. Here fuzzy clustering leads to useful simplifications because regions with slightly different pollution pattern are grouped together. However, fuzzy clustering implies to introduce a threshold value for the membership of an object to a cluster and to select the best number of clusters. Therefore many arbitrarities evolve. Within the systematic study presented here we found that some objects are very stable against variations of the threshold value and the number of cluster whereas other objects behaves different. According to their behaviour we investigated a classification of the objects. Formal Concept Analysis shows that in some cases specific pollution pattern imply the membership to one of these classes. For example objects which are characterized by high Pb-, Zn-concentration and moderate S-concentration imply a high stability against variants of the clustering process. Further implications are described in the paper.

  15. Wilson Loop Diagrams and Positroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Susama; Marin-Amat, Eloi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study a new application of the positive Grassmannian to Wilson loop diagrams (or MHV diagrams) for scattering amplitudes in N= 4 Super Yang-Mill theory ( N = 4 SYM). There has been much interest in studying this theory via the positive Grassmannians using BCFW recursion. This is the first attempt to study MHV diagrams for planar Wilson loop calculations (or planar amplitudes) in terms of positive Grassmannians. We codify Wilson loop diagrams completely in terms of matroids. This allows us to apply the combinatorial tools in matroid theory used to identify positroids (non-negative Grassmannians) to Wilson loop diagrams. In doing so, we find that certain non-planar Wilson loop diagrams define positive Grassmannians. While non-planar diagrams do not have physical meaning, this finding suggests that they may have value as an algebraic tool, and deserve further investigation.

  16. Teaching Algebra without Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is, among other things, a shorthand way to express quantitative reasoning. This article illustrates ways for the classroom teacher to convert algebraic solutions to verbal problems into conversational solutions that can be understood by students in the lower grades. Three reasonably typical verbal problems that either appeared as or…

  17. Cremmer-Gervais r-Matrices and the Cherednik Algebras of Type GL 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Garrett

    2010-11-01

    We give an interpretation of the Cremmer-Gervais r-matrices for {mathfrak{sl}_n} in terms of actions of elements in the rational and trigonometric Cherednik algebras of type GL 2 on certain subspaces of their polynomial representations. This is used to compute the nilpotency index of the Jordanian r-matrices, thus answering a question of Gerstenhaber and Giaquinto. We also give an interpretation of the Cremmer-Gervais quantization in terms of the corresponding double affine Hecke algebra.

  18. Algebraic Lattices in QFT Renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borinsky, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The structure of overlapping subdivergences, which appear in the perturbative expansions of quantum field theory, is analyzed using algebraic lattice theory. It is shown that for specific QFTs the sets of subdivergences of Feynman diagrams form algebraic lattices. This class of QFTs includes the standard model. In kinematic renormalization schemes, in which tadpole diagrams vanish, these lattices are semimodular. This implies that the Hopf algebra of Feynman diagrams is graded by the coradical degree or equivalently that every maximal forest has the same length in the scope of BPHZ renormalization. As an application of this framework, a formula for the counter terms in zero-dimensional QFT is given together with some examples of the enumeration of primitive or skeleton diagrams.

  19. Kinetic Study of the Heck Reaction: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Christel; Bouzidi, Naoual

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to study and calculate the kinetic constant of a Heck reaction: the arylation of but-3-en-2-ol by iodobenzene catalyzed by palladium acetate in presence of triethylamine in DMF. The reaction leads to a mixture of two ketones. Students use GC analysis to quantify reagents and products of reaction. They control the…

  20. [Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in a Turkish family].

    PubMed

    Weidner, F

    1996-12-01

    A 31-year-old Turkish patient and some family members suffered from multiple hyperplastic oral mucosal papules. Intralesional papilloma virus was not found but the patient had elevated levels of CD8 lymphocytes in his peripheral blood. We diagnosed focal epithelial hyperplasia of Heck.

  1. Quark diagrams and the. cap omega. /sup -/ nonleptonic decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, W.A.

    1980-09-01

    The quark-diagram model for nonleptonic two-body baryon decays is discussed and applied to the decay of the ..cap omega../sup -/ particle. Current algebra is not employed, but the relation between the quark diagrams and current algebra is explored.

  2. Late-onset adenosine deaminase deficiency presenting with Heck's disease.

    PubMed

    Artac, Hasibe; Göktürk, Bahar; Bozdemir, Sefika Elmas; Toy, Hatice; van der Burg, Mirjam; Santisteban, Ines; Hershfield, Michael; Reisli, Ismail

    2010-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, also known as Heck's disease, is a rare but distinctive entity of viral etiology with characteristic clinical and histopathological features. It is a benign, asymptomatic disease of the oral mucosa caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). Previous studies postulated an association between these lesions and immunodeficiency. Genetic deficiency of adenosine deaminase (ADA) results in varying degrees of immunodeficiency, including neonatal onset severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), and milder, later onset immunodeficiency. We report a 12-year-old girl with the late onset-ADA deficiency presenting with Heck's disease. Our case report should draw attention to the possibility of immunodeficiency in patients with HPV-induced focal epithelial hyperplasia.

  3. Hecke Groups, Dessins d'Enfants and the Archimedean Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui; Read, James

    2015-12-01

    Grothendieck's dessins d'enfants arise with ever-increasing frequency in many areas of 21st century mathematical physics. In this paper, we review the connections between dessins and the theory of Hecke groups. Focussing on the restricted class of highly symmetric dessins corresponding to the so-called Archimedean solids, we apply this theory in order to provide a means of computing representatives of the associated conjugacy classes of Hecke subgroups in each case. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that dessins arising in mathematical physics can point to new and hitherto unexpected directions for further research. In addition, given the particular ubiquity of many of the dessins corresponding to the Archimedean solids, the hope is that the computational results of this paper will prove useful in the further study of these objects in mathematical physics contexts.

  4. Non-Abelian Vortices, Hecke Modifications and Singular Monopoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    In this note, we show that for the group G = U( N) the space of Hecke modifications of a rank N vector bundle over a Riemann surface C coincides with the moduli space of solutions of certain non-Abelian vortex equations over C. Through the recent work of Kapustin and Witten this then leads to an isomorphism between the moduli space of vortices and the moduli space of singular monopoles on the product of C with a closed interval I.

  5. Heck-type reactions of imine derivatives: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhe; Fu, Yao; Zhang, Song-Lin; Guo, Qing-Xiang; Liu, Lei

    2010-06-01

    The mechanism of a recently discovered intramolecular Heck-type coupling of oximes with aryl halides (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 6325) was systematically studied by using density functional methods enhanced with a polarized continuum solvation model. The overall catalytic cycle of the reaction was found to consist of four steps: oxidative addition, migratory insertion, beta-H elimination, and catalyst regeneration, whereas an alternative base-promoted C-H activation pathway was determined to be less favorable. Migratory insertion was found to be the rate determining step in the catalytic cycle. The apparent activation barrier of migratory insertion of the (E)-oxime was +20.5 kcal mol(-1), whereas the barrier of (Z)-oxime was as high as +32.7 kcal mol(-1). However, (Z)-oxime could isomerize to form the more active (E)-oxime with the assistance of K(2)CO(3), so that both the (E)- and (Z)-oxime substrates could be transformed to the desired product. Our calculations also indicated that the Z product was predominant in the equilibrium of the isomerization of the imine double bond, which constituted the reason for the good Z-selectivity observed for the reaction. Furthermore, we examined the difference between the intermolecular Heck-type reactions of imines and of olefins. It was found that in the intermolecular Heck-type coupling of imines, the apparent activation barrier of migratory insertion was as high as +35 kcal mol(-1), which should be the main obstacle of the reaction. The analysis also revealed the main problem for the intermolecular Heck-type reactions of imines, which was that the breaking of a C=N pi bond was much more difficult than the breaking of a C=C pi bond. After systematic examination of a series of substituted imines, (Z)-N-amino imine and N-acetyl imine were found to have relatively low barriers of migratory insertion, so that they might be possible substrates for intermolecular Heck-type coupling.

  6. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  7. On the Li Coefficients for the Hecke L-functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Sami; Ouni, Raouf; Mazhouda, Kamel

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we compute and verify the positivity of the Li coefficients for the Hecke L-functions using an arithmetic formula established in Omar and Mazhouda, J. Number Theory 125(1), 50-58 (2007) and J. Number Theory 130(4), 1098-1108 (2010) and the Serre trace formula. Additional results are presented, including new formulas for the Li coefficients and a formulation of a criterion for the partial Riemann hypothesis. Basing on the numerical computations made below, we conjecture that these coefficients are increasing in n.

  8. Hubble Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Initially introduced as a way to demonstrate the expansion of the universe, and subsequently to determine the expansion rate (the HUBBLE CONSTANT H0), the Hubble diagram is one of the classical cosmological tests. It is a plot of apparent fluxes (usually expressed as magnitudes) of some types of objects at cosmological distances, against their REDSHIFTS. It is used as a tool to measure the glob...

  9. Kiddie Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    As educators and policymakers search for ways to prepare students for the rigors of algebra, teachers in the Helena, Montana, school system are starting early by attempting to nurture students' algebraic-reasoning ability, as well as their basic number skills, in early elementary school, rather than waiting until middle or early high school.…

  10. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    SciTech Connect

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

  11. Heck coupling of haloaromatics with octavinylsilsesquioxane: solution processable nanocomposites for application in electroluminescent devices.

    PubMed

    Sellinger, Alan; Tamaki, Ryo; Laine, Richard M; Ueno, Kazunori; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Williams, Evan; Jabbour, Ghassan E

    2005-08-07

    A new solution processable nanocomposite material has been prepared via the Heck coupling of octavinylsilsesquioxane with a selected bromoaromatic hole transport compound. Resultant electroluminescent devices show an 18% improvement in external quantum efficiencies over their small molecule analogues.

  12. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via non-covalent interaction and the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.

  13. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in two Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Li, Y; Zhou, Y; Zeng, X

    2012-08-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia, or Heck's disease, is a relatively rare virus-induced benign disease. To the best of the authors' knowledge it has not been reported in an ethnic Chinese population. The authors report two cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) in Chinese patients, which were clinically and histologically in accord with FEH. In particular, the lesions in one case were located on the gingival mucosa, which is rarely affected by FEH. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens from the two patients was tested for the presence of human papilloma virus followed by specific polymerase chain reaction testing for 16, 18, 13, and 32 subtypes in order to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

  14. Direct carbocyclizations of benzoic acids: catalyst-controlled synthesis of cyclic ketones and the development of tandem aHH (acyl Heck-Heck) reactions.

    PubMed

    Miles, Kelsey C; Le, Chi Chip; Stambuli, James P

    2014-09-01

    The formation of exo-methylene indanones and indenones from simple ortho-allyl benzoic acid derivatives has been developed. Selective formation of the indanone or indenone products in these reactions is controlled by choice of ancillary ligand. This new process has a low environmental footprint as the products are formed in high yields using low catalyst loadings, while the only stoichiometric chemical waste generated from the reactants in the transformation is acetic acid. The conversion of the active cyclization catalyst into the Hermman-Beller palladacycle was exploited in a one-pot tandem acyl Heck-Heck (aHH) reaction, and utilized in the synthesis of donepezil.

  15. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  16. Steinberg conformal algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, A. V.; Pinchuk, I. A.

    2005-06-01

    The structure of Steinberg conformal algebras is studied; these are analogues of Steinberg groups (algebras, superalgebras).A Steinberg conformal algebra is defined as an abstract algebra by a system of generators and relations between the generators. It is proved that a Steinberg conformal algebra is the universal central extension of the corresponding conformal Lie algebra; the kernel of this extension is calculated.

  17. Phosphite-oxazole/imidazole ligands in asymmetric intermolecular Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Mazuela, Javier; Tolstoy, Paivi; Pàmies, Oscar; Andersson, Pher G; Diéguez, Montserrat

    2011-02-07

    We describe the application of a new class of ligands--the phosphite-oxazole/imidazole (L1-L5a-g)--in asymmetric intermolecular Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions under thermal and microwave conditions. These ligands combine the advantages of the oxazole/imidazole moiety with those of the phosphite moiety: they are more stable than their oxazoline counterparts, less sensitive to air and other oxidizing agents than phosphines and phosphinites, and easy to synthesize from readily available alcohols. The results indicate that activities, regio- and enantioselectivities, are highly influenced by the type of nitrogen donor group (oxazole or imidazole), the oxazole and biaryl-phosphite substituents and the axial chirality of the biaryl moiety of the ligand. By carefully selecting the ligand components, we achieved high activities, regio- (up to 99%) and enantioselectivities (up to 99%) using several triflate sources. Under microwave-irradiation conditions, reaction times were considerably shorter (from 24 h to 30 min) and regio- and enantioselectivities were still excellent.

  18. Web Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capani, Antonio; De Dominicis, Gabriel

    This paper proposes a model for a general interface between people and Computer Algebra Systems (CAS). The main features in the CAS interface are data navigation and the possibility of accessing powerful remote machines. This model is based on the idea of session management, in which the main engine of the tool enables interactions with the…

  19. A rapid microwave protocol for Heck vinylation of aryl chlorides under air.

    PubMed

    Datta, Gopal K; Vallin, Karl S A; Larhed, Mats

    2003-01-01

    In modern high-throughput chemistry, the overall workflow is a crucial factor and much work is devoted to speeding up the process of chemistry development. Since automated microwave-based synthesizers are known to streamline the compound production and to accelerate slow organic transformations, this technology was implemented for Heck reactions with sluggish aryl chlorides. Furthermore, homogeneous palladium-catalyzed Heck vinylations of aryl chlorides can be performed under air under optimized conditions. Based on this finding, controlled microwave heating was utilized to accelerate model reactions down to 30 min employing a mixture of ionic liquid and 1,4-dioxane as solvent.

  20. Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA??Pd: a heterogeneous catalyst for aqueous Heck reaction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA??Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via co-ordinate interactionand the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Baig, N., J. Leazer , and R. Varma. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction. CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, USA, 17(7): 2073-2077, (2015).

  1. The local Hurwitz constant and Diophantine approximation on Hecke groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, J.

    1990-10-01

    Define the Hecke group by {G_q} = < {( {begin{array}{*{20}{c}} 1 & {{⪉mb... ...{array}{*{20}{c}} 0 & { - 1} 1 & 0 } )} rangle , {λ _q} = 2cos π /q , q = 3,4, ldots . We call {G_q}(∞ ) the {G_q} -rationals, and R - {G_q}(∞ ) the {G_q} -irrationals. The problem we treat here is the approximation of {G_q} -irrationals by {G_q} -rationals. Let M(α ) be the upper bound of numbers c for which \\vertα - k/m\\vert < 1/c{m^2} for all {G_q} -irrationals and infinitely many k/m in {G_q}(∞ ) . Set h_q'= {inf _α }M(α ) . We call h_q' the Hurwitz constant for {G_q} . It is known that h_q'= 2 , q even; h_q'= 2{(1 + {(1 - {λ _q}/2)^2})^{1/2}} , q odd. In this paper we prove this result by using {λ _q} -continued fractions, as developed previously by D. Rosen. Write α - frac{{{P_{n - 1}}}}{{{Q_{n - 1}}}} = frac{{{{( - 1)}^{... ...}{\\varepsilon _2} \\cdots {\\varepsilon _n}}}{{{m_{n - 1}}(α )Q_{n - 1}^2}}, where {\\varepsilon _i} = ± 1 and {P_i}/{Q_i} are the convergents of the {λ _q} -continued fraction for α . Then M(α ) = {overline {lim } _n}{m_n}(α ) . We call {m_n}(α ) the local Hurwitz constant. In the final section we prove some results on the local Hurwitz constant. For example (Theorem 4), it is shown that if q is odd and {\\varepsilon _{n + 1}} = {\\varepsilon _{n + 2}} = + 1 , then {m_i} ≥ {(λ _q^2 + 4)^{1/2}} > h_q' for at least one of i = n - 1,n,n + 1 .

  2. Preparation of Vinyl Silyl Ethers and Disiloxanes via the Silyl-Heck Reaction of Silyl Ditriflates

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sara E. S.; Watson, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Vinyl silyl ethers and disiloxanes can now be prepared from aryl-substituted alkenes and related substrates using a silyl-Heck reaction. The reaction employs a commercially available catalyst system and mild conditions. This work represents a highly practical means of accessing diverse classes of vinyl silyl ether substrates in an efficient and direct manner with complete regio- and geometric selectivity. PMID:23984876

  3. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in three Kenyan girls: case reports.

    PubMed

    Chindia, M L; Awange, D O; Guthua, S W; Mwaniki, D L

    1993-09-01

    We report the first three patients diagnosed with focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) in Kenya. Clinically they presented as focal or diffuse papillomatous lesions in the oral mucosa. Histopathological features rule out other similar lesions inter alia multiple fibro-epithelial and viral warts.

  4. Successful topical treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) with interferon-beta.

    PubMed

    Steinhoff, M; Metze, D; Stockfleth, E; Luger, T A

    2001-05-01

    We report the successful topical treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease) with interferon-beta (Fiblaferon gel). Topical treatment with interferon-beta appears to be an effective, simple, non-invasive, cheap and low-risk alternative to other invasive or surgical therapeutic modalities.

  5. Ligand-free Heck reaction: Pd(OAc)2 as an active catalyst revisited.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Yang, Zhi

    2003-09-19

    Palladium acetate was shown to be an extremely active catalyst for the Heck reaction of aryl bromides. Both the base and the solvent were found to have a fundamental influence on the efficiency of the reaction, with K(3)PO(4) and N,N-dimethylacetamide being the optimal base and solvent, respectively.

  6. Classification of Non-Affine Non-Hecke Dynamical R-Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avan, Jean; Billaud, Baptiste; Rollet, Geneviève

    2012-09-01

    A complete classification of non-affine dynamical quantum R-matrices obeying the Gl_n({C})-Gervais-Neveu-Felder equation is obtained without assuming either Hecke or weak Hecke conditions. More general dynamical dependences are observed. It is shown that any solution is built upon elementary blocks, which individually satisfy the weak Hecke condition. Each solution is in particular characterized by an arbitrary partition {{I}(i),; iin\\{1,dots,n}} of the set of indices {1,dots,n} into classes, {I}(i) being the class of the index i, and an arbitrary family of signs (ɛ_{I})_{{I}in{{I}(i), ; iin{1,dots,n}}} on this partition. The weak Hecke-type R-matrices exhibit the analytical behaviour R_{ij,ji}=f(ɛ_{{I}(i)}Λ_{{I}(i)}-ɛ_{{I}(j)}Λ_{{I}(j)}), where f is a particular trigonometric or rational function, Λ_{{I}(i)}=sumlimits_{jin{I}(i)}λ_j, and (λ_i)_{iin{1,dots,n}} denotes the family of dynamical coordinates.

  7. Intramolecular Imidoylative Heck Reaction: Synthesis of Cyclic Ketoimines from Functionalized Isocyanide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Tang, Shi; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Efficient access to five- to seven-membered cyclic ketoimines, through palladium-catalyzed intramolecular imidoylative Heck reaction of alkene-containing isocyanides, has been developed. Consecutive isocyanide and alkene insertion into aryl or alkyl Pd(II) intermediates takes place in this process. No byproduct derived from monoinsertion or reversed sequence is detected.

  8. Global structure of curves from generalized unitarity cut of three-loop diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauenstein, Jonathan D.; Huang, Rijun; Mehta, Dhagash; Zhang, Yang

    2015-02-01

    This paper studies the global structure of algebraic curves defined by generalized unitarity cut of four-dimensional three-loop diagrams with eleven propagators. The global structure is a topological invariant that is characterized by the geometric genus of the algebraic curve. We use the Riemann-Hurwitz formula to compute the geometric genus of algebraic curves with the help of techniques involving convex hull polytopes and numerical algebraic geometry. Some interesting properties of genus for arbitrary loop orders are also explored where computing the genus serves as an initial step for integral or integrand reduction of three-loop amplitudes via an algebraic geometric approach.

  9. Algebraic trigonometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaninsky, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    This article introduces a trigonometric field (TF) that extends the field of real numbers by adding two new elements: sin and cos - satisfying an axiom sin2 + cos2 = 1. It is shown that by assigning meaningful names to particular elements of the field, all known trigonometric identities may be introduced and proved. Two different interpretations of the TF are discussed with many others potentially possible. The main objective of this article is to introduce a broader view of trigonometry that can serve as motivation for mathematics students and teachers to study and teach abstract algebraic structures.

  10. Caution: Venn Diagrams Ahead!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmins, Dovie L.; Winters, J. Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Two perspectives of the term "Venn diagram" reflect the typical differences in the uses of Venn diagrams in the subject areas of mathematics and language arts. These differences are subtle; nevertheless, they can potentially be confusing. In language arts, the circles in a Venn diagram typically represent things that can be compared and…

  11. A simple and facile Heck-type arylation of alkenes with diaryliodonium salts using magnetically recoverable Pd-catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heck-type arylation of alkenes was achieved in aqueous polyethylene glycol using a magnetically recoverable heterogenized palladium catalyst employing diaryliodonium salts under ambient conditions. The benign reaction medium and the stability of the catalyst are the salient f...

  12. Derive Workshop Matrix Algebra and Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley Kulich, Lisa; Victor, Barbara

    This document presents the course content for a workshop that integrates the use of the computer algebra system Derive with topics in matrix and linear algebra. The first section is a guide to using Derive that provides information on how to write algebraic expressions, make graphs, save files, edit, define functions, differentiate expressions,…

  13. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  14. Spinor representations of affine Lie algebras

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, I. B.

    1980-01-01

    Let [unk] be an infinite-dimensional Kac-Moody Lie algebra of one of the types Dl+1(2), Bl(1), or Dl(1). These algebras are characterized by the property that an elimination of any endpoint of their Dynkin diagrams gives diagrams of types Bl or Dl of classical orthogonal Lie algebras. We construct two representations of a Lie algebra [unk], which we call spinor representations, following the analogy with the classical case. We obtain that every spinor representation is either irreducible or has two irreducible components. This provides us with an explicit construction of fundamental representations of [unk], two for the type Dl+1(2), three for Bl(1), and four for Dl(1). We note the profound connection of our construction with quantum field theory—in particular, with fermion fields. Comparing the character formulas of our representations with another construction of the fundamental representations of Kac-Moody Lie algebras of types Al(1), Dl(1), El(1), we obtain classical Jacobi identities and addition formulas for elliptic θ-functions. PMID:16592912

  15. Using three-dimensional spacetime diagrams in special relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian

    2013-08-01

    We provide three examples of the use of geometric reasoning with three-dimensional spacetime diagrams, rather than algebraic manipulations using three-dimensional Lorentz transformations, to analyze problems in special relativity. The examples are the "rising manhole" paradox, the "moving spotlight" problem, and Einstein's light-clock derivation of time dilation.

  16. Enantioselective Heck arylations of acyclic alkenyl alcohols using a redox-relay strategy.

    PubMed

    Werner, Erik W; Mei, Tian-Sheng; Burckle, Alexander J; Sigman, Matthew S

    2012-12-14

    Progress in the development of asymmetric Heck couplings of arenes and acyclic olefins has been limited by a tenuous understanding of the factors that dictate selectivity in migratory insertion and β-hydride elimination. On the basis of key mechanistic insight recently garnered in the exploration of selective Heck reactions, we report here an enantioselective variant that delivers β-, γ-, or δ-aryl carbonyl products from acyclic alkenol substrates. The catalyst system imparts notable regioselectivity during migratory insertion and promotes the migration of the alkene's unsaturation toward the alcohol to ultimately form the ketone product. The reaction uses aryldiazonium salts as the arene source, yields enantiomeric products from opposite starting alkene configurations, and uses a readily accessible ligand. The racemic nature of the alkenol substrate does not bias the enantioselection.

  17. Oxidative Heck vinylation for the synthesis of complex dienes and polyenes.

    PubMed

    Delcamp, Jared H; Gormisky, Paul E; White, M Christina

    2013-06-12

    We introduce an oxidative Heck reaction for selective complex diene and polyene formation. The reaction proceeds via oxidative Pd(II)/sulfoxide catalysis that retards palladium-hydride isomerizations which previously limited the Heck manifold's capacity for furnishing stereodefined conjugated dienes. Limiting quantities of nonactivated terminal olefins (1 equiv) and slight excesses of vinyl boronic esters (1.5 equiv) that feature diverse functionality can be used to furnish complex dienes and polyenes in good yields and excellent selectivities (generally E:Z = >20:1; internal:terminal = >20:1). Because this reaction only requires prior activation of a single vinylic carbon, improvements in efficiency are observed for synthetic sequences relative to ones featuring reactions that require activation of both coupling partners.

  18. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck's disease): report of two cases with PCR detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Jayasooriya, P R; Abeyratne, S; Ranasinghe, A W; Tilakaratne, W M

    2004-07-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) (Heck's disease) is essentially a benign oral infection produced by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although this condition is known to exist in numerous populations and ethnic groups, it is relatively rare in South-East Asia. The following report is based on two cases of adult FEH with histopathological features in favour of the disease. In addition, polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of HPV DNA in the lesions in order to confirm the histopathological diagnosis.

  19. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type cross-couplings of unactivated alkyl iodides.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Caitlin M; Alexanian, Erik J

    2014-06-02

    A palladium-catalyzed, intermolecular Heck-type coupling of alkyl iodides and alkenes is described. This process is successful with a variety of primary and secondary unactivated alkyl iodides as reaction partners, including those with hydrogen atoms in the β position. The mild catalytic conditions enable intermolecular C-C bond formations with a diverse set of alkyl iodides and alkenes, including substrates containing base- or nucleophile-sensitive functionality.

  20. A generalization of the Funk-Hecke theorem to the case of hyperbolic spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtepina, T. V.

    2004-10-01

    The well-known Funk-Hecke theorem states that for integral operators whose kernels depend only on the distance between points in spherical geometry and where the integral is taken over the surface of a hypersphere, every surface spherical harmonic is an eigenvector. In this paper we extend this theorem to the case of non-compact Lobachevsky spaces. We compute the corresponding eigenvalue in some physically important cases.

  1. Quantum cluster algebras and quantum nilpotent algebras

    PubMed Central

    Goodearl, Kenneth R.; Yakimov, Milen T.

    2014-01-01

    A major direction in the theory of cluster algebras is to construct (quantum) cluster algebra structures on the (quantized) coordinate rings of various families of varieties arising in Lie theory. We prove that all algebras in a very large axiomatically defined class of noncommutative algebras possess canonical quantum cluster algebra structures. Furthermore, they coincide with the corresponding upper quantum cluster algebras. We also establish analogs of these results for a large class of Poisson nilpotent algebras. Many important families of coordinate rings are subsumed in the class we are covering, which leads to a broad range of applications of the general results to the above-mentioned types of problems. As a consequence, we prove the Berenstein–Zelevinsky conjecture [Berenstein A, Zelevinsky A (2005) Adv Math 195:405–455] for the quantized coordinate rings of double Bruhat cells and construct quantum cluster algebra structures on all quantum unipotent groups, extending the theorem of Geiß et al. [Geiß C, et al. (2013) Selecta Math 19:337–397] for the case of symmetric Kac–Moody groups. Moreover, we prove that the upper cluster algebras of Berenstein et al. [Berenstein A, et al. (2005) Duke Math J 126:1–52] associated with double Bruhat cells coincide with the corresponding cluster algebras. PMID:24982197

  2. Palladium was supported on superparamagnetic nanoparticles: A magnetically recoverable catalyst for Heck reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengwei; Niu, Jianrui; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Honglei; Jin, Jun; Liu, Na; Zhang, Yubin; Li, Rong; Ma, Jiantai

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Palladium-based heterogeneous catalyst was prepared facilely via the co-precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles are nearly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 {+-} 1.0 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed magnetic catalyst showed high activity for Heck reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture with external magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalytic efficiency for Heck reaction remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. -- Abstract: A novel and high-performance palladium-based catalyst for Heck reaction was prepared easily by the co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The catalyst afforded a fast conversion of the 4-bromonitrobenzene to 4-nitrostilbene at a catalyst loading of 5 mol%, and the efficiency of the catalyst remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. The excellent catalytic performance of the Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} catalyst might be attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between Pd nanoparticles and magnetite.

  3. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiosi, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (HR-diagram), pioneered independently by EJNAR HERTZSPRUNG and HENRY NORRIS RUSSELL, is a plot of the star luminosity versus the surface temperature. It stems from the basic relation for an object emitting thermal radiation as a black body: ...

  4. Inductively generating Euler diagrams.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Gem; Rodgers, Peter; Howse, John; Zhang, Leishi

    2011-01-01

    Euler diagrams have a wide variety of uses, from information visualization to logical reasoning. In all of their application areas, the ability to automatically layout Euler diagrams brings considerable benefits. In this paper, we present a novel approach to Euler diagram generation. We develop certain graphs associated with Euler diagrams in order to allow curves to be added by finding cycles in these graphs. This permits us to build Euler diagrams inductively, adding one curve at a time. Our technique is adaptable, allowing the easy specification, and enforcement, of sets of well-formedness conditions; we present a series of results that identify properties of cycles that correspond to the well-formedness conditions. This improves upon other contributions toward the automated generation of Euler diagrams which implicitly assume some fixed set of well-formedness conditions must hold. In addition, unlike most of these other generation methods, our technique allows any abstract description to be drawn as an Euler diagram. To establish the utility of the approach, a prototype implementation has been developed.

  5. Profiles of Algebraic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberstone, J.; Reeve, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The algebraic competence of 72 12-year-old female students was examined to identify profiles of understanding reflecting different algebraic knowledge states. Beginning algebraic competence (mapping abilities: word-to-symbol and vice versa, classifying, and solving equations) was assessed. One week later, the nature of assistance required to map…

  6. Writing to Learn Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, L. Diane; England, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study in a large metropolitan high school to ascertain what influence the use of regular writing in algebra classes would have on students' attitudes towards algebra and their skills in algebra. Reports the simpler and more direct the writing topics the better. (MVL)

  7. Algebraic theory of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iachello, Franco

    1995-01-01

    An algebraic formulation of quantum mechanics is presented. In this formulation, operators of interest are expanded onto elements of an algebra, G. For bound state problems in nu dimensions the algebra G is taken to be U(nu + 1). Applications to the structure of molecules are presented.

  8. Applied Algebra Curriculum Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll., Marshall.

    This collection of 11 applied algebra curriculum modules can be used independently as supplemental modules for an existing algebra curriculum. They represent diverse curriculum styles that should stimulate the teacher's creativity to adapt them to other algebra concepts. The selected topics have been determined to be those most needed by students…

  9. Connecting Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, Joy W.; Leapard, Barbara B.

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a top priority in mathematics classrooms today. Because elementary school teachers lay the groundwork to develop students' capacity to think algebraically, it is crucial for teachers to have a conceptual understanding of the connections between arithmetic and algebra and be confident in communicating these connections. Many…

  10. Ternary Virasoro - Witt algebra.

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.; Curtright, T.; Fairlie, D.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Miami; Univ. of Durham

    2008-01-01

    A 3-bracket variant of the Virasoro-Witt algebra is constructed through the use of su(1,1) enveloping algebra techniques. The Leibniz rules for 3-brackets acting on other 3-brackets in the algebra are discussed and verified in various situations.

  11. Permutation centralizer algebras and multimatrix invariants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a class of permutation centralizer algebras which underly the combinatorics of multimatrix gauge-invariant observables. One family of such noncommutative algebras is parametrized by two integers. Its Wedderburn-Artin decomposition explains the counting of restricted Schur operators, which were introduced in the physics literature to describe open strings attached to giant gravitons and were subsequently used to diagonalize the Gaussian inner product for gauge invariants of two-matrix models. The structure of the algebra, notably its dimension, its center and its maximally commuting subalgebra, is related to Littlewood-Richardson numbers for composing Young diagrams. It gives a precise characterization of the minimal set of charges needed to distinguish arbitrary matrix gauge invariants, which are related to enhanced symmetries in gauge theory. The algebra also gives a star product for matrix invariants. The center of the algebra allows efficient computation of a sector of multimatrix correlators. These generate the counting of a certain class of bicoloured ribbon graphs with arbitrary genus.

  12. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  13. Computer algebra and operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fateman, Richard; Grossman, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The symbolic computation of operator expansions is discussed. Some of the capabilities that prove useful when performing computer algebra computations involving operators are considered. These capabilities may be broadly divided into three areas: the algebraic manipulation of expressions from the algebra generated by operators; the algebraic manipulation of the actions of the operators upon other mathematical objects; and the development of appropriate normal forms and simplification algorithms for operators and their actions. Brief descriptions are given of the computer algebra computations that arise when working with various operators and their actions.

  14. Palladium-catalyzed cyclization/Heck- and cyclization/conjugate-addition-type sequences in the preparation of polysubstituted furans.

    PubMed

    Aurrecoechea, José M; Durana, Aritz; Pérez, Elena

    2008-05-02

    Palladium-catalyzed heterocyclization-coupling sequences have been developed starting from buta-1,2,3-trienyl carbinols and electron-deficient alkenes. Polysubstituted furans are formed where the heterocyclic ring originates from the elements of the butatrienyl carbinol while the electron-deficient olefin is incorporated as a C-3 substituent. In most cases, the reaction proceeds via a Heck-type pathway leading to the efficient formation of 3-vinylfurans. However, couplings with methyl vinyl ketone display a divergent behavior to afford selectively either Heck- or hydroarylation-type products depending on reaction conditions.

  15. Discrete Minimal Surface Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Hoppe, Jens

    2010-05-01

    We consider discrete minimal surface algebras (DMSA) as generalized noncommutative analogues of minimal surfaces in higher dimensional spheres. These algebras appear naturally in membrane theory, where sequences of their representations are used as a regularization. After showing that the defining relations of the algebra are consistent, and that one can compute a basis of the enveloping algebra, we give several explicit examples of DMSAs in terms of subsets of sln (any semi-simple Lie algebra providing a trivial example by itself). A special class of DMSAs are Yang-Mills algebras. The representation graph is introduced to study representations of DMSAs of dimension d ≤ 4, and properties of representations are related to properties of graphs. The representation graph of a tensor product is (generically) the Cartesian product of the corresponding graphs. We provide explicit examples of irreducible representations and, for coinciding eigenvalues, classify all the unitary representations of the corresponding algebras.

  16. Longer Bars for Bigger Numbers? Children's Usage and Understanding of Graphical Representations of Algebraic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kerry; Khng, Kiat Hui; Ng, Swee Fong; Ng Lan Kong, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In Singapore, primary school students are taught to use bar diagrams to represent known and unknown values in algebraic word problems. However, little is known about students' understanding of these graphical representations. We investigated whether students use and think of the bar diagrams in a concrete or a more abstract fashion. We also…

  17. Noncovalent Substrate-Directed Enantioselective Heck Reactions: Synthesis of S- and P-Stereogenic Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    de Azambuja, Francisco; Carmona, Rafaela C; Chorro, Tomaz H D; Heerdt, Gabriel; Correia, Carlos Roque D

    2016-08-01

    S- and P-Stereogenic heterocycles were synthesized by a remarkably simple enantioselective Heck desymmetrization reaction based on the unprecedented noncovalent directing effect of S=O and P=O functionalities. Selected prochiral symmetric substrates were efficiently arylated using the recently disclosed chiral PyraBOx ligand under mild and open-flask reaction conditions. Several five-membered aryl- sulfones, sulfoxides, and phosphine oxides were synthesized in good to excellent yields, in good to high diastereoselectivity, and enantiomeric ratios up to 98:2. Theoretical calculations also support the noncovalent directing effect of the S=O and P=O functionalities during the arylation process.

  18. Catalyst-Controlled Regioselectivity in the Synthesis of Branched Conjugated Dienes via Aerobic Oxidative Heck Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Changwu; Wang, Dian; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    Pd-catalyzed aerobic oxidative coupling of vinylboronic acids and electronically unbiased alkyl olefins provides regioselective access to 1,3-disubstituted conjugated dienes. Catalyst-controlled regioselectivity is achieved by using 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline as a ligand. The observed regioselectivity is opposite to that observed from a traditional (non-oxidative) Heck reaction between a vinyl bromide and an alkene. DFT computational studies reveal that steric effects of the 2,9-dimethylphenanthroline ligand promote C–C bond-formation at the internal position of the alkene. PMID:22998540

  19. Rational design of cyclopropane-based chiral PHOX ligands for intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction

    PubMed Central

    Rubina, Marina; Sherrill, William M; Barkov, Alexey Yu

    2014-01-01

    Summary A novel class of chiral phosphanyl-oxazoline (PHOX) ligands with a conformationally rigid cyclopropyl backbone was synthesized and tested in the intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction. Mechanistic modelling and crystallographic studies were used to predict the optimal ligand structure and helped to design a very efficient and highly selective catalytic system. Employment of the optimized ligands in the asymmetric arylation of cyclic olefins allowed for achieving high enantioselectivities and significantly suppressing product isomerization. Factors affecting the selectivity and the rate of the isomerization were identified. It was shown that the nature of this isomerization is different from that demonstrated previously using chiral diphosphine ligands. PMID:25161709

  20. Asymptotic analysis of Bayesian generalization error with Newton diagram.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Keisuke; Aoyagi, Miki; Watanabe, Sumio

    2010-01-01

    Statistical learning machines that have singularities in the parameter space, such as hidden Markov models, Bayesian networks, and neural networks, are widely used in the field of information engineering. Singularities in the parameter space determine the accuracy of estimation in the Bayesian scenario. The Newton diagram in algebraic geometry is recognized as an effective method by which to investigate a singularity. The present paper proposes a new technique to plug the diagram in the Bayesian analysis. The proposed technique allows the generalization error to be clarified and provides a foundation for an efficient model selection. We apply the proposed technique to mixtures of binomial distributions.

  1. Mechanism, reactivity, and selectivity in palladium-catalyzed redox-relay Heck arylations of alkenyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liping; Hilton, Margaret J; Zhang, Xinhao; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wu, Yun-Dong; Sigman, Matthew S; Wiest, Olaf

    2014-02-05

    The enantioselective Pd-catalyzed redox-relay Heck arylation of acyclic alkenyl alcohols allows access to various useful chiral building blocks from simple olefinic substrates. Mechanistically, after the initial migratory insertion, a succession of β-hydride elimination and migratory insertion steps yields a saturated carbonyl product instead of the more general Heck product, an unsaturated alcohol. Here, we investigate the reaction mechanism, including the relay function, yielding the final carbonyl group transformation. M06 calculations predict a ΔΔG(‡) of 1 kcal/mol for the site selectivity and 2.5 kcal/mol for the enantioselectivity, in quantitative agreement with experimental results. The site selectivity is controlled by a remote electronic effect, where the developing polarization of the alkene in the migratory insertion transition state is stabilized by the C-O dipole of the alcohol moiety. The enantioselectivity is controlled by steric repulsion between the oxazoline substituent and the alcohol-bearing alkene substituent. The relay efficiency is due to an unusually smooth potential energy surface without high barriers, where the hydroxyalkyl-palladium species acts as a thermodynamic sink, driving the reaction toward the carbonyl product. Computational predictions of the relative reactivity and selectivity of the double bond isomers are validated experimentally.

  2. To use or not to use diagrams: The effect of drawing a diagram in solving introductory physics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-01-01

    Drawing appropriate diagrams is a useful problem solving heuristic that can transform a given problem into a representation that is easier to exploit for solving it. A major focus while helping introductory physics students learn problem solving is to help them appreciate that drawing diagrams facilitates problem solution. We conducted an investigation in which 111 students in an algebra-based introductory physics course were subjected to two different interventions during recitation quizzes throughout the semester. They were either (1) asked to solve problems in which the diagrams were drawn for them or (2) explicitly told to draw a diagram. A comparison group was not given any instruction regarding diagrams. We developed a rubric to score the problem-solving performance of students in different intervention groups. We investigated two problems involving electric field and electric force and found that students who draw expert-like diagrams are more successful problem solvers and that a higher level of detail in a student's diagram corresponds to a better score.

  3. Prediction of Algebraic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretzky, Paula; King, Kristina; Hill, Nicole; Keithley, Kimberlee; Barlow, Nathaniel; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A new methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to the governing differential equation (or dispersion relation) describing wave propagation in dispersive media. Several types of algebraic instabilities are explored in the context of both linear and nonlinear waves.

  4. Connecting Algebra and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Sean

    2003-01-01

    Correlates high school chemistry curriculum with high school algebra curriculum and makes the case for an integrated approach to mathematics and science instruction. Focuses on process integration. (DDR)

  5. Impulse-Momentum Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosengrant, David

    2011-01-01

    Multiple representations are a valuable tool to help students learn and understand physics concepts. Furthermore, representations help students learn how to think and act like real scientists. These representations include: pictures, free-body diagrams, energy bar charts, electrical circuits, and, more recently, computer simulations and…

  6. Bicovariant quantum algebras and quantum Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schupp, Peter; Watts, Paul; Zumino, Bruno

    1993-10-01

    A bicovariant calculus of differential operators on a quantum group is constructed in a natural way, using invariant maps from Fun(mathfrak{G}_q ) to U q g, given by elements of the pure braid group. These operators—the “reflection matrix” Y≡L + SL - being a special case—generate algebras that linearly close under adjoint actions, i.e. they form generalized Lie algebras. We establish the connection between the Hopf algebra formulation of the calculus and a formulation in compact matrix form which is quite powerful for actual computations and as applications we find the quantum determinant and an orthogonality relation for Y in SO q (N).

  7. Catching Up on Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A popular humorist and avowed mathphobe once declared that in real life, there's no such thing as algebra. Kathie Wilson knows better. Most of the students in her 8th grade class will be thrust into algebra, the definitive course that heralds the beginning of high school mathematics, next school year. The problem: Many of them are about three…

  8. Parastatistics Algebras and Combinatorics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, T.

    2005-03-01

    We consider the algebras spanned by the creation parafermionic and parabosonic operators which give rise to generalized parastatistics Fock spaces. The basis of such a generalized Fock space can be labelled by Young tableaux which are combinatorial objects. By means of quantum deformations a nice combinatorial structure of the algebra of the plactic monoid that lies behind the parastatistics is revealed.

  9. Algebraic Reasoning through Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.; Becker, Joanne Rossi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a three-year study that explores students' performance on patterning tasks involving prealgebra and algebra. The findings, insights, and issues drawn from the study are intended to help teach prealgebra and algebra. In the remainder of the article, the authors take a more global view of the three-year study on…

  10. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  11. Linear-Algebra Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, C. L.; Krogh, F. T.; Gold, S. S.; Kincaid, D. R.; Sullivan, J.; Williams, E.; Hanson, R. J.; Haskell, K.; Dongarra, J.; Moler, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS) library is a collection of 38 FORTRAN-callable routines for performing basic operations of numerical linear algebra. BLAS library is portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebriac computations. BLAS library is supplied in portable FORTRAN and Assembler code versions for IBM 370, UNIVAC 1100 and CDC 6000 series computers.

  12. Ready, Set, Algebra?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Alissa Beth

    2012-01-01

    The California Department of Education (CDE) has long asserted that success Algebra I by Grade 8 is the goal for all California public school students. In fact, the state's accountability system penalizes schools that do not require all of their students to take the Algebra I end-of-course examination by Grade 8 (CDE, 2009). In this dissertation,…

  13. Teaching Structure in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merlin, Ethan M.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the author has developed tasks for students that address the missed "essence of the matter" of algebraic transformations. Specifically, he has found that having students practice "perceiving" algebraic structure--by naming the "glue" in the expressions, drawing expressions using…

  14. Terminating Catalytic Asymmetric Heck Cyclizations by Stereoselective Intramolecular Capture of η3-Allylpalladium Intermediates: Total Synthesis of (−)-Spirotryprostatin B and Three Stereoisomers

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Larry E.; Rosen, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic intramolecular Heck reaction, followed by capture of the resulting η3-allylpalladium intermediate by a tethered diketopiperazine, is the central step in a concise synthetic route to (−)-spirotryprostatin B and three stereoisomers. This study demonstrates that an acyclic, chiral η3-allylpalladium fragment generated in a catalytic asymmetric Heck cyclization can be trapped by even a weakly nucleophilic diketopiperazine more rapidly than it undergoes diastereomeric equilibration. PMID:20725641

  15. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  16. A Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's disease) with PCR Detection of Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Ozden, Bora; Gunduz, Kaan; Gunhan, Omer; Ozden, Feyza Otan

    2011-12-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia or Heck's disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by human papillomavirus. The frequency of this disease varies widely from one geographic region to another. In Caucasians there have been only few cases reported. This paper reports a case of focal epithelial hyperplasia and demonstrates the association with HPV subtype 32 through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of PCR products. A 7-year-old Caucasian girl was admitted to our clinic for investigation of multiple oral mucosal lesions in the mouth. Lesion was excised under local anesthesia without any complication. The lesion was diagnosed as focal epithelial hyperplasia according to both clinical and histopathological features. Dental staff should be aware of these kind of lesions and histopathological examination together with a careful clinical observation should be carried out for a definitive diagnosis.

  17. Exploring a cascade Heck-Suzuki reaction based route to kinase inhibitors using design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Ekebergh, Andreas; Lingblom, Christine; Sandin, Peter; Wennerås, Christine; Mårtensson, Jerker

    2015-03-21

    Design of Experiments (DoE) has been used to optimize a diversity oriented palladium catalyzed cascade Heck-Suzuki reaction for the construction of 3-alkenyl substituted cyclopenta[b]indole compounds. The obtained DoE model revealed a reaction highly dependent on the ligand. Guided by the model, an optimal ligand was chosen that selectively delivered the desired products in high yields. The conditions were applicable with a variety of boronic acids and were used to synthesize a library of 3-alkenyl derivatized compounds. Focusing on inhibition of kinases relevant for combating melanoma, the library was used in an initial structure-activity survey. In line with the observed kinase inhibition, cellular studies revealed one of the more promising derivatives to inhibit cell proliferation via an apoptotic mechanism.

  18. Algebraic Nonlinear Collective Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, J.; Rosensteel, G.

    1998-11-01

    Finite-dimensional Lie algebras of vector fields determine geometrical collective models in quantum and classical physics. Every set of vector fields on Euclidean space that generates the Lie algebra sl(3, R) and contains the angular momentum algebra so(3) is determined. The subset of divergence-free sl(3, R) vector fields is proven to be indexed by a real numberΛ. TheΛ=0 solution is the linear representation that corresponds to the Riemann ellipsoidal model. The nonlinear group action on Euclidean space transforms a certain family of deformed droplets among themselves. For positiveΛ, the droplets have a neck that becomes more pronounced asΛincreases; for negativeΛ, the droplets contain a spherical bubble of radius |Λ|1/3. The nonlinear vector field algebra is extended to the nonlinear general collective motion algebra gcm(3) which includes the inertia tensor. The quantum algebraic models of nonlinear nuclear collective motion are given by irreducible unitary representations of the nonlinear gcm(3) Lie algebra. These representations model fissioning isotopes (Λ>0) and bubble and two-fluid nuclei (Λ<0).

  19. Algebraic invariants for homotopy types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, David

    1999-11-01

    We define a sequence of purely algebraic invariants - namely, classes in the Quillen cohomology of the [Pi]-algebra [pi][low asterisk]X - for distinguishing between different homotopy types of spaces. Another sequence of such cohomology classes allows one to decide whether a given abstract [Pi]-algebra can be realized as the homotopy [Pi]-algebra of a space.

  20. A Richer Understanding of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is one of those hard-to-teach topics where pupils seem to struggle to see it as more than a set of rules to learn, but this author recently used the software "Grid Algebra" from ATM, which engaged her Year 7 pupils in exploring algebraic concepts for themselves. "Grid Algebra" allows pupils to experience number,…

  1. Nonplanar on-shell diagrams and leading singularities of scattering amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Baoyi; Chen, Gang; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.; Li, Yunxuan; Xie, Ruofei; Xin, Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Bipartite on-shell diagrams are the latest tool in constructing scattering amplitudes. In this paper we prove that a Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) decomposable on-shell diagram process a rational top form if and only if the algebraic ideal comprised the geometrical constraints are shifted linearly during successive BCFW integrations. With a proper geometric interpretation of the constraints in the Grassmannian manifold, the rational top form integration contours can thus be obtained, and understood, in a straightforward way. All rational top form integrands of arbitrary higher loops leading singularities can therefore be derived recursively, as long as the corresponding on-shell diagram is BCFW decomposable.

  2. Pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqi; Zhu, Fuhai

    2008-08-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic-type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. Pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras denote Novikov algebras with non-degenerate invariant symmetric bilinear forms. In this paper, we find that there is a remarkable geometry on pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras, and give a special class of pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras.

  3. Crystalline hybrid solid materials of palladium and decamethylcucurbit[5]uril as recoverable precatalysts for Heck cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongfang; Lü, Jian; Lin, Jingxiang; Huang, Yuanbiao; Cao, Minna; Cao, Rong

    2013-11-11

    A series of MPdMe10 CB[5] (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; Me10 CB[5]=decamethylcucurbit[5]uril) hybrid solid materials have been successfully synthesized for the first time through a simple diffusion method. These as-prepared hybrid solids have been applied as phosphine-free precatalysts for Heck cross-coupling reactions with excellent catalytic performance and good recyclability. In the processes of the catalytic reactions, the activated Pd(II) species were released from the crystalline hybrid precatalysts and transformed into catalytically active Pd nanoparticles, which have been demonstrated as key to carry on the catalytic reactions for the recoverable precatalysts MPdMe10 CB[5] (M=K, Rb, and Cs). It has also been rationalized that the introduction of different alkali metals afforded crystalline hybrid precatalysts with different crystal structures, which are responsible for their diversified stability and reusability presented in Heck reactions.

  4. Using the Logarithmic Concentration Diagram, Log "C", to Teach Acid-Base Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Acid-base equilibrium is one of the most important and most challenging topics in a typical general chemistry course. This article introduces an alternative to the algebraic approach generally used in textbooks, the graphical log "C" method. Log "C" diagrams provide conceptual insight into the behavior of aqueous acid-base systems and allow…

  5. Weyl n-Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markarian, Nikita

    2017-03-01

    We introduce Weyl n-algebras and show how their factorization complex may be used to define invariants of manifolds. In the appendix, we heuristically explain why these invariants must be perturbative Chern-Simons invariants.

  6. Developing Algebraic Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alejandre, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Presents a teaching experience that resulted in students getting to a point of full understanding of the kinesthetic activity and the algebra behind it. Includes a lesson plan for a traffic jam activity. (KHR)

  7. Jordan Algebraic Quantum Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graydon, Matthew; Barnum, Howard; Ududec, Cozmin; Wilce, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    State cones in orthodox quantum theory over finite dimensional complex Hilbert spaces enjoy two particularly essential features: homogeneity and self-duality. Orthodox quantum theory is not, however, unique in that regard. Indeed, all finite dimensional formally real Jordan algebras -- arenas for generalized quantum theories with close algebraic kinship to the orthodox theory -- admit homogeneous self-dual positive cones. We construct categories wherein these theories are unified. The structure of composite systems is cast from universal tensor products of the universal C*-algebras enveloping ambient spaces for the constituent state cones. We develop, in particular, a notion of composition that preserves the local distinction of constituent systems in quaternionic quantum theory. More generally, we explicitly derive the structure of hybrid quantum composites with subsystems of arbitrary Jordan algebraic type.

  8. Accounting Equals Applied Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sondra

    1997-01-01

    Argues that students should be given mathematics credits for completing accounting classes. Demonstrates that, although the terminology is different, the mathematical concepts are the same as those used in an introductory algebra class. (JOW)

  9. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Jerzy; Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30-100% yield using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix.

  10. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    PubMed Central

    Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  11. The First Example of Nickel-Catalyzed Silyl-Heck Reactions: Direct Activation of Silyl Triflates Without Iodide Additives

    PubMed Central

    McAtee, Jesse R.; Martin, Sara E. S.; Cinderella, Andrew P.; Reid, William B.; Johnson, Keywan A.

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, nickel-catalyzed silyl-Heck reactions are reported. Using simple phosphine-supported nickel catalysts, direct activation of silyl triflates has been achieved. These results contrast earlier palladium-catalyzed systems, which require iodide additives to activate silyl-triflates. These nickel-based catalysts exhibit good functional group tolerance in the preparation of vinyl silanes, and unlike earlier systems, allows for the incorporation of trialkylsilanes larger than Me3Si. PMID:24914247

  12. An in Situ Generated Palladium on Aluminum Oxide: Applications in Gram-Scale Matsuda-Heck Reactions.

    PubMed

    Pape, Simon; Daukšaitė, Lauryna; Lucks, Sandra; Gu, Xiaoting; Brunner, Heiko

    2016-12-16

    In situ generated palladium on aluminum oxide provides an active catalytic system for Matsuda-Heck reactions in gram-scale. The novel catalyst proceeded through a significantly higher catalytic activity compared to the classical Pd/C system. Based on the high catalytic activity the first α,β,β-triarylation of methyl acrylate in good yields could be provided in one-step.

  13. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  14. Aprepro - Algebraic Preprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    Aprepro is an algebraic preprocessor that reads a file containing both general text and algebraic, string, or conditional expressions. It interprets the expressions and outputs them to the output file along witht the general text. Aprepro contains several mathematical functions, string functions, and flow control constructs. In addition, functions are included that, with some additional files, implement a units conversion system and a material database lookup system.

  15. Warped penguin diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Grossman, Yuval; Tanedo, Philip; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2011-04-01

    We present an analysis of the loop-induced magnetic dipole operator in the Randall-Sundrum model of a warped extra dimension with anarchic bulk fermions and an IR brane-localized Higgs. These operators are finite at one-loop order and we explicitly calculate the branching ratio for {mu}{yields}e{gamma} using the mixed position/momentum space formalism. The particular bound on the anarchic Yukawa and Kaluza-Klein (KK) scales can depend on the flavor structure of the anarchic matrices. It is possible for a generic model to either be ruled out or unaffected by these bounds without any fine-tuning. We quantify how these models realize this surprising behavior. We also review tree-level lepton flavor bounds in these models and show that these are on the verge of tension with the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} bounds from typical models with a 3 TeV Kaluza-Klein scale. Further, we illuminate the nature of the one-loop finiteness of these diagrams and show how to accurately determine the degree of divergence of a five-dimensional loop diagram using both the five-dimensional and KK formalism. This power counting can be obfuscated in the four-dimensional Kaluza-Klein formalism and we explicitly point out subtleties that ensure that the two formalisms agree. Finally, we remark on the existence of a perturbative regime in which these one-loop results give the dominant contribution.

  16. Nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes via heck reactions and radical conjugate addition.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qun; Zang, Zhenhua; Chen, Yang; Tong, Weiqi; Gong, Hegui

    2013-05-01

    Cross-coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes leading to Heck-type and addition products is summarized. The development of Heck reaction with aliphatic halides although has made significant progress in the past decade and particularly recently, it was much less explored in comparison with the aryl halides. The use of Ni- and Co-catalyzed protocols allowed efficient Heck coupling of activated and unactivated alkenes with 1°, 2° and 3° alkyl halides. In addition, radical conjugate addition to activated alkenes has become a well-established method that has led to efficient construction of many natural products. The utilization of Ni- and Co-catalyzed strategies would avoid toxic tin reagents, and therefore worth exploring. The recent development of Ni- and Co-catalyzed addition of alkyl halides to alkenes displays much improved reactivity and functional group tolerance. In this mini-review, we also attempt to overview the mechanisms that are proposed in the reactions, aiming at providing insight into the nickel and cobalt-catalyzed coupling of alkyl halides with alkenes.

  17. Bethe subalgebras in affine Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras and flat connections for q-KZ equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Kirillov, A. N.; Tarasov, V. O.

    2016-05-01

    Commutative sets of Jucys-Murphy elements for affine braid groups of {A}(1),{B}(1),{C}(1),{D}(1) types were defined. Construction of R-matrix representations of the affine braid group of type {C}(1) and its distinguished commutative subgroup generated by the {C}(1)-type Jucys-Murphy elements are given. We describe a general method to produce flat connections for the two-boundary quantum Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations as necessary conditions for Sklyanin's type transfer matrix associated with the two-boundary multicomponent Zamolodchikov algebra to be invariant under the action of the {C}(1)-type Jucys-Murphy elements. We specify our general construction to the case of the Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras (BMW algebras for short). As an application we suggest a baxterization of the Dunkl-Cherednik elements {Y}\\prime {{s}} in the double affine Hecke algebra of type A. Dedicated to Professor Rodney Baxter on the occasion of his 75th Birthday.

  18. Program Synthesizes UML Sequence Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Matthew R.; Osborne, Richard N.

    2006-01-01

    A computer program called "Rational Sequence" generates Universal Modeling Language (UML) sequence diagrams of a target Java program running on a Java virtual machine (JVM). Rational Sequence thereby performs a reverse engineering function that aids in the design documentation of the target Java program. Whereas previously, the construction of sequence diagrams was a tedious manual process, Rational Sequence generates UML sequence diagrams automatically from the running Java code.

  19. Algebraic mesh quality metrics

    SciTech Connect

    KNUPP,PATRICK

    2000-04-24

    Quality metrics for structured and unstructured mesh generation are placed within an algebraic framework to form a mathematical theory of mesh quality metrics. The theory, based on the Jacobian and related matrices, provides a means of constructing, classifying, and evaluating mesh quality metrics. The Jacobian matrix is factored into geometrically meaningful parts. A nodally-invariant Jacobian matrix can be defined for simplicial elements using a weight matrix derived from the Jacobian matrix of an ideal reference element. Scale and orientation-invariant algebraic mesh quality metrics are defined. the singular value decomposition is used to study relationships between metrics. Equivalence of the element condition number and mean ratio metrics is proved. Condition number is shown to measure the distance of an element to the set of degenerate elements. Algebraic measures for skew, length ratio, shape, volume, and orientation are defined abstractly, with specific examples given. Combined metrics for shape and volume, shape-volume-orientation are algebraically defined and examples of such metrics are given. Algebraic mesh quality metrics are extended to non-simplical elements. A series of numerical tests verify the theoretical properties of the metrics defined.

  20. Selectivity control between Mizoroki-Heck and homo-coupling reactions for synthesising multinuclear metal complexes: unique addition effects of tertiary phosphines and O2.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yasuomi; Ishitani, Osamu

    2017-04-05

    The addition of a tertiary phosphine and O2 to reaction solutions strongly affected the reactivity and selectivity of coupling reactions between transition metal complexes. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction between metal complexes with bromo and those with vinyl groups in the diimine ligand did not proceed using Pd(OAc)2 in the presence of 2-dicyclohexylphosphino-2',6'-dimethoxybiphenyl (Sphos) under Ar but proceeded selectively after injection of air into the reaction vessel. In the absence of the phosphine ligand, on the other hand, not only the Mizoroki-Heck reaction but also a homo-coupling reaction between the metal complexes with the bromo groups proceeded at the same time. Mechanistic investigation showed that nanoparticles of Pd species were produced in the absence of the phosphine ligand and worked as catalysts for both the Mizoroki-Heck and homo-coupling reactions. On the other hand, larger Pd particles, which were produced in the presence of Sphos but after addition of air for oxidising Sphos, selectively catalysed the Mizoroki-Heck reaction. 'Molecular' Pd species that were stabilised in the presence of non-oxidised Sphos could not catalyse both coupling reactions under the reaction conditions. Based on these results, reaction conditions were established for the selective progress of the Mizoroki-Heck and the homo-coupling reactions.

  1. Abstract Algebra for Algebra Teaching: Influencing School Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the potential for aspects of abstract algebra to be influential for the teaching of school algebra (and early algebra). Using national standards for analysis, four primary areas common in school mathematics--and their progression across elementary, middle, and secondary mathematics--where teaching may be transformed by…

  2. Diagonal Slices of 3D Young Diagrams in the Approach of Maya Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li-Qiang; Wang, Li-Fang; Wu, Ke; Yang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    According to the correspondence between 2D Young diagrams and Maya diagrams and the relation between 2D and 3D Young diagrams, we construct 3D Young diagrams in the approach of Maya diagrams. Moreover, we formulate the generating function of 3D Young diagrams, which is the MacMahon function in terms of Maya diagrams.

  3. Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brezina, M; Falgout, R; MacLachlan, S; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J

    2004-04-09

    Our ability to simulate physical processes numerically is constrained by our ability to solve the resulting linear systems, prompting substantial research into the development of multiscale iterative methods capable of solving these linear systems with an optimal amount of effort. Overcoming the limitations of geometric multigrid methods to simple geometries and differential equations, algebraic multigrid methods construct the multigrid hierarchy based only on the given matrix. While this allows for efficient black-box solution of the linear systems associated with discretizations of many elliptic differential equations, it also results in a lack of robustness due to assumptions made on the near-null spaces of these matrices. This paper introduces an extension to algebraic multigrid methods that removes the need to make such assumptions by utilizing an adaptive process. The principles which guide the adaptivity are highlighted, as well as their application to algebraic multigrid solution of certain symmetric positive-definite linear systems.

  4. Resonant algebras and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, R.

    2017-04-01

    The S-expansion framework is analyzed in the context of a freedom in closing the multiplication tables for the abelian semigroups. Including the possibility of the zero element in the resonant decomposition, and associating the Lorentz generator with the semigroup identity element, leads to a wide class of the expanded Lie algebras introducing interesting modifications to the gauge gravity theories. Among the results, we find all the Maxwell algebras of type {{B}m} , {{C}m} , and the recently introduced {{D}m} . The additional new examples complete the resulting generalization of the bosonic enlargements for an arbitrary number of the Lorentz-like and translational-like generators. Some further prospects concerning enlarging the algebras are discussed, along with providing all the necessary constituents for constructing the gravity actions based on the obtained results.

  5. Model Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and review the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi- Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools. Compared to the CUDD package, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster

  6. On weak Lie 2-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roytenberg, Dmitry

    2007-11-01

    A Lie 2-algebra is a linear category equipped with a functorial bilinear operation satisfying skew-symmetry and Jacobi identity up to natural transformations which themselves obey coherence laws of their own. Functors and natural transformations between Lie 2-algebras can also be defined, yielding a 2-category. Passing to the normalized chain complex gives an equivalence of 2-categories between Lie 2-algebras and certain "up to homotopy" structures on the complex; for strictly skew-symmetric Lie 2-algebras these are L∞-algebras, by a result of Baez and Crans. Lie 2-algebras appear naturally as infinitesimal symmetries of solutions of the Maurer-Cartan equation in some differential graded Lie algebras and L∞-algebras. In particular, (quasi-) Poisson manifolds, (quasi-) Lie bialgebroids and Courant algebroids provide large classes of examples.

  7. Algebra for Gifted Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borenson, Henry

    1987-01-01

    Elementary school children who are exposed to a concrete, hands-on experience in algebraic linear equations will more readily develop a positive mind-set and expectation for success in later formal, algebraic studies. (CB)

  8. A Holistic Approach to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbeau, Edward J.

    1991-01-01

    Described are two examples involving recursive mathematical sequences designed to integrate a holistic approach to learning algebra. These examples promote pattern recognition with algebraic justification, full class participation, and mathematical values that can be transferred to other situations. (MDH)

  9. Computer Program For Linear Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.; Hanson, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Collection of routines provided for basic vector operations. Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is collection from FORTRAN-callable routines for employing standard techniques to perform basic operations of numerical linear algebra.

  10. [Imiquimod for the topical treatment of focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease) in a child].

    PubMed

    Maschke, Jan; Brauns, Tilmann C; Goos, Manfred

    2004-10-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease is a rare skin disease caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). The case of a 9-year old boy is presented to demonstrate the successful treatment of massive FEH with 5% imiquimod cream. Initially, the patient had noticed several separate papules, which spread and developed into multiple peri- and intraoral papillomatous nodules. The lesions were treated with carbon dioxide laser destruction. However, multiple, skin-coloured papillomatous nodules were found on the tongue, buccal mucosa and lips 1.5 years later. Treatment with imiquimod was initiated, because the patient suffered tremendously from the disease. 5% imiquimod cream was applied 3 times per week. Regression of lesions was obvious after 1 month of treatment. Complete clearance was achieved after 2 additional months of treatment and no recurrence was detected over a follow-up period of 5 months. Our case points out the clinical value of imiquimod for the non-traumatic and almost painless therapy of HPV-induced skin diseases in children.

  11. Phenylenevinylene oligomers by Mizoroki-Heck cross coupling reaction. Structural and optoelectronic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Sandra E.; Ochoa-Puentes, Cristian; Sierra, Cesar A.

    2017-04-01

    In order to study the effect of the molecular structure on the optical properties of totally trans-trans phenylenevinylene oligomers (OPVs), sixteen 1,4-distyrylbenzene derivatives (1a-i and 2a-g) functionalized with different electron-donating (ED) and electron-withdrawing (EW) groups were synthesized by the Mizoroki-Heck cross coupling reaction in moderate to good yields (40-95%). The implemented methodology, with a small modification previously reported by our group, allows obtaining the desired vinyl configuration as well as one novel OPV compound (1h). After structural characterization by several techniques (e.g. FTIR, 1H, 13C and Solid-State NMR), particular emphasis was placed upon the investigation of their optical properties by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies. The results showed that, with only one exception, the ED and EW groups at the ends of OPV systems lead to a bathochromic shift. This effect is intensified with the introduction of methoxy groups on the central ring. Consistent with these, the HOMO-LUMO gaps (ΔE) decreases as the strength of ED and EW substituents increases. The ED and EW substituents also lead to a decrease in the Φf values. This contribution in the area of organic electronics can be used as a reference to better select the most appropriate technological application for each OPV and this can be extrapolated to their respective structurally analogous segmented polymer.

  12. Relative reactivity of alkenyl alcohols in the palladium-catalyzed redox-relay Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Margaret J; Cheng, Bin; Buckley, Benjamin R; Xu, Liping; Wiest, Olaf; Sigman, Matthew S

    2015-09-16

    The relative rates of alkenyl alcohols in the Pd-catalyzed redox-relay Heck reaction were measured in order to examine the effect of their steric and electronic properties on the rate-determining step. Competition experiments between an allylic alkenyl alcohol and two substrates with differing chain lengths revealed that the allylic alcohol reacts 3-4 times faster in either case. Competition between di- and trisubstituted alkenyl alcohols provided an interesting scenario, in which the disubstituted alkene was consumed first followed by reaction of the trisubstituted alkene. Consistent with this observation, the transition structures for the migratory insertion of the aryl group into the di- and trisubstituted alkenes were calculated with a lower barrier for the former. An internal competition between a substrate containing two alcohols with differing chain lengths demonstrated the catalyst's preference for migrating towards the closest alcohol. Additionally, it was observed that increasing the electron density in the arene boronic acid promotes a faster reaction, which correlates with Hammett σp values to give a ρ of -0.87.

  13. Potential-pH Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    1982-01-01

    Potential-pH diagrams show the domains of redoxpotential and pH in which major species are most stable. Constructing such diagrams provides students with opportunities to decide what species must be considered, search literature for equilibrium constants and free energies of formation, and practice in using the Nernst equation. (Author/JN)

  14. An algebra of reversible computation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  15. Nickel-Catalyzed Mizoroki–Heck Reaction of Aryl Sulfonates and Chlorides with Electronically Unbiased Terminal Olefins: High Selectivity for Branched Products**

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Sarah Z.; Gutierrez, Alicia C.

    2014-01-01

    Achieving high selectivity in the Heck reaction of electronically unbiased alkenes has been a longstanding challenge. Using a nickel-catalyzed cationic Heck reaction, we were able to achieve excellent selectivity for branched products (≥19:1 in all cases) over a wide range of aryl electrophiles and aliphatic olefins. A bidentate ligand with a suitable bite angle and steric profile was key to obtaining high branched/linear selectivity, while the appropriate base suppressed alkene isomerization of the product. Though aryl triflates are traditionally used to access the cationic Heck pathway, we have shown that by using triethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TESOTf), we can effect a counterion exchange of the catalytic nickel complex such that cheaper and more stable aryl chlorides, mesylates, tosylates, and sulfamates can be used to yield the same branched products with high selectivity. PMID:24402966

  16. From Arithmetic to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jungjohann, Kathleen; Chard, David J.; Baker, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Much of the difficulty that students encounter in the transition from arithmetic to algebra stems from their early learning and understanding of arithmetic. Too often, students learn about the whole number system and the operations that govern that system as a set of procedures to solve addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division problems.…

  17. Computers in Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2004-01-01

    The current emphasis on flexible modes of mathematics delivery involving new information and communication technology (ICT) at the university level is perhaps a reaction to the recent change in the objectives of education. Abstract algebra seems to be one area of mathematics virtually crying out for computer instructional support because of the…

  18. Algebraic Thinking through Origami.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginson, William; Colgan, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of paper folding to create a rich environment for discussing algebraic concepts. Explores the effect that changing the dimensions of two-dimensional objects has on the volume of related three-dimensional objects. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  19. Computer Algebra versus Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Hossein; Crowe, David

    2004-01-01

    In the UK there is increasing concern about the lack of skill in algebraic manipulation that is evident in students entering mathematics courses at university level. In this note we discuss how the computer can be used to ameliorate some of the problems. We take as an example the calculations needed in three dimensional vector analysis in polar…

  20. A general synthesis of alkenyl-substituted benzofurans, indoles, and isoquinolones by cascade palladium-catalyzed heterocyclization/oxidative Heck coupling.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Rosana; Martínez, Claudio; Madich, Youssef; Denis, J Gabriel; Aurrecoechea, José M; de Lera, Angel R

    2010-11-08

    Structurally diverse C3-alkenylbenzofurans, C3-alkenylindoles, and C4-alkenylisoquinolones are efficiently prepared by using consecutive Sonogashira and cascade Pd-catalyzed heterocyclization/oxidative Heck couplings from readily available ortho-iodosubstituted phenol, aniline, and benzamide substrates, alkynes, and functionalized olefins. The cyclization of O- and N-heteronucleophiles follows regioselective 5-endo-dig- or 6-endo-dig-cyclization modes, whereas the subsequent Heck-type coupling with both mono- and disubstituted olefins takes place stereoselectively with exclusive formation of the E isomers in most cases.

  1. Algebraic connectivity and graph robustness.

    SciTech Connect

    Feddema, John Todd; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Abdallah, Chaouki T.

    2009-07-01

    Recent papers have used Fiedler's definition of algebraic connectivity to show that network robustness, as measured by node-connectivity and edge-connectivity, can be increased by increasing the algebraic connectivity of the network. By the definition of algebraic connectivity, the second smallest eigenvalue of the graph Laplacian is a lower bound on the node-connectivity. In this paper we show that for circular random lattice graphs and mesh graphs algebraic connectivity is a conservative lower bound, and that increases in algebraic connectivity actually correspond to a decrease in node-connectivity. This means that the networks are actually less robust with respect to node-connectivity as the algebraic connectivity increases. However, an increase in algebraic connectivity seems to correlate well with a decrease in the characteristic path length of these networks - which would result in quicker communication through the network. Applications of these results are then discussed for perimeter security.

  2. On Dunkl angular momenta algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, Misha; Hakobyan, Tigran

    2015-11-01

    We consider the quantum angular momentum generators, deformed by means of the Dunkl operators. Together with the reflection operators they generate a subalgebra in the rational Cherednik algebra associated with a finite real reflection group. We find all the defining relations of the algebra, which appear to be quadratic, and we show that the algebra is of Poincaré-Birkhoff-Witt (PBW) type. We show that this algebra contains the angular part of the Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian and that together with constants it generates the centre of the algebra. We also consider the gl( N ) version of the subalge-bra of the rational Cherednik algebra and show that it is a non-homogeneous quadratic algebra of PBW type as well. In this case the central generator can be identified with the usual Calogero-Moser Hamiltonian associated with the Coxeter group in the harmonic confinement.

  3. Selenium-ligated palladium(II) complexes as highly active catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions: the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Zheng, Chong

    2004-08-19

    Three selenium-ligated Pd(II) complexes were readily synthesized and shown to be extremely active catalysts for the Heck reaction of various aryl bromides, including deactivated and heterocyclic ones. The catalytic activity of the selenide-based Pd(II) complexes not only rivals but vastly outperforms that of the corresponding phosphorus and sulfur analogues. Practical advantages of the selenium-based catalysts include their straightforward synthesis and high activity in the absence of any additives as well as the enhanced stability of the selenide ligands toward air oxidation.

  4. Preparation of nonsymmetrically substituted stilbenes in a one-pot two-step heck strategy using ethene as a reagent.

    PubMed

    Kormos, Chad M; Leadbeater, Nicholas E

    2008-05-16

    We present here a strategy for the preparation of nonsymmetrically substituted stilbenes using a one-pot two-step double Heck strategy. First a protocol is developed for the selective preparation of a range of styrenes using ethene as the alkene coupling partner. Then conditions are found for the effective coupling of the styrenes with aryl halides using a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of the two components. The use of the microwave apparatus to perform the reactions offers a convenient method for synthesis as well as for safely, easily, and accurately loading vessels with gaseous reagents.

  5. Aryl-phenyl scrambling in intermediate organopalladium complexes: a gas-phase study of the Mizoroki-Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Lukas; Schlörer, Nils; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Schäfer, Mathias

    2014-04-22

    The intramolecular aryl-phenyl scrambling reaction within palladium-DPPP-aryl complex (DPPP=1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) ions was analyzed by state-of-the-art tandem MS, including gas-phase ion/molecule reactions. The Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction was performed in the gas phase, and the intrinsic reactivity of important intermediates could be examined. Moreover, linear free-energy correlations were applied, and a mechanism for the scrambling reaction proceeding via phosphonium cations was assumed.

  6. Particles, Feynman Diagrams and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Quantum fields are introduced in order to give students an accurate qualitative understanding of the origin of Feynman diagrams as representations of particle interactions. Elementary diagrams are combined to produce diagrams representing the main features of the Standard Model.

  7. Algebraic Theories and (Infinity,1)-Categories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranch, James

    2010-11-01

    We adapt the classical framework of algebraic theories to work in the setting of (infinity,1)-categories developed by Joyal and Lurie. This gives a suitable approach for describing highly structured objects from homotopy theory. A central example, treated at length, is the theory of E_infinity spaces: this has a tidy combinatorial description in terms of span diagrams of finite sets. We introduce a theory of distributive laws, allowing us to describe objects with two distributing E_infinity stuctures. From this we produce a theory of E_infinity ring spaces. We also study grouplike objects, and produce theories modelling infinite loop spaces (or connective spectra), and infinite loop spaces with coherent multiplicative structure (or connective ring spectra). We use this to construct the units of a grouplike E_infinity ring space in a natural manner. Lastly we provide a speculative pleasant description of the K-theory of monoidal quasicategories and quasicategories with ring-like structures.

  8. Atemporal diagrams for quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.; Wu Shengjun; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2006-05-15

    A system of diagrams is introduced that allows the representation of various elements of a quantum circuit, including measurements, in a form which makes no reference to time (hence 'atemporal'). It can be used to relate quantum dynamical properties to those of entangled states (map-state duality), and suggests useful analogies, such as the inverse of an entangled ket. Diagrams clarify the role of channel kets, transition operators, dynamical operators (matrices), and Kraus rank for noisy quantum channels. Positive (semidefinite) operators are represented by diagrams with a symmetry that aids in understanding their connection with completely positive maps. The diagrams are used to analyze standard teleportation and dense coding, and for a careful study of unambiguous (conclusive) teleportation. A simple diagrammatic argument shows that a Kraus rank of 3 is impossible for a one-qubit channel modeled using a one-qubit environment in a mixed state.

  9. The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice

    1991-01-01

    Describes a classroom use of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to infer not only the properties of a star but also the star's probable stage in evolution, life span, and age of the cluster in which it is located. (ZWH)

  10. Quartic Poisson algebras and quartic associative algebras and realizations as deformed oscillator algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Marquette, Ian

    2013-07-15

    We introduce the most general quartic Poisson algebra generated by a second and a fourth order integral of motion of a 2D superintegrable classical system. We obtain the corresponding quartic (associative) algebra for the quantum analog, extend Daskaloyannis construction obtained in context of quadratic algebras, and also obtain the realizations as deformed oscillator algebras for this quartic algebra. We obtain the Casimir operator and discuss how these realizations allow to obtain the finite-dimensional unitary irreducible representations of quartic algebras and obtain algebraically the degenerate energy spectrum of superintegrable systems. We apply the construction and the formula obtained for the structure function on a superintegrable system related to type I Laguerre exceptional orthogonal polynomials introduced recently.

  11. Ion mixing and phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. S.; Liu, B. X.; Nicolet, M.-A.

    1983-05-01

    Interactions induced by ion irradiation are generally considered to be non-equilibrium processes, whereas phase diagrams are determined by phase equilibria. These two entities are seemingly unrelated. However, if one assumes that quasi-equilibrium conditions prevail after the prompt events, subsequent reactions are driven toward equilibrium by thermodynamical forces. Under this assumption, ion-induced reactions are related to equilibrium and therefore to phase diagrams. This relationship can be seen in the similarity that exists in thin films between reactions induced by ion irradiation and reactions induced by thermal annealing. In the latter case, phase diagrams have been used to predict the phase sequence of stable compound formation, notably so in cases of silicide formation. Ion-induced mixing not only can lead to stable compound formation, but also to metastable alloy formation. In some metal-metal systems, terminal solubilities can be greatly extended by ion mixing. In other cases, where the two constituents of the system have different crystal structures, extension of terminal solubility from both sides of the phase diagram eventually becomes structurally incompatible and a glassy (amorphous) mixture can form. The composition range where this bifurcation is likely to occur is in the two-phase regions of the phase diagram. These concepts are potentially useful guides in selecting metal pairs that from metallic glasses by ion mixing. In this report, phenomenological correlation between stable (and metastable) phase formation and phase diagram is discussed in terms of recent experimental data.

  12. Algebraic Multigrid Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-06

    AMG2013 is a parallel algebraic multigrid solver for linear systems arising from problems on unstructured grids. It has been derived directly from the Boomer AMG solver in the hypre library, a large linear solvers library that is being developed in the Center for Applied Scientific Computing (CASC) at LLNL. The driver provided in the benchmark can build various test problems. The default problem is a Laplace type problem on an unstructured domain with various jumps and an anisotropy in one part.

  13. Algebra of Majorana doubling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehoon; Wilczek, Frank

    2013-11-27

    Motivated by the problem of identifying Majorana mode operators at junctions, we analyze a basic algebraic structure leading to a doubled spectrum. For general (nonlinear) interactions the emergent mode creation operator is highly nonlinear in the original effective mode operators, and therefore also in the underlying electron creation and destruction operators. This phenomenon could open up new possibilities for controlled dynamical manipulation of the modes. We briefly compare and contrast related issues in the Pfaffian quantum Hall state.

  14. The Algebra Artist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigie, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Most people who are attracted to STEM-related fields are drawn not by a desire to take mathematics tests but to create things. The opportunity to create an algebra drawing gives students a sense of ownership and adventure that taps into the same sort of energy that leads a young person to get lost in reading a good book, building with Legos®,…

  15. Priority in Process Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleaveland, Rance; Luettgen, Gerald; Natarajan, V.

    1999-01-01

    This paper surveys the semantic ramifications of extending traditional process algebras with notions of priority that allow for some transitions to be given precedence over others. These enriched formalisms allow one to model system features such as interrupts, prioritized choice, or real-time behavior. Approaches to priority in process algebras can be classified according to whether the induced notion of preemption on transitions is global or local and whether priorities are static or dynamic. Early work in the area concentrated on global pre-emption and static priorities and led to formalisms for modeling interrupts and aspects of real-time, such as maximal progress, in centralized computing environments. More recent research has investigated localized notions of pre-emption in which the distribution of systems is taken into account, as well as dynamic priority approaches, i.e., those where priority values may change as systems evolve. The latter allows one to model behavioral phenomena such as scheduling algorithms and also enables the efficient encoding of real-time semantics. Technically, this paper studies the different models of priorities by presenting extensions of Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS) with static and dynamic priority as well as with notions of global and local pre- emption. In each case the operational semantics of CCS is modified appropriately, behavioral theories based on strong and weak bisimulation are given, and related approaches for different process-algebraic settings are discussed.

  16. Hierarchical structure of operations defined in nonextensive algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivanen, L.; Wang, Q. A.; Le Méhauté, A.; El Kaabouchi, A.; Basillais, P.; Donati, J. D.; Lacroix, A.; Paulet, J.; Perriau, S.; Sime Chuisse, S.; Simo Kamdem, E.; Théry, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the past few years, several generalized algebras were developed from physical background associated with the so-called nonextensive statistical mechanics. One of which, the q-generalized algebra, is a functional mimicking the morphisms between the standard algebraic operations through generalized exponential e ax = (1+ ax) 1/ a and logarithm ln(x)=x-1a. These functions and the resulting generalized operations possess very interesting mathematical properties and have been used in statistical physics for finite systems and nonextensive systems in general. We establish that the link between the two different operations can be either of functional or iterative nature. Both methods can be combined to introduce new nonextensive operations. The complete set of operations can be represented on a plane structured diagram. The generalized operations can be distributed into two classes, namely the "up" and "down" operations, depending on their localization in the diagram. The properties of generalized operations naturally arise from functional relations and equivalent properties of standard operations.

  17. Continuous-flow Heck synthesis of 4-methoxybiphenyl and methyl 4-methoxycinnamate in supercritical carbon dioxide expanded solvent solutions

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Phei Li; Allen, Ray W K

    2013-01-01

    Summary The palladium metal catalysed Heck reaction of 4-iodoanisole with styrene or methyl acrylate has been studied in a continuous plug flow reactor (PFR) using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as the solvent, with THF and methanol as modifiers. The catalyst was 2% palladium on silica and the base was diisopropylethylamine due to its solubility in the reaction solvent. No phosphine co-catalysts were used so the work-up procedure was simplified and the green credentials of the reaction were enhanced. The reactions were studied as a function of temperature, pressure and flow rate and in the case of the reaction with styrene compared against a standard, stirred autoclave reaction. Conversion was determined and, in the case of the reaction with styrene, the isomeric product distribution was monitored by GC. In the case of the reaction with methyl acrylate the reactor was scaled from a 1.0 mm to 3.9 mm internal diameter and the conversion and turnover frequency determined. The results show that the Heck reaction can be effectively performed in scCO2 under continuous flow conditions with a palladium metal, phosphine-free catalyst, but care must be taken when selecting the reaction temperature in order to ensure the appropriate isomer distribution is achieved. Higher reaction temperatures were found to enhance formation of the branched terminal alkene isomer as opposed to the linear trans-isomer. PMID:24367454

  18. Pd loaded amphiphilic COF as catalyst for multi-fold Heck reactions, C-C couplings and CO oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Mullangi, Dinesh; Nandi, Shyamapada; Shalini, Sorout; Sreedhala, Sheshadri; Vinod, Chathakudath P.; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    COFs represent a class of polymers with designable crystalline structures capable of interacting with active metal nanoparticles to form excellent heterogeneous catalysts. Many valuable ligands/monomers employed in making coordination/organic polymers are prepared via Heck and C-C couplings. Here, we report an amphiphilic triazine COF and the facile single-step loading of Pd0 nanoparticles into it. An 18–20% nano-Pd loading gives highly active composite working in open air at low concentrations (Conc. Pd(0) <0.05 mol%, average TON 1500) catalyzing simultaneous multiple site Heck couplings and C-C couplings using ‘non-boronic acid’ substrates, and exhibits good recyclability with no sign of catalyst leaching. As an oxidation catalyst, it shows 100% conversion of CO to CO2 at 150 °C with no loss of activity with time and between cycles. Both vapor sorptions and contact angle measurements confirm the amphiphilic character of the COF. DFT-TB studies showed the presence of Pd-triazine and Pd-Schiff bond interactions as being favorable. PMID:26057044

  19. Pd loaded amphiphilic COF as catalyst for multi-fold Heck reactions, C-C couplings and CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mullangi, Dinesh; Nandi, Shyamapada; Shalini, Sorout; Sreedhala, Sheshadri; Vinod, Chathakudath P; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2015-06-09

    COFs represent a class of polymers with designable crystalline structures capable of interacting with active metal nanoparticles to form excellent heterogeneous catalysts. Many valuable ligands/monomers employed in making coordination/organic polymers are prepared via Heck and C-C couplings. Here, we report an amphiphilic triazine COF and the facile single-step loading of Pd(0) nanoparticles into it. An 18-20% nano-Pd loading gives highly active composite working in open air at low concentrations (Conc. Pd(0) <0.05 mol%, average TON 1500) catalyzing simultaneous multiple site Heck couplings and C-C couplings using 'non-boronic acid' substrates, and exhibits good recyclability with no sign of catalyst leaching. As an oxidation catalyst, it shows 100% conversion of CO to CO2 at 150 °C with no loss of activity with time and between cycles. Both vapor sorptions and contact angle measurements confirm the amphiphilic character of the COF. DFT-TB studies showed the presence of Pd-triazine and Pd-Schiff bond interactions as being favorable.

  20. Clifford Algebras and Their Decomposition into Conjugate Fermionic Heisenberg Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent; Kato La, V.

    2016-10-01

    We discuss a construction scheme for Clifford numbers of arbitrary dimension. The scheme is based upon performing direct products of the Pauli spin and identity matrices. Conjugate fermionic algebras can then be formed by considering linear combinations of the Clifford numbers and the Hermitian conjugates of such combinations. Fermionic algebras are important in investigating systems that follow Fermi-Dirac statistics. We will further comment on the applications of Clifford algebras to Fueter analyticity, twistors, color algebras, M-theory and Leech lattice as well as unification of ancient and modern geometries through them.

  1. Scope and limitations of the Heck-Matsuda-coupling of phenol diazonium salts and styrenes: a protecting-group economic synthesis of phenolic stilbenes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernd; Elizarov, Nelli; Berger, René; Hölter, Frank

    2013-06-14

    4-Phenol diazonium salts undergo Pd-catalyzed Heck reactions with various styrenes to 4'-hydroxy stilbenes. In almost all cases higher yields and fewer side products were observed, compared to the analogous 4-methoxy benzene diazonium salts. In contrast, the reaction fails completely with 2- and 3-phenol diazonium salts. For these substitution patterns the methoxy-substituted derivatives are superior.

  2. A versatile approach to flavones via a one-pot Pd(II)-catalyzed dehydrogenation/oxidative boron-Heck coupling sequence of chromanones.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Yu, Jihyun; Son, Seung Hwan; Heo, Jinyuk; Kim, Taelim; An, Ji-Young; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Nam-Jung

    2016-01-14

    A variety of flavones were expediently synthesized from readily accessible chromanones via a one-pot sequence involving Pd(II)-catalyzed dehydrogenation and oxidative boron-Heck coupling with arylboronic acid pinacol esters. In particular, the use of arylboronic acid pinacol esters was found to significantly improve the yield of the reaction.

  3. Synthesis of epoxybenzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxides via a reductive-Heck, metathesis-sequestration protocol†‡

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Naeem; Hanson, Paul R.; Long, Toby R.; Rayabarapu, Dinesh K.; Rolfe, Alan

    2011-01-01

    An atom-economical purification protocol, using solution phase processing via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) has been developed for the synthesis of tricyclic sultams. This chromatography-free method allows for convenient isolation of reductive-Heck products and reclamation of excess starting material via sequestration involving metathesis catalysts and a catalyst-armed Si-surface. PMID:21727956

  4. Synthesis of Pd-N-heterocyclic carbene Pd-catalyst and its application in MW-assisted Heck and Suzuki reaction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first Pd-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex in the form of organic silica is prepared using sol-gel method and its application in Heck and Suzuki reactions are demonstrated. These C-C coupling reactions proceeded efficiently under the influence of microwave irradiation, wit...

  5. Duncan F. Gregory, William Walton and the development of British algebra: 'algebraical geometry', 'geometrical algebra', abstraction.

    PubMed

    Verburgt, Lukas M

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the period of the complex history of British algebra and geometry between the publication of George Peacock's Treatise on Algebra in 1830 and William Rowan Hamilton's paper on quaternions of 1843. During these years, Duncan Farquharson Gregory and William Walton published several contributions on 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. These contributions enabled them not only to generalize Peacock's symbolical algebra on the basis of geometrical considerations, but also to initiate the attempts to question the status of Euclidean space as the arbiter of valid geometrical interpretations. At the same time, Gregory and Walton were bound by the limits of symbolical algebra that they themselves made explicit; their work was not and could not be the 'abstract algebra' and 'abstract geometry' of figures such as Hamilton and Cayley. The central argument of the paper is that an understanding of the contributions to 'algebraical geometry' and 'geometrical algebra' of the second generation of 'scientific' symbolical algebraists is essential for a satisfactory explanation of the radical transition from symbolical to abstract algebra that took place in British mathematics in the 1830s-1840s.

  6. Quantum computation using geometric algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Douglas James

    This dissertation reports that arbitrary Boolean logic equations and operators can be represented in geometric algebra as linear equations composed entirely of orthonormal vectors using only addition and multiplication Geometric algebra is a topologically based algebraic system that naturally incorporates the inner and anticommutative outer products into a real valued geometric product, yet does not rely on complex numbers or matrices. A series of custom tools was designed and built to simplify geometric algebra expressions into a standard sum of products form, and automate the anticommutative geometric product and operations. Using this infrastructure, quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and EPR-bits (ebits) are expressed symmetrically as geometric algebra expressions. Many known quantum computing gates, measurement operators, and especially the Bell/magic operators are also expressed as geometric products. These results demonstrate that geometric algebra can naturally and faithfully represent the central concepts, objects, and operators necessary for quantum computing, and can facilitate the design and construction of quantum computing tools.

  7. From α-arylation of olefins to acylation with aldehydes: a journey in regiocontrol of the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jiwu; Xiao, Jianliang

    2011-08-16

    The Pd-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction of olefins with aryl halides, more often simply called the Heck reaction, was recently recognized with the 2010 Nobel Prize in chemistry. Although highly selective with electron-deficient olefins, which generally yield the linear β-arylated product exclusively, the Heck reaction is less satisfactory with electron-rich olefins. This substrate typically generates a mixture of both α- and β-arylated regioisomeric products, hampering wider application of the reaction in chemical synthesis. Pioneering studies by a number of researchers revealed that high α-regioselectivity could be obtained under Pd-diphosphine catalysis either through (i) the substitution of aryl triflates for halides or (ii) the addition of stoichiometric silver or thallium salts when aryl halides are used. Under these conditions, the arylation is believed to proceed via an ionic pathway. However, silver introduces added cost, thallium salts are toxic, and triflates are generally commercially unavailable, base sensitive, and thermally labile. Believing that the ionic pathway would be promoted in an ionic medium, in the early 2000s, we attempted the Pd-catalyzed arylation of the benchmark electron-rich olefin butyl vinyl ether with aryl bromides in an imidazolium ionic liquid. We were delighted to observe that highly regioselective α-arylation could readily be accomplished, with no need for silver additives, thallium additives, or aryl triflates. A range of other electron-rich olefins has since been shown to be viable as well. The high α-selectivity probably results from the high ionic strength of the medium, which facilitates the dissociation of halide anions from the [L(2)Pd(Ar)X] intermediate, channeling the arylation into the ionic pathway. Hydrogen bonding interactions may also play a role, however. We subsequently discovered that the α-arylation can indeed be significantly accelerated by a hydrogen bond donor salt, in both ionic liquids and common

  8. How Structure Sense for Algebraic Expressions or Equations Is Related to Structure Sense for Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Jarmila; Hoch, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Many students have difficulties with basic algebraic concepts at high school and at university. In this paper two levels of algebraic structure sense are defined: for high school algebra and for university algebra. We suggest that high school algebra structure sense components are sub-components of some university algebra structure sense…

  9. Applications of algebraic grid generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Smith, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques and applications of algebraic grid generation are described. The techniques are univariate interpolations and transfinite assemblies of univariate interpolations. Because algebraic grid generation is computationally efficient, the use of interactive graphics in conjunction with the techniques is advocated. A flexible approach, which works extremely well in an interactive environment, called the control point form of algebraic grid generation is described. The applications discussed are three-dimensional grids constructed about airplane and submarine configurations.

  10. Automatically Assessing Graph-Based Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pete; Smith, Neil; Waugh, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    To date there has been very little work on the machine understanding of imprecise diagrams, such as diagrams drawn by students in response to assessment questions. Imprecise diagrams exhibit faults such as missing, extraneous and incorrectly formed elements. The semantics of imprecise diagrams are difficult to determine. While there have been…

  11. Algebra and Algebraic Thinking in School Math: 70th YB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Algebra is no longer just for college-bound students. After a widespread push by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and teachers across the country, algebra is now a required part of most curricula. However, students' standardized test scores are not at the level they should be. NCTM's seventieth yearbook takes a look at the…

  12. Abstract Algebra to Secondary School Algebra: Building Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Donna; Sparks, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The authors have experience with secondary mathematics teacher candidates struggling to make connections between the theoretical abstract algebra course they take as college students and the algebra they will be teaching in secondary schools. As a mathematician and a mathematics educator, the authors collaborated to create and implement a…

  13. Statecharts Via Process Algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttgen, Gerald; vonderBeeck, Michael; Cleaveland, Rance

    1999-01-01

    Statecharts is a visual language for specifying the behavior of reactive systems. The Language extends finite-state machines with concepts of hierarchy, concurrency, and priority. Despite its popularity as a design notation for embedded system, precisely defining its semantics has proved extremely challenging. In this paper, a simple process algebra, called Statecharts Process Language (SPL), is presented, which is expressive enough for encoding Statecharts in a structure-preserving and semantic preserving manner. It is establish that the behavioral relation bisimulation, when applied to SPL, preserves Statecharts semantics

  14. Patterns to Develop Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    What is the role of patterns in developing algebraic reasoning? This important question deserves thoughtful attention. In response, this article examines some differing views of algebraic reasoning, discusses a controversy regarding patterns, and describes how three types of patterns--in contextual problems, in growing geometric figures, and in…

  15. Viterbi/algebraic hybrid decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.; Ingels, F. M.; Mo, C.

    1980-01-01

    Decoder computer program is hybrid between optimal Viterbi and optimal algebraic decoders. Tests have shown that hybrid decoder outperforms any strictly Viterbi or strictly algebraic decoder and effectively handles compound channels. Algorithm developed uses syndrome-detecting logic to direct two decoders to assume decoding load alternately, depending on real-time channel characteristics.

  16. Online Algebraic Tools for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Many free online tools exist to complement algebraic instruction at the middle school level. This article presents findings that analyzed the features of algebraic tools to support learning. The findings can help teachers select appropriate tools to facilitate specific topics. (Contains 1 table and 4 figures.)

  17. Astro Algebra [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Astro Algebra is one of six titles in the Mighty Math Series from Edmark, a comprehensive line of math software for students from kindergarten through ninth grade. Many of the activities in Astro Algebra contain a unique technology that uses the computer to help students make the connection between concrete and abstract mathematics. This software…

  18. Elementary maps on nest algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengtong

    2006-08-01

    Let , be algebras and let , be maps. An elementary map of is an ordered pair (M,M*) such that for all , . In this paper, the general form of surjective elementary maps on standard subalgebras of nest algebras is described. In particular, such maps are automatically additive.

  19. Linear algebra and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-09-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty.

  20. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  1. Learning Algebra from Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Karin E.; Booth, Julie L.; Newton, Kristie J.

    2014-01-01

    For students to be successful in algebra, they must have a truly conceptual understanding of key algebraic features as well as the procedural skills to complete a problem. One strategy to correct students' misconceptions combines the use of worked example problems in the classroom with student self-explanation. "Self-explanation" is the…

  2. The Algebra of the Arches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buerman, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Finding real-world examples for middle school algebra classes can be difficult but not impossible. As we strive to accomplish teaching our students how to solve and graph equations, we neglect to teach the big ideas of algebra. One of those big ideas is functions. This article gives three examples of functions that are found in Arches National…

  3. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  4. Voronoi Diagrams and Spring Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this geometry project is to use Voronoi diagrams, a powerful modeling tool across disciplines, and the integration of technology to analyze spring rainfall from rain gauge data over a region. In their investigation, students use familiar equipment from their mathematical toolbox: triangles and other polygons, circumcenters and…

  5. Thermodynamics. [algebraic structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeleznik, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental structure of thermodynamics is purely algebraic, in the sense of atopological, and it is also independent of partitions, composite systems, the zeroth law, and entropy. The algebraic structure requires the notion of heat, but not the first law. It contains a precise definition of entropy and identifies it as a purely mathematical concept. It also permits the construction of an entropy function from heat measurements alone when appropriate conditions are satisfied. Topology is required only for a discussion of the continuity of thermodynamic properties, and then the weak topology is the relevant topology. The integrability of the differential form of the first law can be examined independently of Caratheodory's theorem and his inaccessibility axiom. Criteria are established by which one can determine when an integrating factor can be made intensive and the pseudopotential extensive and also an entropy. Finally, a realization of the first law is constructed which is suitable for all systems whether they are solids or fluids, whether they do or do not exhibit chemical reactions, and whether electromagnetic fields are or are not present.

  6. Symplectic Clifford Algebraic Field Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Geoffrey Moore

    We develop a mathematical framework on which is built a theory of fermion, scalar, and gauge vector fields. This field theory is shown to be equivalent to the original Weinberg-Salam model of weak and electromagnetic interactions, but since the new framework is more rigid than that on which the original Weinberg-Salam model was built, a concomitant reduction in the number of assumptions lying outside of the framework has resulted. In particular, parity violation is actually hiding within our framework, and with little difficulty we are able to manifest it. The mathematical framework upon which we build our field theory is arrived at along two separate paths. The first is by the marriage of a Clifford algebra and a Lie superalgebra, the result being called a super Clifford algebra. The second is by providing a new characterization for a Clifford algebra employing its generators and a symmetric array of metric coefficients. Subsequently we generalize this characterization to the case of an antisymmetric array of metric coefficients, and we call the algebra which results a symplectic Clifford algebra. It is upon one of these that we build our field theory, and it is shown that this symplectic Clifford algebra is a particular subalgebra of a super Clifford algebra. The final ingredient is the operation of bracketing which involves treating the elements of our algebra as endomorphisms of a particular inner product space, and employing this space and its inner product to provide us with maps from our algebra to the reals. It is this operation which enables us to manifest the parity violation hiding in our algebra.

  7. A unique Pd-catalysed Heck arylation as a remote trigger for cyclopropane selective ring-opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sukhdev; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Vasseur, Alexandre; Marek, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Combining functionalization at a distant position from a reactive site with the creation of several consecutive stereogenic centres, including the formation of a quaternary carbon stereocentre, in acyclic system represents a pinnacle in organic synthesis. Here we report the regioselective Heck arylation of terminal olefins as a distant trigger for the ring-opening of cyclopropanes. This Pd-catalysed unfolding of the strained cycle, driving force of the chain-walking process, remarkably proved its efficiency and versatility, as the reaction proceeded regardless of the molecular distance between the initiation (double bond) and termination (alcohol) sites. Moreover, employing stereodefined polysubstituted cyclopropane vaults allowed to access sophisticated stereoenriched acyclic scaffolds in good yields. Conceptually, we demonstrated that merging catalytically a chain walking process with a selective C-C bond cleavage represents a powerful approach to construct linear skeleton possessing two stereogenic centres.

  8. Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) with Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Human Papillomavirus 13.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Mary A; Gordon, Katie; Firan, Miahil; Rady, Peter; Agim, Nnenna

    2016-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is an uncommon benign proliferation of oral mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly subtypes 13 and 32. The disease typically presents in young Native American patients and is characterized by multiple asymptomatic papules and nodules on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, and gingiva. The factors that determine susceptibility to FEH are unknown, but the ethnic and geographic distribution of FEH suggests that genetic predisposition, particularly having the human lymphocytic antigen DR4 type, may be involved in pathogenesis. We report a case of FEH with polymerase chain reaction detection of HPV13 in a healthy 11-year-old Hispanic girl and discuss the current understanding of disease pathogenesis, susceptibility, and treatment.

  9. Investigating the nature of palladium chain-walking in the enantioselective redox-relay Heck reaction of alkenyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Margaret J; Xu, Li-Ping; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wu, Yun-Dong; Wiest, Olaf; Sigman, Matthew S

    2014-12-19

    The mechanism of the redox-relay Heck reaction was investigated using deuterium-labeled substrates. Results support a pathway through a low energy palladium-alkyl intermediate that immediately precedes product formation, ruling out a tautomerization mechanism. DFT calculations of the relevant transition structures at the M06/LAN2DZ+f/6-31+G* level of theory show that the former pathway is favored by 5.8 kcal/mol. Palladium chain-walking toward the alcohol, following successive β-hydride eliminations and migratory insertions, is also supported in this study. The stereochemistry of deuterium labels is determined, lending support that the catalyst remains bound to the substrate during the relay process and that both cis- and trans-alkenes form from β-hydride elimination.

  10. A unique Pd-catalysed Heck arylation as a remote trigger for cyclopropane selective ring-opening

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sukhdev; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Vasseur, Alexandre; Marek, Ilan

    2017-01-01

    Combining functionalization at a distant position from a reactive site with the creation of several consecutive stereogenic centres, including the formation of a quaternary carbon stereocentre, in acyclic system represents a pinnacle in organic synthesis. Here we report the regioselective Heck arylation of terminal olefins as a distant trigger for the ring-opening of cyclopropanes. This Pd-catalysed unfolding of the strained cycle, driving force of the chain-walking process, remarkably proved its efficiency and versatility, as the reaction proceeded regardless of the molecular distance between the initiation (double bond) and termination (alcohol) sites. Moreover, employing stereodefined polysubstituted cyclopropane vaults allowed to access sophisticated stereoenriched acyclic scaffolds in good yields. Conceptually, we demonstrated that merging catalytically a chain walking process with a selective C–C bond cleavage represents a powerful approach to construct linear skeleton possessing two stereogenic centres. PMID:28169276

  11. A unique Pd-catalysed Heck arylation as a remote trigger for cyclopropane selective ring-opening.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhdev; Bruffaerts, Jeffrey; Vasseur, Alexandre; Marek, Ilan

    2017-02-07

    Combining functionalization at a distant position from a reactive site with the creation of several consecutive stereogenic centres, including the formation of a quaternary carbon stereocentre, in acyclic system represents a pinnacle in organic synthesis. Here we report the regioselective Heck arylation of terminal olefins as a distant trigger for the ring-opening of cyclopropanes. This Pd-catalysed unfolding of the strained cycle, driving force of the chain-walking process, remarkably proved its efficiency and versatility, as the reaction proceeded regardless of the molecular distance between the initiation (double bond) and termination (alcohol) sites. Moreover, employing stereodefined polysubstituted cyclopropane vaults allowed to access sophisticated stereoenriched acyclic scaffolds in good yields. Conceptually, we demonstrated that merging catalytically a chain walking process with a selective C-C bond cleavage represents a powerful approach to construct linear skeleton possessing two stereogenic centres.

  12. Using Linear Algebra to Introduce Computer Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Data Structures and Algorithms (and To Teach Linear Algebra, Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Vega, Laureano

    1999-01-01

    Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) to help with the teaching of an elementary course in linear algebra can be one way to introduce computer algebra, numerical analysis, data structures, and algorithms. Highlights the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to the teaching of linear algebra. (Author/MM)

  13. Quantum algebra of N superspace

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, Nicolas; Restuccia, A.; Stephany, J.

    2007-08-15

    We identify the quantum algebra of position and momentum operators for a quantum system bearing an irreducible representation of the super Poincare algebra in the N>1 and D=4 superspace, both in the case where there are no central charges in the algebra, and when they are present. This algebra is noncommutative for the position operators. We use the properties of superprojectors acting on the superfields to construct explicit position and momentum operators satisfying the algebra. They act on the projected wave functions associated to the various supermultiplets with defined superspin present in the representation. We show that the quantum algebra associated to the massive superparticle appears in our construction and is described by a supermultiplet of superspin 0. This result generalizes the construction for D=4, N=1 reported recently. For the case N=2 with central charges, we present the equivalent results when the central charge and the mass are different. For the {kappa}-symmetric case when these quantities are equal, we discuss the reduction to the physical degrees of freedom of the corresponding superparticle and the construction of the associated quantum algebra.

  14. Algebraic distance on graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Safro, I.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

  15. Investigating Teacher Noticing of Student Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkoe, Janet Dawn Kim

    2013-01-01

    Learning algebra is critical for students in the U.S. today. Algebra concepts provide the foundation for much advanced mathematical content. In addition, algebra serves as a gatekeeper to opportunities such as admission to college. Yet many students in the U.S. struggle in algebra classes. Researchers claim that one reason for these difficulties…

  16. Hero's journey in bifurcation diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.; Mustaro, P. N.

    2012-06-01

    The hero's journey is a narrative structure identified by several authors in comparative studies on folklore and mythology. This storytelling template presents the stages of inner metamorphosis undergone by the protagonist after being called to an adventure. In a simplified version, this journey is divided into three acts separated by two crucial moments. Here we propose a discrete-time dynamical system for representing the protagonist's evolution. The suffering along the journey is taken as the control parameter of this system. The bifurcation diagram exhibits stationary, periodic and chaotic behaviors. In this diagram, there are transition from fixed point to chaos and transition from limit cycle to fixed point. We found that the values of the control parameter corresponding to these two transitions are in quantitative agreement with the two critical moments of the three-act hero's journey identified in 10 movies appearing in the list of the 200 worldwide highest-grossing films.

  17. Quantum Dimer Model: Phase Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Garry; Chamon, Claudio; Castelnovo, Claudio

    We present new theoretical analysis of the Quantum Dimer Model. We study dimer models on square, cubic and triangular lattices and we reproduce their phase diagrams (which were previously known only numerically). We show that there are several types of dimer liquids and solids. We present preliminary analysis of several other models including doped dimers and planar spin ice, and some results on the Kagome and hexagonal lattices.

  18. Central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, M.; Sheinman, O. K.

    2008-08-01

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as a further development of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. These are almost-graded Lie algebras of current type. In this paper local cocycles and associated almost-graded central extensions of Lax operator algebras are classified. It is shown that in the case when the corresponding finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple the two-cohomology space is one-dimensional. An important role is played by the action of the Lie algebra of meromorphic vector fields on the Lax operator algebra via suitable covariant derivatives.

  19. Phase diagram of crushed powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodard, Sébastien; Jalbaud, Olivier; Saurel, Richard; Burtschell, Yves; Lapebie, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Compression of monodisperse powder samples in quasistatic conditions is addressed in a pressure range such that particles fragmentation occurs while the solid remains incompressible (typical pressure range of 1-300 MPa for glass powders). For a granular bed made of particles of given size, the existence of three stages is observed during compression and crush up. First, classical compression occurs and the pressure of the granular bed increases along a characteristic curve as the volume decreases. Then, a critical pressure is reached for which fragmentation begins. During the fragmentation process, the granular pressure stays constant in a given volume range. At the end of this second stage, 20%-50% of initial grains are reduced to finer particles, depending on the initial size. Then the compression undergoes the third stage and the pressure increases along another characteristic curve, in the absence of extra fragmentation. The present paper analyses the analogies between the phase transition in liquid-vapour systems and powder compression with crush-up. Fragmentation diagram for a soda lime glass is determined by experimental means. The analogues of the saturation pressure and latent heat of phase change are determined. Two thermodynamic models are then examined to represent the crush-up diagram. The first one uses piecewise functions while the second one is of van der Waals type. Both equations of state relate granular pressure, solid volume fraction, and initial particle diameter. The piecewise functions approach provides reasonable representations of the phase diagram while the van der Waals one fails.

  20. Causal diagrams in systems epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Methods of diagrammatic modelling have been greatly developed in the past two decades. Outside the context of infectious diseases, systematic use of diagrams in epidemiology has been mainly confined to the analysis of a single link: that between a disease outcome and its proximal determinant(s). Transmitted causes ("causes of causes") tend not to be systematically analysed. The infectious disease epidemiology modelling tradition models the human population in its environment, typically with the exposure-health relationship and the determinants of exposure being considered at individual and group/ecological levels, respectively. Some properties of the resulting systems are quite general, and are seen in unrelated contexts such as biochemical pathways. Confining analysis to a single link misses the opportunity to discover such properties. The structure of a causal diagram is derived from knowledge about how the world works, as well as from statistical evidence. A single diagram can be used to characterise a whole research area, not just a single analysis - although this depends on the degree of consistency of the causal relationships between different populations - and can therefore be used to integrate multiple datasets. Additional advantages of system-wide models include: the use of instrumental variables - now emerging as an important technique in epidemiology in the context of mendelian randomisation, but under-used in the exploitation of "natural experiments"; the explicit use of change models, which have advantages with respect to inferring causation; and in the detection and elucidation of feedback. PMID:22429606

  1. Scheil-Gulliver Constituent Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelton, Arthur D.; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bale, Christopher W.

    2017-03-01

    During solidification of alloys, conditions often approach those of Scheil-Gulliver cooling in which it is assumed that solid phases, once precipitated, remain unchanged. That is, they no longer react with the liquid or with each other. In the case of equilibrium solidification, equilibrium phase diagrams provide a valuable means of visualizing the effects of composition changes upon the final microstructure. In the present study, we propose for the first time the concept of Scheil-Gulliver constituent diagrams which play the same role as that in the case of Scheil-Gulliver cooling. It is shown how these diagrams can be calculated and plotted by the currently available thermodynamic database computing systems that combine Gibbs energy minimization software with large databases of optimized thermodynamic properties of solutions and compounds. Examples calculated using the FactSage system are presented for the Al-Li and Al-Mg-Zn systems, and for the Au-Bi-Sb-Pb system and its binary and ternary subsystems.

  2. Asymptotic aspect of derivations in Banach algebras.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jaiok; Chang, Ick-Soon

    2017-01-01

    We prove that every approximate linear left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra is continuous. Also, we consider linear derivations on Banach algebras and we first study the conditions for a linear derivation on a Banach algebra. Then we examine the functional inequalities related to a linear derivation and their stability. We finally take central linear derivations with radical ranges on semiprime Banach algebras and a continuous linear generalized left derivation on a semisimple Banach algebra.

  3. Computing Matrix Representations of Filiform Lie Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, Manuel; Núñez, Juan; Tenorio, Ángel F.

    In this paper, we compute minimal faithful unitriangular matrix representations of filiform Lie algebras. To do it, we use the nilpotent Lie algebra, g_n, formed of n ×n strictly upper-triangular matrices. More concretely, we search the lowest natural number n such that the Lie algebra g_n contains a given filiform Lie algebra, also computing a representative of this algebra. All the computations in this paper have been done using MAPLE 9.5.

  4. Graphical tensor product reduction scheme for the Lie algebras so(5) = sp(2) , su(3) , and g(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasii, N. D.; von Rütte, F.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2016-08-01

    We develop in detail a graphical tensor product reduction scheme, first described by Antoine and Speiser, for the simple rank 2 Lie algebras so(5) = sp(2) , su(3) , and g(2) . This leads to an efficient practical method to reduce tensor products of irreducible representations into sums of such representations. For this purpose, the 2-dimensional weight diagram of a given representation is placed in a "landscape" of irreducible representations. We provide both the landscapes and the weight diagrams for a large number of representations for the three simple rank 2 Lie algebras. We also apply the algebraic "girdle" method, which is much less efficient for calculations by hand for moderately large representations. Computer code for reducing tensor products, based on the graphical method, has been developed as well and is available from the authors upon request.

  5. Mizoroki-Heck Cross-coupling Reactions Catalyzed by Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium Under Mild Reaction Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Oberholzer, Miriam; Frech, Christian M.

    2014-01-01

    Dichloro-bis(aminophosphine) complexes of palladium with the general formula of [(P{(NC5H10)3-n(C6H11)n})2Pd(Cl)2] (where n = 0-2), belong to a new family of easy accessible, very cheap, and air stable, but highly active and universally applicable C-C cross-coupling catalysts with an excellent functional group tolerance. Dichloro{bis[1,1',1''-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine]}palladium [(P(NC5H10)3)2Pd(Cl)2] (1), the least stable complex within this series towards protons; e.g. in the form of water, allows an eased nanoparticle formation and hence, proved to be the most active Heck catalyst within this series at 100 °C and is a very rare example of an effective and versatile catalyst system that efficiently operates under mild reaction conditions. Rapid and complete catalyst degradation under work-up conditions into phosphonates, piperidinium salts and other, palladium-containing decomposition products assure an easy separation of the coupling products from catalyst and ligands. The facile, cheap, and rapid synthesis of 1,1',1"-(phosphinetriyl)tripiperidine and 1 respectively, the simple and convenient use as well as its excellent catalytic performance in the Heck reaction at 100 °C make 1 to one of the most attractive and greenest Heck catalysts available. We provide here the visualized protocols for the ligand and catalyst syntheses as well as the reaction protocol for Heck reactions performed at 10 mmol scale at 100 °C and show that this catalyst is suitable for its use in organic syntheses. PMID:24686532

  6. Cartooning in Algebra and Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, L. Jeneva

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can create cartoons for undergraduate math classes, such as college algebra and basic calculus. The practice of cartooning for teaching can be helpful for communication with students and for students' conceptual understanding.

  7. GCD, LCM, and Boolean Algebra?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin P.; Juraschek, William A.

    1976-01-01

    This article investigates the algebraic structure formed when the process of finding the greatest common divisor and the least common multiple are considered as binary operations on selected subsets of positive integers. (DT)

  8. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  9. Recursive graphical construction of feynman diagrams and their multiplicities in straight phi(4) and straight phi2A theory

    PubMed

    Kleinert; Pelster; Kastening; Bachmann

    2000-08-01

    The free energy of a field theory can be considered as a functional of the free correlation function. As such it obeys a nonlinear functional differential equation that can be turned into a recursion relation. This is solved order by order in the coupling constant to find all connected vacuum diagrams with their proper multiplicities. The procedure is applied to a multicomponent scalar field theory with a straight phi(4) self-interaction and then to a theory of two scalar fields straight phi and A with an interaction straight phi2A. All Feynman diagrams with external lines are obtained from functional derivatives of the connected vacuum diagrams with respect to the free correlation function. Finally, the recursive graphical construction is automatized by computer algebra with the help of a unique matrix notation for the Feynman diagrams.

  10. Coherent States for Hopf Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoda, Zoran

    2007-07-01

    Families of Perelomov coherent states are defined axiomatically in the context of unitary representations of Hopf algebras. A global geometric picture involving locally trivial noncommutative fibre bundles is involved in the construction. If, in addition, the Hopf algebra has a left Haar integral, then a formula for noncommutative resolution of identity in terms of the family of coherent states holds. Examples come from quantum groups.

  11. Multiplier operator algebras and applications

    PubMed Central

    Blecher, David P.; Zarikian, Vrej

    2004-01-01

    The one-sided multipliers of an operator space X are a key to “latent operator algebraic structure” in X. We begin with a survey of these multipliers, together with several of the applications that they have had to operator algebras. We then describe several new results on one-sided multipliers, and new applications, mostly to one-sided M-ideals. PMID:14711990

  12. Hopf algebras and topological recursion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves, João N.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a model for topological recursion based on the Hopf algebra of planar binary trees defined by Loday and Ronco (1998 Adv. Math. 139 293-309 We show that extending this Hopf algebra by identifying pairs of nearest neighbor leaves, and thus producing graphs with loops, we obtain the full recursion formula discovered by Eynard and Orantin (2007 Commun. Number Theory Phys. 1 347-452).

  13. Palladium catalysts supported on mesoporous molecular sieves bearing nitrogen donor groups: preparation and use in Heck and Suzuki C-C bond-forming reactions.

    PubMed

    Demel, Jan; Lamac, Martin; Cejka, Jirí; Stepnicka, Petr

    2009-01-01

    A series of supported catalysts is prepared by treatment of SBA-15-type mesoporous molecular sieve bearing [triple chemical bond]SiCH(2)CH(2)CH(2)NHCH(2)CH(2)NEt(2) groups with palladium(II) acetate. These catalysts are studied in Suzuki biaryl couplings and in Heck reactions to establish the influence of metal loading and innocent surface modifications (trimethylsilylation). The Suzuki reaction proceeded efficiently with model and practically relevant substrates; the catalyst performance increasing with an increasing degree of metalation (decreasing N/Pd ratio). Catalyst poisoning tests revealed that the reaction takes place in the liquid phase with the catalyst serving as a reservoir of active metal species and also as a stabilizing support once the reaction is performed. In the Heck reactions, on the other hand, the catalyst performance strongly changed with the reaction temperature and with the N/Pd ratio. The material with the lowest metal loading (0.01 mmol palladium per gram of material, N/Pd ratio ca. 100:1) proved particularly attractive in the Heck coupling, being highly active at elevated temperatures, recyclable, and capable of acting as a bifunctional catalyst (i.e., functioning without any external base.

  14. Diagram, a Learning Environment for Initiation to Object-Oriented Modeling with UML Class Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Py, Dominique; Auxepaules, Ludovic; Alonso, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents Diagram, a learning environment for object-oriented modelling (OOM) with UML class diagrams. Diagram an open environment, in which the teacher can add new exercises without constraints on the vocabulary or the size of the diagram. The interface includes methodological help, encourages self-correcting and self-monitoring, and…

  15. Model-Checking with Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Pierre; Siminiceanu, Radu I.

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algebra of Edge-Valued Decision Diagrams (EVMDDs) to encode arithmetic functions and its implementation in a model checking library along with state-of-the-art algorithms for building the transition relation and the state space of discrete state systems. We provide efficient algorithms for manipulating EVMDDs and give upper bounds of the theoretical time complexity of these algorithms for all basic arithmetic and relational operators. We also demonstrate that the time complexity of the generic recursive algorithm for applying a binary operator on EVMDDs is no worse than that of Multi-Terminal Decision Diagrams. We have implemented a new symbolic model checker with the intention to represent in one formalism the best techniques available at the moment across a spectrum of existing tools: EVMDDs for encoding arithmetic expressions, identity-reduced MDDs for representing the transition relation, and the saturation algorithm for reachability analysis. We compare our new symbolic model checking EVMDD library with the widely used CUDD package and show that, in many cases, our tool is several orders of magnitude faster than CUDD.

  16. Phase diagrams of polyelectrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Khaled A.

    We study the phase diagram of polyelectrolyte solutions in salt and salt-free environments. We examine the phase behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions, in the semidilute regime, using different physical models, namely the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and the cross-linked model. In the RPA, we calculate the electrostatic free energy by summing all the fluctuations of the chains and all present ionic species. Within this approximation, the phase diagrams of salt-free polyelectrolyte solutions show phase separation even without including short-range attractions or ion condensation. We find that the phase behavior of large chains resembles the phase diagram of polymer network solutions. That is, the equilibrium is established between a network phase and a chain-free phase. Upon the addition of salt, the dissociated ions increase the entropy of the system and overcome the energy from the electrostatic fluctuations. When the short-range attraction between monomers is included in the model, the free energy predicts phase segregation for all salt valences at high salt concentrations (1 mol/l and higher). The phenomenon is called salting-out and occurs simply because the addition of salt reduces the quality of the solvent and induces precipitation. However, phase segregation in the presence of multivalent ions in polyelectrolyte solutions occurs at low salt concentrations (less than 1 mol/l). We propose that this phase separation is due to polyions cross-linked by multivalent ions. We constructed a phenomenological two-state model to examine this phenomenon. The two phases coexisting in the solution are a network-like phase and a polymer-free phase. The polymer-free phase is modeled using Debye-Huckel theory. In the cross-linked phase, each condensed multivalent ion attracts an equal number of monomers creating a neutral cluster. The energy of the cluster is evaluated by a simple Coulombic energy. The bare monomer charges between the linkages are treated as line of

  17. Novikov algebras with associative bilinear forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fuhai; Chen, Zhiqi

    2007-11-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic-type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. The goal of this paper is to study Novikov algebras with non-degenerate associative symmetric bilinear forms, which we call quadratic Novikov algebras. Based on the classification of solvable quadratic Lie algebras of dimension not greater than 4 and Novikov algebras in dimension 3, we show that quadratic Novikov algebras up to dimension 4 are commutative. Furthermore, we obtain the classification of transitive quadratic Novikov algebras in dimension 4. But we find that not every quadratic Novikov algebra is commutative and give a non-commutative quadratic Novikov algebra in dimension 6.

  18. Quantum Q systems: from cluster algebras to quantum current algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Philippe; Kedem, Rinat

    2017-02-01

    This paper gives a new algebraic interpretation for the algebra generated by the quantum cluster variables of the A_r quantum Q-system (Di Francesco and Kedem in Int Math Res Not IMRN 10:2593-2642, 2014). We show that the algebra can be described as a quotient of the localization of the quantum algebra U_{√{q}}({n}[u,u^{-1}])subset U_{√{q}}(widehat{{sl}}_2), in the Drinfeld presentation. The generating current is made up of a subset of the cluster variables which satisfy the Q-system, which we call fundamental. The other cluster variables are given by a quantum determinant-type formula, and are polynomials in the fundamental generators. The conserved quantities of the discrete evolution (Di Francesco and Kedem in Adv Math 228(1):97-152, 2011) described by quantum Q-system generate the Cartan currents at level 0, in a non-standard polarization. The rest of the quantum affine algebra is also described in terms of cluster variables.

  19. Phase diagrams for sonoluminescing bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Lohse, Detlef; Brenner, Michael P.

    1996-11-01

    Sound driven gas bubbles in water can emit light pulses. This phenomenon is called sonoluminescence (SL). Two different phases of single bubble SL have been proposed: diffusively stable and diffusively unstable SL. We present phase diagrams in the gas concentration versus forcing pressure state space and also in the ambient radius versus gas concentration and versus forcing pressure state spaces. These phase diagrams are based on the thresholds for energy focusing in the bubble and two kinds of instabilities, namely (i) shape instabilities and (ii) diffusive instabilities. Stable SL only occurs in a tiny parameter window of large forcing pressure amplitude Pa˜1.2-1.5 atm and low gas concentration of less than 0.4% of the saturation. The upper concentration threshold becomes smaller with increased forcing. Our results quantitatively agree with experimental results of Putterman's UCLA group on argon, but not on air. However, air bubbles and other gas mixtures can also successfully be treated in this approach if in addition (iii) chemical instabilities are considered. All statements are based on the Rayleigh-Plesset ODE approximation of the bubble dynamics, extended in an adiabatic approximation to include mass diffusion effects. This approximation is the only way to explore considerable portions of parameter space, as solving the full PDEs is numerically too expensive. Therefore, we checked the adiabatic approximation by comparison with the full numerical solution of the advection diffusion PDE and find good agreement.

  20. Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2003-05-01

    Ground-based observations have detected solar-like oscillations on Sun-like stars, and diagnostics similar to those used in helioseismology are now being used to test and constrain the physics and evolutionary state of these stars. Multi-mode oscillations are being observed in an abundance of other stars, including slowly pulsating B stars (SPB stars), delta-Scuti stars, Ap stars and the pulsating white dwarfs. New classes of pulsators continue to be discovered across the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Yet the chances still to be faced to make asteroseismology across the HR diagram a reality are formidable. Observation, data analysis and theory all pose hard problems to be overcome. This book, reflecting the goal of the meeting, aims to facilitate a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches between fields covering different pulsators and with different areas of expertise. The book successfully covers most known types of pulsators, reflecting a highly productive and far reaching interchange of ideas which we believe is conveyed by the papers and posters published, making it a reference for researchers and postgraduate students working on stellar structure and evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1173-3

  1. Phase Diagrams of Nuclear Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, Matthew; Horowitz, Chuck; Berry, Don; da Silva Schneider, Andre

    2016-03-01

    In the inner crust of neutrons stars, where matter is near the saturation density, protons and neutrons arrange themselves into complex structures called nuclear pasta. Early theoretical work predicted a simple graduated hierarchy of pasta phases, consisting of spheres, cylinders, slabs, and uniform matter with voids. Previous work has simulated these phases with a simple classical model and has shown that the formation of these structures is dependent on the temperature, density, and proton fraction. However, previous work only studied a limited range of these parameters due to computational limitations. Thanks to recent advances in computing it is now possible to survey the structure of nuclear pasta for a larger range of parameters. By simulating nuclear pasta with constant temperature and proton fraction in an expanding simulation volume we are able to study the phase transitions in nuclear pasta, and thus produce a set of phase diagrams. We report on these phase diagrams as well as newly identified phases of nuclear pasta and discuss their implications for neutron star observables.

  2. Continuation of point clouds via persistence diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gameiro, Marcio; Hiraoka, Yasuaki; Obayashi, Ippei

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a mathematical and algorithmic framework for the continuation of point clouds by persistence diagrams. A key property used in the method is that the persistence map, which assigns a persistence diagram to a point cloud, is differentiable. This allows us to apply the Newton-Raphson continuation method in this setting. Given an original point cloud P, its persistence diagram D, and a target persistence diagram D‧, we gradually move from D to D‧, by successively computing intermediate point clouds until we finally find a point cloud P‧ having D‧ as its persistence diagram. Our method can be applied to a wide variety of situations in topological data analysis where it is necessary to solve an inverse problem, from persistence diagrams to point cloud data.

  3. Phase diagrams for high Tc superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Whitler, J.D.; Roth, R.S. NIST, Gaithersburg, MD )

    1991-01-01

    The phase diagrams of ternary and quaternary systems containing superconducting phases are presented, as are the phase diagrams of the associated binary systems. The diagrams are divided into two large groups: (1) alkaline earth-rare earth-copper-oxygen diagrams, and (2) alkaline earth-bismuth/lead-copper-oxygen diagrams. The first group includes BaO-REO-CuO systems followed by SrO-REO-CuO or Nd2O3-CeO-CuO systems. The second group includes systems related to the AE-Bi2O3-CuO and AE-PbO-CuO systems. The phase diagrams are accompanied by notes relating procedures used in the studies, results obtained, and comparisons with the results in the literature for the same system.

  4. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion

    PubMed Central

    Kirshner, Robert P.

    2004-01-01

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168–173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology. PMID:14695886

  5. Phase diagram of Hertzian spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pàmies, Josep C.; Cacciuto, Angelo; Frenkel, Daan

    2009-07-01

    We report the phase diagram of interpenetrating Hertzian spheres. The Hertz potential is purely repulsive, bounded at zero separation, and decreases monotonically as a power law with exponent 5/2, vanishing at the overlapping threshold. This simple functional describes the elastic interaction of weakly deformable bodies and, therefore, it is a reliable physical model of soft macromolecules, like star polymers and globular micelles. Using thermodynamic integration and extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we computed accurate free energies of the fluid phase and a large number of crystal structures. For this, we defined a general primitive unit cell that allows for the simulation of any lattice. We found multiple re-entrant melting and first-order transitions between crystals with cubic, trigonal, tetragonal, and hexagonal symmetries.

  6. Gravity on-shell diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-11-01

    We study on-shell diagrams for gravity theories with any number of super-symmetries and find a compact Grassmannian formula in terms of edge variables of the graphs. Unlike in gauge theory where the analogous form involves only d log-factors, in gravity there is a non-trivial numerator as well as higher degree poles in the edge variables. Based on the structure of the Grassmannian formula for {N}=8 supergravity we conjecture that gravity loop amplitudes also possess similar properties. In particular, we find that there are only logarithmic singularities on cuts with finite loop momentum and that poles at infinity are present, in complete agreement with the conjecture presented in [1].

  7. Hubble's diagram and cosmic expansion.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, Robert P

    2004-01-06

    Edwin Hubble's classic article on the expanding universe appeared in PNAS in 1929 [Hubble, E. P. (1929) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 15, 168-173]. The chief result, that a galaxy's distance is proportional to its redshift, is so well known and so deeply embedded into the language of astronomy through the Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant, Hubble's Law, and the Hubble time, that the article itself is rarely referenced. Even though Hubble's distances have a large systematic error, Hubble's velocities come chiefly from Vesto Melvin Slipher, and the interpretation in terms of the de Sitter effect is out of the mainstream of modern cosmology, this article opened the way to investigation of the expanding, evolving, and accelerating universe that engages today's burgeoning field of cosmology.

  8. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  9. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  10. Moving frames and prolongation algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Differential ideals generated by sets of 2-forms which can be written with constant coefficients in a canonical basis of 1-forms are considered. By setting up a Cartan-Ehresmann connection, in a fiber bundle over a base space in which the 2-forms live, one finds an incomplete Lie algebra of vector fields in the fields in the fibers. Conversely, given this algebra (a prolongation algebra), one can derive the differential ideal. The two constructs are thus dual, and analysis of either derives properties of both. Such systems arise in the classical differential geometry of moving frames. Examples of this are discussed, together with examples arising more recently: the Korteweg-de Vries and Harrison-Ernst systems.

  11. Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) in a 57-Year-Old Brazilian Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Luciano Alberto; de Castro, Joao Gabriel Leite; da Cruz, Alexandre Duarte Lopes; Barbosa, Bruno Henrique de Sousa; de Spindula-Filho, Jose Vieira; Costa, Mauricio Barcelos

    2016-04-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is a rare disease of the oral mucosa associated with infection by some subtypes of human papilloma virus, especially subtypes 13 or 32. The disease is predominantly found in children and adolescents with indigenous heritage, but other ethnic groups can be affected worldwide. To the best of the authors' knowledge, it has not been reported in Brazil's elderly population. This article describes a case of FEH in a 57-year-old Brazilian patient presenting since childhood, with multiple lesions in the lips, buccal mucosa and tongue. The solitary tongue lesion underwent excisional biopsy and the histopathological analysis showed parakeratosis, acanthosis, rete pegs with a club-shaped appearance, koilocytosis and the presence of mitosoid cells. These microscopic findings in conjunction with clinical presentation were sufficient to establish the accurate diagnosis of FEH. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, but no one human papillomavirus (HPV) subtype could be identified. Clinicians must be aware of this rare oral disease, which can even affect elderly patients, as we described here. Treatment may be indicated in selected cases due to esthetic and/or functional problems.

  12. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin-Zheng; Jia, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Shi-Kun

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation.

  13. Using Number Theory to Reinforce Elementary Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covillion, Jane D.

    1995-01-01

    Demonstrates that using the elementary number theory in algebra classes helps students to use acquired algebraic skills as well as helping them to more clearly understand concepts that are presented. Discusses factoring, divisibility rules, and number patterns. (AIM)

  14. Process Flow Diagrams for Training and Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Jacobus

    This paper focuses on the use of process flow diagrams for training first responders who execute search and seizure warrants at electronic crime scenes. A generic process flow framework is presented, and the design goals and layout characteristics of process flow diagrams are discussed. An evaluation of the process flow diagrams used in training courses indicates that they are beneficial to first responders performing searches and seizures, and they speed up investigations, including those conducted by experienced personnel.

  15. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used ‘crystallization phase diagrams’ are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed. PMID:25760697

  16. Algebraic orbifold conformal field theories

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng

    2000-01-01

    The unitary rational orbifold conformal field theories in the algebraic quantum field theory and subfactor theory framework are formulated. Under general conditions, it is shown that the orbifold of a given unitary rational conformal field theory generates a unitary modular category. Many new unitary modular categories are obtained. It is also shown that the irreducible representations of orbifolds of rank one lattice vertex operator algebras give rise to unitary modular categories and determine the corresponding modular matrices, which has been conjectured for some time. PMID:11106383

  17. Scalable Parallel Algebraic Multigrid Solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, R; Lu, S; Tong, C; Vassilevski, P

    2005-03-23

    The authors propose a parallel algebraic multilevel algorithm (AMG), which has the novel feature that the subproblem residing in each processor is defined over the entire partition domain, although the vast majority of unknowns for each subproblem are associated with the partition owned by the corresponding processor. This feature ensures that a global coarse description of the problem is contained within each of the subproblems. The advantages of this approach are that interprocessor communication is minimized in the solution process while an optimal order of convergence rate is preserved; and the speed of local subproblem solvers can be maximized using the best existing sequential algebraic solvers.

  18. Symmetry algebras of linear differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapovalov, A. V.; Shirokov, I. V.

    1992-07-01

    The local symmetries of linear differential equations are investigated by means of proven theorems on the structure of the algebra of local symmetries of translationally and dilatationally invariant differential equations. For a nonparabolic second-order equation, the absence of nontrivial nonlinear local symmetries is proved. This means that the local symmetries reduce to the Lie algebra of linear differential symmetry operators. For the Laplace—Beltrami equation, all local symmetries reduce to the enveloping algebra of the algebra of the conformal group.

  19. Spatial-Operator Algebra For Robotic Manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo; Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Milman, Mark H.

    1991-01-01

    Report discusses spatial-operator algebra developed in recent studies of mathematical modeling, control, and design of trajectories of robotic manipulators. Provides succinct representation of mathematically complicated interactions among multiple joints and links of manipulator, thereby relieving analyst of most of tedium of detailed algebraic manipulations. Presents analytical formulation of spatial-operator algebra, describes some specific applications, summarizes current research, and discusses implementation of spatial-operator algebra in the Ada programming language.

  20. Twining characters and orbit Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Ray, Urmie; Schellekens, Bert; Schweigert, Christoph

    1996-12-05

    We associate to outer automorphisms of generalized Kac-Moody algebras generalized character-valued indices, the twining characters. A character formula for twining characters is derived which shows that they coincide with the ordinary characters of some other generalized Kac-Moody algebra, the so-called orbit Lie algebra. Some applications to problems in conformal field theory, algebraic geometry and the theory of sporadic simple groups are sketched.

  1. Applications of Algebraic Logic and Universal Algebra to Computer Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-21

    conference, with roughly equal representation from Mathematics and Computer Science . The conference consisted of eight invited lectures (60 minutes...each) and 26 contributed talks (20-40 minutes each). There was also a round-table discussion on the role of algebra and logic in computer science . Keywords

  2. A Balancing Act: Making Sense of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Sheffield, Linda Jensen

    2015-01-01

    For most students, algebra seems like a totally different subject than the number topics they studied in elementary school. In reality, the procedures followed in arithmetic are actually based on the properties and laws of algebra. Algebra should be a logical next step for students in extending the proficiencies they developed with number topics…

  3. Algebra? A Gate! A Barrier! A Mystery!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Educatio Dialogues, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Mathematics Education Dialogues focuses on the nature and the role of algebra in the K-14 curriculum. Articles on this theme include: (1) "Algebra For All? Why?" (Nel Noddings); (2) "Algebra For All: It's a Matter of Equity, Expectations, and Effectiveness" (Dorothy S. Strong and Nell B. Cobb); (3) "Don't Delay: Build and Talk about…

  4. Unifying the Algebra for All Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Colleen M.; Quebec Fuentes, Sarah; Ward, Elizabeth K.; Parker, Yolanda A.; Cooper, Sandi; Jasper, William A.; Mallam, Winifred A.; Sorto, M. Alejandra; Wilkerson, Trena L.

    2015-01-01

    There exists an increased focus on school mathematics, especially first-year algebra, due to recent efforts for all students to be college and career ready. In addition, there are calls, policies, and legislation advocating for all students to study algebra epitomized by four rationales of the "Algebra for All" movement. In light of this…

  5. UCSMP Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) Algebra," designed to increase students' skills in algebra, is appropriate for students in grades 7-10, depending on the students' incoming knowledge. This one-year course highlights applications, uses statistics and geometry to develop the algebra of linear equations and inequalities, and…

  6. Constraint-Referenced Analytics of Algebra Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Scot M.; White, Tobin F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of the constraint-referenced analytics tool for monitoring algebra learning activities presented here came from the desire to firstly, take a more quantitative look at student responses in collaborative algebra activities, and secondly, to situate those activities in a more traditional introductory algebra setting focusing on…

  7. Embedding Algebraic Thinking throughout the Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vennebush, G. Patrick; Marquez, Elizabeth; Larsen, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the algebra that can be uncovered in many middle-grades mathematics tasks that, on first inspection, do not appear to be algebraic. It shows connections to the other four Standards that occur in traditional algebra problems, and it offers strategies for modifying activities so that they can be used to foster algebraic…

  8. Teaching Strategies to Improve Algebra Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zbiek, Rose Mary; Larson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Improving student learning is the primary goal of every teacher of algebra. Teachers seek strategies to help all students learn important algebra content and develop mathematical practices. The new Institute of Education Sciences[IES] practice guide, "Teaching Strategies for Improving Algebra Knowledge in Middle and High School Students"…

  9. Build an Early Foundation for Algebra Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Eric; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Gardiner, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Research tells us that success in algebra is a factor in many other important student outcomes. Emerging research also suggests that students who are started on an algebra curriculum in the earlier grades may have greater success in the subject in secondary school. What's needed is a consistent, algebra-infused mathematics curriculum all…

  10. Teacher Actions to Facilitate Early Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…

  11. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  12. Cyclic homology for Hom-associative algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Shapiro, Ilya; Sütlü, Serkan

    2015-12-01

    In the present paper we investigate the noncommutative geometry of a class of algebras, called the Hom-associative algebras, whose associativity is twisted by a homomorphism. We define the Hochschild, cyclic, and periodic cyclic homology and cohomology for this class of algebras generalizing these theories from the associative to the Hom-associative setting.

  13. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  14. Algebra, Home Mortgages, and Recessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…

  15. Exploring Algebraic Misconceptions with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakow, Matthew; Karaman, Ruveyda

    2015-01-01

    Many students struggle with algebra, from simplifying expressions to solving systems of equations. Students also have misconceptions about the meaning of variables. In response to the question "Can x + y + z ever equal x + p + z?" during a student interview, the student claimed, "Never . . . because p has to have a different value…

  16. Easing Students' Transition to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroudi, Ziad

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, students learn arithmetic throughout their primary schooling, and this is seen as the ideal preparation for the learning of algebra in the junior secondary school. The four operations are taught and rehearsed in the early years and from this, it is assumed, "children will induce the fundamental structure of arithmetic" (Warren &…

  17. Algebra for All. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The call for "algebra for all" is not a recent phenomenon. Concerns about the inadequacy of math (and science) preparation in America's high schools have been a steady drumbeat since the 1957 launch of Sputnik; a call for raising standards and the number of math (and science) courses required for graduation has been a part of countless…

  18. Algebraic methods in system theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Willems, J. C.; Willsky, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on problems of the type which arise in the control of switched electrical networks are reported. The main results concern the algebraic structure and stochastic aspects of these systems. Future reports will contain more detailed applications of these results to engineering studies.

  19. Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangwin, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in contemporary…

  20. Adventures in Flipping College Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sickle, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the experience of a university professor who implemented flipped learning in two sections of college algebra courses for two semesters. It details how the courses were flipped, what technology was used, advantages, challenges, and results. It explains what students do outside of class, what they do inside class, and discusses…

  1. Elementary Algebra Connections to Precalculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Boada, Roberto; Daire, Sandra Arguelles

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the attitudes of some precalculus students to solve trigonometric and logarithmic equations and systems using the concepts of elementary algebra. With the goal of enticing the students to search for and use connections among mathematical topics, they are asked to solve equations or systems specifically designed to allow…

  2. Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hestenes, D.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.

  3. Math Sense: Algebra and Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howett, Jerry

    This book is designed to help students gain the range of math skills they need to succeed in life, work, and on standardized tests; overcome math anxiety; discover math as interesting and purposeful; and develop good number sense. Topics covered in this book include algebra and geometry. Lessons are organized around four strands: (1) skill lessons…

  4. Weaving Geometry and Algebra Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetner, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    When thinking about student reasoning and sense making, teachers must consider the nature of tasks given to students along with how to plan to use the tasks in the classroom. Students should be presented with tasks in a way that encourages them to draw connections between algebraic and geometric concepts. This article focuses on the idea that it…

  5. Algebraic Activities Aid Discovery Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Gomez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    After a unit on the rules for positive and negative numbers and the order of operations for evaluating algebraic expressions, many students believe that they understand these principles well enough, but they really do not. They clearly need more practice, but not more of the same kind of drill. Wallace-Gomez provides three graphing activities that…

  6. REDUCE 2: A computer program for the symbolic reduction of large block diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.; Riehl, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    REDUCE 2 is reported as a FORMAC program which symbolically calculates the transfer function(s) of any linear-block-diagram output variable to any or all input variables. The program requires as input a set of algebraic expressions representing the block diagram, the desired transfer function(s), and a string of variables indicating the desired order of reduction. The solution is presented in the compact form of a set of nested functions (super G's). The program can handle systems as large as 600 equations and is intended as a tool for the analysis of complex control and dynamic systems. A companion FORTRAN program, EVAL 2, which numerically evaluates the solution set to obtain amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of frequency is also presented.

  7. Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Casey Wayne

    Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive

  8. Vesicle deformation by microtubules: A phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emsellem, Virginie; Cardoso, Olivier; Tabeling, Patrick

    1998-10-01

    The experimental investigation of vesicles deformed by the growth of encapsulated microtubules shows that the axisymmetric morphologies can be classified into ovals, lemons, φ, cherries, dumbbells, and pearls. A geometrical phase diagram is established. Numerical minimization of the elastic energy of the membrane reproduces satisfactorily well the observed morphologies and the corresponding phase diagram.

  9. Explicit field realizations of W algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong

    2009-06-01

    The fact that certain nonlinear W2,s algebras can be linearized by the inclusion of a spin-1 current can provide a simple way to realize W2,s algebras from linear W1,2,s algebras. In this paper, we first construct the explicit field realizations of linear W1,2,s algebras with double scalar and double spinor, respectively. Then, after a change of basis, the realizations of W2,s algebras are presented. The results show that all these realizations are Romans-type realizations.

  10. Array algebra estimation in signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauhala, U. A.

    A general theory of linear estimators called array algebra estimation is interpreted in some terms of multidimensional digital signal processing, mathematical statistics, and numerical analysis. The theory has emerged during the past decade from the new field of a unified vector, matrix and tensor algebra called array algebra. The broad concepts of array algebra and its estimation theory cover several modern computerized sciences and technologies converting their established notations and terminology into one common language. Some concepts of digital signal processing are adopted into this language after a review of the principles of array algebra estimation and its predecessors in mathematical surveying sciences.

  11. On special classes of n-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainerman, L.; Kerner, R.

    1996-05-01

    We define n-algebras as linear spaces on which the internal composition law involves n elements: m:V⊗n■V. It is known that such algebraic structures are interesting for their applications to problems of modern mathematical physics. Using the notion of a commutant of two subalgebras of an n-algebra, we distinguish certain classes of n-algebras with reasonable properties: semisimple, Abelian, nilpotent, solvable. We also consider a few examples of n-algebras of different types, and show their properties.

  12. The morphological diagram of spinels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, J.

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic anisotropy in mild oxidation reactions results from the varying activity of different crystal faces. Here, spinels exposing (100), (110), and (111) faces have been considered and their Curie-Wulff plots have been drawn, admitting that the relative G(hkl) surface free energies may change in a wide range as a function of composition, inversion, and segregation degree. The normalized free surface energies are defined as A = G(100)/G(111), B = G(110)/G(111), and C = G(111)/G(111) = 1 = const. This made it possible to construct bidimensional morphological diagrams (morphology = f(A,B) at C = const) in the exposed-face-type, solid-type, and exposure-percentage versions. Eleven morphological habits of grains have been identified, including (100)-cube, (110)-dodecahedron, (111)-hexagons, 18-hedron, 20-hedron, and up to 26-hedra bordered with (i) 6 (100)-octagons, 12 (110)-rectangles, and 8 (111)-hexagons, (ii) 6 (100)-squares, 12 (110)-rectangles, and 8 (111)-triangles, or (iii) 6 (100)-squares, 12 (110)-octagons, and 8 (100)-triangles. The analysis is valid for all compounds crystallizing in the cubic system and preferentially exposing the three enumerated faces.

  13. Phase diagram of elastic spheres.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulou, L; Ziherl, P

    2017-02-15

    Experiments show that polymeric nanoparticles often self-assemble into several non-close-packed lattices in addition to the face-centered cubic lattice. Here, we explore theoretically the possibility that the observed phase sequences may be associated with the softness of the particles, which are modeled as elastic spheres interacting upon contact. The spheres are described by two finite-deformation theories of elasticity, the modified Saint-Venant-Kirchhoff model and the neo-Hookean model. We determine the range of indentations where the repulsion between the spheres is pairwise additive and agrees with the Hertz theory. By computing the elastic energies of nine trial crystal lattices at densities far beyond the Hertzian range, we construct the phase diagram and find the face- and body-centered cubic lattices as well as the A15 lattice and the simple hexagonal lattice, with the last two being stable at large densities where the spheres are completely faceted. These results are qualitatively consistent with observations, suggesting that deformability may indeed be viewed as a generic property that determines the phase behavior in nanocolloidal suspensions.

  14. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  15. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  16. Quaternary Stereogenic Centers through Enantioselective Heck Arylation of Acyclic Olefins with Aryldiazonium Salts: Application in a Concise Synthesis of (R)-Verapamil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Caio C; Pfaltz, Andreas; Correia, Carlos Roque Duarte

    2015-11-16

    We describe herein a highly regio- and enantioselective Pd-catalyzed Heck arylation of unactivated trisubstituted acyclic olefins to provide all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers. Chiral N,N ligands of the pyrimidine- and pyrazino-oxazoline class were developed for that purpose, providing the desired products in good to high yields with enantiomeric ratios up to >99:1. Both linear and branched substituents on the olefins were well-tolerated. The potential of this new method is demonstrated by the straightforward synthesis of several O-methyl lactols and lactones containing quaternary stereocenters, together with a concise enantioselective total synthesis of the calcium channel blocker verapamil.

  17. Stereoselective Synthesis of Spiro Bis-C,C-α-arylglycosides by Tandem Heck Type C-Glycosylation and Friedel-Crafts Cyclization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Bo; Liu, Shi-Hao; Hsieh, Min-Tsang; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Lin, Chun-Hung; Chen, Chen-Yin; Chen, Po-Yen; Lin, Hui-Chang

    2016-04-01

    Spiro bis-C,C-α-arylglycosides were synthesized in three steps in 78-85% overall yields starting from exo-glycals. The initial Heck type C-aryl addition of exo-glycals with arylboronic acids afforded α-aryl-β-substituted C-glycosides with exclusive α-stereoselectivity. Among the products, β-ethanal α-aryl C-glycosides further reacted with alkylthiol in the presence of InCl3, followed by in situ Friedel-Crafts cyclization to yield the desirable final products. We proposed a mechanism to explain how the α-aryl group serves as a main determinant of the cyclization.

  18. Recursion and feedback in image algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Gerhard X.; Davidson, Jennifer L.

    1991-04-01

    Recursion and feedback are two important processes in image processing. Image algebra, a unified algebraic structure developed for use in image processing and image analysis, provides a common mathematical environment for expressing image processing transforms. It is only recently that image algebra has been extended to include recursive operations [1]. Recently image algebra was shown to incorporate neural nets [2], including a new type of neural net, the morphological neural net [3]. This paper presents the relationship of the recursive image algebra to the field of fractions of the ring of matrices, and gives the two dimensional moving average filter as an example. Also, the popular multilayer perceptron with back propagation and a morphology neural network with learning rule are presented in image algebra notation. These examples show that image algebra can express these important feedback concepts in a succinct way.

  19. Deformed Kac Moody and Virasoro algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; Queiroz, A. R.; Marques, A. M.; Teotonio-Sobrinho, P.

    2007-07-01

    Whenever the group {\\bb R}^n acts on an algebra {\\cal A} , there is a method to twist \\cal A to a new algebra {\\cal A}_\\theta which depends on an antisymmetric matrix θ (θμν = -θνμ = constant). The Groenewold-Moyal plane {\\cal A}_\\theta({\\bb R}^{d+1}) is an example of such a twisted algebra. We give a general construction to realize this twist in terms of {\\cal A} itself and certain 'charge' operators Qμ. For {\\cal A}_\\theta({\\bb R}^{d+1}), Q_\\mu are translation generators. This construction is then applied to twist the oscillators realizing the Kac-Moody (KM) algebra as well as the KM currents. They give different deformations of the KM algebra. From one of the deformations of the KM algebra, we construct, via the Sugawara construction, the Virasoro algebra. These deformations have an implication for statistics as well.

  20. Stochastic, real-space, imaginary-time evaluation of third-order Feynman-Goldstone diagrams.

    PubMed

    Willow, Soohaeng Yoo; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    A new, alternative set of interpretation rules of Feynman-Goldstone diagrams for many-body perturbation theory is proposed, which translates diagrams into algebraic expressions suitable for direct Monte Carlo integrations. A vertex of a diagram is associated with a Coulomb interaction (rather than a two-electron integral) and an edge with the trace of a Green's function in real space and imaginary time. With these, 12 diagrams of third-order many-body perturbation (MP3) theory are converted into 20-dimensional integrals, which are then evaluated by a Monte Carlo method. It uses redundant walkers for convergence acceleration and a weight function for importance sampling in conjunction with the Metropolis algorithm. The resulting Monte Carlo MP3 method has low-rank polynomial size dependence of the operation cost, a negligible memory cost, and a naturally parallel computational kernel, while reproducing the correct correlation energies of small molecules within a few mEh after 10(6) Monte Carlo steps.

  1. Synthesis of Pd(0) nanocatalyst using lignin in water for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Marulasiddeshwara, M B; Kumar, P Raghavendra

    2016-02-01

    Palladium(0) nanospheres with an average size of 1-5 nm were synthesized and stabilized by lignin in water without any reducing agent. The lignin supported palladium(0) nanoparticles (lignin@Pd-NPs) were characterized by UV-vis., FT-IR, SEM, TEM, HRICP-AES, EDX and PXRD. Absence of the peak at 430 nm in UV-vis., spectrum confirmed the reduction of Pd(II) to Pd(0). The five characteristic peaks at (111), (200), (220), (311) and (222) corresponding to the 2θ values 40°, 46.7°, 67.9°, 81.9° and 86.9°, respectively, appeared in PXRD spectrum indicated the crystallographic planes of Pd(0) with fcc structure. The Pd(0) loaded on lignin was 0.0467 mmol/g determined by HRICP-AES and 0.89% (w/w) by EDX. The performance of lignin@Pd-NPs catalyst have been investigated for the Mizoroki-Heck CC bond formation reactions between n-butyl propene-2-enoate and halobenzenes and substituted halobenzenes in polar to highly polar solvents as well as under solvent-free conditions in the presence of organic or inorganic bases. The lignin@Pd-NPs was found to be a highly efficient catalyst to yield the desired products of up to 94% under solvent-free conditions in short reaction times. The catalyst was heterogeneous and hence recovered by filtration and reused several times in the subsequent batches of the same reaction.

  2. Algebraic complexities and algebraic curves over finite fields

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, D. V.; Chudnovsky, G. V.

    1987-01-01

    We consider the problem of minimal (multiplicative) complexity of polynomial multiplication and multiplication in finite extensions of fields. For infinite fields minimal complexities are known [Winograd, S. (1977) Math. Syst. Theory 10, 169-180]. We prove lower and upper bounds on minimal complexities over finite fields, both linear in the number of inputs, using the relationship with linear coding theory and algebraic curves over finite fields. PMID:16593816

  3. Phase diagrams of self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, H.-U.; Riesenhuber, M.; Geisel, T.

    1996-09-01

    We present a method which allows the analytic determination of phase diagrams in the self-organizing map, a model for the formation of topographic projection patterns in the brain and in signal processing applications. The method only requires an ansatz for the tesselation of the data space induced by the map, not for the explicit state of the map. We analytically obtain phase diagrams for various examples, including models for the development of orientation and ocular-dominance maps. The latter phase diagram exhibits transitions to broadening ocular-dominance patterns as observed in a recent experiment.

  4. Alternative algebraic approaches in quantum chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-01-22

    Various algebraic approaches of quantum chemistry all follow a common principle: the fundamental properties and interrelations providing the most essential features of a quantum chemical representation of a molecule or a chemical process, such as a reaction, can always be described by algebraic methods. Whereas such algebraic methods often provide precise, even numerical answers, nevertheless their main role is to give a framework that can be elaborated and converted into computational methods by involving alternative mathematical techniques, subject to the constraints and directions provided by algebra. In general, algebra describes sets of interrelations, often phrased in terms of algebraic operations, without much concern with the actual entities exhibiting these interrelations. However, in many instances, the very realizations of two, seemingly unrelated algebraic structures by actual quantum chemical entities or properties play additional roles, and unexpected connections between different algebraic structures are often giving new insight. Here we shall be concerned with two alternative algebraic structures: the fundamental group of reaction mechanisms, based on the energy-dependent topology of potential energy surfaces, and the interrelations among point symmetry groups for various distorted nuclear arrangements of molecules. These two, distinct algebraic structures provide interesting interrelations, which can be exploited in actual studies of molecular conformational and reaction processes. Two relevant theorems will be discussed.

  5. Algebraic Methods to Design Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    group theory are employed to investigate the theory of their construction methods leading to new families of these arrays and some generalizations...sequences and arrays with desirable correlation properties. The methods used are very algebraic and number theoretic. Many new families of sequences...context of optical quantum computing, we prove that infinite families of anticirculant block weighing matrices can be obtained from generic weighing

  6. Computer algebra and transport theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Warsa, J. S.

    2004-01-01

    Modern symbolic algebra computer software augments and complements more traditional approaches to transport theory applications in several ways. The first area is in the development and enhancement of numerical solution methods for solving the Boltzmann transport equation. Typically, special purpose computer codes are designed and written to solve specific transport problems in particular ways. Different aspects of the code are often written from scratch and the pitfalls of developing complex computer codes are numerous and well known. Software such as MAPLE and MATLAB can be used to prototype, analyze, verify and determine the suitability of numerical solution methods before a full-scale transport application is written. Once it is written, the relevant pieces of the full-scale code can be verified using the same tools I that were developed for prototyping. Another area is in the analysis of numerical solution methods or the calculation of theoretical results that might otherwise be difficult or intractable. Algebraic manipulations are done easily and without error and the software also provides a framework for any additional numerical calculations that might be needed to complete the analysis. We will discuss several applications in which we have extensively used MAPLE and MATLAB in our work. All of them involve numerical solutions of the S{sub N} transport equation. These applications encompass both of the two main areas in which we have found computer algebra software essential.

  7. BLAS- BASIC LINEAR ALGEBRA SUBPROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The Basic Linear Algebra Subprogram (BLAS) library is a collection of FORTRAN callable routines for employing standard techniques in performing the basic operations of numerical linear algebra. The BLAS library was developed to provide a portable and efficient source of basic operations for designers of programs involving linear algebraic computations. The subprograms available in the library cover the operations of dot product, multiplication of a scalar and a vector, vector plus a scalar times a vector, Givens transformation, modified Givens transformation, copy, swap, Euclidean norm, sum of magnitudes, and location of the largest magnitude element. Since these subprograms are to be used in an ANSI FORTRAN context, the cases of single precision, double precision, and complex data are provided for. All of the subprograms have been thoroughly tested and produce consistent results even when transported from machine to machine. BLAS contains Assembler versions and FORTRAN test code for any of the following compilers: Lahey F77L, Microsoft FORTRAN, or IBM Professional FORTRAN. It requires the Microsoft Macro Assembler and a math co-processor. The PC implementation allows individual arrays of over 64K. The BLAS library was developed in 1979. The PC version was made available in 1986 and updated in 1988.

  8. Introduction to Image Algebra Ada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Joseph N.

    1991-07-01

    Image Algebra Ada (IAA) is a superset of the Ada programming language designed to support use of the Air Force Armament Laboratory's image algebra in the development of computer vision application programs. The IAA language differs from other computer vision languages is several respects. It is machine independent, and an IAA translator has been implemented in the military standard Ada language. Its image operands and operations can be used to program a range of both low- and high-level vision algorithms. This paper provides an overview of the image algebra constructs supported in IAA and describes the embodiment of these constructs in the IAA extension of Ada. Examples showing the use of IAA for a range of computer vision tasks are given. The design of IAA as a superset of Ada and the implementation of the initial translator in Ada represent critical choices. The authors discuss the reasoning behind these choices as well as the benefits and drawbacks associated with them. Implementation strategies associated with the use of Ada as an implementation language for IAA are also discussed. While one can look on IAA as a program design language (PDL) for specifying Ada programs, it is useful to consider IAA as a separate language superset of Ada. This admits the possibility of directly translating IAA for implementation on special purpose architectures. This paper explores strategies for porting IAA to various architectures and notes the critical language and implementation features for porting to different architectures.

  9. CADDIS Volume 5. Causal Databases: Interactive Conceptual Diagrams (ICDs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In Interactive Conceptual Diagram (ICD) section of CADDIS allows users to create conceptual model diagrams, search a literature-based evidence database, and then attach that evidence to their diagrams.

  10. The topology of the Liouville foliation for the Kovalevskaya integrable case on the Lie algebra so(4)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, I K

    2014-04-30

    In this paper we study topological properties of an integrable case for Euler's equations on the Lie algebra so(4), which can be regarded as an analogue of the classical Kovalevskaya case in rigid body dynamics. In particular, for all values of the parameters of the system under consideration, the bifurcation diagrams of the momentum mapping are constructed, the types of critical points of rank 0 are determined, the bifurcations of Liouville tori are described, and the loop molecules are computed for all singular points of the bifurcation diagrams. It follows from the obtained results that some topological properties of the classical Kovalevskaya case can be obtained from the corresponding properties of the considered integrable case on the Lie algebra so(4) by taking a natural limit. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  11. Direct olefination of benzaldehydes into hydroxy functionalized oligo (p-phenylenevinylene)s via Pd-catalyzed heterodomino Knoevenagel-decarboxylation-Heck sequence and its application for fluoride sensing pi-conjugated units.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Naina; Kumar, Rakesh; Shard, Amit; Sinha, Arun K

    2010-05-21

    A new approach for one step olefination of benzaldehydes into hydroxy functionalized OPVs is achieved through the first domino Knoevenagel-decarboxylation-Heck sequence using a single catalyst system. The methodology also led to new oxygen based OPV scaffolds capable of selective and visible fluoride recognition in organic or aqueous medium.

  12. Algebra: A Challenge at the Crossroads of Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mary Kay; Kaufman, Julia Heath; Sherman, Milan; Hillen, Amy F.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review what is known about early and universal algebra, including who is getting access to algebra and student outcomes associated with algebra course taking in general and specifically with universal algebra policies. The findings indicate that increasing numbers of students, some of whom are underprepared, are taking algebra earlier.…

  13. Veitch diagram plotter simplifies Boolean functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    This device for simplifying the plotting of a Veitch diagram consists of several overlays for blocking out the unwanted squares. This method of plotting the various input combinations to a computer is used in conjunction with the Boolean functions.

  14. Some Geometric Aspects of the Ternary Diagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, G. M.; Watson, D. F.

    1989-01-01

    Uses the process of normalization in the Cartesian coordinate system which entails radial projection onto a transect to compare different compositions of minerals. Warns that the ternary diagram should not be used as a framework for calculations. (MVL)

  15. An Improved Mnemonic Diagram for Thermodynamic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Joaquin; Brainard, Alan J.

    1989-01-01

    Considers pressure, volume, entropy, temperature, Helmholtz free energy, Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and internal energy. Suggests the mnemonic diagram is for use with simple systems that are defined as macroscopically homogeneous, isotropic, uncharged, and chemically inert. (MVL)

  16. Bilinear forms on fermionic Novikov algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqi; Zhu, Fuhai

    2007-05-01

    Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. Fermionic Novikov algebras correspond to a certain Hamiltonian super-operator in a super-variable. In this paper, we show that there is a remarkable geometry on fermionic Novikov algebras with non-degenerate invariant symmetric bilinear forms, which we call pseudo-Riemannian fermionic Novikov algebras. They are related to pseudo-Riemannian Lie algebras. Furthermore, we obtain a procedure to classify pseudo-Riemannian fermionic Novikov algebras. As an application, we give the classification in dimension <=4. Motivated by the one in dimension 4, we construct some examples in high dimensions.

  17. Hopf algebras of rooted forests, cocyles, and free Rota-Baxter algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianjie; Gao, Xing; Guo, Li

    2016-10-01

    The Hopf algebra and the Rota-Baxter algebra are the two algebraic structures underlying the algebraic approach of Connes and Kreimer to renormalization of perturbative quantum field theory. In particular, the Hopf algebra of rooted trees serves as the "baby model" of Feynman graphs in their approach and can be characterized by certain universal properties involving a Hochschild 1-cocycle. Decorated rooted trees have also been applied to study Feynman graphs. We will continue the study of universal properties of various spaces of decorated rooted trees with such a 1-cocycle, leading to the concept of a cocycle Hopf algebra. We further apply the universal properties to equip a free Rota-Baxter algebra with the structure of a cocycle Hopf algebra.

  18. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-10-13

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  19. Elementary diagrams in nuclear and neutron matter

    SciTech Connect

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    Variational calculations of nuclear and neutron matter are currently performed using a diagrammatic cluster expansion with the aid of nonlinear integral equations for evaluating expectation values. These are the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) and single-operator chain (SOC) equations, which are a way of doing partial diagram summations to infinite order. A more complete summation can be made by adding elementary diagrams to the procedure. The simplest elementary diagrams appear at the four-body cluster level; there is one such E{sub 4} diagram in Bose systems, but 35 diagrams in Fermi systems, which gives a level of approximation called FHNC/4. We developed a novel technique for evaluating these diagrams, by computing and storing 6 three-point functions, S{sub xyz}(r{sub 12}, r{sub 13}, r{sub 23}), where xyz (= ccd, cce, ddd, dde, dee, or eee) denotes the exchange character at the vertices 1, 2, and 3. All 35 Fermi E{sub 4} diagrams can be constructed from these 6 functions and other two-point functions that are already calculated. The elementary diagrams are known to be important in some systems like liquid {sup 3}He. We expect them to be small in nuclear matter at normal density, but they might become significant at higher densities appropriate for neutron star calculations. This year we programmed the FHNC/4 contributions to the energy and tested them in a number of simple model cases, including liquid {sup 3}He and Bethe`s homework problem. We get reasonable, but not exact agreement with earlier published work. In nuclear and neutron matter with the Argonne v{sub 14} interaction these contributions are indeed small corrections at normal density and grow to only 5-10 MeV/nucleon at 5 times normal density.

  20. Numerical linear algebra algorithms and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongarra, Jack J.; Eijkhout, Victor

    2000-11-01

    The increasing availability of advanced-architecture computers has a significant effect on all spheres of scientific computation, including algorithm research and software development in numerical linear algebra. Linear algebra - in particular, the solution of linear systems of equations - lies at the heart of most calculations in scientific computing. This paper discusses some of the recent developments in linear algebra designed to exploit these advanced-architecture computers. We discuss two broad classes of algorithms: those for dense, and those for sparse matrices.

  1. Symbolic Lie algebras manipulations using COMMON LISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, R.; Tarlini, M.

    1989-01-01

    We present a description and an implementation of a program in COMMON LISP to perform symbolic computations in a given Lie algebra. Using the general definitions of vector space Lie algebra and enveloping algebra, the program is able to compute commutators, to evaluate similarity transformations and the general Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. All the computations are exact, including numerical coefficients. For the interactive user an optional menu facility and online help are available. LISP knowledge is unnecessary.

  2. Lie algebras of classical and stochastic electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, J. J. Soares; Vianna, J. D. M.

    1994-03-01

    The Lie algebras associated with infinitesimal symmetry transformations of third-order differential equations of interest to classical electrodynamics and stochastic electrodynamics have been obtained. The structure constants for a general case are presented and the Lie algebra for each particular application is easily achieved. By the method used here it is not necessary to know the explicit expressions of the infinitesimal generators in order to determine the structure constants of the Lie algebra.

  3. Curve Fitting via the Criterion of Least Squares. Applications of Algebra and Elementary Calculus to Curve Fitting. [and] Linear Programming in Two Dimensions: I. Applications of High School Algebra to Operations Research. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 321, 453.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John W., Jr.; Rosenberg, Nancy S.

    This document consists of two modules. The first of these views applications of algebra and elementary calculus to curve fitting. The user is provided with information on how to: 1) construct scatter diagrams; 2) choose an appropriate function to fit specific data; 3) understand the underlying theory of least squares; 4) use a computer program to…

  4. Algebraic logic of concepts and its machine implementation in the algebras of deontic and axiological notions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manerowska, Anna; Nieznański, Edward; Mulawka, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Our aim is to present the algebra of concepts in two formal languages. First, after introducing a primary relation between concepts, which is subsumption, we shall specify in a language that uses quantifiers, the Boolean algebra of general concepts. Next, we shall note down the same algebra in simplified non-quantifying language, in order to use it as basis for two specific implementations, i.e. to create the Boolean algebras of deontic concepts and axiological concepts.

  5. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-04-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  6. Dispersion Operators Algebra and Linear Canonical Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriambololona, Raoelina; Ranaivoson, Ravo Tokiniaina; Hasimbola Damo Emile, Randriamisy; Rakotoson, Hanitriarivo

    2017-02-01

    This work intends to present a study on relations between a Lie algebra called dispersion operators algebra, linear canonical transformation and a phase space representation of quantum mechanics that we have introduced and studied in previous works. The paper begins with a brief recall of our previous works followed by the description of the dispersion operators algebra which is performed in the framework of the phase space representation. Then, linear canonical transformations are introduced and linked with this algebra. A multidimensional generalization of the obtained results is given.

  7. Banach Algebras Associated to Lax Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, James F.

    2015-04-01

    Lax pairs featuring in the theory of integrable systems are known to be constructed from a commutative algebra of formal pseudodifferential operators known as the Burchnall- Chaundy algebra. Such pairs induce the well known KP flows on a restricted infinite-dimensional Grassmannian. The latter can be exhibited as a Banach homogeneous space constructed from a Banach *-algebra. It is shown that this commutative algebra of operators generating Lax pairs can be associated with a commutative C*-subalgebra in the C*-norm completion of the *-algebra. In relationship to the Bose-Fermi correspondence and the theory of vertex operators, this C*-algebra has an association with the CAR algebra of operators as represented on Fermionic Fock space by the Gelfand-Naimark-Segal construction. Instrumental is the Plücker embedding of the restricted Grassmannian into the projective space of the associated Hilbert space. The related Baker and tau-functions provide a connection between these two C*-algebras, following which their respective state spaces and Jordan-Lie-Banach algebras structures can be compared.

  8. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  9. Multicloning and Multibroadcasting in Operator Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniowski, Krzysztof; Lubnauer, Katarzyna; Łuczak, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    We investigate multicloning and multibroadcasting in the general operator algebra framework in arbitrary dimension, generalizing thus results obtained in this framework for simple cloning and broadcasting.

  10. Prospective Teachers' Views on the Use of Calculators with Computer Algebra System in Algebra Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgun-Koca, S. Ash

    2010-01-01

    Although growing numbers of secondary school mathematics teachers and students use calculators to study graphs, they mainly rely on paper-and-pencil when manipulating algebraic symbols. However, the Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) on computers or handheld calculators create new possibilities for teaching and learning algebraic manipulation. This…

  11. An Arithmetic-Algebraic Work Space for the Promotion of Arithmetic and Algebraic Thinking: Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, Fernando; Saboya, Mireille; Cortés Zavala, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experiment that attempts to mobilise an arithmetic-algebraic way of thinking in order to articulate between arithmetic thinking and the early algebraic thinking, which is considered a prelude to algebraic thinking. In the process of building this latter way of thinking, researchers analysed pupils' spontaneous production…

  12. Classification of filiform Lie algebras of order 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Rosa María

    2016-12-01

    Lie algebras of order 3 constitute a generalization of Lie algebras and superalgebras. Throughout this paper the classification problem of filiform Lie algebras of order 3 is considered and therefore this work is a continuation papers seen in the literature. We approach this classification by extending Vergne's result for filiform Lie algebras and by considering algebras of order 3 of high nilindex. We find the expression of the law to which any elementary filiform Lie algebra of order 3 is isomorphic.

  13. The Algebra of Lexical Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornai, András

    The current generative theory of the lexicon relies primarily on tools from formal language theory and mathematical logic. Here we describe how a different formal apparatus, taken from algebra and automata theory, resolves many of the known problems with the generative lexicon. We develop a finite state theory of word meaning based on machines in the sense of Eilenberg [11], a formalism capable of describing discrepancies between syntactic type (lexical category) and semantic type (number of arguments). This mechanism is compared both to the standard linguistic approaches and to the formalisms developed in AI/KR.

  14. Strengthening Effect Algebras in a Logical Perspective: Heyting-Wajsberg Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konig, Martinvaldo

    2014-10-01

    Heyting effect algebras are lattice-ordered pseudoboolean effect algebras endowed with a pseudocomplementation that maps on the center (i.e. Boolean elements). They are the algebraic counterpart of an extension of both Łukasiewicz many-valued logic and intuitionistic logic. We show that Heyting effect algebras are termwise equivalent to Heyting-Wajsberg algebras where the two different logical implications are defined as primitive operators. We prove this logic to be decidable, to be strongly complete and to have the deduction-detachment theorem.

  15. Introduction to causal diagrams for confounder selection.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Elizabeth J; Aitken, Zoe; Lawrie, Jock; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Burgess, John A; Forbes, Andrew B

    2014-04-01

    In respiratory health research, interest often lies in estimating the effect of an exposure on a health outcome. If randomization of the exposure of interest is not possible, estimating its effect is typically complicated by confounding bias. This can often be dealt with by controlling for the variables causing the confounding, if measured, in the statistical analysis. Common statistical methods used to achieve this include multivariable regression models adjusting for selected confounding variables or stratification on those variables. Therefore, a key question is which measured variables need to be controlled for in order to remove confounding. An approach to confounder-selection based on the use of causal diagrams (often called directed acyclic graphs) is discussed. A causal diagram is a visual representation of the causal relationships believed to exist between the variables of interest, including the exposure, outcome and potential confounding variables. After creating a causal diagram for the research question, an intuitive and easy-to-use set of rules can be applied, based on a foundation of rigorous mathematics, to decide which measured variables must be controlled for in the statistical analysis in order to remove confounding, to the extent that is possible using the available data. This approach is illustrated by constructing a causal diagram for the research question: 'Does personal smoking affect the risk of subsequent asthma?'. Using data taken from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study, the statistical analysis suggested by the causal diagram approach was performed.

  16. Dynamic tactile diagram simplification on refreshable displays.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T V

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to independently access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow, cumbersome, and costly process. Refreshable haptic displays, which interact with computers, promise to make this access quicker, easier, and cheaper. One important aspect in converting visual to tactile diagrams is to simplify the diagram as otherwise it can be too difficult to interpret with touch. Enabling this to be under user control in an interactive environment, such as with refreshable displays, could allow users to avoid being overwhelmed by the diagrams at any instant in time while still retaining access to all information in "storage". Through this article the authors investigate whether two types of diagram simplification--boundary simplification and contextual simplification--showed potential utility in an interactive environment. Boundary simplification was found to be significantly helpful in answering general questions about borders on a geographic map, and contextual simplification was helpful in answering relational questions, as compared to using the original map unchanged.

  17. The Semiotic Structure of Geometry Diagrams: How Textbook Diagrams Convey Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmel, Justin K.; Herbst, Patricio G.

    2015-01-01

    Geometry diagrams use the visual features of specific drawn objects to convey meaning about generic mathematical entities. We examine the semiotic structure of these visual features in two parts. One, we conduct a semiotic inquiry to conceptualize geometry diagrams as mathematical texts that comprise choices from different semiotic systems. Two,…

  18. Students' Understanding of Diagrams for Solving Word Problems: A Framework for Assessing Diagram Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poch, Apryl L.; van Garderen, Delinda; Scheuermann, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    A visual representation, such as a diagram, can be a powerful strategy for solving mathematical word problems. However, using a representation to solve mathematical word problems is not as simple as it seems! Many students with learning disabilities struggle to use a diagram effectively and efficiently. This article provides a framework for…

  19. PREFACE: Infinite Dimensional Algebras and their Applications to Quantum Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fring, Andreas; Kulish, Petr P.; Manojlović, Nenad; Nagy, Zoltán; Nunes da Costa, Joana; Samtleben, Henning

    2008-05-01

    This special issue is centred around the workshop Infinite Dimensional Algebras and Quantum Integrable Systems II—IDAQUIS 2007, held at the University of Algarve, Faro, Portugal in July 2007. It was the second workshop in the IDAQUIS series following a previous meeting at the same location in 2003. The latest workshop gathered around forty experts in the field reviewing recent developments in the theory and applications of integrable systems in the form of invited lectures and in a number of contributions from the participants. All contributions contain significant new results or provide a survey of the state of the art of the subject or a critical assessment of the present understanding of the topic and a discussion of open problems. Original contributions from non-participants are also included. The origins of the topic of this issue can be traced back a long way to the early investigations of completely integrable systems of classical mechanics in the fundamental papers by Euler, Lagrange, Jacobi, Liouville, Kowalevski and others. By the end of the nineteenth century all interesting examples seemed to have been exhausted. A revival in the study of integrable systems began with the development of the classical inverse scattering method, or the theory of solitons. Later developments led to the basic geometrical ideas of the theory, of which infinite dimensional algebras are a key ingredient. In a loose sense one may think that all integrable systems possess some hidden symmetry. In the quantum version of these systems the representation theory of these algebras may be exploited in the description of the structure of the Hilbert space of states. Modern examples of field theoretical systems such as conformal field theories, with the Liouville model being a prominent example, affine Toda field theories and the AdS/CFT correspondence are based on algebraic structures like quantum groups, modular doubles, global conformal invariance, Hecke algebras, Kac

  20. Algebraic Thinking: A Problem Solving Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windsor, Will

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic thinking is a crucial and fundamental element of mathematical thinking and reasoning. It initially involves recognising patterns and general mathematical relationships among numbers, objects and geometric shapes. This paper will highlight how the ability to think algebraically might support a deeper and more useful knowledge, not only of…

  1. Learning from Student Approaches to Algebraic Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ambrosio, Beatriz S.; Kastberg, Signe E.; Viola dos Santos, Joao Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics teachers struggle to support their students' developing understanding of proof as an essential element in investigations of mathematics. The area of mathematics where the development of an understanding of proof is most challenging is algebra. In the case of algebraic proof, analysis of student written work on tasks that demand…

  2. From operator algebras to superconformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahigashi, Yasuyuki

    2010-01-15

    We survey operator algebraic approach to (super)conformal field theory. We discuss representation theory, classification results, full and boundary conformal field theories, relations to supervertex operator algebras and Moonshine, connections to subfactor theory of Jones, and certain aspects of noncommutative geometry of Connes.

  3. A Technology-Intensive Approach to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heid, M. Kathleen; Zbiek, Rose Mary

    1995-01-01

    Computer-Intensive Algebra (CIA) focuses on the use of technology to help develop a rich understanding of fundamental algebraic concepts in real-world settings using computing tools for easy access to numerical, graphical, and symbolic representations of mathematical ideas. (MKR)

  4. Focus on Fractions to Scaffold Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ooten, Cheryl Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Beginning algebra is a gatekeeper course into the pipeline to higher mathematics courses required for respected professions in engineering, science, statistics, mathematics, education, and technology. Beginning algebra can also be a perfect storm if the necessary foundational skills are not within a student's grasp. What skills ensure beginning…

  5. Post-Lie Algebras and Isospectral Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi-Fard, Kurusch; Lundervold, Alexander; Mencattini, Igor; Munthe-Kaas, Hans Z.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we explore the Lie enveloping algebra of a post-Lie algebra derived from a classical R-matrix. An explicit exponential solution of the corresponding Lie bracket flow is presented. It is based on the solution of a post-Lie Magnus-type differential equation.

  6. Teaching Modeling and Axiomatization with Boolean Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Michael D.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is an alternative approach to the traditional teaching of Boolean algebra for secondary school mathematics. The main aim of the approach is to use Boolean algebra to teach pupils such mathematical processes as modeling and axiomatization. A course using the approach is described. (RH)

  7. Arithmetic and Cognitive Contributions to Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirino, Paul T.; Tolar, Tammy D.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2013-01-01

    Algebra is a prerequisite for access to STEM careers and occupational success (NMAP, 2008a), yet algebra is difficult for students through high school (US DOE, 2008). Growth in children's conceptual and procedural arithmetical knowledge is reciprocal, although conceptual knowledge has more impact on procedural knowledge than the reverse…

  8. Algebraic Thinking through Koch Snowflake Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Jonaki B.

    2016-01-01

    Generalizing is a foundational mathematical practice for the algebra classroom. It entails an act of abstraction and forms the core of algebraic thinking. Kinach (2014) describes two kinds of generalization--by analogy and by extension. This article illustrates how exploration of fractals provides ample opportunity for generalizations of both…

  9. Calif. Laws Shift Gears on Algebra, Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    New laws in California have set the state on a course for some potentially significant changes to the curriculum, including a measure that revisits the matter of teaching Algebra 1 in 8th grade and another that revamps the state's textbook-adoption process and hands districts greater leeway in choosing instructional materials. The algebra-related…

  10. Using Students' Interests as Algebraic Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Fostering algebraic thinking is an important goal for middle-grades mathematics teachers. Developing mathematical reasoning requires that teachers cultivate students' habits of mind. Teachers develop students' understanding of algebra by engaging them in tasks that involve modeling and representation. This study was designed to investigate how…

  11. An algebraic approach to the scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rijun; Rao, Junjie; Feng, Bo; He, Yang-Hui

    2015-12-01

    We employ the so-called companion matrix method from computational algebraic geometry, tailored for zero-dimensional ideals, to study the scattering equations. The method renders the CHY-integrand of scattering amplitudes computable using simple linear algebra and is amenable to an algorithmic approach. Certain identities in the amplitudes as well as rationality of the final integrand become immediate in this formalism.

  12. THE RADICAL OF A JORDAN ALGEBRA

    PubMed Central

    McCrimmon, Kevin

    1969-01-01

    In this paper we define a Jacobson radical for Jordan algebras analogous to that for associative algebras and show that it enjoys many of the properties of the associative radical. We then relate the corresponding notion of “semisimplicity” to the previously defined notion of “nondegeneracy” (Jacobson, N., these Proceedings, 55, 243-251 (1966)). PMID:16591736

  13. Cartan calculus on quantum Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Schupp, P.; Watts, P.; Zumino, B.

    1993-12-09

    A generalization of the differential geometry of forms and vector fields to the case of quantum Lie algebras is given. In an abstract formulation that incorporates many existing examples of differential geometry on quantum spaces we combine an exterior derivative, inner derivations, Lie derivatives, forms and functions au into one big algebra, the ``Cartan Calculus.``

  14. The operator algebra approach to quantum groups

    PubMed Central

    Kustermans, Johan; Vaes, Stefaan

    2000-01-01

    A relatively simple definition of a locally compact quantum group in the C*-algebra setting will be explained as it was recently obtained by the authors. At the same time, we put this definition in the historical and mathematical context of locally compact groups, compact quantum groups, Kac algebras, multiplicative unitaries, and duality theory. PMID:10639116

  15. Using the Internet To Investigate Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Walter

    The lesson plans in this book engage students by using a tool they enjoy--the Internet--to explore key concepts in algebra. Working either individually or in groups, students learn to approach algebra from a problem solving perspective. Each lesson shows learners how to use the Internet as a resource for gathering facts, data, and other…

  16. Teaching Algebra to Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impecoven-Lind, Linda S.; Foegen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Algebra is a gateway to expanded opportunities, but it often poses difficulty for students with learning disabilities. Consequently, it is essential to identify evidence-based instructional strategies for these students. The authors begin by identifying three areas of algebra difficulty experienced by students with disabilities: cognitive…

  17. Gary M. Klingler Algebra Teacher Assistance Packages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingler, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Several packages designed by Elizabeth Marquez for mathematics teachers of grades 6-12, officially entitled the Teacher Assistance Package in Support of Better Algebra Assessment, is a series of resources developed to accompany ET's End-of-Course Algebra Assessment. It is designed to enhance teachers classroom assessment by providing examples of…

  18. Just Say Yes to Early Algebra!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric; Isler, Isil; Gardiner, Angela Murphy

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics educators have argued for some time that elementary school students are capable of engaging in algebraic thinking and should be provided with rich opportunities to do so. Recent initiatives like the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) have taken up this call by reiterating the place of early algebra in…

  19. Symbolic Notations and Students' Achievements in Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Ebiendele E.; Olaoye, Adetunji A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on symbolic notations and its impact on students' achievement in Algebra. The main reason for this study rests on the observation from personal and professional experiences on students' increasing hatred for Algebra. One hundred and fifty (150) Senior Secondary School Students (SSS) from Ojo Local Education District, Ojo, Lagos,…

  20. SAYD Modules over Lie-Hopf Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangipour, Bahram; Sütlü, Serkan

    2012-11-01

    In this paper a general van Est type isomorphism is proved. The isomorphism is between the Lie algebra cohomology of a bicrossed sum Lie algebra and the Hopf cyclic cohomology of its Hopf algebra. We first prove a one to one correspondence between stable-anti-Yetter-Drinfeld (SAYD) modules over the total Lie algebra and those modules over the associated Hopf algebra. In contrast to the non-general case done in our previous work, here the van Est isomorphism is proved at the first level of a natural spectral sequence, rather than at the level of complexes. It is proved that the Connes-Moscovici Hopf algebras do not admit any finite dimensional SAYD modules except the unique one-dimensional one found by Connes-Moscovici in 1998. This is done by extending our techniques to work with the infinite dimensional Lie algebra of formal vector fields. At the end, the one to one correspondence is applied to construct a highly nontrivial four dimensional SAYD module over the Schwarzian Hopf algebra. We then illustrate the whole theory on this example. Finally explicit representative cocycles of the cohomology classes for this example are calculated.

  1. Algebraic Formulas for Areas between Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabai, Hyman

    1982-01-01

    Korean secondary school students preparing for college learn about a simple algebraic formula for area bounded by a parabola and line. The approach does not seem well-known among American students. It is noted that, while the formula derivations rely on integration, algebra students could use the formulas without proofs. (MP)

  2. Some Applications of Algebraic System Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Technology and, in particular, computer algebra systems, allows us to change both the way we teach mathematics and the mathematical curriculum. Curiously enough, unlike what happens with linear system solving, algebraic system solving is not widely known. The aim of this paper is to show that, although the theory lying behind the "exact…

  3. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  4. Practicing Algebraic Skills: A Conceptual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Alex; Arcavi, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, a considerable part of teaching and learning algebra has focused on routine practice and the application of rules, procedures, and techniques. Although today's computerized environments may have decreased the need to master algebraic skills, procedural competence is still a central component in any mathematical activity. However,…

  5. Success in Algebra among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Czarina

    2010-01-01

    College algebra is a required course for most majors, but is viewed by many as a gatekeeper course for degree completion by students. With almost half a million students taking college algebra each year, faculty are experimenting with new course lengths of time that might result in higher success, completion, and retention rates for college…

  6. Is Algebra Really Difficult for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2009-01-01

    Research studies have shown that students encounter difficulties in transitioning from arithmetic to algebra. Errors made by high school students were analyzed for patterns and their causes. The origins of errors were: intuitive assumptions, failure to understand the syntax of algebra, analogies with other familiar symbol systems such as the…

  7. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  8. 49 CFR 1152.10 - System diagram map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System diagram map. 1152.10 Section 1152.10... TRANSPORTATION UNDER 49 U.S.C. 10903 System Diagram § 1152.10 System diagram map. (a) Each carrier shall prepare a diagram of its rail system on a map, designating all lines in its system by the...

  9. Fishbone Diagrams: Organize Reading Content with a "Bare Bones" Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    Fishbone diagrams, also known as Ishikawa diagrams or cause-and-effect diagrams, are one of the many problem-solving tools created by Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a University of Tokyo professor. Part of the brilliance of Ishikawa's idea resides in the simplicity and practicality of the diagram's basic model--a fish's skeleton. This article describes how…

  10. Use of Affinity Diagrams as Instructional Tools in Inclusive Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselden, Polly G.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes how the affinity diagram, a tool for gathering information and organizing it into natural groupings, can be used in inclusive classrooms. It discusses how students can be taught to use an affinity diagram, how affinity diagrams can be used to reflect many voices, and how affinity diagrams can be used to plan class projects.…

  11. MODEL IDENTIFICATION AND COMPUTER ALGEBRA.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Kenneth A; Bauldry, Shawn

    2010-10-07

    Multiequation models that contain observed or latent variables are common in the social sciences. To determine whether unique parameter values exist for such models, one needs to assess model identification. In practice analysts rely on empirical checks that evaluate the singularity of the information matrix evaluated at sample estimates of parameters. The discrepancy between estimates and population values, the limitations of numerical assessments of ranks, and the difference between local and global identification make this practice less than perfect. In this paper we outline how to use computer algebra systems (CAS) to determine the local and global identification of multiequation models with or without latent variables. We demonstrate a symbolic CAS approach to local identification and develop a CAS approach to obtain explicit algebraic solutions for each of the model parameters. We illustrate the procedures with several examples, including a new proof of the identification of a model for handling missing data using auxiliary variables. We present an identification procedure for Structural Equation Models that makes use of CAS and that is a useful complement to current methods.

  12. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.

    1990-05-01

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  13. LINPACK. Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J.J.

    1982-05-02

    LINPACK is a collection of FORTRAN subroutines which analyze and solve various classes of systems of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. The collection deals with general, banded, symmetric indefinite, symmetric positive definite, triangular, and tridiagonal square matrices, as well as with least squares problems and the QR and singular value decompositions of rectangular matrices. A subroutine-naming convention is employed in which each subroutine name consists of five letters which represent a coded specification (TXXYY) of the computation done by that subroutine. The first letter, T, indicates the matrix data type. Standard FORTRAN allows the use of three such types: S REAL, D DOUBLE PRECISION, and C COMPLEX. In addition, some FORTRAN systems allow a double-precision complex type: Z COMPLEX*16. The second and third letters of the subroutine name, XX, indicate the form of the matrix or its decomposition: GE General, GB General band, PO Positive definite, PP Positive definite packed, PB Positive definite band, SI Symmetric indefinite, SP Symmetric indefinite packed, HI Hermitian indefinite, HP Hermitian indefinite packed, TR Triangular, GT General tridiagonal, PT Positive definite tridiagonal, CH Cholesky decomposition, QR Orthogonal-triangular decomposition, SV Singular value decomposition. The final two letters, YY, indicate the computation done by the particular subroutine: FA Factor, CO Factor and estimate condition, SL Solve, DI Determinant and/or inverse and/or inertia, DC Decompose, UD Update, DD Downdate, EX Exchange. The LINPACK package also includes a set of routines to perform basic vector operations called the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS).

  14. Hexagonal tessellations in image algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberly, David H.; Wenzel, Dennis J.; Longbotham, Harold G.

    1990-11-01

    In image algebra '' the concept of a coordinate set X is general in that such a set is simply a subset of ndimensional Euclidean space . The standard applications in 2-dimensional image processing use coordinate sets which are rectangular arrays X 72 x ZZm. However some applications may require other geometries for the coordinate set. We look at three such related applications in the context of image algebra. The first application is the modeling of photoreceptors in primate retinas. These receptors are inhomogeneously distributed on the retina. The largest receptor density occurs in the center of the fovea and decreases radially outwards. One can construct a hexagonal tessellation of the retina such that each hexagon contains approximately the same number of receptors. The resulting tessellation called a sunflower heart2 consists of concentric rings of hexagons whose sizes increase as the radius of the ring increases. The second application is the modeling of the primary visual . The neurons are assumed to be uniformly distributed as a regular hexagonal lattice. Cortical neural image coding is modeled by a recursive convolution of the retinal neural image using a special set of filters. The third application involves analysis of a hexagonally-tessellated image where the pixel resolution is variable .

  15. The Butterfly diagram leopard skin pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    2011-08-01

    A time-latitude diagram where spotgroups are given proportional relevance to their area is presented. The diagram reveals that the spotted area distribution is higly dishomogeneous, most of it being concentrated in few, small portions (``knots'') of the Butterfly Diagram; because of this structure, the BD may be properly described as a cluster of knots. The description, assuming that spots scatter around the ``spot mean latitude'' steadily drifting equatorward, is challenged. Indeed, spots cluster around at as many latitudes as knots; a knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in a seemingly random way; accordingly, the spot mean latitude abruptly drifts equatorward or even poleward at any knot activation, in spite of any smoothing procedure. Preliminary analyses suggest that the activity splits, in any hemisphere, into two or more distinct ``activity waves'', drifting equatorward at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  16. Generalization of n-ary Nambu algebras and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Ataguema, H.; Makhlouf, A.; Silvestrov, S.

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to introduce n-ary Hom-algebra structures generalizing the n-ary algebras of Lie type including n-ary Nambu algebras, n-ary Nambu-Lie algebras and n-ary Lie algebras, and n-ary algebras of associative type including n-ary totally associative and n-ary partially associative algebras. We provide examples of the new structures and present some properties and construction theorems. We describe the general method allowing one to obtain an n-ary Hom-algebra structure starting from an n-ary algebra and an n-ary algebra endomorphism. Several examples are derived using this process. Also we initiate investigation of classification problems for algebraic structures introduced in the article and describe all ternary three-dimensional Hom-Nambu-Lie structures with diagonal homomorphism.

  17. A Heck-Matsuda Process for the Synthesis of β-Arylethenesulfonyl Fluorides: Selectively Addressable Bis-electrophiles for SuFEx Click Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua-Li; Zheng, Qinheng; Bare, Grant A L; Wu, Peng; Sharpless, K Barry

    2016-11-02

    A Heck-Matsuda process for the synthesis of the otherwise difficult to access compounds, β-arylethenesulfonyl fluorides, is described. Ethenesulfonyl fluoride (i.e., vinylsulfonyl fluoride, or ESF) undergoes β-arylation with stable and readily prepared arenediazonium tetrafluoroborates in the presence of the catalyst palladium(II) acetate to afford the E-isomer sulfonyl analogues of cinnamoyl fluoride in 43-97 % yield. The β-arylethenesulfonyl fluorides are found to be selectively addressable bis-electrophiles for sulfur(VI) fluoride exchange (SuFEx) click chemistry, in which either the alkenyl moiety or the sulfonyl fluoride group can be the exclusive site of nucleophilic attack under defined conditions, making these rather simple cores attractive for covalent drug discovery.

  18. Effect of a weak magnetic field on the Mizoroki-Heck coupling reaction in the presence of wicker-like palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Joshaghani, Mohammad; Abadi, Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi

    2016-06-01

    The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe (palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron) was synthesized by the external magnetic field (EMF). The Pd-based catalyst with nano and the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure was obtained at room temperature without using any additive. The resulting composite was characterized. The results show that EMF has a great influence on morphology, particle size, and crystalline structure of the Pd-PVP-Fe composite. The resulting composite (Pd-PVP-Fe), was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction while is exposed to EMF with the intensity at 486 μT. The reused catalyst for at least five repeating cycles, shows excellent activity.

  19. Controlled synthesis of uniform palladium nanoparticles on novel micro-porous carbon as a recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Song, Kunpeng; Liu, Peng; Wang, Jingyu; Pang, Lei; Chen, Jian; Hussain, Irshad; Tan, Bien; Li, Tao

    2015-08-21

    Novel dual-porous carbon-supported palladium nanoparticle (Pd NP) catalysts were prepared by sequential carbonization and reduction of microporous organic polymer-encaged PdCl2. The diverse pore structure of microporous organic polymers provides a reservoir for the palladium precursors and prevents Pd NPs from sintering during the carbonization and reaction. The microporous structure has a significant effect on the size and dispersion of palladium NPs. The average size of the Pd NPs (in the range of 4-6 nm) was tuned by changing the pore size distribution and the carbonization temperature. The resulting carbon-supported Pd NPs were characterized by TEM, BET, XRD, and XPS and the Pd loading was calculated by AAS. The encaged Pd NP catalysts prepared by this methodology exhibited outstanding stability and reusability in the Heck reaction and could be reused at least 10 times without appreciable loss of activity.

  20. Accessing a Biologically Relevant Benzofuran Skeleton by a One-Pot Tandem Heck Alkynylation/Cyclization Reaction Using Well-Defined Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Gangwar, Manoj Kumar; Prakasham, A P; Mhatre, Darshan; Kalita, Alok Ch; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2016-03-21

    Well-defined palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes were employed in the one-pot tandem Heck alkynylation/cyclization sequence for preparing biologically relevant benzofuran compounds under copper-free conditions in a time-efficient step-reduced fashion. In particular, a series of binuclear palladium complexes, 1b-1e and 2b-2e, of the alkyl-bridged NHC ligands, namely, {1,1'-di-R1-4,4'-R2-di-1,2,4-triazoline-5,5'-diylid-2-ene] (R1 = i-Pr; R2 = -(CH2)2-, -(CH2)3-), and their mononuclear analogues, trans-(NHC)PdBr2(pyridine) (3b) and cis-(NHC)PdBr2(PPh3) (3c), successfully catalyzed the one-pot tandem Heck alkynylation/cyclization reaction of 2-iodophenol with a variety of terminal alkyne substrates, yielding 2-substituted benzofuran derivatives. The mononuclear complexes 3b and 3c were nearly half as active as the representative dinuclear analogue 1c under analogous reaction conditions, thereby implying that, at the same mole percent of the palladium loading, the monometallic 3b and 3c and the bimetallic 1c complexes were equally effective as catalysts. The two sites of the bimetallic complex 1c performed as two separate independent catalytic sites, displaying no cooperativity effect in the catalysis. Finally, the practical utility of the aforementioned catalysts was demonstrated for a representative catalyst 1c through the convenient synthesis of a key intermediate, 3-[2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-5-yl]propan-1-ol, in a total-synthesis protocol of the natural product Egonol.

  1. Dendrimer-templated Pd nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles synthesized by reverse microemulsions as efficient nanocatalysts for the Heck reaction: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Hyang; Meijboom, Reinout

    2014-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a dendrimer-templated method using G4, G5 and G6 PAMAM-OH dendrimers as well as a reverse microemulsion method using the water/dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (aerosol-OT, AOT) surfactant/isooctane system with water to surfactant ratios (ω0) of 5, 10 and 13. These 6 catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDX, and XRD. TEM micrographs showed that the average sizes of 2.74-3.32nm with narrower size distribution were achieved by using dendrimer-templated synthetic methods, whereas the reverse microemulsion method resulted in broad size distribution with an average size of 3.87-5.06nm. The influence of various reaction parameters such as base, catalyst dosing, alkene, aryl halide and temperature on the Heck C-C coupling reaction was evaluated. The activation parameters were derived from the reaction rate of each catalyst obtained at various temperatures. A correlation of catalytic activity, enthalpy of activation and particle size is discussed. Particle size changes of each catalyst were investigated after the catalytic reaction. Overall results indicated that dendrimer-templated Pd NP catalysts showed superior activity as compared to the Pd NPs synthesized by reverse microemulsions, with the dendrimer-templated G5-OH(Pd80) showing the best activity. These catalysts were also reusable for 3 cycles, retaining high yield and showing excellent yields under mild conditions. Therefore, the dendrimer-templated Pd NPs are efficient catalyst systems for the ligand-free Heck C-C coupling reaction.

  2. Valid Structure Diagrams and Chemical Gibberish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Stephen J.; Rankin, Kirk

    1972-01-01

    Chemical structure diagrams are considered as utterances in a written language. Two types of grammars are considered for this language: topological grammars and geometric grammars. The hypothesis is presented that compact computer storage may become accessible via grammars. (15 references) (Author/NH)

  3. Image Attributes: A Study of Scientific Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunskill, Jeff; Jorgensen, Corinne

    2002-01-01

    Discusses advancements in imaging technology and increased user access to digital images, as well as efforts to develop adequate indexing and retrieval methods for image databases. Describes preliminary results of a study of undergraduates that explored the attributes naive subjects use to describe scientific diagrams. (Author/LRW)

  4. The Binary Temperature-Composition Phase Diagram

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Philip C.; Reeves, James H.; Messina, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The equations for the liquid and gas lines in the binary temperature-composition phase diagram are derived by approximating that delta(H)[subscript vap] of the two liquids are equal. It is shown that within this approximation, the resulting equations are not too difficult to present in an undergraduate physical chemistry lecture.

  5. The Keynesian Diagram: A Cross to Bear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Juergen

    In elementary economics courses students are often introduced to the basic concepts of macroeconomics through very simplified static models, and the concept of a macroeconomic equilibrium is generally explained with the help of an aggregate demand/aggregate supply (AD/AS) model and an income/expenditure model (via the Keynesian cross diagram).…

  6. Computer-Generated Diagrams for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carle, Mark A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Describes 10 computer programs used to draw diagrams usually drawn on chalkboards, such as addition of three vectors, vector components, range of a projectile, lissajous figures, beats, isotherms, Snell's law, waves passing through a lens, magnetic field due to Helmholtz coils, and three curves. Several programming tips are included. (JN)

  7. Data Exploration: Transposition Operations in Dynamic Diagrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivasankaran, Vijay K.; Owen, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    Defines transposition operations (changing the way the display of the model proceeds) in diagrams within computer graphics. Describes transpositions that are spatial (moving the point of view or the point viewed), procedural (changing the flow of time), or organizational (arranging multiple simultaneous views and interjecting auxiliary measuring…

  8. Drawing conformal diagrams for a fractal landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Winitzki, Sergei

    2005-06-15

    Generic models of cosmological inflation and the recently proposed scenarios of a recycling universe and the string theory landscape predict spacetimes whose global geometry is a stochastic, self-similar fractal. To visualize the complicated causal structure of such a universe, one usually draws a conformal (Carter-Penrose) diagram. I develop a new method for drawing conformal diagrams, applicable to arbitrary 1+1-dimensional spacetimes. This method is based on a qualitative analysis of intersecting lightrays and thus avoids the need for explicit transformations of the spacetime metric. To demonstrate the power and simplicity of this method, I present derivations of diagrams for spacetimes of varying complication. I then apply the lightray method to three different models of an eternally inflating universe (scalar-field inflation, recycling universe, and string theory landscape) involving the nucleation of nested asymptotically flat, de Sitter and/or anti-de Sitter bubbles. I show that the resulting diagrams contain a characteristic fractal arrangement of lines.

  9. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  10. Dynamic Tactile Diagram Simplification on Refreshable Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, Ravi; Pawluk, Dianne T. V.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing use of visual diagrams in educational and work environments, and even our daily lives, has created obstacles for individuals who are blind or visually impaired to "independently" access the information they represent. Although physical tactile pictures can be created to convey the visual information, it is typically a slow,…

  11. Failure Diagram for Chemically Assisted Crack Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadananda, K.; Vasudevan, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    A failure diagram that combines the thresholds for failure of a smooth specimen to that of a fracture mechanics specimen, similar to the modified Kitagawa diagram in fatigue, is presented. For a given material/environment system, the diagram defines conditions under which a crack initiated at the threshold stress in a smooth specimen becomes a propagating crack, by satisfying the threshold stress intensity of a long crack. In analogy with fatigue, it is shown that internal stresses or local stress concentrations are required to provide the necessary mechanical crack tip driving forces, on one hand, and reaction/transportation kinetics to provide the chemical potential gradients, on the other. Together, they help in the initiation and propagation of the cracks. The chemical driving forces can be expressed as equivalent mechanical stresses using the failure diagram. Both internal stresses and their gradients, in conjunction with the chemical driving forces, have to meet the minimum magnitude and the minimum gradients to sustain the growth of a microcrack formed. Otherwise, nonpropagating conditions will prevail or a crack formed will remain dormant. It is shown that the processes underlying the crack nucleation in a smooth specimen and the crack growth of a fracture mechanics specimen are essentially the same. Both require building up of internal stresses by local plasticity. The process involves intermittent crack tip blunting and microcrack nucleation until the crack becomes unstable under the applied stress.

  12. Geometrical splitting and reduction of Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydychev, Andrei I.

    2016-10-01

    A geometrical approach to the calculation of N-point Feynman diagrams is reviewed. It is shown that the geometrical splitting yields useful connections between Feynman integrals with different momenta and masses. It is demonstrated how these results can be used to reduce the number of variables in the occurring functions.

  13. Complexities of One-Component Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccioli, Andrea; Glasser, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    For most materials, the solid at and near the triple-point temperature is denser than the liquid with which it is in equilibrium. However, for water and certain other materials, the densities of the phases are reversed, with the solid being less dense. The profound consequences for the appearance of the "pVT" diagram of one-component materials…

  14. Phase diagram of spiking neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Seyed-allaei, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    In computer simulations of spiking neural networks, often it is assumed that every two neurons of the network are connected by a probability of 2%, 20% of neurons are inhibitory and 80% are excitatory. These common values are based on experiments, observations, and trials and errors, but here, I take a different perspective, inspired by evolution, I systematically simulate many networks, each with a different set of parameters, and then I try to figure out what makes the common values desirable. I stimulate networks with pulses and then measure their: dynamic range, dominant frequency of population activities, total duration of activities, maximum rate of population and the occurrence time of maximum rate. The results are organized in phase diagram. This phase diagram gives an insight into the space of parameters – excitatory to inhibitory ratio, sparseness of connections and synaptic weights. This phase diagram can be used to decide the parameters of a model. The phase diagrams show that networks which are configured according to the common values, have a good dynamic range in response to an impulse and their dynamic range is robust in respect to synaptic weights, and for some synaptic weights they oscillates in α or β frequencies, independent of external stimuli. PMID:25788885

  15. On phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Cassak, P. A.; Drake, J. F.

    2013-06-15

    Recently, “phase diagrams” of magnetic reconnection were developed to graphically organize the present knowledge of what type, or phase, of reconnection is dominant in systems with given characteristic plasma parameters. Here, a number of considerations that require caution in using the diagrams are pointed out. First, two known properties of reconnection are omitted from the diagrams: the history dependence of reconnection and the absence of reconnection for small Lundquist number. Second, the phase diagrams mask a number of features. For one, the predicted transition to Hall reconnection should be thought of as an upper bound on the Lundquist number, and it may happen for considerably smaller values. Second, reconnection is never “slow,” it is always “fast” in the sense that the normalized reconnection rate is always at least 0.01. This has important implications for reconnection onset models. Finally, the definition of the relevant Lundquist number is nuanced and may differ greatly from the value based on characteristic scales. These considerations are important for applications of the phase diagrams. This is demonstrated by example for solar flares, where it is argued that it is unlikely that collisional reconnection can occur in the corona.

  16. Light polarization: A geometric-algebra approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, W. E.; Bonenfant, J.; Derbyshire, J.; Huschilt, J.

    1993-06-01

    The geometric algebra of three-dimensional space (the ``Pauli algebra'') is known to provide an efficient geometric description of electromagnetic phenomena. Here, it is applied to the three-dimensional Stokes subspace to describe the polarization of an approximately monochromatic collimated beam of electromagnetic radiation. The coherency density ρ is a real element of the algebra whose components are the four Stokes parameters: a scalar representing the total photon flux density plus a three-dimensional vector whose direction and length in the Poincaré sphere give the type and degree of polarization. The detection of the radiation and the incoherent and coherent modification of the polarization by various optical elements are calculated by algebraic multiplication which has faithful representations in 2×2 matrices. One matrix representation of ρ is the coherency matrix with which Jones and Mueller matrices are related whereas another representation is the spin density matrix. However, the calculations are simplest to perform and interpret in the algebraic form independent of any particular matrix representation. It is shown that any possible change in the Stokes parameters can be treated algebraically by a combination of attenuation, depolarization, polarization, and rotation transformations of ρ. The geometric algebra thus unifies Stokes parameters, the Poincaré sphere, Jones and Mueller matrices, and the coherency and density matrices in a single, simple formalism.

  17. Conformal current algebra in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Sujay K.; Benichou, Raphael; Troost, Jan

    2009-06-01

    We construct a non-chiral current algebra in two dimensions consistent with conformal invariance. We show that the conformal current algebra is realized in non-linear sigma-models on supergroup manifolds with vanishing Killing form, with or without a Wess-Zumino term. The current algebra is computed using two distinct methods. First we exploit special algebraic properties of supergroups to compute the exact two- and three-point functions of the currents and from them we infer the current algebra. The algebra is also calculated by using conformal perturbation theory about the Wess-Zumino-Witten point and resumming the perturbation series. We also prove that these models realize a non-chiral Kac-Moody algebra and construct an infinite set of commuting operators that is closed under the action of the Kac-Moody generators. The supergroup models that we consider include models with applications to statistical mechanics, condensed matter and string theory. In particular, our results may help to systematically solve and clarify the quantum integrability of PSU(n|n) models and their cosets, which appear prominently in string worldsheet models on anti-deSitter spaces.

  18. Working memory, worry, and algebraic ability.

    PubMed

    Trezise, Kelly; Reeve, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    Math anxiety (MA)-working memory (WM) relationships have typically been examined in the context of arithmetic problem solving, and little research has examined the relationship in other math domains (e.g., algebra). Moreover, researchers have tended to examine MA/worry separate from math problem solving activities and have used general WM tasks rather than domain-relevant WM measures. Furthermore, it seems to have been assumed that MA affects all areas of math. It is possible, however, that MA is restricted to particular math domains. To examine these issues, the current research assessed claims about the impact on algebraic problem solving of differences in WM and algebraic worry. A sample of 80 14-year-old female students completed algebraic worry, algebraic WM, algebraic problem solving, nonverbal IQ, and general math ability tasks. Latent profile analysis of worry and WM measures identified four performance profiles (subgroups) that differed in worry level and WM capacity. Consistent with expectations, subgroup membership was associated with algebraic problem solving performance: high WM/low worry>moderate WM/low worry=moderate WM/high worry>low WM/high worry. Findings are discussed in terms of the conceptual relationship between emotion and cognition in mathematics and implications for the MA-WM-performance relationship.

  19. Three-dimensional polarization algebra.

    PubMed

    R Sheppard, Colin J; Castello, Marco; Diaspro, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    If light is focused or collected with a high numerical aperture lens, as may occur in imaging and optical encryption applications, polarization should be considered in three dimensions (3D). The matrix algebra of polarization behavior in 3D is discussed. It is useful to convert between the Mueller matrix and two different Hermitian matrices, representing an optical material or system, which are in the literature. Explicit transformation matrices for converting the column vector form of these different matrices are extended to the 3D case, where they are large (81×81) but can be generated using simple rules. It is found that there is some advantage in using a generalization of the Chandrasekhar phase matrix treatment, rather than that based on Gell-Mann matrices, as the resultant matrices are of simpler form and reduce to the two-dimensional case more easily. Explicit expressions are given for 3D complex field components in terms of Chandrasekhar-Stokes parameters.

  20. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  1. Jucys-Murphy elements for Birman-Murakami-Wenzl algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. P.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2011-05-01

    The Burman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra, considered as the quotient of the braid group algebra, possesses the commutative set of Jucys-Murphy elements. We show that the set of Jucys-Murphy elements is maximal commutative for the generic Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebra and reconstruct the representation theory of the tower of Birman-Wenzl-Murakami algebras.

  2. Kinematical superalgebras and Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2008-06-15

    We study and classify kinematical algebras which appear in the framework of Lie superalgebras or Lie algebras of order 3. All these algebras are related through generalized Inonue-Wigner contractions from either the orthosymplectic superalgebra or the de Sitter Lie algebra of order 3.

  3. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operators for W algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Isaev, A. P.; Krivonos, S. O.; Ogievetsky, O. V.

    2008-07-15

    The study of quantum Lie algebras motivates a use of noncanonical ghosts and antighosts for nonlinear algebras, such as W-algebras. This leads, for the W{sub 3} and W{sub 3}{sup (2)} algebras, to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator having the conventional cubic form.

  4. On computational complexity of Clifford algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinich, Marco

    2009-05-01

    After a brief discussion of the computational complexity of Clifford algebras, we present a new basis for even Clifford algebra Cl(2m) that simplifies greatly the actual calculations and, without resorting to the conventional matrix isomorphism formulation, obtains the same complexity. In the last part we apply these results to the Clifford algebra formulation of the NP-complete problem of the maximum clique of a graph introduced by Budinich and Budinich ["A spinorial formulation of the maximum clique problem of a graph," J. Math. Phys. 47, 043502 (2006)].

  5. Gauged Ads-Maxwell Algebra and Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, R.; Kowalski-Glikman, J.; Szczachor, M.

    We deform the anti-de Sitter algebra by adding additional generators {Z}ab, forming in this way the negative cosmological constant counterpart of the Maxwell algebra. We gauge this algebra and construct a dynamical model with the help of a constrained BF theory. It turns out that the resulting theory is described by the Einstein-Cartan action with Holst term, and the gauge fields associated with the Maxwell generators {Z}ab appear only in topological terms that do not influence dynamical field equations. We briefly comment on the extension of this construction, which would lead to a nontrivial Maxwell fields dynamics.

  6. Homomorphisms between C*-algebras and linear derivations on C*-algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choonkil; Boo, Deok-Hoon; An, Jong Su

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that every almost unital almost linear mapping of a unital C*-algebra to a unital C*-algebra is a homomorphism when h(3nuy)=h(3nu)h(y) holds for all unitaries , all , and all , and that every almost unital almost linear continuous mapping of a unital C*-algebra of real rank zero to a unital C*-algebra is a homomorphism when h(3nuy)=h(3nu)h(y) holds for all , and v is invertible}, all , and all . Furthermore, we prove the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of *-homomorphisms between unital C*-algebras, and -linear *-derivations on unital C*-algebras. The concept of Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability originated from the Th.M. Rassias' stability theorem that appeared in his paper: On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 72 (1978) 297-300.

  7. Lie algebra type noncommutative phase spaces are Hopf algebroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meljanac, Stjepan; Škoda, Zoran; Stojić, Martina

    2016-11-01

    For a noncommutative configuration space whose coordinate algebra is the universal enveloping algebra of a finite-dimensional Lie algebra, it is known how to introduce an extension playing the role of the corresponding noncommutative phase space, namely by adding the commuting deformed derivatives in a consistent and nontrivial way; therefore, obtaining certain deformed Heisenberg algebra. This algebra has been studied in physical contexts, mainly in the case of the kappa-Minkowski space-time. Here, we equip the entire phase space algebra with a coproduct, so that it becomes an instance of a completed variant of a Hopf algebroid over a noncommutative base, where the base is the enveloping algebra.

  8. A note on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Kadison, Richard V.; Liu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A Murray–von Neumann algebra is the algebra of operators affiliated with a finite von Neumann algebra. In this article, we first present a brief introduction to the theory of derivations of operator algebras from both the physical and mathematical points of view. We then describe our recent work on derivations of Murray–von Neumann algebras. We show that the “extended derivations” of a Murray–von Neumann algebra, those that map the associated finite von Neumann algebra into itself, are inner. In particular, we prove that the only derivation that maps a Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a factor of type II1 into that factor is 0. Those results are extensions of Singer’s seminal result answering a question of Kaplansky, as applied to von Neumann algebras: The algebra may be noncommutative and may even contain unbounded elements. PMID:24469831

  9. A double commutant theorem for Murray–von Neumann algebras

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Murray–von Neumann algebras are algebras of operators affiliated with finite von Neumann algebras. In this article, we study commutativity and affiliation of self-adjoint operators (possibly unbounded). We show that a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of the Murray–von Neumann algebra associated with a finite von Neumann algebra is the Murray–von Neumann algebra , where is a maximal abelian self-adjoint subalgebra of and, in addition, is . We also prove that the Murray–von Neumann algebra with the center of is the center of the Murray–von Neumann algebra . Von Neumann’s celebrated double commutant theorem characterizes von Neumann algebras as those for which , where , the commutant of , is the set of bounded operators on the Hilbert space that commute with all operators in . At the end of this article, we present a double commutant theorem for Murray–von Neumann algebras. PMID:22543165

  10. Highest-weight representations of Brocherd`s algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Slansky, R.

    1997-01-01

    General features of highest-weight representations of Borcherd`s algebras are described. to show their typical features, several representations of Borcherd`s extensions of finite-dimensional algebras are analyzed. Then the example of the extension of affine- su(2) to a Borcherd`s algebra is examined. These algebras provide a natural way to extend a Kac-Moody algebra to include the hamiltonian and number-changing operators in a generalized symmetry structure.

  11. BiHom-Associative Algebras, BiHom-Lie Algebras and BiHom-Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graziani, Giacomo; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Menini, Claudia; Panaite, Florin

    2015-10-01

    A BiHom-associative algebra is a (nonassociative) algebra A endowed with two commuting multiplicative linear maps α,β\\colon A→ A such that α (a)(bc)=(ab)β (c), for all a, b, cin A. This concept arose in the study of algebras in so-called group Hom-categories. In this paper, we introduce as well BiHom-Lie algebras (also by using the categorical approach) and BiHom-bialgebras. We discuss these new structures by presenting some basic properties and constructions (representations, twisted tensor products, smash products etc).

  12. Using Schemas to Develop Algebraic Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Diana F.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes ways in which students develop schemas as they generalize and formalize patterns when solving related algebraic problems that involve size, shape, growth, and change. (Contains 7 figures and 3 tables.)

  13. Cohomological invariants of central simple algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkurjev, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    We determine the indecomposable degree 3 cohomological invariants of tuples of central simple algebras with linear relations. Equivalently, we determine the degree 3 reductive cohomological invariants of all split semisimple groups of type A.

  14. Cyclic Cocycles on Twisted Convolution Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angel, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    We give a construction of cyclic cocycles on convolution algebras twisted by gerbes over discrete translation groupoids. For proper étale groupoids, Tu and Xu (Adv Math 207(2):455-483, 2006) provide a map between the periodic cyclic cohomology of a gerbe-twisted convolution algebra and twisted cohomology groups which is similar to the construction of Mathai and Stevenson (Adv Math 200(2):303-335, 2006). When the groupoid is not proper, we cannot construct an invariant connection on the gerbe; therefore to study this algebra, we instead develop simplicial techniques to construct a simplicial curvature 3-form representing the class of the gerbe. Then by using a JLO formula we define a morphism from a simplicial complex twisted by this simplicial curvature 3-form to the mixed bicomplex computing the periodic cyclic cohomology of the twisted convolution algebras.

  15. ALGEBRAIC DEPENDENCE THEOREMS ON COMPLEX PSEUDOCONCAVE SPACES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The notion of pseudoconcave space is introduced and classical theorems on algebraic dependence of meromorphic functions are extended for this new class of spaces and for sections in a coherent sheaf. (Author)

  16. Applications: Using Algebra in an Accounting Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Gail A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents examples of algebra from the field of accounting including proportional ownership of stock, separation of a loan payment into principal and interest portions, depreciation methods, and salary withholdings computations. (MKR)

  17. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  18. The integrable case of Adler-van Moerbeke. Discriminant set and bifurcation diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, Pavel E.; Oshemkov, Andrej A.; Sokolov, Sergei V.

    2016-09-01

    The Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case of the Euler equations on the Lie algebra so(4) is investigated. For the L- A pair found by Reyman and Semenov-Tian-Shansky for this system, we explicitly present a spectral curve and construct the corresponding discriminant set. The singularities of the Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case and its bifurcation diagram are discussed. We explicitly describe singular points of rank 0, determine their types, and show that the momentum mapping takes them to self-intersection points of the real part of the discriminant set. In particular, the described structure of singularities of the Adler-van Moerbeke integrable case shows that it is topologically different from the other known integrable cases on so(4).

  19. Algebraic operator approach to gas kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ichov, L. V.

    1997-02-01

    Some general properties of the linear Boltzmann kinetic equation are used to present it in the form ∂ tϕ = - †Âϕ with the operators Âand† possessing some nontrivial algebraic properties. When applied to the Keilson-Storer kinetic model, this method gives an example of quantum ( q-deformed) Lie algebra. This approach provides also a natural generalization of the “kangaroo model”.

  20. Dynamical systems and quantum bicrossproduct algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Oscar; del Olmo, Mariano A.

    2002-06-01

    We present a unified study of some aspects of quantum bicrossproduct algebras of inhomogeneous Lie algebras, such as Poincaré, Galilei and Euclidean in N dimensions. The action associated with the bicrossproduct structure allows us to obtain a nonlinear action over a new group linked to the translations. This new nonlinear action associates a dynamical system with each generator which is the object of our study.

  1. Algebra and topology for applications to physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozhkov, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    The principal concepts of algebra and topology are examined with emphasis on applications to physics. In particular, attention is given to sets and mapping; topological spaces and continuous mapping; manifolds; and topological groups and Lie groups. The discussion also covers the tangential spaces of the differential manifolds, including Lie algebras, vector fields, and differential forms, properties of differential forms, mapping of tangential spaces, and integration of differential forms.

  2. Vague Congruences and Quotient Lattice Implication Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further develop the congruence theory on lattice implication algebras. Firstly, we introduce the notions of vague similarity relations based on vague relations and vague congruence relations. Secondly, the equivalent characterizations of vague congruence relations are investigated. Thirdly, the relation between the set of vague filters and the set of vague congruences is studied. Finally, we construct a new lattice implication algebra induced by a vague congruence, and the homomorphism theorem is given. PMID:25133207

  3. Edge covers and independence: Algebraic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinina, E. A.; Khitrov, G. M.; Pogozhev, S. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, linear algebra methods are applied to solve some problems of graph theory. For ordinary connected graphs, edge coverings and independent sets are considered. Some results concerning minimum edge covers and maximum matchings are proved with the help of linear algebraic approach. The problem of finding a maximum matching of a graph is fundamental both practically and theoretically, and has numerous applications, e.g., in computational chemistry and mathematical chemistry.

  4. Algebraic Sub-Structuring for Electromagnetic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Gao, W.G.; Bai, Z.J.; Li, X.Y.S.; Lee, L.Q.; Husbands, P.; Ng, E.G.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Davis /SLAC

    2006-06-30

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, they show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  5. Algebraic sub-structuring for electromagnetic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao; Gao, Weiguo; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Xiaoye; Lee, Lie-Quan; Husbands, Parry; Ng, Esmond G.

    2004-09-14

    Algebraic sub-structuring refers to the process of applying matrix reordering and partitioning algorithms to divide a large sparse matrix into smaller submatrices from which a subset of spectral components are extracted and combined to form approximate solutions to the original problem. In this paper, we show that algebraic sub-structuring can be effectively used to solve generalized eigenvalue problems arising from the finite element analysis of an accelerator structure.

  6. Finding and accessing diagrams in biomedical publications.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts.

  7. Phase diagram of UCoGe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineev, V. P.

    2017-03-01

    The temperature-pressure phase diagram of ferromagnetic superconductor UCoGe includes four phase transitions. They are between the paramagnetic and the ferromagnetic states with the subsequent transition in the superconducting ferromagnetic state and between the normal and the superconducting states after which the transition to the superconducting ferromagnetic state has to occur. Here we have developed the Landau theory description of the phase diagram and established the specific ordering arising at each type of transition. The phase transitions to the ferromagnetic superconducting state are inevitably accompanied by the emergence of screening currents. The corresponding magnetostatics considerations allow for establishing the significant difference between the transition from the ferromagnetic to the ferromagnetic superconducting state and the transition from the superconducting to the ferromagnetic superconducting state.

  8. Flamelet Regime Diagram for Turbulent Combustion Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai Lee; Ihme, Matthias; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    The flamelet model has been widely used in numerical combustion investigations, particularly for the closure of large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. In most cases, the simulation results demonstrated good agreements with their experimental counterparts. However, a systematic analysis of the flamelet model's applicability, as well as its potential limitations, is seldom conducted, and the model performance is usually based only on a-posteriori comparisons. The objective of this work is to derive a metric that can formally quantify the suitability of the flamelet model in different flame configurations. For this purpose, a flamelet regime diagram has been developed and studied in the context of direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a turbulent lifted jet flame. The implementation of the regime diagram in LES has been investigated through explicit filtering of the DNS results.

  9. Diagrams of stability of circumbinary planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Elena

    2014-07-01

    The stability diagrams in the ``pericentric distance - eccentricity'' plane of initial data are built and analyzed for Kepler-38, Kepler-47, and Kepler-64 (PH1). This completes a survey of stability of the known up to now circumbinary planetary systems, initiated by Popova & Shevchenko (2013), where the analysis was performed for Kepler-16, 34, and 35. In the diagrams, the planets appear to be ``embedded'' in the fractal chaos border; however, I make an attempt to measure the ``distance'' to the chaos border in a physically consistent way. The obtained distances are compared to those given by the widely used numerical-experimental criterion by Holman & Wiegert (1999), who employed smooth polynomial approximations to describe the border. I identify the resonance cells, hosting the planets.

  10. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  11. Modeling the Round Earth through Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalkar, Shamin; Ramadas, Jayashree

    Earlier studies have found that students, including adults, have problems understanding the scientifically accepted model of the Sun-Earth-Moon system and explaining day-to-day astronomical phenomena based on it. We have been examining such problems in the context of recent research on visual-spatial reasoning. Working with middle school students in India, we have developed a pedagogical sequence to build the mental model of the Earth and tried it in three schools for socially and educationally disadvantaged students. This pedagogy was developed on the basis of (1) a reading of current research in imagery and visual-spatial reasoning and (2) students' difficulties identified during the course of pretests and interviews. Visual-spatial tools such as concrete (physical) models, gestures, and diagrams are used extensively in the teaching sequence. The building of a mental model is continually integrated with drawing inferences to understand and explain everyday phenomena. The focus of this article is inferences drawn with diagrams.

  12. Prediction of boron carbon nitrogen phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Sanxi; Zhang, Hantao; Widom, Michael

    We studied the phase diagram of boron, carbon and nitrogen, including the boron-carbon and boron-nitrogen binaries and the boron-carbon-nitrogen ternary. Based on the idea of electron counting and using a technique of mixing similar primitive cells, we constructed many ''electron precise'' structures. First principles calculation is performed on these structures, with either zero or high pressures. For the BN binary, our calculation confirms that a rhmobohedral phase can be stablized at high pressure, consistent with some experimental results. For the BCN ternary, a new ground state structure is discovered and an Ising-like phase transition is suggested. Moreover, we modeled BCN ternary phase diagram and show continuous solubility from boron carbide to the boron subnitride phase.

  13. Penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Weonjong

    2005-01-01

    We calculate, at the one-loop level, penguin diagrams for improved staggered fermion operators constructed using various fat links. The main result is that diagonal mixing coefficients with penguin operators are identical between the unimproved operators and the improved operators using such fat links as Fat7, Fat7+Lepage, Fat7, HYP (I) and HYP (II). In addition, it turns out that the off-diagonal mixing vanishes for those constructed using fat links of Fat7, Fat7 and HYP (II). This is a consequence of the fact that the improvement by various fat links changes only the mixing with higher dimension operators and off-diagonal operators. The results of this paper, combined with those for current-current diagrams, provide complete matching at the one-loop level with all corrections of O(g{sup 2}) included.

  14. Phase diagram of silica from computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Sciortino, Francesco; Grande, Tor; Poole, Peter H.

    2004-12-01

    We evaluate the phase diagram of the “BKS” potential [van Beest, Kramer, and van Santen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1955 (1990)], a model of silica widely used in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We conduct MD simulations of the liquid, and three crystals ( β -quartz, coesite, and stishovite) over wide ranges of temperature and density, and evaluate the total Gibbs free energy of each phase. The phase boundaries are determined by the intersection of these free energy surfaces. Not unexpectedly for a classical pair potential, our results reveal quantitative discrepancies between the locations of the BKS and real silica phase boundaries. At the same time, we find that the topology of the real phase diagram is reproduced, confirming that the BKS model provides a satisfactory qualitative description of a silicalike material. We also compare the phase boundaries with the locations of liquid-state thermodynamic anomalies identified in previous studies of the BKS model.

  15. Finding and Accessing Diagrams in Biomedical Publications

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Tobias; Luong, ThaiBinh; Krauthammer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Complex relationships in biomedical publications are often communicated by diagrams such as bar and line charts, which are a very effective way of summarizing and communicating multi-faceted data sets. Given the ever-increasing amount of published data, we argue that the precise retrieval of such diagrams is of great value for answering specific and otherwise hard-to-meet information needs. To this end, we demonstrate the use of advanced image processing and classification for identifying bar and line charts by the shape and relative location of the different image elements that make up the charts. With recall and precisions of close to 90% for the detection of relevant figures, we discuss the use of this technology in an existing biomedical image search engine, and outline how it enables new forms of literature queries over biomedical relationships that are represented in these charts. PMID:23304318

  16. Lie n-algebras of BPS charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sati, Hisham; Schreiber, Urs

    2017-03-01

    We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie ( p + 1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie ( p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane charges as they are lifted from ordinary cohomology to twisted K-theory. This supports the proposal that M-brane charges live in a twisted cohomology theory.

  17. Displaying multimedia environmental partitioning by triangular diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.C.; Mackay, D.

    1995-11-01

    It is suggested that equilateral triangular diagrams are a useful method of depicting the equilibrium partitioning of organic chemicals among the three primary environmental media of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the organosphere (natural organic matter and biotic lipids and waxes). The technique is useful for grouping chemicals into classes according to their partitioning tendencies, for depicting the incremental effects of substituents such as alkyl groups and chlorine, and for showing how partitioning changes in response to changes in temperature.

  18. Phase diagram of a traffic roundabout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2007-09-01

    We propose a simple cellular automaton model to study the traffic dynamics in a roundabout. Both numerical and analytical results are presented. We are able to obtain exact solutions in the full parameter space. Exact phase diagrams are derived. When the traffic from two directions mixed, there are only five distinct phases. Some of the combinations from naive intuition are strictly forbidden. We also compare the results to a signaled intersection.

  19. Sketching for Military Courses of Action Diagrams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Course-of- Action Diagrams. Proceedings of the 14th International Workshop on Qualitative Reasoning. Morelia, Mexico . June, 2000. 10. Forbus, K...computational model of sketching. IUI’01, January 14-17, 2001, Santa Fe, New Mexico 15. Forbus, K., Gentner, D. and Law, K. 1995. MAC/FAC: A...Operations 2002. pp. 85- 90. 22. Landay, J. and Myers, B. 1996. Sketching storyboards to illustrate interface behaviors. CHI’96 Conference Companion

  20. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S.; O`Brien, M.; Rudin, M.; Ferguson, J.; McFee, J.

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  1. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement, Interior. ACTION... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas,...

  2. NEW APPROACHES: Using free body diagrams as a diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Peter

    1996-09-01

    A selection of `Free Body Diagrams' were completed by Advanced Level physics students prior to instruction. The diagrams drawn pointed to a range of understandings and conceptions held by the students that might help to guide instructional strategies.

  3. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  4. Automated D/3 to Visio Analog Diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Posey, Stephen B.

    2000-08-10

    ADVAD1 reads an ASCII file containing the D/3 DCS MDL input for analog points for a D/3 continuous database. It uses the information in the files to create a series of Visio files representing the structure of each analog chain, one drawing per Visio file. The actual drawing function is performed by Visio (requires Visio version 4.5+). The user can configure the program to select which fields in the database are shown on the diagram and how the information is to be presented. This gives a visual representation of the structure of the analog chains, showing selected fields in a consistent manner. Updating documentation can be done easily and the automated approach eliminates human error in the cadding process. The program can also create the drawings far faster than a human operator is capable, able to create approximately 270 typical diagrams in about 8 minutes on a Pentium II 400 MHz PC. The program allows for multiple option sets to be saved to provide different settings (i.e., different fields, different field presentations, and /or different diagram layouts) for various scenarios or facilities on one workstation. Option sets may be exported from the Windows registry to allow duplication of settings on another workstation.

  5. Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.

  6. Asteroseismic Diagram for Subgiants and Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Ning; Tang, Yanke; Yu, Peng; Dou, Xianghua

    2017-02-01

    Asteroseismology is a powerful tool for constraining stellar parameters. NASA’s Kepler mission is providing individual eigenfrequencies for a huge number of stars, including thousands of red giants. Besides the frequencies of acoustic modes, an important breakthrough of the Kepler mission is the detection of nonradial gravity-dominated mixed-mode oscillations in red giants. Unlike pure acoustic modes, mixed modes probe deeply into the interior of stars, allowing the stellar core properties and evolution of stars to be derived. In this work, using the gravity-mode period spacing and the large frequency separation, we construct the ΔΠ1–Δν asteroseismic diagram from models of subgiants and red giants with various masses and metallicities. The relationship ΔΠ1–Δν is able to constrain the ages and masses of the subgiants. Meanwhile, for red giants with masses above 1.5 M ⊙, the ΔΠ1–Δν asteroseismic diagram can also work well to constrain the stellar age and mass. Additionally, we calculate the relative “isochrones” τ, which indicate similar evolution states especially for similar mass stars, on the ΔΠ1–Δν diagram.

  7. Nonthermal Radio Emission and the HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Perhaps the most reliable indicator of non-radiative heating/momentum in a stellar atmosphere is the presence of nonthermal radio emission. To date, 77 normal stellar objects have been detected and identified as nonthermal sources. These stellar objects are tabulated herein. It is apparent that non-thermal radio emission is not ubiquitous across the HR diagram. This is clearly the case for the single stars; it is not as clear for the binaries unless the radio emission is associated with their late-type components. Choosing to make this association, the single stars and the late-type components are plotted together. The following picture emerges: (1) there are four locations on the HR diagram where non-thermal radio stars are found; (2) the peak incoherent 5 GHz luminosities show a suprisingly small range for stars within each class; (3) the fraction of stellar energy that escapes as radio emission can be estimated by comparing the integrated maximum radio luminosity to the bolometric luminosity; (4) there are no apparent differences in L sub R between binaries with two cool components, binaries with one hot and one cool component, and single stars for classes C and D; and (5) The late-type stars (classes B, C, and D) are located in parts of the HR diagram where there is reason to suspect that the surfaces of the stars are being braked with respect to their interiors.

  8. The Critical Importance of Russell's Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    2013-04-01

    The idea of dwarf and giants stars, but not the nomenclature, was first established by Eijnar Hertzsprung in 1905; his first diagrams in support appeared in 1911. In 1913 Henry Norris Russell could demonstrate the effect far more strikingly because he measured the parallaxes of many stars at Cambridge, and could plot absolute magnitude against spectral type for many points. The general concept of dwarf and giant stars was essential in the galactic structure work of Harlow Shapley, Russell's first graduate student. In order to calibrate the period-luminosity relation of Cepheid variables, he was obliged to fall back on statistical parallax using only 11 Cepheids, a very sparse sample. Here the insight provided by the Russell diagram became critical. The presence of yellow K giant stars in globular clusters credentialed his calibration of the period-luminosity relation by showing that the calibrated luminosity of the Cepheids was comparable to the luminosity of the K giants. It is well known that in 1920 Shapley did not believe in the cosmological distances of Heber Curtis' spiral nebulae. It is not so well known that in 1920 Curtis' plot of the period-luminosity relation suggests that he didn't believe it was a physical relation and also he failed to appreciate the significance of the Russell diagram for understanding the large size of the Milky Way.

  9. Towards Cohomology of Renormalization: Bigrading the Combinatorial Hopf Algebra of Rooted Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadhurst, D. J.; Kreimer, D.

    The renormalization of quantum field theory twists the antipode of a noncocommutative Hopf algebra of rooted trees, decorated by an infinite set of primitive divergences. The Hopf algebra of undecorated rooted trees, ℌR, generated by a single primitive divergence, solves a universal problem in Hochschild cohomology. It has two nontrivial closed Hopf subalgebras: the cocommutative subalgebra ℌladder of pure ladder diagrams and the Connes-Moscovici noncocommutative subalgebra ℌCM of noncommutative geometry. These three Hopf algebras admit a bigrading by n, the number of nodes, and an index k that specifies the degree of primitivity. In each case, we use iterations of the relevant coproduct to compute the dimensions of subspaces with modest values of n and k and infer a simple generating procedure for the remainder. The results for ℌladder are familiar from the theory of partitions, while those for ℌCM involve novel transforms of partitions. Most beautiful is the bigrading of ℌR, the largest of the three. Thanks to Sloane's superseeker, we discovered that it saturates all possible inequalities. We prove this by using the universal Hochschild-closed one-cocycle B+, which plugs one set of divergences into another, and by generalizing the concept of natural growth beyond that entailed by the Connes-Moscovici case. We emphasize the yet greater challenge of handling the infinite set of decorations of realistic quantum field theory.

  10. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  11. The Problem of Labels in E-Assessment of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayal, Ambikesh; Shepperd, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this article we explore a problematic aspect of automated assessment of diagrams. Diagrams have partial and sometimes inconsistent semantics. Typically much of the meaning of a diagram resides in the labels; however, the choice of labeling is largely unrestricted. This means a correct solution may utilize differing yet semantically equivalent…

  12. Students' Learning Activities While Studying Biological Process Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kragten, Marco; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Process diagrams describe how a system functions (e.g. photosynthesis) and are an important type of representation in Biology education. In the present study, we examined students' learning activities while studying process diagrams, related to their resulting comprehension of these diagrams. Each student completed three learning tasks. Verbal…

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This executive summary contains a description of the logic diagram format; some examples from the diagram (Vol. 2) and associated technology evaluation data sheets (Vol. 3); a complete (albeit condensed) listing of the RA, D&D, and WM problems at ORNL; and a complete listing of the technology rankings for all the areas covered by the diagram.

  14. Science Visual Literacy: Learners' Perceptions and Knowledge of Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTigue, Erin M.; Flowers, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Constructing meaning from science texts relies not only on comprehending the words but also the diagrams and other graphics. The goal of this study was to explore elementary students' perceptions of science diagrams and their skills related to diagram interpretation. 30 students, ranging from second grade through middle school, completed a diagram…

  15. I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra and Algebra. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "I CAN Learn[R] Pre-Algebra" and "Algebra" computerized curricula are designed to cover mathematics and problem-solving skills for ethnically diverse, inner-city students in grades 6-12. The curricula are designed to equip students with the skills they need to meet district, state, and national math objectives through an…

  16. Card Games and Algebra Tic Tacmatics on Achievement of Junior Secondary II Students in Algebraic Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpube, Nnaemeka Michael; Anugwo, M. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Card Games and Algebra tic-Tacmatics on Junior Secondary II Students' Achievement in Algebraic Expressions. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test control group design. A total of two hundred and forty (240) Junior Secondary School II students were…

  17. Developing "Algebraic Thinking": Two Key Ways to Establish Some Early Algebraic Ideas in Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Primary teachers play a key role in their students' future mathematical success in the early secondary years. While the word "algebra" may make some primary teachers feel uncomfortable or worried, the basic arithmetic ideas underlying algebra are vitally important for older primary students as they are increasingly required to use "algebraic…

  18. The Application of a Computer Algebra System as a Tool in College Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Robert L.

    1995-01-01

    Students (n=61) in an experimental course stressing active student involvement and the use of a computer algebra system scored higher than students (n=76) in a traditional college algebra course on final measures of inductive reasoning, visualization, and problem solving while maintaining equivalent manipulation and computation skills. (Author/MLB)

  19. Algebra Is a Civil Right: Increasing Achievement for African American Males in Algebra through Collaborative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies Gomez, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Algebra is the gatekeeper of access to higher-level math and science courses, higher education and future earning opportunities. Unequal numbers of African-American males drop out of Algebra and mathematics courses and underperform on tests of mathematical competency and are thus denied both essential skills and a particularly important pathway to…

  20. Integrand Reduction Reloaded: Algebraic Geometry and Finite Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, Ray D.; Ferroglia, Andrea; Ossola, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory allows us to compare the phenomenological prediction of particle theory with the measurement at collider experiments. The study of scattering amplitudes, in terms of their symmetries and analytic properties, provides a theoretical framework to develop techniques and efficient algorithms for the evaluation of physical cross sections and differential distributions. Tree-level calculations have been known for a long time. Loop amplitudes, which are needed to reduce the theoretical uncertainty, are more challenging since they involve a large number of Feynman diagrams, expressed as integrals of rational functions. At one-loop, the problem has been solved thanks to the combined effect of integrand reduction, such as the OPP method, and unitarity. However, plenty of work is still needed at higher orders, starting with the two-loop case. Recently, integrand reduction has been revisited using algebraic geometry. In this presentation, we review the salient features of integrand reduction for dimensionally regulated Feynman integrals, and describe an interesting technique for their reduction based on multivariate polynomial division. We also show a novel approach to improve its efficiency by introducing finite fields. Supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1417354.

  1. Ternary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras induced by Hom-Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnlind, Joakim; Makhlouf, Abdenacer; Silvestrov, Sergei

    2010-04-01

    The need to consider n-ary algebraic structures, generalizing Lie and Poisson algebras, has become increasingly important in physics, and it should therefore be of interest to study the mathematical concepts related to n-ary algebras. The purpose of this paper is to investigate ternary multiplications (as deformations of n-Lie structures) constructed from the binary multiplication of a Hom-Lie algebra, a linear twisting map, and a trace function satisfying certain compatibility conditions. We show that the relation between the kernels of the twisting maps and the trace function plays an important role in this context and provide examples of Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras obtained using this construction.

  2. Classification of central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2008-11-18

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as further developments of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. They are infinite dimensional Lie algebras of current type with meromorphic objects on compact Riemann surfaces (resp. algebraic curves) as elements. Here we report on joint work with Oleg Sheinman on the classification of their almost-graded central extensions. It turns out that in case that the finite-dimensional Lie algebra on which the Lax operator algebra is based on is simple there is a unique almost-graded central extension up to equivalence and rescaling of the central element.

  3. Linearizing W2,4 and WB2 algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.; Sorin, A.

    1995-02-01

    It has recently been shown that the W3 and W3(2) algebras can be considered as subalgebras in some linear conformal algebras. In this paper we show that the nonlinear algebras W2,4 and WB2 as well as Zamolodchikov's spin {5}/{2} superalgebra also can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear conformal algebras with a finite set of currents. These linear algebras give rise to new realizations of the nonlinear algebras which could be suitable in the construction of W-string theories.

  4. Classification of central extensions of Lax operator algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Lax operator algebras were introduced by Krichever and Sheinman as further developments of Krichever's theory of Lax operators on algebraic curves. They are infinite dimensional Lie algebras of current type with meromorphic objects on compact Riemann surfaces (resp. algebraic curves) as elements. Here we report on joint work with Oleg Sheinman on the classification of their almost-graded central extensions. It turns out that in case that the finite-dimensional Lie algebra on which the Lax operator algebra is based on is simple there is a unique almost-graded central extension up to equivalence and rescaling of the central element.

  5. Sinc function representation and three-loop master diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Easther, Richard; Guralnik, Gerald; Hahn, Stephen

    2001-04-15

    We test the Sinc function representation, a novel method for numerically evaluating Feynman diagrams, by using it to evaluate the three-loop master diagrams. Analytical results have been obtained for all these diagrams, and we find excellent agreement between our calculations and the exact values. The Sinc function representation converges rapidly, and it is straightforward to obtain accuracies of 1 part in 10{sup 6} for these diagrams and with longer runs we found results better than 1 part in 10{sup 12}. Finally, this paper extends the Sinc function representation to diagrams containing massless propagators.

  6. TBGG- INTERACTIVE ALGEBRAIC GRID GENERATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    TBGG, Two-Boundary Grid Generation, applies an interactive algebraic grid generation technique in two dimensions. The program incorporates mathematical equations that relate the computational domain to the physical domain. TBGG has application to a variety of problems using finite difference techniques, such as computational fluid dynamics. Examples include the creation of a C-type grid about an airfoil and a nozzle configuration in which no left or right boundaries are specified. The underlying two-boundary technique of grid generation is based on Hermite cubic interpolation between two fixed, nonintersecting boundaries. The boundaries are defined by two ordered sets of points, referred to as the top and bottom. Left and right side boundaries may also be specified, and call upon linear blending functions to conform interior interpolation to the side boundaries. Spacing between physical grid coordinates is determined as a function of boundary data and uniformly spaced computational coordinates. Control functions relating computational coordinates to parametric intermediate variables that affect the distance between grid points are embedded in the interpolation formulas. A versatile control function technique with smooth cubic spline functions is also presented. The TBGG program is written in FORTRAN 77. It works best in an interactive graphics environment where computational displays and user responses are quickly exchanged. The program has been implemented on a CDC Cyber 170 series computer using NOS 2.4 operating system, with a central memory requirement of 151,700 (octal) 60 bit words. TBGG requires a Tektronix 4015 terminal and the DI-3000 Graphics Library of Precision Visuals, Inc. TBGG was developed in 1986.

  7. Generic Phase Diagram of Binary Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Alexei

    Emergence of a large variety of self-assembled superlattices is a dramatic recent trend in the fields of nanoparticle and colloidal sciences. Motivated by this development, we propose a model that combines simplicity with a remarkably rich phase behavior, applicable to a wide range of such self-assembled systems. Those include nanoparticle and colloidal assemblies driven by DNA-mediated interactions, electrostatics, and possibly, by controlled drying. In our model, a binary system of Large and Small hard sphere (L and S)interact via selective short-range (''sticky'') attraction. In its simplest version, this Binary Sticky Sphere model features attraction only between 'S' and 'L' particles, respectively. We demonstrate that in the limit when this attraction is sufficiently strong compared to kT, the problem becomes purely geometrical: the thermodynamically preferred state should maximize the number of S-L contacts. A general procedure for constructing the phase diagram as a function of system composition f, and particle size ratio r, is outlined. In this way, the global phase behavior can be calculated very efficiently, for a given set of plausible candidate phases. Furthermore, the geometric nature of the problem enables us to generate those candidate phases through a well defined and intuitive construction. We calculate the phase diagrams both for 2D and 3D systems, and compare the results with existing experiments. Most of the 3D superlattices observed to date are featured in our phase diagram, while several more are yet to be discovered. The research was carried out at the CFN, DOE Office of Science Facility, at BNL, under Contract No. DE-SC0012704.

  8. State-transition diagrams for biologists.

    PubMed

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines.

  9. State-Transition Diagrams for Biologists

    PubMed Central

    Bersini, Hugues; Klatzmann, David; Six, Adrien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    It is clearly in the tradition of biologists to conceptualize the dynamical evolution of biological systems in terms of state-transitions of biological objects. This paper is mainly concerned with (but obviously not limited too) the immunological branch of biology and shows how the adoption of UML (Unified Modeling Language) state-transition diagrams can ease the modeling, the understanding, the coding, the manipulation or the documentation of population-based immune software model generally defined as a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE), describing the evolution in time of populations of various biological objects. Moreover, that same UML adoption naturally entails a far from negligible representational economy since one graphical item of the diagram might have to be repeated in various places of the mathematical model. First, the main graphical elements of the UML state-transition diagram and how they can be mapped onto a corresponding ODE mathematical model are presented. Then, two already published immune models of thymocyte behavior and time evolution in the thymus, the first one originally conceived as an ODE population-based model whereas the second one as an agent-based one, are refactored and expressed in a state-transition form so as to make them much easier to understand and their respective code easier to access, to modify and run. As an illustrative proof, for any immunologist, it should be possible to understand faithfully enough what the two software models are supposed to reproduce and how they execute with no need to plunge into the Java or Fortran lines. PMID:22844438

  10. Comprehending 3D Diagrams: Sketching to Support Spatial Reasoning.

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Kristin M; Atit, Kinnari; Ormand, Carol J; Shipley, Thomas F

    2016-11-25

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines commonly illustrate 3D relationships in diagrams, yet these are often challenging for students. Failing to understand diagrams can hinder success in STEM because scientific practice requires understanding and creating diagrammatic representations. We explore a new approach to improving student understanding of diagrams that convey 3D relations that is based on students generating their own predictive diagrams. Participants' comprehension of 3D spatial diagrams was measured in a pre- and post-design where students selected the correct 2D slice through 3D geologic block diagrams. Generating sketches that predicated the internal structure of a model led to greater improvement in diagram understanding than visualizing the interior of the model without sketching, or sketching the model without attempting to predict unseen spatial relations. In addition, we found a positive correlation between sketched diagram accuracy and improvement on the diagram comprehension measure. Results suggest that generating a predictive diagram facilitates students' abilities to make inferences about spatial relationships in diagrams. Implications for use of sketching in supporting STEM learning are discussed.

  11. A process algebra model of QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulis, William

    2016-03-01

    The process algebra approach to quantum mechanics posits a finite, discrete, determinate ontology of primitive events which are generated by processes (in the sense of Whitehead). In this ontology, primitive events serve as elements of an emergent space-time and of emergent fundamental particles and fields. Each process generates a set of primitive elements, using only local information, causally propagated as a discrete wave, forming a causal space termed a causal tapestry. Each causal tapestry forms a discrete and finite sampling of an emergent causal manifold (space-time) M and emergent wave function. Interactions between processes are described by a process algebra which possesses 8 commutative operations (sums and products) together with a non-commutative concatenation operator (transitions). The process algebra possesses a representation via nondeterministic combinatorial games. The process algebra connects to quantum mechanics through the set valued process and configuration space covering maps, which associate each causal tapestry with sets of wave functions over M. Probabilities emerge from interactions between processes. The process algebra model has been shown to reproduce many features of the theory of non-relativistic scalar particles to a high degree of accuracy, without paradox or divergences. This paper extends the approach to a semi-classical form of quantum electrodynamics.

  12. ADA interpretative system for image algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Juan J.; Wilson, Joseph N.

    1992-06-01

    An important research problem in image processing is to find appropriate tools to support algorithm development. There have been efforts to build algorithm development support systems for image algebra in several languages, but these systems still have the disadvantage of the time consuming algorithm development style associated with compilation-oriented programming. This paper starts with a description of the Run-Time Support Library (RTSL), which serves as the base for executing programs on both the Image Algebra Ada Translator (IAAT) and Image Algebra Ada Interpreter (IAAI). A presentation on the current status of IAAT and its capabilities is followed by a brief introduction to the utilization of the Image Display Manager (IDM) for image manipulation and analysis. We then discuss in detail the current development stage of IAAI and its relation with RTSL and IDM. The last section describes the design of a syntax-directed graphical user interface for IAAI. We close with an analysis of the current performance of IAAI, and future trends are discussed. Appendix A gives a brief introduction to Image Algebra (IA), and in Appendix B the reader is presented to the Image Algebra Ada (IAA) grammar.

  13. Algorithms for Disconnected Diagrams in Lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Gambhir, Arjun Singh; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Orginos, Konstantinos; Yoon, Boram; Gupta, Rajan; Syritsyn, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Computing disconnected diagrams in Lattice QCD (operator insertion in a quark loop) entails the computationally demanding problem of taking the trace of the all to all quark propagator. We first outline the basic algorithm used to compute a quark loop as well as improvements to this method. Then, we motivate and introduce an algorithm based on the synergy between hierarchical probing and singular value deflation. We present results for the chiral condensate using a 2+1-flavor clover ensemble and compare estimates of the nucleon charges with the basic algorithm.

  14. On critical exponents without Feynman diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Kallol; Sinha, Aninda

    2016-11-01

    In order to achieve a better analytic handle on the modern conformal bootstrap program, we re-examine and extend the pioneering 1974 work of Polyakov’s, which was based on consistency between the operator product expansion and unitarity. As in the bootstrap approach, this method does not depend on evaluating Feynman diagrams. We show how this approach can be used to compute the anomalous dimensions of certain operators in the O(n) model at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in 4-ɛ dimensions up to O({ɛ }2). AS dedicates this work to the loving memory of his mother.

  15. Failure Assessment Diagram for Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury; Jones, Justin S.; Powell, Mollie M.; Puckett, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The interaction equation was used to predict failure in Ti-4V-6Al joints brazed with Al 1100 filler metal. The joints used in this study were geometrically similar to the joints in the brazed beryllium metering structure considered for the ATLAS telescope. This study confirmed that the interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub Tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub Tau)are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in ATLAS brazed joints as well as for construction of the Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD).

  16. The topology of Liouville foliation for the Borisov-Mamaev-Sokolov integrable case on the Lie algebra so(4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarzadeh, Rasoul; Haghighatdoost, Ghorbanali

    2015-05-01

    In 2001, A.V. Borisov, I. S.Mamaev, and V.V. Sokolov discovered a new integrable case on the Lie algebra so(4). This system coincides with the Poincaré equations on the Lie algebra so(4), which describe the motion of a body with cavities filled with an incompressible vortex fluid. Moreover, the Poincaré equations describe the motion of a four-dimensional gyroscope. In this paper topological properties of this system are studied. In particular, for the system under consideration the bifurcation diagrams of the momentum mapping are constructed and all Fomenko invariants are calculated. Thereby, a classification of isoenergy surfaces for this system up to the rough Liouville equivalence is obtained.

  17. Phase diagram of the two-fluid Lipkin model: A "butterfly" catastrophe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, J. E.; Pérez-Fernández, P.; Arias, J. M.; Freire, E.

    2016-03-01

    Background: In the past few decades quantum phase transitions have been of great interest in nuclear physics. In this context, two-fluid algebraic models are ideal systems to study how the concept of quantum phase transition evolves when moving into more complex systems, but the number of publications along this line has been scarce up to now. Purpose: We intend to determine the phase diagram of a two-fluid Lipkin model that resembles the nuclear proton-neutron interacting boson model Hamiltonian using both numerical results and analytic tools, i.e., catastrophe theory, and compare the mean-field results with exact diagonalizations for large systems. Method: The mean-field energy surface of a consistent-Q -like two-fluid Lipkin Hamiltonian is studied and compared with exact results coming from a direct diagonalization. The mean-field results are analyzed using the framework of catastrophe theory. Results: The phase diagram of the model is obtained and the order of the different phase-transition lines and surfaces is determined using a catastrophe theory analysis. Conclusions: There are two first-order surfaces in the phase diagram, one separating the spherical and the deformed shapes, while the other separates two different deformed phases. A second-order line, where the later surfaces merge, is found. This line finishes in a transition point with a divergence in the second-order derivative of the energy that corresponds to a tricritical point in the language of the Ginzburg-Landau theory for phase transitions.

  18. An algebra of discrete event processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, Michael; Meyer, George

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with an algebraic framework for modeling and control of discrete event processes. The report consists of two parts. The first part is introductory, and consists of a tutorial survey of the theory of concurrency in the spirit of Hoare's CSP, and an examination of the suitability of such an algebraic framework for dealing with various aspects of discrete event control. To this end a new concurrency operator is introduced and it is shown how the resulting framework can be applied. It is further shown that a suitable theory that deals with the new concurrency operator must be developed. In the second part of the report the formal algebra of discrete event control is developed. At the present time the second part of the report is still an incomplete and occasionally tentative working paper.

  19. Operator algebra in logarithmic conformal field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nagi, Jasbir

    2005-10-15

    For some time now, conformal field theories in two dimensions have been studied as integrable systems. Much of the success of these studies is related to the existence of an operator algebra of the theory. In this paper, some of the extensions of this machinery to the logarithmic case are studied and used. More precisely, from Moebius symmetry constraints, the generic three- and four-point functions of logarithmic quasiprimary fields are calculated in closed form for arbitrary Jordan rank. As an example, c=0 disordered systems with nondegenerate vacua are studied. With the aid of two-, three-, and four-point functions, the operator algebra is obtained and associativity of the algebra studied.

  20. Algebraic quantum gravity (AQG): II. Semiclassical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesel, K.; Thiemann, T.

    2007-05-01

    In the previous paper (Giesel and Thiemann 2006 Conceptual setup Preprint gr-qc/0607099) a new combinatorial and thus purely algebraical approach to quantum gravity, called algebraic quantum gravity (AQG), was introduced. In the framework of AQG, existing semiclassical tools can be applied to operators that encode the dynamics of AQG such as the master constraint operator. In this paper, we will analyse the semiclassical limit of the (extended) algebraic master constraint operator and show that it reproduces the correct infinitesimal generators of general relativity. Therefore, the question of whether general relativity is included in the semiclassical sector of the theory, which is still an open problem in LQG, can be significantly improved in the framework of AQG. For the calculations, we will substitute SU(2) with U(1)3. That this substitution is justified will be demonstrated in the third paper (Giesel and Thiemann 2006 Semiclassical perturbation theory Preprint gr-qc/0607101) of this series.

  1. Computational algebraic geometry of epidemic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Vega, Martín.

    2014-06-01

    Computational Algebraic Geometry is applied to the analysis of various epidemic models for Schistosomiasis and Dengue, both, for the case without control measures and for the case where control measures are applied. The models were analyzed using the mathematical software Maple. Explicitly the analysis is performed using Groebner basis, Hilbert dimension and Hilbert polynomials. These computational tools are included automatically in Maple. Each of these models is represented by a system of ordinary differential equations, and for each model the basic reproductive number (R0) is calculated. The effects of the control measures are observed by the changes in the algebraic structure of R0, the changes in Groebner basis, the changes in Hilbert dimension, and the changes in Hilbert polynomials. It is hoped that the results obtained in this paper become of importance for designing control measures against the epidemic diseases described. For future researches it is proposed the use of algebraic epidemiology to analyze models for airborne and waterborne diseases.

  2. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-01

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985), 10.1080/00268978500101971] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  3. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  4. Phase diagrams of disordered Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapourian, Hassan; Hughes, Taylor L.

    2016-02-01

    Weyl semimetals are gapless quasitopological materials with a set of isolated nodal points forming their Fermi surface. They manifest their quasitopological character in a series of topological electromagnetic responses including the anomalous Hall effect. Here, we study the effect of disorder on Weyl semimetals while monitoring both their nodal/semimetallic and topological properties through computations of the localization length and the Hall conductivity. We examine three different lattice tight-binding models which realize the Weyl semimetal in part of their phase diagram and look for universal features that are common to all of the models, and interesting distinguishing features of each model. We present detailed phase diagrams of these models for large system sizes and we find that weak disorder preserves the nodal points up to the diffusive limit, but does affect the Hall conductivity. We show that the trend of the Hall conductivity is consistent with an effective picture in which disorder causes the Weyl nodes move within the Brillouin zone along a specific direction that depends deterministically on the properties of the model and the neighboring phases to the Weyl semimetal phase. We also uncover an unusual (nonquantized) anomalous Hall insulator phase which can only exist in the presence of disorder.

  5. Ab initio phase diagram of iridium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burakovsky, L.; Burakovsky, N.; Cawkwell, M. J.; Preston, D. L.; Errandonea, D.; Simak, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    The phase diagram of iridium is investigated using the Z methodology. The Z methodology is a technique for phase diagram studies that combines the direct Z method for the computation of melting curves and the inverse Z method for the calculation of solid-solid phase boundaries. In the direct Z method, the solid phases along the melting curve are determined by comparing the solid-liquid equilibrium boundaries of candidate crystal structures. The inverse Z method involves quenching the liquid into the most stable solid phase at various temperatures and pressures to locate a solid-solid boundary. Although excellent agreement with the available experimental data (to ≲65 GPa) is found for the equation of state (EOS) of Ir, it is the third-order Birch-Murnaghan EOS with B0'=5 rather than the more widely accepted B0'=4 that describes our ab initio data to higher pressure (P ) . Our results suggest the existence of a random-stacking hexagonal close-packed structure of iridium at high P . We offer an explanation for the 14-layer hexagonal structure observed in experiments by Cerenius and Dubrovinsky.

  6. Instability Regions in the Upper HR Diagram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJager, Cornelis; Lobel, Alex; Nieuwenhuijzen, Hans; Stothers, Richard; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The following instability regions for blueward evolving supergiants are outlined and compared: (1) Areas in the Hertzsprung-Russell(HR) diagram where stars are dynamically unstable. (2) Areas where the effective acceleration in the upper part of the photospheres is negative, hence directed outward. (3) Areas where the sonic points of the stellar wind (Where wind velocity = sound velocity) are situated inside the photospheres, at a level deeper than tau(sub Ross) = 0.01. We compare the results with the positions of actual stars in the HR diagram and we find evidence that the recent strong contraction of the yellow hypergiant HR8752 was initiated in a period during which (g(sub eff)) is less than 0, whereupon the star became dynamically unstable. The instability and extreme shells around IRC+10420 are suggested to be related to three factors: (g(sub eff)) is less than 0; the sonic point is situated inside the photosphere; and the star is dynamically unstable.

  7. Revisiting the phase diagram of hard ellipsoids.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, Gerardo

    2012-04-07

    In this work, the well-known Frenkel-Mulder phase diagram of hard ellipsoids of revolution [D. Frenkel and B. M. Mulder, Mol. Phys. 55, 1171 (1985)] is revisited by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo simulations. The method provides good sampling of dense systems and so, solid phases can be accessed without the need of imposing a given structure. At high densities, we found plastic solids and fcc-like crystals for semi-spherical ellipsoids (prolates and oblates), and SM2 structures [P. Pfleiderer and T. Schilling, Phys. Rev. E 75, 020402 (2007)] for x : 1-prolates and 1 : x-oblates with x ≥ 3. The revised fluid-crystal and isotropic-nematic transitions reasonably agree with those presented in the Frenkel-Mulder diagram. An interesting result is that, for small system sizes (100 particles), we obtained 2:1- and 1.5:1-prolate equations of state without transitions, while some order is developed at large densities. Furthermore, the symmetric oblate cases are also reluctant to form ordered phases.

  8. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    SciTech Connect

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy Puspita, Dila Sidarto, Kuntjoro A. Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  9. Sound Off! A Dialogue between Calculator and Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, William R.

    2006-01-01

    This article illustrates the fact that unless tempered by algebraic reasoning, a graphing calculator can lead one to erroneous conclusions. It also demonstrates that some problems can be solved by combining technology with algebra.

  10. A new algebra core for the minimal form' problem

    SciTech Connect

    Purtill, M.R. . Center for Communications Research); Oliveira, J.S.; Cook, G.O. Jr. )

    1991-12-20

    The demands of large-scale algebraic computation have led to the development of many new algorithms for manipulating algebraic objects in computer algebra systems. For instance, parallel versions of many important algorithms have been discovered. Simultaneously, more effective symbolic representations of algebraic objects have been sought. Also, while some clever techniques have been found for improving the speed of the algebraic simplification process, little attention has been given to the issue of restructuring expressions, or transforming them into minimal forms.'' By minimal form,'' we mean that form of an expression that involves a minimum number of operations. In a companion paper, we introduce some new algorithms that are very effective at finding minimal forms of expressions. These algorithms require algebraic and combinatorial machinery that is not readily available in most algebra systems. In this paper we describe a new algebra core that begins to provide the necessary capabilities.

  11. Infinitesimal deformations of naturally graded filiform Leibniz algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudoyberdiyev, A. Kh.; Omirov, B. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper we describe infinitesimal deformations of complex naturally graded filiform Leibniz algebras. It is known that any n-dimensional filiform Lie algebra can be obtained by a linear integrable deformation of the naturally graded algebra Fn3(0) . We establish that in the same way any n-dimensional filiform Leibniz algebra can be obtained by an infinitesimal deformation of the filiform Leibniz algebras Fn1,Fn2and Fn3(α) . Moreover, we describe the linear integrable deformations of the above-mentioned algebras with a fixed basis of HL2 in the set of all n-dimensional Leibniz algebras. Among these deformations one new rigid algebra has been found.

  12. Current algebra and the nonlinear σ-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S.

    2007-06-01

    We present the current algebra of a particular form in the nonlinear σ-model. The algebra has a non-Abelian form with field-dependent structure functions. We comment on the connection of the model with noncommutative space.

  13. Kac-Moody algebra and nonlinear sigma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Waichi; Hosoya, Akio

    1985-12-01

    We investigate the nonlinear sigma model over an arbitrary homogeneous space. Then it is shown that the sigma model realizes the Kac-Moody algebra as current algebra only if the homogeneous space is restricted to the group manifold.

  14. Upper bound for the length of commutative algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, Ol'ga V.

    2009-12-01

    By the length of a finite system of generators for a finite-dimensional associative algebra over an arbitrary field one means the least positive integer k such that the words of length not exceeding k span this algebra (as a vector space). The maximum length for the systems of generators of an algebra is referred to as the length of the algebra. In the present paper, an upper bound for the length of a commutative algebra in terms of a function of two invariants of the algebra, the dimension and the maximal degree of the minimal polynomial for the elements of the algebra, is obtained. As a corollary, a formula for the length of the algebra of diagonal matrices over an arbitrary field is obtained. Bibliography: 8 titles.

  15. Rees algebras, Monomial Subrings and Linear Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Luis A.

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis we are interested in studying algebraic properties of monomial algebras, that can be linked to combinatorial structures, such as graphs and clutters, and to optimization problems. A goal here is to establish bridges between commutative algebra, combinatorics and optimization. We study the normality and the Gorenstein property-as well as the canonical module and the a-invariant-of Rees algebras and subrings arising from linear optimization problems. In particular, we study algebraic properties of edge ideals and algebras associated to uniform clutters with the max-flow min-cut property or the packing property. We also study algebraic properties of symbolic Rees algebras of edge ideals of graphs, edge ideals of clique clutters of comparability graphs, and Stanley-Reisner rings.

  16. Supersymmetry in physics: an algebraic overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ramond, P.

    1983-01-01

    In 1970, while attempting to generalize the Veneziano model (string model) to include fermions, I introduced a new algebraic structure which turned out to be a graded Lie algebra; it was used as a spectrum-generating algebra. This approach was soon after generalized to include interactions, yielding a complete model of fermions and boson (RNS model). In an unrelated work in the Soviet Union, it was shown how to generalize the Poincare group to include fermionic charges. However it was not until 1974 that an interacting field theory invariant under the Graded Poincare group in 3 + 1 dimensions was built (WZ model). Supersymmetric field theories turned out to have less divergent ultraviolet behavior than non-supersymmetric field theories. Gravity was generalized to include supersymmetry, to a theory called supergravity. By now many interacting local field theories exhibiting supersymmetry have been built and studied from 1 + 1 to 10 + 1 dimensions. Supersymmetric local field theories in less than 9 + 1 dimensions, can be understood as limits of multilocal (string) supersymmetric theories, in 9 + 1 dimensions. On the other hand, graded Lie algebras have been used in non-relativistic physics as approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians. The most striking such use so far helps comparing even and odd nuclei energy levels. It is believed that graded Lie algebras can be used whenever paired and unpaired fermions excitations can coexist. In this overview of a tremendously large field, I will only survey finite graded Lie algebras and their representations. For non-relativistic applications, all of GLA are potentially useful, while for relativistic applications, only these which include the Poincare group are to be considered.

  17. Diagrams: A Visual Survey of Graphs, Maps, Charts and Diagrams for the Graphic Designer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Arthur

    Since the ultimate success of any diagram rests in its clarity, it is important that the designer select a method of presentation which will achieve this aim. He should be aware of the various ways in which statistics can be shown diagrammatically, how information can be incorporated in maps, and how events can be plotted in chart or graph form.…

  18. Double conformal space-time algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easter, Robert Benjamin; Hitzer, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    The Double Conformal Space-Time Algebra (DCSTA) is a high-dimensional 12D Geometric Algebra G 4,8that extends the concepts introduced with the Double Conformal / Darboux Cyclide Geometric Algebra (DCGA) G 8,2 with entities for Darboux cyclides (incl. parabolic and Dupin cyclides, general quadrics, and ring torus) in spacetime with a new boost operator. The base algebra in which spacetime geometry is modeled is the Space-Time Algebra (STA) G 1,3. Two Conformal Space-Time subalgebras (CSTA) G 2,4 provide spacetime entities for points, flats (incl. worldlines), and hyperbolics, and a complete set of versors for their spacetime transformations that includes rotation, translation, isotropic dilation, hyperbolic rotation (boost), planar reflection, and (pseudo)spherical inversion in rounds or hyperbolics. The DCSTA G 4,8 is a doubling product of two G 2,4 CSTA subalgebras that inherits doubled CSTA entities and versors from CSTA and adds new bivector entities for (pseudo)quadrics and Darboux (pseudo)cyclides in spacetime that are also transformed by the doubled versors. The "pseudo" surface entities are spacetime hyperbolics or other surface entities using the time axis as a pseudospatial dimension. The (pseudo)cyclides are the inversions of (pseudo)quadrics in rounds or hyperbolics. An operation for the directed non-uniform scaling (anisotropic dilation) of the bivector general quadric entities is defined using the boost operator and a spatial projection. DCSTA allows general quadric surfaces to be transformed in spacetime by the same complete set of doubled CSTA versor (i.e., DCSTA versor) operations that are also valid on the doubled CSTA point entity (i.e., DCSTA point) and the other doubled CSTA entities. The new DCSTA bivector entities are formed by extracting values from the DCSTA point entity using specifically defined inner product extraction operators. Quadric surface entities can be boosted into moving surfaces with constant velocities that display the length

  19. Constraint algebra for interacting quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fubini, S.; Roncadelli, M.

    1988-04-01

    We consider relativistic constrained systems interacting with external fields. We provide physical arguments to support the idea that the quantum constraint algebra should be the same as in the free quantum case. For systems with ordering ambiguities this principle is essential to obtain a unique quantization. This is shown explicitly in the case of a relativistic spinning particle, where our assumption about the constraint algebra plus invariance under general coordinate transformations leads to a unique S-matrix. On leave from Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Università di Pavia and INFN, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.

  20. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  1. Algebraic surface design and finite element meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajaj, Chandrajit L.

    1992-01-01

    Some of the techniques are summarized which are used in constructing C sup 0 and C sup 1 continuous meshes of low degree, implicitly defined, algebraic surface patches in three dimensional space. These meshes of low degree algebraic surface patches are used to construct accurate computer models of physical objects. These meshes are also used in the finite element simulation of physical phenomena (e.g., heat dissipation, stress/strain distributions, fluid flow characteristics) required in the computer prototyping of both the manufacturability and functionality of the geometric design.

  2. Fréchet-algebraic deformation quantizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldmann, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this review I present some recent results on the convergence properties of formal star products. Based on a general construction of a Fréchet topology for an algebra with countable vector space basis I discuss several examples from deformation quantization: the Wick star product on the flat phase space m2n gives a first example of a Fréchet algebraic framework for the canonical commutation relations. More interesting, the star product on the Poincare disk can be treated along the same lines, leading to a non-trivial example of a convergent star product on a curved Kahler manifold.

  3. Shapes and stability of algebraic nuclear models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Moreno, Enrique; Castanos, Octavio

    1995-01-01

    A generalization of the procedure to study shapes and stability of algebraic nuclear models introduced by Gilmore is presented. One calculates the expectation value of the Hamiltonian with respect to the coherent states of the algebraic structure of the system. Then equilibrium configurations of the resulting energy surface, which depends in general on state variables and a set of parameters, are classified through the Catastrophe theory. For one- and two-body interactions in the Hamiltonian of the interacting Boson model-1, the critical points are organized through the Cusp catastrophe. As an example, we apply this Separatrix to describe the energy surfaces associated to the Rutenium and Samarium isotopes.

  4. Bohr model as an algebraic collective model

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, D. J.; Welsh, T. A.; Caprio, M. A.

    2009-05-15

    Developments and applications are presented of an algebraic version of Bohr's collective model. Illustrative examples show that fully converged calculations can be performed quickly and easily for a large range of Hamiltonians. As a result, the Bohr model becomes an effective tool in the analysis of experimental data. The examples are chosen both to confirm the reliability of the algebraic collective model and to show the diversity of results that can be obtained by its use. The focus of the paper is to facilitate identification of the limitations of the Bohr model with a view to developing more realistic, computationally tractable models.

  5. Riemannian manifolds as Lie-Rinehart algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessers, Victor; van der Veken, Joeri

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we show how Lie-Rinehart algebras can be applied to unify and generalize the elementary theory of Riemannian geometry. We will first review some necessary theory on a.o. modules, bilinear forms and derivations. We will then translate some classical theory on Riemannian geometry to the setting of Rinehart spaces, a special kind of Lie-Rinehart algebras. Some generalized versions of classical results will be obtained, such as the existence of a unique Levi-Civita connection, inducing a Levi-Civita connection on a submanifold, and the construction of spaces with constant sectional curvature.

  6. Quantum walled Brauer algebra: commuting families, Baxterization, and representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semikhatov, A. M.; Tipunin, I. Yu

    2017-02-01

    For the quantum walled Brauer algebra, we construct its Specht modules and (for generic parameters of the algebra) seminormal modules. The latter construction yields the spectrum of a commuting family of Jucys-Murphy elements. We also propose a Baxterization prescription; it involves representing the quantum walled Brauer algebra in terms of morphisms in a braided monoidal category and introducing parameters into these morphisms, which allows constructing a ‘universal transfer matrix’ that generates commuting elements of the algebra.

  7. Dynamical algebras for Poeschl-Teller Hamiltonian hierarchies

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, S.; Negro, J.

    2009-12-15

    The dynamical algebras of the trigonometric and hyperbolic symmetric Poeschl-Teller Hamiltonian hierarchies are obtained. A kind of discrete-differential realizations of these algebras are found which are isomorphic to so(3, 2) Lie algebras. In order to get them, first the relation between ladder and factor operators is investigated. In particular, the action of the ladder operators on normalized eigenfunctions is found explicitly. Then, the whole dynamical algebras are generated in a straightforward way.

  8. Algebraic Ricci solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batat, W.; Onda, K.

    2017-04-01

    We study algebraic Ricci solitons of three-dimensional Lorentzian Lie groups. All algebraic Ricci solitons that we obtain are solvsolitons. In particular, we obtain new solitons on G2, G5, and G6, and we prove that, contrary to the Riemannian case, Lorentzian Ricci solitons need not be algebraic Ricci solitons.

  9. Capability and Schur multiplier of a pair of Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, Farangis; Parvizi, Mohsen; Niroomand, Peyman

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this work is to find some criteria for detecting the capability of a pair of Lie algebras. We characterize the exact structure of all pairs of capable Lie algebras in the class of abelian and Heisenberg ones. Among the other results, we also give some exact sequences on the Schur multiplier and exterior product of Lie algebras.

  10. The Ideas of Algebra, K-12. 1988 Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coxford, Arthur F., Ed.; Shulte, Albert P., Ed.

    This volume is organized into six parts. Chapters 1-5, which make up Part 1, first discuss the forces impinging on algebra in the curriculum and suggest possible directions for change. Chapters 6-8, Part 2, concentrate on concepts and teaching possibilities available prior to the formal introduction of algebra. The notion that algebraic ideas are…

  11. The Impact of Early Algebra: Results from a Longitudinal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brizuela, Bárbara M.; Martinez, Mara V.; Cayton-Hodges, Gabrielle A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide evidence of the impact of early algebra (EA) over time. We document this impact in the following ways: (a) by showing the performance over time of an experimental group of 15 children on an algebra assessment, from 3rd to 5th grade; and (b) by showing how the performance on an algebra assessment of children from an…

  12. Changing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Attitudes to Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowen, Mercedes A.; Davis, Gary E.

    This article addresses the question: "What are the implications for the preparation of prospective elementary teachers of 'early algebra' in the elementary grades curriculum?" Part of the answer involves language aspects of algebra: in particular, how a change in pre-service teachers' attitudes to algebra, from instrumental to relational, is…

  13. A Research Base Supporting Long Term Algebra Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaput, James J.

    This paper discusses three dimensions of algebra reform: breadth, integration, and pedagogy. Breadth of algebra includes algebra as: generalizing and formalizing patterns and constraints; syntactically-guided manipulation of formalisms; study of structures abstracted from computations and relations; study of functions, relations, and joint…

  14. Classical versus Computer Algebra Methods in Elementary Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pech, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Computer algebra methods based on results of commutative algebra like Groebner bases of ideals and elimination of variables make it possible to solve complex, elementary and non elementary problems of geometry, which are difficult to solve using a classical approach. Computer algebra methods permit the proof of geometric theorems, automatic…

  15. Remarks on Virasoro and Kac-Moody Algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, J.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A.; Simoni, A.

    Parametric realizations of Virasoro or Kac-Moody algebras are constructed on a generic manifold carrying an appropriate vector field. It is shown that the centrally extended algebras cannot be realized as algebras of vector fields on finite-dimensional manifolds.

  16. Processes Used by College Students in Understanding Basic Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachlin, Sidney Lee

    The purpose of this study was to uncover information about and gain a greater insight into the extent to which students who are successful in a basic algebra course: l) demonstrate a reversibility of reasoning processes when solving algebraic problems; 2) demonstrate a flexibility of reasoning processes when solving algebraic problems; 3)…

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Tutor Algebra I at Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pane, John F.; Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Karam, Rita

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the effectiveness of a technology-based algebra curriculum in a wide variety of middle schools and high schools in seven states. Participating schools were matched into similar pairs and randomly assigned to either continue with the current algebra curriculum for 2 years or to adopt Cognitive Tutor Algebra I (CTAI), which…

  18. Abstract Numeric Relations and the Visual Structure of Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landy, David; Brookes, David; Smout, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Formal algebras are among the most powerful and general mechanisms for expressing quantitative relational statements; yet, even university engineering students, who are relatively proficient with algebraic manipulation, struggle with and often fail to correctly deploy basic aspects of algebraic notation (Clement, 1982). In the cognitive tradition,…

  19. Static friction, differential algebraic systems and numerical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Schinner, Alexander; Matuttis, Hans-Georg

    We show how Differential Algebraic Systems (Ordinary Differential Equations with algebraic constraints) in mechanics are affected by stability issues and we implement Lubich's projection method to reduce the error to practically zero. Then, we explain how the "numerically exact" implementation for static friction by Differential Algebraic Systems can be stabilized. We conclude by comparing the corresponding steps in the "Contact mechanics" introduced by Moreau.

  20. Pilot Study on Algebra Learning among Junior Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Leung, Chi-Keung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported herein was to identify the common mistakes made by junior secondary students in Hong Kong when learning algebra and to compare teachers' perceptions of students' ability with the results of an algebra test. An algebra test was developed and administered to a sample of students (aged between 13 and 14 years). From…