Pugh, Julia; Aggett, Justine; Goodland, Annwen; Prichard, Alison; Thomas, Nerys; Donovan, Kieron; Roberts, Gareth
Background The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future, with the fastest growth seen among adults ≥75 years of age. Elderly patients with advanced CKD are likely to have a higher burden of comorbidity and frailty, both of which may influence their disease outcome. For these patients, treatment decisions can be complex, with the current lack of robust prognostic tools hindering the shared decision-making process. The current study aims to assess the impact of comorbidity and frailty on the outcomes of patients referred for pre-dialysis education. Methods We performed a single-centre study of patients (n = 283) referred for pre-dialysis education between 2010 and 2012. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) were used to assess comorbid disease burden and frailty, respectively. Follow-up data were collected until February 2015. Results The CCI and CFS scores at the time of referral to the pre-dialysis service were independent predictors of mortality. Within the study follow-up period, 76% of patients with a high CFS score at the time of pre-dialysis education had died, with 63% of these patients not commencing dialysis before death. Conclusion A relatively simple frailty scale and comorbidity score could be used to predict survival and better inform the shared decision-making process for patients with advanced kidney disease. PMID:26985387
Jotterand Drepper, Valérie; Kihm, Lars P.; Kälble, Florian; Diekmann, Christian; Seckinger, Joerg; Sommerer, Claudia; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat
Background Overhydration is a common problem in peritoneal dialysis patients and has been shown to be associated with mortality. However, it still remains unclear whether overhydration per se is predictive of mortality or whether it is mainly a reflection of underlying comorbidities. The purpose of our study was to assess overhydration in peritoneal dialysis patients using bioimpedance spectroscopy and to investigate whether overhydration is an independent predictor of mortality. Methods We analyzed and followed 54 peritoneal dialysis patients between June 2008 and December 2014. All patients underwent bioimpedance spectroscopy measurement once and were allocated to normohydrated and overhydrated groups. Overhydration was defined as an absolute overhydration/extracellular volume ratio > 15%. Simultaneously, clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory data were assessed. Heart failure was defined either on echocardiography, as a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, or clinically according to the New York Heart Association functional classification. Patient survival was documented up until December 31st 2014. Factors associated with mortality were identified and a multivariable Cox regression model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality. Results Apart from higher daily peritoneal ultrafiltration rate and cumulative diuretic dose in overhydrated patients, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups, in particular with respect to gender, body mass index, comorbidity and cardiac medication. Mortality was higher in overhydrated than in euvolemic patients. In the univariate analysis, increased age, overhydration, low diastolic blood pressure, raised troponin and NTproBNP, hypoalbuminemia, heart failure but not CRP were predictive of mortality. After adjustment, only overhydration, increased age and low diastolic blood pressure remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Overhydration remains an
Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Chow, Kai-Ming; Chung, Sebastian; Yu, Vincent; Cheng, Phyllis Mei-Shan; Leung, Chi-Bon; Law, Man-Ching; Li, Philip Kam-Tao
♦ Background: Residual renal function (RRF) is an important prognostic indicator in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We determined the predictors of RRF loss in a cohort of incident CAPD patients. ♦ Methods: We reviewed the record of 645 incident CAPD patients. RRF loss is represented by the slope of decline of residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as the time to anuria. ♦ Results: The average rate of residual GFR decline was -0.083 ± 0.094 mL/min/month. The rate of residual GFR decline was faster with a higher proteinuria (r = -0.506, p < 0.0001) and baseline residual GFR (r = -0.560, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics were independent predictors of residual GFR decline. Cox proportional hazard model showed that proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes were independent predictors of progression to anuria, while a higher baseline GFR was protective. Each 1 g/day of proteinuria is associated with a 13.2% increase in the risk of progressing to anuria, each 10 g/day higher glucose exposure is associated with a 2.5% increase in risk, while each peritonitis episode confers a 3.8% increase in risk. ♦ Conclusions: Our study shows that factors predicting the loss of residual solute clearance and urine output are different. Proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics are independently related to the rate of RRF decline in CAPD patients, while proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes are independent predictors for the development of anuria. The role of anti-proteinuric therapy and measures to prevent peritonitis episodes in the preservation of RRF should be tested in future studies. PMID:24497594
Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Asiri, Mohammed; Alsuwayt, Saleh; Alotaibi, Tariq; Bin Mugren, Mohammed; Almufarrih, Abdulmalik; Almodameg, Saad
Background A number of reports suggest a link between depression and nonadherence to recommended management for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance dialysis. However, the relationship between nonadherence and other psychosocial factors have been inadequately examined. Objectives To examine the prevalence of psychosocial factors including depression, anxiety, insecure attachment style, as well as cognitive impairment and their associations with adherence to recommended management of ESRD. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was carried out from 2014 to 2015. Chronic dialysis patients were recruited conveniently from four major dialysis units in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nonadherence was defined as decreased attendance in dialysis sessions, failure to take prescribed medications, and/or follow food/fluid restrictions and exercise recommendations. Results A total of 234 patients (147 males and 87 females) were included in this analysis, with 45 patients (19.2%) considered as nonadherent (visual analog scale < 8). Approximately 17.9% of the patients had depression (Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10), 13.2% had anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale-anxiety >7), while 77.4% had cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <26). Nonadherence was significantly associated with depression and anxiety (p<0.001 for both) but not cognitive impairment (p=0.266). The Experiences in Close Relationships – Modified 16 (ECR-M16) scale score was 27.99±10.87 for insecure anxiety and 21.71±9.06 for insecure avoidance relationship, with nonadherence significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.001) but not avoidance (p=0.400). Conclusion Nonadherence to different aspects of ESRD continues to be a serious problem among dialysis patients, and it is closely linked to depression and anxiety. The findings from this study reemphasize the importance of early detection and management of psychosocial ailments in these patients. PMID:27826207
de Oliveira, Marília Pilotto; Kusumota, Luciana; Haas, Vanderlei José; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Helú Mendonça; Marques, Sueli; Oller, Graziella Allana Serra Alves de Oliveira
Objective: to characterize deaths that occurred, and the association between socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory variables and health-related quality of life and the outcome of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis, over a two year period after an initial assessment. Method: observational, prospective population study with 82 patients on peritoneal dialysis. The instruments used for the first stage of data collection were the mini-mental state examination, a sociodemographic, economic, clinical and laboratory questionnaire and the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Short Form. After two years, data for characterization and occurrence of death in the period were collected. The relative risk of death outcome was calculated through statistical analysis; the risk of death was estimated by the survival Kaplan-Meier curve, and determined predictors of death by the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. Results: of the 82 original participants, 23 had as an outcome death within two years. The increased risk for the outcome of death was associated with a lower mean score of health-related quality of life in the physical functioning domain. Conclusion: the worst health-related quality of life in the physical functioning domain, could be considered a predictor of death. PMID:27192413
Avram, Morrell M; Fein, Paul A; Borawski, Cezary; Chattopadhyay, Jyotiprakas; Matza, Betty
Malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Extracellular mass (ECM) contains all the metabolically inactive, whereas body cell mass (BCM) contains all the metabolically active, tissues of the body. ECM/BCM ratio is a highly sensitive index of malnutrition. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between ECM/BCM ratio and survival in PD patients. We enrolled 62 patients from November 2000 to July 2008. On enrollment, demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to determine ECM and BCM in PD patients. Patients were followed up to November 2008. Mean age was 54+/-16 (s.d.) years; female, 55%; African Americans, 65%; diabetic, 24%. Mean ECM/BCM ratio was 1.206+/-0.197 (range: 0.73-1.62). Diabetics had higher ECM/BCM ratio than nondiabetics (1.29 vs 1.18, P=0.04). ECM/BCM ratio correlated directly with age (r=0.38, P=0.002) and inversely with serum albumin (r=-0.43, P=0.001), creatinine (-0.24, P=0.08), blood urea nitrogen (r=-0.26, P=0.06), and total protein (r=-0.31, P=0.026). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, race, gender, diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus status, enrollment ECM/BCM ratio was a significant independent predictor of mortality (relative risk=1.035, P=0.018). For every 10% increase in the ECM/BCM ratio, the relative risk of death was increased by about 35%. In conclusion, BIA-derived enrollment ECM/BCM ratio, a marker of malnutrition, was an independent predictor of long-term survival in PD patients.
Sen, D; Prakash, J
Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.
Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun
Dialysis, particularly haemodialysis, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A new study confirms that hypokalaemia confers an excess cardiovascular risk and contributes disproportionately to the high risk of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis, which may partially account for the fact that observed cardiac risk is similar for patients on peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis.
... transplant. Therefore, dialysis patients who have a limited life expectancy and no signs or symptoms of colon cancer ... weren't on dialysis but had similarly limited life expectancies, the dialysis patients had an 8 times higher ...
O'Toole, Sam M; Fan, Stanley L; Yaqoob, M Magdi; Chowdhury, Tahseen A
Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control in diabetic patients has an important impact in reducing risk of progression to end stage renal disease. The evidence for improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis having an impact on mortality or morbidity is sparse. Indeed, many factors make improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis very challenging, including therapeutic difficulties with hypoglycaemic agents, monitoring difficulties, dialysis strategies that exacerbate hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and possibly a degree of therapeutic nihilism or inertia on the part of clinical diabetologists and nephrologists. Standard drug therapy for hyperglycaemia (eg, metformin) is clearly not possible in patients on dialysis. Thus, sulphonylureas and insulin have been the mainstay of treatment. Newer therapies for hyperglycaemia, such as gliptins and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues have become available, but until recently, renal failure has precluded their use. Newer gliptins, however, are now licensed for use in 'severe renal failure', although they have yet to be trialled in dialysis patients. Diabetic patients on dialysis have special needs, as they have a much greater burden of complications (cardiac, retinal and foot). They may be best managed in a multidisciplinary diabetic-renal clinic setting, using the skills of diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical nurse specialists in nephrology and diabetes, along with
Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and
Lausević, Mirjana; Nesić, Vidosava; Jovanović, Natasa; Stojimirović, Biljana
A normocytic normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of renal failure. Since anemia increases morbidity and mortality, its elimination is one of the essential objectives of the treatment. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has changed the therapeutical approach to anemia. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of anemia correction in peritoneal dialysis patients depending on treatment and dialysis modality. The study is the retrospective analysis of 64 patients who presented to our Clinic in 2003. Eighteen (28.13%) patients were treated with rHuEPO, 14 (28%) underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 2 (100%)--automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 2 (33.3%)--intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Mean hemoglobin level was 98.6 +/- 17.82 g/l in patients treated with rHuEPO versus 98.81 +/- 15.14 g/l in patients without rHuEPO treatment. Erythropoietin requirements were 3392.85 +/- 1211.77 IU/week All patients received iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. Mean serum ferritin levels were 463.41 +/- 360 ug/l. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) was 0.35 +/- 0.16%. No difference of serum iron and TSAT levels was found between CAPD and IPD patients. The degree of anemia significantly differed between CAPD and IPD patients. A total of 17.11% of PD patients were given blood transfusions, most frequently during the first three months after the onset of dialysis. Our conclusion is that the number of patients receiving rHuEPO should be increased, as 50% of our patients should be substituted, while only 28% are being treated. As 50% of patients receiving rHuEPO failed to reach target Hgb levels, higher EPO doses should be considered. Iron stores should be continuously monitored, particularly in patients receiving rHuEPO, since iron deficiency is an important problem for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, especially during erythropoietin therapy. Oral iron supplementation is satisfactory in the majority of patients, and iron
Smyth, Brendan; Jones, Ceridwen; Saunders, John
SUMMARY The pharmacokinetics of a drug may be altered in patients with renal impairment who require dialysis. Some drugs are contraindicated. The drug’s clearance and therapeutic index determine if a dose adjustment is needed. A lower dose or less frequent dosing may be required. Consult a reference source or the patient’s nephrologist before prescribing. Start at a low dose and increase gradually. If possible give once-daily drugs after dialysis. PMID:27041803
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163270.html Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients Sometimes it's the ... 26, 2017 THURSDAY, Jan. 26, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression is common among kidney failure patients undergoing dialysis. ...
Kosmadakis, George; Aguilera, Didier; Carceles, Odette; Da Costa Correia, Enrique; Boletis, Ioannis
Pulmonary hypertension in end-stage renal disease patients is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients is relatively high and varies in different studies from 17% to 49.53% depending on the mode of dialysis and other selection factors, such as the presence of other cardiovascular comorbidities. The etiopathogenic mechanisms that have been studied in relatively small studies mainly include arteriovenous fistula-induced increased cardiac output, which cannot be accomodated by, the spacious under normal conditions pulmonary circulation. Additionally, pulmonary vessels show signs of endothelial dysfunction, dysregulation of vascular tone due to an imbalance in vasoactive substances, and local as well as systemic inflammation. It is also believed that microbubbles escaping from the dialysis circuit can trigger vasoconstriction and vascular sclerosis. The non-specific therapeutic options that proved to be beneficial in pulmonary artery pressure reduction are endothelin inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil, and vasodilatory prostaglandins in various forms. The specific modes of treatment are renal transplantation, size reduction or closure of high-flow arteriovenous fistulas, and transfer from hemodialysis to peritoneal dialysis-a modality that is associated with a lesser prevalence of pulmonary hypertension.
Popa, M; Nicoară, S
The study analyzes the ocular aspects in patients receiving hemodialysis, in order to define the importance of the ophthalmological exam as prognosis and follow-up parameter. The prospective study includes 84 patients with renal insufficiency who received hemodialysis between 1994-1998. The ocular aspects and their connection with the dialysis and the basic disease are described and analyzed. The most important were the retinal vascular complications: hypertensive retinopathy, anterior optic ischaemic neuropathy, central retinal artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy.
Kuo, James C; Craft, Paul S
The prevalence of patients on dialysis has increased and these patients present a challenge for chemotherapy administration when diagnosed with cancer. A consensus on the dosage and timing of different chemotherapeutic agents in relation to dialysis has not been established. We describe the pattern of care and treatment outcome for cancer patients on dialysis in our institution. The dataset from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry of patients on dialysis who had a diagnosis of cancer was obtained and matched to the pharmacy records in our institution to identify patients who had received chemotherapy while on dialysis. Relevant clinical information including details of the dialysis regimen, chemotherapy administration and adverse events was extracted for analysis. Between July 1999 and July 2014, 21 patients on dialysis were included for analysis. Five (23.8%) received chemotherapy, most of which was administered before dialysis sessions. As a result of adverse events, one patient discontinued treatment; two other patients required dose reduction or treatment delay. Chemotherapy administration was feasible in cancer patients on dialysis, but chemotherapy usage was low. Better understanding of the altered pharmacokinetics in patients on dialysis may improve chemotherapy access and practice.
Gaweda, Adam E; Bhat, Premila; Maglinte, Gregory A; Chang, Chun-Lan; Hill, Jerrold; Park, Grace S; Ashfaq, Akhtar; Gitlin, Matthew
Clinical guidelines recommend concurrent treatment of anemia in end-stage renal disease with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron. However, there are mixed data about optimal iron supplementation. To help address this gap, the relationship between iron markers and hemoglobin (Hb) response to ESA (Epoetin alfa) dose was examined. Electronic medical records of 1902 US chronic hemodialysis patients were analyzed over a 12-month period between June 2009 and June 2010. The analysis included patients who had at least one Hb value during each 4-week interval for four consecutive intervals (k - 2, k - 1, k, and k + 1; k is the index interval), received at least one ESA dose during intervals k - 1 or k, had at least one transferrin saturation (TSAT) value at interval k, and at least one ferritin value during intervals k - 2, k - 1, or k. Effect modification by TSAT and ferritin on Hb response was evaluated using the generalized estimating equations approach. Patients had a mean (standard deviation) age of 62 (15) years; 41% were Caucasian, 34% African American, 65% had hypertension, and 39% diabetes. Transferrin saturation, but not ferritin, had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) modifying effect on Hb response. Maximum Hb response was achieved when TSAT was 34%, with minimal incremental effect beyond these levels. Of the two standard clinical iron markers, TSAT should be used as the primary marker of the modifying effect of iron on Hb response to ESA. Long-term safety of iron use to improve Hb response to ESA warrants further study.
Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Reddy Vanga, Satyanarayana; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter A
Objectives Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for patients receiving education, making a decision, and receiving their preferred modality choice in UPS patients following a UPS educational program (UPS-EP). Methods The Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS) study examined the impact of the implementation of a specific UPS-EP, including decision support tools and pathway improvement on dialysis modality choice. Linear regression models were used to examine the factors predicting three key steps: referral and receipt of UPS-EP, modality decision making, and actual delivery of preferred modality choice. A simple economic assessment was performed to examine the potential benefit of implementing UPS-EP in terms of dialysis costs. Results The majority of UPS patients could receive UPS-EP (214/270 patients) and were able to make a decision (177/214), although not all patients received their preferred choice (159/177). Regression analysis demonstrated that the initial dialysis modality was a predictive factor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP and modality decision making. In contrast, age was a predictor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP only, and comorbidity was not a predictor for any step, except for myocardial infarction, which was a weak predictor for lower likelihood of receiving preferred modality. Country practices predicted UPS-EP receipt and decision making. Economic analysis demonstrated the potential benefit of UPS-EP implementation because dialysis modality costs were associated with modality distribution driven by patient preference. Conclusion Education and decision support can allow UPS patients to understand their options and choose dialysis modality, and attention needs to be focused on
Fang, Wei; Zhu, Mingli; Yu, Zanzhe; Fang, Yan; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minfang; Wang, Qin; Che, Xiajing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiaying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhang, Haifen; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui
Background Several studies have suggested that urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the impact of the dialysis modality on outcome, especially on short-term complications, in urgent-start dialysis has not been directly evaluated. The aim of the current study was to compare the complications and outcomes of PD and HD in urgent-start dialysis ESRD patients. Methods In this retrospective study, ESRD patients who initiated dialysis urgently without a pre-established functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center from January 2013 to December 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to their dialysis modality (PD and HD). Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion (until January 2016). Dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the two groups. Results Our study enrolled 178 patients (56.2% male), of whom 96 and 82 patients were in the PD and HD groups, respectively. Compared with HD patients, PD patients had more cardiovascular disease, less heart failure, higher levels of serum potassium, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum pre-albumin, and lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide. There were no significant differences in gender, age, use of steroids, early referral to a nephrologist, prevalence of primary renal diseases, prevalence of co-morbidities, and other laboratory characteristics between the groups. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly higher in HD than PD patients. HD patients had a significantly higher probability of bacteremia compared to PD patients. HD was an independent predictor of short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications. There was no significant difference between PD and HD patients with respect to patient survival rate. Conclusion In an experienced center, PD is a safe and feasible dialysis alternative to HD
Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion
Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.
Bender, Filitsa H
This review is focused on minimizing complications and avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Issues related to planning for PD are covered first, with emphasis on PD versus hemodialysis outcomes. Catheter types and insertion techniques are described next, including relevant recommendations by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. A brief review of both noninfectious and infectious complications follows, with emphasis on cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Finally, recommendations for preventing PD-related infections are provided. In conclusion, with proper catheter insertion technique, good training, and attention to detail during the tenure in PD, excellent outcomes can be obtained in a well-informed motivated patient.
Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P
This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.
Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv
Among patients on dialysis, hypertension is highly prevalent and contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Strict volume control via sodium restriction and probing of dry weight are first-line approaches for the treatment of hypertension in this population; however, antihypertensive drug therapy is often needed to control BP. Few trials compare head-to-head the superiority of one antihypertensive drug class over another with respect to improving BP control or altering cardiovascular outcomes; accordingly, selection of the appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized. To individualize therapy, consideration should be given to intra- and interdialytic pharmacokinetics, effect on cardiovascular reflexes, ability to treat comorbid illnesses, and adverse effect profile. β-Blockers followed by dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers are our first- and second-line choices for antihypertensive drug use. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be reasonable third-line choices, because the evidence base to support their use in patients on dialysis is sparse. Add-on therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in specific subgroups of patients on dialysis (i.e., those with severe congestive heart failure) seems to be another promising option in anticipation of the ongoing trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. Adequately powered, multicenter, randomized trials evaluating hard cardiovascular end points are urgently warranted to elucidate the comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive drug classes in patients on dialysis. In this review, we provide an overview of the randomized evidence on pharmacotherapy of hypertension in patients on dialysis, and we conclude with suggestions for future research to address critical gaps in this important area.
Ganssauge, Malte; Padman, Rema; Teredesai, Pradip; Karambelkar, Ameet
Despite substantial advances in the treatment of end-stage renal disease, mortality of hemodialysis patients remains high. Several models exist that predict mortality for this population and identify patients at risk. However, they mostly focus on patients at a particular stage of dialysis treatment, such as start of dialysis, and only use the most recent patient data. Generalization of such models for predictions in later periods can be challenging since disease characteristics change over time and the evolution of biomarkers is not adequately incorporated. In this research, we explore dynamic methods which allow updates of initial predictions when patients progress in time and new data is observed. We compare a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) to regularized logistic regression models and a Cox model with landmarking. Our preliminary results indicate that the DBN achieves satisfactory performance for short term prediction horizons, but needs further refinement and parameter tuning for longer horizons. PMID:28269937
Fukui, Shinya; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuno, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroe; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji
Previous studies have examined outcomes in dialysis patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, only a few studies have solely focused on outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study aimed to clarify independent predictors of the long-term survival of dialysis patients with AVR and to determine whether a mechanical valve or bioprosthesis is suitable based on the patient's condition. A total of 38 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent AVR at our institute were reviewed (mean age 69.1 ± 9.4 years). There were 23 bioprostheses and 15 mechanical valve replacements. The operative mortality and the long-term survival were not different between the bioprosthesis and the mechanical valve group (13.0 vs. 13.3%). The significant multivariate predictors for long-term survival were concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and prosthesis size. Valve types and age at operation did not affect long-term survival. Five-year survival of patients with small prosthetic valves and concomitant CABG was 0%. When the patient's quality of life is taken into account, it may be appropriate to use a bioprosthesis in a dialysis patient with a small annulus and concomitant CABG even if the patient is young.
Kirchgessner, J; Perera-Chang, M; Klinkner, G; Soley, I; Marcelli, D; Arkossy, O; Stopper, A; Kimmel, P L
Patient satisfaction is an important aspect of dialysis care, only recently evaluated in clinical studies. We developed a tool to assess peritoneal dialysis (PD) customer satisfaction, and sought to evaluate and validate the Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), quantifying PD patient satisfaction. The CSQ included questions regarding administrative issues, Delivery Service, PD Training, Handling Requests, and transportation. The study was performed using interviews in all Hungarian Fresenius Medical Care dialysis centers offering PD. CSQ results were compared with psychosocial measures to identify if patient satisfaction was associated with perception of social support and illness burden, or depression. We assessed CSQ internal consistency and validity. Factor analysis explored potential underlying dimensions of the CSQ. One hundred and thirty-three patients treated with PD for end-stage renal disease for more than 3 months were interviewed. The CSQ had high internal consistency. There was high patient satisfaction with customer service. PD patient satisfaction scores correlated with quality of life (QOL) and social support measures, but not with medical or demographic factors, or depressive affect. The CSQ is a reliable tool to assess PD customer satisfaction. PD patient satisfaction is associated with perception of QOL. Efforts to improve customer satisfaction may improve PD patients' quantity as well as QOL.
Winterbottom, Anna; Bekker, Hilary
The process of choosing dialysis modality for patients is complex and requires input from the expert renal team. Although it is commonplace for nephrologists to recommend dialysis modalities to patients, this might not always lead to the patient receiving treatment which they regard as most suitable. Nephrologists should consider whether it is appropriate for pre-dialysis education to be directive, or whether the choice between treatment options should be led by the patient. PMID:27994862
Peritoneal dialysis is a form of kidney dialysis that is used to remove accumulated metabolic waste products and water in patients with end stage kidney disease. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of glucose and its by-products, both found in peritoneal dialysis fluid, has been implicated in contributing to peritoneal damage over time, in turn limiting long-term use of the technique. Newer peritoneal dialysis solutions have been developed in the hope of reducing the unfavorable effects of peritoneal dialysis solutions. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that newer peritoneal dialysis fluids have salutary effects on the peritoneal membrane. Short-term clinical studies have also found some metabolic benefits of glucose-sparing regimens in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mixed results have been found in studies examining whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids reduce peritonitis rates. Long-term studies are needed to investigate whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids provide better peritoneal dialysis technique and/or patient survival, compared to standard glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids. PMID:26097730
Xu, Hong; Watanabe, Makoto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Anderstam, Björn; Eriksson, Monica; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt
♦ Background and Aims: Increased oxidative stress in dialysis patients is thought to contribute to increased mortality; however, confirmatory data are scarce. We analyzed the serum concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, in relation to mortality in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ♦ Methods: Serum 8-OHdG, interleukin 6 (IL-6), other biochemical markers, Davies comorbidity score, and protein-energy wasting (PEW) were assessed in 303 prevalent patients treated with HD (n = 220; age: 63 ± 14 years) or PD (n = 83; age: 64 ± 14 years). Mortality was assessed after a median follow-up of 31 months. ♦ Results: The median (25th – 75th percentile) concentration of 8-OHdG was higher in HD than in PD patients: 1.3 ng/mL (0.9 – 1.8 ng/mL) versus 0.5 ng/mL (0.4 – 0.6 ng/mL), p < 0.001. The HD modality (standard β = 0.57, p < 0.001) and dialysis vintage (standard β = 0.12, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of serum 8-OHdG in a multivariable linear regression model including age, sex, body mass index, dialysis modality (HD or PD), preceding time on dialysis (dialysis vintage), PEW, comorbidity score, IL-6, and use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers or statins. During follow-up, 107 patients died. In multivariable Cox regression models including all 303 patients and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dialysis modality, dialysis vintage, and comorbidity score, 8-OHdG was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.40; 95% confidence limits: 1.05, 1.87 for 1 standard deviation increase of 8-OHdG). In subgroup analyses according to dialysis modality, 8-OHdG was associated with mortality in HD patients but not in PD patients. ♦ Conclusions: Oxidative stress as assessed by 8-OHdG is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in dialysis patients. This association was seen in HD patients, but no such
Song, Mi-Kyung; Lin, Feng-Chang; Gilet, Constance A.; Arnold, Robert M.; Bridgman, Jessica C.; Ward, Sandra E.
Background Careful patient–clinician shared decision-making about dialysis initiation has been promoted, but few studies have addressed patient perspectives on the extent of information provided and how decisions to start dialysis are made. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance dialysis patients recruited from 15 outpatient dialysis centers in North Carolina completed semistructured interviews on information provision and communication about the initiation of dialysis. These data were examined with content analysis. In addition, informed decision-making (IDM) scores were created by summing patient responses (yes/no) to 10 questions about the decision-making. Results The mean IDM score was 4.4 (of 10; SD = 2.0); 67% scored 5 or lower. Age at the time of decision-making (r = −0.27, P = 0.006), years of education (r = 0.24, P = 0.02) and presence of a warning about progressing to end-stage kidney disease (t = 2.9, P = 0.005) were significantly associated with IDM scores. Nearly 70% said that the risks and burdens of dialysis were not mentioned at all, and only one patient recalled that the doctor offered the option of not starting dialysis. While a majority (67%) said that they felt they had no choice about starting dialysis (because the alternative would be death) or about dialysis modality, only 21.2% said that they had felt rushed to make a decision. About one-third of the patients perceived that the decision to start dialysis and modality was already made by the doctor. Conclusions A majority of patients felt unprepared and ill-informed about the initiation of dialysis. Improving the extent of IDM about dialysis may optimize patient preparation prior to starting treatment and their perceptions about the decision-making process. PMID:23901048
Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.
Catizone, Luigi; Malacarne, Franco; Bortot, Alessia; Annaloro, Mariangela; Russo, Giorgia; Barillà, Antonio; Storari, Alda
Management of chronic uremia in elderly patients presents several clinic and organizational difficulties. Hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) are both available for the elderly, and the choice depends on the individual, clinical and familial conditions. Several reports have compared the outcomes for older patients treated by HD or peritoneal dialysis, with those for younger or older patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. CPD is a successful dialysis option for elderly patients, in both patient and technique survival terms. All nutritional parameters are of pivotal importance. Several barriers, such as medical and social factors, physician bias, late referral and education irrespective of the needs of older patients, influence the choice of CPD. The development of assisted peritoneal dialysis, using community-based nurses or health care assistants, can overcome some of the barriers and enable frail older patients to have home-based dialysis treatment. Increasing age is associated with higher peritonitis rates among patients who started CPD in the 1990s, while age is not associated with peritonitis in more recent CPD cohorts, and no greater frequency of adverse outcomes of peritonitis has been seen among those who began CPD after the year 2000. In elderly dialysis patients, the management of quality of life (QOL) is important as well as adequacy of dialysis, nutritional status and survival rate. To obtain a good standard of QOL, it is essential to select carers who are properly educated and who can access an adequate support system, both physical and psychological, to help them cope with their burden.
Background and aims Dialysis patients appear to be at special risk for exposure to cyanobacteria toxins; episodes of microcystin (MCYST) exposure via dialysate during 1996 and 2001 have been previously reported. During 2001, as many as 44 dialysis patients were exposed to contam...
Hutchison, Alastair J; Courthold, Jonathan J
Pre-emptive living donor transplantation should always be promoted as the first-line treatment for kidney failure. Where that is not possible, patients must receive timely information and advice regarding all dialysis options available, including home-based peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis. Where a dialysis unit enables and actively encourages self-management, patients will tend to select themselves, and if well motivated may overcome significant difficulties to exceed the expectations or predictions of dialysis staff. Patients then become advocates themselves and can provide other patients with the necessary motivation to consider a home treatment, such that they approach staff, rather than vice versa. For staff to be able to talk to patients with confidence requires direct experience of home dialysis, but in units which do not have a full range of home therapies, this may initially be difficult. Visiting patients in their home environment is an essential part of training for both medical and nursing staff. Before a patient is able to begin to engage in discussion about any dialysis therapy, they must have reached a point of acceptance that dialysis is necessary. If they are not at this point, then any attempt at 'education' will be largely futile. Once a patient has arrived at the point of choosing a home therapy, the pathway to their first dialysis at home must be as smooth and problem-free as possible.
Alparslan, Caner; Yavascan, Onder; Kose, Engin; Sanlioglu, Pinar; Aksu, Nejat
The authors report a case of chronic peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis from Ochrobactrum anthropi. O. anthropi is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. O. anthropi-related peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients has rarely been reported. To the authors' knowledge, no pediatric case of O. anthropi peritonitis has been reported to date in the literature.
Hemayati, Roya; Lesanpezeshki, Mahboub; Seifi, Sepideh
The number of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure has increased in the past years worldwide. Several parameters have been introduced for the quantitative assessment of dialysis adequacy. The National Cooperative Dialysis Study results indicated that Kt/V and time-averaged concentration of urea (TAC) are predictors of mortality in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Also, the protein catabolic ratio (PCR), which is an indicator of nutritional status, can predict patients' mortality. Our aim was to assess the impact of parameters that show dialysis adequacy on indices of nutrition or inflammation. A total of 46 patients were included in the study; eight patients were excluded during the course of the study and 38 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. All patients were receiving HD for at least for three months. HD was administered three times per week and the study lasted for two months. Kt/V, TAC and PCR were assessed at the beginning of the study based on patients' urea and blood urea nitrogen in the first week of our study; these calculations were repeated at the end of the first and second months using the mean of the mentioned values in the month. Both adequacy indices significantly and positively correlated with changes in PCR (P <0.001). However, no significant correlation was detectable between Kt/V and TAC with either body mass index and albumin or C-reactive protein. Based on the Kt/V values, patients with adequate dialysis had slower decrease in the PCR (P <0.001). Our results indicate that adequacy of dialysis is correlated with patients' nutritional status. No correlation was observed between dialysis adequacy and inflammatory status.
Yilmaz, Murvet; Kircelli, Fatih; Artan, Ayse Serra; Oto, Ozgur; Asci, Gulay; Gunestepe, Kutay; Basci, Ali; Ok, Ercan; Sever, Mehmet Sukru
Introduction Not only anemia, but also erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA)s for treating anemia may adversely affect prognosis of chronic hemodialysis patients. Various features of naturally (with no ESA usage) nonanemic patients may be useful for defining several factors in the pathogenesis of anemia. Methods Data, retrieved from the European Clinical Database (EuCliD)-Turkey on naturally nonanemic prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients (n: 201) were compared with their anemic (those who required ESA treatment) counterparts (n: 3948). Findings Mean hemoglobin values were 13.5 ± 0.8 and 11.5 ± 0.9 g/dL in nonanemic and anemic patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Nonanemia status was associated with younger age, male gender, longer dialysis vintage, nondiabetic status, more frequent hepatitis-C virus seropositivity and more frequent arteriovenous fistula usage. Serum ferritin and CRP levels and urea reduction ratio were higher in ESA-requiring patients. One (99%) and two (95.3%) years survival rates of the "naturally nonanemic" patients were superior as compared to anemics (91.0% and 82.6%, respectively), (P < 0.001). Discussion "Naturally nonanemic" status is associated with better survival in prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients; underlying mechanisms in this favorable outcome should be investigated by randomized controlled trials including large number of patients.
Amonette, Linda; And Others
A program was developed to provide adult basic education (ABE) to kidney patients while they are receiving dialysis treatment. The program, which relies on an individualized learning approach, involved the coordinated efforts of the following parties: West Virginia Dialysis Facilities, Inc.; the Charleston Renal Group; and the Kanawha County Adult…
There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...
Chen, Hung-Yuan; Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Sen
Abstract Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, an indicator of atherogenic dyslipidemia, is a predictor of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in the general population and has been correlated with atherosclerotic events. Whether the TG/HDL-C ratio can predict CV outcomes and survival in dialysis patients is unknown. We performed this prospective, observational cohort study and enrolled 602 dialysis patients (539 hemodialysis and 63 peritoneal dialysis) from a single center in Taiwan followed up for a median of 3.9 years. The outcomes were the occurrence of CV events, CV death, and all-cause mortality during follow-up. The association of baseline TG/HDL-C ratio with outcomes was explored with Cox regression models, which were adjusted for demographic parameters and inflammatory/nutritional markers. Overall, 203 of the patients experienced CV events and 169 patients died, of whom 104 died due to CV events. Two hundred fifty-four patients reached the composite CV outcome. Patients with higher TG/HDL-C levels (quintile 5) had a higher incidence of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–3.47), CV mortality (adjusted HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.07–3.99), composite CV outcome (adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.37–3.55), and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.1–3.39) compared with the patients in quintile 1. However, in diabetic dialysis patients, the TG/HDL-C ratio did not predict the outcomes. The TG/HDL-C ratio is a reliable and easily accessible predictor to evaluate CV outcomes and survival in prevalent nondiabetic dialysis patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01457625 PMID:25761189
Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Roozbeh-Shahroodi, Jamshid; Pooladi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Zamani, Khosro
Introduction: Diabetes is associated with higher rates of caries, on the other hand some studies have shown that renal failure can be protective against dental caries. Objectives: In this study we compared oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis and non-diabetic dialysis patients and the normal population. Patients and Methods: During November 2014 to January 2014, 85 people that referred to our medical care center entered the study. The sample included 30 diabetic dialysis, 28 non-diabetic dialysis patients and 27 healthy people. Oral saliva samples were obtained from their tongue and oral floor for microbiological examination. Patients’ data were compared before and after dialysis. Results: The amount of Lactobacillus and S. mutans did not show a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.092 and P=0.966 for S. mutans and lactobacillus, respectively). A positive and meaningful correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and the amount of S. mutans in the diabetic dialysis group (P=0.023; r=0.413). A meaningful and positive correlation was also seen between the amount of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after dialysis and the amount of oral S. mutans in the non-diabetic dialysis group (P=0.03; r=0.403). Conclusion: Despite the differences in the prevalence of caries that have been reported between renal failure patients and diabetic patients, we did not find any significant difference between diabetic dialysis, non-diabetic dialysis patients and the healthy population, regarding their amount of oral cariogenic bacteria. PMID:27689112
Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J
We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.
Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W
Maintenance dialysis is associated with reduced survival when compared with the general population. In Libya, information about outcomes on dialysis is scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of survival in Libyan dialysis patients. This prospective multicenter study included all patients in Libya who had been receiving dialysis for >90 days in June 2009. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected upon enrollment and survival status after 1 year was determined. Two thousand two hundred seventy-three patients in 38 dialysis centers were followed up for 1 year. The majority were receiving hemodialysis (98.8%). Sixty-seven patients were censored due to renal transplantation, and 46 patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, 2159 patients were followed up for 1 year. Four hundred fifty-eight deaths occurred, (crude annual mortality rate of 21.2%). Of these, 31% were due to ischemic heart disease, 16% cerebrovascular accidents, and 16% due to infection. Annual mortality rate was 0% to 70% in different dialysis centers. Best survival was in age group 25 to 34 years. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age at onset of dialysis, physical dependency, diabetes, and predialysis urea as independent determinants of increased mortality. Patients receiving dialysis in Libya have a crude 1-year mortality rate similar to most developed countries, but the mean age of the dialysis population is much lower, and this outcome is thus relatively poor. As in most countries, cardiovascular disease and infection were the most common causes of death. Variation in mortality rates between different centers suggests that survival could be improved by promoting standardization of best practice.
Oursin, C; Meyer, E
Soft tissue calcification is a well-known complication in chronic dialysis patients. These calcifications are mainly located around the large joints. Calcification of the visceral organs also occurs in these patients, even though this fact is far less known. These visceral calcifications are mostly diagnosed post mortem as they tend to be discrete and asymptomatic. In this article, we report on a chronic dialysis patient in whom extensive pulmonary calcifications occurred, leading to clinical symptoms.
Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.
Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538
Casino, Francesco Gaetano
Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.
Neu, Alicia M.; Sander, Anja; Borzych-Dużałka, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Vallés, Patricia G.; Ha, Il Soo; Patel, Hiren; Askenazi, David; Balasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Lauronen, Jouni; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Feber, Janusz; Schaefer, Franz; Warady, Bradley A.
♦ Background, Objectives, and Methods: Hospitalization and mortality rates in pediatric dialysis patients remain unacceptably high. Although studies have associated the presence of comorbidities with an increased risk for death in a relatively small number of pediatric dialysis patients, no large-scale study had set out to describe the comorbidities seen in pediatric dialysis patients or to evaluate the impact of those comorbidities on outcomes beyond the newborn period. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of comorbidities in a large international cohort of pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network registry and began to assess potential associations between those comorbidities and hospitalization rates and mortality. ♦ Results: Information on comorbidities was available for 1830 patients 0 - 19 years of age at dialysis initiation. Median age at dialysis initiation was 9.1 years [interquartile range (IQR): 10.9], median follow-up for calculation of hospitalization rates was 15.2 months (range: 0.2 - 80.9 months), and total follow-up time in the registry was 2095 patient-years. At least 1 comorbidity had been reported for 602 of the patients (32.9%), with 283 (15.5%) having cognitive impairment; 230 (12.6%), motor impairment; 167 (9.1%), cardiac abnormality; 76 (4.2%), pulmonary abnormality; 212 (11.6%), ocular abnormality; and 101 (5.5%), hearing impairment. Of the 150 patients (8.2%) that had a defined syndrome, 85% had at least 1 nonrenal comorbidity, and 64% had multiple comorbidities. The presence of at least 1 comorbidity was associated with a higher hospitalization rate [hospital days per 100 observation days: 1.7 (IQR: 5.8) vs 1.2 (IQR: 3.9), p = 0.001] and decreased patient survival (4-year survival rate: 73% vs 90%, p < 0.0001). ♦ Conclusions: Nearly one third of pediatric CPD patients in a large international cohort had at least 1 comorbidity, and multiple
Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn
Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Chigira, Yusuke; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Masataka; Yoshimura, Tukasa
[Purpose] Exercise therapy during dialysis is currently being recommended since it is easy for patients to follow and results in high participation rates. In this study, this therapy was performed for elderly patients undergoing maintenance dialysis, and its effects were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Seven elderly patients (age: 70.6 ± 4.4) with chronic renal failure, who were able to perform exercises during maintenance dialysis, received the exercise therapy 2 or 3 times weekly for 3 months. Lower-limb muscle strength as well as the standardized dialysis dose (Kt/V) was measured before and after intervention. The patients were also evaluated using the 30-sec chair stand test (CS-30), the World Health Organization QOL Assessment 26 (WHO-QOL26), and a questionnaire. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and circumference, CS-30 score, and Kt/V values improved after intervention, but the difference was not significant. Significant differences were observed only in the WHO-QOL26 score. [Conclusion] The outcome was particularly favorable in terms of the quality of life (QOL). Based on the results from the questionnaire, the higher QOL may be due to the patients’ development of a positive attitude toward these activities. Although there were no significant differences, the values for the other criteria also improved, thereby supporting the effectiveness of exercise therapy to maintain or improve the patients’ motor functions and activity daily living (ADL) ability. PMID:28210031
Grima, Daniel T; Bernard, Lisa M; Dunn, Elizabeth S; McFarlane, Philip A; Mendelssohn, David C
In many jurisdictions, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) plays an important role in determining drug coverage and reimbursement and, therefore, has the potential to impact patient access. Health economic guidelines recommend the inclusion of future costs related to the intervention of interest within CEAs but provide little guidance regarding the definition of 'related'. In the case of CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis but do not impact the need for or the intensity of dialysis, the determination of the relatedness of future dialysis costs to the therapy of interest is particularly ambiguous. The uncertainty as to whether dialysis costs are related or unrelated in these circumstances has led to inconsistencies in the conduct of CEAs for such products, with dialysis costs included in some analyses while excluded in others. Due to the magnitude of the cost of dialysis, whether or not dialysis costs are included in CEAs of such therapies has substantial implications for the results of such analyses, often meaning the difference between a therapy being deemed cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are excluded) or not cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are included). This paper explores the issues and implications surrounding the inclusion of dialysis costs in CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of dialysis patients but do not impact the need for dialysis. Relevant case studies clearly demonstrate that, regardless of the clinical benefits of a life-extending intervention for dialysis patients, and due to the high cost of dialysis, the inclusion of dialysis costs in the analysis essentially eliminates the possibility of obtaining a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. This raises the significant risk that dialysis patients may be denied access to interventions that are cost effective in other populations due solely to the high background cost of dialysis itself. Finally, the
Gorrin, Maite Rivera; Teruel-Briones, José Luis; Vion, Victor Burguera; Rexach, Lourdes; Quereda, Carlos
Terminal-stage patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often transferred to haemodialysis as they are unable to perform the dialysis technique themselves since their functional capacities are reduced. We present our experience with five patients on PD with a shortterm life-threatening condition, whose treatment was shared by primary care units and who were treated with a PD modality adapted to their circumstances, which we call Palliative Peritoneal Dialysis.
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for physician services to patients in... Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required to create the...
Sherman, Richard A
Hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients is routinely attributed to nonadherence to diet, prescribed phosphate binders, or both. The role of individual patient variability in other determinants of phosphate control is not widely recognized. In a manner that cannot be explained by dialysis parameters or serum phosphate levels, dialytic removal of phosphate may vary by >400mg per treatment. Similarly, enteral phosphate absorption, unexplained by diet or vitamin D intake, may differ by ≥250mg/d among patients. Binder efficacy also varies among patients, with 2-fold differences reported. One or more elements of this triple threat-varying dialytic removal, phosphate absorption, and phosphate binding-may account for hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients rather than nonadherence to therapy. Just as the cause(s) of hyperphosphatemia may vary, so too may an individual patient's response to different therapeutic interventions.
Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Aakash; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Abhishek; Agarwal, Manyoo; Garg, Lohit; Agrawal, Nikhil; Singh, Amitoj; Nanda, Sudip; Shirani, Jamshid
Dialysis patients are at high risk for infective endocarditis (IE); however, no large contemporary data exist on this issue. We examined outcomes of 44 816 patients with IE on dialysis and 202 547 patients with IE not on dialysis from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2006 thorough 2011. Dialysis patients were younger (59 ± 15 years vs 62 ± 18 years) and more likely to be female (47% vs 40%) and African-American (47% vs 40%; all P < 0.001). Hospitalizations for IE in the dialysis group increased from 175 to 222 per 10 000 patients (P trend = 0.04). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common microorganism isolated in both dialysis (61%) and nondialysis (45%) groups. IE due to S aureus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-1.84), non-aureus staphylococcus (aOR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.64-1.80), and fungi (aOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.12-1.78) were more likely in the dialysis group, whereas infection due to gram-negative bacteria (aOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81-0.89), streptococci (aOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.36-0.39), and enterococci (aOR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.74-0.82) were less likely (all P < 0.001). Dialysis patients had higher in-hospital mortality (aOR: 2.13, 95% CI: 2.04-2.21), lower likelihood of valve-replacement surgery (aOR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76-0.86), and higher incidence of stroke (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12; all P < 0.001). We demonstrate rising incidence of IE-related hospitalizations in dialysis patients, highlight significant differences in baseline comorbidities and microbiology of IE compared with the general population, and validate the association of long-term dialysis with worse in-hospital outcomes.
Lagali, Neil S.; Burns, Kevin D.; Zimmerman, Deborah L.; Munger, Rejean
In a step towards the development of improved long-term prognostic indicators for patients with end-stage renal disease, we utilized absorption spectroscopy to determine the baseline status of whole blood in a cohort of 5 clinically-stable hemodialysis patients. The optical absorption spectrum of pre-dialysis and post-dialysis blood samples in the 400-1700nm wavelength range was measured for the cohort over a four-week period. Absorption spectra were consistent over time, with a maximum coefficient of variation (CV) of absorption under 2% (650-1650nm) for any given patient over the four-week period (pre and post-dialysis). Spectra varied by a greater amount across patients, with a maximum CV of 5% in any given week. Analysis of variance indicated a broad spectral range (650-1400nm) where within-patient spectral variation was significantly less than between-patient variation (p<0.001), providing the potential for development of stable baseline blood status indicators. The spectra were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) including a further set of whole blood absorption spectra obtained from 4 peritoneal dialysis patients. PCA revealed the fingerprint-like nature of the blood spectrum, an overall similarity of the spectrum within each treatment mode (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), and a distinct spectral difference between the treatment modes.
Kidir, Veysel; Altuntas, Atila; Inal, Salih; Akpinar, Abdullah; Orhan, Hikmet; Sezer, Mehmet Tugrul
Introduction: Sexual dysfunction and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in dialysis patients. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to many diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between vitamin D and sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients has not been previously reported in the literature. Materials and methods: Cholecalciferol, 50,000 IU/week, was orally administered to 37 dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency for 3 months followed by dosage of 10,000 IU every other week for 3 months. The Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaires were filled out by all patients at baseline and at the sixth month of the study. Results: Sexual dysfunction, poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression rates were 83.7%, 45.9%, 18.9% and 48.6%, respectively in all patients. ASEX total score was found to be positively correlated with age and was negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level and serum albumin level. After cholecalciferol treatment, 25(OH)D levels increased significantly, however no significant change was observed in any of the parameters. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age and 25(OH)D level were found to be independent predictors of ASEX total score. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency seems to contribute to sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients. However, it was observed in this study that; cholecalciferol replacement given to dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency did not result in any significant changes in sexual functions. PMID:26885232
Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Lanzon, J; Kachalsky, E
The major focus of care for patients with haemophilia is to ensure health with minimal joint dysfunction. As this population ages, additional coexisting conditions can develop including rare instances of nephrotic syndrome in haemophilia B inhibitor patients undergoing immune tolerance, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease, all of which can adversely affect the renal system over time. In haemophilia patients, co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C, these conditions can also increase the risk of renal problems resulting in the need for dialysis. This article provides a practical approach for the haemophilia patient who requires dialysis and outlines the decision making process to ensure a positive outcome. The goal of care is to optimize dialysis treatment without increasing the bleeding risk.
Castellino, P; Bia, M; DeFronzo, R A
The metabolic and hormonal response to acute moderate intensity (40% of VO2 max) bicycle exercise was examined in eight uremic subjects maintained on chronic dialysis and in 12 age- and weight-matched controls before and after the administration of low dose, selective (metoprolol) and nonselective (propranolol), beta adrenergic antagonists. The fasting plasma glucose concentration and basal rates of hepatic glucose production (HGP) and tissue glucose disappearance (Rd) were similar in control and uremic subjects. In both groups HGP and Rd increased in parallel during exercise, and the plasma glucose concentration remained constant at the fasting level. However, the increments in Rd (2.27 +/- 0.27 vs. 0.87 +/- 0.31 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01) and HGP (2.47 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.19 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01) were 2.5-3 fold greater in the control compared to uremic subjects. Although the VO2max was decreased by 50% (39 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 2 ml/min.kg; P less than 0.01), the correlation between Rd and VO2max was weak (r = 0.33, P less than 0.10), suggesting that factors other than diminished physical fitness contribute to diminished tissue uptake of glucose in the dialyzed uremic patients. Following the cessation of exercise, HGP and Rd promptly returned toward basal levels in both uremic and control subjects. The glucose homeostatic response to exercise was not significantly altered by either propranolol or metoprolol. In the postabsorptive state fasting levels of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine all were significantly increased in the uremic group (P less than 0.01 to 0.05). During exercise in the healthy young controls the plasma insulin concentration declined and plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels rose three- to fourfold. In contrast, in uremics plasma insulin failed to fall (P less than 0.05) and the increase in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine levels was markedly impaired (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Weintraub, M; Burstein, A; Rassin, T; Liron, M; Ringel, Y; Cabili, S; Blum, M; Peer, G; Iaina, A
Lipid abnormalities have been suggested as a major cause of the accelerated atherosclerosis and the high incidence of coronary heart disease in chronic renal failure patients. In the present work the postprandial lipoprotein metabolism was studied in chronic dialysis patients with or without fasting hypertriglyceridemia using the vitamin A loading test. This method investigates specifically postprandial lipoprotein metabolism. The determination of vitamin A ester level retinyl palmitate (RP) differentiates the circulating plasma chylomicron and chylomicron remnant fractions from the endogenous VLDL and IDL. Subjects with normal renal function with or without fasting hypertriglyceridemia served as control groups. Dialysis patients have significantly higher level of chylomicron remnants for a more prolonged period of time than controls, irrespective of their fasting triglyceride levels. The area below retinyl palmitate chylomicron remnants curve was 26308 +/- 12422 micrograms/liter.hr in the normolipidemic dialysis patients, significantly higher than (6393 +/- 2098 micrograms/liter.hr; P < 0.0001) in the normolipidemic controls. The retinyl palmitate chylomicron remnants curve of the hypertriglyceridemic dialysis patients was 21021 +/- 4560 micrograms/liter.hr, which was higher than 12969 +/- 2215 micrograms/liter.hr (P < 0.0001) in the hypertriglyceridemic controls. Moreover, the hypertriglyceridemic dialysis patients had an additional defect in the lipolysis metabolic step, that is, accumulation of chylomicrons in circulation. These findings show a severe defect in postprandial lipoprotein metabolism in chronic renal failure patients. The prolonged exposure of the vascular wall to high chylomicron remnant concentrations might be an important pathogenetic factor in the accelerated atherosclerosis seen in chronic dialysis patients.
Battaglia, Yuri; Granata, Antonio; Zamboli, Pasquale; Lusenti, Tiziano; Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Logias, Franco; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Fiorini, Fulvio
In recent decades, the survival of dialysis patients has gradually increased thanks to the evolution of dialysis techniques and the availability of new drug therapies. These elements have led to an increased incidence of a series of dialysis-related diseases that might compromise the role of dialysis rehabilitation: vascular disease, skeletal muscle disease, infectious disease, cystic kidney disease and cancer. The nephrologist is therefore in charge of a patient group with complex characteristics including the presence of indwelling vascular and/or peritoneal catheters, conditions secondary to chronic renal failure (hyperparathyroidism, anemia, amyloid disease, etc.) and superimposed disorders due to old age (cardiac and respiratory failure, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, etc.). Early clinical and organizational management of such patients is essential in a modern and ''economic'' vision of nephrology. The direct provision of ultrasound services by the nephrologist responds to these requirements. A minimum level of expertise in diagnostic ultrasonography of the urinary tract and dialysis access should be part of the nephrologist's cultural heritage, acquired through theoretical and practical training programs validated by scientific societies, especially for those who choose to specialize in these procedures and become experts in imaging or interventional ultrasonography.
Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chan, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Jiun
In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), PD-related infection is a major cause of PD failure and hospital admission. Good air quality is required when dialysate exchange or exit site wound care is performed. To our knowledge, investigation of air pollution as a factor for PD-related infection in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. This study aimed to assess the effect of environmental particulate matter (PM) and other important risk factors on 1-year PD-related infection in patients undergoing PD.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD were recruited in this 1-year retrospective observational study. Differences in environmental PMs (PM10 and PM2.5) were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The patients undergoing PD were categorized into 2 groups according to PM2.5 exposure: high (n = 61) and low (n = 114). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze 1-year PD-related infection.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD (50 men and 125 women) were enrolled. Thirty-five patients had PD-related infection within 1 year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high environmental PM2.5 exposure (hazard ratio (HR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03-3.91]; P = .04) and female sex (HR: 2.77, 95% CI [1.07-7.19]; P = .03) were risk factors for 1-year PD-related infection.Patients undergoing PD with high environmental PM2.5 exposure had a higher 1-year PD-related infection rate than that in those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with PD-related infection in such patients.
Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G
Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials.
Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram
Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…
Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M; Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Dekker, Friedo W; Krediet, Raymond T; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef
Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our development cohort, we measured 24-hour urine clearances under close supervision in 44 patients and validated these equations in 826 patients from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis. For the development and validation cohorts, median urinary urea clearance was 2.6 and 2.4 ml/min, respectively. During the 24-hour visit in the development cohort, serum β-trace protein concentrations remained in steady state but concentrations of all other markers increased. In the validation cohort, bias (median measured minus estimated clearance) was low for all equations. Precision was significantly better for β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin equations and the accuracy was significantly greater for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, compared with the urea plus creatinine equation. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for detecting measured urinary urea clearance by equation-estimated urinary urea clearance (both 2 ml/min or more) were 0.821, 0.850, and 0.796 for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, respectively; significantly greater than the 0.663 for the urea plus creatinine equation. Thus, residual renal function can be estimated in dialysis patients without urine collections.
Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996
Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
3- Federal Univers...
Molnar, Miklos Z; Ichii, Hirohito; Lineen, James; Foster, Clarence E; Mathe, Zoltan; Schiff, Jeffrey; Kim, S Joseph; Pahl, Madeleine V; Amin, Alpesh N; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P
In the last decade, the number of patients starting dialysis after a failed kidney transplant has increased substantially. These patients appear to be different from their transplant-naïve counterparts, and so may be the timing of dialysis therapy initiation. An increasing number of studies suggest that in transplant-naïve patients, later dialysis initiation is associated with better outcomes. Very few data are available on timing of dialysis reinitiation in failed transplant recipients, and they suggest that an earlier return to dialysis therapy tended to be associated with worse survival, especially among healthier and younger patients and women. Failed transplant patients may also have unique issues such as continuation of immunosuppression versus withdrawal or the need for remnant allograft nephrectomy with regard to dialysis reinitiation. These patients may have a different predialysis preparation work-up, worse blood pressure control, higher or lower serum phosphorus levels, lower serum bicarbonate concentration, and worse anemia management. The choice of dialysis modality may also represent an important question for these patients, even though there appears to be no difference in mortality between patients starting peritoneal versus hemodialysis. Finally, failed transplant patients returning to dialysis appear to have a higher mortality rate compared with transplant-naïve incident dialysis patients, especially in the first several months of dialysis therapy. In this review, we will summarize the available data related to the timing of dialysis initiation and outcomes in failed kidney transplant patients after returning to dialysis.
Cirera Segura, F; Martín Espejo, J L; Reina Neyra, M
The objective of the present study is to obtain information about the training programme for patients undergoing Domiciliary Peritoneal Dialysis (DPD) in Spain. For the purposes of the study we designed a questionnaire comprising 50 closed-ended items and one open response item. The questionnaire was sent to 104 hospitals and was completed by 78.84% of them (n > or = 82). The average of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the hospitals under study was 27.6: 15.8 of them receiving Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and 11.8 Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD). The questionnaire also served to investigate into the training methodology used in the different units, the involvement of the family in the programme, the basic knowledge patients received about Chronic Renal Insufficiency, the procedures associated with the therapy and the preparation they obtained to solve small-scale contingencies and emergency situations as well as the improvement of their quality of life. We also evaluated the training programme of autonomous patients on DPD and at the end of the questionnaire a blank space was left for facilities to add any comments or suggestions they considered relevant. From the results obtained we may conclude that most Spanish hospitals have devised a training planning for patients undergoing PD which helps them or caregivers to perform domiciliary treatment safely, provides them with basic knowledge about the disease and the routine procedures associated with the treatment, enables them to cope with contingencies and emergency situations and improves their quality of life during the dialysis period.
Mácsai, Emília; Benke, Attila; Kiss, István
Abstract Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a proven prognostic factor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Traditional and nontraditional risk factors are almost equivalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. Moreover, peritoneal glucose absorption accelerates the degenerative processes of connective tissues as in diabetes. In our study, we examined the predictive value of SAF for total mortality in the PD population. Data were collected from 198 prevalently adult Caucasian PD patients. One hundred twenty-six patients (mean age 66.2 y, men [n = 73], diabetes ratio 75/126) had anamnestic CVD (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease). Initially, we evaluated factors affecting SAF and CVD by multivariate linear regression. Survival rates were estimated by recording clinical and demographic data associated with mortality during a 36-month follow-up using the Kaplan–Meier method. Analyses were further stratified based on the presence or absence of CVD and SAF levels above or below the upper tercile 3.61 arbitrary units. Skin autofluorescence was influenced by CVD (P < 0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1–0.5) and white blood cell counts (P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.031–0.117). According to the Spearman correlation, SAF correlated with peritoneal cumulative glucose exposure (P = 0.02) and elapsed time in PD (P = 0.008). CVD correlated with age (P < 0.001, 95% CI 1.24–1.65) and diabetes (P < 0.001, 95% CI 2.58–10.66). More deaths were observed in the high SAF group than in the low SAF group (34/68 vs 44/130; P = 0.04). Comparing the CVD(−) low SAF group survival (mean 33.9 mos, standard error [SE] 1.39) to CVD(+) low SAF (mean 30.5 mos, SE 1.37, P = 0.03) and to CVD(+) high SAF group (mean 27.1 mos, SE 1.83, P = 0.001), the difference was significant. In conclusion, among PD patients, SAF values over 3.61 arbitrary units seem to be a
Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia
During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21-87) years; median time on PD 19 (3-100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS), fraction of ultrasmall pores (α u), osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG), and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters). Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters--rather than solute transport parameters--are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane.
Losso, Ricardo L M; Minhoto, Gisele R; Riella, Miguel C
Sleep disorders for patients on dialysis are significant causes of a poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. No study has evaluated patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) to assess their sleep disorders compared to hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A total of 166 clinically stable patients who had been on dialysis for at least 3 months were randomly selected for the study and divided into HD, CAPD or APD. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters and self-administered questionnaires were collected for the investigation of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), bruxism, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression and anxiety. Insomnia was detected in more than 80 % of patients on the three modalities. OSAS was lower for patients on HD (36 %) than on CAPD (65 %) (p < 0.01) or APD (60 %) (p < 0.04). Patients on APD were more likely to have RLS compared to those on HD or CAPD (p < 0.04) (50 vs. 23 vs. 33 %). No differences among the modalities were found in bruxism, EDS, sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression or anxiety. ESRD patients undergoing any one of the three dialysis modalities studied had a high prevalence of sleep disorders. Patients on HD had a lower proportion of OSAS than those on CAPD and APD, which is most likely attributed to their lower body mass indices. The possible causes of higher RLS rates in APD patients have not been established.
Kahveci, Arzu; Asicioglu, Ebru; Tigen, Elif; Ari, Elif; Arikan, Hakki; Odabasi, Zekaver; Ozener, Cetin
An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Thangarasa, Tharshika; Imtiaz, Rameez; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah
Background: Patients with chronic diseases are known to benefit from exercise. Despite a lack of compelling evidence, patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs that include resistance training due to concerns about the development of hernias and leaks. The actual effects of physical activity with or without structured exercise programs for these patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to more completely define the risks and benefits of physical activity in the end-stage kidney disease population treated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review examining the effects of physical activity on end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. For the purposes of this review, exercise will be considered a purposive subcategory of physical activity. The primary objective is to determine if physical activity in this patient population is associated with improvements in mental health, physical functioning, fatigue and quality of life and if there is an increase in adverse outcomes. With the help of a skilled librarian, we will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials and observational studies. We will include adult end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis that have participated in an exercise training program or had their level of physical activity assessed directly or by self-report. The study must include an assessment of the association between physical activity and one of our primary or secondary outcomes measures. We will report study quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Quality across studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The
Bae, Eunjin; Seong, Eun Yong; Han, Byoung-Geun; Kim, Dong Ki; Lim, Chun Soo; Kang, Shin-Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Shin, Byung Chul; Kim, Sung Gyun; Chung, Wookyung; Park, Jae Yoon; Lee, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yon Su
Introduction Patients with chronic kidney disease have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with increased mortality from CVD. Methods The present study aimed to investigate the risk factors for CAC in Korean patients with incident dialysis. Data on 423 patients with ESRD who started dialysis therapy between December 2012 and March 2014 were obtained from 10 university-affiliated hospitals. CAC was identified by using noncontrast-enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography. The CAC score was calculated according to the Agatston score, with CAC-positive subjects defined by an Agatston score >0. Findings Patients' mean age was 55.6 ± 14.6 years, and 64.1% were men. The CAC-positive rate was 63.8% (270 of 423). Results of univariate analyses showed significant differences in age, sex, etiology of ESRD and comorbid conditions according to the CAC score. However, results of multiple regression analysis showed that only a higher age was significantly associated with the CAC score. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the sensitivity and specificity of L-spine radiography for diagnosing CAC were 56% and 91%, respectively, for diagnosing CAC (area under the curve, 0.735). Discussion CAC was frequent in patients with incident dialysis, and multiple regression analysis showed that only age was significantly associated with the CAC score. In addition, L-spine radiography could be a helpful modality for diagnosing CAC in patients with incident dialysis.
Lin, Yu-Li; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Hsu, Bang-Gee
Anthropometric measurements, including body mass index (BMI), body weight and total fat mass are associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) in the general population. Compared to that in the general population, BMD was lower in dialysis patients. However, the association between anthropometric measurements and BMD is not well-established among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. To study this, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 48 chronic PD patients. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical data, and BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) were collected. Among these PD patients, eight patients (16.7%) had osteoporosis and 22 patients (45.8%) osteopenia, while 18 patients were normal. Older age, decreased height, lower body weight, BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm fat area (MAFA), and higher adiponectin levels were observed in our patients with lower lumbar T-scores. Height, body weight, waist circumference, BMI, body fat mass, TSF, mid-arm circumference, MAFA, and serum phosphorus levels were positively, while age, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with lumbar BMD levels. According to our multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis, TSF (R(2) change = 0.080, P = 0.017) and body weight (R(2) change = 0.333, P = 0.002) were both correlated with low lumbar BMD. In conclusion, either TSF or body weight in our chronic PD patients was proved to be an independent predictor for osteolytic bone lesions.
Nine nurses were interviewed to determine nurses' experiences of teaching patients to use continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The material was analyzed using content analysis. Data were sorted into four themes and ten subthemes. The themes were presented as follows: Importance of language, individualized teaching, teaching needs and structure of care in teaching. The findings highlighted important insights into how nurses experience teaching patients to perform CAPD. The study revealed some barriers for the nurses during teaching. The major barrier was shortage of Arabic speaking nursing staff. Incidental findings involved two factors that played an important role in teaching, retraining and a special team to perform pre-assessments, including home visits. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed several factors that are considered as barriers for the nurses during teaching the CAPD patients and the need to improve the communication and teaching in the peritoneal dialysis units, including the importance of individualized teaching.
Okyay, Gülay Ulusal; Er, Ramazan Erdem; Tekbudak, Merve Yasemin; Paşaoğlu, Özge; Inal, Salih; Öneç, Kürşad; Paşaoğlu, Hatice; Altok, Kadriye; Derici, Ülver; Erten, Yasemin
YKL-40 has been introduced as a marker of inflammation in different clinical situations. The association between YKL-40 and inflammation in chronic renal failure patients has not been researched currently. The objectives of this study were to establish serum YKL-40 concentrations in dialysis patients with chronic renal failure compared to healthy subjects and to explore its relationships with a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukine-6 (IL-6) and an acute phase mediator, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The study population included hemodialysis patients (N = 43; mean age of 40.9 ± 14.5), peritoneal dialysis patients (N = 38; mean age of 45.8 ± 13.7) and healthy subjects (N = 37; mean age of 45.5 ± 10.6). Serum concentrations of YKL-40, IL-6, hs-CRP and routine laboratory measures were evaluated. Compared to the healthy subjects, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients had higher concentrations of YKL-40, IL-6, hs-CRP, as well as lower concentrations of hemoglobin, serum albumin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001). YKL-40 concentrations were positively correlated with serum creatinine (P < 0.001, r = 0.495), IL-6 (P < 0.001, r = 0.306), hs-CRP (P = 0.001, r = 0.306) levels and inversely correlated with hemoglobin (P = 0.002, r = -0.285), serum albumin (P < 0.001, r = -0.355) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.001, r = -0.306). In multivariate regression analysis YKL-40 was associated with creatinine, serum albumin and hs-CRP concentrations after adjustments with covariates. Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure have elevated serum YKL-40 concentrations. Associations with standard inflammatory parameters suggest that YKL-40 might be a novel inflammatory marker in this population.
Zoccali, C; Benedetto, F A; Mallamaci, F; Tripepi, G; Giacone, G; Cataliotti, A; Seminara, G; Stancanelli, B; Malatino, L S
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is exceedingly frequent in patients undergoing dialysis. Cardiac mass is proportional to body size, but the influence of various indexing methods has not been studied in patients with end-stage renal disease. The issue is important because malnutrition and volume expansion would both tend to distort the estimate of LV mass (LVM) in these patients. In a cohort of 254 patients, the prognostic impact on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes of LVH values, calculated according to two established methods of indexing, either body surface area (BSA) or height(2.7), was assessed prospectively. When LVM was analyzed as a categorical variable, the height(2.7)-based method identified a larger number of patients with LVH than the corresponding BSA-based method. One hundred and thirty-seven fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. Overall, 90 patients died, 51 of cardiovascular causes. In separate Cox models, both the LVM/height(2.7) and the LVM/BSA index independently predicted total and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.001). However, the height(2.7)-based method coherently produced a closer-fitting model (P < or = 0.02) than did the BSA-based method. The height(2.7) index was also important for the subcategorization of patients according to the presence of concentric or eccentric LVH because the prognostic value of such subcategorization was apparent only when the height(2.7)-based criterion was applied. In conclusion, LVM is a strong and independent predictor of survival and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing dialysis. The indexing of LVM by height(2.7) provides more powerful prediction of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes than the BSA-based method, and the use of this index appears to be appropriate in patients undergoing dialysis.
South, Andrew M; Crispin, Milene K; Marqueling, Ann L; Sutherland, Scott M
Chronically ill patients often develop uncommon exam findings. A 16-year-old female with end-stage renal disease secondary to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis on peritoneal dialysis (PD) developed a pruritic, hyperpigmented reticular rash on her abdomen, sparing the PD catheter insertion site. The rash appeared approximately 6 weeks after initiating PD. She used a heating pad nightly during PD for dialysis drain pain. Testing for systemic and autoimmune disease was negative. She was referred to dermatology, where the diagnosis of erythema ab igne (EAI), a well-described but less well-known hyperpigmented reticular cutaneous eruption caused by chronic exposure to low levels of infrared heat, was confirmed. The eruption is typically painless but is often pruritic. Common sources of heat include fires, stoves, portable heaters, heating pads, and laptop computers. The association between EAI and PD is unknown. Our patient discontinued the heating pad and her rash resolved.
Sprague, S M; Corwin, H L; Tanner, C M; Wilson, R S; Green, B J; Goetz, C G
Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.
Sprague, S.M.; Corwin, H.L.; Tanner, C.M.; Wilson, R.S.; Green, B.J.; Goetz, C.G.
Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.
Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel
Background While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. Methods In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Results During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85–0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66–0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30–90. Conclusions BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors. PMID:26985382
Baldessar, Maria Zélia; Bettiol, Jane; Foppa, Fabrício; Oliveira, Lúcia Helena das Chagas
This article reports the results of the research which has evaluated the prevalence and factors associated to the presence of Hepatitis C in patients submitted to dialysis at the Clinica de Doenças Renais (Clinic of Renal Diseases) in Tubarao city (CRDT), Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the period between January 1st, 2004 to December 31st in the same year. The prevalence of 16.8% of Hepatitis C in the studied population and the time-length of dialysis as significative risk factor have become evident. The non-correlation of seropositivity of the followings factors is also indicated: age, gender, base diseases, infrastructures, the type of clinic machines, the type of dialyser, used membranes, the machine sterilisation and substances for this process as well as the number of times of the dialyser reutilization. The data represented in this project suggest that the Hepatitis C presents high prevalence in patients in dialysis and the time-length of the treatment is a risky factor to acquire the infection.
Grubbs, Vanessa; Moss, Alvin H; Cohen, Lewis M; Fischer, Michael J; Germain, Michael J; Jassal, S Vanita; Perl, Jeffrey; Weiner, Daniel E; Mehrotra, Rajnish
As the importance of providing patient-centered palliative care for patients with advanced illnesses gains attention, standard dialysis delivery may be inconsistent with the goals of care for many patients with ESRD. Many dialysis patients with life expectancy of <1 year may desire a palliative approach to dialysis care, which focuses on aligning patient treatment with patients' informed preferences. This commentary elucidates what comprises a palliative approach to dialysis care and describes its potential and appropriate use. It also reviews the barriers to integrating such an approach into the current clinical paradigm of care and existing infrastructure and outlines system-level changes needed to accommodate such an approach.
Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine
♦ Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated. ♦ Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure. ♦ Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association. ♦ Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD. PMID:22942271
Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita
Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated.
Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Salotti, Emilio; Tavolaro, Alba; Baronti, Maria E; Giannese, Domenico; Cupisti, Adamasco
Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a) involvement of exercise professionals, b) real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c) individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal "exercise team" for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular), nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.
Schell, Jane O; Cohen, Robert A
Frail elderly patients with advanced kidney disease experience many of the burdens associated with dialysis. Although these patients constitute the fastest-growing population starting dialysis, they often suffer loss of functional status, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality after dialysis initiation. Nephrology clinicians face the challenges of helping patients decide if the potential benefits of dialysis outweigh the risks and preparing such patients for future setbacks. A communication framework for dialysis decision-making that aligns treatment choices with patient goals and values is presented. The role of uncertainty is highlighted, and the concept of a goal-directed care plan is introduced. This plan incorporates a time-limited trial that promotes frequent opportunities for reassessment. Using the communication skills presented, the clinician can prepare and guide patients for the dialysis trajectory as it unfolds.
Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong
Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949
Moss, Alvin H.; Cohen, Lewis M.; Fischer, Michael J.; Germain, Michael J.; Jassal, S. Vanita; Perl, Jeffrey; Weiner, Daniel E.; Mehrotra, Rajnish
As the importance of providing patient-centered palliative care for patients with advanced illnesses gains attention, standard dialysis delivery may be inconsistent with the goals of care for many patients with ESRD. Many dialysis patients with life expectancy of <1 year may desire a palliative approach to dialysis care, which focuses on aligning patient treatment with patients’ informed preferences. This commentary elucidates what comprises a palliative approach to dialysis care and describes its potential and appropriate use. It also reviews the barriers to integrating such an approach into the current clinical paradigm of care and existing infrastructure and outlines system-level changes needed to accommodate such an approach. PMID:25104274
Gursu, Meltem; Uzun, Sami; Topcuoğlu, Derya; Koc, Leyli Kadriye; Yucel, Lamiye; Sumnu, Abdullah; Cebeci, Egemen; Ozkan, Oktay; Behlul, Ahmet; Koc, Leyla; Ozturk, Savas; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza
AIM: To examine all skin changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients followed up in our unit. METHODS: Patients on PD program for at least three months without any known chronic skin disease were included in the study. Patients with already diagnosed skin disease, those who have systemic diseases that may cause skin lesions, patients with malignancies and those who did not give informed consent were excluded from the study. All patients were examined by the same predetermined dermatologist with all findings recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data including measures of dialysis adequacy of patients were recorded also. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 16.0 standard version was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among the patients followed up in our PD unit, those without exclusion criteria who gave informed consent, 38 patients were included in the study with male/female ratio and mean age of 26/12 and 50.3 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The duration of CKD was 7.86 ± 4.16 years and the mean PD duration was 47.1 ± 29.6 mo. Primary kidney disease was diabetic nephropathy in 11, nephrosclerosis in six, uropathologies in four, chronic glomerulonephritis in three, chronic pyelonephritis in three, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in three patients while cause was unknown in eight patients. All patients except for one patient had at least one skin lesion. Loss of lunula, onychomycosis and tinea pedis are the most frequent skin disorders recorded in the study group. Diabetic patients had tinea pedis more frequently (P = 0.045). No relationship of skin findings was detected with primary renal diseases, comorbidities and medications that the patients were using. CONCLUSION: Skin abnormalities are common in in PD patients. The most frequent skin pathologies are onychomycosis and tinea pedis which must not be overlooked. PMID:27458566
Letchmi, Santhna; Das, Srijit; Halim, Hasliza; Zakariah, Farid Azizul; Hassan, Hamidah; Mat, Samsiah; Packiavathy, Ruth
The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise.
Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua
Abstract Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients’ technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes. During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality. We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start
Erickson, Kevin F; Zheng, Yuanchao; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Ho, Vivian; Bhattacharya, Jay; Chertow, Glenn M
The Medicare program insures >80% of patients with ESRD in the United States. An emphasis on reducing outpatient dialysis costs has motivated consolidation among dialysis providers, with two for-profit corporations now providing dialysis for >70% of patients. It is unknown whether industry consolidation has affected patients' ability to choose among competing dialysis providers. We identified patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at the start of 2001 and 2011 from the national ESRD registry and ascertained dialysis facility ownership. For each hospital service area, we determined the maximum distance within which 90% of patients traveled to receive dialysis in 2001. We compared the numbers of competing dialysis providers within that same distance between 2001 and 2011. Additionally, we examined the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a metric of market concentration ranging from near zero (perfect competition) to one (monopoly) for each hospital service area. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of different uniquely owned competing providers decreased 8%. However, increased facility entry into markets to meet rising demand for care offset the effect of provider consolidation on the number of choices available to patients. The number of dialysis facilities in the United States increased by 54%, and patients experienced an average 10% increase in the number of competing proximate facilities from which they could choose to receive dialysis (P<0.001). Local markets were highly concentrated in both 2001 and 2011 (mean Herfindahl-Hirschman Index =0.46; SD=0.2 for both years), but overall market concentration did not materially change. In summary, a decade of consolidation in the United States dialysis industry did not (on average) limit patient choice or result in more concentrated local markets. However, because dialysis markets remained highly concentrated, it will be important to understand whether market competition affects prices paid by private insurers, access to
Besarab, Anatole; Chernyavskaya, Elena; Motylev, Igor; Shutov, Evgeny; Kumbar, Lalathaksha M; Gurevich, Konstantin; Chan, Daniel Tak Mao; Leong, Robert; Poole, Lona; Zhong, Ming; Saikali, Khalil G; Franco, Marietta; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B
Safety concerns with erythropoietin analogues and intravenous (IV) iron for treatment of anemia in CKD necessitate development of safer therapies. Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally bioavailable hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that promotes coordinated erythropoiesis through HIF-mediated transcription. We performed an open-label, randomized hemoglobin (Hb) correction study in anemic (Hb≤10.0 g/dl) patients incident to hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty patients received no iron, oral iron, or IV iron while treated with roxadustat for 12 weeks. Mean±SD baseline Hb was 8.3±1.0 g/dl in enrolled patients. Roxadustat at titrated doses increased mean Hb by ≥2.0 g/dl within 7 weeks regardless of baseline iron repletion status, C-reactive protein level, iron regimen, or dialysis modality. Mean±SEM maximal change in Hb from baseline (ΔHb(max)), the primary endpoint, was 3.1±0.2 g/dl over 12 weeks in efficacy-evaluable patients (n=55). In groups receiving oral or IV iron, ΔHb(max) was similar and larger than in the no-iron group. Hb response (increase in Hb of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline) was achieved in 96% of efficacy-evaluable patients. Mean serum hepcidin decreased significantly 4 weeks into study: by 80% in HD patients receiving no iron (n=22), 52% in HD and PD patients receiving oral iron (n=21), and 41% in HD patients receiving IV iron (n=9). In summary, roxadustat was well tolerated and corrected anemia in incident HD and PD patients, regardless of baseline iron repletion status or C-reactive protein level and with oral or IV iron supplementation; it also reduced serum hepcidin levels.
Awdisho, Alan; Bermudez, Maria
Peritonitis is a leading complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, very rarely does Neisseria mucosa cause peritonitis. We describe an unusual case of N. mucosa peritonitis in a chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient. A 28-year-old Hispanic male presents with diffuse abdominal pain exacerbated during draining of the peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal fluid examination was remarkable for leukocytosis and gramnegative diplococci. Bacterial cultures were positive for N. mucosa growth. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with preservation of the dialysis catheter. This case highlights the rarity and importance of Neisseria mucosa causing peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. There seems to be a unique association between N. mucosa peritonitis and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. The patient was successfully managed with ciprofloxacin along with salvaging of the dialysis catheter. PMID:28191300
Over recent decades, rapid progress in information and telecommunications technology has led to the application of these technologies in the medical field. In 1999, we reported on a telemedicine system (version 1.0) that used an automated peritoneal dialysis machine to collect data on patients with end-stage renal disease. After 2002, we focused on using cellular telephones in a new telemedicine system (version 2.0) to monitor patient data at home, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate, body weight, urine volume, and blood glucose. By 2003, we had developed a fully automatic system called I-converter (version 3.0) to collect data from a fully automatic device and send it via cellular telephone. After the fully automatic device measures a patient's BP, I-converter sends the data directly to the main server in our central data center. That server is directly connected to Web site by application service provider (ASP) technology. Recently, to make the system simpler, we developed a new version called D-converter (version 4.0). The telephone used in this new system is a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS). The PHS has several advantages: high-speed data transmission, low power output, little electromagnetic interference with medical devices, and easy locating of patients. The D-converter system uses a small computer and a PHS card called a Dopa card. Our telemedicine systems monitor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients at home. For elderly and handicapped patients, these systems are very advantageous because they reduce visits to the outpatient clinic. In addition, data can be monitored at the patient's home in real time. The present paper reports our recent advances in telemedicine systems for CAPD patients.
Donia, Ahmed Farouk; Elhadedy, Mohamed Ahmed; El-Maghrabi, Hanzada Mohamed; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Foda, Mohamed Ashraf
Hemodialysis (HD) patients are subjected to a number of physical and mental stresses. Physicians might be unaware of some of these problems. We assessed our patients' opinion about the service provided at the dialysis unit. Our unit has 89 patients on HD. A questionnaire exploring our patients' opinion relative to the service provided was prepared. The patients were asked to fill-in the questionnaire in a confidential manner. Questionnaires were then collected and examined while unaware of patient identities. Sixty-nine patients (77.5%) responded to the questionnaire. Eight patients (11.6%) revealed their names on the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, the patients were asked to assess the service of each service by choosing one of the following grades: "excellent," "mediocre" or "bad." For the whole group of contributing patients, there were 563 "excellent," 85 "mediocre" and five "bad" choices in addition to 37 blank "no comment" choices. Food service had the least percentage (68%) of evaluation as "excellent," while doctor' performance got the highest excellent evaluation (85.5%). Thirty-five patients (50.7%) added further comment(s). An audit meeting was conducted to discuss these results. Exploring the opinion of patients on HD might uncover some areas of dissatisfaction and help in improving the provided service. We recommend widespread usage of questionnaires to assess patient satisfaction as well as to assess other health-care aspects.
Polo, J R; Luño, J; Menarguez, C; Gallego, E; Robles, R; Hernandez, P
A 48-year-old man receiving maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 1 year developed a clinical picture compatible with peritonitis. Three successive fluid cultures were negative, and only after filtration of a large volume of peritoneal fluid a fungus identified as a Rhizopus sp was isolated in cultures of the filtering devices. The same fungus was also isolated from the peritoneal catheter cuff. Intravenous amphotericin B was administered and both the abdominal and general conditions of the patient improved transiently. Twenty days after initiation of antifungal treatment, a clinical suspicion of intestinal perforation arose and an exploratory laparotomy was scheduled, but the patient died during the anesthetic induction. The patient never received deferoxamine; any conditions predisposing to mucormycosis, such as diabetes or immunosuppression, were also absent.
Lee, Sunhwa; Kang, Eunjeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Dong Ki; Joo, Kwon Wook; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong
Background Abnormal serum potassium concentration has been suggested as a risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing dialysis patients. We investigated the impact of serum potassium levels on survival according to dialysis modality. Methods A nationwide, prospective, observational cohort study for end stage renal disease patients has been ongoing in Korea since August 2008. Our analysis included patients whose records contained data regarding serum potassium levels. The relationship between serum potassium and mortality was analyzed using competing risk regression. Results A total of 3,230 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, 64.3%) or peritoneal dialysis (PD, 35.7%) were included. The serum potassium level was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in PD (median, 4.5 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.0–4.9 mmol/L) than in HD patients (median, 4.9 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.5–5.4 mmol/L). During 4.4 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, 751 patients (23.3%) died, mainly from cardiovascular events (n = 179) and infection (n = 120). In overall, lower serum potassium level less than 4.5 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for mortality after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and nutritional status (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.10–1.53; P = 0.002). HD patients showed a U-shaped survival pattern, suggesting that both lower and higher potassium levels were deleterious, although insignificant. However, in PD patients, only lower serum potassium level (<4.5 mmol/L) was an independent predictor of mortality (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.80; P = 0.048). Conclusion Lower serum potassium levels (<4.5 mmol/L) occur more commonly in PD than in HD patients. It represents an independent predictor of survival in overall dialysis, especially in PD patients. Therefore, management of dialysis patients should focus especially on reducing the risk of hypokalemia, not only that of hyperkalemia. PMID:28264031
Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Okamura, Tomonori; Yonekura, Yuki; Kato, Karen; Fujishima, Yosuke; Obara, Wataru; Abe, Takaya; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Omama, Shinichi; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Morino, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kuribayashi, Toru; Makita, Shinji; Yoshida, Yuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Ohta, Mutsuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Okayama, Akira
Background While it is assumed that dialysis patients in Japan have a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) than the general population, the magnitude of this difference is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for AF in dialysis patients (n = 1510) were calculated compared to data from the general population (n = 26 454) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of AF were 3.8% and 1.6% in dialysis patients and the general population, respectively. In male subjects, these respective values were 4.9% and 3.3%, and in female subjects they were 1.6% and 0.6%. The SPRs for AF were 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88–3.19) in all dialysis patients, 1.80 (95% CI, 1.30–2.29) in male dialysis patients, and 2.13 (95% CI, 0.66–3.61) in female dialysis patients. Conclusions The prevalence of AF in dialysis patients was twice that in the population-based controls. Since AF strongly contributes to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, further longitudinal studies should be conducted regarding the risk of several outcomes attributable to AF among Japanese dialysis patients. PMID:26804038
A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…
Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.
The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid.
Milne, F J; Hudson, G A; Meyers, A M; Baily, P; Barmeir, E; Dubowitz, B; Reis, P
Ten patients developed fracturing-bone disease (osteomalacia) while on dialysis against water with high levels of aluminium. Eight patients remained on dialysis, using de-ionized or reverse-osmosis water, and 2 received a renal transplant. Clinical improvement as regards bone pain and proximal muscle weakness occurred in 6 months and radiographic evidence of healing of the pseudofractures was seen at approximately 12 months. Associated osteopenia and hyperparathyroidism were found in most patients, but no significant change in either was noted during the study period. The serum parathyroid hormone levels rose significantly in the patients who remained on dialysis. The chest and pelvic deformities typical of healed osteomalacia were seen. This dramatic improvement can only be attributed to the removal of some water-borne element, either by changing the water used in the dialysis or by successful renal transplantation. Aluminium-containing phosphate binders were used throughout the study in the patients on dialysis, and hypophosphataemia was never a feature.
Brunori, Francesco; Dozio, Beatrice; Colzani, Sara; Pozzi, Marco; Pisano, Lucia; Galassi, Andrea; Santorelli, Gennaro; Auricchio, Sara; Busnelli, Luisa; Di Carlo, Angela; Viganò, Monica; Calabrese, Valentina; Mariani, Laura; Mossa, Monica; Longoni, Stefania; Scanziani, Renzo
This study has been performed in the Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, in Desio Hospital, Italy. The aim of this study is to evaluate, starting from research questions, which information is given to patient in the pre-dialysis colloquia for his/her chosen dialysis methods. Moreover, the study evaluated feelings, emotions and fears since the announcement of the necessity of dialysis treatment. The objective of the study was reached through the interview with patients on dialysis. The fact-finding survey was based on the tools of social research, as the semi-structured interview. Instead of using the questionnaire, even though it make it easier to collect larger set of data, the Authors decided to interview patients in person, since the interview allows direct patient contact and to build a relationship of trust with the interviewer, in order to allow patient explain better his/her feeling.
Kleinpeter, Myra A
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced
Al Wakeel, Jamal S; Mitwalli, Ahmed H; Al Mohaya, S; Abu-Aisha, Hassan; Tarif, Nauman; Malik, Ghulam H; Hammad, D
End-stage renal disease (ESRD), due to its high morbidity and mortality as well as social and financial implications, is a major public health problem. Outcome depends not only on different modalities of treatment like hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, but also on existing co-morbidities, age, duration on dialysis, supportive therapies and infection control strategies. Thus, a detailed study becomes necessary to improve health care delivery, provide medical care and to establish a geographical reference. The present study was undertaken to characterize the ESRD patients by their demographic and co-morbid conditions and relate this to the morbidity and mortality trends. The medical records of 110 ESRD patients seen over a five-year period (June 1995 to December 1999) in two tertiary-care hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were studied retrospectively. There were 79 (64.5%) males and 31 (35.5%) females; their age ranged from 17 to 92 years (mean age 53.8 +/- 17.8 years). Diabetes was the commonest cause of ESRD seen in 26 (26.6%) followed by nephrosclerosis, unknown etiology, lupus nephritis, pyelonephritis and primary glomerulonephritis. Diabetes mellitus was the most prevalent co-morbidity seen during the study period and occurred in 65 patients (59%) followed by heart disease in 36 (32.7%), liver disease in 30 (27.3%), cerebrovascular accidents in 13 (11.8%) and neoplasm in 11 (10%). Seven (6.3%) patients only were smokers. Hemodialysis was the most frequent treatment choice as renal replacement therapy. Among the causes of hospitalization, cardiovascular conditions were the leading single cause (19.1%), followed by access related reasons and infections (11.5% each). The overall hospitalization rate was 11.2 days/year. The overall mortality rate was 8.07 deaths/year. The leading cause of death was cardiovascular in 15 (51.7%) followed by unknown/sudden death in eight (27.5%). Other causes of death included fluid overload, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, septicemia
Howard, Kirsten; Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia C.; Marshall, Mark R.; Morton, Rachael L.
Abstract Introduction Broader adoption of home dialysis could lead to considerable cost savings for health services. Globally, however, uptake remains low. The aim of this study was to describe patient and caregiver perspectives of the economic considerations that influence dialysis modality choice, and elicit policy‐relevant recommendations. Methods Semistructured interviews with predialysis or dialysis patients and their caregivers, at three hospitals in New Zealand. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Findings 43 patients and 9 caregivers (total n = 52) participated. The three themes related to economic considerations were: (i) productivity losses associated with changes in employment; (ii) the need for personal subsidization of home dialysis expenses; and (iii) the role of socio‐economic disadvantage as a barrier to home dialysis. Patients weighed the flexibility of home dialysis which allowed them to remain employed, against time required for training and out‐of‐pocket costs. Patients saw the lack of reimbursement of home dialysis costs as unjust and suggested that reimbursement would incentivize home dialysis uptake. Social disadvantage was a barrier to home dialysis as patients’ housing was often unsuitable; they could not afford the additional treatment costs. Home hemodialysis was considered to have the highest out‐of‐pocket costs and was sometimes avoided for this reason. Discussion Our data suggests that economic considerations underpin the choices patients make about dialysis treatments, however these are rarely reported. To promote home dialysis, strategies to improve employment retention and housing, and to minimize out‐of‐pocket costs, need to be addressed directly by healthcare providers and payers. PMID:27196634
Rodrigues, Juliana; Cuppari, Lilian; Campbell, Katrina L; Avesani, Carla Maria
The chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is aging. Currently a high percentage of patients treated on dialysis are older than 65 years. As patients get older, several conditions contribute to the development of malnutrition, namely protein energy wasting (PEW), which may be compounded by nutritional disturbances associated with CKD and from the dialysis procedure. Therefore, elderly patients on dialysis are vulnerable to the development of PEW and awareness of the identification and subsequent management of nutritional status is of importance. In clinical practice, the nutritional assessment of patients on dialysis usually includes methods to assess PEW, such as the subjective global assessment, the malnutrition inflammation score, and anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Studies investigating measures of nutritional status specifically tailored to the elderly on dialysis are scarce. Therefore, the same methods and cutoffs used for the general adult population on dialysis are applied to the elderly. Considering this scenario, the aim of this review is to discuss specific considerations for nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis addressing specific shortcomings on the interpretation of markers, in addition to providing clinical practice guidance to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients on dialysis.
Mácsai, Emília; Benke, A; Cseh, A; Vásárhelyi, B
Skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement is a simple, noninvasive method to assess tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE). In patients with end-stage renal disease and in those on hemodialysis AGE production is increased. Less is known about those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study we tested if SAF is influenced by clinical and treatment characteristics in PD patients.This cross-sectional study included 198 PD patients (of those, 128 were on traditional glucose-based solutions and 70 patients were partially switched to icodextrin-based PD). SAF measurements were done with a specific AGE Reader device. The impact of patients' age, gender, current diabetes, duration of PD, cumulative glucose exposure, body mass index, smoking habits and use of icodextrin on SAF values were tested with multiple regression analysis.Our analysis revealed that patients' age, current diabetes and icodextrin use significantly increase patients' SAF values (p = 0.015, 0.012, 0.005, respectively). AGE exposure of PD patients with diabetes and on icodextrin solution is increased. Further investigation is required whether this finding is due to the icodextrin itself or for a still unspecified clinical characteristic of PD population treated with icodextrin.
Ekart, Robert; Hojs, Radovan
Obesity is a chronic disease that is increasingly prevalent around the world and is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The obese diabetic patient with ESRD is a challenge for the nephrologist with regard to the type of renal replacement therapy that should be suggested and offered to the patient. There is no evidence that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is contraindicated in obese ESRD patients. In the literature, we can find a discrepancy in the impact of obesity on mortality among hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis patients. Several studies in hemodialysis patients suggest that a higher BMI confers a survival advantage - the so-called "reverse epidemiology". In contrast, the literature among obese peritoneal dialysis patients is inconsistent, with various studies reporting an increased risk of death, no difference, or a decreased risk of death. Many of these studies only spanned across a few years, and this is probably too short of a time frame for a realistic assessment of obesity's impact on mortality in ESRD patients. The decision for dialysis modality in an obese diabetic patient with ESRD should be individualized. According to the results of published studies, we cannot suggest PD or HD as a better solution for all obese diabetic patients. The obese patient should be educated about all their dialysis options, including home dialysis therapies. In this review, the available literature related to the dialysis modality in obese patients with diabetes and ESRD was reviewed.
Heung, Michael; Faubel, Sarah; Watnick, Suzanne; Cruz, Dinna N; Koyner, Jay L; Mour, Girish; Liu, Kathleen D; Cerda, Jorge; Okusa, Mark D; Lukaszewski, Mark; Vijayan, Anitha
The rate of AKI requiring dialysis has increased significantly over the past decade in the United States. At the same time, survival from AKI seems to be improving, and thus, more patients with AKI are surviving to discharge while still requiring dialysis. Currently, the options for providing outpatient dialysis in patients with AKI are limited, particularly after a 2012 revised interpretation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines, which prohibited Medicare reimbursement for acute dialysis at ESRD facilities. This article provides a historical perspective on outpatient dialysis management of patients with AKI, reviews the current clinical landscape of care for these patients, and highlights key areas of knowledge deficit. Lastly, policy changes that have the opportunity to significantly improve the care of this at-risk population are suggested.
Simbli, Mohammed Amin; Niaz, Faraz A; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious complication seen in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysisAPD after prolonged duration on dialysis. Patients usally present with vague complaints of abdominal pain, vomitting, diarrhea, weight loss and change in peritoneal transport characte-ristics. High degree of suspicion is needed in PD patients who have been on dialysis for prolonged duration and have been using high-concentrated dialysis fluid. Mycobacterium fortuitum (MF) is a rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium that has rarely been reported as a pathogen causing peritonits in patients on PD. We report a case of CAPD presenting with culture-negative peritonits, which, on specific culture, grew MF and, on radiological evaluation, showed diagnostic features of EPS.
Gotoh, Junichi; Kukita, Kazutaka; Tsuchihashi, Seiichiro; Hattori, Masahiro; Iida, Junichi; Horie, Takashi; Onodera, Kazuhiko; Furui, Hidenori; Tamaki, Toru; Meguro, Junichi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Kawamura, Akio
Data of 36 months were accumulated regarding the effects of lanthanum carbonate (LA) on serum phosphate concentrations in dialysis patients. Fifty-three patients (average age and dialysis history 58.4 years and 9.1 years) were included in this study who have been receiving outpatient treatment since March 2009, and who have been unable to maintain serum phosphate concentrations of ≤6.0 mg/dL via traditional therapeutic agents used for hyperphosphatemia. Patients were given dosage of LA in addition to, or instead of, co-hyperphosphatemia treatments already being received. Mean dosages of calcium carbonate (CC) and sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) before starting LA administration were 1301.9 mg and 2462.3 mg, respectively. Dosage of LA for all cases was 750 mg at initial dose; 1528.3 mg at 5 months; and 1416.7 mg at 30 months. Dosage of other phosphate binders were 905.7 mg of CC and 820.8 mg of SH at 5 months; and 687.5 mg of CC and 1031.3 mg of SH at 30 months. Serum phosphorus levels (P levels) were significantly decreased at 1 month of LA administration, and continued until 30 months of La treatment. These results suggest that LA successfully controlled serum P and Ca concentrations simultaneously within target ranges without affecting serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration, although further long-term prospective cohort study on LA would be required.
... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if the services are...
... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if the services are...
... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment...
... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment...
... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment...
Borràs, Mercè; Sorolla, Carol; Carrera, Dolores; Martín, Marisa; Villagrassa, Esther; Fernández, Elvira
In the present study, we identified patients who had difficulties learning the minimum knowledge and skills required to carry out peritoneal dialysis (PD), and we compared the outcomes in this subgroup of patients with outcomes in the general PD population. We calculated the mean learning sessions needed by our total PD population during the training period. We then assigned patients to one of two groups according to the number of learning sessions they needed. Patients who required a number of sessions equal to or less than the mean were placed in the "standard learning" group; patients who required more sessions but who reached the minimum knowledge and skills were placed in the "learning difficulties " group. We compared these two groups in terms of age, sex, diabetes status, autonomy to perform PD, family support, education level, residual renal function, and Charlson comorbidity index. Outcomes on PD included time to first peritonitis episode, peritonitis rate, percentage of patients free of peritonitis during follow-up, survival time on PD, and transfer to hemodialysis. Patients with learning difficulties were older and had more comorbidities. Outcomes on PD in the learning difficulties group were similar to those in the standard learning group, except for time to first peritonitis.
Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.
Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin
Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the “Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative,” dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420
Burgess, E D; Blair, A D
The pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime were studied in 12 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. After a 3-g intravenous dose, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.23 +/- 0.05 liter kg-1, with an elimination half-life of 9.7 +/- 5.1 h. The peritoneal clearance of ceftizoxime (2.8 +/- 0.7 ml min-1) contributed modestly to the overall serum clearance of the drug (17.1 +/- 7.4 ml min-1) and was greater than the renal clearance (0.8 +/- 0.8 ml min-1). The peritoneal concentration rose to 91 +/- 29 micrograms ml-1 at 6 h, which was 0.61 +/- 0.17 of the serum concentration. A 3-g intravenous dose of ceftizoxime given every 48 h would result in adequate activity against most susceptible organisms, but more frequent dosing may be necessary for less susceptible organisms. PMID:6314887
Zitt, Emanuel; Fouque, Denis; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Malberti, Fabio; Ryba, Miroslav; Ureña, Pablo; Rix, Marianne; Dehmel, Bastian; Manamley, Nick; Vervloet, Marc
Background The calcimimetic cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We explored serum P changes in dialysis patients treated with cinacalcet, while controlling for vitamin D sterol and phosphate binder (PB) changes, based on data from the pan-European observational study ECHO. Methods Patients were categorized by serum P change (decreased/unchanged/increased) at 12 months after starting cinacalcet and subcategorized by vitamin D sterol and PB dose changes (decreased/unchanged/increased). The impact of PTH, Ca and P, and vitamin D sterol, PB and cinacalcet doses (absolute values and/or change) was evaluated. Predictors of P change were explored using univariate and multivariate general linear models (GLM) and logistic regression analysis. Results At Month 12, 661 (41%) of 1607 patients had decreased, 61 (4%) unchanged and 400 (25%) increased serum P, while 485 patients had missing data. In 45% of the patients with serum P reduction, vitamin D was either increased or unchanged and P binders decreased or unchanged. PTH was a key predictor of serum P reduction, with an estimated 3% decrease in P per 10% reduction in PTH. Changes in vitamin D sterol and PB doses were not generally significant factors in GLM and regression analyses. Conclusions The serum P reduction observed in a significant proportion of dialysis patients after adding cinacalcet to an existing therapeutic regimen for SHPT appears to result mainly from PTH reduction, rather than from changes in vitamin D sterol or PB doses. Financial support for the ECHO study was provided by Amgen. PMID:23717787
Brodowska-Kania, Dorota; Rymarz, Aleksandra; Gibin´ski, Krzysztof; Kiełczewska, Julia; Smoszna, Jerzy; Saracyn, Marek; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław
ABSTRACT Retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data of all patients starting dialysis over two years in our Department (n = 105) has been conducted. Factors such as type of dialysis treatment, reason of end-stage renal disease, Body Mass Index (BMI), laboratory tests results, number and cause of death during first year of dialysis were taken under consideration. Five patients have been excluded from the analysis of mortality (four received renal transplantation, one changed dialysis center). Twenty tree deaths have been noted during first year of dialysis treatment. Nine of them occurred during the first three months of therapy. The leading cause of death was cardio-vascular events (n = 14, 60.9%), the second was malignancy (8, 34,8%), one patient died due to catheter associated infection. Malignancy as a cause of end-stage renal disease, lack of outpatient nephrology care, acute mode of beginning renal replacement therapy and lack of erythropoiesis stimulating agents therapy were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality during first year of dialysis. Being under the outpatient nephrology care, etiology of ESRD other than malignancy and erythropoiesis stimulating agents therapy were independently associated with better survival during this period of time. Other independent variables did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in order to improve one year survival of dialysis patients, outpatient nephrology care with adequate amount of visits and associated dialysis therapy should be employed. PMID:26663941
Amonette, Linda M.
Kidney dialysis patients often suffer emotional problems and face life adjustment problems. Adult basic education can be a useful tool to address these and to make positive use of idle time during dialysis. This article describes such a program, emphasizes the self-concept gain for students, and highlights the critical role of the understanding…
Flythe, Jennifer E.; Powell, Jill D.; Poulton, Caroline J.; Westreich, Katherine D.; Handler, Lara; Reeve, Bryce B.; Carey, Timothy S.
Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis have poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Physical symptoms are highly prevalent among dialysis-dependent patients and play important roles in HRQoL. A range of symptom assessment tools have been used in dialysis-dependent patients, but there has been no previous systematic assessment of the existing symptom measures’ content, validity, and reliability. Study Design systematic review of the literature Settings & Population ESRD patients on maintenance dialysis Selection Criteria for Studies instruments with ≥3 physical symptoms previously used in dialysis-dependent patients and evidence of validity or reliability testing Intervention patient-reported physical symptom assessment instrument Outcomes instrument symptom-related content, validity, and reliability Results From 3,148 screened abstracts, 89 full-text articles were eligible for review. After article exclusion and further article identification via reference reviews, 58 articles on 23 symptom assessment instruments with documented reliability or validity testing were identified. Of the assessment instruments, 43.5% were generic and 56.5% were ESRD-specific. Symptoms most frequently assessed were fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, and appetite. The instruments varied widely in respondent time burden, recall period, and symptom attributes. Few instruments considered recall periods less than 2 weeks and few assessed a range of symptom attributes. Psychometric testing was completed for congruent validity (70%), known group validity (25%), responsiveness (30%), internal consistency (78%), and test-retest reliability (65%). Content validity was assessed in dialysis populations in 57% of the 23 instruments. Limitations Consideration of physical symptoms only and exclusion of single symptom-focused instruments Conclusions The number of available instruments focused exclusively on physical symptoms in
... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis... for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. (a) Prior to January 1, 2011, payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only to either a Medicare approved...
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis... for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49202, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only...
Sentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Nguyen, Danh V
We propose functional linear models for zero-inflated count data with a focus on the functional hurdle and functional zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models. Although the hurdle model assumes the counts come from a mixture of a degenerate distribution at zero and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution, the ZIP model considers a mixture of a degenerate distribution at zero and a standard Poisson distribution. We extend the generalized functional linear model framework with a functional predictor and multiple cross-sectional predictors to model counts generated by a mixture distribution. We propose an estimation procedure for functional hurdle and ZIP models, called penalized reconstruction, geared towards error-prone and sparsely observed longitudinal functional predictors. The approach relies on dimension reduction and pooling of information across subjects involving basis expansions and penalized maximum likelihood techniques. The developed functional hurdle model is applied to modeling hospitalizations within the first 2 years from initiation of dialysis, with a high percentage of zeros, in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study participants. Hospitalization counts are modeled as a function of sparse longitudinal measurements of serum albumin concentrations, patient demographics, and comorbidities. Simulation studies are used to study finite sample properties of the proposed method and include comparisons with an adaptation of standard principal components regression.
Dahl, N V
The safety of herbal remedies and supplement use is of particular concern in patients with renal disease, and reliable information is not always easy to find. Predialysis patients may be drawn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) because they believe it can help prevent the progression of their renal disease. The purpose of this series of articles on alternative medicine for nephrologists is to address concerns and issues specific to CAM use in dialysis patients and to provide a guide to reliable sources of information. This introductory article emphasizes safety issues with a focus primarily on herbal medicine. Lack of regulation means that patients may not actually be taking what they think they are. Independent laboratory analyses have shown a lack of stated label ingredients and many instances of supplements and traditional remedies being contaminated with pesticides, poisonous plants, heavy metals, or conventional drugs. While certain supplements are always unsafe (carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, glandular extracts), others are specifically contraindicated in renal disease. Supplement use may be especially hazardous in renal disease because of unpredictable pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, negative effects on kidney function, nephrotoxicity, hemodynamic alterations, unpredictable effects on blood pressure or blood glucose, or potentiation of electrolyte abnormalities. There are no data on potential dialyzability of either active compounds, or their potentially active or toxic metabolites. Many supplements contain metal ions and other minerals. Transplant recipients are also at risk from potential unpredictable effects on immune function. Recommendations and information resources are listed.
Early mortality is a significant concern for patients initiating dialysis. Nutrition and exercise are two factors that affect mortality rates that can be significantly influenced by a successful partnership between the healthcare team and the patient. This article provides an overview of current data on the importance of appropriate nutritional and exercise regimens for patients initiating dialysis, as well as tips for how nurses and other members of the healthcare team can work to incrementally improve these components of care.
Williams, Mark E; Mittman, Neal; Ma, Lin; Brennan, Julia I; Mooney, Ann; Johnson, Curtis D; Jani, Chinu M; Maddux, Franklin W; Lacson, Eduardo
The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013. The distributions of HgbA1c and the other glycemic indices were analyzed. Intra-patient coefficients of variation and correlations among the four glycemic indices were determined. Patients with low HgbA1c values were both on higher erythropoietin (ESA) doses and more anemic. Serum glucose exhibited the highest intra-patient variability over a 3-month period; variability was modest among the other glycemic indices, and least with HgbA1c. Statistical analyses inclusive of all glycemic markers indicated modest to strong correlations. HgbA1c was more likely to be in the target range than glycated albumin or serum fructosamine, suggesting factors which may or may not be directly related to glycemic control, including anemia, ESA management, and iron administration, in interpreting HgbA1c values. These initial results from the GIDE Study clarify laboratory correlations among glycemic indices and add to concerns about reliance on HgbA1c in patients with diabetes and advanced kidney disease.
Kavanagh, Niall T; Schiller, Brigitte; Saxena, Anjali B; Thomas, I-Chun; Kurella Tamura, Manjula
Functional dependence is an important determinant of longevity and quality of life. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of functional dependence among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance dialysis. We enrolled 148 participants with ESRD from five clinics. Functional status, as measured by basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), was ascertained by validated questionnaires. Functional dependence was defined as needing assistance in at least one of seven IADLs or at least one of four ADLs. Demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, anthropometric measurements, and laboratories were assessed by a combination of self-report and chart review. Cognitive function was assessed with a neurocognitive battery, and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Mean age of the sample was 56.2 ± 14.6 years. Eighty-seven participants (58.8%) demonstrated dependence in ADLs or IADLs, 70 (47.2%) exhibited IADL dependence alone, and 17 (11.5%) exhibited combined IADL and ADL dependence. In a multivariable-adjusted model, stroke, cognitive impairment, and higher systolic blood pressure were independent correlates of functional dependence. We found no significant association between demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, depressive symptoms or laboratory measurements, and functional dependence. Impairment in executive function was more strongly associated with functional dependence than memory impairment. Functional dependence is common among ESRD patients and independently associated with stroke, systolic blood pressure, and executive function impairment.
Tohme, Walid G.; Winchester, James F.; Dai, Hailei L.; Khanafer, Nassib; Meissner, Marion C.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Johnson, Ayah E.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.
This paper investigates the design and implementation of a multimedia telemedicine application being undertaken by the Imaging Science and Information Systems Center of the Department of Radiology and the Division of Nephrology of the Department of Medicine at the Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC). The Renal Dialysis Patient Monitoring network links GUMC, a remote outpatient dialysis clinic, and a nephrologist's home. The primary functions of the network are to provide telemedicine services to renal dialysis patients, to create, manage, transfer and use electronic health data, and to provide decision support and information services for physicians, nurses and health care workers. The technical parameters for designing and implementing such a network are discussed.
Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.
Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820
Sangwan, Jyoti; Lathwal, Sumit; Kumar, Satish; Juyal, Deepak
Mycobacterium fortuitum, an environmental organism, is capable of producing a variety of clinical infections such as cutaneous infections, abscesses and nosocomial infections. Rarely, it has been a documented as a cause of peritonitis in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is one of the treatment options which are used for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although peritonitis rates have declined in parallel with advances in peritoneal dialysis (PD) technology, peritonitis remains a leading complication of CAPD and it is the major cause for transfer to other methods of dialysis. We are reporting a case of M. fortuitum peritonitis in a patient who was undergoing CAPD, which was successfully treated. This case emphasizes the importance of mycobacterial cultures in patients with CAPD-associated peritonitis, whose routine cultures may yield no organisms.
Oren, Besey; Enç, Nuray
Turkey is the fifth country in Europe with regard to the number of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD). However, only a limited number of studies have comparatively investigated the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, as well as providing a comparison of quality of life between these groups. In this cross-sectional study, Quality of Life Scale and a data form was completed by 300 dialysis patients who received treatment at five hospital-based dialysis units in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were evaluated using arithmetic mean values, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, percentages, independent groups t-tests, Spearman correlation analyses and one-way variance analyses. The quality of life values in peritoneal dialysis patients were found to be higher than those of haemodialysis patients (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the quality of life in chronic dialysis patients was affected by various factors.
Kusano, Eiji; Saito, Osamu; Akimoto, Tetsu; Asano, Yasushi
The prevalence rate for Fabry disease is conventionally considered to be 1 case in 40,000; however, due to increased screening accuracy, reports now suggest that prevalence is 1 case in 1,500 among male children, and it is likely that the clinical importance of the condition will increase in the future. In dialysis patients to date, prevalence rates are between 0.16 and 1.2 %. Globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-GL-3), which is a substrate of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), has surfaced as a new biomarker, and is also effective in the determination and monitoring of the effects of enzyme replacement therapy. In terms of genetic abnormalities, the E66Q mutation has recently become a topic of discussion, and although doubts have been expressed over whether or not it is the gene responsible for Fabry disease, there is still a strong possibility that it is a functional genetic polymorphism. At present, the standard treatment for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy, and in order to overcome the problems involved with this, a method of producing recombinant human α-Gal A using methanol-assimilating yeast, and chemical or medicinal chaperone treatment are of current interest. Migalastat hydrochloride is known as a pharmacological chaperone, but is currently in Phase III global clinical trials. Adding saposin B to modified α-N-acetyl galactosaminidase is also under consideration as a treatment method.
U-shaped relationship was observed between serum phosphate and mortality in dialysis patients. The connection between high serum phosphate and mortality can be explained partially by the contribution of phosphate to vascular calcification and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Epidemiological study about the prior history of hip fracture in Japan revealed that high serum phosphate was associated with lower prevalence of prior fracture by univariate analysis. However, this association was eliminated by including many nutritional variables in multivariate analysis. This analysis also showed that severe hypophosphatemia less than 3 mg/dL was independently associated with high prevalence, implying the connection of malnutrition with bone health. Epidemiological data regarding incident fracture is also needed to know the factors really contributing to bone fragility. There is no way other than to determine target ranges of serum phosphate using observational studies, since interventional trial with hard outcome was practically impossible. The focus of observational studies will move on, in future, to the association between mortality and the methods to decrease serum phosphate level.
Zoccali, C; Mallamaci, F; Benedetto, F A; Tripepi, G; Parlongo, S; Cataliotti, A; Cutrupi, S; Giacone, G; Bellanuova, I; Cottini, E; Malatino, L S
This study was designed to investigate the relationship among brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and left ventricular mass (LVM), ejection fraction, and LV geometry in a large cohort of dialysis patients without heart failure (n = 246) and to test the prediction power of these peptides for total and cardiovascular mortality. In separate multivariate models of LVM, BNP and ANP were the strongest independent correlates of the LVM index. In these models, the predictive power of BNP was slightly stronger than that of ANP. Both natriuretic peptides also were the strongest independent predictors of ejection fraction, and again BNP was a slightly better predictor of ejection fraction than ANP. In separate multivariate Cox models, the relative risk of death was significantly higher in patients of the third tertile of the distribution of BNP and ANP than in those of the first tertile (BNP, 7.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.83 to 18.01, P = 0.00001]; ANP, 4.22 [95% CI, 1.79 to 9.92, P = 0.001]), and a similar difference was found for cardiovascular death (BNP, 6.72 [95% CI, 2.44 to 18.54, P = 0.0002]; ANP, 3.80 [95% CI, 1.44 to 10.03, P = 0.007]). BNP but not ANP remained as an independent predictor of death in a Cox's model including LVM and ejection fraction. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are linked independently to LVM and function in dialysis patients and predict overall and cardiovascular mortality. The measurement of the plasma concentration of BNP and ANP may be useful for risk stratification in these patients.
Muthalagappan, Seetha; Johansson, Lina; Kong, Wing May; Brown, Edwina A
Increasing numbers of frail elderly with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and multiple comorbidities are undertaking dialysis treatment. This has been accompanied by increasing dialysis withdrawal, thus warranting investigation into why this is occurring and whether a different approach to choosing treatment should be implemented. Despite being a potentially life-saving treatment, the physical and psychosocial burdens associated with dialysis in the frail elderly usually outweigh the benefits of correcting uraemia. Conservative management is less invasive and avoids the adverse effects associated with dialysis, but unfortunately it is often not properly considered until patients withdraw from dialysis. Shared decision-making has been proposed to allow patients active participation in healthcare decisions. Through this approach, patients will focus on their personal values to receive appropriate treatment, and perhaps opt for conservative management. This may help address the issue of dialysis withdrawal. Moreover, shared decision-making attempts to resolve the conflict between autonomy and other ethical principles, including physician paternalism. Here, we explore the ethical background behind shared decision-making, and whether it is genuinely in the patient's best interests or whether it is a cynical solution to encourage more patients to consider conservative care, thus saving limited resources.
Multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the dose of hemodialysis impacts upon patient outcome. Among these outcome measures, nutrition is inextricably linked to the adequacy of the treatment. All of the methods of determining dialysis adequacy are based on assessing the removal of toxic substances retained in renal failure, the majority of which are derivatives of protein metabolism. Urea kinetics, employing urea as a surrogate for quantifying the elimination of small molecular weight nitrogenous substances, is the method that has been most thoroughly validated to date as defining a dose range for thrice-weekly hemodialysis: Both inadequate and optimal levels of hemodialysis dose have been identified by prospective, randomized clinic trials utilizing Kt/V(urea) as the index of adequacy. The impact of urea kinetics on nutritional status during thrice-weekly hemodialysis is discussed. Recently, in an attempt to improve outcome beyond that achievable with thrice-weekly hemodialysis, alternative regimens, consisting of daily treatments, have received increasing interest. In order to compare the dose of hemodialysis associated with these regimens with conventional thrice-weekly regimens in terms of removal of small molecular weight substances, standard Kt/V(urea), a parameter that combines treatment dose with treatment frequency, and thus allows for various intermittent therapies to be compared to continuous therapy, must be used. In addition, membrane flux and middle molecule removal, factors that have not yet been well defined as parameters of adequacy during thrice-weekly regimens, may be shown to be important indices with longer hemodialysis treatments, particularly daily nocturnal hemodialysis. The impact that these alternative regimens have had on nutritional status in hemodialysis patients and how they compare to conventional therapy are important considerations.
Krause, Irit; Dagan, Amit; Cleper, Roxana; Falush, Yafa; Davidovits, Miriam
Objective. Owing to a shortage of kidney donors in Israel, children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may stay on maintenance dialysis for a considerable time, placing them at a significant risk. The aim of this study was to understand the causes of mortality. Study Design. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from the files of children on chronic dialysis (>3 months) during the years 1995–2013 at a single pediatric medical center. Results. 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 10.7 ± 5.27 yrs. (range: 1 month–24 yrs). Forty-five children (42%) had dysplastic kidneys and 19 (17.5%) had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-five (22.7%) received peritoneal dialysis, 59 (53.6%) hemodialysis, and 6 (23.6%) both modalities sequentially. Median dialysis duration was 1.46 years (range: 0.25–17.54 years). Mean follow-up was 13.5 ± 5.84 yrs. Seventy-nine patients (71.8%) underwent successful transplantation, 10 (11.2%) had graft failure, and 8 (7.3%) continued dialysis without transplantation. Twelve patients (10.9%) died: 8 of dialysis-associated complications and 4 of their primary illness. The 5-year survival rate was 84%: 90% for patients older than 5 years and 61% for younger patients. Conclusions. Chronic dialysis is a suitable temporary option for children awaiting renal transplantation. Although overall long-term survival rate is high, very young children are at high risk for life-threatening dialysis-associated complications. PMID:27597898
Fan, Jingxian; Yan, Peng; Wang, Yingdeng; Shen, Bo; Ding, Feng; Liu, Yingli
Background There are few data on the prevalence of low T3 (triiodothyronine) syndrome in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is unclear whether low T3 can be used to predict the progression of CKD. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied 279 patients who had been definitively diagnosed with CKD, without needing maintenance dialysis. Thyroid function was analyzed in all enrolled subjects and the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (low T3 syndrome, low T4 syndrome, and subclinical hypothyroidism) in patients at different stages of CKD was determined. Results Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of CKD patients was estimated as follows: 145 subjects (52%) had GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 47 subjects (16.8%) had GFR between 30 and 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 98 subjects (35.1%) had GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Among all enrolled subjects, 4.7% (n=13) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5.4% (n=15) had low T4 syndrome, and 47% (n=131) had low T3 syndrome. In 114 CKD patients in stages 3–5, serum T3 was positively related to protein metabolism (STP, PA, and ALB) and anemia indicators (Hb and RBC), and negatively related to inflammatory status (CRP and IL-6). Conclusions A high prevalence of low T3 syndrome was observed in CKD patients without dialysis, even in early stages (1 and 2). The increasing prevalence of low T3 as CKD progresses indicates its value as a predictor of worsening CKD. Furthermore, low T3 syndrome is closely associated with both malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) and anemia. PMID:27056188
Fan, Jingxian; Yan, Peng; Wang, Yingdeng; Shen, Bo; Ding, Feng; Liu, Yingli
BACKGROUND There are few data on the prevalence of low T3 (triiodothyronine) syndrome in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is unclear whether low T3 can be used to predict the progression of CKD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively studied 279 patients who had been definitively diagnosed with CKD, without needing maintenance dialysis. Thyroid function was analyzed in all enrolled subjects and the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (low T3 syndrome, low T4 syndrome, and subclinical hypothyroidism) in patients at different stages of CKD was determined. RESULTS Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of CKD patients was estimated as follows: 145 subjects (52%) had GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 47 subjects (16.8%) had GFR between 30 and 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 98 subjects (35.1%) had GFR <30 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Among all enrolled subjects, 4.7% (n=13) had subclinical hypothyroidism, 5.4% (n=15) had low T4 syndrome, and 47% (n=131) had low T3 syndrome. In 114 CKD patients in stages 3-5, serum T3 was positively related to protein metabolism (STP, PA, and ALB) and anemia indicators (Hb and RBC), and negatively related to inflammatory status (CRP and IL-6). CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of low T3 syndrome was observed in CKD patients without dialysis, even in early stages (1 and 2). The increasing prevalence of low T3 as CKD progresses indicates its value as a predictor of worsening CKD. Furthermore, low T3 syndrome is closely associated with both malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome (MICS) and anemia.
Nazer, Ahmed; AlOmar, Osama; Al-Badawi, Ismail A.
Frequency of pregnancy among childbearing age women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing long-term periodic dialysis ranges from 1% to 7%. Although pregnancy in dialysis women with ESRD is considered a largely high-risk pregnancy, occurrence of successful pregnancy is not impossible with success rates approaching 70%. Rates of successful pregnancy are greatly impacted by early pregnancy diagnosis and preserved residual renal functions. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of successful pregnancy (despite late diagnosis at 14 weeks of gestation) in a 31-year-old peritoneal dialysis patient with bilateral nephrectomy and no whatsoever preserved residual renal function. Moreover, a literature review on pregnancy in dialysis patients is presented. PMID:24198990
Coll, Blai; Betriu, Angels; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Amoedo, Maria Luisa; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Borras, Merce; Valdivielso, Jose Manuel
Summary Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) has a significant effect in cardiovascular diseases on dialysis patients. However, VC is assessed with x-ray-based techniques, which do not inform about calcium localization (intima, media, atherosclerosis-related). The aim of this work is to study VC and its related factors using arterial ultrasound to report the exact location of calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was an observational, cross-sectional, case-control study that included 232 patients in dialysis and 208 age- and sex-matched controls with normal kidney function. Demographic data and laboratory values were collated. Carotid, femoral, and brachial ultrasounds were performed to assess VC and atherosclerosis burden using a standardized protocol. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were predominantly found in controls, although the burden of atherosclerosis was higher in the dialysis group. VC was significantly more prevalent in the group of patients on dialysis than control subjects, and in both groups the most prevalent pattern of VC was linear calcification located in the intima of the artery wall. Age and undergoing dialysis (with or without previous cardiovascular diseases) were positively and significantly associated with linear calcification. Conversely, the absence of atherosclerosis and low levels of C-reactive protein and phosphorus significantly impeded the development of linear calcification. Conclusions VC in large, conduit arteries is more prevalent in patients on dialysis than controls and is predominantly located in a linear fashion in the intima of the arteries. PMID:20930091
Guan, Ji-Chao; Bian, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Shou, Zhang-Fei; Chen, Jiang-Hua
Background: High peritoneal transport status was previously thought to be a poor prognostic factor in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, its effect on diabetic nephropathy PD patients is unclear in consideration of the adverse impact of diabetes itself. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of peritoneal transport characteristics on nutritional status and clinical outcome in diabetic nephropathy patients on PD. Methods: One hundred and two diabetic nephropathy patients on PD were enrolled in this observational cohort study. According to the initial peritoneal equilibration test result, patients were divided into two groups: Higher transport group (HT, including high and high average transport) and lower transport group (LT, including low and low-average transport). Demographic characteristics, biochemical data, dialysis adequacy, and nutritional status were evaluated. Clinical outcomes were compared. Risk factors for death-censored technique failure and mortality were analyzed. Results: Compared with LT group (n = 37), serum albumin was significantly lower and the incidence of malnutrition by subjective global assessment was significantly higher in HT group (n = 65) (P < 0.05). Kaplan–Meier analyses showed that death-censored technique failure and mortality were significantly increased in HT group compared with that in LT group. On multivariate Cox analyses, higher peritoneal transport status and lower residual renal function (RRF) were independent predictors of death-censored technique failure when adjusted for serum albumin and total weekly urea clearance (Kt/V). Independent predictors of mortality were advanced age, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and lower RRF, but not higher peritoneal transport status. Conclusions: Higher peritoneal transport status has an adverse influence on nutrition for diabetic nephropathy patients on PD. Higher peritoneal transport status is a significant independent risk factor for death-censored technique
Inal, Salih; Reis, Kadriye Altok; Armağan, Berkan; Oneç, Küşrad; Biri, Aydan
Among women with chronic kidney disease, successful pregnancy with a surviving infant is rather rare. Although these pregnancies carry higher risk, with the possibility of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, they can be managed with close monitoring and intense renal replacement therapy. Given the hemodynamic advantages of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis in pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis therapy is thought to be a favorable renal replacement option in pregnant patients with chronic kidney disease.
Bordenave, K; Tzamaloukas, A H; Conneen, S; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Murata, G H
To characterize the factors affecting the decision to withdraw from dialysis, the authors compared patients withdrawing from dialysis (n=62) with patients dying from all other causes (n=242) over 21 years (1976-1996) in a single dialysis unit. Compared with those who died from other causes, patients who withdrew were older (67+/-11 vs 61+/-11 years); were more likely to have severe physical impairment (87% vs 62%) and severe restriction of activities of daily living (77% vs 46%); and had higher frequencies of congestive heart failure (81 % vs 62%), myocardial infarction (60% vs 42%), peripheral vascular disease (71 % vs 40%), and diabetes mellitus (66% vs 36%) (p < or = 0.014). Dialysis modality; duration of dialysis; the degree of family support; index of disease severity; the use of tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drugs; and the frequency of ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmia, pericarditis, cardiac arrest, cerebrovascular accident, hypertension, obstructive lung disease, cancer, and human immunodeficiency virus did not differ between the two groups. Stepwise logistic regression showed that dialysis during 1990-1996, severe limitation of activities of daily living, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for withdrawal. During 1990-1996, 44% of the deaths were caused by withdrawal from treatment. In addition to other factors, dialysis in the 1990s is a strong predictor of withdrawal from dialysis. The reasons for the increased rate of withdrawal from dialysis in recent years, and the effect of this increased rate of withdrawal on mortality, need further evaluation.
Wuerth, D B; Finkelstein, S H; Kliger, A S; Finkelstein, F O
The percentage of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) in the United States remains well less than the percentage in several other countries. Furthermore, there has recently been a decline in the percentage of patients with ESRD in the United States undergoing CPD. The reasons for this decline are uncertain, and investigators have implicated problems with the kinetics of peritoneal dialysis, peritonitis and exit-site infections, and psychosocial stresses imposed by the therapy. Few studies, however, have considered the role of the dialysis facility itself and patient perceptions of the facility as contributing to problems with the long-term acceptance of CPD. This study is designed to examine patients' perceptions of the organization and structure of the peritoneal dialysis facility and their interactions with the facility, focusing attention on areas of patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction with the facility. The study was conducted in a large, freestanding peritoneal dialysis program in an urban area that currently treats 140 patients undergoing CPD. Thirty patients were randomly selected to participate in the present study. A structured interview that included open-ended questions was administered and tape-recorded by a trained interviewer not affiliated with the dialysis unit. Patient responses were then reviewed by two investigators, and a taxonomy of patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction was developed, using a modification of the classification proposed by Concato and Feinstein. Patient responses were then categorized according to the taxonomy. The most frequently cited areas of patient satisfaction included the amount of information and instruction provided by the staff (n = 30), personal atmosphere of the facility (n = 30), efficiency of delivery of the dialysis supplies (n = 23), and availability of the primary nurse (n = 18). The importance of the nurse-patient interaction was emphasized by all
Wares, Joanna R; Lawson, Barry; Shemin, Douglas; D'Agata, Erika M C
Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD) are among the most vulnerable to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines to reduce transmission of MDRO in the out-patient dialysis unit are targeted at patients considered to be high-risk for transmitting these organisms: those with infected skin wounds not contained by a dressing, or those with fecal incontinence or uncontrolled diarrhea. Here, we hypothesize that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of MDRO. We also hypothesize that environmental contamination plays a role in the dissemination of MDRO in the dialysis unit. To address our hypotheses, we built an agent-based model to simulate different treatment strategies in a dialysis unit. Our results suggest that reducing antimicrobial treatment, either by reducing the number of patients receiving treatment or by reducing the duration of the treatment, markedly reduces overall colonization rates and also the levels of environmental contamination in the dialysis unit. Our results also suggest that improving the environmental decontamination efficacy between patient dialysis treatments is an effective method for reducing colonization and contamination rates. These findings have important implications for the development and implementation of future infection prevention strategies.
Tyrrell, J; Paturel, L; Cadec, B; Capezzali, E; Poussin, G
An increasing number of older patients receive dialysis treatment to compensate for deficient kidneys due to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ethical questions arise about the benefits of dialysis when a patient appears unwilling or unable to comply with this treatment procedure. Such attitudes and behaviour may be due to psychological factors, but these are not routinely assessed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate levels of cognitive impairment, depressive mood and self-reported quality of life in older dialysis patients (>70 years). A total of 51 outpatients receiving dialysis were assessed by psychologists, using a depression scale (MADRS), two cognitive tests (MMSE and BEC 96), and a quality of life questionnaire (NHP). Sixty percent of the patients were depressed, and between 30-47% had cognitive impairment. Almost half of the depressed patients were also cognitively impaired. The scores for self-reported quality of life varied widely within the sample. Cognitive impairment and depressive mood are often overlooked and underestimated in this population. Regular assessments of depressive mood, cognitive ability and quality of life are recommended, given the prevalence of problems in these domains for older dialysis patients. The information obtained should assist staff as they reflect on individual cases where the benefits of continuing treatment are being examined.
Niikura, Ryota; Serizawa, Takako; Yamada, Atsuo; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Tanaka, Mariko; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Koike, Kazuhiko
The number of cancer patients undergoing dialysis has been increasing, and the number of these patients on chemotherapy is also increasing. Imatinib is an effective and safe therapy for KIT-positive gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), but the efficacy and safety of imatinib in dialysis patients remain unclear. Because clinical trials have not been conducted in this population, more investigations are required. We report on a 75-year-old Japanese man undergoing dialysis who presented with massive tarry stool from a duodenal GIST. The duodenal GIST was 14 cm in diameter with multiple liver and bone metastases. The patient underwent an urgent pancreaticoduodenectomy to achieve hemostasis. After surgery, he was administered imatinib 400 mg/day. No severe adverse event including myelosuppression, congestive heart failure, liver functional impairment, intestinal pneumonia, or Steven-Johnson syndrome occurred, and the liver metastasis remained stable for 4 months. During chemotherapy, hemodialysis continued three times per week without adverse events. We suggest that regular-dose imatinib is an effective and safe treatment in patients with GIST undergoing dialysis. In addition, we present a literature review of the effectiveness and safety of imatinib treatment in dialysis patients.
Przemysław, Włodek; Piotr, Książek; Grażyna, Chwatko; Danuta, Kowalczyk-Pachel; Małgorzata, Iciek; Bernadeta, Marcykiewicz; Małgorzata, Suliga; Witold, Smoleński
Thiol compounds such as glutathione, homocysteine, and cysteinyl-glycine are the natural reservoir of reductive capacity of the cells. Chronic renal failure is accompanied by disturbances in redox status of plasma thiols. The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in concentrations of different forms of thiols in plasma of terminal renal failure patients, nondialyzed and on peritoneal dialysis. Total concentrations of different redox forms of thiols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. We observed that total concentration of glutathione in terminal renal failure patients decreased and total concentration of the remaining thiols in these patients significantly increased. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis had the following features in comparison with nondialyzed patients: (1) glutathione and cysteine concentration was restored and (2) free fraction of thiols rose, while protein-bound fraction dropped (except for homocysteine). Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis corrects total concentration of glutathione and cysteine, in comparison with nondialyzed patients.
Nicholls, A J; Waldek, S; Platts, M M; Moorhead, P J; Brown, C B
Thirty eight patients aged over 60 with end stage renal disease were treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for up to three years. Most of these patients, because of their age or coexisting diseases, had been considered to be unsuitable for haemodialysis by the criteria used before the advent of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in 1980. Actuarial patient survival at one and two years was 72% and 61% respectively, and only two patients were permanently transferred to haemodialysis. Twenty one of the 23 survivors were fully rehabilitated, the remaining two being partially disabled but living at home. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis permits more liberal selection of patients with end stage renal disease for renal replacement treatment with excellent survival and rehabilitation and without overburdening scarce hospital haemodialysis facilities. PMID:6418297
Li, Xiao; Ren, Hong; Xie, Jingyuan; Huang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Nan
A female patient with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was treated with automated peritoneal dialysis when she reached end-stage renal disease. The patient has been doing very well on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for almost 6 years without peritonitis or abdominal hernias. Intra-abdominal pressures are lower in the supine position than in an erect or sitting position. Larger volumes of dialysate are better tolerated while the patient is supine, as during nocturnal APD. Therefore, APD is an option of the renal replacement therapy for patients with PKD.
Huang, Jeng-Yi; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Yang, Chih-Wei; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Wen-Hung
Background Experimental evidence suggests that indoxyl sulfate (IS) is associated with chronic kidney disease-related anemia. However, clinical studies are limited, and few have explored the potential confounding effect of anuria. This study, thus, evaluated the association between IS and anemia in both non-anuric and anuric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods This cross-sectional and observational study included 165 chronic PD patients aged 19–84 years. Their serum IS levels in total and free forms were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Correlations between serum IS and hemoglobin (Hb) were performed in both non-anuric and anuric groups. Results Among the study subjects, 90 were non-anuric and 75 were anuric. As a whole, there was no correlation between IS and Hb. Nonetheless, subsequent analysis of the non-anuric patients showed that Hb is negatively correlated with IS levels (rs=−0.405, P<0.001 for total form and rs=−0.296, P=0.005 for free form). Factors that significantly affected Hb levels in the stepwise multiple regression analysis include total IS and iron saturation. In contrast for anuric patients, serum ferritin, albumin, iron saturation, use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker, but not serum IS, were predictors for anemia in the multiple regression model. Conclusions Serum IS is associated with an increased severity of anemia in non-anuric PD patients and not in anuric ones, indicating anuria could be a confounding factor in such association. PMID:27932887
Schell, Jane O; Bova-Collis, Renee; Eneanya, Nwamaka D
Depression and depressive symptoms are common in advanced kidney disease and are associated with poor outcomes. For those with CKD not on dialysis, depression may influence how patients cope and prepare for their disease and its management, including decisions about dialysis treatment. Patient self-reported scales exist to better identify depression; how to incorporate these scales into clinical practice and assist with treatment decision-making is less clear. We present a case-based discussion of depressive symptoms in patients with advanced kidney disease not on dialysis. We highlight the contribution of underlying somatic and psychosocial factors in the assessment and management of depression. We further define the role of the interdisciplinary care team, including palliative care and hospice medicine, to assist with symptom management and end-of-life care for CKD patients with depression.
Lok, Charmaine E
Worldwide, there is a steady incident rate of patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) who require renal replacement therapy. Of these patients, approximately one-third have an "unplanned" or "urgent" start to dialysis. This can be a very challenging situation where patients have either not had adequate time for education and decision making regarding dialysis modality and appropriate dialysis access, or a decision was made and plans were altered due to unforeseen circumstances. Despite such unplanned starts, clinicians must still consider the patient's ESKD "life-plan", which includes the best initial dialysis modality and access to suit the patient's individual goals and their medical, social, logistic, and facility circumstances. This paper will discuss the considerations of peritoneal dialysis and a peritoneal dialysis catheter access and hemodialysis and central venous catheter access in patients who require an urgent start to dialysis.
Chien, Chih-Chiang; Han, Ming-Ming; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chu, Chin-Chen; Hung, Chien-Ya; Sun, Yih-Min; Yeh, Nai-Cheng; Ho, Chung-Han; Lin, Chih-Ching; Kao, Hao-Yun; Weng, Shih-Feng
The incidence and mortality of site-specific cancers in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis have been rarely studied for Asian populations. We tapped Taiwan`s National Health Insurance Research Database to identify and recruit patients starting maintenance dialysis between 1999 and 2004. They were followed from initiation of dialysis until death, discontinuation of dialysis, or the end of 2008. We calculated the survival rate and mortality risk of dialysis patients with cancer. Of 40,833 dialysis patients, 2352 (5.8%) had been newly diagnosed with cancer. Being older, being male, and having chronic liver disease were factors associated with a higher risk for new cancer in ESRD dialysis patients. In men, liver cancer (20.63%) was the most frequent, followed by cancers of the bladder (16.88%) and kidney (11.61%). In women, bladder cancer (25.57%) was the most frequent, followed by cancers of the kidney (16.31%) and breast (11.20%). The 5-year survival rates for kidney and bladder cancer were higher than for other cancers; the survival rates for lung, stomach, and liver cancer were lower. In conclusion, the distribution of site-specific cancer was different between men and women in patients with ESRD on dialysis. More attention should be paid to teaching dialysis patients how to avoid the well-known cancer risks and carcinogens and individualized regular cancer screenings. PMID:28123593
Oka, Satoru; Obata, Yoko; Sato, Shuntaro; Torigoe, Kenta; Sawa, Miki; Abe, Shinichi; Muta, Kumiko; Ota, Yuki; Kitamura, Mineaki; Kawasaki, Satoko; Hirose, Misaki; Uramatsu, Tadashi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nishino, Tomoya
Background Endocan is expressed in vascular endothelial cells, and its expression is enhanced following endothelial injury via inflammatory cytokines. Subsequently, endocan is secreted into the circulation. Thus, serum endocan levels are considered a marker of endothelial injury. However, to the best of our knowledge, no data on the serum endocan levels in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are available. Material/Methods This study included 21 PD patients who underwent peritoneal equilibration test (PET) more than once between 2011 and 2015. Serum samples were collected from each patient, and the 24-h urine volume was measured at the time of PET. Serum endocan levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at the time of the first PET, and their relationship with clinical data or the extent of urine volume decline (mL/year) was analyzed retrospectively. Results Serum endocan levels were positively correlated with proteinuria level, serum creatinine level, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level, β2-microglobulin level, and PD drainage volume, but not with urine volume at baseline. The extent of decline in urine volume was significantly associated with serum endocan level, proteinuria level, serum creatinine level, and serum TNF-α level at baseline in a simple linear regression analysis. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the serum endocan level and proteinuria level at baseline were independent predictors for the extent of decline in urine volume. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that serum endocan level and proteinuria level may be useful predictive markers for decreased urine volume in PD patients. PMID:28343234
Li, Y F; Su, N; Chen, S Y; Hu, W X; Li, F F; Jiang, Z P; Yu, X Q
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of Gram-negative peritonitis resulting in peritoneal function deterioration as well as poor clinical outcome in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic background and genetic profile of the E. coli isolates and sought to determine the characteristics of specific bacteria associated with peritonitis. E. coli isolates from 56 episodes of peritonitis in 46 PD patient cases and rectal isolates from 57 matched PD control patient cases were compared for both phylogenetic groups and the presence of virulence factors (VFs). There were no significant differences in terms of demographic data between the peritonitis and control groups. Peritonitis isolates exhibited a significantly greater prevalence of 8 VFs. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, kpsMT II (group 2 capsule synthesis) was the strongest VF predictor of peritonitis (OR = 8.02; 95%CI = 3.18-20.25; P < 0.001), followed by traT (serum-resistance-associated outer membrane protein) (OR = 3.83; 95%CI = 1.33-11.03; P = 0.013). The pathogenic groups of E. coli contained a higher concentration of individual VFs compared to the commensal groups. The prevalence of pathogenic E. coli was much higher in peritoneal isolates than rectal isolates (64.3 vs 31.6%, P = 0.001). Our results indicate that the E. coli peritonitis and rectal isolates are different in PD patients. The specific VFs associated with peritonitis isolates may directly contribute to the pathogenesis of peritonitis.
Jones, Edward R; Goldman, Richard S
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Conditions for Coverage make the medical director of an ESRD facility responsible for all aspects of care, including high-quality health care delivery (e.g., safe, effective, timely, efficient, and patient centered). Because of the high-pressure environment of the dialysis facility, conflicts are common. Conflict frequently occurs when aberrant behaviors disrupt the dialysis facility. Patients, family members, friends, and, less commonly appreciated, nephrology clinicians (i.e., nephrologists and advanced care practitioners) may manifest disruptive behavior. Disruptive behavior in the dialysis facility impairs the ability to deliver high-quality care. Furthermore, disruptive behavior is the leading cause for involuntary discharge (IVD) or involuntary transfer (IVT) of a patient from a facility. IVD usually results in loss of continuity of care, increased emergency department visits, and increased unscheduled, acute dialysis treatments. A sufficient number of IVDs and IVTs also trigger an extensive review of the facility by the regional ESRD Networks, exposing the facility to possible Medicare-imposed sanctions. Medical directors must be equipped to recognize and correct disruptive behavior. Nephrology-based literature and tools exist to help dialysis facility medical directors successfully address and resolve disruptive behavior before medical directors must involuntarily discharge a patient or terminate an attending clinician.
Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook
Although numerous studies have tried to elucidate the best dialysis modality in end-stage renal disease patients with diabetes, results were inconsistent and varied with the baseline characteristics of patients. Furthermore, none of the previous studies on diabetic dialysis patients accounted for the impact of glycemic control. We explored whether glycemic control had modifying effect on mortality between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in incident dialysis patients with diabetes. A total of 902 diabetic patients who started dialysis between August 2008 and December 2013 were included from a nationwide prospective cohort in Korea. Based on the interaction analysis between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and dialysis modalities for patient survival (P for interaction = 0.004), subjects were stratified into good and poor glycemic control groups (HbA1c< or ≥8.0%). Differences in survival rates according to dialysis modalities were ascertained in each glycemic control group after propensity score matching. During a median follow-up duration of 28 months, the relative risk of death was significantly lower in PD compared with HD in the whole cohort and unmatched patients (whole cohort, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47-0.90, P = 0.01; patients with available HbA1c [n = 773], HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46-0.91, P = 0.01). In the good glycemic control group, there was a significant survival advantage of PD (HbA1c <8.0%, HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37-0.94, P = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in survival rates between PD and HD in the poor glycemic control group (HbA1c ≥8.0%, HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.46-2.76, P = 0.80). This study demonstrated that the degree of glycemic control modified the mortality risk between dialysis modalities, suggesting that glycemic control might partly contribute to better survival of PD in incident dialysis patients with diabetes.
Treit, Kathryn; Lam, Daniel; O'Hare, Ann M
Over the last 10-15 years, the incidence of treated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among older adults has increased and dialysis is being initiated at progressively higher levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Average life expectancy after dialysis initiation among older adults is quite limited, and many experience an escalation of care and loss of independence after starting dialysis. Available data suggest that treatment decisions about dialysis initiation in older adults in the United States are guided more by system- than by patient-level factors. Stronger efforts are thus needed to ensure that treatment decisions for older adults with advanced kidney disease are optimally aligned with their goals and preferences. There is growing interest in more conservative approaches to the management of advanced kidney disease in older patients who prefer not to initiate dialysis and those for whom the harms of dialysis are expected to outweigh the benefits. A number of small single center studies, mostly from the United Kingdom report similar survival among the subset of older adults with a high burden of comorbidity treated with dialysis vs. those managed conservatively. However, the incidence of treated ESRD in older US adults is several-fold higher than in the United Kingdom, despite a similar prevalence of chronic kidney disease, suggesting large differences in the social, cultural, and economic context in which dialysis treatment decisions unfold. Thus, efforts may be needed to adapt conservative care models developed outside the United States to optimally meet the needs of US patients. More flexible approaches toward dialysis prescription and better integration of treatment decisions about conservative care with those related to modality selection will likely be helpful in meeting the needs of individual patients. Regardless of the chosen treatment strategy, time can often be a critical ally in centering care on what matters most to the patient, and
Churchill, D N
For patients with end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis, prospective cohort studies using multivariate statistical analysis have shown an association between greater urea clearance and a decreased relative risk for death. The recommended weekly Kt/V for urea is 2.0, with the corresponding creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 60 L/1.73 m2. This is considered adequate dialysis but fails to define optimum urea and CrCl targets. The assumption that renal and peritoneal clearances are equivalent has been challenged by circumstantial data and is probably untenable. The relative importance of these clearances requires definition. The suggestion that CrCl is a more important indicator of adequacy of dialysis is confounded by association with renal, rather than peritoneal, clearance and perhaps by the early referral and initiation of dialysis. Recent reports have shown an association between increased peritoneal membrane transport and an increased relative risk for technique failure and/or death. Patients with higher peritoneal transport should have greater clearance of urea and creatinine and better clinical outcomes. Possible explanations for this apparent contradiction include the adverse effects of increased glucose absorption, malnutrition, and fluid overload, the latter caused by decreased ultrafiltration. Available data suggest an important role for the failure of ultrafiltration among patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Strategies to improve the clearance of urea and creatinine include the preservation of residual renal function and increased peritoneal clearance. Loss of residual renal function may be delayed by the avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs and angiographic dye. Peritoneal clearance can be enhanced by a combination of increased volume and frequency of peritoneal dialysis cycles. Ultrafiltration failure, but not protein loss, can be addressed with shorter cycles with nocturnal peritoneal dialysis. Development of
Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Chih-Ching; Chien, Chih-Chiang
Background Patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease (DKD) behave differently to diabetic patients without kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the associations of hypoglycemia and outcomes after initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced DKD on dialysis. Methods Using National Health Insurance Research Database, 20,845 advanced DKD patients beginning long-term dialysis between 2002 and 2006 were enrolled. We investigated the incidence of severe hypoglycemia episodes before initiation of dialysis. Patients were followed from date of first dialysis to death, end of dialysis, or 2008. Main outcomes measured were all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and subsequent severe hypoglycemic episodes after dialysis. Results 19.18% patients had at least one hypoglycemia episode during 1-year period before initiation of dialysis. Advanced DKD patients with higher adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index (aDCSI) scores were associated with more frequent hypoglycemia (P for trend < 0.001). Mortality and subsequent severe hypoglycemia after dialysis both increased with number of hypoglycemic episodes. Compared to those who had no hypoglycemic episodes, those who had one had a 15% higher risk of death and a 2.3-fold higher risk of subsequent severe hypoglycemia. Those with two or more episodes had a 19% higher risk of death and a 3.9-fold higher risk of subsequent severe hypoglycemia. However, previous severe hypoglycemia was not correlated with risk of MI after dialysis. Conclusions The rate of severe hypoglycemia was high in advanced DKD patients. Patients with higher aDCSI scores tended to have more hypoglycemic episodes. Hypoglycemic episodes were associated with subsequent hypoglycemia and mortality after initiation of dialysis. We studied the associations and further study is needed to establish cause. In addition, more attention is needed for hypoglycemia prevention in advanced DKD patients, especially for those at risk patients. PMID:28355264
Abud, Ana Cristina Freire; Kusumota, Luciana; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rodrigues, Flávia Fernanda Luchetti; Damasceno, Marta Maria Coelho; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia
Objective: to analyze the complications related to peritonitis and catheter exit-site infections, in patients on peritoneal dialysis at home. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional study, carried out with 90 patients on peritoneal dialysis at home, in a municipality in the Northeast region of Brazil. For data collection, it was used two structured scripts and consultation on medical records. Descriptive analysis and comparison tests among independent groups were used, considering p<0.05 as level of statistical significance. Results: by comparing the frequency of peritonitis and the length of treatment, it was found that patients over two years of peritoneal dialysis were more likely to develop peritonitis (X²=6.39; p=0.01). The number of episodes of peritoneal catheter exit-site infection showed association with the length of treatment (U=224,000; p=0.015). Conclusion: peritonitis and catheter exit-site infection are associated with the length of treatment. PMID:26487141
Neto, M M; Robl, F; Netto, J C
We observed six cases of patients in a dialysis programme who were apparently intoxicated by ingestion of star fruit. After ingestion of 2-3 fruits or 150-200 ml of the fruit juice, the six patients, who had previously been stable in a regular dialysis programme, developed a variety of symptoms ranging from insomnia and hiccups to agitation, mental confusion and (in one case) death. In preliminary investigations to characterize the hypothetical neurotoxin in the fruit, an extract, when injected intraperitoneally or intracerebroventricularly in rats, provoked persistent convulsions of the tonic-clonic type. It appears that star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) contains an excitatory neurotoxin. Patients with renal failure on conservative or dialysis treatment should be dissuaded from ingestion of the fruit.
Ripley, Elizabeth B. D.
Physicians have sworn to treat for the good of their patients. However, there are often conflicting needs and pressures which are ethical, medical, and legal which impact the ability of the physician to provide that care. Although most dialysis patients work with the physician and dialysis facility to obtain quality care, there are a few which are noncompliant and even abusive. This small minority requires an inordinate amount of work and presents the physician with a variety of ethical and legal issues. Unlike many other specialties, dialysis care presents additional problems due to the frequent interactions, limited treatment options, and morbid consequences of lack of care. This article outlines these issues and summarizes the difficult position that the nephrologist encounters when dealing with a noncompliant or abusive patient. PMID:21152373
Cherng, Yih-Giun; Liao, Chien-Chang; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Xiao, Duan
Background End-stage renal disease represents a risk complex that complicates surgical results. The surgical outcomes of dialysis patients have been studied in specific fields, but the global features of postoperative adverse outcomes in dialysis patients receiving non-cardiac surgeries have not been examined. Methods Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database was used to study 8,937 patients under regular dialysis with 8,937 propensity-score matched-pair controls receiving non-cardiac surgery between 2004 and 2007. We investigated the influence of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, effects of hypertension and diabetes, and impact of additional comorbidities on postoperative adverse outcomes. Results Postoperative mortality in dialysis patients was higher than in controls (odds ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56 to 4.33) when receiving non-cardiac surgeries. Complications such as acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia, bleeding, and septicemia were significantly increased. Postoperative mortality was significantly increased among peritoneal dialysis patients (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.70 to 4.31) and hemodialysis patients (OR 3.42, 95% CI 2.62 to 4.47) than in controls. Dialysis patients with both hypertension and diabetes had the highest risk of postoperative complications; these risks increased with number of preoperative medical conditions. Patients under dialysis also showed significantly increased length of hospitalization, more ICU stays and higher medical expenditures. Conclusion Surgical patients under dialysis encountered significantly higher postoperative complications and mortality than controls when receiving non-cardiac surgeries. Different dialysis techniques, pre-existing hypertension/diabetes, and various comorbidities had complication-specific impacts on surgical adverse outcomes. These findings can help surgical teams provide better risk assessment and postoperative care for dialysis patients. PMID:23516581
Tang, Yuexin; Brooks, John M.; Wetmore, James B.; Shireman, Theresa I.
Background While cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients on chronic dialysis, utilization rates of cardioprotective drugs for dialysis patients remain low. This study sought to determine whether higher rates of cardioprotective drug use among dialysis patients might increase survival. Methods A retrospective cohort of incident dialysis patients (n = 50,468) with dual eligibility for U.S. Medicare and Medicaid was constructed using USRDS data linked with billing claims. Medication exposures included angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs), β-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCBs), and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) prescribed within 90 days of dialysis initiation. The outcomes were one- and two-year survival and CV event-free survival. Variation in treatment rates based on local area practice styles were used as instruments in instrumental variable (IV) estimation, yielding average treatment effect estimates for patients whose treatment choices were affected by local area practice styles. Results Patients aged 65 years and older comprised 47.4% of the sample, while 59.5% were female and 35.0% were white. The utilization rate was 40.7% for ACEIs/ARBs, 43.0% for β-blockers, 50.7% for CCBs and 26.4% for statins. The local area practice style instruments were highly significantly related to cardioprotective drug use in dialysis patients (Chow-F values > 10). IV estimates showed only that higher rates of β-blockers increased one-year survival (β = 0.161, P-value = 0.020) and CV event-free survival (β = 0.189, P-value = 0.033), but that higher rates of CCBs decreased two-year CV event-free survival (β = -0.520, P-value = 0.009). Conclusions This study suggests that higher utilization rates of β-blockers might yield higher survival rates for dialysis patients. However, higher rates of the other drugs studied had no correlations with survival, and higher CCB rates
Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul
Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.
Background In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hyperuricemia is common. Evidence that hyperuricemia might also play a causal role in vascular disease, hypertension and progression of CKD is accumulating. Therefore, we studied the association between baseline uric acid (UA) levels and the rate of decline in renal function and time until start of dialysis in pre-dialysis patients. Methods Data from the PREPARE-2 study were used. The PREPARE-2 study is an observational prospective cohort study including incident pre-dialysis patients with CKD stages IV-V in the years between 2004 and 2011. Patients were followed for a median of 14.9 months until start of dialysis, kidney transplantation, death, or censoring. Main outcomes were the change in the rate of decline in renal function (measured as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)) estimated using linear mixed models, and time until start of dialysis estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results In this analysis 131 patients were included with a baseline UA level (mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 8.0 (1.79) mg/dl) and a mean decline in renal function of -1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI), -2.01; -1.22) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The change in decline in GFR associated with a unit increase in UA at baseline was -0.14 (95% CI -0.61;0.33, p = 0.55) ml/min/1.73 m2/year. Adjusted for demography, comorbidities, diet, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, proteinuria, diuretic and/or allopurinol usage the change in decline in eGFR did not change. The hazard ratio (HR) for starting dialysis for each mg/dl increase in UA at baseline was 1.08 (95% CI, 0.94;1.24, p = 0.27). After adjustment for the same confounders the HR became significant at 1.26 (95% CI, 1.06;1.49, p = 0.01), indicating an earlier start of dialysis with higher levels of UA. Conclusion Although high UA levels are not associated with an accelerated decline in renal function, a high serum UA level in incident pre-dialysis
Intravenous (i.v.) iron has been underutilized in the peritoneal dialysis (PD) population due to poor peripheral access and logistical barriers. In PD patients who are intolerant or nonadherent to oral iron, a convenient method of i.v. iron administration is total dose infusion (TDI). This method of administration involves administering the total therapeutic dose of i.v. iron over one to two administrations. This article will review the literature on the use of parenteral iron in PD patients, and will outline West Coast Dialysis Center's successful protocol for TDI of iron dextran in its PD population.
Wyszomierska, Agnieszka; Puka, Janusz; Myszkowska-Ryciak, Joanna; Narojek, Lucyna
The influence of dialysis's period on energy and selected nutrients intake was examined on 38 patients with end stage renal disease. The longer period of dialysis caused higher energy and protein content in daily food rations. Furthermore lower intake of energy, protein, iron and calcium were observed as well as too high level of saturated fatty acids comparing to recommendations. Our data strongly suggest that constant dietician care might be essential to correct nutrients intake and prevent possible deficiencies among patients with the end stage renal disease.
Selvarajah, Viknesh; Pasea, Laura; Ojha, Sanjay; Wilkinson, Ian B; Tomlinson, Laurie A
Systolic blood pressure variability is an independent risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular events. Standard measures of blood pressure predict outcome poorly in haemodialysis patients. We investigated whether systolic blood pressure variability was associated with mortality in incident haemodialysis patients. We performed a longitudinal observational study of patients commencing haemodialysis between 2005 and 2011 in East Anglia, UK, excluding patients with cardiovascular events within 6 months of starting haemodialysis. The main exposure was variability independent of the mean (VIM) of systolic blood pressure from short-gap, pre-dialysis blood pressure readings between 3 and 6 months after commencing haemodialysis, and the outcome was all-cause mortality. Of 203 patients, 37 (18.2%) patients died during a mean follow-up of 2.0 (SD 1.3) years. The age and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.17) for a one-unit increase of VIM. This was not altered by adjustment for diabetes, prior cardiovascular disease and mean systolic blood pressure (HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16). Patients with VIM of systolic blood pressure above the median were 2.4 (95% CI 1.17-4.74) times more likely to die during follow-up than those below the median. Results were similar for all measures of blood pressure variability and further adjustment for type of dialysis access, use of antihypertensives and absolute or variability of fluid intake did not alter these findings. Diastolic blood pressure variability showed no association with all cause mortality. Our study shows that variability of systolic blood pressure is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in incident haemodialysis patients. Further research is needed to understand the mechanism as this may form a therapeutic target or focus for management.
da Silva Fernandes, Natália Maria; Bastos, Marcus Gomes; Franco, Márcia Regina Gianotti; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Glória Lima, Maria; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid
OBJECTIVES: To determine the roles of body size and longitudinal body weight changes in the survival of incident peritoneal dialysis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 1911) older than 18 years of age recruited from 114 dialysis centers (Dec/2004-Oct/2007) and participating in the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Cohort Study were included. Clinical and laboratory data were collected monthly (except if the patient received a transplant, recovered renal function, was transferred to hemodialysis, or died). RESULTS: Survival analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards. Total follow-up was 34 months. The mean age was 59 years (54% female). The weight category percentages were as follows: underweight: 8%; normal: 51%; overweight: 29%; and obese 12%. The multivariate model showed a higher risk of death for a body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, a neutral risk between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and a protective effect for an index >30 kg/m2. Patients were divided into five categories according to quintiles of body weight changes during the first year of dialysis: <−3.1%, −3.1 to+0.12%, +0.12 to <+3.1% (reference category), +3.1 to +7.1% and >+7.1%. Patients in the lowest quintile had significantly higher mortality, whereas no negative impact was observed in the other quintiles. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that overweight/obesity and a positive body weight variation during the first year of peritoneal dialysis therapy do not increase mortality in incident dialysis patients in Brazil. PMID:23420157
Guo, Chih-Hung; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng W.; Wang, Chia-Liang
End stage renal disease patients undergoing long-term dialysis are at risk for abnormal concentrations of certain essential and non-essential trace metals and high oxidative stress. We evaluated the effects of zinc (Zn) supplementation on plasma aluminum (Al) and selenium (Se) concentrations and oxidative stress in chronic dialysis patients. Zn-deficient patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis were divided into two groups according to plasma Al concentrations (HA group, Al > 50 μg/L; and MA group, Al > 30 to ≤ 50 μg/L). All patients received daily oral Zn supplements for two months. Age- and gender-matched healthy individuals did not receive Zn supplement. Clinical variables were assessed before, at one month, and after the supplementation period. Compared with healthy subjects, patients had significantly lower baseline plasma Se concentrations and higher oxidative stress status. After two-month Zn treatment, these patients had higher plasma Zn and Se concentrations, reduced plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress. Furthermore, increased plasma Zn concentrations were related to the concentrations of Al, Se, oxidative product malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activities. In conclusion, Zn supplementation ameliorates abnormally high plasma Al concentrations and oxidative stress and improves Se status in long-term dialysis patients. PMID:23609777
Lehtihalmes, Matti; And Others
Dialysis encephalopathy is a progressive neurological disorder occurring after long-term hemodialysis in some renal failure patients. Accumulation of aluminum in the brain is suspected as its cause, and the use of reverse osmosis of the dialysis water and administration of desferrioxamine to the patient have been successful in reducing the…
Iwakiri, Takashi; Sato, Yuji; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Kazuo
Background Although hemoglobin (Hb) levels are affected by a change in the body fluid status, the relationship between Hb levels and mortality while taking interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) at blood sampling into account has not yet been examined in hemodialysis patients. Study design Cohort study. Setting, Participants Data from the Miyazaki Dialysis cohort study, including 1375 prevalent hemodialysis patients (median age (interquartile range), 69 (60–77) years, 42.3% female). Predictor Patients were divided into 5 categories according to baseline Hb levels and two groups based on the median value of IDWG rates at blood sampling at pre-HD on the first dialysis session of the week. Outcomes All-cause and cardiovascular mortalities during a 3-year follow-up. Measurements Hazard ratios were estimated using a Cox model for the relationship between Hb categories and mortality, and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, dialysis duration, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dosage, Kt/V, comorbid conditions, anti-hypertensive drug use, serum albumin, serum C-reactive protein, serum ferritin, and serum intact parathyroid hormone. Patients with Hb levels of 9–9.9 g/dL were set as our reference category. Results A total of 246 patients (18%) died of all-cause mortality, including 112 cardiovascular deaths. Lower Hb levels (<9.0g/dL) were associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HRs 2.043 [95% CI, 1.347–3.009]), while Hb levels were not associated with cardiovascular mortality. When patients were divided into two groups using the median value of IDWG rates (high IDWG, ≥5.4% and low IDWG, <5.4%), the correlation between lower Hb levels and all-cause mortality disappeared in high IDWG patients, but was maintained in low IDWG patients (adjusted HRs 3.058 [95% CI,1.575–5.934]). On the other hand, higher Hb levels (≥12g/dL) were associated with cardiovascular mortality in high IDWG patients (adjusted HRs 2.724 [95% CI, 1.010–7.349]), but not in low
Kunin, Margarita; Carmon, Vered; Arad, Michael; Levin-Iaina, Nomy; Freimark, Dov; Holtzman, Eli J; Dinour, Dganit
Proinflammatory cytokines play a pathogenic role in congestive heart failure. In this study, the effect of peritoneal dialysis treatment on inflammatory cytokines levels in refractory congestive heart failure patients was investigated. During the treatment, the patients reached a well-tolerated edema-free state and demonstrated significant improvement in NYHA functional class. Brain natriuretic peptide decreased significantly after 3 months of treatment and remained stable at 6 months. C-reactive protein, a plasma marker of inflammation, decreased significantly following the treatment. Circulating inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 decreased significantly after 3 months of peritoneal dialysis treatment and remained low at 6 months. The reduction in circulating inflammatory cytokines levels may be partly responsible for the efficacy of peritoneal dialysis for refractory congestive heart failure.
Ying, Irene; Levitt, Zoe
The burden of cognitive impairment appears to increase with progressive renal disease, such that the prevalence of dementia among those starting dialysis, or those already established on dialysis, is high. The appropriateness of dialysis initiation in this population has been questioned, and current Renal Physician Association guidelines suggest forgoing dialysis in individuals who have dementia and lack awareness of self and environment. Patients are, however, also entitled to equal rights and respect, equal access to health care services, and an opportunity to engage in shared decision-making processes, particularly if there is concern over reversibility of disease. This article discusses, on the basis of principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence, the arguments in favor of and against dialysis use, and the process of determining an appropriate care plan. Factors discussed include the current societal trend toward a technological imperative, premature fatalism, survival benefits, and the implications of providing care to patients who are unable to express their tolerance for symptoms associated with the treatment or lack of treatment. PMID:24235287
Su, Bin-Guang; Tsai, Kai-Li; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Ho, Yi-Yi; Liu, Shin-Yi; Rivers, Patrick A
According to the 2004 US Renal Data System's annual report, the incidence rate of chronic renal failure in Taiwan increased from 120 to 352 per million populations between 1990 and 2003. This incidence rate is the highest in the world. The prevalence rate, which ranks number two in the world (Japan ranks number one), also increased from 384 to 1630 per million populations. Based on 2005 Taiwan national statistics, there were 52,958 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving routine dialysis treatment. This number, which comprised less than 0.2% of the total population and consumed $2.6 billion New Taiwan dollars, was more than 6.12% of the total annual spending of national health insurance during 2005. Dialysis expenditures for patients with ESRD rank the highest among all major injuries (traumas) and diseases. This article identifies and discusses the risk factors associated with consumption of medical resources during dialysis. Instead of using reimbursement data to estimate cost, as seen in previous studies, this study uses cost data within organizations and focuses on evaluating and predicting the resource consumption pattern for dialysis patients with different risk factors. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify 23 risk factors for routine dialysis patients. Of these risk factors, six were associated with the increase of dialysis cost: age (i.e. 75 years old and older), liver function disorder, hypertension, bile-duct disorder, cancer and high blood lipids. Patients with liver function disorder incurred much higher costs for injection medication and supplies. Hypertensive patients incurred higher costs for injection medication, supplies and oral medication. Patients with bile-duct disorder incurred a significant difference in check-up costs (i.e. costs were higher for those aged 75 years and older than those who were younger than 30 years of age). Cancer patients also incurred significant differences in cost of medical supplies. Patients
Dussol, B; Berthezène, P; Brunet, P; Roubicek, C; Berland, Y
During the last quarter of 1992, 984 patients from 13 dialysis centers in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur region in France participated in a multicenter cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence, the risk factors, and the clinical consequences of infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Serum samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the case of a positive result, a combination test was performed using second-generation recombinant immunoblot (RIBA) or direct detection of HCV-RNA by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Collected data included the patient's age, gender, cause of the kidney disease, type of dialysis treatment, number of years on dialysis, weekly dialysis time, drug addiction, co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), number of kidney transplants, number of blood transfusions, and history of acute or chronic hepatitis. Chronic HCV infection was detected in 232 (23.6%) patients, whereas only 71 (7.2%) were infected by HBV. Logistic-regression analysis showed that HCV infection was associated with dialysis over a long period, numerous blood transfusions, female gender, kidney grafts, HBV infection, hemodialysis, and acute as well as chronic hepatitis. Multiple-correspondence analysis confirmed that the contamination was both transfusional and nosocomial. These results underscore the need for a strict compliance with "universal precautions" (Centers for Disease Control [CDC], Atlanta) in dialysis units and raise the question as to whether anti-HCV-positive patients should be isolated.
Dong, Jie; Ikizler, T. Alp
Purpose of review Patients on maintenance dialysis commonly develop protein-energy wasting (PEW), which is associated with poor survival. There have been several advances in anabolic interventions aimed at improving PEW in these patients in recent years. Recent findings Oral or parenteral nutritional supplementation, especially if administered during dialysis, improves net protein anabolism in chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients. These beneficial effects have been extended to long-term benefits in recent clinical trials. Resistance exercise, alone or combined with intradialytic oral nutrition supplementation also improves net protein balance in the acute setting although recent studies indicated a limited beneficial effect of long-term exercise alone on muscle protein accretion in CHD patients. Anabolic agents such as growth hormone and androgens have been shown to exert significant benefits on visceral protein stores, muscle mass and strength. Ghrelin, a hormone with combined orexigenic and anti-inflammatory effects, is a potential new nutritional intervention in maintenance dialysis patients. Summary Existing anabolic therapeutic strategies have proven to be effective in improving PEW in maintenance dialysis patients. Combined anabolic interventions and several new and established anabolic hormones represent as further promising nutritional interventions. Large-scale randomized controlled trials examining the effects of anabolic interventions on mortality and morbidity are still lacking. PMID:19713839
Pai, Amy Barton; Cardone, Katie E; Manley, Harold J; St Peter, Wendy L; Shaffer, Rachel; Somers, Michael; Mehrotra, Rajnish
Patients with ESRD undergoing dialysis have highly complex medication regimens and disproportionately higher total cost of care compared with the general Medicare population. As shown by several studies, dialysis-dependent patients are at especially high risk for medication-related problems. Providing medication reconciliation and therapy management services is critically important to avoid costs associated with medication-related problems, such as adverse drug events and hospitalizations in the ESRD population. The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 included an unfunded mandate stipulating that medication therapy management be offered to high-risk patients enrolled in Medicare Part D. Medication management services are distinct from the dispensing of medications and involve a complete medication review for all disease states. The dialysis facility is a logical coordination center for medication management services, like medication therapy management, and it is likely the first health care facility that a patient will present to after a care transition. A dedicated and adequately trained clinician, such as a pharmacist, is needed to provide consistent, high-quality medication management services. Medication reconciliation and medication management services that could consistently and systematically identify and resolve medication-related problems would be likely to improve ESRD patient outcomes and reduce total cost of care. Herein, this work provides a review of available evidence and recommendations for optimal delivery of medication management services to ESRD patients in a dialysis facility-centered model.
Papadimitriou, Lila J; Marathias, Katerina P; Alivizatos, Petros A; Michalis, Alkiviadis; Palatianos, George M; Stavridis, George T; Demesticha, Theano; Koussi, Theophili; Agroyannis, Basil; Vlahakos, Demetrios V
Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been recently revived, because cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) appears to worsen the multiple organ dysfunction after conventional CABG. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the off-pump CABG in chronic dialysis patients, we compared the perioperative morbidity and mortality between 15 dialysis patients who underwent off-pump CABG at our center over the past 8 years with that of a concurrent group of 19 patients who underwent conventional CABG. Patients were selected for off-pump CABG only when complete revascularization was technically feasible. We found that off-pump CABG is as safe and effective as conventional CABG in selected dialysis patients. It might even be beneficial, because it is associated with less hematocrit drop and blood product use, a lower catabolic rate, and fewer dialysis requirements after surgery. However, the impact of off-pump technique on the long-term clinical outcome and resource utilization in renal patients requires further investigation.
Gabbay, Ezra; Hersch, Moshe; Shavit, Linda; Shmuelevitz, Lev; Helviz, Yigal; Shapiro, Henry; Slotki, Itzchak
While dialysis historically began as treatment intended for younger patients, it has, over time, increasingly been extended to treat elderly patients with a high comorbidity burden. Data on the outcomes of dialysis in these patients show that in some cases it confers no benefit and may be associated with functional decline. We describe a 101-year-old male patient with chronic kidney disease (CKD), admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with exacerbation of heart failure and sepsis. He experienced acute deterioration of renal function, with oliguria and acidosis. The patient's healthcare proxy insisted that dialysis be initiated despite his extremely advanced age, citing the patient's devout religious beliefs. He underwent 56 dialysis treatments over the course of ∼4 months after which he died as a result of septic and cardiogenic shock. Our case is unique, in that it may represent the oldest individual ever reported to start haemodialysis. It illustrates the ever-growing clinical and ethical challenges posed by the treatment of renal failure in the geriatric population.
Background Several observational studies have evaluated the effect of a single exposure window with blood pressure (BP) medications on outcomes in incident dialysis patients, but whether BP medication prescription patterns remain stable or a single exposure window design is adequate to evaluate effect on outcomes is unclear. Methods We described patterns of BP medication prescription over 6 months after dialysis initiation in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, stratified by cardiovascular comorbidity, diabetes, and other patient characteristics. The cohort included 13,072 adult patients (12,159 hemodialysis, 913 peritoneal dialysis) who initiated dialysis in Dialysis Clinic, Inc., facilities January 1, 2003-June 30, 2008, and remained on the original modality for at least 6 months. We evaluated monthly patterns in BP medication prescription over 6 months and at 12 and 24 months after initiation. Results Prescription patterns varied by dialysis modality over the first 6 months; substantial proportions of patients with prescriptions for beta-blockers, renin angiotensin system agents, and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in month 6 no longer had prescriptions for these medications by month 24. Prescription of specific medication classes varied by comorbidity, race/ethnicity, and age, but little by sex. The mean number of medications was 2.5 at month 6 in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis cohorts. Conclusions This study evaluates BP medication patterns in both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients over the first 6 months of dialysis. Our findings highlight the challenges of assessing comparative effectiveness of a single BP medication class in dialysis patients. Longitudinal designs should be used to account for changes in BP medication management over time, and designs that incorporate common combinations should be considered. PMID:24219348
Lucchetti, Giancarlo; de Almeida, Luiz Guilherme Camargo; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero
Patients with chronic kidney disease often use religion as a coping strategy to relieve suffering and serve as a source of strength. The aim of this study was to identify religious aspects associated with mental health and quality of life in Brazilian dialysis patients. A cross-sectional study was performed involving two dialysis centers in Brazil. Patients were selected consecutively over three typical dialysis treatment days. The questionnaire was self-administered and covered the following aspects: socio-demographic aspects, religiousness (using the Portuguese version of the Private and Social Religious Practice Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life brief Scale Brief Version), depression and anxiety (Beck Inventory), and pain grade. For statistical analysis, the hypothesis that different religious variables are associated (positively or negatively) with depressive/anxiety symptoms and quality of life in these patients was tested using linear regression, controlling for confounding variables. A total of 205 patients were invited to participate and 133 (64.8%) agreed to fill out the questionnaire. On the adjusted model, reading religious literature was found to be inversely associated with depressive symptoms (P < 0.001). In addition, the psychological domain of quality of life was positively associated with an increase in patient religiosity (P = 0.030) and greater religious importance for recovery from their dialysis condition (P = 0.016), whereas the environmental domain was positively associated with greater religious importance for recovery (P = 0.032). No religious aspects were associated with anxiety symptoms. Religiousness is associated with less depressive symptoms and better quality of life in Brazilian dialysis patients. Nephrologists should evaluate the patient's spirituality and religion in order to provide more integrative care.
Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L
Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO₄ > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are
Imtiaz, Rameez; Hawken, Steven; McCormick, Brendan B.; Leung, Simon; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah L.
Hyperphosphatemia has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for hyperphosphatemia in ESKD patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). This information will be used to develop a patient specific phosphate binder application to facilitate patient self-management of serum phosphate. Adult PD patients documented their food, beverage, and phosphate binder intake for three days using a dietitian developed food journal. Phosphate content of meals was calculated using the ESHA Food Processor SQL Software (ESHA Research, Salem, UT, USA). Clinic biochemistry tests and an adequacy assessment (Baxter Adequest program) were done. Univariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of serum phosphate >1.78 mmol/L. A multivariable logistic regression model was then fit including those variables that achieved a significance level of p < 0.20 in univariate analyses. Sixty patients (38 men, 22 women) completed the protocol; they were 60 ± 17 years old, 50% had a history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and 33% had hyperphosphatemia (PO4 > 1.78 mmol/L). In univariate analysis, the variables associated with an increased risk of hyperphosphatemia with a p-value < 0.2 were male gender (p = 0.13), younger age (0.07), presence of DM (0.005), higher dose of calcium carbonate (0.08), higher parathyroid serum concentration (0.08), lower phosphate intake (0.03), lower measured glomerular filtration rate (0.15), higher phosphate excretion (0.11), and a higher body mass index (0.15). After multivariable logistic regression analysis, younger age (odds ratio (OR) 0.023 per decade, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00065 to 0.455; p = 0.012), presence of diabetes (OR 11.40, 95 CI 2.82 to 61.55; p = 0.0003), and measured GFR (OR 0.052 per mL/min decrease; 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.66) were associated with hyperphosphatemia. Our results support that younger age and diabetes mellitus are
Bibashi, Evangelia; Sofianou, Danai; Kontopoulou, Konstantina; Mitsopoulos, Efstathios; Kokolina, Elisabeth
Roseomonas is a newly described genus of pink-pigmented, nonfermentative, gram-negative bacteria that have been recognized as a cause of human infections. Roseomonas fauriae is a species rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We report the first known case of peritonitis caused by R. fauriae in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. PMID:10618142
Li, Philip K T; Culleton, Bruce F; Ariza, Amaury; Do, Jun-Young; Johnson, David W; Sanabria, Mauricio; Shockley, Ty R; Story, Ken; Vatazin, Andrey; Verrelli, Mauro; Yu, Alex W; Bargman, Joanne M
Glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may exacerbate metabolic abnormalities and increase cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Here, we examined whether a low-glucose regimen improves metabolic control in diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Eligible patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to the control group (dextrose solutions only) or to the low-glucose intervention group (IMPENDIA trial: combination of dextrose-based solution, icodextrin and amino acids; EDEN trial: a different dextrose-based solution, icodextrin and amino acids) and followed for 6 months. Combining both studies, 251 patients were allocated to control (n=127) or intervention (n=124) across 11 countries. The primary endpoint was change in glycated hemoglobin from baseline. Mean glycated hemoglobin at baseline was similar in both groups. In the intention-to-treat population, the mean glycated hemoglobin profile improved in the intervention group but remained unchanged in the control group (0.5% difference between groups; 95% confidence interval, 0.1% to 0.8%; P=0.006). Serum triglyceride, very-low-density lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein B levels also improved in the intervention group. Deaths and serious adverse events, including several related to extracellular fluid volume expansion, increased in the intervention group, however. These data suggest that a low-glucose dialysis regimen improves metabolic indices in diabetic patients receiving peritoneal dialysis but may be associated with an increased risk of extracellular fluid volume expansion. Thus, use of glucose-sparing regimens in peritoneal dialysis patients should be accompanied by close monitoring of fluid volume status.
Nicholls, A.; Edward, N.; Catto, G. R.
Septicaemia is a common and potentially lethal hazard of haemodialysis and renal transplantation; it is usually caused by Staphylococcus pyogenes. In 6 patients with S. pyogenes septicaemia, fatal endocarditis and spinal osteomyelitis have each occurred once, and 3 patients have had recurrent episodes of septicaemia. The management of septicaemia in these patients must include a search for metastatic infection, and prolonged therapy with 2 antistaphylococcal agents is necessary to ensure eradication of infection. Access site infection in dialysis patients must be treated vigorously, and recognized as potentially hazardous by patients. The risk of sepsis in dialysis and transplant patients cannot be excluded, but devastating consequences may be avoided by simple measures. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7008049
Hayami, Noriko; Hoshino, Junichi; Suwabe, Tastuya; Sumida, Keiichi; Mise, Koki; Hamanoue, Satoshi; Sawa, Naoki; Kitajima, Izuru; Hirota, Yutaka; Oohashi, Kenichi; Fujii, Takeshi; Okuda, Itsuko; Takaichi, Kenmei; Ubara, Yoshifumi
Destructive spondyloarthropathy (DSA) is the most serious spinal complication of dialysis-related amyloidosis in patients on long-term hemodialysis (HD), but we could not find any information about DSA in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) for over 10 years. We retrospectively evaluated factors contributing to DSA in HD and PD patients. Sixty-seven patients on dialysis for 10 to 19 years were compared between a PD group (n = 23) or a HD group (n = 44). In the PD group, nine patients (39%) developed DSA. The mean age of DSA patients was significantly higher than that of non-DSA patients (66.2 ± 10.0 vs. 51.0 ± 12.8 years, P = 0.03). The frequency of cervical spine DSA did not show any difference between the PD and HD groups, but the frequency of lumbar spine DSA showed a significant difference (22% vs. 5%, P = 0.04). The serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2MG) level was significantly higher in PD patients than in HD patients (38.4 mg/L vs. 27.4 mg/L, P = 0.0025). Mechanical stress such as elevation of the intra-abdominal pressure due to infusion of PD fluid (1500 mL to 2000 mL) for over 10 years might contribute to lumbar DSA in patients on long-term PD.
Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Zoccali, Carmine
A high Body Mass Index (BMI) predicts delayed graft function, all cause and cardiovascular death after transplantation but such risk excess is apparently confined to patients included in studies performed before 2000. Perhaps with the exception of morbid obesity (BMI > 40), clinical outcomes in transplanted obese patients are definitely better than in listed dialysis patients who don't receive a renal transplant. Furthermore the new Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) risk calculator incorporates BMI into the prediction model of the global risk for the graft's and patient's survival appropriately framing the risk of obesity in a multidimensional risk context. In the aggregate, available knowledge suggests that clinical decisions on weight loss before transplantation should be context specific. Renal transplant patients from living donors have substantial better survival in comparison to well matched dialysis patients listed for the same intervention at all BMI categories. Therefore renal transplantation in obese patients with a living donor may be prioritized. The attitude of fully informed obese patients at accepting the risk driven by transplantation, the experience of the surgical team with obese patients (including also robotic surgery) are of obvious importance. Renal transplantation should be timely considered when reasonable attempts at weight loss failed or appear overtly unrealistic. Transplantation in morbidly obese patients with BMI > 40, a category where the survival advantage of transplantation vs dialysis is probably small and still uncertain, particularly so in African-Americans, should be deferred until significant weight loss is achieved.
Luft, Friedrich C.; Brannon, David R.; Stropes, Linda L.; Costello, Robert J.; Sloan, Rebecca S.; Maxwell, Douglas R.
The pharmacokinetics of netilmicin were examined in 25 adult subjects, 7 normal subjects, and 18 patients with renal impairment. Five were dialysis patients who were studied on and off dialysis. Netilmicin, 2 mg/kg, was infused intravenously over 1 h. The peak serum concentration ranged from 9 to 11 μg/ml. The mean biological half-life of netilmicin for subjects with a creatinine clearance (Ccr) > 70 ml/min was 2.7 h, for those with Ccr > 25 < 70 ml/min it was 10 h, for those with Ccr > 4 < 25 ml/min it was 32 h, and for those who were anephric it was 42 h. Ccr was correlated positively with the elimination constant and the drug's serum clearance. It was negatively correlated with the drug's volume of distribution. The dialyzer clearance of netilmicin was positively correlated with plasma flow rate and was similar to values previously reported for gentamicin. Netilmicin behaves in a fashion similar to other aminoglycosides. Therapeutic guidelines are suggested. PMID:708018
Background Taiwan has the highest renal disease incidence and prevalence in the world. We evaluated the association of statin and renin–angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI) use with dialysis risk in hypertensive patients. Methods Of 248,797 patients who received a hypertension diagnosis in Taiwan during 2001–2012, our cohort contained 110,829 hypertensive patients: 44,764 who used RASIs alone; 7,606 who used statins alone; 27,836 who used both RASIs and statins; and 33,716 who used neither RASIs or statins. We adjusted for the following factors to reduce selection bias by using propensity scores (PSs): age; sex; comorbidities; urbanization level; monthly income; and use of nonstatin lipid-lowering drugs, metformin, aspirin, antihypertensives, diuretics, and beta and calcium channel blockers. The statin and RASI use index dates were considered the hypertension confirmation dates. To examine the dose–response relationship, we categorized only statin or RASI use into four groups in each cohort: <28 (nonusers), 28–90, 91–365, and >365 cumulative defined daily doses (cDDDs). Results In the main model, PS-adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for dialysis risk were 0.57 (0.50–0.65), 0.72 (0.53–0.98), and 0.47 (0.41–0.54) in the only RASI, only statin, and RASI + statin users, respectively. RASIs dose-dependently reduced dialysis risk in most subgroups and in the main model. RASI use significantly reduced dialysis risk in most subgroups, regardless of comorbidities or other drug use (P < 0.001). Statins at >365 cDDDs protected hypertensive patients against dialysis risk in the main model (aHR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.54–0.71), regardless of whether a high cDDD of RASIs, metformin, or aspirin was used. Conclusion Statins and RASIs independently have a significant dose-dependent protective effect against dialysis risk in hypertensive patients. The combination of statins and RASIs can additively protect hypertensive patients against dialysis
Rivara, Matthew B; Ravel, Vanessa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Streja, Elani; Lau, Wei Ling; Nissenson, Allen R; Kestenbaum, Bryan; de Boer, Ian H; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Mehrotra, Rajnish
Uncorrected serum calcium concentration is the first mineral metabolism metric planned for use as a quality measure in the United States ESRD population. Few studies in patients undergoing either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD) have assessed the association of uncorrected serum calcium concentration with clinical outcomes. We obtained data from 129,076 patients on dialysis (PD, 10,066; HD, 119,010) treated in DaVita, Inc. facilities between July 1, 2001, and June 30, 2006. After adjustment for potential confounders, uncorrected serum calcium <8.5 and ≥10.2 mg/dl were associated with excess mortality in patients on PD or HD (comparison group uncorrected calcium 9.0 to <9.5 mg/dl). Additional adjustment for serum albumin concentration substantially attenuated the all-cause mortality hazard ratios (HRs) associated with uncorrected calcium <8.5 mg/dl (HR, 1.29; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.16 to 1.44 for PD; HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.20 for HD) and amplified the HRs associated with calcium ≥10.2 mg/dl (HR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1.91 for PD; HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.65 for HD). Albumin-corrected calcium ≥10.2 mg/dl and serum phosphorus ≥6.4 mg/dl were also associated with increased risk for death, irrespective of dialysis modality. In summary, in a large nationally representative cohort of patients on dialysis, abnormalities in markers of mineral metabolism, particularly high concentrations of serum calcium and phosphorus, were associated with increased mortality risk. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether control of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia in patients undergoing dialysis results in improved clinical outcomes.
Zhe, Xing-wei; Tian, Xin-kui; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Tao
Volume control is critical for peritoneal dialysis. Although peritoneal equilibration test (PET) has been used to clarify the peritoneal membrane characteristics, it is not able to adequately predict peritoneal fluid removal and optimize appropriately the dwell time. In the present study, we applied computer simulation and performed a more detailed evaluation of the fluid kinetics in patients with different ultrafiltration (UF) capacity. Patients who used three to four exchanges of 2.27% glucose dialysate per day (poor UF capacity group), and patients who used three to four exchanges of 1.36% glucose dialysate per day (good UF capacity group) to achieve adequate amount of peritoneal fluid removal were included in the present analysis. All included patients were asked to record appropriately their dialysis exchanges for the assessment of their peritoneal fluid transport characteristics. Seventeen continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients were selected in the present study, nine in poor UF capacity group and eight in good UF capacity group. Patients in poor UF capacity group had significantly higher daily glucose exposure, higher dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/P creatinine) values, and higher peritoneal fluid absorption rate, K(e), as compared to patients with good UF capacity. Our results suggest that patients with poor UF capacity have significant higher peritoneal small solute transport rate, and more importantly, higher peritoneal fluid absorption rate as compared to patients with good UF capacity.
Magnussen, Eyð Tausen; Vang, Amanda Gratton; á Steig, Torkil; Gaini, Shahin
We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin. As a result of the relapsing B. cereus peritonitis diagnosis and a CT scan showing contraction of the peritoneum after longstanding inflammation, the peritoneal catheter was removed and the patient converted to haemodialysis. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. A lack of proper hygiene when changing the dialysis bag was the suspected source of infection with B. cereus.
Chauveau, P; Fouque, D; Combe, C; Laville, M; Canaud, B; Azar, R; Cano, N; Aparicio, M; Leverve, X
In a cross-sectional study of more than 30% of French dialysis patients (N = 7,123), we evaluated the relationships between predialysis plasma bicarbonate concentration and nutritional markers. Data including age, gender, cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), time on dialysis, body mass index (BMI), blood levels of midweek predialysis albumin, prealbumin, and bicarbonate were collected. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM) were computed from pre- and postbicarbonate-dialysis urea and creatinine levels according to the classical formulas of Garred. Average values (+/- 1 SD) were age 61 +/- 16 years, BMI 23.3 +/- 4.6 kg/m2, dialysis time 12.4 +/- 2.7 h/week, HCO3 22.8 +/- 3.5 mmol/L, albumin 38.7 +/- 5.3 g/L, prealbumin 340 +/- 90 mg/L, Kt/V 1.36 +/- 0.36, nPCR 1.13 +/- 0.32 g/kg BW/day, and LBM 0.86 +/- 0.21% of ideal LBM. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between predialysis bicarbonate levels (within a range of 16-30 mmol/L, 95% of this population) and nPCR confirmed by analysis of variance using bicarbonate classes (p < 0.0001). Bicarbonate was also negatively correlated with albumin, prealbumin, BMI, and LBM. No relationship was noted between bicarbonate and Kt/V despite a positive correlation between Kt/V and nPCR. It is likely that a persistent acidosis observed despite standard bicarbonate dialysis was caused by a high dietary protein intake which results in an increased acid load, but also overcomes the usual catabolic effects of acidosis.
He, Liyu; Fu, Min; Chen, Xian; Liu, Hong; Chen, Xing; Peng, Xiaofei; Liu, Fuyou; Peng, Youming
Many studies found that hemoglobin (Hb) fluctuation was closely related to the prognosis of the maintenance hemodialysis patients. We investigated the association of factors relating dialysis dose and dialyzer membrane with Hb levels. We undertook a randomized clinical trial in 140 patients undergoing thrice-weekly dialysis and assigned patients randomly to a standard or high dose of dialysis; Hb level was measured every month for 12 months. In the standard-dose group, the mean (±SD) urea reduction ratio was 65.1% ± 7.3%, the single-pool Kt/V was 1.26 ± 0.11, and the equilibrated Kt/V was 1.05 ± 0.09; in the high-dose group, the values were 73.5% ± 8.7%, 1.68 ± 0.15, and 1.47 ± 0.11, respectively. The standard deviation (SD) and residual SD (liner regression of Hb) values of Hb were significantly higher in the standard-dose group and low-flux group. The percentage achievement of target Hb in the high-dose dialysis group and high-flux dialyzer group was significantly higher than the standard-dose group and low-flux group, respectively. Patients undergoing hemodialysis thrice weekly appear to have benefit from a higher dialysis dose than that recommended by current KDQQI (Kidney Disease Qutcome Quality Initiative) guidelines or from the use of a high-flux membrane, which is in favor of maintaining stable Hb levels.
Sanabria, M; Muñoz, J; Trillos, C; Hernández, G; Latorre, C; Díaz, C S; Murad, S; Rodríguez, K; Rivera, A; Amador, A; Ardila, F; Caicedo, A; Camargo, D; Díaz, A; González, J; Leguizamón, H; Lopera, P; Marín, L; Nieto, I; Vargas, E
The goal of the Dialysis Outcomes in Colombia (DOC) study was to compare the survival of patients on hemodialysis (HD) vs peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a network of renal units in Colombia. The DOC study examined a historical cohort of incident patients starting dialysis therapy between 1 January 2001 and 1 December 2003 and followed until 1 December 2005, measuring demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical variables. Only patients older than 18 years were included. As-treated and intention-to-treat statistical analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard model. There were 1094 eligible patients in total and 923 were actually enrolled: 47.3% started HD therapy and 52.7% started PD therapy. Of the patients studied, 751 (81.3%) remained in their initial therapy until the end of the follow-up period, death, or censorship. Age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, creatinine, calcium, and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) variables did not show statistically significant differences between the two treatment groups. Diabetes, socioeconomic level, educational level, phosphorus, Charlson Co-morbidity Index, and cardiovascular history did show a difference, and were less favorable for patients on PD. Residual renal function was greater for PD patients. Also, there were differences in the median survival time between groups: 27.2 months for PD vs 23.1 months for HD (P=0.001) by the intention-to-treat approach; and 24.5 months for PD vs 16.7 months for HD (P<0.001) by the as-treated approach. When performing univariate Cox analyses using the intention-to-treat approach, associations were with age > or =65 years (hazard ratio (HR)=2.21; confidence interval (CI) 95% (1.77-2.755); P<0.001); history of cardiovascular disease (HR=1.96; CI 95% (1.58-2.90); P<0.001); diabetes (HR=2.34; CI 95% (1.88-2.90); P<0.001); and SGA (mild or moderate-severe malnutrition) (HR=1.47; CI 95% (1.17-1.79); P=0.001); but no association was found with gender (HR=1
Griva, Konstadina; Li, Zhi Hui; Lai, Alden Yuanhong; Choong, Meng Chan; Foo, Marjorie Wai Yin
♦ Objectives: This study explored the factors influencing decision-making about dialysis modality, integrating the perspectives of patients, their families, and health care professionals within an Asian population. The study further sought to understand the low penetration rate of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Singapore. ♦ Methods: A sample of 59 participants comprising pre-dialysis patients, dialysis patients, caregivers, and health care professionals (HCPs) participated in semi-structured interviews to explore the decision-making process and their views about various dialysis modalities. Data were thematically analyzed using NVivo9 (QSR International, Doncaster, Australia) to explore barriers to and facilitators of various dialysis modalities and decisional support needs. ♦ Results: Fear of infection, daily commitment to PD, and misperceptions of PD emerged as barriers to PD. Side effects, distance to dialysis centers, and fear of needling and pain were barriers to hemodialysis (HD). The experiences of other patients, communicated informally or opportunistically, influenced the preferences and choices of patients and family members for a dialysis modality. Patients and families value input from HCPs and yet express strong needs to discuss subjective experiences of life on dialysis (PD or HD) with other patients before making a decision about dialysis modality. ♦ Conclusions: Pre-dialysis education should expand its focus on the family as the unit of care and should provide opportunities for interaction with dialysis patients and for peer-led learning. Barriers to PD, especially misperceptions and misunderstandings, can be targeted to improve PD uptake. PMID:23123668
Rayner, Hugh C.; Zepel, Lindsay; Fuller, Douglas S.; Morgenstern, Hal; Karaboyas, Angelo; Culleton, Bruce F.; Mapes, Donna L.; Lopes, Antonio A.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Saran, Rajiv; Tentori, Francesca; Hecking, Manfred; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Robinson, Bruce M.
Background There is limited information about the clinical and prognostic significance of patient-reported recovery time. Study Design Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants 6,040 patients in the DOPPS. Predictor Answer to question, “How long does it take you to recover from a dialysis session?” categorized as follows: <2, 2–6, 7–12, or >12 hours. Outcomes & Measurements Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between recovery time and patient characteristics, hemodialysis treatment variables, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and hospitalization and mortality. Results 32% reported recovery time <2 hours; 41%, 2–6 hours; 17%, 7–12 hours; and 10%, >12 hours. Using proportional odds (ordinal) logistic regression, shorter recovery time was associated with male sex, full-time employment, and higher serum albumin. Longer recovery time was associated with older age, dialysis vintage, body mass index, diabetes, and psychiatric disorder. Greater intradialytic weight loss, longer dialysis session length, and lower dialysate sodium concentration were associated with longer recovery time. In facilities that used uniform dialysate sodium concentration for ≥90% of patients, the adjusted OR of longer recovery time, comparing dialysate sodium concentration <140 vs 140 mEq/L, was 1.72 (95% CI, 1.37–2.16). Recovery time was positively correlated with symptoms of kidney failure and kidney disease burden score, and inversely correlated with HRQoL mental and physical component summary scores. Using Cox regression, adjusting for potential confounders not influenced by recovery time, it was positively associated with first hospitalization and mortality (adjusted HRs for recovery time >12 vs. 2–6 hours of 1.22 [95% CI, 1.09–1.37] and 1.47 [95% CI, 1.19–1.83], respectively). Limitations Answers are subjective and not supported by physiological measurements. Conclusions Recovery time can be used to identify patients with poorer HRQoL and higher
Borman, Natalie; Graetz, Keith
Spontaneous gall bladder haemorrhage is a rare and serious occurrence with a few cases reported in the literature in haemodialysis patients. This report describes this complication following dialysis with a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) tinzaparin. This patient presented with acute right upper quadrant pain and intermittent haematemesis following 4 hours of haemodialysis. Despite being well established on dialysis, LMWH had only been used once previously. There was no history of trauma or pre-existing gall bladder pathology and no clinical or biochemical evidence of inflammation or infection. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed an extensive gall bladder haemorrhage. The patient was treated conservatively with analgesia, and blood transfusion and symptoms settled without intervention. This case report highlights a rare site of bleeding following LMWH use in a haemodialysis patient.
Nissenson, A R
The management of anemia in dialysis patients involves a comprehensive understanding of the role of erythropoietin deficiency and of the importance of adequate available iron. It is clear that iron and recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) in concert allow the clinician to achieve a given target hematocrit in dialysis patients. By first repleting and then maintaining iron stores, and with an appreciation of the concept of functional iron deficiency, the nephrologist can achieve target hematocrits with the lowest necessary dose of rHuEPO. Iron repletion and maintenance is difficult to achieve with oral iron, and parenteral iron is needed in most cases. New protocols for ongoing parenteral maintenance therapy with iron dextran or iron gluconate, a form of iron likely to be available soon in the United States, should lead to achievement of target hematocrits in a greater number of patients and be cost-effective in improving patient outcomes.
Organon Teknika Corporation's REDY 2000 dialysis machine employs technology originally developed under NASA contract by Marquardt Corporation. The chemical process developed during the project could be applied to removing toxic waste from used dialysis fluid. This discovery led to the development of a kidney dialysis machine using "sorbent" dialysis, a method of removing urea from human blood by treating a dialysate solution. The process saves electricity and, because the need for a continuous water supply is eliminated, the patient has greater freedom.
Volume overload is a hidden, pervasive complication in dialysis patients with dyspnea and pulmonary edema being its main clinical manifestations. Measuring lung water has clinical potential because it allows timely treatment of lung congestion at a preclinical stage. Chest ultrasound (US) is a novel, well-validated technique that allows reliable estimates of lung water in clinical practice. The application of this technique in dialysis patients has shown that an unsuspectedly high proportion of these patients have moderate to severe lung congestion which is usually asymptomatic. Furthermore, lung congestion in these patients is only loosely associated with fluid excess as measured by bioimpedance (BIA). Lung congestion is associated with a high death risk in dialysis patients and therefore represents a potential treatment target. The "Lung water by Ultra-Sound guided Treatment to prevent death and cardiovascular complications in high risk ESRD patients with cardiomyopathy" (LUST) study will provide important information about the clinical value of this technique in the care of hemodialysis patients at high cardiovascular risk.
Bulińska, Katarzyna; Kusztal, Mariusz; Kowalska, Joanna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Ochmann, Bartosz; Pawlaczyk, Weronika; Woźniewski, Marek
Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2 ± 8.6 years). A 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m), rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7), and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min). Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it. PMID:27547228
Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua
Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients' technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients.This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes.During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality.We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality.These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start of CAPD and to
Eddington, Helen; Heaf, James G
Management of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder can be difficult in renal patients. This review aims to explain why the control of disturbed calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolism is important in dialysis patients. The methods available to regulate these parameters include diet, phosphate binders, dialysate calcium, native vitamin D, active vitamin D derivatives and calcimimetics. An overview of current treatment guidelines will be discussed.
Lee, Ji Young; Moon, In Tae; Lee, Hye Young; Lee, Hang Lak; Han, Dong Soo
Lower gastrointestinal complications often develop in end stage renal disease patients, and among the more problematic is recurrent colon ulcer. The exact pathogenesis of this condition is not known and there were no specific therapeutic modalities concerning this type of disease entity. We report, with a literature review, a case of recurrent colon ulcer with intermittent hematochezia in an end stage renal disease patient on long term hemodialysis that improved after conversion to peritoneal dialysis.
Jensen, Jens Dam; Peters, Christian Daugaard; Jespersen, Bente
It has been documented that preservation of residual renal function in dialysis patients improves quality of life as well as survival. Clinical trials on strategies to preserve residual renal function are clearly lacking. While waiting for more results from clinical trials, patients will benefit from clinicians being aware of available knowledge. The aim of this review was to offer an update on current evidence assisting doctors in clinical practice. PMID:25949486
Gohda, Tomohito; Maruyama, Shuntaro; Kamei, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Saori; Shibata, Terumi; Murakoshi, Maki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Ohsawa, Isao; Gotoh, Hiromichi; Nojiri, Shuko; Suzuki, Yusuke
Relatively high circulating levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors (TNFRs: TNFR1, TNFR2) have been associated with not only progression to end-stage renal disease but also mortality in patients with diabetes. It remains unknown whether elevated TNFR levels in haemodialysis patients are associated with mortality. We studied 319 patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis who were followed for a median of 53 months. Circulating markers of TNF pathway (TNFα and TNFRs) were measured with immunoassay. Strong positive correlations between TNFR1 and TNFR2 were observed (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). During follow-up, 88 (27.6%) patients died of any cause (40 [45.5%] died of cardiovascular disease). In the Cox multivariate model, either TNFR but not TNFα remained a significant independent predictor of all-cause mortality (TNFR1: hazard ratio [HR] 2.34, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50–3.64; TNFR2: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.38–3.29) after adjustment for age, prior cardiovascular disease, predialysis systolic blood pressure, and large systolic blood pressure decline during dialysis session. For cardiovascular mortality, significance was only observed in TNFR1 (TNFR1: HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.13–4.10). Elevated TNFRs levels were associated with the risk of cardiovascular and/or all-cause mortality independent of all relevant covariates in patients undergoing haemodialysis. PMID:28256549
Background. Geriatric syndromes (GS) exhibit high prevalence in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) under chronic dialysis irrespective of age. We sought to determine whether GS influences medication adherence in ESRD patients. Methods. A prospective cohort of chronic dialysis patients was assembled. The presence of GS components, including frailty/prefrailty, polypharmacy, and malnutrition, were ascertained through a validated questionnaire, electronic records and chart abstraction, and laboratory tests. The severity of medication non-adherence was defined using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed targeting MMAS results and incorporating relevant clinical features and GS. Results. The prevalence of frailty/pre-frailty, polypharmacy, and hypoalbuminemia/ malnutrition among the enrolled participants was 66.7%, 94%, and 14%, respectively. The average MMAS scores in these dialysis patients were 2 ± 1.7 (range, 0–6), with only 15.7% exhibiting high medication adherence. Multiple regression analyses showed that the absence of frailty/pre-frailty (P = 0.01) were significantly associated with poorer medication adherence, while the presence of polypharmacy (P = 0.02) and lower serum albumin, a potential sign of malnutrition (P = 0.03), were associated with poor adherence in another model. Conclusion. This study is among the very few reports addressing GS and medication adherence, especially in ESRD patients. Interventions targeting frailty, polypharmacy, and malnutrition might potentially improve the medication non-adherence and symptom control in these pill-burdened patients. PMID:27326380
Naseri, Mitra; Sarvari, Gholam-Reza; Esmaeeli, Mohammad; Azarfar, Anoush; Rasouli, Zahra; Moeenolroayaa, Giti; Jahanshahi, Shohre; Farhadi, Simin; Heydari, Zohreh; Sagheb-Taghipoor, Narges
Introduction: Folic acid and vitamin B12, alone or in combination have been used to reduce homocysteine (Hcy) levels in dialysis patients. Objectives: We aimed to assess the efficacy of high doses of oral folate and vitamin B12 in reducing plasma Hcy levels after a 12-week treatment. Patients and Methods: Thirty-two dialysis patients aged 10-324 months screened for hyperhomocysteinuria. Then cases with hyperhomocysteinemia received oral folate 10 mg/day with sublingual methylcobalamin 1 mg/day for 12 weeks. In pre- and post-intervention phases plasma Hcy concentration, serum folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured. Changes in plasma Hcy, serum folate, and vitamin B12 concentrations were analyzed by paired t tests, and P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Eighteen (56.2%) patients had hyperhomocysteinuria. Vitamin B12 and folate levels were normal or high in all cases. Two patients were lost due to transplant or irregular drugs consumption. Plasma Hcy levels were reduced in all, and reached normal values in 50%. A statistically significant differences between first Hcy levels with levels after intervention was found (95% CI, 5.1–8.9, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: Oral folate 10 mg/day in combination with sublingual vitamin B12, 1 mg/day can be considered as a favorable treatment for hyperhomocysteinemia in dialysis patients. PMID:27689109
Tian, Yunhuan; Feng, Sheng; Zhan, Zhoubing; Lu, Ying; Wang, Yancai; Jiang, Shan; Song, Kai; Shen, Huaying
Objective Patients with end-stage renal disease are susceptible to cardiac valve calcification (CVC) due to mineral metabolism disorders and other factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for new-onset CVC in patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD). Methods This study included patients who underwent PD catheter insertion from January 2006 to June 2013 in our Peritoneal Dialysis Center. Clinical data were collected on CVC status during echocardiography evaluations (twice) at an interval of >6 months. The data collected included intact parathyroid hormone, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum phosphorus (P), serum calcium (Ca), albumin (Alb), prealbumin and the use of five types of antihypertensive drugs, statins, active vitamin D3 and Ca tablets. Results In total, 194 patients — 105 (54.1%) men, average age 60.5 ± 13.0 years — were included. CVC was present in 50 (25.8%) patients during PD catheter placement. After an average PD duration of 20.9 ± 10.4 months, CVC was detected in 97 patients (50.0%). New-onset CVC was found in 62 patients (32.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only serum P levels (p = 0.01, OR = 2.569), Alb levels (p = 0.04, OR = 0.935), dialysis duration (p = 0.03, OR = 1.039) and CRP levels (p = 0.02, OR = 1.031) were associated with CVC. Conclusion Serum P, Alb and CRP levels as well as dialysis duration are independent risk factors for CVC. PMID:26989400
Chen, Mei-Yin; Huang, Chien-Wei; Chen, Nai-Ching; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Lee, Po-Tsang; Fang, Hua-Chang; Chen, Chien-Liang
Background & Objectives Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death for patients on chronic dialysis. End stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis imposed to reduce phosphorus intake, which likely contributes to development of vegetarian diet behaviors. Vegetarian diets are often lower in protein content, in contradiction to the recommendation that a high protein diet is followed by patients undergoing dialysis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a vegetarian diet on the nutritional and cardiovascular status of dialysis patients. Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements A study of 21 vegetarian dialysis patients and 42 age- and sex-matched non-vegetarian dialysis patients selected as controls was conducted in the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and biochemistry data including total homocysteine levels, serum lipid profiles, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, vitamin D levels, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate were measured. Results Compared with the non-vegetarian control group, vegetarian subjects had lower body weight, body mass index, serum phosphate, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, vitamin D, uric acid, albumin, and normalized protein catabolic rate (p < 0.05). The vegetarian group showed higher brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity than the non-vegetarian group (1926.95 ± 456.45 and 1684.82 ± 309.55 cm/sec, respectively, p < 0.05). After adjustment for age, albumin, pre-dialysis systolic blood pressure, and duration of dialysis, vegetarian diet remained an independent risk factor for brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. Conclusions The present study revealed that patients on dialysis who follow vegetarian diets may experience subclinical protein malnutrition and vitamin D deficiency that could offset the beneficial cardiovascular effects of vegetarianism. PMID:27295214
De Francisco, A L; Amado, J A; Prieto, M; Alcalde, G; Sanz de Castro, S; Ruiz, J C; Morales, P; Arias, M
Changes in parathyroid hormone (PTH) during hemodialysis have been explained by the influence of ionized calcium changes on PTH secretion. In this study we have investigated the influence of dialysis membranes of different permeability on PTH changes during hemodialysis. Five chronic renal failure patients underwent three consecutive hemodialysis sessions with cuprophane (CUP) polysulfone (PS) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Two hours of isolated ultrafiltration were followed by 3 h dialysis. A significant decrease in carboxy terminal PTH (COOH PTH) was observed with PAN (p < 0.05) but not with CUP or PS. Intact PTH decreased (p < 0.001) with all three membranes, following a significant increase in ionized calcium (p < 0.001). Sieving coefficients for COOH PTH were significantly lower with CUP than with PS (p < 0.05) or PAN (p < 0.001). Intact PTH sieving coefficients were near zero for all three membranes. COOH PTH and intact PTH clearance rates were significantly higher with PAN (p < 0.001) than with PS or CUP, either in isolated ultrafiltration or with dialysis fluid. Thus PTH changes during hemodialysis do not only depend on the increase in calcium but also on the nature of the dialysis membrane. Adsorption of PTH to the PAN membrane surface explain the high PTH clearance rates achieved with this filter.
Nowak, Zbigniew; Laudanski, Krzysztof
BACKGROUND Conformity is a psychological variable related to the propensity of an individual to match his or her behavior and opinion to the perceived social and cultural norm, even if these do not represent the true beliefs of the person. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the psychological variable of conformity is different in two distinct modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 56 hemodialyzed patients (HD group), 45 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients (CAPD group) and 62 healthy volunteers (CONTR group) were enrolled in the study. The Social Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) was employed, and chart review was performed to collect clinical data. RESULTS When age was not a factor, the conformity measure was significantly higher in the HD group compared with the CAPD and CONTR groups. The lowest conformity was found in healthy participants who were asked to imagine an acute medical problem. The highest conformity was found in older HD and CAPD patients. CONCLUSIONS Being chronically ill and having adaptable views may be more favorable traits for coping with ESRD in dialyzed patients, especially in elderly HD patients. On the other hand, conformity can be deleterious if CAPD patients decide to overlook certain facts or not confront the medical aspects of their condition.
Nowak, Zbigniew; Laudanski, Krzysztof
Background Conformity is a psychological variable related to the propensity of an individual to match his or her behavior and opinion to the perceived social and cultural norm, even if these do not represent the true beliefs of the person. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the psychological variable of conformity is different in two distinct modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Material/Methods A total of 56 hemodialyzed patients (HD group), 45 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients (CAPD group) and 62 healthy volunteers (CONTR group) were enrolled in the study. The Social Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) was employed, and chart review was performed to collect clinical data. Results When age was not a factor, the conformity measure was significantly higher in the HD group compared with the CAPD and CONTR groups. The lowest conformity was found in healthy participants who were asked to imagine an acute medical problem. The highest conformity was found in older HD and CAPD patients. Conclusions Being chronically ill and having adaptable views may be more favorable traits for coping with ESRD in dialyzed patients, especially in elderly HD patients. On the other hand, conformity can be deleterious if CAPD patients decide to overlook certain facts or not confront the medical aspects of their condition. PMID:27886156
Wyszomierska, Agnieszka; Narojek, Lucyna; Myszkowska-Ryciak, Joanna
The influence of dialysis's day and time shifts on selected nutrients intake was examined on 38 patients with end stage renal disease. Time shift of dialysis influenced significantly carbohydrates content all groups) and energy content (time shift II vs. III) in daily food rations. There were no differences in energy, protein, fat, carbohydrates potassium (women) and phosphorous intake between day with and without dialysis. Our data strongly suggest that constant dietician care might be essential to correct nu:ients intake and prevent possible deficiencies among patients with end stage renal disease.
Ward, Frank L; O'Kelly, Patrick; Donohue, Fionnuala; O'Haiseadha, Coilín; Haase, Trutz; Pratschke, Jonathan; deFreitas, Declan G; Johnson, Howard; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Conlon, Peter J
Socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked to worse end-stage kidney disease survival. The effect of SES on survival on chronic dialysis, including the impact of transplantation, was examined. A retrospective, observational study investigated the association of SES with dialysis patient survival, with censoring at time of transplantation. Adult patients commencing dialysis from 1990 to 2009 in an Irish tertiary center received a spatial SES score using the 2011 Pobal Haase-Pratschke Deprivation Index and were compared by quartile. Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis examined any association of SES with survival. The 1794 patients included had a median follow-up of 3.8 years. Patients in the lowest SES area quartile were significantly younger than the highest, mean age 56.7 vs. 59 years, P = 0.006, respectively. There was no association between SES area score and survival in an unadjusted model (hazard ratio [HR] 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-1.01). Survival in the highest SES area quartile was superior to the lowest SES in a multivariable adjusted model including age, gender, and dialysis modality (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.99, P = 0.04). These results were only mildly attenuated by censoring at time of transplantation (highest SES area quartile deprived vs. lowest SES area quartile, HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.70-1.03, P = 0.09). Superior patient survival was identified in the highest SES areas compared with the lowest following age-adjusted analyses, despite the older population in the most affluent areas. Further research should focus on identifying modifiable targets for intervention that account for this socioeconomic-related survival advantage.
Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Pencak, Julie A.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.
Background We sought to determine the accuracy of dialysis medical records in identifying patient interest in and suitability for transplantation. Study Design Cluster randomized controlled trial Setting and Participants 167 patients recruited from 23 hemodialysis facilities. Intervention Navigators met with intervention patients to provide transplant information and assistance. Control patients continued to receive usual care. Outcomes Agreement at study initiation between medical records and (a) patient self-reported interest in transplantation and (b) study assessments of medical suitability for transplant referral. Measurements Medical record assessments, self-reports, and study assessments of patient interest in and suitability for transplantation. Results There was disagreement between medical records and patient self-reported interest in transplantation for 66 (40%) of the 167 study patients. In most of these cases, patients reported being more interested in transplantation than their medical records indicated. The study team determined that all 92 intervention patients were medically suitable for transplant referral. However, for 38 (41%) intervention patients, medical records indicated that they were not suitable. About two-thirds of these patients successfully moved forward in the transplant process. Conclusion Dialysis medical records are frequently inaccurate in determining patient interest in and suitability for transplantation. PMID:23803012
Gómez-Fernández, P; Sánchez Agudo, L; Calatrava, J M; Escuin, F; Selgas, R; Martínez, M E; Montero, A; Sánchez-Sicilia, L
The increasingly frequent use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as substitutive therapy in terminal renal failure has induced the investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of this therapeutic modality. The effects of CAPD on pulmonary function are one of the aspects currently under study. Based on previous data suggesting the existence of extrapulmonary ventilatory restriction in uremic patients under CAPD, we have studied in these patients the respiratory muscle function as expressed in the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and assessed the impact of the infusion of 2 liters of dialysis fluid into the peritoneal cavity on both MIP and the pulmonary volumes. Uremic patients evidenced significantly lower MIP values as compared with healthy controls. The filling of the peritoneal cavity induced, both in the supine and in the sitting position, a restrictive effect and an increase in the inspiratory capacity. We conclude that uremic patients under CAPD evidence a respiratory muscle dysfunction of as yet unclear cause. Our findings further suggest that the infusion of 2 liters of dialysis fluid into the peritoneal cavity induces not only a restrictive effect, but also an increase in the strength of the respiratory muscles, the latter effect being probably due to increased diaphragmatic contractility.
Yamada, Shunsuke; Eriguchi, Rieko; Toyonaga, Jiro; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fujimi, Satoru; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko
Kienböck's disease is a rare disorder that presents with wrist pain and limitation of motion and is caused by avascular necrosis of the lunate bone. Dialysis patients occasionally present with wrist pain. However, Kienböck's disease is rarely reported in dialysis patients. We report a case of 52-year-old woman with a 28-year history of hemodialysis who presented with acute wrist pain. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse low intensity of the lunate bone, consistent with the diagnosis of Kienböck's disease. Because this disease can lead to chronic debilitating wrist pain, prompt diagnosis, accurate staging, and provision of appropriate treatment is mandatory.
Lau, Mary Theresa
Malnutrition is a complication of many disease processes and can have deleterious effects on patient care outcomes. Providing adequate nutritional support requires a plan that is tailored to the individual needs of the patient and occasionally requires the use of parenteral nutrition. The varied nutritional needs of malnourished dialysis, cancer, obese, and hyperemesis gravidarum patients will be discussed. The infusion nurse specialist is a vital member of the nutrition support team in the care and recovery of the malnourished patient who requires parenteral nutrition.
Background Payments for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are separate from US Medicare bundled payments for dialysis-related services and medications. Our objective was to examine the economic burden for payers when chronic dialysis patients receive outpatient RBC transfusions. Methods Using Truven Health MarketScan® data (1/1/02-10/31/10) in this retrospective micro-costing economic analysis, we analyzed data from chronic dialysis patients who underwent at least 1 outpatient RBC transfusion who had at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to initial dialysis claim and at least 30 days post-transfusion follow-up. A conceptual model of transfusion-associated resource use based on current literature was employed to estimate outpatient RBC transfusion payments. Total payments per RBC transfusion episode included screening/monitoring (within 3 days), blood acquisition/administration (within 2 days), and associated complications (within 3 days for acute events; up to 45 days for chronic events). Results A total of 3283 patient transfusion episodes were included; 56.4% were men and 40.9% had Medicare supplemental insurance. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 60.9 (15.0) years, and mean Charlson comorbidity index was 4.3 (2.5). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 495 (474) days, patients had a mean of 2.2 (3.8) outpatient RBC transfusion episodes. Mean/median (SD) total payment per RBC transfusion episode was $854/$427 ($2,060) with 72.1% attributable to blood acquisition and administration payments. Complication payments ranged from mean (SD) $213 ($168) for delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction to $19,466 ($15,424) for congestive heart failure. Conclusions Payments for outpatient RBC transfusion episodes were driven by blood acquisition and administration payments. While infrequent, transfusion complications increased payments substantially when they occurred. PMID:23121762
Kim, Soon Bae; Kim, Su Hee; Lee, Moo Song; Chang, Jai Won; Lee, Sang Koo; Park, Jung Sik
Sulodexide, a standardized extractive glycosaminoglycan containing 80% "fast moving" heparin and 20% dermatan sulfate, decreased plasma D-dimer, a marker of intravascular coagulation, and fibrinogen levels in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Blood levels of von Willebrand factor, lipid, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were not significantly changed. No bleeding episodes were reported. These results suggest that sulodexide was effective in partially reversing the thrombogenic coagulation profile without increasing the risk of bleeding.
George, M J; DeBin, J A; Preston, K E; Chiu, C; Haqqie, S S
We present an unusual case of recurrent (chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) CAPD-associated peritonitis caused by Neisseria cinerea. Using DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we determined that the recurrent infection was caused by reinfection with a different N. cinerea strain rather than relapse with the index strain and that the probable origin of the reinfecting organism was the patient's upper respiratory tract.
Leblanc, M; Charbonneau, R; Lalumière, G; Cartier, P; Déziel, C
We measured postdialysis urea rebound (PDUR) 30 minutes after dialysis in 92 chronic hemodialysis patients. The impact of PDUR on the estimation of dialysis delivery assessed by urea reduction ratio and Kt/V was evaluated. Total recirculation, access plus cardiopulmonary, was measured at the end of dialysis with the two-needle low blood flow method. The mean age of the 92 patients (49 men and 43 women) was 59.6 +/- 1.4 years. Thirty-eight patients had been receiving erythropoietin therapy for more than 3 months. Fifteen patients had central venovenous access and 77 had peripheral arteriovenous access. Sixty-five patients were dialyzed using hemophan membranes and 27 were dialyzed using polyacrylonitrile membranes. The mean blood flow rate was 240 +/- 28 mL/min and the mean length of the hemodialysis sessions was 3.6 +/- 0.1 hours. Kt/V was calculated with Daugirdas' second-generation formula. The mean PDUR was 16.6% +/- 0.8% (range, 2% to 44%) (n = 92), and significantly decreased the mean urea reduction ratio from 61.7% +/- 0.8% to 55.5% +/- 0.9%, the mean Kt/V from 1.14 +/- 0.03 to 0.97 +/- 0.02, and the mean protein catabolic rate from 1.06 +/- 0.04 to 0.98 +/- 0.02 (P = 0.0001). The effective Kt/V at 30 minutes postdialysis was well predicted by using a recently proposed equation: eKt/V30 = Kt/Vsp - (0.6 x Kt/Vsp/t) + 0.03, with a mean value corresponding also to 0.97 +/- 0.02. However, this estimation was less predictive in patients with very high PDUR. Moreover, PDUR showed only a weak negative correlation with dialysis session length (r = -0.28) and predialysis patient weight (r = -0.29), and showed no correlation with predialysis serum urea level or with blood flow rate. However, dialysis efficiency, as assessed by K/V, presented a correlation of 0.54 with both PDUR and the difference in Kt/V when using urea immediately postdialysis and at 30 minutes. The mean total recirculation was 7.4% +/- 0.6% (n = 86). Postdialysis urea rebound, calculated between 30
Gejyo, Fumitake; Saito, Akira; Akizawa, Tadao; Akiba, Takashi; Sakai, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Masashi; Nishi, Shinichi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Hirakata, Hideki; Bessho, Masami
The guideline committee of Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT), chaired by Professor F. Gejyo of Niigata University, now publishes an original Japanese guideline entitled 'Guidelines for Renal Anemia in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients'. It includes the re-evaluation of the usage of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) with the medical and economical arguments regarding the prognosis and the quality of life of Japanese hemodialysis patients. This guideline consists of 7 sections. The first section comprises the general definition and the differential diagnosis of anemia. The hemoglobin (Hb) level of the Japanese population seemed to be low when compared with that of the European and American populations. The second section describes the target Hb level in hemodialysis patients. Multivariate analysis of the data that were collected from dialysis institutions throughout the country showed that an Hb level of 10-11 g/dL (Ht level 30-33%) at the first dialysis session in a week is the ideal range for chronic hemodialysis patients in terms of the 3-5 year survival rate. The supine position at blood sampling and the sampling timing at the first dialysis session in a week might affect the lower setting of target Hb hematocrit (Ht), compared to that of European and American guidelines. However, we particularly recommended that an Hb level of 11-12 g/dL (Ht level from 33 to 36%) at the first dialysis session in a week is desirable in relatively young patients. In the third section, the markers of iron deficiency are discussed. The Transferin saturation test (TSAT) and serum ferritin were emphasized as the standard markers. The routes of administration of rHuEPO and its dosages are written in the fourth section. The subcutaneous route was associated with the occurrence of secondary red cell aplasia due to anti-rHuEPO antibodies; however, secondary red cell aplasia was seldom observed in the venous injection. From this fact we recommend venous injection for chronic
Yang, Wen- Ling
Background With lipid level being a major contributing factor for cardiovascular health, the high cardiovascular mortality among dialysis patients has raised substantial concerns in regard to the optimal lipid level in these patient population. Objective To explore the optimal lipid level for the survival of dialysis patients. Methods The lipid profile was measured for each patient. All participants were followed throughout the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to analyze the prognostic value of lipid level on the survival of these patients. Results In our study that included 311 stable maintenance dialysis patients, 54.98% of the participants had LDL-C level ≥100 mg/dl and 82.91% of the patients with triglycerides ≥200 mg/dl had non-HDL level ≥130 mg/dl. During the follow-up period of 48.0 (18.0, 55.5) months, 149 (47.91%) participants died. Among those who died, 59 patients died of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 33 patients died of ischemic CVD (12.0, 4.7, and 2.7 events per 100 patient-years, respectively). Patients with LDL-C 100–130 mg/dl or non-HDL 130–160 mg/dl had a lower all-cause mortality rate than those who did not meet these criteria. After adjusting for the traditional and ESRD-related risk factors, non-HDL was found to be the independent risk factor for the all-cause mortality. Compared to those patients with non-HDL 130–160 mg/dl, patients with non-HDL <100 mg/dl, 100–130 mg/dl, 160–190 mg/dl, or ≥190 mg/dl all had higher all-cause mortality: HR (95% CI) 3.207 (1.801, 5.713), 2.493 (1.485, 4.184), 2.476 (1.423, 4.307), and 1.917 (1.099, 3.345), respectively. There were no differences in nutrition, comorbidity, and inflammation indices among the patients with different non-HDL groups. However, patients with non-HDL of 130–160 mg/dl had the lowest corrected calcium and calcium phosphate product values as compared with other non-HDL groups. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that non-HDL 130–160
Zhu, F.; Kotanko, P.; Handelman, G. J.; Raimann, J.; Liu, L.; Carter, M.; Kuhlmann, M. K.; Siebert, E.; Leonard, E. F.; Levin, N. W.
Prescription of an appropriate post hemodialysis (HD) dialysis target weight requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) could be characterized in HD and normal subjects (NS). cBIS was performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m /14 f) pre- and post-dialysis to measure extracellular resistance. Normalized calf resistivity at 5 kHz (ρN,5) was defined as resistivity divided by body mass index. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at a state of normal hydration (NH) established following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the ρN,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρN,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS (20.5±1.99 vs 21.7±2.6 10-2 Ωm3/kg, p>0.05). In patients, ρN,5 notably increased and reached NH range due to progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and NBH respectively. This establishes the use of ρN,5 as a new comparator allowing the clinician to incrementally monitor the effect of removal of extracellular fluid from patients over a course of dialysis treatments.
Danielson, Kristin; Beshara, Soheir; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Heimbürger, Olof; Lindholm, Bengt; Hansson, Magnus; Hylander, Britta; Germanis, Guna; Stenvinkel, Peter; Barany, Peter
Background Inflammation impairs erythropoiesis, iron availability and is associated with a higher mortality risk in patients with end-stage renal disease. We studied the associations between Delta-He [the difference between the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) and erythrocyte haemoglobin content], a suggested marker of iron availability, and markers of inflammation, iron status, response to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and mortality in prevalent peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods Eighty-two PD patients were followed weekly for 12 weeks with an additional follow-up of 36 months. Delta-He, Ret-He and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured weekly and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and iron markers every fourth week. Mortality risk was assessed by Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for potential confounding factors. The relationships between ESA response, inflammatory markers, iron markers and Delta-He were evaluated in the PD patients. The relationship between Delta-He and iron markers was analysed in 87 healthy subjects. Results Delta-He correlated with IL-6 (rho = 0.48, P < 0.001), hs-CRP (rho = 0.36, P < 0.001) and ESA hyporesponsivess index (EHRI; rho = −0.44, P < 0.001) in the PD patients. Delta-He did not correlate with iron markers in PD patients nor in healthy subjects. The mean Delta-He levels were significantly different between the tertiles of EHRI (P < 0.01). Delta-He was associated with all-cause mortality risk in PD patients after adjusting for age, gender, hs-CRP, comorbidity and nutritional status [OR 0.70 (0.51–0.96), P < 0.05]. Conclusions Delta-He independently predicts all-cause mortality in PD patients after adjusting for potential confounders and is a predictor of ESA response in PD patients. PMID:25852889
The high prevalence of arterial calcification in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is far beyond the explanation by common cardiovascular risk factors such as aging, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The finding relies on the fact that vascular and valvular calcifications are predictors of cardiovascular diseases and mortality in persons with chronic renal failure. In addition to traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes mellitus and blood pressure control, other ESRD-related risks such as phosphate retention, excess calcium, and prolonged dialysis time also contribute to the development of vascular calcification. The strategies are to reverse “calcium paradox” and lower vascular calcification by decreasing procalcific factors including minimization of inflammation (through adequate dialysis and by avoiding malnutrition, intravenous labile iron, and positive calcium and phosphate balance), correction of high and low bone turnover, and restoration of anticalcification factor balance such as correction of vitamin D and K deficiency; parathyroid intervention is reserved for severe hyperparathyroidism. The role of bone antiresorption therapy such as bisphosphonates and denosumab in vascular calcification in high-bone-turnover disease remains unclear. The limited data on sodium thiosulfate are promising. However, if calcification is to be targeted, ensure that bone health is not compromised by the treatments. PMID:28286773
Al Wakeel, Jamal S; Mitwalli, Ahmed H; Abu-Aisha, Hassan; Tarif, Nauman; Memon, Nawaz; Sulimani, Fathia; Askar, Akram; Isnani, Arthur
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the management of factors accelerating renal injury such as hypertension and diabetes on progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). For this end, the records of 112 CRF patients with serum creatinine (SCr) level of 150- 850 micromol/L were retrospectively studied at King Khaled University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The leading causes of CRF in the study patients were diabetes in 52 (46.4%) patients, glomerulonephritis in 25 (22.4%) and hypertension in 17 (15.2%). Progressive elevation of SCr level was recorded at 92 micromol/L/year in 62 (55.4%) patients with initial SCr level of 150-300 micromol/L; they progressed to end stage renal disease (ESRD) in a mean duration of 4 (1/2) years. Forty-three (38.4%) patients with SCr level of 300-450 micromol/L had an increase of SCr at 136 micromol/L/year and progressed to ESRD in a mean period of four years. Seven (6.2%) patients who had initial SCr level of > 450 micromol/L had an increase of 136 micromol/L/year and progressed to ESRD in a mean duration of 2 (1/2) years. Sixty-two (55.4%) patients had initial blood pressure (BP) readings above the recommended level of 130/80 mm Hg. Antihypertensive management stabilized 47 (75.8%) of these patients using multiple drug regimens such as an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and diuretics (20.5%). Though this center did not use erythropoietin (EPO) in these patients, the control of the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit was obtained by aggressive iron supplementation including intravenous administration. In conclusion, the present management of CRF patients, which attempts to comply with the international standards, still needs refining in order to reach better outcome.
Rajakaruna, Gayathri; Caplin, Ben; Davenport, Andrew
Faster peritoneal transport has been associated with an increased risk of therapy failure and patient mortality. However, faster transport can the result of many factors. Peritoneal protein clearance (PPC) has been proposed to distinguish faster peritoneal transport attributable to inflammatory conditions, as protein clearance reflects large-pore flow, which increases during inflammation. We followed a cohort of 300 peritoneal dialysis patients, and after adjustments for age and comorbidity, higher PPC was associated with increased risk of death (hazard ratio: 1.81; 95% confidence interval: 1.11 to 2.95), even after patients underwent transplantation or transferred to hemodialysis. PMID:25082839
Tu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Yu-Ching; Sun, Chien-An; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Yang, Tsan
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among hemodialysis patients and factors associated with quality of dialysis. Methods: Data were collected from 377 long-term hemodialysis patients who received hemodialysis treatment from clinics in Tainan and Kaohsiung between November 2009 and February 2010. MetS was defined using criteria set by the adult treatment panel III (ATP-III). But, the cutpoint of waist circumference has been modified to adjust for Asian populations. The measurement of Kt/V was used as an indicator of the quality of dialysis. A below 1.4 Kt/V was considered poor dialysis quality. Results: Results showed that the prevalence of MetS among the chronic hemodialysis patients in this sample was 61.0%. Logistic regression results identified that the quality of dialysis in females was better than that in males (odds ratio (OR)=7.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.52-25.31). Better quality dialysis was associated with older age, longer treatment time, and increased blood flow rate (OR=1.49, 13.63, and 1.35, respectively). However, for every one kilogram increase in weight, the quality of dialysis decreased by 13 percents (OR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.83-0.92). Conclusions: MetS is common among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hyperglycaemia were significantly higher among hemodialysis patients. Quality of dialysis related to gender, age, weight, and the dialysis prescription (treatment time and blood flow rate). PMID:22980378
Wright Nunes, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L
Health numeracy is linked to important clinical outcomes. Kidney disease management relies heavily on patient numeracy skills across the continuum of kidney disease care. Little data are available eliciting stakeholder perspectives from patients receiving dialysis about the construct of health numeracy. Using focus groups, we asked patients receiving hemodialysis open-ended questions to identify facilitators and barriers to their understanding, interpretation, and application of numeric information in kidney care. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Twelve patients participated with a mean (standard deviation) age of 56 (12) years. All were African American, 50% were women, and 83% had an annual income <$20,000/year. Although patients felt numbers were critical to every aspect in life, they noted several barriers to understanding, interpreting and applying quantitative information specifically to manage their health. Low patient self-efficacy related to health numeracy and limited patient-provider communication about quantitatively based feedback, were emphasized as key barriers. Through focus groups of key patient stakeholders we identified important modifiable barriers to effective kidney care. Additional research is needed to develop tools that support numeracy-sensitive education and communication interventions in dialysis.
Xiang, Siyun; Yao, Ying; Wan, Yunan; Liang, Wangqun; Meng, Ruiwei; Jin, Qiman; Wu, Nannan; Xu, Fangyi; Ying, Chenjiang; Zuo, Xuezhi
Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric: 45/16) and 11 healthy subjects in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2014. The dialysate and urine of patients and urine of healthy subjects were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and arsenic (As) in dialysate and urine were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Various clinical variables were obtained from automatic biochemical analyzer. Daily Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo excretions in nonanuric patients were higher than healthy subjects, while arsenic excretion in anuric patients was lower. A strong and positive correlation was observed between Se and Mo excretion in both dialysate (β = 0.869, p < 0.010) and urine (β = 0.968, p < 0.010). Furthermore, the clinical variables associated with Se excretion were found to be correlated with Mo excretion. Our findings indicated that nonanuric CAPD patients may suffer from deficiency of some essential TEs, while anuric patients are at risk of arsenic accumulation. A close association between Se and Mo excretion was also found. PMID:27999390
Sundqvist, Sofia; Larson, Thomas; Cauliez, Bruno; Bauer, Fabrice; Dumont, Audrey; Le Roy, Frank; Hanoy, Mélanie; Fréguin-Bouilland, Caroline; Godin, Michel
Background Anticipating the time to renal replacement therapy (RRT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is an important but challenging issue. Natriuretic peptides are biomarkers of ventricular dysfunction related to poor outcome in CKD. We comparatively investigated the value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) as prognostic markers for the risk of RRT in stage 4 and 5 CKD patients, and in foretelling all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events within a 5-year follow-up period. Methods Baseline plasma BNP (Triage, Biosite) and NT-proBNP (Elecsys, Roche) were measured at inclusion. Forty-three patients were followed-up during 5 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis, with log-rank testing and hazard ratios (HR), were calculated to evaluate survival without RRT, cardiovascular events or mortality. The independent prognostic value of the biomarkers was estimated in separate Cox multivariate analysis, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), creatininemia and comorbidities. Results During the first 12-month follow-up period, 16 patients started RRT. NT-proBNP concentration was higher in patients who reached endpoint (3221 ng/L vs 777 ng/L, p = 0.02). NT-proBNP concentration > 1345 ng/L proved significant predictive value on survival analysis for cardiovascular events (p = 0.04) and dialysis within 60 months follow-up (p = 0.008). BNP concentration > 140 ng/L was an independent predictor of RRT after 12 months follow-up (p<0.005), and of significant predictive value for initiation of dialysis within 60 months follow-up. Conclusions Our results indicate a prognostic value for BNP and NT-proBNP in predicting RRT in stage 4 and 5 CKD patients, regarding both short- and long-term periods. NT-proBNP also proved a value in predicting cardiovascular events. Natriuretic peptides could be useful predictive biomarkers for therapeutic guidance in CKD. PMID:27548064
Wu, Fuquan; Xu, Ying; Xia, Min; Ying, Guanghui; Shou, Zhangfei
Hookworm infections as well as other intestinal nematodiases are endemic in China. In this case, a 70-year-old male showed symptoms of chest tightness, shortness of breath, and both lower extremities edema. The diagnostic result was chronic renal insufficiency, chronic kidney disease (5th stage), and renal anemia at first. Then, he received treatment with traditional drugs. However, this treatment did not help to alleviate the symptoms of the patient significantly. The results of gastroendoscopy showed hookworms in the duodenum, also confirmed by pathology examination. Anemia was markedly ameliorated after eliminating the parasites. The results mentioned above suggested that ancylostomiasis was the leading causes of anemia in this patient, and the etiology of anemia in uremic patients should be systematically considered. Especially when anemia could not be cured by regular treatments, rare diseases should be investigated.
Shang, Da; Xie, Qionghong; Shang, Bin; Zhang, Min; You, Li; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Zhu, Tongying
Background. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) contributes to high risk of cardiocerebrovascular diseases in dialysis patients. However, the risk factors for CAC initiation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are not known clearly. Methods. Adult patients with baseline CaCS = 0 and who were followed up for at least 3 years or until the conversion from absent to any measurable CAC detected were included in this observational cohort study. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. Results. 70 patients recruited to our study were split into a noninitiation group (n = 37) and an initiation group (n = 33) according to the conversion of any measurable CAC during their follow-up or not. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphorus, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, serum creatinine, and triglycerides were positively associated with the initiation of CAC, while the high density lipoprotein and nPCR did the opposite function. Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation after adjustments. Conclusions. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. These results suggested potential clinical strategies to prevent the initiation of CAC in PD patients.
Shang, Da; Xie, Qionghong; Shang, Bin; Zhang, Min; You, Li; Hao, Chuan-Ming
Background. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) contributes to high risk of cardiocerebrovascular diseases in dialysis patients. However, the risk factors for CAC initiation in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are not known clearly. Methods. Adult patients with baseline CaCS = 0 and who were followed up for at least 3 years or until the conversion from absent to any measurable CAC detected were included in this observational cohort study. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. Results. 70 patients recruited to our study were split into a noninitiation group (n = 37) and an initiation group (n = 33) according to the conversion of any measurable CAC during their follow-up or not. In univariate analysis, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphorus, fibrinogen, hs-CRP, serum creatinine, and triglycerides were positively associated with the initiation of CAC, while the high density lipoprotein and nPCR did the opposite function. Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation after adjustments. Conclusions. Hyperphosphatemia and hs-CRP were the independent risk factors for CAC initiation in PD patients. These results suggested potential clinical strategies to prevent the initiation of CAC in PD patients. PMID:28321403
Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lee, Li-Shan; Su, Ling-Hwa; Huang, Tien-Chuan; Liu, Chi-Feng
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of far-infrared (FIR) rays on the meridian in hemodialysis (HD) patients. End-stage renal disease or kidney failure is the last stage of chronic renal failure, and often implies that the renal function cannot be restored and HD or kidney transplantation is required as a life-saving measure. HD patients often feel sick, debilitated, demotivated, and sad. A quasi-experimental design was conducted using convenience sampling with 61 HD patients from a hemodialysis center. Meridian testing and Brief Fatigue Inventory-Taiwan Form (BFI-T) were used as screening test for HD. The experimental group (n = 36) received FIR irradiation on each acupoint for 30 min, thrice a week, for two months, whereas the control group (n = 25) received no intervention. The outcome measures included meridian equipment, the level of hemoglobin (Hb), albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), and BFI-T. Ryodoraku values reveal a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the left small intestine meridian, left large intestine meridian, and yin-yang ratio. Overall, the increase in the meridians of the patients of experimental group is significantly higher than that of the control group. The results establish that FIR treatment on Qihai (RN 6), Guanyuan (RN 4), Zhongji (RN 3), and Tianshu (ST 25) is effective. Based on these findings, one can believe that FIR regulates the Qi of the kidney. The findings of this study would help doctors effectively dealing with thermal therapy treatment of HD patients.
Maude, Rapeephan R.; Barretti, Michael
Introduction Hydrothorax is a rare complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) which can progress quickly to cause acute respiratory distress. Case presentation We present a 76 year-old female with a past medical history significant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on daily home peritoneal dialysis for 2 years presented to the hospital from home with shortness of breath at rest and cough for 2 days prior to admission. She developed severe respiratory distress and had emergent pleurocentesis that released 3.8 L of pleural fluid. The analysis showed significantly high sugar indicative of hydrothorax from CAPD. She underwent thoracotomy with pleurodesis and switched to hemodialysis for 6 weeks before resuming CAPD. Conclusion A high glucose concentration in the pleural fluid is pathognomonic for hydrothorax from dialysis fluid after rule out other possible causes of pleural effusion. Patients who are on CAPD presenting with marked pleural effusion should prompt clinicians to consider the differential diagnosis of pleuroperitoneal communications. PMID:26029545
Rademacher, Sibylle; Anagnostopoulos, Joannis; Luft, Friedrich C.; Kettritz, Ralph
Erdheim–Chester disease is a rare inflammatory condition characterized by a non-Langerhans histiocytic infiltration, involving the skeleton, nervous system, viscera, retroperitoneum and elsewhere. The aetiology is unknown. Positron emission tomography shows areas of involvement. We managed a dialysis patient with knee pain; a bone marrow specimen showed typical CD68 positive, but CD1a negative cells. We initiated interferon-α therapy although other options remain open. In our patient, the simultaneous presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism with tumorous calcifications provided an interesting additional differential diagnostic possibility regarding skeletal pain. PMID:25852919
Jean, Guillaume; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Lorriaux, Christie; Mayor, Brice; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Deleaval, Patrick; Chazot, Charles
The diagnosis and treatment of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) are not yet well standardized in chronic renal failure patients. The aim of this study was to identify the main types of HPT on the basis of clinical and biological findings in a haemodialysis population. Between 2004 and 2010, all patients undergoing haemodialysis were observed and treated using the same strategy: conventional therapy with vitamin D supplements, phosphate binders, dialysate calcium adjusted to serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level and calcitriol analogues (CA), along with regular bone marker analysis. Wherever required, cinacalcet (CC) was administered and parathyroidectomy (PTX) was performed. Of the 520 patients, 158 were classified as having HPT (30%) with a serum PTH level greater than 300 pg/mL. From this population, we identified five main types of HPT: (1) HPT with 'no bone impact' had normal or low bone marker levels (n=28, 17.7%); (2) 'secondary' HPT had elevated bone marker levels, but showed favorable response to CT (n=59, 37.7%); (3) 'tertiary' HPT was accompanied with hypercalcemia and required CC or PTX in case of CT failure (n=11, 6.9%); (4) 'mixed' HPT could not be completely treated with CT and required CC or PTX (n=57, 36%); (5) 'resistant' HPT did not show hypercalcemia, but required PTX after CT and CC failure (n=3, 1.8%). CC was prescribed in 51% cases, CA in 76%, and PTX in 7% of cases. We typified HPT on the basis of physiopathology and stages of HPT progression. Further studies on HPT that focus on bone marker levels are required to establish well-defined treatment strategies. In our study, HPT cases did not show uniform findings in Hémodialyse (HD) patients because of the variation in the stages of the disease at the time of diagnosis.
Cooper, S; Iliescu, E A; Morton, A R
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients lose significant quantities of protein and albumin during the dialysis procedure. The losses are greater in high transporters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between peritoneal membrane transport characteristics and protein losses. We studied 33 PD patients [14 men, 19 women; mean age: 53.5 years (range: 21-80 years)]. Fourteen patients had diabetes, and 22 were on automated PD. Dialysis adequacy was good, with a mean Kt/V of 2.63 (range: 1.51-4.89). Patients underwent a standard peritoneal equilibration test (PET). In addition, dialysate albumin (Alb) and protein (Pro) were measured at 0, 1, 2, and 4 hours, after lack of interference from unspent dialysate was ensured. Of the 33 patients, 23 were high or high-average transporters [based on 4-hour dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/PCr > or = 0.65)]. Protein losses owing to PD ranged from 3.5 g/day to 13.2 g/day (median: 5.9 g/day), of which 1.9-7.14 g/day (median: 3.21 g/day) was albumin. The 4-hour D/PCr correlated with the 4-hour D/PAlb (r = 0.62, p < 0.01), and 4-hour D/PPro (r = 0.63, p < 0.01). This finding persisted after correction for volume, indicating that it was not simply a concentration effect. The 4-hour D/PAlb and 4-hour D/PPro also correlated with the 24-hour PD albumin and protein losses. These results suggest a strong association between D/PCr and D/P for proteins. This observation is consistent with the increased protein losses through PD in high transporters and may be related to the inferior outcomes in this group.
Ye, Yuanjun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Yansu; Lou, Hongqing; Shou, Zhangfei
The aim of the present study was to evaluate handwashing technique, bacteriology, and factors influencing handwashing technique of 86 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients from Yiwu City in Southeast China. Based on the "Hygienic standard for disinfection in the hospital", we also performed sampling for bacteriology from PD operators after they washed their hands. We compared their clinical features including the pathogenic bacteria of their previous peritonitis episodes and their handwashing evaluation results according to their bacteriologic sampling results. 65% of patients turned off the tap by bare hand, and 74% did not follow the six-step handwashing method. Dialysis duration longer than 6 months (P = 0.04) and lower income (P = 0.05) were independent risk factors for higher handwashing error scores. The overall rate of appropriate handwashing, according to the "hygienic standard for disinfection in the hospital" was 26%. The bacteriologic sampling results showed that the most common pathogenic bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus (92%). PD operators whose hand bacteria culture was qualified contained a lower proportion of participants with advanced age (P = 0.07). Patients with repeated peritonitis occurrence had a significantly higher score on handwashing error (P < 0.01) and were more likely to develop Staphylococcus infection. We found that in Yiwu city patients on dialysis for more than 6 months, were of low income and had multiple prior episodes of PD peritonitis had poor handwashing compliance. Elderly patients had higher rates of positive bacterial culture (Staphylococcus) from their hands.
Rodríguez-Carmona, Ana; Pérez-Fontán, Miguel; López-Muñiz, Andrés; Ferreiro-Hermida, Tamara; García-Falcón, Teresa
♦ Background: Diabetes mellitus, especially if complicated by poor glycemic control, portends an increased risk of infection. The significance of this association in the case of diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) has not been assessed. ♦ Methods: Using a retrospective observational design, we analyzed the association between glycemic control at the start of PD (estimated from glycosylated hemoglobin levels) and the risk of peritoneal and catheter tunnel and exit-site infections during follow-up in 183 incident patients on PD. We used the median value of glycosylated hemoglobin to classify patients into good (group A) or poor (group B) glycemic control groups. We applied multivariate strategies of analysis to control for other potential predictors of PD-related infection. ♦ Results: Groups A and B differed significantly in age, dialysis vintage, use of insulin, and rate of Staphylococcus aureus carriage. Neither the incidence (0.60 episodes in group A vs 0.56 episodes in group B per patient-year) nor the time to a first peritoneal infection (median: 42 months vs 38 months) differed significantly between the study groups. In contrast, group B had a significantly higher incidence of catheter tunnel and exit-site infections (0.23 episodes vs 0.12 episodes per patient-year) and shorter time to a first infection episode (64 months vs 76 months, p = 0.004). The difference persisted in multivariate analysis (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.65; 95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 6.05; p = 0.013). We observed no differences between the study groups in the spectrum of causative organisms or in the outcomes of PD-related infections. ♦ Conclusions: Poor glycemic control is a consistent predictor of subsequent risk of catheter tunnel and exit-site infection, but not of peritoneal infection, among diabetic patients starting PD therapy. PMID:23818005
Deutsch, Oliver; Rippinger, Nathalie; Spiliopoulos, Kyriakos; Eichinger, Walter; Gansera, Brigitte
Objectives This study evaluates midterm survival rates and risk factors for mortality of chronic dialysis-dependent patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods Fifty-three dialysis-dependent patients (34 males, aged 67 ± 12 years) with end-stage renal disease operated within March 2007 and May 2012 were analyzed retrospectively. Survival rates were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Predictors of midterm survival were identified with multivariate Cox-regression analysis. Results Twenty-three patients received isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 17 received isolated valve replacement, and 13 received combined procedures. Thirty-day mortality was 24.5% (n = 13). Follow-up was complete for 94.3% (n = 50). Survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were: 82, 50, and 17%, respectively. Neither age, gender, poor ejection fraction, emergency, ECC/X-clamp (cross-clamp) time, nor use of left internal thoracic artery or right internal thoracic artery had any influence on midterm survival. Causes of death within midterm follow-up period were related to cardiac events in 16% and neurological events in 16%. In the majority (47%), cause of death was associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD).The only comorbidity, which could be identified as a significant risk factor, was PAD (p = 0.035). Five patients underwent successful renal transplantation within the follow-up period. Conclusion Although 30-day mortality in this high-risk patient population was increased, midterm survival rates were comparable to the results described in the literature. Cause of death within midterm follow-up period was mostly noncardiac related. Given the limited number of patients, predictors for enhanced 30-day mortality, such as preoperative myocardial infarction, prolonged extracorporeal circulation, operation time, and diabetes mellitus, did not have an influence on midterm survival.
Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Hayati, Fatemeh; Valavi, Ehsan; Rekabi, Fazlollah; Mousavi, Marzieh Beladi
Although the life expectancy of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has improved in recent years, it is still far below that of the general population. In this retrospective study, we compared the survival of patients with ESRD receiving hemodialysis (HD) versus those on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The study was conducted on patients referred to the HD and PD centers of the Emam Khomini Hospital and the Aboozar Children's Hospital from January 2007 to May 2012 in Ahvaz, Iran. All ESRD patients on maintenance HD or PD for more than two months were included in the study. The survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between HD and PD patients were tested by the log-rank test. Overall, 239 patients, 148 patients on HD (61.92%) and 91 patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) (38.55%) with mean age of 54.1 ± 17 years were enrolled in the study. Regardless of the causes of ESRD and type of renal replacement therapy (RRT), one-, two- and three-year survival of patients was 65%, 51% and 35%, respectively. There was no significant difference between type of RRT in one- (P-value = 0.737), two- (P-value = 0.534) and three- (P-value = 0.867) year survival. There was also no significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients under HD and CAPD in the one-, two- and three-year survival. Although the three-year survival of diabetic patients under CAPD was lower than that of non-diabetic patients (13% vs. 34%), it was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.50). According to the results of the current study, there is no survival advantage of PD during the first years of initiation of dialysis, and the one-, two- and three-year survival of HD and PD patients is also similar.
Jean, Guillaume; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène; Massy, Ziad A; Drüeke, Tilman B
The vitamin D hormonal system is involved in the regulation of more than 800 genes. Vitamin D deficiency, which is evaluated on the basis of the serum level of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25[OH]D), is frequently observed in the general population, particularly in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of falls and fracture and also with diabetes, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, depression and mortality. Furthermore, CKD is accompanied by a decrease in the renal production of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25[OH](2)D). Such deficiencies have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is not recommended in stage 5 CKD. However, since there is also significant extra-renal production of 1,25(OH)(2)D this would appear to be in favour of vitamin D treatment. We describe the disturbances of vitamin D metabolism occurring in CKD and discuss the advantages and the potential toxicity risk of vitamin D supplementation as well as the optimal serum 25[OH]D level. We then present the pharmacological properties of the various medicinal forms of vitamin D derivates and suggest therapeutic guidelines for supplementation with 25(OH)D(3) or cholecalciferol. We also examine existing guidelines for the administration of active 1-alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D. Despite the absence of strong scientific support by randomized controlled intervention studies, vitamin D supplementation should be considered in patients with CKD stages 4-5D having vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, for the prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism and for other potential benefits owing to its pleiotropic effects.
Chen, Tsung-Yan; Lin, Lin; Hsieh, Mu-Yang; Kuo, Jui-Cheng; Wang, Chia-Ling; Wang, Ren-Huei; Lai, Chao-Lun; Huang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Chih-Cheng
Background The deficiency of endothelial progenitor cells has been demonstrated to be associated with cardiovascular events in patients undergoing dialysis. However, their correlation with dialysis graft outcomes remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating endothelial progenitor cells and dialysis graft outcomes. Methods After excluding 14 patients with acute coronary syndrome, decompensated heart failure or graft thrombosis in the prior three months, a total of 120 patients undergoing dialysis who underwent endovascular therapy of dysfunctional dialysis grafts were prospectively enrolled. Blood was sampled from study subjects in the morning of a mid-week non-dialysis day. Surface makers of CD34, KDR, and CD133 were used in combination to determine the number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells. All participants were prospectively followed until June 2013. Results The median follow-up duration was 13 months, within which 62 patients experienced at least one episode of graft thrombosis. Patients with graft thrombosis had lower CD34+KDR+ cell counts compared with patients without graft thrombosis (median 4.5 vs. 8 per 105 mononuclear cells, p = 0.02). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated thrombosis-free survival was lower in the low CD34+KDR+ cell count group (30%) than in the high CD34+KDR+ cell count group (61%; p = 0.007). Univariate analysis showed diabetes, high sensitive C-reactive protein, lesion length and CD34+KDR+ cell counts associated with graft thrombosis. Multivariate analyses confirmed an independent association between low CD34+KDR+ cell counts and graft thrombosis (hazard ratio, 2.52; confidence interval, 1.43-4.44; p = 0.001). Conclusions Our study demonstrated an independent association between low circulating endothelial progenitor cell counts and dialysis graft thrombosis. PMID:28115811
Kronenberg, Florian; Neyer, Ulrich; Knoll, Florian; Lhotta, Karl; Weiss, Günter
Background Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting. Methods In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study) we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (<0.5 mg/dL) and elevated CRP levels (≧0.5 mg/dL) was evaluated by using non-linear P-splines to allow flexible modeling of the association. Results One hundred and ninety-one (81.3%) patients received intravenous iron, 13 (5.5%) patients oral iron, whereas 31 (13.2%) patients were never supplemented with iron throughout the observation period. Eighty-two (35%) patients died during a median follow-up of 34 months, 38 patients due to cardiovascular events and 21 patients from sepsis. Baseline CRP levels were not different between patients with and without iron supplementation. However, baseline serum ferritin levels were lower in patients receiving iron during follow up (median 93 vs 251 ng/mL, p<0.001). Iron supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced all-cause mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.22 (0.08–0.58); p = 0.002] and a reduced cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality [HR (95%CI): 0.31 (0.09–1.04); p = 0.06]. Increasing ferritin concentrations in patients with normal CRP were associated with a decreasing mortality, whereas in patients with elevated CRP values ferritin levels>800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality. Conclusions Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels
Huang, Yijian; Zhang, Rebecca; Culler, Steven; Kutner, Nancy
Dialysis patients have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. In the general population, cardiac rehabilitation is recommended as a standard component of care and is covered by Medicare for patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Previous investigation demonstrated survival benefit of cardiac rehabilitation in dialysis patients. This study investigated its impact on Medicare expenditure and its cost effectiveness. A cohort of 4,324 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who initiated chronic hemodialysis and underwent CABG between 1998 and 2004 was selected from the United States Renal Data System. Cardiac rehabilitation was defined by Current Procedural Terminology codes for monitored and nonmonitored exercise in Medicare claims data. Medicare expenditure included inpatient and outpatient claims with cost adjusted to 1998 dollars. At 42 months of follow-up after a 6-month entry period following CABG hospitalization discharge, cardiac rehabilitation at baseline was associated with higher cumulative Medicare expenditure, incurring a statistically nonsignificant increment of $2,904 (95% CI: −7,028, 11,940). During the same period, cardiac rehabilitation was significantly associated with longer cumulative lifetime, having an incremental benefit of 76 days (95% CI: 22, 129). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $13,887 per year of life saved, suggesting that cardiac rehabilitation is highly cost-effective in ESRD patients following CABG. PMID:18650790
Jean, Guillaume; Terrat, Jean-Claude; Vanel, Thierry; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Lorriaux, Christie; Mayor, Brice; Chazot, Charles
Calciphylaxis (CPX) or calcific uraemic arteriolopathy is a rare life-threatening complication, affecting mainly dialysis patients. The condition is characterized by calcifications and thrombosis of the small cutaneous vessels and small vessels in the fat tissue, resulting in the development of necrotizing and non-healing ulcers. The development of these lesions leads to poor outcomes owing to infectious complications and some frequently associated unfavourable medical conditions: obesity, diabetes, and peripheral vascular disease. We report the case of six patients with different clinical forms of CPX in the past 10 years with favourable outcomes observed in five of the six patients. The diagnosis was based on clinical presentation: bilateral and hyperalgesic necrotic lesions along with a history of mineral metabolism disorder or warfarin use. The therapeutic strategy included the following: daily dialysis, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, treatment of limb artery stenosis, maintenance of the optimal haemodynamic stability, delivery of cutaneous care, administration of analgesics and antibiotics, warfarin and calcium cessation, and additional therapy with cinacalcet or parathyroidectomy and therapy with bisphosphonates or sodium thiosulphate. Healing was observed in five out of six CPX patients by using this strategy that should be rapidly employed in order to decrease the necrotizing areas that result in poor outcomes. Prevention includes identification of at-risk patients in order to optimize the treatment of the identified risk factors for CPX.
Sánchez-Tomero, J A; Rodríguez-Jornet, A; Balda, S; Cigarrán, S; Herrero, J C; Maduell, F; Martín, J; Palomar, R
Advance care planning (ACP) and the subsequent advance directive document (ADD), previously known as "living wills", have not been widely used in Spain. The Ethics Group from the Spanish Society of Nephrology has developed a survey in order to investigate the opinion of dialysis patients regarding the ADD and end-of-life care. Patients received documentation explaining ACP and filled out a survey about their familiarity with and approval of the ADD. Seven hospital dialysis centres participated in the study for a total of 416 active dialysis patients. Questionnaires were distributed to 263 patients, 154 of which answered (69.2% completed them without assistance). The rates for ADD implementation (7.9%) and designation of a representative person (6.6%) were very low. Most of the patients clearly expressed their wishes about irreversible coma, vegetative state, dementia and untreatable disease. More than 65% did not want mechanical ventilation, chronic dialysis, tube feeding or resuscitation if cardiorespiratory arrest occurred. They reported that an ADD could be done before starting dialysis but most thought that it should be offered only to those who requested it (65% vs 34%). In conclusion, patients have clear wishes about end-of-life care, although these desires had not been documented due to the very low implementation of the ADD.
Pop-Busui, Rodica; Roberts, Laurel; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kretzler, Mathias; Brosius, Frank C.; Feldman, Eva L.
Case Presentation A 64-year-old male with a 15-year history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes and a 10-year history of hypertension and hyperlipidemia had developed multiple diabetes-related complications within the last 5 years. He first developed albuminuria 5 years ago, and over the next several years experienced fairly rapid decline in kidney function, with eGFR of 55 mL/min/1.73m2 noted 2 years ago. He was diagnosed with proliferative retinopathy 5 years ago and underwent laser photocoagulation. Four years ago, he noted symptoms of peripheral neuropathy manifested as shooting pain and numbness with loss of light touch, thermal and vibratory sensation in a stocking distribution. Last year he developed a non-healing ulcer on the plantar aspect of his left foot which was complicated with gangrene and resulted in a below-the-knee amputation of the left leg one year ago. He now reports a new onset of weakness, lightheadedness and dizziness on standing that affects his daily activities. He reports lancinating pain in his right lower extremity, worse in the evening. Medications include: neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin twice daily and regular insulin on a sliding scale, metoprolol 50 mg/d, lisinopril 40 mg/d, atorvastatin 80 mg/d, furosemide 40 mg/d and aspirin 81 mg/d. Blood pressure is 127/69 mm Hg with a pulse rate of 96 bpm while supine and 94/50 mmHg with a pulse rate of 102 bpm while standing. Strength is normal but with a complete loss of all sensory modalities to the knee in his remaining limb and up to the wrists in both upper extremities, and he is areflexic. Today's laboratory evaluations show a serum creatinine of 2.8 mg/dl, an estimated GFR (eGFR) of 24 ml/min/1.73m2, a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of 7.9 % and 2.1 g of urine protein per gram of creatinine. What would be the most appropriate management for this patient? PMID:20042258
Galicia-Basart, Maria; Alcalde-Rodrigo, Maria; Segarra-Medrano, Alfons; Suñé-Negre, Josep-Maria; Montoro-Ronsano, José-Bruno
Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cinacalcet could be a therapeutic option although its use is controversial in patients not receiving dialysis. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of cinacalcet in patients with CKD and SHPT without renal replacement treatment (RRT) and without renal transplantation (RT). Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted. Patients were included if they had collected cinacalcet, under off-label use, during 2010 and 2011. Patients selected were followed from the beginning of cinacalcet therapy for one year of treatment. Results A total of 37 patients were included with CKD stage 3 (38%), 4 (51%) and 5 (11%). Baseline mean PTH value was 400.86 ± 168.60 mg/dl. At 12 months, a 67% of patients achieved at least a 30% reduction in their PTH value (p<0.001; CI 49.7–83.6), and the overall mean reduction of PTH values was 38% (p< 0.001; IC -49.1, -27.5). A 28% of the patients achieved KDOQI PTH goals (p = 0.003, CI 12%-50%). At 12 months, mean serum calcium values decreased by 6% and mean serum phosphorus values increased by 13%. A 19% of patients experienced hypocalcemia episodes while an increase of 24% in hyperphosphatemia episodes was observed. A 25% of patients finished cinacalcet before a year of treatment. Main withdrawal reasons were: gastrointestinal and other discomfort (8%), hypocalcaemia (8%), non-compliance (3%), interactions (3%) and excess of efficacy (3%). Conclusions Cinacalcet was effective in patients with CKD and SHPT not receiving dialysis. Electrolytic imbalances could be managed with administration of vitamin D and analogues or phosphate binders. PMID:27588942
Yoshimoto, K; Saima, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakayama, M; Kubo, H; Kawaguchi, Y; Nishitani, H; Nakamura, Y; Yasui, A; Yokoyama, K; Kuriyama, S; Shirai, D; Kugiyama, A; Hayano, K; Fukui, H; Horigome, I; Amagasaki, Y; Tsubakihara, Y; Kamekawa, T; Ando, R; Tomura, S; Okamoto, R; Miwa, S; Koyama, T; Echizen, H
We previously reported that manidipine, a new dihydropyridine type calcium channel blocker, produced chylous peritoneal dialysate being visually indistinguishable from infective peritonitis in 5 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) [Yoshimoto et al. 1993]. To study whether such an adverse drug reaction would also be elicited by other commonly prescribed calcium channel blockers in CAPD patients, we have conducted postal inquiry to 15 collaborating hospitals and an institutional survey in International Medical Center of Japan as to the possible occurrence of calcium channel blocker-associated non-infective, turbid peritoneal dialysate in CAPD patients. Our diagnostic criteria for drug-induced turbidity of dialysate as a) it developed within 48 h after the administration of a newly introduced calcium channel blocker to the therapeutic regimen, b) absence of clinical symptoms of peritoneal inflammation (i.e., pyrexia, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting), c) the fluid containing normal leukocyte counts and being negative for bacterial and fungal culture of the fluid, and d) it disappeared shortly after the withdrawal of the assumed causative agent. Results showed that 19 out of 251 CAPD patients given one of the calcium channel blockers developed non-infective turbid peritoneal dialysis that fulfilled all the above criteria. Four calcium channel blockers were suspected to be associated with the events: benidipine [2 out of 2 (100%) patients given the drug], manidipine [15 out of 36 (42%) patients], nisoldipine [1 out of 11 (9%) patients] and nifedipine [1 out of 159 (0.6%)] in descending order of frequency. None of the patients who received nicardipine, nilvadipine, nitrendipine, barnidipine and diltiazem (25, 7, 2, 1 and 8 patients, respectively) exhibited turbid dialysate. In conclusion, we consider that certain dihydropyridine type calcium channel blockers would cause turbid peritoneal dialysate being similar to that observed in
Lioussfi, Zineb; Errami, Zineb; Radoui, Aicha; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients at the Rabat University Hospital and to identify the major risk factors for transmission. A retrospective study was performed in 67 chronic HD and 36 peritoneal dialysis patients. For the screening of viral infections, we tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HBs antigen (Hbs Ag). We compared infected and non-infected patients in order to determine the risk factors for contamination. In the HD unit, the prevalence of anti-HCV was 60% and the prevalence of HBs Ag was 6%. Duration of dialysis (P = 0.001) was the only risk factor in our HD patients. In peritoneal dialysis (PD), the prevalence of anti-HCV was 8%. Hbs Ag was detected in 2.6% of our PD patients. Viral hepatitis C is the main viral infection in our HD unit. The duration of dialysis is the main risk factor for infection in our study. The transmission is essentially nosocomial, requiring a strict adherence to infection control procedures.
Bong, Y C; Walsham, J
Heparin locking of venous dialysis catheters is routinely performed in intensive care to maintain catheter patency when the catheters are not being used. Leakage of heparin into the circulation can potentially cause systemic anticoagulation and may present a risk to intensive care patients. To assess the effect of 5000 units per millilitre heparin locking of non-tunnelled dialysis catheters on systemic anticoagulation, we performed a prospective observational study of ten intensive care patients receiving heparin locking of dialysis catheters in an adult tertiary intensive care unit between July and September 2015. Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was measured prior to, and three minutes after, heparin locking of catheter lumens with the manufacturer's recommended locking volume to assess the effect on systemic anticoagulation. Heparin locking of venous dialysis catheters resulted in a significant rise in APTT (P=0.002). The median rise was by 56 seconds (interquartile range 30-166.5). Following heparin locking, 80% of patients had APTT values within or above the range associated with therapeutic anticoagulation. Heparin locking of non-tunnelled venous dialysis catheters can cause systemic anticoagulation in intensive care patients and therefore poses a potential risk to patient safety.
Frassetto, Lynda Ann; Gibson, Suzanne
Uric acid accumulates in renal failure and is thought to be a uremic toxin—that is, higher levels of uric acid are more damaging to the kidneys. Urate crystals can precipitate in the kidney tubules, cause urate stones, and promote inflammatory changes in the renal interstitium and vascular endothelium. Uric acid is also a small non-protein-bound molecule and therefore easily dialyzable. Here, we present the case of an anuric hemodialysis patient with severe tophaceous gout who regained some renal function and whose gout burden significantly decreased resulting in marked improvement in functional status using a new gout medication, febuxostat, and increased frequency of dialysis. PMID:27200198
Rouveure, Anne-Cécile; Bonnefoy, Marc; Laville, Maurice
Hemodialysis is the predominant replacement therapy in the 70 year-old French population (18% in peritoneal dialysis, 72% in hemodialysis from the REIN registry). Managing older patients reaching the end stage renal disease poses many ethical questions, since outcomes balanced regarding survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of patients aged over 70 years according to the ESRD treatment choice: conservative treatment without dialysis (CT), hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). We included all patients over 70 years reaching stade IV CKD integrated in a predialysis information program between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2010. We compared their survival from the start of their program, in function of their treatment choice: HD, PD or CT. On this period, 148 patients were included, we excluded from analysis 17 patients who had a contraindication to PD, 26 patients who did not make a choice because their kidney function was stabilized, 4 patients lost to follow-up and 12 patients who died before the treatment choice. The average age was 79±6 years, 40% of patients were women, and the mean eGFR was 16±9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the entry in the program. Among the 89 patients, 21 choose CT (24%), 68 accepted dialysis (76%), including 48 HD (71%) and 20 PD (29%). No significant eGFR difference at the inclusion time between the groups. The time initiation of dialysis was significantly shorter in the PD group (146 days vs 442 in the HD group; P=0.004). Survival between the groups of patients who accepted or refused dialysis was not statistically different (749 days or 2 years in the HD + PD group vs 562 days, or 1 year and 6 months in the CT group; P=0.95) and between the HD group (760 days or 2 years and 2 months) and the PD group (343 days or 11 months; P=0.32). As measured from the time they entered in the predialysis program, the survival of older patients over 70 years does not seem to depend on
Rostoker, Guy; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Fishbane, Steven
Iron overload used to be considered rare in hemodialysis patients but its clinical frequency is now increasingly realized. The liver is the main site of iron storage and the liver iron concentration (LIC) is closely correlated with total iron stores in patients with secondary hemosideroses and genetic hemochromatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is now the gold standard method for LIC estimation and monitoring in non-renal patients. Studies of LIC in hemodialysis patients by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic susceptometry have demonstrated a strong relation between the risk of iron overload and the use of intravenous (IV) iron products prescribed at doses determined by the iron biomarker cutoffs contained in current anemia management guidelines. These findings have challenged the validity of both iron biomarker cutoffs and current clinical guidelines, especially with respect to recommended IV iron doses. Three long-term observational studies have recently suggested that excessive IV iron doses may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and death in hemodialysis patients. We postulate that iatrogenic iron overload in the era of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents may silently increase complications in dialysis patients without creating frank clinical signs and symptoms. High hepcidin-25 levels were recently linked to fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events in dialysis patients. It is therefore tempting to postulate that the main pathophysiological pathway leading to these events may involve the pleiotropic master hormone hepcidin (synergized by fibroblast growth factor 23), which regulates iron metabolism. Oxidative stress as a result of IV iron infusions and iron overload, by releasing labile non-transferrin-bound iron, might represent a 'second hit' on the vascular bed. Finally, iron deposition in the myocardium of patients with severe iron overload might also play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden death in some patients.
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Alp Ikizler, T
In individuals with chronic kidney disease surrogates of protein-energy wasting (PEW) including a relatively low serum albumin and fat or muscle wasting are by far the strongest death risk factor than any other condition. There are data to indicate that hypoalbuminemia responds to nutritional interventions, which may save lives in the long run. Monitored, in-center provision of high-protein meals and/or oral nutritional supplements during hemodialysis is a feasible, inexpensive and patient-friendly strategy, despite concerns such as postprandial hypotension, aspiration risk, infection control and hygiene, dialysis staff burden, diabetes and phosphorus control, and financial constraints. Adjunct pharmacologic therapies can be added including appetite stimulators (megesterol, ghrelin, and mirtazapine), anabolic hormones (testosterone and growth factors), anti-myostatin agents, and anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agents (pentoxiphylline and cytokine modulators) to increase efficiency of intradialytic food and oral supplementation although adequate evidence is still lacking. If more severe hypoalbuminemia (<3.0 g/dL) not amenable to oral interventions prevails or if patient is not capable of enteral interventions, e.g. due to swallowing problems, parenteral interventions such as intra-dialytic parenteral nutrition can be considered. Given the fact that meals and supplements during hemodialysis would require only a small fraction of the funds currently used for the expensive medications of dialysis patients with no proven outcome improvement, this is also an economically feasible strategy. PMID:23313434
Woo, Karen; Lok, Charmaine E
Optimal vascular access planning begins when the patient is in the predialysis stages of CKD. The choice of optimal vascular access for an individual patient and determining timing of access creation are dependent on a multitude of factors that can vary widely with each patient, including demographics, comorbidities, anatomy, and personal preferences. It is important to consider every patient's ESRD life plan (hence, their overall dialysis access life plan for every vascular access creation or placement). Optimal access type and timing of access creation are also influenced by factors external to the patient, such as surgeon experience and processes of care. In this review, we will discuss the key determinants in optimal access type and timing of access creation for upper extremity arteriovenous fistulas and grafts.
Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M. Javid; Cassel, Kevin; Hammes, Mary; Boghosian, Michael; Illinois Institute of Technology Team; University of Chicago Team
Venous stenosis developed after the growth of excessive neointimal hyperplasia (NH) in chronic dialysis treatment is a major cause of mortality in renal failure patients. It has been hypothesized that the low wall shear stress (WSS) triggers an adaptive response in patients' venous system that through the growth of neointimal hyperplastic lesions restores WSS and transmural pressure, which also regulates the blood flow rate back to physiologically acceptable values which is violated by dialysis treatment. A strong coupling of three-dimensional CFD and shape optimization analyses were exploited to elucidate and forecast this adaptive response which correlates very well topographically with patient-specific clinical data. Based on the framework developed, a medical protocol is suggested to predict and prevent dialysis treatment failure in clinical practice. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).
Li, Wei; Lin, Hong; Fan, Rui; Li, Cuiling; Liu, Donghong; Yao, Fengjuan
Objectives We initiated this study to explore the relationships of serum phosphorus level with left ventricular ultrasound features and diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Methods 174 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving PD were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. Conventional echocardiography examination and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) were performed in each patient. Clinical information and laboratory data were also collected. Analyses of echocardiographic features were performed according to phosphorus quartiles groups. And multivariate regression models were used to determine the association between serum phosphorus and Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Results With the increase of serum phosphorus levels, patients on PD showed an increased tissue Doppler-derived E/e’ ratio of lateral wall (P < 0.001), indicating a deterioration of left ventricular diastolic function. Steady growths of left atrium and left ventricular diameters as well as increase of left ventricular muscle mass were also observed across the increasing quartiles of phosphorus, while left ventricular ejection fraction remained normal. In a multivariate analysis, the regression coefficient for E/e’ ratio in the highest phosphorus quartile was almost threefold higher relative to those in the lowest quartile group. And compared with patients in the lowest phosphorus quartile (<1.34 mmol/L) those in the highest phosphorus quartile (>1.95 mmol/L) had a more than fivefold increased odds of E/e’ ratio >15. Conclusions Our study showed an early impairment of left ventricular diastolic function in peritoneal dialysis patients. High serum phosphorus level was independently associated with greater risk of LVDD in these patients. Whether serum phosphorus will be a useful target for prevention or improvement of LVDD remains to be proved by further studies. PMID:27661984
Despite the fact that dietary salt restriction is the most logical measure to prevent accumulation of salt and water in patients without renal function, it is not applied in most dialysis centers. In this review, the reasons for this unlucky development are analyzed. First, it appears that many dialysis patients are slightly overhydrated, but this is often not noticed and, if so, the deleterious effects in the long run are not appreciated. These consist not only of 'drug-resistant' hypertension, but also dilatation of the cardiac compartments leading to preventable cardiovascular events. Second, there are practical reasons why salt restriction is neglected. It is very difficult to buy salt-poor food. Salt consumption is an addiction, which can be overcome, but time and efforts are needed to achieve that. Suggestions are made how to reach that goal. Finally, examples are given how cardiac damage (often considered irreversible) can be improved or even cured by a 'volume control' strategy, whose crucial part is serious salt restriction.
Neto, José Roberto Sostena; Figueiredo e Castro, Letícia Magalhães; Santos de Oliveira, Fernanda; Silva, Andréia Maria; Maria dos Reis, Luciana; Quirino, Ana Paula Assunção; Dragosavac, Desanka; Kosour, Carolina
[Purpose] To compare the effects of two physiotherapy protocols for chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. [Subjects and Methods] This is a prospective, randomized study, in chronic kidney disease patients 18 years of age or older on dialysis. Sessions for each group (were conducted three times per week for a total of 10 sessions), during hemodialysis. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), peak expiratory flow, and peripheral muscle strength were evaluated. The study group received motor and respiratory physiotherapy, and the control group received motor physiotherapy alone. [Results] We observed a significant increase in the maximal inspiratory pressure in the study group in the 5th and 10th sessions and in the maximal expiratory pressure in the 1st session, peak flow in the 1st and 10th sessions, and dynamometry in the 10th session. In the control group, there was a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure in the 5th and 10th sessions, and in maximal expiratory pressure in the 10th session, peak flow in the 5th and 10th sessions, and dynamometry in the 5th session. [Conclusion] Implementation of motor physiotherapy combined with respiratory physiotherapy may have contributed to the improvement of the variables analyzed in the study group. PMID:27313390
Janma, Jirayut; Linasmita, Patcharasarn; Changsirikulchai, Siribha
A 70-years of age, male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and ischemic heart disease had undergone continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)for 3 years without any episodes of peritonitis. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis and later developed peritonitis after receiving a laceration from an aquatic injury suffered during the flood disaster of 2011. The blood culture, necrotic tissue and the clear dialysate collected upon admission had shown Aeromonas sobria. The route of peritonitis may be from the hematogenous spread of A. sobria resulting in necrotizing fasciitis. A. sobria should be considered as the pathogen of peritonitis in PD patients who have history of wounds from contaminated water. We suggest that the PD patients who present with septicemia and did not meet the criteria for peritonitis, the initial dialysate effluent should be sent for culture. The benefit of this is to allow early recognition and treatment of peritonitis.
Uzunoglu, E; Sahin, A M
Paecilomyces variotii (P. variotii) is an extremely rare cause of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. When diagnosed, it usually portends poor prognosis. Patient's survival depends on early laboratory diagnosis and proper treatment. We herein report a P. variotii peritonitis in a patient on CAPD which is a quite rare clinical entity. Laboratory diagnosis was confirmed via both morphological analysis and DNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 guidelines. After laboratory diagnosis, the patient was treated succesfully with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole combination and the peritoneal catheter was removed. This case is worthy of reporting since P. variotii is an uncommon cause of peritonitis and leads to dilemmas in both laboratory diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Vega-Diaz, Nicanor; Gonzalez-Cabrera, Fayna; Marrero-Robayna, Silvia; Santana-Estupiñan, Raquel; Gallego-Samper, Roberto; Henriquez-Palop, Fernando; Perez-Borges, Patricia; Rodriguez-Perez, José Carlos
Background: In order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality of peritoneal dialysis (PD), a minimal level of small-solute clearances as well as a sodium and water balance are needed. The peritoneal dialysis solutions used in combination have reduced the complications and allow for a long-time function of the peritoneal membrane, and the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is crucial for the maintenance of life quality and long-term survival. This retrospective cohort study reviews our experience in automatic peritoneal dialysis (APD) patients, with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to diabetic nephropathy (DN) in comparison to non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN), using different PD solutions in combination. Design: Fifty-two patients, 29 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic, were included. The follow-up period was 24 months, thus serving as their own control. Results: The fraction of renal urea clearance (Kt) relative to distribution volume (V) (or total body water) (Kt/V), or creatinine clearance relative to the total Kt/V or creatinine clearance (CrCl) decreases according to loss of RRF. The loss of the slope of RRF is more pronounced in DN than in NDN patients, especially at baseline time interval to 12 months (loss of 0.29 mL/month vs. 0.13 mL/month, respectively), and is attenuated in the range from 12 to 24 months (loss of 0.13 mL/month vs. 0.09 mL/month, respectively). Diabetic patients also experienced a greater decrease in urine output compared to non-diabetic, starting from a higher baseline urine output. The net water balance was adequate in both groups during the follow up period. Regarding the balance sodium, no inter-group differences in sodium excretion over follow up period was observed. In addition, the removal of sodium in the urine output decreases with loss of renal function. The average concentration of glucose increase in the cycler in both groups (DN: baseline 1.44 ± 0.22, 12
Muntinghe, Friso L H; Verduijn, Marion; Zuurman, Mike W; Grootendorst, Diana C; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Luttropp, Karin; Nordfors, Louise; Lindholm, Bengt; Brandenburg, Vincent; Schalling, Martin; Stenvinkel, Peter; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W; Krediet, Raymond T; Navis, Gerjan; Dekker, Friedo W
The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a receptor for various proinflammatory chemokines, and a deletion variant of the CCR5 gene (CCR5 Delta 32) leads to deficiency of the receptor. We hypothesized that CCR5 Delta 32 modulates inflammation-driven mortality in patients with ESRD. We studied the interaction between CCR5 genotype and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) in 603 incident dialysis patients from the multicenter, prospective NEtherlands COoperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD) cohort. CCR5 genotype and hsCRP levels were both available for 413 patients. During 5 yr of follow-up, 170 patients died; 87 from cardiovascular causes. Compared with the reference group of patients who had the wild-type CCR5 genotype and hsCRP
Ahmed, Samar; El-Sherif, Assem
Hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection remains highly prevalent among hemodialysis (HD) patients, but there is a notable paucity of information on aspects of bio-incompatibility in those infected patients. This study aimed to answer the following question: In HD patients, does chronic HCV infection attenuate the acute inflammatory response that results from contact of patient's blood with the dialyzer membrane? We elected to investigate the contact response in the initial 15 min of a standardized single dialysis session in a before-after design. Thus, we compared magnitude of dialysis-induced changes in total leukocyte counts, platelet counts, and C3a levels in a cohort of HCV-infected and a cohort of non-infected dialysis patients (57 patients in each group). Distribution of gender, age groups, and hypertension was comparable in both HCV-infected and non-infected patients. Furthermore, the baseline pre-dialysis measurements of the studied biocompatibility markers showed statistically equivalent values in the two groups with the exception of a marginally lower platelet count among HCV-infected patients. After 15 min of HD, the total leukocyte count dropped by 16% in HCV-infected patients and by 21.5% in the non-infected group (P <0.01). However, in both groups of patients, all values remained within the customary warm zone of normal distribution of these cells in the general population. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in dialysis-induced thrombocytopenia or C3a levels. The magnitude of cell count reduction and complement activation in both the HCV-infected and non-infected groups of HD patients was modest and unlikely to symbolize any clinical relevance. A valid answer to our research question may be only distinctly obtained if novel molecular and sub-molecular biomarkers for detection of micro-inflammation are used.
Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Ranpuria, Reena; Hall, Martica; Hotchkiss, John R.; Chan, Chris T.; Unruh, Mark L.; Argyropoulos, Christos
Background. Dialysis patients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience a substantial risk for abnormal autonomic function and abnormal heart rate variability (HRV). It remains unknown whether HRV changes across sleep stages in patients with different severity of CKD or dialysis dependency. We hypothesized that high-frequency (HF) HRV (vagal tone) will be attenuated from wakefulness to non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and then to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in dialysis patients as compared to patients with CKD. Methods. In-home polysomnography was performed in 95 patients with stages 4–5 CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HRV was measured using fast Fourier transform of interbeat intervals during wakefulness and sleep. Low-frequency (LF) and HF intervals were generated. Natural logarithm HF (LNHF) and the logarithm LF/HF ratio (sympathovagal tone) were analysed by multivariable quantile regression and generalized estimating equations. Results. Of the 95 patients, 63.2% (n = 60) was male, 35.8% (n = 34) was African American and 20.4% (n = 19) was diabetic. Average age was 51.6 ± 15.1 (range 19–82). HRV variables were significantly associated with diabetic status, higher periodic limb movement indices and lower bicarbonate levels. Patients with advanced CKD did not differ from dialysis patients in their inability to increase vagal tone during sleep. During wakefulness, female gender (P = 0.05) was associated with the increases in the vagal tone. Conclusions. Patients with CKD/ESRD exhibit dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system tone manifesting as a failure to increase HRV during wakefulness and sleep. Different patient characteristics are associated with changes in HRV at different sleep stages. PMID:20466675
Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.
With increasing emphasis on expanding home-based dialysis, there is a need to understand adherence outcomes. This study set out to examine the prevalence and predictors of nonadherence among patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. A cross sectional sample of 201 peritoneal dialysis patients recruited between 2010–2011 from Singapore General Hospital completed measures of quality of life, medication beliefs, self-efficacy and emotional distress. Nonadherence rates were high; 18% for dialysis, 46% for medication and 78% for diet. Intentional nonadherence was more common for dialysis (p = .03), whereas unintentional nonadherence was more common for medication (p = .002). Multivariate models indicated significant associations for higher education (intermediate vs low OR = 3.18, high vs low OR = 4.70), lower environment quality of life (OR = 0.79), dialysis self-efficacy (OR = 0.80) with dialysis nonadherence; higher education (OR = 2.22), self-care peritoneal dialysis (OR = 3.10), perceived necessity vs concerns over medication (OR = 0.90), self-efficacy (OR = 0.76) with nonadherence to medication. The odds for nonadherence to diet were higher among patients who were younger (OR = 0.96), of Chinese ethnicity (OR = 2.99) and those reporting better physical health (OR = 1.30) and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.49). Nonadherence is common in peritoneal dialysis. Self-efficacy and beliefs about medication are promising targets for interventions designed to improve adherence. PMID:26919323
Ramanathan, Kumaresan; Padmanabhan, Giri; Vijayaraghavan, Bhooma
Severe peritonitis causing death is one of the most devastating complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in PD fluid has not been assessed, the objective of the present study is to evaluate its predictive value and clinical correlation in patients on PD with peritonitis. One hundred and twenty patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) were enrolled and their serum and fluid CRP (Fl. CRP) were evaluated at the start of CAPD. All patients who developed peritonitis were further evaluated for serum and fluid CRP. The patients were categorized into four groups, namely: normal patients (control group), patients with peritonitis, patients with peritonitis leading to catheter removal, and death due to peritonitis. Sixty-five patients developed peritonitis of whom, catheter removal was performed in eight patients. Five patients died due to peritonitis-related complications. Fl. CRP showed a significant difference among the three groups, unlike S. CRP. Estimation of CRP in the peritoneal fluid may be a useful marker to monitor the onset of peritonitis.
Ban, Shinichi; Suzuki, Syunji; Kubota, Kenji; Ohshima, Susumu; Satoh, Hideaki; Imada, Hiroki; Ueda, Yoshihiko
Lanthanum carbonate is a popular chemical which is administered for patients with end-stage kidney disease to reduce the absorption of phosphate, and lanthanum deposition in the gastroduodenal mucosa has recently been reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether any histologic changes of the gastric mucosa are related to the deposition of lanthanum. Twenty-four patients who revealed the histology of lanthanum deposition on gastroduodenal biopsy between 2011 and 2014 were included in the study, and their clinical records and gastroduodenal biopsies obtained from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed, adding the review of gastroduodenal biopsies before 2011 if possible. Analysis of the deposited materials by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was performed for a representative gastric biopsy. All patients were diagnosed as having renal insufficiency due to chronic kidney disease and treated with dialysis for more than 5 years, with confirmation of lanthanum carbonate use for 22 patients. Of 121 gastric biopsies and 10 duodenal ones between 2011 and 2015, 86 gastric biopsies (71.1%) and 3 duodenal biopsies (30%), respectively, revealed histology consistent with lanthanum deposition, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis for a representative case. The deposition tended to occur in the gastric mucosa with regenerative change, intestinal metaplasia, or foveolar hyperplasia (P<.05). Such mucosal changes were observed in about half of the gastric biopsy samples obtained prior to 2010, in which no lanthanum deposition was identified irrespective of the gastric mucosal status. Although direct association between lanthanum deposition and clinical symptoms is not clear, the evaluation of the gastric mucosal status (prior to administration) seems to be important to predict lanthanum deposition when lanthanum carbonate is administered for patients with chronic kidney disease treated with
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu
Uremia results in a relatively immunocompromised status, and patients under chronic dialysis have an elevated risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ). We sought to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). A multicenter prevalent hemodialysis cohort was assembled between 2012 and 2013. We assayed the biochemical parameters, 25-hydroxy- (25-OH-D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein levels in the sera. VZV immunity was quantitated using VZV-specific glycoprotein IgG and IgM titers. Eighty-eight patients were enrolled and their sera were analyzed. Chronic hemodialysis patients with 25-OH-D < 30 ng/ml (insufficiency or deficiency) had significantly lower VZV-IgG than those with sufficient 25-OH-D (p = 0.04). This discrepancy became more prominent if active vitamin D users alone were analyzed (p = 0.01). Generalized additive modeling showed that those with 25-OH-D higher than 27.8 ng/ml or bioavailable 25-OH-D higher than 3.88 ng/ml had significantly higher VZV-IgG levels than those with lower values. Linear regression suggested that both total and bioavailable 25-OH-D were significantly associated with higher VZV-IgG levels (p = 0.003 [total] and 0.01 [bioavailable]), whereas patients with cancer had lower VZV-IgG. Vitamin D may therefore be a potentially useful choice for raising VZV immunity in chronic dialysis patients. PMID:25487609
Ronco, Claudio; Verger, Christian; Crepaldi, Carlo; Pham, Jenny; De los Ríos, Tatiana; Gauly, Adelheid; Wabel, Peter; Van Biesen, Wim
Background Non-euvolaemia in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients is associated with elevated mortality risk. There is an urgent need to collect data to help us understand the association between clinical practices and hydration and nutritional status, and their effects on patient outcome. Methods The aim of this prospective international, longitudinal observational cohort study is to follow up the hydration and nutritional status, as measured by bioimpedance spectroscopy using the body composition monitor (BCM) of incident PD patients for up to 5 years. Measures of hydration and nutritional status and of clinical, biochemical and therapy-related data are collected directly before start of PD treatment, at 1 and 3 months, and then every 3 months. This paper presents the protocol and a pre-specified analysis of baseline data of the cohort. Results A total of 1092 patients (58.1% male, 58.0 ± 15.3 years) from 135 centres in 32 countries were included. Median fluid overload (FO) was 2.0 L (males) and 0.9 L (females). Less than half of the patients were normohydrated (38.7%), whereas FO > 1.1 L was seen in 56.5%. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 139.5 ± 21.8 and 80.0 ± 12.8 mmHg, respectively, and 25.1% of patients had congestive heart failure [New York Heart Association (NYHA) 1 or higher]. A substantial number of patients judged to be not overhydrated on clinical judgement appeared to be overhydrated by BCM measurement. Overhydration at baseline was independently associated with male gender and diabetic status. Conclusions The majority of patients starting on PD are overhydrated already at start of PD. This may have important consequences on clinical outcomes and preservation of residual renal function. Substantial reclassification of hydration status by BCM versus on a clinical basis was necessary, especially in patients who were not overtly overhydrated. Both clinical appreciation and bioimpedance should be combined in clinical decision-making on
St Bernard, R; Chodirker, L; Masih-Khan, E; Jiang, H; Franke, N; Kukreti, V; Tiedemann, R; Trudel, S; Reece, D; Chen, C I
Numerous studies have reported the feasibility and safety of autologous SCT (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and mild to moderate renal impairment, but there are limited data in dialysis-dependent patients. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the toxicities and efficacy outcomes of 33 MM patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure who underwent ASCT at our institution from 1998 to 2012. The most common grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities were mucositis (49%), infection (15%) and bleeding (6%). Atrial dysrhythmias (24%) and delirium (30%) of all grades were also common. Hematologic toxicities included febrile neutropenia (88%); and RBC and platelet transfusions were required by 71 and 100% of patients, respectively. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was high at 15%, predominantly caused by septic shock. Response to ASCT was at least VGPR (very good PR) in 50%, PR in 46.2% and stable disease (SD) in 3.8%. Median OS was 5.6 years, comparable to our overall institutional data. Overall, seven patients became dialysis independent. We conclude that ASCT can be an effective treatment for dialysis-dependent MM patients, with high response rates and survival. However, toxicities and a high TRM are observed indicating that further studies are needed to enhance the safety of this approach.
Kossmann, Robert J
My service within the RPA began with my need to be a part of the solution, to help navigate the direction of inevitable change, and to ensure we do not lose focus of our ultimate goal as nephrologists-the provision of excellent kidney care. I would encourage all of you to participate in this process as well. It is essential that we maintain our independence, ethics and principals, and excellence in our roles and responsibilities as nephrologists and dialysis unit medical directors, especially in challenging times such as these. Engaging with the RPA in advocating redress of the ESRD PPS proposed 9.4% cut and support for maintaining our critical role as independent dialysis unit medical directors is one way we can make a difference. Become involved in the process. Communicate your concerns to legislators and policy makers. Only with the support of our community and a firm commitment to our goals can we effect change and ensure nephrology patients continue to be well served in the years to come.
D'Alessandro, Claudia; Piccoli, Giorgina B; Cupisti, Adamasco
Phosphorus retention plays a pivotal role in the onset of mineral and bone disorders (MBD) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Phosphorus retention commonly occurs as a result of net intestinal absorption exceeding renal excretion or dialysis removal. The dietary phosphorus load is crucial since the early stages of CKD, throughout the whole course of the disease, up to dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.Agreement exits regarding the need for dietary phosphate control, but it is quite challenging in the real-life setting. Effective strategies to control dietary phosphorus intake include restricting phosphorus-rich foods, preferring phosphorus sourced from plant origin, boiling as the preferred cooking procedure and avoiding foods with phosphorus-containing additives. Nutritional education is crucial in this regard.Based on the existing literature, we developed the "phosphorus pyramid", namely a novel, visual, user-friendly tool for the nutritional education of patients and health-care professionals. The pyramid consists of six levels in which foods are arranged on the basis of their phosphorus content, phosphorus to protein ratio and phosphorus bioavailability. Each has a colored edge (from green to red) that corresponds to recommended intake frequency, ranging from "unrestricted" to "avoid as much as possible".The aim of the phosphorus pyramid is to support dietary counseling in order to reduce the phosphorus load, a crucial aspect of integrated CKD-MBD management.
Lehoux, Pascale; Daudelin, Geneviève; Poland, Blake; Andrews, Gavin J; Holmes, Dave
The professional claims and struggles involved in the design of non-traditional health care places are rarely problematized in applied health research, perhaps because they tend to fade away once the new design is implemented. This paper offers insights into such professional tensions and their impact on health care delivery by examining the design of two dialysis service delivery models in Quebec, Canada. The satellite units were hosted in two small hospitals and staffed by recently trained nurses. The mobile unit was a bus fitted to accommodate five dialysis stations. It was staffed by experienced nurses and travelled back and forth between a university teaching hospital and two sites. In both projects, nephrologists supervised from a distance via a videoconferencing system. In this paper, we draw mainly from interviews with managers (mostly nurses) and physicians (n=18), and from on-site observations. Nephrologists, medical internists, and managers all supported the goal of providing "closer-to-patient" services. However, they held varying opinions on how to best materialize this goal. By comparing two models involving different clinical and spatial logics, we underscore the ways in which the design of non-traditional health care places opens up space for the re-negotiation of clinical norms. Instead of relatively straightforward conflicts between professions, we observed subtle but inexorable tensions within and beyond professional groups, who sought to measure up to "ideal standards" while acknowledging the contingencies of health care places.
Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Wu, Vin-Cent; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Lin, Shih-Hwa; Wu, Kwan-Dun
Discontinuation of acute, unplanned dialysis is always an important therapeutic goal in dialysis-requiring patients with existing chronic kidney disease. Only a limited proportion of patients could be weaned off dialysis and remained dialysis-free. Here we performed a multicenter, observational study to investigate factors associated with successful weaning from acute dialysis, and to explore the potential impact of weaning itself on outcomes of patients with chronic kidney disease following urgent-start dialysis. We recruited 440 chronic kidney disease patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 ml/min per 1/73 m2, and used propensity score-adjusted Cox regression analysis to measure the effect of weaning from acute dialysis on death during the index hospitalization and death or readmission after discharge. Over 2 years, 64 of 421 (15.2%) patients who survived >1 month died, and 36 (8.6%) were removed from dialysis, with 26 (6.2%) remaining alive and dialysis-free. Logistic regression analysis found that age ≧ 65 years, ischemic acute tubular necrosis, nephrotoxic exposure, urinary obstruction, and higher predialysis estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum hemoglobin were predictors of weaning off dialysis. After adjustment for propensity scores for dialysis weaning, Cox proportional hazards models showed successful weaning from dialysis (adjusted hazard ratio 0.06; 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.35), along with a history of hypertension and serum albumin, were independent protectors for early death. Conversely, a history of stroke, peripheral arterial disease and cancer predicted the occurrence of early mortality. In conclusion, this prospective cohort study shows that compared to patients with chronic kidney disease who became end-stage renal disease after acute dialysis, patients who could be weaned off acute dialytic therapy were associated with reduced risk of premature death over a 2-year observation period.
Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Hara, Koji; Sata, Takeyoshi
We report the successful management of anesthesia in a 46-year-old male dialysis patient with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). He underwent an osteosynthesis of the ankle joint using general anesthesia combined with epidural anesthesia. The anesthetic concerns in patients with CIDP are the possibility of postoperative respiratory dysfunction due to anesthetics or muscle relaxants and that of postoperative neurological deterioration due to spinal or epidural anesthesia. In this case, sevoflurane (1.5-2%) did not cause respiratory dysfunction postoperatively and muscle relaxant effect of rocuronium was effectively reversed by sugammadex. Epidural anesthesia using ropivacaine (0.2-0.375%) and fentanyl did not worsen the neurological symptoms of CIDP post-operatively.
Grzegorzewska, Alicja E
Selected laboratory markers of nutritional state in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) are presented in this review. Parameters, which depend on intake of nutritional products and are related to consequences of nutrition, especially to development of abdominal obesity, are shown. Attention is paid on factors, which modify laboratory parameters of nutritional state, independently on quantity and quality of ingested products. These parameters include volume of extracellular water, inflammatory state, metrical age, duration of treatment with PD, metabolic acidosis, treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Among laboratory parameters, which are related to excess of visceral fat tissue, the most important results of investigations on serum adipocytokine concentration and insulin resistance are presented, underlying their associations with anthropometric parameters of nutritional state of PD patients.
Fishbane, S; Wagner, J
Intravenous iron has been found to be an important adjunctive therapy in the treatment of anemia for patients on dialysis. In the United States, iron dextran had been the only form available for parenteral use until 1999. This agent has been associated with a concerning number of severe adverse reactions, in some cases resulting in patients' deaths. Recently, a form of iron used for many years in Europe, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose, was approved for intravenous use in the United STATES: Because this agent does not contain the immunogenic dextran component of iron dextran, it is expected that the safety profile of this drug should be superior to that of iron dextran. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise the relevant literature and to synthesize the information into a strategy for clinical use of this drug.
Gen, Shikou; Inoue, Tsutomu; Nodaira, Yuka; Ikeda, Naofumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Hiromichi
In the present study, we examined the association between vascular and valvular calcification and the prognosis of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Data were collected from the records of patients introduced onto CAPD therapy during 1999 - 2006 at the Department of Nephrology, Saitama Medical University. At the start of CAPD, cardiac and vascular echography were used to examine 162 patients (average age: 56 +/- 5 years; 58 men, 104 women; 43 with and 119 without diabetes) for evaluation of vascular and valvular calcification. Both vascular and valvular calcification were found in 32 patients. Vascular calcification was found in 16, and valvular calcification in 11. Over 5 years, 11 patients suffered from cardiovascular disease (7 with stroke, 4 with myocardial infarction). All of these patients had vascular or valvular calcification at the start of CAPD therapy. We also used Cox hazard analysis to examine values for Ca, P, Ca x P, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and lipids. None of these values were independent contributory factors for incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients on CAPD. These data suggest the importance of vascular and valvular echography to evaluate patients on CAPD, especially at the start of CAPD therapy. Vascular and valvular calcification are important factors for determining the prognosis of patients on CAPD.
Alwakeel, J; Gader, A M; Hurieb, S; al-Momen, A K; Mitwalli, A; Abu Aisha, H
Coagulation inhibitors and fibrinolytic parameters were studied in twelve patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and ten patients on haemodialysis (HD). Patients on CAPD exhibited higher levels of ATIII and proteins C and S than those on HD. No significant differences were noted in tPA and PAI levels. Both groups of patients showed higher levels of tPA than controls. Besides, patients on HD had significantly lower levels of ATIII and protein C than controls. PAI levels in both patient groups were similar to those of the controls, but tPA levels were higher in patients than in controls. These results indicate that HD is associated with marked diminution in the circulating levels of coagulation inhibitors. This is in contrast to CAPD patients who showed elevated levels of these inhibitors, despite their significant loss in the dialysate. The finding of enhanced fibrinolysis in both patient groups may be a natural protective mechanism against the development of a thrombotic tendency.
Scialla, Julia J.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Eustace, Joseph A.; Astor, Brad C.; Plantinga, Laura; Jaar, Bernard G.; Shafi, Tariq; Coresh, Josef; Powe, Neil R.; Melamed, Michal L.
Background Abnormalities in mineral homeostasis are ubiquitous in patients on dialysis, and influenced by race. We determine the race-specific relationship between mineral parameters and mortality in patients initiating hemodialysis. Methods We measured fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) in 184 African American and 327 non-African American hemodialysis patients who enrolled between 1995–1998 in the Choices for Healthy Outcomes in Caring for ESRD Study. Serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and total alkaline phosphatase were averaged from clinical measurements during the first 4.5 months of dialysis. We evaluated the associated prospective risk of mortality using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models stratified by race. Results PTH and total alkaline phosphatase were higher, whereas calcium, phosphorus, FGF23 and 25D were lower in African Americans compared to non-African Americans. Higher serum phosphorus and FGF23 were associated with greater mortality risk overall, however phosphorus was only associated among African Americans (HR 5.38; 95% CI 2.14–13.55 for quartile 4 vs 1), but not among non-African Americans (p-interaction=0.04). FGF23 was associated with mortality in both groups, but more strongly in African Americans (HR 3.91; 95% CI 1.74–8.82 for quartiles 4 vs 1; p-interaction=0.09). Serum calcium, PTH, and 25D were not consistently associated with mortality. The lowest and highest quartiles of total alkaline phosphatase associated with higher mortality risk, but this did not differ by race (p-interaction= 0.97). Conclusions Aberrant phosphorus homeostasis, reflected by higher phosphorus and FGF23, may be a risk factor for mortality in patients recently initiating hemodialysis, particularly African Americans. PMID:26287973
Wearne, Nicola; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Effa, Emmanuel; Davidson, Bianca; Nourse, Peter; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Okpechi, Ikechi G
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that continues to show an unrelenting global increase in prevalence. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has been predicted to grow the fastest in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). There is evidence that people living in LMICs have the highest need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) despite the lowest access to various modalities of treatment. As continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) does not require advanced technologies, much infrastructure, or need for dialysis staff support, it should be an ideal form of RRT in LMICs, particularly for those living in remote areas. However, CAPD is scarcely available in many LMICs, and even where available, there are several hurdles to be confronted regarding patient selection for this modality. High cost of CAPD due to unavailability of fluids, low patient education and motivation, low remuneration for nephrologists, lack of expertise/experience for catheter insertion and management of complications, presence of associated comorbid diseases, and various socio-demographic factors contribute significantly toward reduced patient selection for CAPD. Cost of CAPD fluids seems to be a major constraint given that many countries do not have the capacity to manufacture fluids but instead rely heavily on fluids imported from developed countries. There is need to invest in fluid manufacturing (either nationally or regionally) in LMICs to improve uptake of patients treated with CAPD. Workforce training and retraining will be necessary to ensure that there is coordination of CAPD programs and increase the use of protocols designed to improve CAPD outcomes such as insertion of catheters, treatment of peritonitis, and treatment of complications associated with CAPD. Training of nephrology workforce in CAPD will increase workforce experience and make CAPD a more acceptable RRT modality with improved outcomes. PMID:28115864
Development of a new risk model for predicting cardiovascular events among hemodialysis patients: Population-based hemodialysis patients from the Japan Dialysis Outcome and Practice Patterns Study (J-DOPPS)
Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi
Background Cardiovascular (CV) events are the primary cause of death and becoming bedridden among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The Framingham risk score (FRS) is useful for predicting incidence of CV events in the general population, but is considerd to be unsuitable for the prediction of the incidence of CV events in HD patients, given their characteristics due to atypical relationships between conventional risk factors and outcomes. We therefore aimed to develop a new prognostic prediction model for prevention and early detection of CV events among hemodialysis patients. Methods We enrolled 3,601 maintenance HD patients based on their data from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (J-DOPPS), phases 3 and 4. We longitudinaly assessed the association between several potential candidate predictors and composite CV events in the year after study initiation. Potential candidate predictors included the component factors of FRS and other HD-specific risk factors. We used multivariable logistic regression with backward stepwise selection to develop our new prediction model and generated a calibration plot. Additinially, we performed bootstrapping to assess the internal validity. Results We observed 328 composite CV events during 1-year follow-up. The final prediction model contained six variables: age, diabetes status, history of CV events, dialysis time per session, and serum phosphorus and albumin levels. The new model showed significantly better discrimination than the FRS, in both men (c-statistics: 0.76 for new model, 0.64 for FRS) and women (c-statistics: 0.77 for new model, 0.60 for FRS). Additionally, we confirmed the consistency between the observed results and predicted results using the calibration plot. Further, we found similar discrimination and calibration to the derivation model in the bootstrapping cohort. Conclusions We developed a new risk model consisting of only six predictors. Our new model predicted CV events more accurately than
Scherer, Jennifer S; Holley, Jean L
Technologic advances, such as continuous RRT, provide lifesaving therapy for many patients. AKI in the critically ill patient, a fatal diagnosis in the past, is now often a survivable condition. Dialysis decision making for the critically ill patient with AKI is complex. What was once a question solely of survival now is nuanced by an individual's definition of quality of life, personal values, and short- and long-term prognoses. Clinical evaluation of AKI in the critically ill is multifaceted. Treatment decision making requires consideration of the natural evolution of the patient's AKI within the context of the global prognosis. Situations are often marked by prognostic uncertainty and clinical unknowns. In the face of these uncertainties, establishment of patient-directed therapies is imperative. A time-limited trial of continuous RRT in this setting is often appropriate but difficult to execute. Using patient preferences as a clinical guide, a proper time-limited trial requires assessment of prognosis, elicitation of patient values, strong communication skills, clear documentation, and often, appropriate integration of palliative care services. A well conducted time-limited trial can avoid interprofessional conflict and provide support for the patient, family, and staff.
Liang, Chih-Chia; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Wang, I-Kuan; Huang, Chiu-Ching
Objective Impaired renal function is associated with higher risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in patients with chronic kidney disease and not on dialysis (CKD-ND). It is unclear if UGIB increases risk of chronic dialysis. The aim of the study was to investigate risk of chronic dialysis in CKD-ND patients with UGIB. Setting All CKD-ND stage 3–5 patients of a CKD programme in one hospital between 2003 and 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until September 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Chronic dialysis (dialysis for more than 3 months) started and all-cause mortality. The risk of chronic dialysis was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustments for age, gender and renal function, followed by competing-risks analysis. Results We analysed 3126 CKD-ND patients with a mean age of 65±14 years for 2.8 years. Of 3126 patients, 387 (12.4%) patients developed UGIB, 989 (31.6%) patients started chronic dialysis and 197 (6.3%) patients died. UGIB increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR (aHR): 1.51, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.13) and the risk of chronic dialysis (aHR; 1.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.50). The subdistribution HR (SHR) of UGIB for chronic dialysis (competing event: all-cause mortality) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.64) in competing-risks analysis with adjustments for age, renal function, gender, diabetes, haemoglobin, albumin and urine protein/creatinine ratio. Conclusions UGIB is associated with increased risk of chronic dialysis and all-cause mortality in patients with CKD-ND stages 3–5. This association is independent of age, gender, basal renal function, haemoglobin, albumin and urine protein levels. PMID:27150184
Nescolarde, Lexa; Doñate, Teresa; Piccoli, Antonio; Rosell, Javier
Segmental impedance measurements were obtained using nine electrode configurations in 21 male patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis PD before and after the fluid drainage. For each segment we analyzed the impedance Z and the impedance divided by the height H of the patient Z/H. Our objective was to compare different segmental measurements with whole-body measurements in peritoneal dialysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze the change in impedance produced by a PD session. Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients were used for continuous or discrete variables, respectively. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Similar results were obtained for Z and Z/H. The correlation coefficients between the real R and imaginary X(c) parts of segmental impedances after drainage were within the expected range for healthy population (0.46-0.70), but not before drainage for the abdomen (0.34) and the upper part of the leg (0.24). The correlation between the real part of whole-body and the real part of longitudinal segments in the limbs was high (r=0.807-0.879). Furthermore, the imaginary part of whole-body showed a high correlation with the imaginary part of all longitudinal segments (r=0.856-0.931). The high contribution of arm and leg impedances in the whole-body impedance produced high correlation between whole-body and segmental measurements in legs and arms. In agreement with other previous studies, a significant increase of the arm resistance was detected after fluid drainage. The drainage of fluids in PD patients produced significant changes in the measured real parts of impedance in all measured segments, but only the measurement in the abdomen showed a significant positive correlation (r=0.533) with the extracted fluid volume. This low correlation indicates that the individual assessment of fluid volumes using segmental measurements will be highly inaccurate.
Ibrahim, Mohamed K.; Elshahid, Ahmed R.; El Baz, Tarek Z.; Elazab, Raed M.; Elhoseiny, Sara A.
Introduction Uraemic pruritus is significant complication in (ESRD) patients and substantially impairs their quality of life (QOL). ESRD is a bothersome problem with attempts being made to increase the survival of patients on dialysis. Aim An attempt was made to compare the QOL of haemodialysis patients and suffering from uraemic pruritus with the QOL of those on haemodialysis but with no presenting uraemic pruritus. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the QOL of haemodialysis patients suffering from uraemic pruritus. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to assess the QOL. Haemodialysis patients with pruritus who had completed three months of maintenance haemodialysis (n=100) were enrolled into the study and 100 controls (n=100) on haemodialysis but with no pruritus were further enrolled. Results The QOL of haemodialysis patients with pruritus was found to be significantly impaired (p < 0.05) in comparison to those on haemodialysis with no prutitis, particularly with respect to all the four WHOQOL-BREF domains. Conclusion Quality of life of ESRD patients on dialsysis was siginificantly affected by pruritis. PMID:27134981
Salt intake in XXI century in an average person exceeds 10-15 grams per day. The key organ responsible for sodium regulation is kidney and renal failure patients present with positive sodium balance. In peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients rising hypertension is often connected with volume overload and sodium retention. The reasons for inadequate sodium removal in PD patients are: too small gradient between standard 134 mmol/l sodium PD solutions, sodium seiving effect and lack of residual renal function. APD patients are at higher risk of sodium overload in comparison to CAPD ones. As it has been shown that a degree of sodium removal correlates with survival, sodium management appears to be crucial in these patients. The concept of low sodium solutions has been developed over the years with single-dwell ultra-low solutions and recently with low sodium balance solution given as a continuous treatment in CAPD patients. Preliminary results show that low sodium solutions may be a safe and viable option of treatment of PD patients with sodium and fluid overload.
Grzegorzewska, A E
Abnormalities in nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients include too high body mass (overweight, obesity), too low body mass (underweight, starvation) or changes in body composition (malnutrition) without or with normal body weight. In vivo neutron activation analysis is considered the reference gold standard for the determination of protein malnourishment in end-stage renal disease patients, but body mass index (BMI) is the most frequently used parameter in nutritional assessment surveys. The association between BMI and outcome of PD patients is controversial, but so-called obesity paradox (the higher BMI the longer survival) remains frequently reported. The use of metabolic syndrome with high BMI as a crucial component is not more predictable in the prognosis of outcome in PD patients than using separately each risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Underweight/starvation is univocally underlined as associated with morbidity and mortality, but prevalence of severe undernutrition is decreasing over last decades, at least in well developed countries. PD patients may also present features of malnutrition without decreased body mass or even with increased body weight. It mainly concerns to deficiencies of vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Serum albumin concentration has serious limitations as a marker of nutritional status, because is influenced by volemic status and inflammation. Nutritional interventions in undernourished patients (oral, intestinal or intravenous feeding, amino acid peritoneal solution, supplementation of vitamins and trace elements) may correct deficiencies, but their influence on PD patients survival remains unclear.
Oei, Elizabeth; Paudel, Klara; Visser, Annemarie; Finney, Hazel; Fan, Stanley L
AIM To study the relationship between overhydration (OH) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and cardiac mortality. METHODS OH, as measured by body composition monitor (BCM), is associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients. BCM has been used to guide treatment on the assumption that correcting OH will improve cardiac morbidity and mortality although data demonstrating causality that is reversible is limited. We wished to determine if OH in PD patients predicted cardiac mortality, and if there was a correlation between OH and cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) levels. Finally, we wished to determine if improving OH values would lead to a decrement in cTnT. All prevalent PD patients over the study period of 57 mo who had contemporaneous BCM and cTnT measurements were followed irrespective of transplantation or PD technique failure. We also studied a cohort of patients with who had severe OH (> +2L). The Fresenius Body Composition Monitor was used to obtain hydration parameters. cTnT levels were done as part of routine clinical care. Data was analysed using SPSS version 20.0. RESULTS There were 48 deaths in the 336 patients. The patients that died from cardiac or non-cardiac causes were similar with respect to their age, incidence of diabetes mellitus, gender, ethnicity and cause of renal failure. However, the patients with cardiac causes of death had significantly shorter dialysis vintage (10.3 mo vs 37.0 mo, P < 0.0001) and were significantly more overhydrated by BCM measurement (2.95 L vs 1.35 L, P < 0.05). The mean (standard error of the means) hydration status of the 336 patients was +1.15 (0.12) L and the median [interquartile range (IQR)] cTnT level was 43.5 (20-90) ng/L. The cTnT results were not normally distributed and were therefore transformed logarithmically. There was a statistically significant correlation between Log (cTnT) with the OH value (Spearman r value 0.425, P < 0.0001). We identified a sub-group of patients that were severely overhydrated
Shen, Cheng-Huang; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Kiu, Kee-Thai; Chen, Hsin-An; Wu, Chia-Chang; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Wang, Yuan-Hung
Abstract End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients commonly have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases than general population. Chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF); however, little is known about the AF risk among ESRD patients with various modalities of renal replacement therapy. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the incident AF among peritoneal dialysis (PD) and hemodialysis (HD) patients in Taiwan. Our ESRD cohort include Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we identified 15,947 patients, who started renal replacement therapy between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2003. From the same data source, 47,841 controls without ESRD (3 subjects for each patient) were identified randomly and frequency matched by gender, age (±1 year), and the year of the study patient's index date for ESRD between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2003. During the follow-up period (mean duration: 8–10 years), 3428 individuals developed the new-onset AF. The incidence rate ratios for AF were 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93–2.23) and 1.78 (95% CI = 1.30–2.44) in HD and PD groups, respectively. After we adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities, the hazard ratios for the AF risk were 1.46 (95% CI = 1.32–1.61) and 1.32 (95% CI = 1.00–1.83) in HD and PD groups, respectively. ESRD patients with a history of certain comorbidities including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have significantly increased risks of AF. This nationwide, population-based study suggests that incidence of AF is increased among dialysis ESRD patients. Furthermore, we have to pay more attention in clinical practice and long-term care for those ESRD patients with a history of certain comorbidities. PMID:27336884
Kulkarni, Manjunath Jeevanna; Jamale, Tukaram; Hase, Niwrutti K; Jagdish, Pradeep Kiggal; Keskar, Vaibhav; Patil, Harsha; Shete, Abhijeet; Patil, Chetan
We studied the dialysis practice-patterns with regard to various aspects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5D, like anemia, mineral bone disease, vaccination, hospitalization, hypertension and cost of therapy. Four hundred and sixty-four adult hemodialysis (HD) patients from various dialysis centers of Mumbai were included in the study. The mean age of the study patients was 47.2 years. Temporary dialysis catheters were the most common initial vascular access. Thirteen percent of prevalent HD patients were on temporary catheters; 33% of patients had history of failure of arterio-venous fistula. The most common cause of failure was access thrombosis. About 75% of the patients had hemoglobin <11 g/dL and 35% had uncontrolled blood pressure. The prevalence of positive hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus antibody was 6% and 2%, respectively. The average cost of HD treatment was approximately 6100 Indian rupees (about US $100). HD is helpful in treating many of the clinical manifestations of CKD and postpones otherwise imminent death. However, dialysis treatment is no panacea to renal failure; HD patients have higher hospitalization rates and lower quality of life than the general population. The therapy itself brings with it a unique set of problems, such as vascular access-related complications, which cause significant mortality and morbidity. This study was a study of the current HD practices. The primary goal of this cross-sectional observational study is to understand dialysis practices and obtain data that can be used to improve care in the future.
Tantri, Aida Rosita; Firdaus, Riyadh; Salomo, Sahat Tumpal
Background Failure to maintain an adequate airway can lead to brain damage and death. To reduce the risk of difficulty in maintaining an airway during general anesthesia, there are several known predictors of difficult intubation. People with a Malay background have different craniofacial structures in comparison with other individuals. Therefore, different predictors should be used for patients of Malay race. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the ability to predict difficult visualization of the larynx (DVL) in Malay patients based on several predictors, such as the modified Mallampati test (MMT), thyromental distance (TMD), and hyomental distance ratio (HMDR). Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study included 277 consecutive patients requiring general anesthesia. All subjects were evaluated using the MMT, TMD, and HMDR, and the cut-off points for the airway predictors were Mallampati III and IV, < 6.5 cm, and < 1.2, respectively. During direct laryngoscopy, the laryngeal view was graded using the Cormack-Lehane (CL) classification. CL grades III and IV were considered difficult visualization. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for each predictor were calculated both as sole and combined predictors. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of DVL. Results Difficulty in visualizing the larynx was found in 28 (10.1%) patients. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for the three airway predictors were as follows: MMT: 0.614, 10.7%, and 99.2%; HMDR: 0.743, 64.2%, and 74%; and TMD: 0.827, 82.1%, and 64.7%. The combination providing the best prediction in our study involved the MMT, HMDR, and TMD with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.835, 60.7%, and 88.8%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the MMT, HMDR, and TMD were independent predictors of DVL. Conclusions The TMD, with a cut-off point of 65 mm, had superior diagnostic value compared with the HMDR and
Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Allard, Catherine; Cousin, Maud; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; El Haggan, Wael; Lobbedez, Thierry
The glucose side-effects, the main osmotic agent in conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions, are structural and functional changes of the peritoneal membrane, especially diabetic alterations in the microvasculature. Therefore, hyperpermeability with high small solutes transport and less ultrafiltration necessitates more and more high glucose concentration solutions. Glucose degradation products (PDF) and advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are formed and may induce peritoneal membrane alterations. More biocompatible solutions have to be used with less PDF and physiological pH. Icodextrin containing PD solutions have beneficial effect on sustained ultrafiltration for long dwells in PD, limitating fluid overload common in PD patients above all during peritonitis episodes. Amino acid-based PD solutions contribute to the prevention of malnutrition often observed in the diabetic PD population.
García de Lorenzo, A; Arrieta, J; Ayúcar, A; Barril, G; Huarte, E
Given the high prevalence of the hyponutrition state among haemodialysis patients and knowing that this implies an increase in the rates of infection, hospitalisation and hospital stay, which translates into an increase in global morbid-mortality, the Spanish Society of Nephrology (SEN) and the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) have reached a consensus on the indications, contraindications, and limitations of Intra-Dialysis Parenteral Nutrition (IDPN.) This consensus considers IDPN as a valid alternative to other types of nutritional support when these show their lack of efficacy. The bases are set regarding the timing of nutritional intervention with IDPN, its ideal composition, the time of administration, its controls, follow-up schedules, and the time at which the nutritional support has to be discontinued.
Eltas, Abubekir; Tozoğlu, Ümmühan; Keleş, Mustafa; Canakci, Varol
The incidence of chronic renal failure continues to rise worldwide, and although the oral and dental changes in individuals with this condition have been examined, investigations with diabetic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. We therefore examined salivary pH, dry mouth, taste change, and mucosal ulceration in diabetic and nondiabetic uremic patients receiving PD. A total of 49 patients undergoing PD therapy were allocated to either the diabetic or the nondiabetic group. Salivary pH, dry mouth, taste change, and mucosal ulceration were determined for both groups. Salivary flow rate and pH were both lower in the diabetic group. Buffer capacity, dry mouth, taste change, and mucosal ulceration were all increased in that group. These findings were associated with level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Our observations indicate that, compared with nondiabetic PD patients, patients with diabetes exhibit more severe oral uremic symptoms, including dry mouth, burning mouth syndrome, taste change, and mucosal ulcerations. The oral health in these patients should be followed. PMID:21632442
Folkert, Vaughn W
Identical National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) hematologic and iron targets apply to chronic kidney disease (CKD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and hemodialysis (HD) patients, yet intravenous (i.v.) nondextran iron therapy is FDA approved only in HD patients. This is because oral iron has been considered adequate in CKD and PD patients, and delivering a parenteral therapy on a frequent basis to an outpatient population with notoriously poor vascular access presents logistical complexities. However, recognition of the need for more aggressive treatment of anemia in the CKD and PD population is growing. This awareness, along with the improved safety profiles of the new, nondextran irons, is tipping the risk-benefit ratio toward more widespread use of i.v. iron in these patients. This article provides a summary of the literature and of our own experience using i.v. iron therapy in CKD and PD patients. Our protocol relies on early monitoring and intervention with i.v. ferric gluconate before severe iron deficiency develops. The proactive approach allows for relatively infrequent treatments at only moderately "high" doses (250 mg) of ferric gluconate. The convergence of convenience and safety may expedite more energetic anemia prevention and treatment in PD and CKD patients.
Vigil, Darlene; Regmi, Anil; Last, Reuben; Wiggins, Brenda; Sun, Yijuan; Servilla, Karen S; Fair, Joanna R; Massie, Larry; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H
Fournier gangrene (FG), a form of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitals, with high morbidity and mortality in the general population, carries the additional risk of involvement of the peritoneal catheter tunnel and peritoneal cavity in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe two men with diabetes who developed FG in the course of PD. Computed tomography showed no extension of FG to the abdominal wall, and spent peritoneal dialysate was clear in both patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage and early aggressive debridement followed by negative-pressure wound therapy and repeated debridement led to improvements in clinical status in both cases. Surgical closure and healing of the wound was achieved in one patient; the wound of the second patient is healing, but remains open. Both patients experienced prolonged hospitalization, with a serious decline in nutrition status. In patients on PD, FG can be treated successfully. However, additional measures are required to evaluate for potential involvement of the PD apparatus and the peritoneal cavity in the infectious process; and prolonged hospitalization, worsening nutrition, and multiple surgical interventions can result.
Fagugli, Riccardo Maria; Patera, Francesco; Battistoni, Sara; Tripepi, Giovanni
Abstract Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) treatment has significantly increased in incidence over the years, with more than 400 new cases per million population/y, 2/3 of which concern noncritically ill patients. In these patients, there are little data on mortality or on information of care organization and its impact on outcome. Specialty training and integrated teams, as well as a high volume of activity, seem to be linked to better hospital outcome. The study investigates mortality of patients admitted to and in-care of nephrology (NEPHROpts), a closed-staff organization, and to other medical wards (MEDpts), representing a model of open-staff organization. This is a single center, case–control cohort study derived from a prospective epidemiology investigation on patients with AKI-D admitted to or in-care of the Hospital of Perugia during the period 2007 to 2014. Noncritically ill AKI-D patients were analyzed: inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to avoid possible bias on the cause of hospital admittance and comorbidities, and a propensity score (PS) matching was performed. Six hundred fifty-four noncritically ill patients were observed and 296 fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria. PS matching resulted in 2 groups: 100 NEPHROpts and 100 MEDpts. Characteristics, comorbidities, acute kidney injury causes, risk–injury–failure acute kidney injury criteria, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS 2) were similar. Mortality was 36%, and a difference was reported between NEPHROpts and MEDpts (20% vs 52%, χ2 = 23.2, P < 0.001). Patients who died differed in age, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen/s.Creatinine ratio, dialysis urea reduction rate (URR), SAPS 2 and Charlson score; they presented a higher rate of heart disease, and a larger proportion required noradrenaline/dopamine for shock. After correction for mortality risk factors, multivariate Cox analysis revealed that site of treatment (medical vs nephrology wards
Zhang, Fan; Liu, Hong; Gong, Xiaoli; Liu, Fuyou; Peng, Youming; Cheng, Meichu; Zhang, Hongqing; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yuyuan; Guo, Chunyan
♦ Objective: The intent of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and risk factors affecting mortality of the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in a single peritoneal dialysis (PD) center over a period of 10 years. ♦ Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients on PD from June 2001 to June 2011. The clinical and biochemical data were collected from the medical records. Clinical variables included gender, age at the start of PD, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), presence of diabetes mellitus and blood pressure. Biochemical variables included hemoglobin, urine volume, residual renal function (RRF), serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, comorbidities, and outcomes. Survival curves were made by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses to identify mortality risk factors were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. ♦ Results: A total of 421 patients were enrolled, 269 of whom were male (63.9%). The mean age at the start of PD was 57.9 ± 14.8 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of ESRD (39.4%). Estimation of patient survival by Kaplan-Meier was 92.5%, 80.2%, 74.4%, and 55.7% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Patient survival was associated with age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.641 [1.027 – 2.622], p = 0.038), cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.731 [1.08 – 2.774], p = 0.023), hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.782 [1.11 – 2.858], p = 0.017) in the Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Estimation of technique survival by Kaplan-Meier was 86.7%, 68.8%, 55.7%, and 37.4% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In the Cox proportional hazards model analysis, age (HR: 1.672 [1.176 – 2.377], p = 0.004) and hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.511 [1.050 – 2.174], p = 0.026) predicted technique failure. ♦ Conclusion: The PD patients in our center exhibited comparable or even
Retana, Carmen; Sanchez, Elsa I; Gonzalez, Sirenia; Perez-Lopez, Alejandro; Cruz, Armando; Lagunas-Munoz, Jesus; Alfaro-Cruz, Carmen; Vital-Flores, Socorro; Reyes, José L
Patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are classified according to their peritoneal permeability as low transporter (low solute permeability) or High transporter (high solute permeability). Factors that determine the differences in permeability between them have not been fully disclosed. We investigated morphological features of cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells from low or high transporter patients and its response to All trans retinoic Acid (ATRA, vitamin A active metabolite), as compared to non-uremic human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Control cells were isolated from human omentum. High or low transporter cells were obtained from dialysis effluents. Cells were cultured in media containing ATRA (0, 50, 100 or 200 nM). We studied length and distribution of microvilli and cilia (scanning electron microscopy), epithelial (cytokeratin, claudin-1, ZO-1 and occludin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin) transition markers by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and transforming growth factor β1 expression by Western blot. Low and high transporter exhibited hypertrophic cells, reduction in claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, cytokeratin and vimentin disorganization and positive α-smooth muscle actin label. Vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 were overexpressed in low transporter. Ciliated cells were diminished in low and high transporters. Microvilli number and length were severely reduced in high transporter. ATRA reduced hypertrophic cells number in low transporter. It also improved cytokeratin and vimentin organization, decreased vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and increased claudin 1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, in low and high transporter. In low transporter, ATRA reduced transforming growth factor-β1 expression. ATRA augmented percentage of ciliated cells in low and high transporter. It also augmented cilia length in high transporter. Alterations in
Ureña, Pablo; Ruiz-García, César; daSilva, Iara; Lescano, Patricia; del Carpio, Jacqueline; Ballarín, José; Cozzolino, Mario
CKD and CKD-related mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBDs) are associated with high cardiovascular and mortality risks. In randomized clinical trials (RCTs), no single drug intervention has been shown to reduce the high mortality risk in dialysis patients, but several robust secondary analyses point toward important potential beneficial effects of controlling CKD-MBD–related factors and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The advent of cinacalcet, which has a unique mode of action at the calcium-sensing receptor, represented an important step forward in controlling CKD-MBD. In addition, new RCTs have conclusively shown that cinacalcet improves achievement of target levels for all of the metabolic abnormalities associated with CKD-MBD and may also attenuate the progression of vascular and valvular calcifications in dialysis patients. However, a final conclusion on the effect of cinacalcet on hard outcomes remains elusive. Tolerance of cinacalcet is limited by frequent secondary side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hypocalcemia and oversuppression of parathyroid hormone, which may cause some management difficulties, especially for those lacking experience with the drug. Against this background, this review aims to summarize the results of studies on cinacalcet, up to and including the publication of the recent ADVANCE and EVOLVE RCTs, as well as recent post hoc analyses, and to offer practical guidance on how to improve the clinical management of the most frequent adverse events associated with cinacalcet, based on both currently available information and personal experience. In addition, attention is drawn to less common secondary effects of cinacalcet treatment and advisable precautions. PMID:26224878
The abnormalities in bone and mineral metabolism in chronic kidney disease patients are associated with an increased risk of fractures, vascular calcifications and cardiovascular diseases. A few decades ago hyperphosphatemia and the common development of secondary hyperparathyroidism were thought to be the main problem to deal with. Since dietary phosphate restriction and haemodialysis were not proven to be sufficient measures to reduce phosphorus, phosphate-binding therapy has been widely instituted as a treatment option. Various types of phosphate binders employed over the years have contributed to the changing spectrum of renal osteodystrophy from high to low bone turnover along with the shift from hypocalcemia and negative calcium balance towards hypercalcemia and the positive calcium balance. Thus, hypercalcemia instead of hyperphosphatemia is nowadays associated with the increased risk of vascular calcification, morbidity and mortality in the dialysis population. Besides the very expensive non-calcium based phosphate binders, at least two common tools may be helpful in the treatment of hypercalcemia and adynamic bone. A reduced daily use of calcium carbonate/acetate up to 1g per main meal is an easily manageable and inexpensive tool. The second option for stimulation of parathyroid gland activity and bone turnover is the lowering of the dialysate calcium concentration. In conclusion, an aggressive treatment of hyperphosphatemia and calcium overload might lead towards an opposite effect of hypoparathyroidism and hypercalcemia. Reasonable treatment strategies based on a careful monitoring should be employed in order to prevent related consequences and to contribute to a better long-term quality of life and survival of dialysis patients.
Firanek, Catherine A; Sloand, James A; Todd, Lucy B
In the United States, the majority of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) use a cycler or automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). The aim of this study was the identification of common features in nurse-led APD training programs that were likely to contribute to successful home dialysis. This study collected data on nurse-led APD training programs in six high-performing PD centers. A 13-point survey, which focused on training tools, topics covered methods used, and level of support at home, was administered during group face-to-face interviews with the PD training nurses. Data were reviewed for trends between centers. Training programs in all six centers focused on essential information and skill sets to begin home dialysis using APD, with simple instructions and a hands-on approach. Every center initially trained patients on continuous ambulatory PD before APD. The clinics provided ongoing education, reinforcement, and retraining of concepts and skills through discussion, quizzes, and topic-specific monthly training sessions. All clinics provided 24-hour support for patients. Adopting the best practices identified in this study has the potential to improve APD training.
Maamoun, Hoda Abdel Hamid; Soliman, Amin Roshdy; El Sherif, Rasha
In the hemodialysis population, the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization has been documented to be as high as 80%; effective prophylaxis of vascular access infection and bacteremia is a worthwhile goal in the management of hemodialysis population. Surveillance of 50 hemodialysis patients for S. aureus-positive nasal cultures was performed by monthly nasal swabs over a 12-month period. All patients were performing dialysis using hemodialysis catheters thrice weekly. All positive cultures were treated with a prophylactic antibiotic regimen. Thirty-one patients (62%) had one or more positive cultures. The surveillance period was longer in the S. aureus nasal carriers (p < 0.01). The frequency of positive cultures correlated with the duration of surveillance (p < 0.05). The incidence of S. aureus bacteremia was greater in patients with three or more positive cultures (p < 0.05). This study suggests that continuous surveillance for S. aureus nasal colonization is essential to properly identify all hemodialysis patients using catheters at risk of developing S. aureus bacteremias.
Kwon, Young Eun; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Park, Kyoung Sook; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung H; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook
Subjective global assessment (SGA) is associated with mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, little is known whether improvement or deterioration of nutritional status after dialysis initiation influences the clinical outcome. We aimed to elucidate the association between changes in nutritional status determined by SGA during the first year of dialysis and all-cause mortality in incident ESRD patients. This was a multicenter, prospective cohort study. Incident dialysis patients with available SGA data at both baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement (n = 914) were analyzed. Nutritional status was defined as well nourished (WN, SGA A) or malnourished (MN, SGA B or C). The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the change in nutritional status between baseline and 12 months after dialysis commencement: group 1, WN to WN; group 2, MN to WN; group 3, WN to MN; and group 4, MN to MN. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to clarify the association between changes in nutritional status and mortality. Being in the MN group at 12 months after dialysis initiation, but not at baseline, was a significant risk factor for mortality. There was a significant difference in the 3-year survival rates among the groups (group 1, 92.2%; group 2, 86.0%; group 3, 78.2%; and group 4, 63.5%; log-rank test, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that the mortality risk was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-6.03, P = 0.01) whereas the mortality risk was significantly lower in group 2 compared with group 4 (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17-0.71, P < 0.01) even after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, mortality risk of group 3 was significantly higher than in group 2 (HR 2.89, 95% CI 1.22-6.81, P = 0.02); there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2. The changes in nutritional status assessed by SGA during the first
dos Santos Grincenkov, Fabiane Rossi; Fernandes, Natália; Chaoubah, Alfredo; da Silva Fernandes, Neimar; Bastos, Kleyton; Lopes, Antonio Alberto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Divino-Filho, José Carolino; Bastos, Marcus Gomes
♦ Background and Objectives: A large proportion of the patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) in Brazil have low levels of education and family income. The present study assessed whether education level and family income are associated with baseline and longitudinal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores during the first year of PD therapy. ♦ Methods: We evaluated 1624 incident patients from the Brazilian Peritoneal Dialysis Multicenter Study (BRAZPD) at baseline, and 486 of them after 12 months. The SF-36 was used to determine HRQOL and the Karnofsky index (KI), physical performance. ♦ Results: At baseline, patients received high KI scores compared with scores on the SF-36. The means of the mental and physical components at baseline and after 12 months were 39.9 ± 10.5 compared with 38.7 ± 11.7 and 41.8 ± 9.6 compared with 40.7 ± 9.8 respectively, which were not statistically different. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease were predictors of the mental component (respectively, β = 0.12, p < 0.001; β = 0.11, p < 0.001; β = -0.08, β = 0.007; and β = -0.07, p = 0.007) and that age, sex, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hemoglobin, glucose, and creatinine were predictors of the physical component (respectively, β = -0.28, p < 0.001; β = 0.06, p = 0.009; β = -0.09, p = 0.002; β = -0.09, p = 0.001; β = 0.07, p = 0.004; β = -0.05, p = 0.040; and β = 0.05, p = 0.040). Education level and family income were not significantly associated with HRQOL (mental and physical components) in the multivariate regression. ♦ Conclusions: The results indicate that, as predictors, family income and education level have no impact on HRQOL, supporting the idea that socio-economic status should not be a barrier to the selection of PD as a treatment modality in Brazil. PMID:24335126
Harwood, Lori; Clark, Alexander M
Understanding health decisions using critical realism: home-dialysis decision-making during chronic kidney disease This paper examines home-dialysis decision making in people with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) from the perspective of critical realism. CKD programmes focus on patient education for self-management to delay the progression of kidney disease and the preparation and support for renal replacement therapy e.g.) dialysis and transplantation. Home-dialysis has clear health, societal and economic benefits yet service usage is low despite efforts to realign resources and educate individuals. Current research on the determinants of modality selection is superficial and insufficient to capture the complexities embedded in the process of dialysis modality selection. Predictors of home-dialysis selection and the effect of chronic kidney disease educational programmes provide a limited explanation of this experience. A re-conceptualization of the problem is required in order to fully understand this process. The epistemology and ontology of critical realism guides our knowledge and methodology particularly suited for examination of these complexities. This approach examines the deeper mechanisms and wider determinants associated with modality decision making, specifically who chooses home dialysis and under what circumstances. Until more is known regarding dialysis modality decision making service usage of home dialysis will remain low as interventions will be based on inadequate epistemology.
Yang, Wen-fang; Han, Fei; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Jiang-hua
The diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) seems relatively difficult due to the absence of specific symptoms and signs in patients on peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. We report four cases of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis on dialysis, with two cases on peritoneal dialysis and two cases on hemodialysis. The presentations, therapy, and outcomes of TB infection in these patients were reviewed. Otherwise, the English literature published in the PubMed database associating extra-pulmonary tuberculosis on dialysis over the last three decades is reviewed. A total of 61 studies containing 70 cases were included. The most common primary disease was diabetic nephropathy (22.86%, 16/70). The peritoneum (31.42%, 22/70), bone (21.42%, 15/70), and lymph node (20%, 14/70) were the most frequently infected. Single organ infection was common (90%, 63/70). Fever (58.57%, 41/70), pain (35.71%, 25/70), and enlarged lymph node (20%, 14/70) were the most common symptoms. Biopsy (67.14%, 47/70) and culture (40%, 28/70) provided most reliable methods for clear diagnosis of tuberculosis. The combined treatment of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol (44.29%, 31/70) was the most common therapy. The majority of patients improved (82.86%, 58/70); however, 12 cases got worse (17.14%), with 10 of them dying (14.29%). Physicians should be aware of the non-specific symptoms and location of infection, and consider tuberculosis in their differential diagnoses in dialysis patients presenting with symptoms such as fever, pain, and weight loss.
Sauk, Jenny; Jensen, Donald M.; Mohanty, Smruti R.; Reau, Nancy; Reddy, K. Gautham
Objectives To evaluate the efficacy, safety and tolerability of pegylated interferon monotherapy for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients who are on dialysis. Methods From the University of Chicago Clinical Hepatology Database dated May 2001 to July 2005, 13 patients on dialysis with hepatitis C who have been treated with pegylated interferon were identified. Demographic and laboratory data were obtained from medical records. Patients received pegylated interferon alfa-2a at 135 µg subcutaneous (SQ) weekly (n = 8) or pegylated interferon alfa-2b at 1 µg/kg SQ weekly (n = 5). Side effects from the medication were noted. Results There were 7 men and 6 women, with a mean age of 54±11 years; 11 patients (85%) were African American and 11 patients (85%) were infected with HCV genotype 1. The median serum HCV RNA level was 3,273,000 copies/mL (range, 207,000 to >40,000,000), and the median serum alanine aminotransferase level was 29 IU/mL (range, 19–77). Four patients (30%) had bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis on liver biopsy. None of the 13 patients achieved sustained virologic response; 2 patients (15%) had an undetectable viral load at the end of therapy but relapsed within 6 months of follow-up. The most common side effects were fatigue (100%), anemia defined as 2 g/dL or greater drop in hemoglobin level (60%), and psychiatric symptoms (30%). Conclusions Pegylated interferon is ineffective for HCV infection in patients on dialysis. Furthermore, worsening anemia, which is usually prevalent at baseline in dialysis patients, is a common adverse event even in the absence of ribavirin use.
Dialysis is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease. In a different context, for many patients this treatment is the focal point around which their life revolves, not only due to the time spent travelling to and from treatment sessions and the time dedicated to the dialysis treatment itself, but also due to the accompanying dietary and fluid restrictions and medication burden. Wearable and portable dialysis devices could potentially improve patient quality of life by allowing patients to continue with their daily activities of life while undergoing dialysis, as well as by loosening-or removing entirely-dietary and fluid restrictions and reducing pill burden. Advances in nanotechnology manufacturing coupled with advances in electronics and miniaturisation have allowed a new generation of wearable and portable dialysis devices to be developed which are now undergoing large animal and patient clinical trials. We are therefore potentially at a new dawn in the treatment of dialysis patients with the first generation of wearable and portable dialysis devices, which may well revolutionise the treatment and quality of life for patients with end-stage kidney disease.
de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo
Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.
Zhou, Yan; Yu, Yusheng; Tang, Zheng; Li, Shijun; Hu, Weixin; Luo, Chunlei; Liu, Zhihong
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in patients with severe lupus nephritis (LN) complicated with organ dysfunction. In total, 13 severe LN patients complicated with multiple-organ dysfunction, who underwent PD treatment between November 2003 and September 2010, were enrolled in the study. Six patients received methylprednisolone pulse therapy due to lupus activity and progressive renal failure. These patients were complicated with severe edema, cardiac insufficiency and severe hypoalbuminemia. PD was applied to the patients, followed by the administration of immunosuppressants. Patients were followed-up to review the parameters of renal function, the immunological indexes and the systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index. The results indicated that the general state of health was markedly improved following PD treatment, with edema abatement and improvement of heart function and physical strength. Serum creatinine levels significantly decreased from 6.3±1.6 to 2.6±1.0 mg/dl. A total of 10 cases ceased PD treatment during the follow-up, while three cases continued PD to the end of the follow-up period. The levels of albumin and hemoglobin exhibited a marked increase from 29.7±5.7 to 35.2±5.5 g/l and 8.7±1.8 to 9.8±1.8 g/l, respectively. There was one case of peritonitis, one case of peritoneal leakage and two cases of pneumonia. Therefore, PD may be a successful treatment method for severe LN patients complicated with essential organ dysfunction. PD not only improved the symptoms of edema and heart failure, but also played an important role in preserving residual renal function and improving the nutritional state of the patients. Thus, PD can be considered as a treatment option for patients with severe LN associated with acute kidney injury, however, selecting a suitable immunosuppressant during PD treatment is essential.
Noble, Helen; Meyer, Professor Julienne; Bridge, Dr Jackie; Johnson, Dr Barbara; Kelly, Dr Daniel
Little is known about the prevalence and burden of symptoms in patients managed without dialysis. This study was the result of a larger study exploring the experiences of 30 such patients and their trajectories to death. Data were analysed relating to symptoms once the patients had been referred to a Renal Supportive Care Service based in the East End of London, UK. A high symptom prevalence was found with 30 different symptoms reported at first consultation. Widely reported symptoms impacting on daily living included breathlessness, oedema, pruritus, nausea and vomiting and pain. Findings indicate that as symptoms escalate and death approaches, some symptoms, such as fluid overload and lethargy become difficult to treat indicating that death is close. This new knowledge can help staff as they attempt to determine when the end of life is approaching in order to support and care for patients appropriately. This paper highlights a need for effective identification and management of symptoms as they arise and further exploration of the effects of these symptoms on daily living.
Dziubek, Wioletta; Bulińska, Katarzyna; Rogowski, Łukasz; Gołębiowski, Tomasz; Kusztal, Mariusz; Grochola, Monika; Markowska, Dominika; Zembroń-Łacny, Agnieszka; Weyde, Wacław; Klinger, Marian; Woźniewski, Marek
Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a 3-month physical training program, conducted in an aquatic environment with end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD), on the physical fitness and functional parameters of the knee joint muscles. Patients and Methods. The study included 20 ESDR patients with mean age 64.2 ± 13.1 y. treated with hemodialysis in Dialysis Center of the University Hospital in Wroclaw. Before and 3 months after the physical training in water, a test was performed to evaluate the physical fitness of each patient; additionally, a measurement was taken of force-velocity parameters. The 3-month training program took place on nonhemodialysis days, in the recreational pool of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw. Results. After aquatic training cycle, an improvement was observed in all parameters measured using the Fullerton test. The value of peak torque and its relation to body mass increased in the movement of flexors and extensors of left and right lower extremities in all tested velocities. Conclusions. In assessing the physical fitness of studied women, the biggest improvement was achieved in tests assessing the strength of upper and lower extremities as well as lower body flexibility. Higher values of force-velocity parameters are conducive to women achieving better physical fitness test results. PMID:26161421
Cigarran, Secundino; Barril, Guillermina; Cirugeda, Antonio; Bernis, Carmen; Aguilera, Abelardo; Sanz, Paloma; Herraez, Isabel; Alegre, Laura; Selgas, Rafael
Hypoalbuminemia may be secondary to volume expansion conditions and an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is an accurate, non-invasive method to measure body composition, especially the water compartments in humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin concentration (SA) and hydration state measured by whole BIA. The study investigated 108 non-selected patients (73 on hemodialysis, 35 on peritoneal dialysis) with a mean age of 61.4 +/- 15.6 years, 42.7% of whom were female. The patients were allotted to groups according to their SA: Group 1, < or = 3.5 g/dL; Group 2, 3.6-4.0 g/dL; and Group 3, >4.0 g/dL. The BIA parameters used included: total body water, intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW), phase angle (PA), body cell mass (BCM), ICW/ECW ratio and ICW/ECW ratio patients/controls (fluid index). Seventy-five healthy volunteers formed the control group. A strong positive correlation was found between the PA and fluid index (r (2) = 0.993, P < 0.001), as well as between the PA and SA (r = 0.386, P < 0.001), and the ICW/ECW ratio and SA (r = 0.227, P < 0.001). The ECW was negatively correlated with SA (r = -0.330, P < 0.001). Every 0.1 g/dL decrease in SA was associated with a 0.33 L increase in ECW. Group 1 patients had lower reactance (P = 0.006), PA (P < 0.001), BCM (P = 0.012), fluid index (P < 0.001) and ICW/ECW ratio (P = 0.015), and an increased ECW (NS) than groups 2 and 3. We conclude that hypoalbuminemia is also a marker of fluid excess. The SA is associated to the fluid index and the PA allows assessment of the dry weight and its variations in an individualized manner in dialysis patients.
Stevenson, Sarah; Tang, Wen; Cho, Yeoungjee; Mudge, David W.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Johnson, David W.
♦ Background: There is limited available evidence regarding the role of monitoring serum vancomycin concentrations during treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis. ♦ Methods: A total of 150 PD patients experiencing 256 episodes of either gram-positive or culture-negative peritonitis were included to investigate the relationship between measured serum vancomycin within the first week and clinical outcomes of cure, relapse, repeat or recurrence of peritonitis, catheter removal, temporary or permanent transfer to hemodialysis, hospitalization and death. ♦ Results: Vancomycin was used as an initial empiric antibiotic in 54 gram-positive or culture-negative peritonitis episodes among 34 patients. The median number of serum vancomycin level measurements in the first week was 3 (interquartile range; IQR 1 – 4). The mean day-2 vancomycin level, measured in 34 (63%) episodes, was 17.5 ± 5.2 mg/L. Hospitalized patients were more likely to have serum vancomycin levels measured on day 2 and ≥ 3 measurements in the first week. The peritonitis cure rates were similar between patients with < 3 and ≥ 3 measurements in the first week (77% vs 57%, p = 0.12) and if day-2 vancomycin levels were measured or not (68% vs 65%, p = 0.84). The average day-2 (18.0 ± 5.9 vs 16.6 ± 3.2, p = 0.5), first-week average (18.6 ± 5.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.3, p = 0.9) and nadir (14.5 ± 4.1 vs 13.6 ± 4.2, p = 0.5) vancomycin levels were comparable in patients who did or did not achieve peritonitis cure. Similar results were observed for all other clinical outcomes. ♦ Conclusion: The clinical outcomes of gram-positive and culture-negative peritonitis episodes are not associated with either the frequency or levels of serum vancomycin measurements in the first week of treatment when vancomycin is dosed according to International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) Guidelines. PMID:24584597
Isoyama, Naohito; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Avesani, Carla Maria; Lindholm, Bengt; Bàràny, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Cederholm, Tommy; Stenvinkel, Peter
Background and objectives Reduced muscle mass and strength are prevalent conditions in dialysis patients. However, muscle strength and muscle mass are not congruent; muscle strength can diminish even though muscle mass is maintained or increased. This study addresses phenotype and mortality associations of these muscle dysfunction entities alone or in combination (i.e., concurrent loss of muscle mass and strength/mobility, here defined as sarcopenia). Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study included 330 incident dialysis patients (203 men, mean age 53±13 years, and mean GFR 7±2 ml/min per 1.73 m2) recruited between 1994 and 2010 and followed prospectively for up to 5 years. Low muscle mass (by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry appendicular mass index) and low muscle strength (by handgrip) were defined against young reference populations according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Results Whereas 20% of patients had sarcopenia, low muscle mass and low muscle strength alone were observed in a further 24% and 15% of patients, respectively. Old age, comorbidities, protein-energy wasting, physical inactivity, low albumin, and inflammation associated with low muscle strength, but not with low muscle mass (multivariate ANOVA interactions). During follow-up, 95 patients (29%) died and both conditions associated with mortality as separate entities. When combined, individuals with low muscle mass alone were not at increased risk of mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.56 to 2.67). Individuals with low muscle strength were at increased risk, irrespective of their muscle stores being appropriate (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.87) or low (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.71). Conclusions Low muscle strength was more strongly associated with aging, protein-energy wasting, physical inactivity, inflammation, and mortality than low muscle mass. Assessment of muscle functionality may provide additional
Dumler Md, Francis
Bioelectrical impedance analysis is an established technique for body composition analysis. The phase angle parameter, an index of body cell mass, tissue hydration, and membrane integrity, makes it suitable for assessing nutritional status and survivability. We evaluated the significance of a low phase angle value on nutritional status and mortality in 285 chronic dialysis patients during a longitudinal prospective observational study. Patients in the lower phase angle tertile had decreased body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, body cell mass, and lower serum albumin concentrations than those in the higher tertile (P<001). In addition, mortality rates were significantly lower (P=0.05) in the highest tertile patients. In conclusion, the phase angle is a useful method for identifying dialysis patients at high risk for malnutrition and increased mortality.
Gómez Vázquez, Jesús Alfredo; MartínezCalva, Ignacio Eduardo; Mendíola Fernández, Ricardo; Escalera León, Verónica; Cardona, Mario; Noyola, Hector
Pregnancy in end-stage renal disease patients is infrequent and is associated with fetal loss, premature delivery, intrauterine growth restriction, and lack of control of or exacerbation of or onset of hypertension. Even after replacement of renal function, the prognosis for the patient and the fetus is poor. A point of controversy is the renal replacement therapy method. This report is based on two clinical cases of pregnancy in peritoneal dialysis patients that resulted in full-term delivery. Adequate metabolic and blood pressure control was achieved during pregnancy, the only mutual complication being the presence of polyhydramnios. However, both infants were healthy for their gestational age and without neonatal complications. We may conclude that peritoneal dialysis is an acceptable therapeutic option for pregnant patients and their fetuses.
Ho, Li-Chun; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Kuo, Te-Hui; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Wu, Jia-Ling; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Jung-Der; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Sung, Junne-Ming; Sung, Junne-Ming; Wang, Jung-Der; Li, Chung-Yi; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Kuo, Te-Hui; Wang, Hsi-Hao; Ho, Li-Chun; Wu, Jia-Ling; Hsieh, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Miao-Fen; Wu, Hung-Lien; Chen, Ping-Yu; Li, Wen-Huang; Chang, Wei-Ting
Parathyroidectomy is recommended by the clinical guidelines for dialysis patients with unremitting secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). However, the survival advantage of parathyroidectomy is debated because of the selection bias in previous studies. To minimize potential bias in the present nationwide cohort study, we enrolled only dialysis patients who had undergone radionuclide parathyroid scanning to ensure all patients had severe SHPT. The parathyroidectomized patients were matched with the controls based on propensity score for parathyroidectomy. Mortality hazard was estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for comorbidities before scanning (model 1) or over the whole study period (model 2). Our results showed that among the 2786 enrolled patients, 1707 underwent parathyroidectomy, and the other 1079 were controls. The crude mortality rates were lower in the parathyroidectomized patients than in the controls. In adjusted analyses for the population matched on propensity score, parathyroidectomy was associated with a significant 20% to 25% lower risk for all-cause mortality (model 1: hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.94; model 2: hazard ratio 0.80, 95% confidence internal 0.64 to 0.98). We concluded that parathyroidectomy was associated with a reduced long-term mortality risk in dialysis patients with severe SHPT. PMID:26758515
Morrow, Kelly A.; And Others
Investigated predictors of psychological distress among infertility clinic patients. Analyses indicated that infertile men and women reported greater psychological distress than the general population. Self-blame and avoidance coping significantly predicted psychological distress among men and women. Increased age and childlessness added to…
Zoccali, Carmine; Benedetto, Francesco A; Mallamaci, Francesca; Tripepi, Giovanni; Giacone, Giuseppe; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Seminara, Giuseppe; Stancanelli, Benedetta; Malatino, Lorenzo S
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are at high risk for heart failure, but the prevalence and the prognostic value of asymptomatic systolic dysfunction in these patients are unknown. In this prospective cohort study, the authors have therefore assessed by echocardiography the prevalence and the prognostic value of systolic function as estimated by ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening at endocardial level (endoFS), and at midwall (mwFS), in a cohort of 254 asymptomatic dialysis patients. Systolic dysfunction had a prevalence rate of 26% by endoFS and of 48% by mwFS. During the follow-up period, 125 patients had one or more fatal and nonfatal CV events. On multivariate COX regression analysis, the three LV systolic function indicators were independently associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CV events, and there were no differences in the predictive power of these indicators (P > 0.30). The prediction power of LV function indicators was largely independent of traditional and novel risk factors in ESRD such as C-reactive protein and asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA). ADMA was significantly related with LV function indicators as well as with mortality and incident CV events, but these links were much reduced (P = NS) in models including LV function indicators. Of note, the risk of CV events was minimal in patients with normal LV mass and function, intermediate in patients with either LVH or systolic dysfunction, and maximal in patients displaying both alterations. The study of myocardial contractility by echocardiography provides prognostic information independently of LV mass and other risk factors in ESRD. Risk stratification by simple systolic function parameters may prove useful in secondary prevention strategies in these patients.
Khaira, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kumar, A.; Prakash, S.; Saraya, A.; Singh, B.; Bora, M.; Tiwari, S. C.; Agarwal, S. K.; Bhowmik, D.
We evaluated important nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function and oxidative stress (OS) among stable peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Their association with carotid intimal medial thickness (CIMT) was also assessed. Thirty-eight adult patients (13 diabetics, 20 males) on PD for >6 months and 15 age and sex-matched controls were studied. Duration of dialysis (DOD), residual urine output (UO), weekly Kt/V urea, detailed biochemical and lipid profile were noted. OS was measured by serum concentration of antioxidants; vitamin C and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and pro-oxidant; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). High-resolution ultrasonography was used to determine CIMT and flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery [endothelium-dependent dilatation (EDD)] and dilatation subsequent to nitrate spray [endothelium-independent dilatation (EID)]. Mean age, DOD, UO and Kt/V of study population were 49.3 ± 11.6 years, 19.4 ± 11.8 months, 508.2 ± 422.9 ml/day and 1.73 ± 0.24, respectively. As compared to controls PD patients had higher CIMT (0.46 ± 0.05 vs 0.50 ± 0.07 mm, P = 0.003) and TBARS (1.5 ± 0.4 vs 5.1 ± 2.3 nM/ml, P < 0.001) but lower Vitamin C (1.7 ± 0.3 vs 0.6 ± 0.2 mg%, P < 0.001), FRAP (990.8 ± 78.1 vs 328.7 ± 183.5 μM/L, P < 0.001) and EDD (26.2 ± 5.4 vs 9.8 ± 4.6 %, P < 0.001). TBARS correlated positively with DOD and negatively with hemoglobin. Vitamin C and FRAP correlated positively with serum albumin. EDD correlated positively with UO, Kt/V and hemoglobin. CIMT correlated negatively with Kt/V and hemoglobin. Among themselves CIMT correlated negatively with EDD and vitamin C. EDD correlated positively with vitamin C, while FRAP correlated positively with vitamin C and negatively with TBARS. PD patients have higher OS, poorer endothelial function and higher structural atherosclerosis. These parameters are closely linked to each other, hemoglobin, DOD, residual UO, serum albumin and small
Riella, Miguel C
Advances in the nutritional support of hospitalized patients in the early 1970s led to the recognition that tools were needed to evaluate the nutritional status of patients. The observation that malnutrition in patients receiving dialysis was associated with increased morbidity and mortality prompted many expert groups to develop nutritional scoring systems to be applied in these patients. Given the diverse and confusing terminologies that emerged from these publications, the International Society of Renal Nutritional and Metabolism convened an expert panel to recommend a new nomenclature and preferred methods to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The new and inclusive term protein-energy wasting (PEW) refers to a systematically defined condition based on certain criteria and reflects malnutrition and wasting caused not only by inadequate nutrient intake but also by depletion resulting from the inflammatory and noninflammatory conditions that prevail in this population. Serial assessment of nutritional status for detection and management of PEW is recommended using old and new scoring tools, including the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), and PEW definition criteria. These tools, which are reliable methods and predictors of outcomes, are reviewed in this article.
Ozdemir, Ozgür; Calişaneller, Tarkan; Sönmez, Erkin; Altinörs, Nur
Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is defined as the entrapment of the posterior tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel of the ankle. The etiologies of tarsal tunnel syndrome are mainly the presence of a ganglion, osseous prominence with tarsal bone coalition, trauma, varicose veins, neurinoma, hypertrophy of the flexor retinaculum, or systemic disease (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis). However, no specific cause can be identified in some cases. Patients with chronic renal failure tend to develop peripheral nerve entrapment and carpal tunnel syndrome is the best-known peripheral entrapment neuropathy among them. Contrary to carpal tunnel syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome is observed less frequently in chronic renal failure patients. The common presenting symptoms of TTS are paresthesias and/or pain in the plantar side of the foot. Motor symptoms are rarely detected. Diagnosis is made primarily by electroneuromyographic studies and physical examination. Surgery is the treatment of choice and the outcome is generally favourable. In this report, we present a patient with tarsal tunnel syndrome complicating peritoneal dialysis.
Kang, Seok Hui; Cho, Kyu Hyang; Park, Jong Won; Yoon, Kyung Woo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance and usefulness of the Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) as a prognostic and nutritional indicator in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on the initial OPNI score: group A (n = 186, < 40), group B (n = 150, 40-45), and group C (n = 186, > 45). Group A was associated with a higher grade according to the Davies risk index than the other groups. Serum creatinine and albumin levels, total lymphocyte count, and fat mass increased with an increase in OPNI. According to the edema index, the correlation coefficient for OPNI was -0.284 and for serum albumin was -0.322. Similarly, according to the C-reactive protein (CRP), the correlation coefficient for OPNI was -0.117 and for serum albumin was -0.169. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, Davies risk index, CRP, and edema index revealed that the hazard ratios for low OPNI, serum albumin, and CRP were 1.672 (P = 0.003), 1.308 (P = 0.130), and 1.349 (P = 0.083), respectively. Our results demonstrate that the OPNI is a simple method that can be used for predicting the nutritional status and clinical outcome in PD patients. PMID:23166417
Kanda, Reo; Hamada, Chieko; Kaneko, Kayo; Nakano, Takanori; Wakabayashi, Keiichi; Io, Hiroaki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko
It is well known that bioincompatible peritoneal dialysate plays a central role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis. Peritoneal inflammation continues even after the cessation of peritoneal dialysate stimulation. It is important to establish the definition of persistent inflammation in the peritoneal cavity at the cessation of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The objective of the present study was to determine whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in peritoneal effluent (PE) may be a new biomarker in PD patients. Serum, PE, and peritoneal specimens were obtained from 50 patients with end-stage kidney disease at Juntendo University Hospital. Samples of 19 patients were obtained at the initiation of PD and those of 31 patients at the cessation of PD. PTX3, high-sensitivity CRP, and MMP-2 and IL-6 were analyzed. An immunohistological examination using an anti-PTX3 antibody was performed. Expressions of PTX3 were observed in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesothelial cells in the peritoneum. The PTX3 level in PE at the cessation of PD was significantly higher than that at the initiation of PD. Effluent PTX3 levels in patients with a history of peritonitis or a PD duration of more than 8 years were significantly higher than those in patients without peritonitis or patients with a PD duration of <8 years. The PTX3 level was significantly correlated with MMP-2 and IL-6 levels in PE, as well as the thickness of the submesothelial compact zone and the vasculopathy. It appears that PTX3 may be a new biomarker of peritoneal inflammation and progressive fibrosis.
Yang, Zhikai; Xu, Rong; Zhuo, Min; Dong, Jie
♦ Objectives: We explored the relationship between the experience level of nurses and the peritonitis risk in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ♦ Methods: Our observational cohort study followed 305 incident PD patients until a first episode of peritonitis, death, or censoring. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the work experience in general medicine of their nurses—that is, least experience (<10 years), moderate experience (10 to <15 years), and advanced experience (≥15 years). Demographic characteristics, baseline biochemistry, and residual renal function were also recorded. Multivariate Cox regression was used to analyze the association of risks for all-cause and gram-positive peritonitis with patient training provided by nurses at different experience levels. ♦ Results: Of the 305 patients, 91 were trained at the initiation of PD by nurses with advanced experience, 100 by nurses with moderate experience, and 114 by nurses with the least experience. Demographic and clinical variables did not vary significantly between the groups. During 13 582 patient–months of follow-up, 129 first episodes of peritonitis were observed, with 48 episodes being attributed to gram-positive organisms. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that training by nurses with advanced experience predicted the longest period free of first-episode gram-positive peritonitis. After adjustment for some recognized confounders, the advanced experience group was still associated with the lowest risk for first-episode gram-positive peritonitis. The level of nursing experience was not significantly correlated with all-cause peritonitis risk. ♦ Conclusions: The experience in general medicine of nurses might help to lower the risk of gram-positive peritonitis among PD patients. These data are the first to indicate that nursing experience in areas other than PD practice can be vital in the training of PD patients. PMID:21719682
Introduction The medical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease involves a combination of dietary restrictions, phosphate binders, active vitamin D analogs, and calcimimetics. Case presentation We report the case of a 36-year-old Hispanic dialysis patient, originally from Cuba and now residing in the USA, who developed severe bone pain and muscle twitching after starting low dose cinacalcet, despite normal pre-dialysis ionized calcium and elevated parathyroid hormone. The clinical symptoms correlated with increased symmetrical uptake on bone scan that resolved rapidly upon discontinuation of cinacalcet. Conclusion Cinacalcet may induce severe bone pain and a unique bone scan uptake pattern in hemodialysis patients. PMID:20576153
Nienhuis, W A; Bruijns, R H J; Vastenburg, G; Wouters, R S M E
A 45-year-old female diabetes-mellitus patient on peritoneal dialysis was admitted because of vertigo. During her stay in hospital she developed a comatose condition with abnormal head posture and deviation ofthe eyes to the left. Capillary blood from the fingertip showed a glucose value of 15.4 mmol/l. However, the automatically obtained glucose value delivered with a blood-gas analysis was found to be 1.2 mmol/l. The neurological state of the patient normalised fully after intravenous glucose administration. The glucose values were falsely elevated because the patient used a peritoneal dialysis fluid at night which contained icodextrin as an osmotic agent. Metabolites of icodextrin can influence blood-glucose measurements taken using analyzers that depend on the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. To prevent potentially life-threatening situations, the use of an adequate glucose meter is of paramount importance.
Vahlsing, Thorsten; Delbeck, Sven; Budde, Janpeter; Ihrig, Dieter; Heise, H. Michael
Micro-dialysis can be used for continuously harvesting body fluids, while a multi-component analysis of the dialysates by infrared spectrometry offers splendid opportunities for monitoring substrates and metabolites such as glucose, lactate and others small enough to penetrate the semi-permeable dialysis membranes. However, a drawback of this process are variable recovery rates, which can be observed especially for subcutaneously implanted catheters in human subjects. Isotonic perfusates were investigated with acetate and mannitol as recovery markers for the dialysis of human serum at 37°C to mimic in vivo patient monitoring. The latter non-ionic substance has been suggested for application when other ionic substances such as bicarbonate or pH are also to be determined. Simultaneously for acetate and mannitol, the depletion of the marker substances from the perfusates using different micro-dialysis devices was investigated under various flow-rates. Relationships between relative dialysate marker concentrations and glucose recovery rates were determined based on multivariate calibrations. For quantification, classical least squares with reference spectra for modelling the serum dialysates was used, rendering a basis for reliable blood glucose and lactate measurements.
Grabysa, Radosław; Wańkowicz, Zofia
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to pulmonary hypertension (PH) as a strong and independent risk factor for adverse outcome in the population of patients on long-term dialysis. Published results of observational studies indicate that the problem of PH refers mostly to patients on long-term hemodialysis and is less common in peritoneal dialysis patients. The main cause of this complication is proximal location of the arteriovenous fistula, causing chronically increased cardiac output. This paper presents the usefulness of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for measurement of the Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) in the early diagnosis of PH in dialysis patients. Echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension with TTE, especially in the case of HD patients, ensures the selection of the proper location for the first arteriovenous fistula and facilitates the decision to switch to peritoneal dialysis or to accelerate the process of qualification for kidney transplantation. PMID:26697754
Saleh, Hesham Z.; Shaw, Matthew; Al-Rawi, Omar; Yates, Jonathan; Pullan, D. Mark; Chalmers, John A.C.; Fabri, Brian M.
OBJECTIVES Despite the seriousness of prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) as a postoperative complication, previously proposed risk prediction models were met with limited success. The purpose of this study was to identify perioperative variables associated with PMV in elective primary coronary bypass surgery. PMV was defined as the need for intubation and mechanical ventilation for >72 h, after completion of the operation. METHODS Between April 1997 and September 2010, 10 977 consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed. A series of two multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify preoperative predictors of prolonged ventilation and the impact of operative variables. RESULTS PMV occurred in 215 (1.96%) patients; 119 (55.3%) of these underwent tracheostomy. At multivariate analysis, predictors included NYHA higher than class II (odds ratio [OR], 1.77; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.34–2.34), renal dialysis (OR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.08–14.65), age at operation (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02–1.06), reduced FEV1 (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.98–0.99), body mass index >35 kg/m2 (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14–2.63). On serial logistic regression analyses, operative variables added little to the discriminatory power of the model. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed reduced survival among PMV patients (P < 0.001) with an improved survival in the tracheostomy subgroup. CONCLUSIONS PMV after coronary bypass is associated with a reduction in early and mid-term survival. Risk modelling for PMV remains problematic even when examining a more homogenous lower risk group. PMID:22495507
Neves, P L; Morgado, E; Faísca, M; Carrasqueira, H; Baptista, A; Silva, A P
Anaemia is a common finding in elderly patients particularly in those with chronic kidney disease. Effective correction of anaemia improves survival and quality of life. The association between anaemia and a poor nutritional status as well as the presence of inflammation has already been documented. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of the nutritional and inflammatory status on darbepoetin dose requirements of elderly patients followed in a "Chronic Kidney Disease" outpatient clinic. We included 71 elderly patients (age>or=65 years) in a "Chronic Kidney Disease" outpatient clinic. Creatinine Clearance (CrCl) was estimated according to the Cockroft-Gault equation. Nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical and anthropometric parameters. Tumour Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were used as biomarkers of inflammation. Our patients (56% males) with a mean age of 76.2+/-6.6 years were followed for 33.1+/-43.6 months. Mean eCrCl was 13.5+/-7.2 ml/mn/1.73 m2. All patients were under supplemental iron therapy and 74.7% needed darbepoietin (0.762+/-0.6 (microg/kg/week) to correct anaemia. Among the several variables regressed on darbepoietin dose, in a multiple regression model, only Hb, IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels and SGA score predicted the need for higher doses of darbepoietin. (r=0.677; r2=0.459). In Conclusion, in our pre-dialysis elderly patients, markers of a poor nutritional status (SGA and albumin) and inflammation (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) independently predicted the use of higher doses of darbepoietin to correct anaemia.
Kutsal, Dilek Aslan; Kürşat, Seyhun; İnci, Ayça; Ulman, Cevval; OzanÜtük, I
There are two types of malnutrition in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF); type 1 and type 2. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between malnutrition and inflammation and also the relationship between malnutrition and volume status. Ninety-four pre-dialysis CRF patients were included in the study. Nutritional status of the patients was calculated using the subjective global assessment. Scores of 1-5 were given according to the severity of the symptoms and physical examination findings. Serum inflammation markers [high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alfa] and nutrition parameters (albumin, pre-albumin, transferrin, fetuin-A, insulin like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3)] were measured in all the patients. Serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and echocardiography were performed to evaluate the volume status of the patients. The mean age of the patients was 59.6±13.3 years, the mean malnutrition score was 17.2±6.01, the mean and the median of hs-CRP levels were 18.5±40.7 and 5.6 mg/L, respectively, the mean albumin level was 3.46±0.48 and the mean creatinine clearance was 23.7±13.5 mL/min. A positive correlation between malnutrition scores with inflammation and volume parameters was found in the bivariate and multivariate analysis. In the multiple regression analysis, volume parameters proved to be the most important factors influencing malnutrition scores. Thus, the elimination of volume excess would ameliorate both inflammation and malnutrition. This hypothesis needs to be supported or proved with prospective studies.
Ribeiro, Cláudia; Penido, Maria Goretti Moreira Guimarães; Guimarães, Milena Maria Moreira; Tavares, Marcelo de Sousa; Souza, Bruno das Neves; Leite, Anderson Ferreira; de Deus, Leonardo Martins Caldeira; Machado, Lucas José de Campos
AIM To evaluate the parathyroid ultrasonography and define parameters that can predict poor response to treatment in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal failure. METHODS This cohort study evaluated 85 patients with chronic kidney disease stage V with parathyroid hormone levels above 800 pg/mL. All patients underwent ultrasonography of the parathyroids and the following parameters were analyzed: Demographic characteristics (etiology of chronic kidney disease, gender, age, dialysis vintage, vascular access, use of vitamin D), laboratory (calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, bone alkaline phosphatase), and the occurrence of bone changes, cardiovascular events and death. The χ2 test were used to compare proportions or the Fisher exact test for small sample frequencies. Student t-test was used to detect differences between the two groups regarding continuous variables. RESULTS Fifty-three patients (66.4%) had parathyroid nodules with higher levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus. Sixteen patients underwent parathyroidectomy and had higher levels of phosphorus and calcium × phosphorus product (P = 0.03 and P = 0.006, respectively). They also had lower mortality (32% vs 68%, P = 0.01) and lower incidence of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (27% vs 73%, P = 0.02). Calcium × phosphorus product above 55 mg2/dL2 [RR 1.48 (1.06, 2.08), P = 0.03], presence of vascular calcification [1.33 (1.01, 1.76), P = 0.015] and previous occurrence of vascular events [RR 2.25 (1.27, 3.98), P < 0.001] were risk factors for mortality in this population. There was no association between the occurrence of nodules and mortality. CONCLUSION The identification of nodules at ultrasonography strengthens the indication for parathyroidectomy in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism due to renal failure. PMID:27648407
Background Frailty is a condition characterized by a decline in physical function and functional capacity. Common symptoms of frailty, such as weakness and exhaustion, are prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increased vulnerability of frail patients with coexisting CKD may place them at a heightened risk of encountering additional health complications. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore the link between frailty, CKD and clinical outcomes. Methods We searched for cross sectional and prospective studies in the general population and in the CKD population indexed in EMBASE, Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane and Ageline examining the association between frailty and CKD and those relating frailty in patients with CKD to clinical outcomes. Results We screened 5,066 abstracts and retrieved 108 studies for full text review. We identified 7 studies associating frailty or physical function to CKD. From the 7 studies, we identified only two studies that related frailty in patients with CKD to a clinical outcome. CKD was consistently associated with increasing frailty or reduced physical function [odds ratios (OR) 1.30 to 3.12]. In patients with CKD, frailty was associated with a greater than two-fold higher risk of dialysis and/or death [OR from 2.0 to 5.88]. Conclusions CKD is associated with a higher risk of frailty or diminished physical function. Furthermore, the presence of frailty in patients with CKD may lead to a higher risk of mortality. Further research must be conducted to understand the mechanisms of frailty in CKD and to confirm its association with clinical outcomes. PMID:24148266
Sleep apnea (SA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are common sleep disorders among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This cross-sectional study, carried out in two dialysis centers in Saudi Arabia, assessed the prevalence of sleep apnea and sleepiness in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis with either peritoneal or hemodialysis. We used questionnaires to assess the prevalence of SA and EDS. The association between sleep apnea, EDS, and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, and other demographic data were also examined. Among 227 enrolled patients, the mean patient age was 55.7 years ± 17.2 years; 53.7% were male, and 46.3% were female. The overall prevalence of SA as defined by the Berlin questionnaire (BQ) was 37% in males and 34% in females, which was not a statistically significant difference (P = 0.459). Sleep apnea was significantly associated with age, neck size, afternoon and evening hemodialysis shift, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension (P-values, 0.001, 0.029, < 0.0001, < 0.0001, < 0.008, 0.002, and < 0.001, respectively). Sleep apnea was also significantly associated with other sleep disorders such as restless leg syndrome, insomnia, habitual snoring, and EDS (P-values, < 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of EDS was 44%, and EDS was significantly more prevalent in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (P < 0.001); it was also associated with older age, diabetes mellitus, and other sleep disorders. SA and EDS are common in dialysis patients and are significantly associated with other sleep disorders.
Ruiz-Carpio, Vicente; Sandoval, Pilar; Aguilera, Abelardo; Albar-Vizcaíno, Patricia; Perez-Lozano, María Luisa; González-Mateo, Guadalupe T.; Acuña-Ruiz, Adrián; García-Cantalejo, Jesús; Botías, Pedro; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Selgas, Rafael; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Piecha, Dorothea; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; López-Cabrera, Manuel
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective renal replacement therapy, but a significant proportion of patients suffer PD-related complications, which limit the treatment duration. Mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) contributes to the PD-related peritoneal dysfunction. We analyzed the genetic reprograming of MMT to identify new biomarkers that may be tested in PD-patients. Microarray analysis revealed a partial overlapping between MMT induced in vitro and ex vivo in effluent-derived mesothelial cells, and that MMT is mainly a repression process being higher the number of genes that are down-regulated than those that are induced. Cellular morphology and number of altered genes showed that MMT ex vivo could be subdivided into two stages: early/epithelioid and advanced/non-epithelioid. RT-PCR array analysis demonstrated that a number of genes differentially expressed in effluent-derived non-epithelioid cells also showed significant differential expression when comparing standard versus low-GDP PD fluids. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), collagen-13 (COL13), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and gremlin-1 (GREM1) were measured in PD effluents, and except GREM1, showed significant differences between early and advanced stages of MMT, and their expression was associated with a high peritoneal transport status. The results establish a proof of concept about the feasibility of measuring MMT-associated secreted protein levels as potential biomarkers in PD. PMID:28327551
Haratake, Joji; Yasunaga, Chikao; Ootani, Akifumi; Shimajiri, Shohei; Matsuyama, Atsuji; Hisaoka, Masanori
Pathologic lesions caused by lanthanum carbonate (LC), a recently developed phosphate-binding agent, have not been recorded. A peculiar gastroduodenal histiocytic lesion associated with a mucosal lanthanum overload was reported. Our routine gastrointestinal biopsy series included 6 cases with heavy lanthanum burden in the gastroduodenal mucosa. In addition to routine histopathologic examinations, a series of immunohistochemical analysis and electron microscopic examinations associated with x-ray diffraction and elemental analysis were performed. Six cases, 3 of male and 3 of female individuals with ages from 59 to 69 years, were all patients of end-stage renal diseases managed under dialysis and treated with LC for >21 months. Endoscopic examinations demonstrated gastric erosions in 3, gastric polyps in 2, and duodenal ulcer in 1. In the mucosal layer, there were numerous non-Langerhans cell histiocytes, stained with CD68 but not S100 protein, engulfing a large amount of mineral-like materials. An electron microscopic and elemental analysis revealed a similar distribution of lanthanum and phosphorus in the histiocytes. Long-standing LC administration can cause massive mucosal accumulation of lanthanum in the tissue histiocytes associated with several forms of gastroduodenal lesions. A long-standing outcome is not clear at present; hence, careful follow-up studies of these patients may be needed.
Ruiz-Carpio, Vicente; Sandoval, Pilar; Aguilera, Abelardo; Albar-Vizcaíno, Patricia; Perez-Lozano, María Luisa; González-Mateo, Guadalupe T; Acuña-Ruiz, Adrián; García-Cantalejo, Jesús; Botías, Pedro; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Selgas, Rafael; Sánchez-Tomero, José Antonio; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Piecha, Dorothea; Büchel, Janine; Steppan, Sonja; López-Cabrera, Manuel
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective renal replacement therapy, but a significant proportion of patients suffer PD-related complications, which limit the treatment duration. Mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) contributes to the PD-related peritoneal dysfunction. We analyzed the genetic reprograming of MMT to identify new biomarkers that may be tested in PD-patients. Microarray analysis revealed a partial overlapping between MMT induced in vitro and ex vivo in effluent-derived mesothelial cells, and that MMT is mainly a repression process being higher the number of genes that are down-regulated than those that are induced. Cellular morphology and number of altered genes showed that MMT ex vivo could be subdivided into two stages: early/epithelioid and advanced/non-epithelioid. RT-PCR array analysis demonstrated that a number of genes differentially expressed in effluent-derived non-epithelioid cells also showed significant differential expression when comparing standard versus low-GDP PD fluids. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), collagen-13 (COL13), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), and gremlin-1 (GREM1) were measured in PD effluents, and except GREM1, showed significant differences between early and advanced stages of MMT, and their expression was associated with a high peritoneal transport status. The results establish a proof of concept about the feasibility of measuring MMT-associated secreted protein levels as potential biomarkers in PD.
Kapke, Alissa; Port, Friedrich K.; Wolfe, Robert A.; Saran, Rajiv; Pearson, Jeffrey; Hirth, Richard A.; Messana, Joseph M.; Daugirdas, John T.
Summary Background and objectives When hemodialysis dose is scaled to body water (V), women typically receive a greater dose than men, but their survival is not better given a similar dose. This study sought to determine whether rescaling dose to body surface area (SA) might reveal different associations among dose, sex, and mortality. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V), equilibrated Kt/V, and standard Kt/V (stdKt/V) were computed using urea kinetic modeling on a prevalent cohort of 7229 patients undergoing thrice-weekly hemodialysis. Data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Project. SA-normalized stdKt/V (SAN-stdKt/V) was calculated as stdKt/V × ratio of anthropometric volume to SA/17.5. Patients were grouped into sex-specific dose quintiles (reference: quintile 1 for men). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for 1-year mortality were calculated using Cox regression. Results spKt/V was higher in women (1.7±0.3) than in men (1.5±0.2; P<0.001), but SAN-stdKt/V was lower (women: 2.3±0.2; men: 2.5±0.3; P<0.001). For both sexes, mortality decreased as spKt/V increased, until spKt/V was 1.6–1.7 (quintile 4 for men: HR, 0.62; quintile 3 for women: HR, 0.64); no benefit was observed with higher spKt/V. HR for mortality decreased further at higher SAN-stdKt/V in both sexes (quintile 5 for men: HR, 0.69; quintile 5 for women: HR, 0.60). Conclusions SA-based dialysis dose results in dose-mortality relationships substantially different from those with volume-based dosing. SAN-stdKt/V analyses suggest women may be relatively underdosed when treated by V-based dosing. SAN-stdKt/V as a measure for dialysis dose may warrant further study. PMID:22977208
Choi, Soo Jeong; Park, Moo Yong; Kim, Jin Kuk; Hwang, Seung Duk
♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is characterized by a gain in fat mass. The fat tissue is a complex endocrine organ that releases various adipokines. In this study, we prospectively examined serial changes of fat composition and adipokines in patients undergoing PD. ♦ Methods: Body composition was assessed by computed tomography (CT). Nutrition status and adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, interleukin [IL]-6, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) were assessed on the 7th day and 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months after the start of PD. ♦ Results: Fifty-four patients (28 men), with a mean age of 53.2 ± 13.2 years, were enrolled. Baseline fat mass, especially subcutaneous fat mass, was correlated with baseline leptin (ρ= 0.612), adiponetin (ρ= -0.477), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (ρ= 0.391). Visceral fat mass was correlated with leptin (ρ= 0.545) and adiponectin (ρ= -0.514). Baseline adiponectin was negatively correlated with baseline leptin (ρ= -0.363). While body weight and leptin increased during the 24 months, serum adiponectin decreased in that period. The changes in visceral and subcutaneous fat mass were greater in the first 12 months and 6 months, respectively. There was no difference in IL-6 and TNF-α. Eight patients died during the follow-up period (mean 47.4 months). Twenty-seven patients continued PD. Increased baseline and serial change of IL-6 level were risk factors for mortality. After adjusting for age, sex, diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary vascular disease (CVD), the significance of the IL-6 level disappeared. ♦ Conclusions: Baseline subcutaneous fat in patients starting PD is correlated with baseline adipokine levels rather than visceral fat. The increase in subcutaneous fat was greatest in the first 6 months. While leptin and adiponectin increased and decreased respectively, IL-6 did not change in the first 24 months.
Lu, Renhua; Muciño-Bermejo, María-Jimena; Ribeiro, Leonardo Claudino; Tonini, Enrico; Estremadoyro, Carla; Samoni, Sara; Sharma, Aashish; Zaragoza Galván, José de Jesús; Crepaldi, Carlo; Brendolan, Alessandra; Ni, Zhaohui; Rosner, Mitchell H.; Ronco, Claudio
Background Refractory congestive heart failure (RCHF) is associated with a high mortality rate and is a major contributor to hospital admissions. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an option to control volume overload and perhaps improve outcomes in this challenging patient population. The aim of this systematic review is to describe the relative risk-benefit ratio based on data reported regarding the use of PD in RCHF. This study was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. An electronic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library was performed to identify relevant studies published from January 1951 to February 2014. Eligible studies selected were prospective or retrospective adult population studies on PD in the setting of RCHF. The following clinical outcomes were used to assess PD therapy: (1) hospitalization rates; (2) heart function; (3) renal function; (4) fluid overload, and (5) adverse clinical outcomes. Summary Of 864 citations, we excluded 843 citations and included 21 studies (n = 673 patients). After PD, hospitalization days declined significantly (p = 0.0001), and heart function improved significantly (left ventricular ejection fraction: p = 0.0013; New York Heart Association classification: p = 0.0000). There were no statistically significant differences in glomerular filtration rate after PD treatment in non-chronic kidney disease stage 5D patients (p = 0.1065). Among patients treated with PD, body weight decreased significantly (p = 0.0006). The yearly average peritonitis rate was 14.5%, and the average yearly mortality was 20.3%. Key Messages This systematic review suggests that PD may be an effective and safe therapeutic tool for patients with RCHF. PMID:25999963
Wang, Qin; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Sun, Xiu-Mei; Du, Yun; Song, Yi-Fan; Ren, Ye-Ping; Dong, Jie
♦ BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common phenomenon and predictive of high mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study aimed to analyze the association of social support and family environment with cognitive function in PD patients. ♦ METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of PD patients from Peking University First Hospital and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Global cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), executive function was measured by the A and B trail-making tests, and other cognitive functions were measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Social support was measured with the Social Support Scale developed by Xiaoshuiyuan and family environment was measured with the Chinese Version of the Family Environment Scale (FES-CV). ♦ RESULTS: The prevalence of CI and executive dysfunction among the 173 patients in the study was, respectively, 16.8% and 26.3%. Logistic regression found that higher global social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09, 1.01 - 1.17, p = 0.027) and subjective social support predicted higher prevalence of CI (OR = 1.13, 1.02 - 1.25, p = 0.022), adjusting for covariates. Analyses of the FES-CV dimensions found that greater independence was significantly associated with better immediate memory and delayed memory. Moreover, higher scores on achievement orientation were significantly associated with poorer language skills. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that social support is negatively associated with the cognitive function of PD patients and that some dimensions of the family environment are significantly associated with several domains of cognitive function.
Artificial kidneys - hemodialysis; Dialysis; Renal replacement therapy - hemodialysis; End-stage renal disease - hemodialysis; Kidney failure - hemodialysis; Renal failure - hemodialysis; Chronic kidney disease - hemodialysis
Hunold, Peter; Vogt, Florian M; Heemann, Uwe W; Zimmermann, Ulrich; Barkhausen, Jörg
Techniques to reliably quantify left ventricular myocardial mass (LVMM) are mandatory for monitoring therapy in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The purpose of this study was to measure LVMM and volumes by cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to assess acute changes through hemodialysis as a model for different loading states. Seven dialysis patients with LVH were examined before and immediately after hemodialysis. All MR imaging was done with a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence (TrueFISP; TR, 3.2 ms; TE, 1.6 ms; flip angle, 60 degrees; slice thickness, 8 mm). LV volumes, ejection fraction (EF), and LVMM were determined by slice summation after manual planimetry in short axes. A significant reduction of end-diastolic volume (EDV) (mean pre, 140 mL; post, 109 mL; p < 0.01), end-systolic volume (ESV) (49 mL-->42 mL; p < 0.05), and stroke volume (91 mL-->66 mL; p < 0.01) through dialysis was revealed by MRI. Ejection fraction did not change significantly. A slight decrease in LVMM was detected in all patients (mean pre, 184 g; post, 177 g; p < 0.05). Intra- and interobserver variability for EDV, ESV, and LVMM were 1.3 +/- 6.2 mL, -0.9 +/- 4.1 mL, -1.4 +/- 3.9 g, and 3.3 +/- 7.5 mL, 2.6 +/- 5.0 mL, -2.4 +/- 4.6 g, respectively. Standard error of estimation (SEE) was +/- 2.3 mL, +/- 2.0 mL, +/- 1.6 g, and +/- 2.6 mL, +/- 2.1 mL, and +/- 2.0 g for intra- and interobserver variability. In conclusion, cine MRI is a reliable technique for LVMM measurement that is independent of LV loading status. This method allows for detection of small changes, which is crucial for accurate therapy monitoring in LVH. Left ventricular myocardial mass and volumes decrease significantly during hemodialysis.
Ulusoy, Suekrue Oezkan, Guelsuem; Dinc, Hasan; Kaynar, Kuebra; Oeztuerk, Mehmet Halil; Guel, Semih; Kaplan, Safiye Tuba
Recently, ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal biopsy has been used in the diagnosis of renal diseases. Development of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which is one of the post-biopsy complications, is not frequently encountered. AVFs are usually asymptomatic; however, they may lead to serious outcomes. We report a 21-year-old patient, who had been on dialysis for 5 years. Due to high blood pressure (230/160 mmHg) and a thrill in the lumbar area detected on physical examination, Doppler examination was performed and a renal AVF was detected. Because the patient had a history of renal biopsy 5 years previously, the fistula was thought to be secondary to the biopsy. After embolization of the AVF, renal functions improved enough to terminate dialysis treatment.
Gilhotra, Rajit A; Rodrigues, Beverly T; Vangaveti, Venkat N; Malabu, Usman H
Background. Renal dialysis has recently been recognised as a risk factor for lower limb amputation (LLA). However, exact rates and associated risk factors for the LLA are incompletely understood. Aim. Prevalence and risk factors of LLA in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) subjects on renal dialysis were investigated from the existing literature. Methods. Published data on the subject were derived from MEDLINE, PubMed, and Google Scholar search of English language literature from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015, using designated key words. Results. Seventy studies were identified out of which 6 full-text published studies were included in this systematic review of which 5 included patients on haemodialysis alone and one included patients on both haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The reported findings on prevalence of amputation in the renal failure on dialysis cohort ranged from 1.7% to 13.4%. Five out of the six studies identified diabetes as the leading risk factor for amputation in subjects with ESRF on renal dialysis. Other risk factors identified were high haemoglobin A1c, elevated c-reactive protein, and low serum albumin. Conclusions. This review demonstrates high rate of LLA in ESRF patients receiving dialysis therapy. It has also identified diabetes and markers of inflammation as risk factors of amputation in ESRF subjects on dialysis.
Shinaberger, J H
contribution! The National Cooperative Dialysis Study reported in Kidney International, 1983, was either misunderstood or ignored by most practitioners. The mechanistic analysis of the study by Gotch and Sargent appeared in 1985 and indicated that at adequate protein intake a Kt/V >0.8 yielded better patient survival. In 1982 Malchesky reported the Direct Dialysis Quantification (DDQ) based on calculations from the total mass removed in the dialysate. Although cumbersome, it avoids many errors including the effect of hematocrit and other factors on dialyzer clearance and many consider it to be "the gold standard." The 1990s were characterized by the development of many simple logarithmic equations to estimate Kt/V and eKt/V suitable for spreadsheets which could be used for CQI by individual units. These are primarily by J. T. Daugirdas and coworkers, Smye and Tattersall. In 1991 the Urea Reduction Ratio (URR) was introduced by Lowrie, who in 1999 suggested that Kt and V (as indicator of lean body mass) were independent predictors of survival. Peritoneal dialysis: Although performed before and immediately after World War II, almost all of the basic quantification mechanistics and data are found in the publications of S. T. Boen (1964). New quantifiers, the Mass Transport Area Coefficient (MTAC) or Pyle-Popovich model, the Henderson-Nolph, and Garred models, were compared by Waniewski. Gotch announced a PD modeling program which suggested that a weekly PKt/V at 2.1 was needed to supply the same urea removal as a Kt/V of 3.6, but warned that both were sensitive to decreased time.
Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos Eduardo; d’Avila, Domingos O.
♦ Introduction and Objectives: Hand hygiene is essential for preventing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related infections. The present study compared the effectiveness of two hygiene techniques in reducing the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) on the hands of patients undergoing PD. ♦ Methods: In this controlled clinical trial, 22 participants enrolled in the same PD program underwent a two-hand evaluation for microbiologic flora. Participants participated in two treatments: a) simple hand hygiene plus antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients washed their hands with water and glycerin soap for 1 minute and then rubbed and dried their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel; and b) antiseptic hand hygiene, in which the patients rubbed their hands with 70% ethyl alcohol gel until fully dry. To sample distal finger surfaces, we asked the participants to touch sheep blood agar plates directly. ♦ Results: The CFU count for both hands was significantly higher in the regular hygiene group than in the gel-only group [69.0 (16.0 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.0 (2.2 - 55.5) CFU, p < 0.010]. Growth of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus colonies was significantly higher in right-hand cultures from the regular hygiene group than in those from the gel-only group [69.5 (26.25 - 101.0) CFU vs 9.5 (1.0 - 41.7) CFU; p < 0.050]. ♦ Conclusions: Among patients undergoing PD, using 70% ethyl alcohol gel to cleanse the hands may be more effective than following the regular hygiene recommendations in reducing bacterial populations. PMID:24179108
Lv, Lin; Long, Cun; Liu, Jinping; Hei, Feilong; Ji, Bingyang; Yu, Kun; Hu, Qiang; Hu, Jinxiao; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Guodong
Acute renal failure (ARF) is associated with increased mortality in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this study was to identify predictors of ARF during ECMO in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery. A retrospective study analyzed 42 children (≤15 years) after cardiac surgery requiring venous-arterial ECMO between December 2008 and December 2014 at Fuwai Hospital. ARF was defined as ≥300% rise in serum creatinine (SCr) concentration from baseline or application of dialysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the predictors of ARF during ECMO. A total of 42 children (age, interquartile range [IQR], 13.0 [7.2-29.8] months; weight, IQR, 8.5 [6.7-11.0] kg) after cardiac surgery requiring ECMO were included in this study. The total survival rate was 52.4%, and the incidence of ARF was 40.5%. As the result of univariate analysis, ECMO duration, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, maximum free hemoglobin (FHB) during ECMO, lactate level, and mean blood pressure before initiation of ECMO were entered in multiple logistic regression analysis. In multiple logistic regression analysis, FHB during ECMO (OR 1.136, 95% CI 1.023-1.261) and lactate level before initiation of ECMO (OR 1.602, 95% CI 1.025-2.502) were risk factors for ARF during ECMO after pediatric cardiac surgery. There was a linear correlation between maximum SCr and maximum FHB (Pearson's r = 0.535, P = 0.001). Maximum SCr during ECMO has also a linear correlation with lactate level before initiation of ECMO (Pearson's r = 0.342, P = 0.044). Increased FHB during ECMO and high lactate level before initiation of ECMO were risk factors for ARF during ECMO in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery.
Barril, Guillermina; Quiroga, Juan A.; Arenas, María Dolores; Espinosa, Mario; García-Fernández, Nuria; Cigarrán, Secundino; Herrero, José A.; del Peso, Gloria; Caro, Pilar; García-Agudo, Rebeca; Amézquita, Yésica; Blanco, Ana; Martínez-Rubio, Pilar; Alcázar, José M.; González-Parra, Emilio; Martín-Gómez, Adoración; Castillo, Inmaculada; Bartolomé, Javier
Amplification of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA from blood detected occult HCV infections in 30.9% of 210 HCV-seronegative dialysis patients with abnormal liver enzyme levels that had evaded standard HCV testing practices. Isolated HCV core-specific antibody detection identified three additional anti-HCV screening-negative patients lacking HCV RNA amplification in blood who were considered potentially infectious. Together, these findings may affect management of the dialysis setting. PMID:24850345
A Rare Case of Aeromonas Hydrophila Catheter Related Sepsis in a Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease Receiving Steroids and Dialysis: A Case Report and Review of Aeromonas Infections in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
Khalil, Muhammad Abdul Mabood; Rehman, Abdur; Kashif, Waqar Uddin; Rangasami, Manickam; Tan, Jackson
Aeromonas hydrophila (AH) is an aquatic bacterium. We present a case of fifty-five-year-old gentleman with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to crescentic IgA nephropathy who presented to us with fever. He was recently pulsed with methyl prednisolone followed by oral prednisolone and discharged on maintenance dialysis through a double lumen dialysis catheter. Blood culture from peripheral vein and double lumen dialysis catheter grew AH. We speculate low immunity due to steroids and uremia along with touch contamination of dialysis catheter by the patient or dialysis nurse could have led to this rare infection. Dialysis catheter related infection by AH is rare. We present our case here and take the opportunity to give a brief review of AH infections in CKD patients. PMID:24558624
Conneen, S; Tzamaloukas, A H; Adler, K; Keller, L K; Bordenave, K; Murata, G H
Since 1991, death following withdrawal from dialysis has increased greatly in our dialysis unit. This report is based on our observations of those patients who followed that course. Four types of patients who withdrew from dialysis were identified: those with a terminal illness, demented patients, those with a progressive disability, and those who had no serious medical problem other than end-stage renal failure. We analyzed the risk factors for withdrawal and attempted to define the ethical principles involved in each patient category. The authors conclude that although the decision of a competent patient to stop dialysis must be honored, some of those deaths might be preventable if patients on chronic dialysis are prospectively followed and treated by those who are expert in the behavior of patients with chronic illness.
Ando, Ryoichi; Yama, Satomi; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Shunsuke; Kimura, Hitoshi; Chida, Yoshiko; Ishida, Yuji; Yamada, Kouei; Inagaki, Yuichiro; Takayama, Masanobu; Tachibana, Ken; Kikuchi, Kan; Inoue, Atsushi; Ohtsuka, Masakazu
We previously conducted a multicenter study enrolling 101 dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia in which lanthanum carbonate (LC) was administered for 2 years. In this study, the administration has been continued for an additional year, and we have evaluated the long-term (a total of 3 years) effects of LC. The average serum phosphorus (P) level was 6.05 mg/dL at the start and decreased to 5.84 mg/dL after 3 years, but no significant differences were observed at both points. The average serum corrected calcium (Ca) level significantly reduced after 3 years (P < 0.001). As results of evaluating the achievement rates with the management target values of serum P, Ca and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) stated in the Japanese guideline, the achievement rates increased after 3 years. From these results, LC is considered to be a useful P binder that can be used for long-term treatment of hyperphosphatemia, without causing a Ca load.
Cheng, P T; Reid, A; Millard, J; Pritzker, K P; Khanna, R; Oreopoulos, D G
Patients on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis due to renal failure have an unusually high incidence of kidney stones (from 5 to 51% depending on methodology). However, there is a controversy on the composition of these stones - whether they are calcium oxalate stones or matrix stones. This paper presents ultrastructural evidence that these stones are in fact heterogeneous, ranging from calcium oxalate stones with little organic matrix component, through calcium oxalate and calcium apatite stones with substantial organic matrix component, to matrix stones with little inorganic material component. The correlative analytical methodology developed in this laboratory employing analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron and x-ray diffraction, as well as biochemistry, was reported previously. For the calcium oxalate stones, scanning electron microscopy showed that numerous small crystals of 1-3 micron in size were exposed to stone surfaces, apparently in an unorganized manner. However, transmission electron microscopy sections showed orderly stacking of crystals held together by organic matrix, just like bricks held together by mortar. For the matrix stones, scanning electron microscopy showed smooth stone surfaces while transmission electron microscopy sections showed focal areas of calcium oxalate or apatite deposits as identified by selected area electron diffraction.
Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Tsai, Shr-Mei; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Lin, Chi-Chen
Although red cell distribution width (RDW) has emerged as a biomarker of clinical prognostic value across a variety of clinical settings in the last two decades, limited evidence is available for its role in end-stage renal disease. We enrolled 313 incident patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in this retrospective observational study from 2006 to 2015. In the fully adjusted model of Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios for the high RDW group versus the low RDW group were 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31–5.09, p = 0.006) and 3.48 (95% CI = 1.44–8.34, p = 0.006) for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality, respectively. Based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis, RDW (AUC = 0.699) had a stronger predictive value for all-cause and CVD-related mortality than other biological markers including hemoglobin (AUC = 0.51), ferritin (AUC = 0.584), iron saturation (AUC = 0.535), albumin (AUC = 0.683) and white blood cell count (AUC = 0.588). Given that RDW is a readily available hematological parameter without the need for additional cost, we suggest that it can be used as a valuable index to stratify the risk of mortality beyond a diagnosis of anemia. PMID:28367961
Morena, Marion; Jaussent, Isabelle; Halkovich, Aurore; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Chenine, Leila; Leray-Moragues, Hélène; Klouche, Kada; Vernhet, Hélène; Canaud, Bernard; Cristol, Jean-Paul
Background Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) are recognized as strong risk factors of vascular calcifications in non dialysis chronic kidney disease (ND-CKD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between FGF23, OPG, and coronary artery calcifications (CAC) in this population and to attempt identification of the most powerful biomarker of CAC: FGF23? OPG? Methodology/Principal Findings 195 ND-CKD patients (112 males/83 females, 70.8 [27.4–94.6] years) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All underwent chest multidetector computed tomography for CAC scoring. Vascular risk markers including FGF23 and OPG were measured. Logistic regression analyses were used to study the potential relationships between CAC and these markers. The fully adjusted-univariate analysis clearly showed high OPG (≥10.71 pmol/L) as the only variable significantly associated with moderate CAC ([100–400[) (OR = 2.73 [1.03;7.26]; p = 0.04). Such association failed to persist for CAC scoring higher than 400. Indeed, severe CAC was only associated with high phosphate fractional excretion (FEPO4) (≥38.71%) (OR = 5.47 [1.76;17.0]; p = 0.003) and high FGF23 (≥173.30 RU/mL) (OR = 5.40 [1.91;15.3]; p = 0.002). In addition, the risk to present severe CAC when FGF23 level was high was not significantly different when OPG was normal or high. Conversely, the risk to present moderate CAC when OPG level was high was not significantly different when FGF23 was normal or high. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that OPG is associated to moderate CAC while FGF23 rather represents a biomarker of severe CAC in ND-CKD patients. PMID:22567137
Yavaşcan, Önder; Aksu, Nejat; Alparslan, Caner; Sarıtaş, Serdar; Elmas, Cengiz Han; Eraslan, Ali Nihat; Duman, Soner; Mir, Sevgi
Loss of peritoneal function due to peritoneal fibrosing syndrome (PFS) is a major factor leading to treatment failure in chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Although the precise biologic mechanisms responsible for these changes have not been defined, the general assumption is that alterations in peritoneal function are related to structural changes in the peritoneal membrane. Studies of the peritoneal membrane by non-invasive ultrasonography (US) in chronic PD patients are limited. The aim of the present study is to assess the relationship between functional parameters of peritoneum and peritoneal thickness measured by US in children treated by chronic PD. We recruited two groups of patients: 23 subjects (13 females, 10 males) on chronic PD (patient group) and 26 (7 females, 19 males) on predialysis out-patient follow-up (creatinine clearance: 20-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) (control group). Age, sex, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), chronic PD duration, episodes of peritonitis and the results of peritoneal equilibration test (PET) were recorded. Hemoglobin (Hb), blood pressure (BP), left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and renal osteodystrophy (ROD) parameters were also obtained. The thickness of the parietal peritoneum was measured by trans-abdominal US in all children. Statistical analyses were performed by using Student's t and Pearson's correlation tests. Mean peritoneal thickness in chronic PD patients (1028.26 ± 157.26 μm) was significantly higher than control patients (786.52 ± 132.33). Mean peritoneal thickness was significantly correlated with mean body height (R(2) = 0.93, p < 0.05), BMI (R(2) = 0.25, p < 0.05), chronic PD duration (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.05), episodes of peritonitis (R(2) = 0.93, p < 0.05), D/Pcreatinine (R(2) = 0.76, p < 0.05) and D4/D0glucose (R(2) = 0.81, p < 0.05). No correlation was found between peritoneal thickness and Hb, BP, LVMI and ROD parameters. In conclusion
Extracorporeal light chain elimination: high cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis parallel to chemotherapy allows for a high proportion of renal recovery in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury.
Heyne, Nils; Denecke, Barbara; Guthoff, Martina; Oehrlein, Katharina; Kanz, Lothar; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weisel, Katja C
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and strongly affects prognosis, with particularly poor outcomes in patients requiring hemodialysis. Introduction of the novel therapeutic agents to MM therapy has improved myeloma response and renal outcome. This case series reviews the efficacy of combined systemic and extracorporeal therapy to further optimize time to light chain (serum-free light chain (sFLC)) reduction and renal recovery in MM patients with dialysis-dependent AKI (n = 19). High cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC removal was initiated in parallel to chemotherapy. Combined therapy resulted in early sFLC response after a median of 13 (range 4-48) days and 6 (3-22) HCO hemodialysis sessions. Time to sFLC response was shorter in patients recovering renal function. Median time to dialysis independence was 15 (4-64) days. By intent-to-treat analysis, sustained renal recovery was achieved in 73.7% (77.8% adjusted for death) of patients. In multivariate analysis, duration of AKI prior to initiation of therapy was an independent predictor of renal functional outcome. Combining HCO hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC elimination and effective chemotherapy is a novel treatment strategy allowing for early and sustained sFLC reduction and a high proportion of renal recovery in these patients. Timely diagnosis and onset of therapy is essential for improving renal outcome.
Rieck, B; Reinschke, P
In some dialysis centers of the GDR personal computers are introduced step by step. There are two main areas in the use of computers in dialysis centers: data management systems and computer-assisted individualization of dialysis. Type and size of data processing are the result of the specific information process in a dialysis center and the presence of a long-term constantly group of patients along with a stereotypical amount of data. In the mathematical modelling of dialysis it is possible to adapt the standard dialysis to each patient.
Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Higashide, Keiko; Sei, Yumi; Iguchi, Daiki; Sakata, Fumiko; Horie, Masanobu; Maruyama, Shoichi; Matsuo, Seiichi; Morgan, B. Paul; Ito, Yasuhiko
Background We searched for indicators to predict the prognosis of infectious peritonitis by measuring levels of complement proteins and activation products in peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid (PDF) of patients at early stages of peritonitis. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between the levels of sC5b-9, C3 and C4 in PDF and the subsequent clinical prognosis. Methods We measured levels of sC5b-9, C3 and C4 in PDF on days 1, 2 and 5 post-onset of peritonitis in 104 episodes of infectious peritonitis in PD patients from 2008 and retrospectively compared levels with clinical outcomes. Further analysis for the presence of causative microorganisms or to demonstrate bacterial culture negative peritonitis was performed and correlated with change of levels of sC5b-9 in PDF. Results When PD patients with peritonitis were divided into groups that either failed to recover from peritonitis and were finally withdrawn from PD (group 1; n = 25) or recovered (group 2; n = 79), levels of sC5b-9, C3 and C4 in PDF were significantly higher in group 1 patients compared to those in group 2 on day5. Analysis of microorganisms showed significantly higher sC5b-9 levels in PDF of peritonitis cases caused by culture negative peritonitis in group 1 compared with group 2 when we analyzed for individual microorganisms. Of note, on day5, the sC5b-9 levels in PDF were similarly high in peritonitis caused by fungi or other organisms. Conclusion Our results suggested that levels of complement markers in PDF, especially sC5b-9, have potential as surrogate markers to predict prognosis of PD-related peritonitis. PMID:28046064
Lin, Lin; Chien, Lung-Chang; Acquaye, Alvina A; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Mark R; Armstrong, Terri S
Patients with primary brain tumors (PBT) face uncertainty related to prognosis, symptoms and treatment response and toxicity. Uncertainty is correlated to negative mood states and symptom severity and interference. This study identified predictors of uncertainty during different treatment stages (newly-diagnosed, on treatment, followed-up without active treatment). One hundred eighty six patients with PBT were accrued at various points in the illness trajectory. Data collection tools included: a clinical checklist/a demographic data sheet/the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale-Brain Tumor Form. The structured additive regression model was used to identify significant demographic and clinical predictors of illness-related uncertainty. Participants were primarily white (80 %) males (53 %). They ranged in age from 19-80 (mean = 44.2 ± 12.6). Thirty-two of the 186 patients were newly-diagnosed, 64 were on treatment at the time of clinical visit with MRI evaluation, 21 were without MRI, and 69 were not on active treatment. Three subscales (ambiguity/inconsistency; unpredictability-disease prognoses; unpredictability-symptoms and other triggers) were different amongst the treatment groups (P < .01). However, patients' uncertainty during active treatment was as high as in newly-diagnosed period. Other than treatment stages, change of employment status due to the illness was the most significant predictor of illness-related uncertainty. The illness trajectory of PBT remains ambiguous, complex, and unpredictable, leading to a high incidence of uncertainty. There was variation in the subscales of uncertainty depending on treatment status. Although patients who are newly diagnosed reported the highest scores on most of the subscales, patients on treatment felt more uncertain about unpredictability of symptoms than other groups. Due to the complexity and impact of the disease, associated symptoms, and interference with functional status, comprehensive assessment of patients
Gracia, Marta; Betriu, Àngels; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Arroyo, David; Abajo, María; Fernández, Elvira
Background and objectives Ultrasonographic detection of subclinical atheromatosis is a noninvasive method predicting cardiovascular events. Risk factors predicting atheromatosis progression in CKD are unknown. Predictors of atheromatosis progression were evaluated in patients with CKD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Our multicenter, prospective, observational study included 1553 patients with CKD (2009–2011). Carotid and femoral ultrasounds were performed at baseline and after 24 months. A subgroup of 476 patients with CKD was also randomized to undergo ultrasound examination at 12 months. Progression of atheromatosis was defined as an increase in the number of plaque territories analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of atheromatosis was 68.7% and progressed in 59.8% of patients after 24 months. CKD progression was associated with atheromatosis progression, suggesting a close association between pathologies. Variables significantly predicting atheromatosis progression, independent from CKD stages, were diabetes and two interactions of age with ferritin and plaque at baseline. Given that multiple interactions were found between CKD stage and age, phosphate, smoking, dyslipidemia, body mass index, systolic BP (SBP), carotid intima-media thickness, plaque at baseline, uric acid, cholesterol, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OH vitamin D), and antiplatelet and phosphate binders use, the analysis was stratified by CKD stages. In stage 3, two interactions (age with phosphate and plaque at baseline) were found, and smoking, diabetes, SBP, low levels of 25OH vitamin D, and no treatment with phosphate binders were positively associated with atheromatosis progression. In stages 4 and 5, three interactions (age with ferritin and plaque and plaque with smoking) were found, and SBP was positively associated with atheromatosis progression. In dialysis, an interaction between body mass index and 25OH vitamin D was found, and age, dyslipidemia
Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying
The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p < 0.001), and experience much more symptoms that they attributed to their illness (6.65 ± 2.54 vs. 7.31 ± 2.36, p = 0.023). Significant differences were found between Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p < 0.001) and MCS (41.7 1 ± 10.20 vs. 46.35 ± 9.31, p = 0.012). The correlation analysis demonstrated that Type D was negatively associated with physical component score (PCS) (r = -0.29, p < 0.01), mental component score (MCS) (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), and social support (r = -0.24, p < 0.001). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we found that Type D personality was independently associated with PCS (β = -0.32, p < 0.001) and MCS (β = -0.24, p < 0.001). Type D personality was a predictor of poor QoL in CAPD patients
Demography and survival of patients receiving treatment for chronic renal failure in Australia and New Zealand: report on dialysis and renal transplantation treatment from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry.
Disney, A P
There were 7,059 (403 per million) Australian patients and 1,341 (388 per million) New Zealand patients receiving renal replacement treatment at the end of 1992. Fifty-three percent and 50%, respectively, were dependent on a functioning transplant, 87% and 80%, respectively, from a cadaver donor. In Australia the majority of dialysis patients depended on hemodialysis (68%) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (31%); 68% of patients were dialysing at home or in a satellite (free-standing) facility. The majority (62%) of home dialysis patients used CAPD treatment. In New Zealand there were 44% of patients on hemodialysis; 83% dialyzed at home and the majority (65%) used CAPD treatment. Few dialysis units (five of 71) in Australia were "for-profit" facilities; there was none in New Zealand. Universal health care has been available for renal replacement treatment for 20 years. The annual incidence of new patients increased steadily during the past 10 years, to 61 per million (Australia) and 69 per million (New Zealand) in 1992. There were disproportionate numbers of indigenous Australian Aboriginals (51%), New Zealand Maoris (30%), and Polynesian Pacific Islanders (11%) compared with their distribution in the general population. There was a considerable increase in elderly and diabetic patients during the period from 1983 to 1992: in Australia, 25% of patients were over 65 years of age and 14% of patients were diabetic, and in New Zealand, 16% of patients were over 65 years of age and 25% of patients were diabetic. The renal transplantation rate has remained unchanged since 1983 at 27 per million in Australia, but has increased markedly from 20 to 33 per million in New Zealand. The annual transplantation rate was 20% to 30% of those patients aged 15 to 64 years who were likely to be transplanted. The multifactorial analysis of risk factors for survival of dialysis patients showed age, male gender, CAPD treatment, Aboriginal race, and diabetic or
Lin, Yi-Ting; Wu, Ping-Hsun; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Ming-Yen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun
A higher risk of dementia was reported in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) compared to those undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Selection bias and competing risk of death were not considered in previous studies. The aim of this study was to investigate dementia risk in patients undergoing HD and PD by using the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. We enrolled 52,332 incident HD patients and 3292 incident PD patients who were older than 40 years between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2007. During the study period, 3775 patients were diagnosed with dementia in the HD group (177.5 per 10,000 person-years incidence rate) and 181 patients in the PD group (145.9 per 10,000 person-years incidence rate). The results revealed that the higher hazard ratio of HD compared with PD for dementia disappeared after controlling for demographic characteristics, propensity score, and competing death risk (subdistribution hazard ratio was 1.086; 95% confidence interval, 0.940-1.255). In conclusion, HD did not increase the risk of dementia in dialysis-dependent patients compared to PD.
Fabrizi, F; Dixit, V; Martin, P; Messa, P
It is well known that the seroconversion rate of patients following hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is lower in uraemic than healthy subjects. A variety of inherited or acquired factors have been implicated in this diminished response, and the high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients on maintenance dialysis has been suggested to play a role. However, the impact of HCV on the immune response to HB vaccine in patients receiving long-term dialysis is not entirely understood. Here, we evaluate the influence of HCV infection on the immunological response to HBV vaccine in dialysis population by performing a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis of clinical studies.We used the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird with heterogeneity and sensitivity analyses. The end-point of interest was the rate of patients showing seroprotective anti-hepatitis B titres at completion of HBV vaccine schedule among HCV-positive versus HCV-negative patients on chronic dialysis. We identified eight studies involving 520 unique patients on long-term dialysis. Aggregation of study results did not show a significant decrease in response rates among HCV-infected versus noninfected patients [pooled odds ratio = 0.621 (95% CI, 0.285; 1.353)]. The P-value was 0.007 for our test of study heterogeneity. Stratified analysis in various subgroups of interest did not meaningfully change our results. Our meta-analysis showed no association between immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine and HCV infection in individuals on long-term dialysis. These results support the use of recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B in patients on regular dialysis with HCV infection.
Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Lee, Grace H; Miller, Jessica E.; Streja, Elani; Jing, Jennie; Robertson, John A; Kovesdy, Csaba P.
Background Identification of predictors of hyporesponsiveness to erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA) in hemodialysis (HD) patients may help improve anemia management and reduce hemoglobin variability. Study Design We conducted repeated measure and logistic regression analyses in a retrospective cohort of long-term HD patients to examine the association of iron markers and measures of renal osteodystrophy with ESA-responsiveness. The ESA-response coefficient at the individual level, i.e., the least-confounded dose-response association, was separated from the population level, assumed to represent confounding by medical indication. Setting/Participants The national database of a large dialysis organization (DaVita) with 38,328 surviving prevalent HD patients over 12 months, who received ESA for at least 3 consecutive calendar quarters, was examined. Predictors Serum levels of ferritin, iron saturation ratio (ISAT), intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Outcomes/Other Measurements The main outcome was case-mix adjusted hemoglobin response to quarterly averaged ESA dose at individual level. The odds ratio (OR) of the greatest vs. poorest ESA-response quartile at patient level was calculated. OR<1.0 indicated ESA hyporesponsiveness and OR>1.0 enhanced responsiveness. Results The mean (±SD) ESA-response coefficients of the least to most responsive quartiles were 0.301±0.033, 0.344±0.004, 0.357±0.004, and 0.389±0.026 g/dL higher hemoglobin per 1,000 units/week higher ESA dose in each quarter, respectively. The ORs of the greatest vs. poorest ESA-responsiveness at patient level were the following: Serum ferritin<200 ng/ml: 0.77 [95% confidence interval: 0.70–0.86] (reference: 200–500 ng/ml), ISAT<20%: 0.54 [0.49–0.59] (reference: 20–30%), intact PTH≥600 pg/ml: 0.54 [0.49–0.60] (reference: 150–300 pg/ml), and alkaline phosphatase ≥160 IU/L: 0.64 [0.58–0.70] (reference: 80–120 IU/L). Lower estimated dietary protein
Pisano, María Belén; Balderramo, Domingo; Wassaf, Maribel Martínez; Lotto, Martín; Carlino, Yanina; Ré, Viviana Elizabeth; Debes, José D
Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) leads to acute hepatitis infection in immunocompetent hosts. HEV genotype 3 can present with high frequency and lead to chronic infection in individuals with a compromised immune system. The risk factors related to increased seroprevalence or chronicity in this population are not entirely understood. Moreover, most studies addressing risk factors for HEV in non-endemic areas come from developed areas such as North America and Europe. In this study we evaluated seroprevalence, chronicity and risk factors for HEV in 120 transplant recipients and 88 patients on dialysis in Argentina. We found a significantly higher seroprevalence of HEV IgG in those undergoing dialysis compared with healthy controls (10.2% and 4.3% respectively, p = 0.03). No difference in HEV seroprevalence was observed between healthy controls and transplant recipients (5.8%). We found no association between previously identified risk factors for HEV, such as pork consumption or use of tacrolimus, and HEV seroprevalence. In univariate and multivariate analyses, consumption of fish was associated with higher seroprevalence of HEV (OR = 9.33; 95% CI: 2.07-42.2; p = 0.04). None of the samples showed HEV RNA amplification, indicating that chronicity does not seem to be an issue in these cohorts. Our results show increased seroprevalence of HEV in individuals undergoing dialysis but not in transplant recipients. We also found that fish consumption can be a potential risk factor for acquiring HEV.
Ionova, D; Monov, A; Baldzhiĭski, A
Studying the role of magnesium on uremic osseous disease in patients on chroniohemodialysis we examined 50 patients with chrovic renal diseases, chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and chroniodialysis treatment (CDT) with duration of the dialysis treatment from I to 10 years, 3 years on the average, and compared it with control groups of 20 patients with chronic renal diseases without CRI, with duration of the diseases from 3 to 22 years, 9 years on the average and 20 patients with chronic renal diseases and CRI (stage I--III) on conservative treatment, with a duration of the CRI from 0.5 to 6 years, 2 years on the average. The following indices were studied in all patients: serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and alkaline phosphatase--montry, to the dialysis patients the samples were taken at the beginning of dialysis séance, and calcium and magnesium content in drinking water used for the preparation of dialysis solution, was twice yearly investigated. In accordance with the bibliographic check up, the bones of all patients adequate for study were photographed with "soft" (mu)-roentgen rays, three times for the observation period, but severe bone changes (osteonecrosis and fractures)--were not established. The level of magnesium in serum of the patients by the end of dialysis séances in the significant group of them was impressive (p less than 0,001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Tek Chand, Kalawat; Chennu, Krishna Kishore; Amancharla Yadagiri, Lakshmi; Manthri Gupta, Ranadheer; Rapur, Ram; Vishnubotla, Siva Kumar
Introduction Studies on fever of unknown origin (FUO) in patients of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease patients on dialysis were not many. In this study, we used 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan whole body survey for detection of hidden infection, in patients on dialysis, labelled as FUO. Methods In this retrospective study, 20 patients of end stage renal disease on dialysis were investigated for the cause of FUO using 18F-FDG PET/CT scan. All these patients satisfied the definition of FUO as defined by Petersdorf and Beeson. Any focal abnormal site of increased FDG concentration detected by PET/CT, either a solitary or multiple lesions was documented and at least one of the detected abnormal sites of radio tracer concentration was further examined for histopathology. Findings All patients were on renal replacement therapy. Of these, 18 were on hemodialysis and two were on peritoneal dialysis. 18F-FDG PET/CT scan showed metabolically active lesions in 15 patients and metabolically quiescent in five patients. After 18F-FDG PET/CT scan all, but one patient had a change in treatment for fever. Anti-tuberculous treatment was given in 15 patients, antibiotics in four patients and anti-malaria treatment in one patient. Discussion The present study is first study of 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in patients of end stage renal disease on dialysis with FUO. The study showed that the 18 F FDG PET/CT scan may present an opportunity to attain the diagnosis in end stage renal disease patients on dialysis with FUO.
Chang, Chung-Hsin; Yeh, Jiann-Horng
Star fruit ingestion may induce severe neurological complications in chronic renal failure patients. We present a case on maintenance dialysis therapy who developed a consciousness disturbance without convulsion after eating star fruit. The symptoms became aggravated after haemodialysis. The brain computed tomography scan showed no abnormal findings, but the electroencephalogram found active focal sharp waves in the left central regions and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging also showed hyperintense lesions in the left central regions that were compatible with non-convulsive status epilepticus. His condition improved dramatically after anticonvulsant therapy and regular haemodialysis. The patient was discharged 20 days later without neurological sequela.
Xiong, Liping; Cao, Shirong; Xu, Fenghua; Zhou, Qian; Fan, Li; Xu, Qingdong; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping
Although high body mass index (BMI) appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI). Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54), but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80%) during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95) and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84), which was independent of baseline BMI values. PMID:26473916
Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio
Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374
Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio
Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive-convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200-300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients.
Merighi, Joseph R; Schatell, Dorian R; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Witten, Beth; Mehrotra, Rajnish
There is variable emphasis on dialysis-specific training among US nephrology fellowship programs. Our study objective was to determine the association between nephrology training experience and subsequent clinical practice. We conducted a national survey of clinical nephrologists using a fax-back survey distributed between March 8, 2010 and April 30, 2010 (N = 629). The survey assessed the time distribution of clinical practice, self-assessment of preparedness to provide care for dialysis patients at the time of certification examination, distribution of dialysis modality among patients, and nephrologists' choice of dialysis modality for themselves if their kidneys failed. While respondents spent 28% of their time caring for dialysis patients, 38% recalled not feeling very well prepared to care for dialysis patients when taking the nephrology certification examination. Sixteen percent obtained additional dialysis training after fellowship completion. Only 8% of US dialysis patients use home dialysis; physicians very well prepared to care for dialysis patients at the time of certification or who obtained additional dialysis training were significantly more likely to provide care to home peritoneal dialysis patients. Even though 92% of US dialysis patients receive thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis, only 6% of nephrologists selected this for themselves; selection of therapy for self was associated with dialysis modalities used by their patients. Nephrology training programs need to ensure that all trainees are very well prepared to care for dialysis patients, as this is central to nephrology practice. Utilization of dialysis therapies other than standard hemodialysis is dependent, in part, on training experience.
Kali, Alaaddin; Yayar, Ozlem; Erdogan, Bulent; Eser, Baris; Buyukbakkal, Mehmet; Ercan, Zafer; Merhametsiz, Ozgur; Haspulat, Ayhan; Gök Oğuz, Ebru; Canbakan, Basol; Ayli, Mehmet D
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis patients. Iron accumulation in arterial wall macrophages is increased in atherosclerotic lesions. Hepcidin is a key hepatic hormone regulating iron balance. It inhibits iron release from macrophages and iron absorption from enterocytes by binding and inactivating the cellular iron exporter ferroportin. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation of hepcidin-25, iron parameters, and atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in hemodialysis patients. Eighty-two hemodialysis patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Predialysis blood samples were centrifuged at 1500 g and 4°C for 10 minutes and stored at -80°C for the measurement of hepcidin-25. DRG hepcidin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit was used for the measurement of hepcidin-25. Ultrasonographical B-mode imaging of bilateral carotid arteries was performed with a high-resolution real-time ultrasonography (Mindray DC7). Mean age of the study population was 57.90 ± 16.08 years and 43.9% were men. Total study population was grouped into two according to median value of hepcidin-25. There was no difference between groups with respect to age, dialysis vintage, and C-reactive protein. CIMT was found to be statistically significantly higher in low hepcidin-25 group. In correlation analysis, CIMT was found to be correlated with age (P < 0.01, R = 0.33) and hepcidin-25 (P < 0.01, R = 0.46). In linear regression analysis, age (β = 0.31) and hepcidin-25 (β = 0.44) were found to be the determinants of CIMT in hemodialysis patients. Our results implicate that hepcidin may take part in pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis patients.
Apostolovic, B L; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R M; Andjelkovic-Apostolovic, M R; Cvetkovic, T P; Dinic, M M; Radivojevic, J D
Burkholderia cepacia (B cepacia) is a rare opportunistic pathogen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. We describe the first case of repeated B cepacia CAPD peritonitis, occurring in an outpatient environment, treated with antimicrobial medication without peritoneal catheter removal. B cepacia may lead to repeat infection, therefore, we should insist on catheter removal during each peritonitis episode.
Apostolovic, BL; Velickovic-Radovanovic, RM; Andjelkovic-Apostolovic, MR; Cvetkovic, TP; Dinic, MM; Radivojevic, JD
ABSTRACT Burkholderia cepacia (B cepacia) is a rare opportunistic pathogen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. We describe the first case of repeated B cepacia CAPD peritonitis, occurring in an outpatient environment, treated with antimicrobial medication without peritoneal catheter removal. B cepacia may lead to repeat infection, therefore, we should insist on catheter removal during each peritonitis episode. PMID:26426187
Background Vascular calcification (VC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) are strongly associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. We hypothesized that significant VC on plain radiographs is associated with CIMT and CV events in dialysis patients. In addition, we evaluated risk factors for VC progression on plain radiographs in dialysis patients. Methods In this 2-year observational, prospective study, 67 dialysis patients were included. We checked plain radiographs at baseline and after 2 years. Laboratory tests and malnutrition score were obtained at baseline, after 12 months, and after 24 months. Results The mean age of patients was 56.3 ± 10.3 years and duration of dialysis was 41.3 ± 34.5 months. The prevalence of significant VC was 61.2% and the prevalence of carotid artery atheromatous plaques was 55.6%. Mean CIMT, malnutrition scores, CRP level and prevalence of carotid atheromatous plaques were significantly higher in patients with significant VC. Serum albumin and total iron binding capacity were significantly lower in patients with significant VC compared to patients without significant VC. During a mean observational period of 22 months, patients without significant VC showed lower CV events by the Kaplan-Meyer method (p = 0.010). Progression of VC was found in 35.7% among 56 patients followed up. Hemoglobin after 24 months was an independent factor for progression of VC (Exp(B) = 0.344, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.13 – 0.96, p = 0.034). Conclusions Significant VC on plain radiograph was associated with CIMT, malnutrition, inflammation, and CV events in dialysis patients. Conditions which increase hemoglobin level may retard progression of VC in dialysis patients. PMID:23360132
Trivedi, Disha D
Dialysis patients are often denied hospice benefits unless they forego dialysis treatments. However, many of those patients might benefit from as-needed dialysis treatments to palliate symptoms of uremia, fluid overload, etc. The current Medicare payment system precludes this "palliative dialysis" except in those few cases where the terminal diagnosis is unrelated to renal failure. As approximately three quarters of all US patients on dialysis have Medicare as their primary insurance, a of review of Medicare policy is suggested, with a goal of creating a new "palliative dialysis" category that would allow patients to receive treatments on a less regular schedule without affecting the quality statistics of the dialysis center.( 1 ).
Kuwahara, Michio; Takehara, Eriko; Sasaki, Yasunori; Azetsu, Haruna; Kusaka, Keita; Shikuma, Satomi; Akita, Wataru
Cardiovascular events (CVEs) are major complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have investigated the effects of CVEs on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality of pre-dialysis patients. We followed 377 CKD patients who were at stage ≥G3 at first clinic visit in the Shuuwa General Hospital between April 2005 and July 2014. After taking baseline patient data, we evaluated renal survival rates and all-cause and CVE-related mortality in patients with CVEs [(+)CVEs] and without CVEs [(-)CVEs]. A total of 99 CVEs occurred in 93 study patients (57.0% cardiac events, 43.0% cerebrovascular events, and 6.5% peripheral artery disease events). During the study period, 127 patients reached ESRD over a median of 4.51 years' follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analysis found longer renal survival rates in the (-)CVEs group compared with the (+)CVEs group. Forty patients died during the study period over a median of 5.43 years' follow-up. Survival rates for all-cause and CVE-related mortality of (-)CVEs patients were higher than in (+)CVEs patients. After adjustment for sex, age, current smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, estimated glomerular filtration rate, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, left ventricular hypertrophy, body mass index, albumin, hemoglobin, calcium, phosphate, C-reactive protein, and spot urine protein, the occurrence of CVEs was still a significant risk factor for ESRD (HR 1.516, P = 0.017) and all-cause mortality (HR 7.871, P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that the occurrence of CVEs is a potent risk factor for ESRD and mortality in CKD patients before dialysis.
dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos
Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462
Olan, Adina; Segall, L; Stoica, L; Gusbeth-Tatomir, P; Cristea, Carmen; Patrulea, Sânziana; Mardare, Nicoleta; Balasanian, M; Covic, A
Coronary artery disease has a significantly higher prevalence in chronic dialysis patients compared to the general population, explained by a cluster of non-specific and specific (uremia-associated) cardiovascular risk factors, typical for these patients. Nephrologists and cardiovascular surgeons worldwide are rather reluctant to offer CABG to dialysis patients, because of concerns about higher risks associated with this procedure in this frail population. However, there is an increasing opinion supporting a more aggressive management of coronary artery disease in uremic individuals. To illustrate this "positive attitude", we report here the first dialysis patient ever treated by CABG in Iaşi; his good outcome was both rewarding and encouraging for us all.
Tawada, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Yasuhiko; Hamada, Chieko; Honda, Kazuho; Mizuno, Masashi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sakata, Fumiko; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Matsukawa, Yoshihisa; Maruyama, Shoichi; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Takei, Yoshifumi
Background and Objectives Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious and life-threatening complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, the precise pathogenesis remains unclear; in addition, predictors and early diagnostic biomarkers for EPS have not yet to be established. Methods Eighty-three peritoneal membrane samples taken at catheter removal were examined to identify pathological characteristics of chronic peritoneal deterioration, which promotes EPS in patients undergoing long-term PD treatment with low occurrence of peritonitis. Results According to univariable logistic regression analysis of the pathological findings, thickness of the peritoneal membrane (P = 0.045), new membrane formation score (P = 0.006), ratio of luminal diameter to vessel diameter (L/V ratio, P<0.001), presence of CD31-negative vessels (P = 0.021), fibrin deposition (P<0.001), and collagen volume fraction (P = 0.018) were associated with EPS development. In analyses of samples with and without EPS matched for PD treatment period, non-diabetes, and PD solution, univariable analysis identified L/V ratio (per 0.1 increase: odds ratio (OR) 0.44, P = 0.003) and fibrin deposition (OR 6.35, P = 0.027) as the factors associated with EPS. L/V ratio was lower in patients with fibrin exudation than in patients without fibrin exudation. Conclusions These findings suggest that damage to vascular endothelial cells, as represented by low L/V ratio, could be a predictive finding for the development of EPS, particularly in long-term PD patients unaffected by peritonitis. PMID:27119341
Kim, J M; Ihm, C H; Kim, H J
Because serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) have a limitation in estimating iron status in haemodialysis patients, the reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CHr) has been proposed as a new tool. We investigate the accuracy of CHr in comparison with conventional tests and the relationship between changes in CHr and haemoglobin levels after therapy. We selected 140 haemodialysis patients receiving rHuEPO and intravenous iron supplementation and measured their complete blood count, CHr and iron parameters. Iron deficiency was defined as a ferritin <100 microg/l and/or a TS <20%. Hb, CHr, ferritin and TS levels were determined 1 month after therapy. Fifty-three patients were iron deficient. CHr were distributed with 33.7 +/- 1.4 pg in the iron sufficient group and with 29.9 +/- 1.9 pg in the iron deficient group (P = 0.001). The cutoff value of CHr for detecting iron deficiency was <32.4 pg. In iron deficient patients, a significant correlation was found between CHr and TS. The change in CHr after therapy was significantly larger in iron-deficient patients, and a lower baseline CHr is associated with a greater haemoglobin change. CHr is useful in screening iron status in dialysis patients, and a CHr cut-off value of 32 pg is appropriate for the assessment of iron deficiency. Moreover, CHr may serve as a predictor of the response to anaemia treatment.
Guedri, Yosra; Damma, K Najla; Toumi, Melek; Sahtout, Wissal; Azzabi, Awatef; Mrabet, Sinda; Nouira, Safa; Saidane, Dalila; Amor, Samira; Belarbia, Anis; Zellama, Dorsaf; Achour, Abdellatif
Peritoneal protein loss is one of the inevitable consequences during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Our objective was to study the effect of sulodexide on the protein loss and efficiency of dialysis. This study included six patients receiving CAPD treated with sulodexide at the dose of 600 IU/day given by intraperitoneal injection for 10 days. Clinical and biologic parameters were assessed before starting the treatment (D0 and after 10 days of treatment (D10. We also evaluated the benefit of therapy persisting 20 days after the end of treatment (D30. The sulodexide administration produced a significant improvement of the peritoneal function as determined by a significant increase in the following ratios measured at the 4 th h of dwell time on D0 and D30: dialysate-to plasma (D/P) creatinine from 0.63 ± 1.45 to 0.85 ± 0.073 (P = 0.028) and D/P urea from 0.63 ± 0.15 to 79 ± 0.2 (P = 0.048). A significant decrease of albumin leakage was observed, which was 0.90 ± 0.40 g/L at baseline, 0.67 ± 0.36 g/L on the 10 th day, and 0.43 ± 0.22g/L 20 days after the end of treatment. Within 10-day treatment period, use of sulodexide resulted in a reduction in the peritoneal loss of albumin, in addition to improvement of the quality of dialysis and the residual renal function among these patients.
Wang, Angela Yee Moon; Brimble, K Scott; Brunier, Gillian; Holt, Stephen G; Jha, Vivekanand; Johnson, David W; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kooman, Jeroen P; Lambie, Mark; McIntyre, Chris; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto
Cardiovascular disease contributes significantly to the adverse clinical outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Numerous cardiovascular risk factors play important roles in the development of various cardiovascular complications. Of these, loss of residual renal function is regarded as one of the key cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with an increased mortality and cardiovascular death. It is also recognized that PD solutions may incur significant adverse metabolic effects in PD patients. The International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) commissioned a global workgroup in 2012 to formulate a series of recommendations regarding lifestyle modification, assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors, as well as management of the various cardiovascular complications including coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmia (specifically atrial fibrillation), cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and sudden cardiac death, to be published in 2 guideline documents. This publication forms the first part of the guideline documents and includes recommendations on assessment and management of various cardiovascular risk factors. The documents are intended to serve as a global clinical practice guideline for clinicians who look after PD patients. The ISPD workgroup also identifies areas where evidence is lacking and further research is needed.
Perna, Alessandra F; Di Nunzio, Annarita; Amoresano, Angela; Pane, Francesca; Fontanarosa, Carolina; Pucci, Piero; Vigorito, Carmela; Cirillo, Giovanni; Zacchia, Miriam; Trepiccione, Francesco; Ingrosso, Diego
Dialysis patients display a high cardiovascular mortality, the causes of which are still not completely explained, but are related to uremic toxicity. Among uremic toxins, homocysteine and cysteine are both substrates of cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase in hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis, leading to the formation of two sulfur metabolites, lanthionine and homolanthionine, considered stable indirect biomarkers of its production. Hydrogen sulfide is involved in the modulation of multiple pathophysiological responses. In uremia, we have demonstrated low plasma total hydrogen sulfide levels, due to reduced cystathionine γ-lyase expression. Plasma hydrogen sulfide levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and healthy controls with three different techniques in comparison, allowing to discern the different pools of this gas. The protein-bound (the one thought to be the most active) and acid-labile forms are significantly decreased, while homolanthionine, but especially lanthionine, accumulate in the blood of uremic patients. The hemodialysis regimen plays a role in determining sulfur compounds levels, and lanthionine is partially removed by a single dialysis session. Lanthionine inhibits hydrogen sulfide production in cell cultures under conditions comparable to in vivo ones. We therefore propose that lanthionine is a novel uremic toxin. The possible role of high lanthionine as a contributor to the genesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in uremia is discussed.
Carrero, Juan Jesús; Avesani, Carla Maria
Obesity is a problem of serious concern among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; it is a risk factor for progression to end-stage renal disease and its incidence and prevalence in dialysis patients exceeds those of the general population. Obesity, typically assessed with the simple metric of body mass index (BMI), is considered a mainstay for nutritional assessment in guidelines on nutrition in CKD. While regular BMI assessment in connection with the dialysis session is a simple and easy-to-use monitoring tool, such ease of access can lead to excess-of-use, as the value of this metric to health care professionals is overestimated. This review examines BMI as a clinical monitoring tool in CKD practice and offers a critical appraisal as to what a high or a low BMI may signify in this patient population. Topics discussed include the utility of BMI as a reflection of body size, body composition and body fat distribution, diagnostic versus prognostic performance, and consideration of temporal trends over single assessments.
Al Wakeel, Jamal Saleh; Makoshi, Ziyad; Al Ghonaim, Mohammed; Al Harbi, Ali; Al Suwaida, Abdulkareem; Algahtani, Farjah; Al Hedaithy, Mogbil; Almogairin, Sultan; Abdullah, Sami
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Screening for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling infection. This study aimed to detect latent TB among dialysis patients. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh involving hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients aged ≥18 years. Patients were screened for latent TB infection (LTBI) using both TBskin test (TST) and QuantiFERONTB Gold In-Tube test (QFT-GIT). All participants were followed-up clinically and radiologically every 3 months for 2 years. RESULTS: A total of 243 (181 HD and 62 PD) patients were included and 112(46.1%) were males. 45.3% showed positive QFT in HD patients with sensitivity of 91.7%, specificity of 71.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 19.5%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.1%. TST results in HD showed that positive TST was 17.4%, sensitivity was 63.2%, specificity was 95.5%, PPV was 51.5%, and NPV was 91.1%. Five (8.1%) showed positive QFT in PD patients with sensitivity of 7.7%, specificity of 91.8%, PPV of 6.6%, and NPV of 92.3%. TST results in PD showed that positive TST was 9.8%, sensitivity was 35.7%, specificity was 97.9%, PPV was 55.8%, and NPV was 93.3%. Previous TB infection was significantly correlated with QFT only in HD patients, but significantly associated with TST in both HD and PD patients. Also in HD, QFT was significantly associated with TST (P = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS: Due to high variability of QFT-GIT sensitivity, we recommend its use for its NPV and to use either TST or QFT in screening latent TB. PMID:26664568
Shuman, Andrew G; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A; Duffy, Sonia A
OBJECTIVE To determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. DESIGN Prospective, multisite cohort study. SETTING Three academically affiliated medical centers. PATIENTS The study population comprised 374 previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Participants were surveyed before treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the 36-Item Short-Form Instrument (SF-36) bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. RESULTS The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared with 61 at the time of diagnosis (P = .004), and 75, the population norm (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pretreatment pain score (P < .001), less education (P = .02), neck dissection (P = .001), feeding tube (P = .05), xerostomia (P < .001), depressive symptoms (P < .001), taking more pain medication (P < .001), less physical activity (P = .02), and poor sleep quality (P = .006). The association between head and neck cancer pain and current smoking and problem drinking did not reach significance (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Aggressive pain management may be indicated for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco use, and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among patients with head and neck cancer.
Weng, Cheng-Hao; Hu, Ching-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Huang, Wen-Hung
Serum albumin had been noted to be a predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) less than 0.8 or greater than 1.4 g/kg/d was also associated with greater mortality. There was no previous study to show the effectiveness of combination of serum albumin and nPCR to predict the mortality in chronic HD patients. Eight hundred and sixty-six patients were divided into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels. Biochemical, and hematological parameters were recorded. The associations between groups, variables mentioned above and mortality were analyzed. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, fistula as blood access, nPCR <1.2 g/kg/day combined with albumin <4 (Group A), nPCR ≧ 1.2 g/kg/day combined with albumin <4 g/dL (Group B) (nPCR ≧ 1.2 g/kg/day combined with Albumin ≧ 4 g/dL as reference group), non-anuria, hemoglobin, creatinine, and log (high sensitivity C reactive protein) were correlated with 36 months mortality. Group A and group B patients had higher 36 months cardiovascular (CV) and infection related mortality rates as compared with group D patients. In conclusion, Group A and Group B patients had significantly higher rate of all-cause, CV and infection related mortality. PMID:27752119
Atchison, Kathryn A.; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Belin, Thomas R.; Black, Edward E.; Gironda, Melanie W.
Purpose This study attempts to provide insight on how the treatment preference for a mandible fracture and treatment received and its consequences, are related to the patient’s risk tolerance, as measured by the Standard Gamble(SG). Patients and Methods Data from a prospective cohort study of 203 subjects receiving treatment at the former King/Drew Medical Center (KDMC) in Los Angeles for either a mandible fracture(n=98) or third-molar removal (n=105) are examined. Subjects were interviewed at four time points; upon admission to the medical center, and at three monthly follow-up visits. Risk tolerance for hypothetical treatment scenarios is measured using the SG, a health-value utility measure assessing the tradeoff between good outcomes and serious complications associated with treatment. Separate regression analyses with subsets of predictors (sociodemographic, psychosocial health, and clinical characteristics) were conducted and then synthesized using the significant predictors in separate analyses. Results For fracture subjects, there is a noticeable rise in the SG reports from admission to the one-month follow-up. Their greater risk tolerance was associated with being older, receiving surgery, having a lower PTSD score, and having a swollen jaw or face. For third-molar subjects, SG does not change substantively over the course of the study. Predictors of greater risk tolerance for third molar subjects include the jaw or face being swollen and having to use less pain medication. Conclusions Findings from this study demonstrate a preference for less invasive treatment, with the majority of both groups preferring wiring and support the theory that treatment choices differ between subjects with different health states. Factors associated with risk tolerance include the patient’s age, treatment received, psychosocial health state, experience with prior treatment, and value for oral health quality of life. PMID:20678842
Purnell, Tanjala S.; Auguste, Priscilla; Crews, Deidra C.; Lamprea-Montealegre, Julio; Olufade, Temitope; Greer, Raquel; Ephraim, Patti; Sheu, Johanna; Kostecki, Daniel; Powe, Neil R.; Rabb, Hamid; Jaar, Bernard; Boulware, L. Ebony
Background A comprehensive assessment of the association of patients’ renal replacement therapy (RRT) modality on their participation in life activities (physical function, travel, recreation, freedom, work) is needed. Study Design Systematic review of peer-reviewed published studies. Setting & Population Adults undergoing RRT (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplantation). Selection Criteria for Studies We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE from January 1980 through April 2012 for English-language articles that compared participation in life activities among patients receiving 1) hemodialysis compared with peritoneal dialysis, 2) hemodialysis compared with kidney transplantation, or 3) peritoneal dialysis compared with kidney transplantation. Predictor RRT modality. Outcomes Reported rates of physical function, travel, recreation, freedom, and work-related activities by RRT modality. Results A total of 46 studies (6 prospective cohort, 38 cross-sectional, and 2 pre-post transplantation) provided relevant comparisons of life participation activities among patients treated with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation. Studies were conducted from 1985 to 2011 among diverse patient populations in 16 distinct locations. A majority of studies reported greater life participation rates among patients with kidney transplants compared to patients receiving either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. In contrast, a majority of studies reported no differences in outcomes between patients receiving hemodialysis and patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. These results were consistent throughout the study period, across diverse populations, and among the subset of studies that performed appropriate adjustments for potential confounding factors. Limitations Many studies included in the review had significant design weaknesses. Conclusions Evidence suggests patients with kidney transplants may experience better rates of life
Talaat, Khaled Mohamed
In a preliminary experiment, 38% of the spent dialysis fluid water was reclaimed by a forward osmosis process through a cellulose triacetate membrane. The simplicity of forward osmosis and its minimal external energy requirements may allow the construction of a small bulk device that can reclaim a considerable portion of the water used in the patient's dialysis process. For developing an acceptable ambulatory dialysis system, decreasing the bulk of the fluid and equipment carried on the patient is essential. Forward osmosis may feasibly be used for dialysis fluid regeneration in ambulatory dialysis systems.
Cupisti, Adamasco; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Caselli, Gian Marco; Egidi, M F; Bottai, A; Onnis, F E; Mecacci, A; Bernardi, M; Mencherini, A; Bruzzichelli, G; Marzocchi, A; Michelassi, S; Benedetti, I; Bonini, S; Belluardo, M; Tozzi, A; Papi, A; Cioni, A; Sordini, C; Rolle, D; Carlini, A; Lucarotti, I; Lucarini, R; Barattini, M; Sposini, S; Briglia, M; Ceccarelli, F; Del Corso, C; Lunardi, W; Betti, G; Catania, B; Carlotti, E; Buglioni, S; Aterini, S; Errichiello, F; Colzi, C; Finato, V; Bianchi, S; Fogli, R; Cappelletti, F; Mechini, C; Redi, A; Santori, F; Cassioli, F; Giovannetti, E; Simona, G; Malacarne, N
Nutritional abnormalities and physical inactivity are risk factors of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD. Identify and define malnutrition, in particular protein-energy depletion (PEW), is an important task in the management of renal patients. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to implement the assessment of nutritional status and functional capacity in patients on peritoneal dialysis, including tests and validated methods which are relatively easy to apply in daily clinical practice. The study includes all the 133 prevalent patients (80 m, 53 f, age 65 14 years), in peritoneal dialysis treatment (vintage 26 19 months) in 9 centers in Tuscany. We performed anthropometry, bioimpedance (BIA), clinical biochemistry, evaluation of habitual physical activity (RAPA tests) and performance (Sit-To-Stand test), appetite-evaluation questionnaire, and indices including the Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS), Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI), Charlson comorbidity index, Barthel and Karnowsky index. The latter showed a condition of dependence in 7.2% and 19.7% of cases, respectively. Poor appetite was recorded in 48.2%. The majority of patients fell within the overweight / obesity range (51%) with waist circumference values associated with increased cardiovascular risk in 51% of males and 60% of females. At the BIA analysis, a BCMI <8 kg/m2 was detected in 39% of patients; an estimated protein intake <1.0 g / kg/d was found in 59% of cases; 34% of patients had serum albumin <3.5 g / dl; control of acidosis was good (bicarbonate 25.4 3.8 mM) but hyperphosphatemia was present in 64.6% of patients. A condition of sedentary or light physical activity was reported by 65.1% of patients, vigorous activity only by 11.9%. The 86.5% of patients able to perform the Sit-to-stand test reported a lower than the reference values for age and sex. A diagnosis of PEW was possible in 8% of our series, while a MIS score> 11, indicative of PEW, took
Ghannadi, Shima; Amouzegar, Atieh; Amiri, Parisa; Karbalaeifar, Ronak; Tahmasebinejad, Zhale
Background. Type 2 diabetes is an increasingly common condition with several preventable microvascular complications such as kidney damage. Nephropathy is expensive to manage, especially as hospital dialysis treatment. Improving patients' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) toward their condition can achieve better control, delay complications, and improve their quality of life. This study evaluated the KAP and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients on dialysis and variables that affect it. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Shahid Beheshti academic hospitals of Tehran, Iran. Face-to-face interviews were held to fill five validated questionnaires: three evaluating KAP, one evaluating self-management, and one evaluating quality of life. Result. 117 diabetic patients on hemodialysis (42 females) with mean (SD) age of 68.70 ± 9.26 years were enrolled in the survey. The scores for patient's KAP, self-care, and quality of life were 59.90 ± 11.23, 44.27 ± 8.35, 45.06 ± 12.87, 46.21 ± 10.23, and 26.85 ± 13.23, respectively. There was significant negative correlation between patients' knowledge and attitude with their glycosylated hemoglobin level and their fasting blood sugar. There was significant correlation between patients' knowledge and practice with their self-care activities. Conclusion. The present study suggests that patients' KAP scores have a practical effect upon self-care behavior. This highlights the needs for effective diabetes education programs in developing countries like Iran. PMID:27478845
Hiramatsu, Takeyuki; Ozeki, Akiko; Asai, Kazuki; Saka, Marie; Hobo, Akinori; Furuta, Shinji