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Sample records for dialysis patients predictors

  1. Nutritional predictors of mortality in prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Chmielewski, Michal; Kaczkan, Malgorzata; Borek, Paulina; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition remains one of the major predictors of mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the nutritional status of prevalent PD patients, and to determine the best predictors of outcome among anthropometric and laboratory indices of nutrition. The study included 106 prevalent PD patients from a single university-based unit. Anthropometric assessment at baseline included: body mass, body mass index (BMI), skinfold thickness, lean body mass (LBM), content of body fat (%F), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC). Laboratory analysis comprised of albumin and total cholesterol. Additionally, each patient underwent a subjective global assessment (SGA). The patients were followed for 36 months. Survival analyses were made with the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the Cox proportional hazard model. Following SGA, malnutrition was diagnosed in 30 (28%) patients. Importantly, eight of the malnourished patients (27%) were nevertheless overweight or obese. Body weight and BMI showed complete lack of association with the outcome. In Kaplan-Meier analysis low: LBM, MAMC, albumin and cholesterol were significantly related to mortality. Cox analysis revealed that, following adjustment, LBM below median was independently associated with poor outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-8.49, p=0.02). Moreover, the lowest quartile of total cholesterol showed independent association with mortality (HR 8.68, CI 2.14-35.21, p<0.01). Malnutrition is prevalent in patients undergoing PD, and overweight/obesity does not preclude its appearance. The most valuable nutritional indices in predicting outcome in this cohort were LBM and total cholesterol concentration.

  2. Frailty and comorbidity are independent predictors of outcome in patients referred for pre-dialysis education

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Julia; Aggett, Justine; Goodland, Annwen; Prichard, Alison; Thomas, Nerys; Donovan, Kieron; Roberts, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising and is likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future, with the fastest growth seen among adults ≥75 years of age. Elderly patients with advanced CKD are likely to have a higher burden of comorbidity and frailty, both of which may influence their disease outcome. For these patients, treatment decisions can be complex, with the current lack of robust prognostic tools hindering the shared decision-making process. The current study aims to assess the impact of comorbidity and frailty on the outcomes of patients referred for pre-dialysis education. Methods We performed a single-centre study of patients (n = 283) referred for pre-dialysis education between 2010 and 2012. The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) were used to assess comorbid disease burden and frailty, respectively. Follow-up data were collected until February 2015. Results The CCI and CFS scores at the time of referral to the pre-dialysis service were independent predictors of mortality. Within the study follow-up period, 76% of patients with a high CFS score at the time of pre-dialysis education had died, with 63% of these patients not commencing dialysis before death. Conclusion A relatively simple frailty scale and comorbidity score could be used to predict survival and better inform the shared decision-making process for patients with advanced kidney disease. PMID:26985387

  3. Overhydration Is a Strong Predictor of Mortality in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients – Independently of Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Jotterand Drepper, Valérie; Kihm, Lars P.; Kälble, Florian; Diekmann, Christian; Seckinger, Joerg; Sommerer, Claudia; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Background Overhydration is a common problem in peritoneal dialysis patients and has been shown to be associated with mortality. However, it still remains unclear whether overhydration per se is predictive of mortality or whether it is mainly a reflection of underlying comorbidities. The purpose of our study was to assess overhydration in peritoneal dialysis patients using bioimpedance spectroscopy and to investigate whether overhydration is an independent predictor of mortality. Methods We analyzed and followed 54 peritoneal dialysis patients between June 2008 and December 2014. All patients underwent bioimpedance spectroscopy measurement once and were allocated to normohydrated and overhydrated groups. Overhydration was defined as an absolute overhydration/extracellular volume ratio > 15%. Simultaneously, clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory data were assessed. Heart failure was defined either on echocardiography, as a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, or clinically according to the New York Heart Association functional classification. Patient survival was documented up until December 31st 2014. Factors associated with mortality were identified and a multivariable Cox regression model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality. Results Apart from higher daily peritoneal ultrafiltration rate and cumulative diuretic dose in overhydrated patients, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups, in particular with respect to gender, body mass index, comorbidity and cardiac medication. Mortality was higher in overhydrated than in euvolemic patients. In the univariate analysis, increased age, overhydration, low diastolic blood pressure, raised troponin and NTproBNP, hypoalbuminemia, heart failure but not CRP were predictive of mortality. After adjustment, only overhydration, increased age and low diastolic blood pressure remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Overhydration remains an

  4. Predictors of Residual Renal Function Decline in Patients Undergoing Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Chow, Kai-Ming; Chung, Sebastian; Yu, Vincent; Cheng, Phyllis Mei-Shan; Leung, Chi-Bon; Law, Man-Ching; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background: Residual renal function (RRF) is an important prognostic indicator in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We determined the predictors of RRF loss in a cohort of incident CAPD patients. ♦ Methods: We reviewed the record of 645 incident CAPD patients. RRF loss is represented by the slope of decline of residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as the time to anuria. ♦ Results: The average rate of residual GFR decline was -0.083 ± 0.094 mL/min/month. The rate of residual GFR decline was faster with a higher proteinuria (r = -0.506, p < 0.0001) and baseline residual GFR (r = -0.560, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics were independent predictors of residual GFR decline. Cox proportional hazard model showed that proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes were independent predictors of progression to anuria, while a higher baseline GFR was protective. Each 1 g/day of proteinuria is associated with a 13.2% increase in the risk of progressing to anuria, each 10 g/day higher glucose exposure is associated with a 2.5% increase in risk, while each peritonitis episode confers a 3.8% increase in risk. ♦ Conclusions: Our study shows that factors predicting the loss of residual solute clearance and urine output are different. Proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics are independently related to the rate of RRF decline in CAPD patients, while proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes are independent predictors for the development of anuria. The role of anti-proteinuric therapy and measures to prevent peritonitis episodes in the preservation of RRF should be tested in future studies. PMID:24497594

  5. Irisin, a novel myokine is an independent predictor for sarcopenia and carotid atherosclerosis in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi Jung; Lee, Sul A; Nam, Bo Young; Park, Sungha; Lee, Sang-Hak; Ryu, Han Jak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Yung Ly; Park, Kyoung Sook; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yoo, Tae-Hyun

    2015-10-01

    In end-stage renal disease, deleterious effect of sarcopenia on cardiovascular disease has been explained mainly by chronic inflammation. However, evidence emerged that skeletal muscles mediate their protective effect against sarcopenia by secreting myokines. Therefore, we sought to investigate the effect of irisin, a recently introduced myokine, on the association between sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Serum irisin concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 102 prevalent PD patients and 35 age- and sex-matched controls. To determine sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease, anthropometric indices including mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) were measured. Serum irisin concentrations were significantly lower in PD patients than in controls (184.2 ± 88.0 vs. 457.2 ± 105.5 ng/mL, P < 0.001). In PD patients, univariate linear regression analysis showed that serum irisin was positively correlated with MAMC and thigh circumference, but negatively correlated with residual renal function and cIMT. Multivariate analysis revealed that MAMC (per 1 cm increase, B = 8.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-16.79, P = 0.03) had an independent association with serum irisin. In addition, serum irisin was a significant independent predictor for carotid atherosclerosis even after adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in PD patients (per 1 g/mL increase, odds ratio = 0.990, 95% CI = 0.982-0.997, P = 0.007). This study demonstrated that serum irisin was significantly associated with sarcopenia and carotid atherosclerosis in PD patients. Additional studies to provide a confirmation and examine possible mechanisms are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical significance of multi-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy in peritoneal dialysis patients: independent predictor of patient survival.

    PubMed

    O'Lone, Emma L; Visser, Annemarie; Finney, Hazel; Fan, Stanley L

    2014-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the accurate assessment of hydration status is critical to care of a dialysis patient. Using the Body Composition Monitor, different parameters (overhydration (OH), extra-cellular water/total body water (ECW/TBW) or OH/ECW) have been proposed to indicate hydration status. We wished to determine which parameter (if any) was most predictive of all-cause mortality, and if this was independent of nutritional indices. We performed a single-centre retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of all peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients between 1 January 2008 and 30 March 2012. Record review was undertaken to establish patient survival, clinical and demographic data. Follow-up was continued even after PD technique failure (transfer to haemodialysis) and transplantation. The study included 529 patients. OH index (OH and OH/ECW) was the independent predictor of mortality in multi-variate analysis. ECW/TBW as a continuous variable was not associated with increased risk of death. In contrast, patients that were severely overhydrated (highest 33%) had hazard ratios (HRs) that were statistically significant irrespective of the parameter used to define hydration. Using OH, severely overhydrated patients had an HR of 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.82, P < 0.01], OH/ECW: 2.09 (95% CI 1.36-3.20, P < 0.001) and ECW/TBW: 2.05 (95% CI 1.31-3.22, P < 0.005). Our results also indicated that there was no influence of body mass index (BMI) on the hydration parameter OH/ECW. OH/ECW remained an independent predictor of mortality when the BMI and lean tissue index were included in multivariate model. However, it remains to be determined if correcting the OH status of a patient will lead to improvement in mortality. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial predictors of nonadherence to medical management among patients on maintenance dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Asiri, Mohammed; Alsuwayt, Saleh; Alotaibi, Tariq; Bin Mugren, Mohammed; Almufarrih, Abdulmalik; Almodameg, Saad

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of reports suggest a link between depression and nonadherence to recommended management for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on maintenance dialysis. However, the relationship between nonadherence and other psychosocial factors have been inadequately examined. Objectives To examine the prevalence of psychosocial factors including depression, anxiety, insecure attachment style, as well as cognitive impairment and their associations with adherence to recommended management of ESRD. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was carried out from 2014 to 2015. Chronic dialysis patients were recruited conveniently from four major dialysis units in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nonadherence was defined as decreased attendance in dialysis sessions, failure to take prescribed medications, and/or follow food/fluid restrictions and exercise recommendations. Results A total of 234 patients (147 males and 87 females) were included in this analysis, with 45 patients (19.2%) considered as nonadherent (visual analog scale < 8). Approximately 17.9% of the patients had depression (Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10), 13.2% had anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale-anxiety >7), while 77.4% had cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <26). Nonadherence was significantly associated with depression and anxiety (p<0.001 for both) but not cognitive impairment (p=0.266). The Experiences in Close Relationships – Modified 16 (ECR-M16) scale score was 27.99±10.87 for insecure anxiety and 21.71±9.06 for insecure avoidance relationship, with nonadherence significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.001) but not avoidance (p=0.400). Conclusion Nonadherence to different aspects of ESRD continues to be a serious problem among dialysis patients, and it is closely linked to depression and anxiety. The findings from this study reemphasize the importance of early detection and management of psychosocial ailments in these patients. PMID:27826207

  8. Health-related quality of life as a predictor of mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis1

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marília Pilotto; Kusumota, Luciana; Haas, Vanderlei José; Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Helú Mendonça; Marques, Sueli; Oller, Graziella Allana Serra Alves de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective: to characterize deaths that occurred, and the association between socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory variables and health-related quality of life and the outcome of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis, over a two year period after an initial assessment. Method: observational, prospective population study with 82 patients on peritoneal dialysis. The instruments used for the first stage of data collection were the mini-mental state examination, a sociodemographic, economic, clinical and laboratory questionnaire and the Kidney Disease and Quality of Life-Short Form. After two years, data for characterization and occurrence of death in the period were collected. The relative risk of death outcome was calculated through statistical analysis; the risk of death was estimated by the survival Kaplan-Meier curve, and determined predictors of death by the Cox Proportional Hazards Model. Results: of the 82 original participants, 23 had as an outcome death within two years. The increased risk for the outcome of death was associated with a lower mean score of health-related quality of life in the physical functioning domain. Conclusion: the worst health-related quality of life in the physical functioning domain, could be considered a predictor of death. PMID:27192413

  9. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.

  10. Progression of Aortic Arch Calcification Over 1 Year Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jung; Shin, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Yoo, Dong Eun; Ko, Kwang Il; Koo, Hyang Mo; Kim, Chan Ho; Doh, Fa Mee; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Kyu Hun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims The presence and progression of vascular calcification have been demonstrated as important risk factors for mortality in dialysis patients. However, since the majority of subjects included in most previous studies were hemodialysis patients, limited information was available in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and prognostic value of AoAC progression in PD patients. Methods We prospectively determined AoAC by chest X-ray at PD start and after 12 months, and evaluated the impact of AoAC progression on mortality in 415 incident PD patients. Results Of 415 patients, 169 patients (40.7%) had AoAC at baseline with a mean of 18.1±11.2%. The presence of baseline AoAC was an independent predictor of all-cause [Hazard ratio (HR): 2.181, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.336–3.561, P = 0.002] and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 3.582, 95% CI: 1.577–8.132, P = 0.002). Among 363 patients with follow-up chest X-rays at 12 months after PD start, the proportion of patients with AoAC progression was significantly higher in patients with baseline AoAC (64.2 vs. 5.3%, P<0.001). Moreover, all-cause and cardiovascular death rates were significantly higher in the progression groups than in the non-progression group (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that AoAC progression was an independent predictor for all-cause (HR: 2.625, 95% CI: 1.150–5.991, P = 0.022) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 4.008, 95% CI: 1.079–14.890, P = 0.038) in patients with AoAC at baseline. Conclusions The presence and progression of AoAC assessed by chest X-ray were independently associated with unfavorable outcomes in incident PD patients. Regular follow-up by chest X-ray could be a simple and useful method to stratify mortality risk in these patients. PMID:23144974

  11. Extracellular mass/body cell mass ratio is an independent predictor of survival in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Avram, Morrell M; Fein, Paul A; Borawski, Cezary; Chattopadhyay, Jyotiprakas; Matza, Betty

    2010-08-01

    Malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Extracellular mass (ECM) contains all the metabolically inactive, whereas body cell mass (BCM) contains all the metabolically active, tissues of the body. ECM/BCM ratio is a highly sensitive index of malnutrition. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between ECM/BCM ratio and survival in PD patients. We enrolled 62 patients from November 2000 to July 2008. On enrollment, demographic, clinical, and biochemical data were recorded. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was used to determine ECM and BCM in PD patients. Patients were followed up to November 2008. Mean age was 54+/-16 (s.d.) years; female, 55%; African Americans, 65%; diabetic, 24%. Mean ECM/BCM ratio was 1.206+/-0.197 (range: 0.73-1.62). Diabetics had higher ECM/BCM ratio than nondiabetics (1.29 vs 1.18, P=0.04). ECM/BCM ratio correlated directly with age (r=0.38, P=0.002) and inversely with serum albumin (r=-0.43, P=0.001), creatinine (-0.24, P=0.08), blood urea nitrogen (r=-0.26, P=0.06), and total protein (r=-0.31, P=0.026). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, race, gender, diabetes, and human immunodeficiency virus status, enrollment ECM/BCM ratio was a significant independent predictor of mortality (relative risk=1.035, P=0.018). For every 10% increase in the ECM/BCM ratio, the relative risk of death was increased by about 35%. In conclusion, BIA-derived enrollment ECM/BCM ratio, a marker of malnutrition, was an independent predictor of long-term survival in PD patients.

  12. [Chronic dialysis patients' expectations towards dialysis nurses].

    PubMed

    Niedźwiecka, Agnieszka; Nowicki, Michał; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    As a result of changes in the Polish healthcare system, healthcare institutions--including dialysis units--are expected to provide their patients with broad-spectrum and high-quality services. Nurses are the members of the therapeutic team who spend most time with the patient undergoing renal replacement therapy, and thus the image of the whole dialysis unit depends on their work. The aim of the study was to assess the dialysis patients' expectations towards their nurses. The study group consisted of 150 adult dialysis patients treated with hemodialysis in dialysis units in Lodz region. The participants were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire specially tailored for the study. We showed that dialysis patients were generally satisfied with the level of care provided by nurses and described them as reliable, professional and well-qualified. Patients especially valued kind attitude, smile and friendliness of the nurses. Fully professional care was noticed by 25.7% of patients. Patients dialyzed for a longer period of time (over 10 years) described nurses' knowledge, practical skills and independence with more criticism. A quarter of them stated that nurses always relied on the doctor's decision. The study revealed that dialysis nurses' work, practical skills and attitude were assessed very well by patients. Their level of satisfaction would be higher if nurses spent more time and initiated more discussion with the patients. The high merit that nurses received should be considered as a stimulus that ought to increase the professional independence and quality of dialysis nurses performance.

  13. Circulating Bacterial-Derived DNA Fragment Level Is a Strong Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Chow, Kai-Ming; Kwok, Jeffrey Sung-Shing; Lai, Ka-Bik; Cheng, Phyllis Mei-Shan; Pang, Wing-Fai; Ng, Jack Kit-Chung; Chan, Michael Ho-Ming; Lit, Lydia Choi-Wan; Leung, Chi-Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Background Circulating bacterial DNA fragment is related to systemic inflammatory state in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesize that plasma bacterial DNA level predicts cardiovascular events in new PD patients. Methods We measured plasma bacterial DNA level in 191 new PD patients, who were then followed for at least a year for the development of cardiovascular event, hospitalization, and patient survival. Results The average age was 59.3 ± 11.8 years; plasma bacterial DNA level 34.9 ± 1.5 cycles; average follow up 23.2 ± 9.7 months. At 24 months, the event-free survival was 86.1%, 69.8%, 55.4% and 30.8% for plasma bacterial DNA level quartiles I, II, III and IV, respectively (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for confounders, plasma bacterial DNA level, baseline residual renal function and malnutrition-inflammation score were independent predictors of composite cardiovascular end-point; each doubling in plasma bacterial DNA level confers a 26.9% (95% confidence interval, 13.0 – 42.5%) excess in risk. Plasma bacterial DNA also correlated with the number of hospital admission (r = -0.379, p < 0.0001) and duration of hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons (r = -0.386, p < 0.0001). Plasma bacterial DNA level did not correlate with baseline arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), but with the change in carotid-radial PWV in one year (r = -0.238, p = 0.005). Conclusions Circulating bacterial DNA fragment level is a strong predictor of cardiovascular event, need of hospitalization, as well as the progressive change in arterial stiffness in new PD patients. PMID:26010741

  14. Baseline Predictors of Mortality among Predominantly Rural-Dwelling End-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Chronic Dialysis Therapies in Limpopo, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Tamayo Isla, Ramon A; Ameh, Oluwatoyin I; Mapiye, Darlington; Swanepoel, Charles R; Bello, Aminu K; Ratsela, Andrew R; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2016-01-01

    Dialysis therapy for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) continues to be the readily available renal replacement option in developing countries. While the impact of rural/remote dwelling on mortality among dialysis patients in developed countries is known, it remains to be defined in sub-Saharan Africa. A single-center database of end-stage renal disease patients on chronic dialysis therapies treated between 2007 and 2014 at the Polokwane Kidney and Dialysis Centre (PKDC) of the Pietersburg Provincial Hospital, Limpopo South Africa, was retrospectively reviewed. All-cause, cardiovascular, and infection-related mortalities were assessed and associated baseline predictors determined. Of the 340 patients reviewed, 52.1% were male, 92.9% were black Africans, 1.8% were positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 87.5% were rural dwellers. The average distance travelled to the dialysis centre was 112.3 ± 73.4 Km while 67.6% of patients lived in formal housing. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at dialysis initiation was 7.1 ± 3.7 mls/min while hemodialysis (HD) was the predominant modality offered (57.1%). Ninety-two (92) deaths were recorded over the duration of follow-up with the majority (34.8%) of deaths arising from infection-related causes. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (HR: 1.62, CI: 1.07-2.46) and infection-related mortality (HR: 2.27, CI: 1.13-4.60). On multivariable cox regression, CAPD remained a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (HR: 2.00, CI: 1.29-3.10) while the risk of death among CAPD patients was also significantly modified by diabetes mellitus (DM) status (HR: 4.99, CI: 2.13-11.71). CAPD among predominantly rural dwelling patients in the Limpopo province of South Africa is associated with an increased risk of death from all-causes and infection-related causes.

  15. The phase angle of the electrical impedance is a predictor of long-term survival in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Abad, S; Sotomayor, G; Vega, A; Pérez de José, A; Verdalles, U; Jofré, R; López-Gómez, J M

    2011-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a risk factor for mortality in dialysis patients; however, its clinical assessment has not been well defined. Electrical bioimpedance (EBI) is a non-invasive and objective procedure, which is increasingly being used for this assessment. The aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between the phase angle determined by EBI at a frequency of 50kHz (AF50) and other nutritional parameters, and prospectively evaluate its ability as a marker for long-term mortality. We included 164 patients (127 on haemodialysis and 37 on peritoneal dialysis) who underwent an EBI analysis while simultaneously determining inflammation and nutrition parameters. The Charlson comorbidity index was then calculated. In the linear correlation analysis, we found that the AF50 had a direct association with lean mass, intracellular water, extracellular water and interdialytic weight gain, while having an inverse association with age and fat mass. Patients with AF50 >8º had a better nutritional status, were younger and had significantly longer survival at the six-year follow-up. Among the patients studied, both the AF50 and the other body composition parameters were better in peritoneal dialysis than in haemodialysis, but these differences may be attributable to the fact that the first patients were younger. In the multivariate analysis, only the AF50 <8º and comorbidity adjusted for age persisted as independent risk factors for mortality. We conclude that AF50 has a good correlation with nutritional parameters and is a good marker of survival in dialysis patients. Nevertheless, intervention studies are needed to demonstrate if the improvement in EBI parameters is associated with better survival.

  16. Dialysis: Hypokalaemia and cardiac risk in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun

    2012-09-01

    Dialysis, particularly haemodialysis, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A new study confirms that hypokalaemia confers an excess cardiovascular risk and contributes disproportionately to the high risk of death in patients on peritoneal dialysis, which may partially account for the fact that observed cardiac risk is similar for patients on peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis.

  17. Many Dialysis Patients Get Unnecessary Colonoscopies

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplant. Therefore, dialysis patients who have a limited life expectancy and no signs or symptoms of colon cancer ... weren't on dialysis but had similarly limited life expectancies, the dialysis patients had an 8 times higher ...

  18. Predictors and outcomes of transfers from peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lan, Patrick G; Clayton, Philip A; Saunders, John; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Snelling, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are commonly required to transfer to hemodialysis (HD), however the literature describing the outcomes of such transfers is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the predictors of these transfers and their outcomes according to vascular access at the time of transfer. A retrospective cohort study using registry data of all adult patients commencing PD as their initial renal replacement therapy in Australia or New Zealand between 2004 - 2010 was performed. Follow-up was until 31 December 2010. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine possible predictors of transfer within both 6 and 12 months of PD commencement. Cox analysis and competing risks regression were used to determine the predictors of survival and transplantation post-transfer. The analysis included 4,781 incident PD patients, of whom 1,699 transferred to HD during the study period. Logistic models did not identify any clinically useful predictors of transfer within 6 or 12 months (c-statistics 0.54 and 0.55 respectively). 67% of patients commenced HD with a central venous catheter (CVC). CVC use at transfer was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 - 1.68, p = 0.003) and a borderline significant reduction in the incidence of transplantation (subhazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 - 1.00, p = 0.05). It is difficult to predict the transfer to HD for incident PD patients. PD patients who commence HD with a CVC have a higher risk of mortality and a lower likelihood of undergoing renal transplantation. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  19. Predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Pozniak, Alyssa S; Hirth, Richard A; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-04-01

    To determine the predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis providers. Retrospective facility-level data combined from CMS Cost Reports, Medical Evidence Forms, Annual Facility Surveys, and claims for 1996-2003. Independent dialysis facilities' probability of acquisition by a dialysis chain (overall and by chain size) was estimated using a discrete time hazard rate model, controlling for financial and clinical performance, practice patterns, market factors, and other facility characteristics. The sample includes all U.S. freestanding dialysis facilities that report not being chain affiliated for at least 1 year between 1997 and 2003. Above-average costs and better quality outcomes are significant determinants of dialysis chain acquisition. Facilities in larger markets were more likely to be acquired by a chain. Furthermore, small dialysis chains have different acquisition strategies than large chains. Dialysis chains appear to employ a mix of turn-around and cream-skimming strategies. Poor financial health is a predictor of chain acquisition as in other health care sectors, but the increased likelihood of chain acquisition among higher quality facilities is unique to the dialysis industry. Significant differences among predictors of acquisition by small and large chains reinforce the importance of using a richer classification for chain status.

  20. Predictors of Chain Acquisition among Independent Dialysis Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Pozniak, Alyssa S; Hirth, Richard A; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Wheeler, John R C

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the predictors of chain acquisition among independent dialysis providers. Data Sources Retrospective facility-level data combined from CMS Cost Reports, Medical Evidence Forms, Annual Facility Surveys, and claims for 1996–2003. Study Design Independent dialysis facilities' probability of acquisition by a dialysis chain (overall and by chain size) was estimated using a discrete time hazard rate model, controlling for financial and clinical performance, practice patterns, market factors, and other facility characteristics. Data Collection The sample includes all U.S. freestanding dialysis facilities that report not being chain affiliated for at least 1 year between 1997 and 2003. Principal Findings Above-average costs and better quality outcomes are significant determinants of dialysis chain acquisition. Facilities in larger markets were more likely to be acquired by a chain. Furthermore, small dialysis chains have different acquisition strategies than large chains. Conclusions Dialysis chains appear to employ a mix of turn-around and cream-skimming strategies. Poor financial health is a predictor of chain acquisition as in other health care sectors, but the increased likelihood of chain acquisition among higher quality facilities is unique to the dialysis industry. Significant differences among predictors of acquisition by small and large chains reinforce the importance of using a richer classification for chain status. PMID:20148985

  1. Managing diabetes in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Fan, Stanley L; Yaqoob, M Magdi; Chowdhury, Tahseen A

    2012-03-01

    Burgeoning levels of diabetes are a major concern for dialysis services, as diabetes is now the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in most developed nations. With the rapid rise in diabetes prevalence in developing countries, the burden of end stage renal failure due to diabetes is also expected to rise in such countries. Diabetic patients on dialysis have a high burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly from cardiovascular disease, and a higher societal and economic cost compared to non-diabetic subjects on dialysis. Tight glycaemic and blood pressure control in diabetic patients has an important impact in reducing risk of progression to end stage renal disease. The evidence for improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis having an impact on mortality or morbidity is sparse. Indeed, many factors make improving glycaemic control in patients on dialysis very challenging, including therapeutic difficulties with hypoglycaemic agents, monitoring difficulties, dialysis strategies that exacerbate hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia, and possibly a degree of therapeutic nihilism or inertia on the part of clinical diabetologists and nephrologists. Standard drug therapy for hyperglycaemia (eg, metformin) is clearly not possible in patients on dialysis. Thus, sulphonylureas and insulin have been the mainstay of treatment. Newer therapies for hyperglycaemia, such as gliptins and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues have become available, but until recently, renal failure has precluded their use. Newer gliptins, however, are now licensed for use in 'severe renal failure', although they have yet to be trialled in dialysis patients. Diabetic patients on dialysis have special needs, as they have a much greater burden of complications (cardiac, retinal and foot). They may be best managed in a multidisciplinary diabetic-renal clinic setting, using the skills of diabetologists, nephrologists, clinical nurse specialists in nephrology and diabetes, along with

  2. Restless legs syndrome in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al Sayyari, Abdullah A

    2009-05-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is an extremely distressing problem experienced by patients on dialysis; the prevalence appears to be greater than in the general population, with a wide variation from 6.6% to 80%. The diagnosis of RLS is a clinical one, and its definition has been clarified and standardized by internationally recognized diagnostic criteria, published in 1995 by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG). This study was designed to find out the prevalence of RLS in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on maintenance dialysis. This is a cross sectional study carried out between May and Sept 2007 at two centers, King Abdulaziz Medical City-King Fahad National Guard Hospital (KAMC-KFNGH), Riyadh and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFHRC), Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data were gathered on 227 Saudi patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis. The prevalence of RLS was measured using IRLSSG's RLS Questionnaire (RLSQ). Potential risk factors for RLS including other sleep disorders, underlying cause of chronic renal failure, duration on dialysis, dialysis shift, biochemical tests and demographic data were also evaluated. The overall prevalence of RLS was 50.22% including 53.7% males and 46.3% females. Their mean age was 55.7 +/- 17.2 years and mean duration on dialysis 40.4 +/- 37.8 months. Significant predictors of RLS were history of diabetes mellitus (DM), coffee intake, afternoon dialysis, gender and type of dialysis (P= 0.03, 0.01, < 0.001, 0.05 and 0.009 respectively). Patients with RLS were found to be at increased risk of having insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) (P= < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our study suggests that RLS is a very common problem in dialysis population and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, and EDS. Optimal care of dialysis patient should include particular attention to the diagnosis and

  3. [Anemia in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Lausević, Mirjana; Nesić, Vidosava; Jovanović, Natasa; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2006-01-01

    A normocytic normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of renal failure. Since anemia increases morbidity and mortality, its elimination is one of the essential objectives of the treatment. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has changed the therapeutical approach to anemia. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of anemia correction in peritoneal dialysis patients depending on treatment and dialysis modality. The study is the retrospective analysis of 64 patients who presented to our Clinic in 2003. Eighteen (28.13%) patients were treated with rHuEPO, 14 (28%) underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 2 (100%)--automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 2 (33.3%)--intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Mean hemoglobin level was 98.6 +/- 17.82 g/l in patients treated with rHuEPO versus 98.81 +/- 15.14 g/l in patients without rHuEPO treatment. Erythropoietin requirements were 3392.85 +/- 1211.77 IU/week All patients received iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. Mean serum ferritin levels were 463.41 +/- 360 ug/l. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) was 0.35 +/- 0.16%. No difference of serum iron and TSAT levels was found between CAPD and IPD patients. The degree of anemia significantly differed between CAPD and IPD patients. A total of 17.11% of PD patients were given blood transfusions, most frequently during the first three months after the onset of dialysis. Our conclusion is that the number of patients receiving rHuEPO should be increased, as 50% of our patients should be substituted, while only 28% are being treated. As 50% of patients receiving rHuEPO failed to reach target Hgb levels, higher EPO doses should be considered. Iron stores should be continuously monitored, particularly in patients receiving rHuEPO, since iron deficiency is an important problem for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, especially during erythropoietin therapy. Oral iron supplementation is satisfactory in the majority of patients, and iron

  4. Prescribing for patients on dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Brendan; Jones, Ceridwen; Saunders, John

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The pharmacokinetics of a drug may be altered in patients with renal impairment who require dialysis. Some drugs are contraindicated. The drug’s clearance and therapeutic index determine if a dose adjustment is needed. A lower dose or less frequent dosing may be required. Consult a reference source or the patient’s nephrologist before prescribing. Start at a low dose and increase gradually. If possible give once-daily drugs after dialysis. PMID:27041803

  5. [Peritoneal dialysis in obstetric patients].

    PubMed

    Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Díaz de León-Ponce, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez-Roldán, Martín; Briones-Vega, Carlos Gabriel; Torres-Pérez, Juan

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) in obstetric patients in our country is estimated to be between 3 and 42.8%. The most important causes are preeclampsia, especially when associated with thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolysis and less frequently to hemorrhagic shock. Early peritoneal dialysis (EPD) is the temporary treatment. For these patients, 100 % recovery in renal function was observed. When ARF is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF), the reported mortality ranges between 0 and 20 %. To describe clinical features and medical outcomes of patients treated with early peritoneal dialysis in pregnancy complicated by ARF. A case series was conducted at the Research Unit of the Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de México. We reviewed the cases of patients admitted to the ICU matching the criteria for ARF. They were divided into two groups: those who received EPD vs. those who did not require EPD. The most important national series were included describing the association with preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolysis. In a 5-year period, 1272 patients were admitted to the ICU; in 38 patients ARF was documented requiring peritoneal dialysis. In nine cases ARF was associated with thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolysis, two cases of stillbirth, and one case of mortality with MOF. A 100% recovery in renal function was observed in all cases, using 1.5% solution with an average of 34 dialysis treatments. The early use of peritoneal dialysis in obstetric patients with ARF has a good prognosis.

  6. Predictors and Outcomes of Transfers from Peritoneal Dialysis to Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Patrick G.; Clayton, Philip A.; Saunders, John; Polkinghorne, Kevan R.; Snelling, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Introduction: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are commonly required to transfer to hemodialysis (HD), however the literature describing the outcomes of such transfers is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the predictors of these transfers and their outcomes according to vascular access at the time of transfer. ♦ Methods: A retrospective cohort study using registry data of all adult patients commencing PD as their initial renal replacement therapy in Australia or New Zealand between 2004 – 2010 was performed. Follow-up was until 31 December 2010. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine possible predictors of transfer within both 6 and 12 months of PD commencement. Cox analysis and competing risks regression were used to determine the predictors of survival and transplantation post-transfer. ♦ Results: The analysis included 4,781 incident PD patients, of whom 1,699 transferred to HD during the study period. Logistic models did not identify any clinically useful predictors of transfer within 6 or 12 months (c-statistics 0.54 and 0.55 respectively). 67% of patients commenced HD with a central venous catheter (CVC). CVC use at transfer was associated with increased mortality (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 – 1.68, p = 0.003) and a borderline significant reduction in the incidence of transplantation (subhazard ratio 0.76, 95% CI 0.58 – 1.00, p = 0.05). ♦ Conclusions: It is difficult to predict the transfer to HD for incident PD patients. PD patients who commence HD with a CVC have a higher risk of mortality and a lower likelihood of undergoing renal transplantation. PMID:24497591

  7. Barriers to exercise participation among dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Kirsten L.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Physical inactivity is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease and is associated with poor physical functioning. Patients with end-stage renal disease are inactive even compared to sedentary individuals without kidney disease. We sought to identify patient barriers to physical activity. Methods. Adult patients on hemodialysis in the San Francisco Bay Area were recruited and asked to complete a study survey composed of questions about self-reported level of physical functioning, physical activity participation, patient physical activity preference and barriers to physical activity. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to study the association between barriers to physical activity and participation in physical activity. Results. A total of 100 patients participated in the study, the majority of whom were male (73%), with a mean age of 60 ± 15 years. Twenty-seven percent identified themselves as white, 30% black and 21% Hispanic. The majority of participants strongly agreed that a sedentary lifestyle was a health risk (98%) and that increasing exercise was a benefit (98%). However, 92% of participants reported at least one barrier to physical activity. The most commonly reported barriers were fatigue on dialysis days and non-dialysis days (67 and 40%, respectively) and shortness of breath (48%). In multivariate analysis, a greater number of reported barriers was associated with lower levels of physical activity (P < 0.02). Post-dialysis fatigue was not associated with differences in activity level in multivariate analysis. Lack of motivation was associated with less physical activity. Endorsement of too many medical problems and not having enough time on dialysis days were also associated with less activity in adjusted analysis. Conclusion. We have identified a number of barriers to physical activity that can be addressed in studies aimed at increasing levels of physical activity

  8. Hyponatremia in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Uribarri, J; Prabhakar, S; Kahn, T

    2004-01-01

    Low serum sodium is uncommon in peritoneal dialysis (PD), which is surprising in view of the important role of normal kidney function to regulate water and sodium balance. We report 2 cases of persistent hyponatremia with balance studies in Case 1. We performed measurements of dialysate sodium and volume output over 24 hours in a group of chronic PD patients. The low serum sodium concentration did not vary too much with overall fluid removal via dialysis in patient 1, mainly because large quantities of sodium were removed in the dialysate. In the 24-hour studies, a significant relationship was found between net daily PD sodium removal and net daily dialysate volume removed (r = 0.65). There was no relationship between net daily PD sodium removal and serum sodium concentration. There was a linear direct correlation between serum and dialysate sodium concentration (r = 0.8) as shown by others previously. These results suggest that the main determinant of PD sodium loss is net dialysate ultrafiltration volume. Water loss via dialysis is necessarily associated with sodium loss. In order to maintain a normal serum sodium concentration salt intake must be proportional to the water loss induced by dialysis. The stimuli that allow dialysis patients to maintain this delicate balance between water and salt intake are of considerable interest but remain undetermined.

  9. Predictors of Peritonitis and the Impact of Peritonitis on Clinical Outcomes of Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients in Taiwan—10 Years’ Experience in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Objective: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has become more prevalent as a treatment modality for end-stage renal disease, and peritonitis remains one of its most devastating complications. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the frequency and predictors of peritonitis and the impact of peritonitis on clinical outcomes. ♦ Methods: Our retrospective observational cohort study enrolled 391 patients who had been treated with continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) for at least 90 days. Relevant demographic, biochemical, and clinical data were collected for an analysis of CAPD-associated peritonitis, technique failure, drop-out from PD, and patient mortality. ♦ Results: The peritonitis rate was 0.196 episodes per patient-year. Older age (>65 years) was the only identified risk factor associated with peritonitis. A multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated that technique failure occurred more often in patients experiencing peritonitis than in those free of peritonitis (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the group experiencing peritonitis tended to survive longer than the group that was peritonitis-free (p = 0.11). After multivariate adjustment, the survival advantage reached significance (hazard ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 0.89; p = 0.006). Compared with the peritonitis-free group, the group experiencing peritonitis also had more drop-out from PD (p = 0.03). ♦ Conclusions: The peritonitis rate was relatively low in the present investigation. Elderly patients were at higher risk of peritonitis episodes. Peritonitis independently predicted technique failure, in agreement with other reports. However, contrary to previous studies, all-cause mortality was better in patients experiencing peritonitis than in those free of peritonitis. The underlying mechanisms of this presumptive “peritonitis paradox” remain to be clarified. PMID:24084840

  10. B-flow imaging estimation of carotid and femoral atherosclerotic plaques: vessel walls rheological damage or strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Avramovski, Petar; Avramovska, Maja; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients (CHPs) and to discover the importance of carotid and femoral artery plaques as cardiovascular (CV) mortality predictor. In this study with 4 years of follow-up period, we studied a cohort of 101 CHPs. Mean age at entry was 58.1 ± 11.9 years, and mean duration of dialysis was 5.8 ± 5.3 years. We performed B-flow imaging of both carotid and femoral arteries to estimate and score the plaque thickness. The mean carotid and femoral plaque scores (PSs) at entry were 5.02 ± 4.20 and 4.04 ± 3.30 (p = 0.0002). The carotid cutoff point and femoral cutoff point (by ROC curves) were 5.4 and 5.9. The regression coefficients (b) and Exp (b) hazard ratio coefficients of carotid and femoral PS in Cox regression survival analysis in CV outcomes were: b = 0.142, Exp (b) = 1.153, p = 0.0035 versus b = 0.457, Exp (b) = 1.578, p < 0.0001. Relative hazard ratio (HR) risk of exposed group according to CV events was HR 2.812 (CI 1.301-6.081) for carotid PS and HR 2926 (CI 1.424-6.013) for femoral PS. Carotid and femoral plaques are strong independent predictors of CV mortality in CHPs. The HR risk of femoral artery plaques is more predictable than HR risk of carotid artery plaques.

  11. Reasons for admission and predictors of national 30-day readmission rates in patients with end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lili; Poojary, Priti; Saha, Aparna; Chauhan, Kinsuk; Ferrandino, Rocco; Ferket, Bart; Coca, Steven; Nadkarni, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on peritoneal dialysis (PD) has increased by over 30% between 2007 and 2014. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid has identified readmissions in ESRD patients to be a quality measure; however, there is a paucity of studies examining readmissions in PD patients. Methods Utilizing the National Readmission Database for the year 2013, we aimed to determine reasons for admission, the associated rates of unplanned readmission and independent predictors of readmissions in PD patients. Results The top 10 reasons for initial hospitalization were implant/PD catheter complications (23.22%), hypertension (5.47%), septicemia (5.18%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (5.12%), complications of surgical procedures/medical care (3.50%), fluid and electrolyte disorders (4.29%), peritonitis (3.76%), congestive heart failure (3.25%), pneumonia (2.90%) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (2.01%). The overall 30-day readmission rate was 14.6%, with the highest rates for AMI (21.8%), complications of surgical procedure/medical care (19.6%) and DM (18.4%). Concordance among the top 10 reasons for index admission and readmission was 22.6% and varied by admission diagnosis. Independent predictors of readmissions included age 35–49 years compared with 18–34 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09–1.68; P = 0.006], female gender (aOR 1.27; 95% CI 1.12–1.44; P < 0.001), and comorbidities including liver disease (aOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.07–1.81; P = 0.01), peripheral vascular disease (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14–1.56; P < 0.001) and depression (aOR 1.22; 95% CI 1.00–1.48; P = 0.04). Conclusions This study demonstrates the most common reasons for admission and readmissions in PD patients and several comorbidities that are predictive of readmissions. Targeted interventions towards these patients may be of benefit in reducing readmission in this growing population. PMID

  12. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Difference between dialysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Cigarrán, Secundino; Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Calviño, Jesús; Villa, Juan; Gonzalez Tabares, Lourdes; Herrero, José Antonio; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    Testosterone deficiency is a prevalent condition in male patients with chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an impact on testosterone deficiency that accompanies loss of renal function. The cross-sectional study enrolled 79 prevalent male patients on dialysis; 43 on haemodialysis (HD) and 36 on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The median age was 69 years and 31.6% were diabetics. Endogenous testosterone levels were measured by immunoluminescence assay (normal range 3-10.5ng/ml), while nutritional/inflammatory markers, bone and mineral metabolism markers, anaemia, type of dialysis technique and time on dialysis were also assessed. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance vector analysis and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Testosterone deficiency was defined as levels below 3ng/ml. Mean testosterone levels were 8.81±6.61ng/ml. Testosterone deficiency affected 39.5% of HD patients and only 5.6% of PD patients. In the univariate analysis, testosterone levels were directly correlated with type of dialysis technique (HD) (Rho Spearman 0.366; P<.001) and time on dialysis (Rho -0.412; P=.036) and only with the HD technique in the multivariate analysis. No other significant correlations were found. Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor -namely the dialysis technique- may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kosmadakis, George; Aguilera, Didier; Carceles, Odette; Da Costa Correia, Enrique; Boletis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in end-stage renal disease patients is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in dialysis patients is relatively high and varies in different studies from 17% to 49.53% depending on the mode of dialysis and other selection factors, such as the presence of other cardiovascular comorbidities. The etiopathogenic mechanisms that have been studied in relatively small studies mainly include arteriovenous fistula-induced increased cardiac output, which cannot be accomodated by, the spacious under normal conditions pulmonary circulation. Additionally, pulmonary vessels show signs of endothelial dysfunction, dysregulation of vascular tone due to an imbalance in vasoactive substances, and local as well as systemic inflammation. It is also believed that microbubbles escaping from the dialysis circuit can trigger vasoconstriction and vascular sclerosis. The non-specific therapeutic options that proved to be beneficial in pulmonary artery pressure reduction are endothelin inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitor sildenafil, and vasodilatory prostaglandins in various forms. The specific modes of treatment are renal transplantation, size reduction or closure of high-flow arteriovenous fistulas, and transfer from hemodialysis to peritoneal dialysis-a modality that is associated with a lesser prevalence of pulmonary hypertension.

  14. Longitudinal measures of serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations in incident dialysis patients: the comprehensive dialysis study.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Lorien S; Johansen, Kirsten L; Chertow, Glenn M; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E; Kaysen, George A

    2013-03-01

    Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in dialysis patients. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, comorbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation, and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations in incident dialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report, we examined the data from 266 Nutrition substudy participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine level, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, recorded at study entry and thereafter every 3 months for 1 year. In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Serum albumin level increases early in the course of dialysis, whereas prealbumin level does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in dialysis patients may lead to an improved approach to the management of

  15. [Ocular changes in dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Popa, M; Nicoară, S

    2000-01-01

    The study analyzes the ocular aspects in patients receiving hemodialysis, in order to define the importance of the ophthalmological exam as prognosis and follow-up parameter. The prospective study includes 84 patients with renal insufficiency who received hemodialysis between 1994-1998. The ocular aspects and their connection with the dialysis and the basic disease are described and analyzed. The most important were the retinal vascular complications: hypertensive retinopathy, anterior optic ischaemic neuropathy, central retinal artery occlusion, diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Administration of chemotherapy in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Kuo, James C; Craft, Paul S

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of patients on dialysis has increased and these patients present a challenge for chemotherapy administration when diagnosed with cancer. A consensus on the dosage and timing of different chemotherapeutic agents in relation to dialysis has not been established. We describe the pattern of care and treatment outcome for cancer patients on dialysis in our institution. The dataset from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry of patients on dialysis who had a diagnosis of cancer was obtained and matched to the pharmacy records in our institution to identify patients who had received chemotherapy while on dialysis. Relevant clinical information including details of the dialysis regimen, chemotherapy administration and adverse events was extracted for analysis. Between July 1999 and July 2014, 21 patients on dialysis were included for analysis. Five (23.8%) received chemotherapy, most of which was administered before dialysis sessions. As a result of adverse events, one patient discontinued treatment; two other patients required dose reduction or treatment delay. Chemotherapy administration was feasible in cancer patients on dialysis, but chemotherapy usage was low. Better understanding of the altered pharmacokinetics in patients on dialysis may improve chemotherapy access and practice.

  17. Longitudinal Measures of Serum Albumin and Prealbumin Concentrations in Incident Dialysis Patients: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Grimes, Barbara; Anand, Shuchi; McCulloch, Charles E.; Kaysen, George A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in patients on dialysis. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, co-morbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin in incident dialysis patients. Design, Setting, Subjects and Outcome Measures The Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report we examined data from 266 Nutrition sub-study participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, measured at study entry and every 3 months for one year. Results In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin. Conclusions Serum albumin increases early in the course of dialysis whereas prealbumin does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in persons on dialysis may lead to an improved approach to the management of protein energy

  18. Glycaemic control is a predictor of infection-related hospitalization on haemodialysis patients: Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort study (MID study).

    PubMed

    Toida, Tatsunori; Sato, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hideto; Komatsu, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Masao; Uezono, Shigehiro; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Tabito; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Shouichi

    2016-03-01

    Although infection is the second leading cause of death in maintenance haemodialysis patients, the effects of glycaemic control on infection in diabetic haemodialysis patients have not yet been examined in detail. We examined the relationship between diabetes or glycemic control and infection-related hospitalization (IRH) in haemodialysis patients. Patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis (n = 1551, 493 diabetic patients) were enrolled in this prospective cohort study in December 2009 and followed-up for 3 years. IRH during the follow-up period was abstracted from medical records. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between diabetes or glycaemic control and IRH. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the risk of IRH was significantly higher in haemodialysis patients with diabetes, particularly in those with poorly controlled HbA1c levels (HbA1c ≥ 7.0%), than in haemodialysis patients without diabetes. When patients with ≥HbA1c 7.0% were divided into two groups using a median value of HbA1c, the risk of IRH was significantly higher in those with the poorest glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.4%), an older age, or lower albumin levels. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for the risk of IRH was not higher in the second criteria of HbA1c (HbA1c 7.0-7.3%), but was significantly higher in the group with the poorest glycaemic control (HbA1c ≥ 7.4%) than in those in the good control criterion (HbA1c < 7.0%). Although diabetes is a risk factor for IRH among maintenance haemodialysis patients, the relationship between glycaemic control and the risk of infection is not linear. Therefore, the risk of infection may increase in a manner that is dependent on the glycaemic control threshold. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  19. Magnesium and FGF-23 are independent predictors of pulse pressure in pre-dialysis diabetic chronic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Fragoso, André; Silva, Ana Paula; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Neves, Pedro Leão

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to evaluate the relevance of magnesium and FGF-23 in terms of cardiovascular disease in a population of type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy. Methods In a cross-sectional study, we included 80 type 2 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 2, 3 and 4. We analysed mineral metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Our population was divided into two groups according to their pulse pressure (PP) as follows: G-1 with PP < 50 mmHg (n = 34) and G-2 with PP ≥ 50 mmHg (n = 46). Results We found that G-2 patients showed lower calcium (P = 0.004), eGFR (P = 0.001), magnesium (P = 0.0001), osteocalcin (P = 0.0001) and 25(OH)D3 (P = 0.001), and higher iPTH (P = 0.001), FGF-23 (P = 0.0001), malonaldehyde (P = 0.0001), interleukin 6 (P = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.033). No differences were found between the two groups regarding age, duration of disease, haemoglobin, HgA1c and phosphorus. In a multivariate analysis, we found that FGF-23 and magnesium independently influenced the PP [OR = 1.239 (1.001–2.082), P = 0.039 and OR = 0.550 (0.305–0.727), P = 0.016, respectively]. Conclusions In our diabetic population with early stages of CKD, FGF-23 as well as lower magnesium levels were significantly and independently associated with higher PP levels, an established marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25852865

  20. TSAT is a better predictor than ferritin of hemoglobin response to Epoetin alfa in US dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gaweda, Adam E; Bhat, Premila; Maglinte, Gregory A; Chang, Chun-Lan; Hill, Jerrold; Park, Grace S; Ashfaq, Akhtar; Gitlin, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Clinical guidelines recommend concurrent treatment of anemia in end-stage renal disease with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) and iron. However, there are mixed data about optimal iron supplementation. To help address this gap, the relationship between iron markers and hemoglobin (Hb) response to ESA (Epoetin alfa) dose was examined. Electronic medical records of 1902 US chronic hemodialysis patients were analyzed over a 12-month period between June 2009 and June 2010. The analysis included patients who had at least one Hb value during each 4-week interval for four consecutive intervals (k - 2, k - 1, k, and k + 1; k is the index interval), received at least one ESA dose during intervals k - 1 or k, had at least one transferrin saturation (TSAT) value at interval k, and at least one ferritin value during intervals k - 2, k - 1, or k. Effect modification by TSAT and ferritin on Hb response was evaluated using the generalized estimating equations approach. Patients had a mean (standard deviation) age of 62 (15) years; 41% were Caucasian, 34% African American, 65% had hypertension, and 39% diabetes. Transferrin saturation, but not ferritin, had a statistically significant (P < 0.05) modifying effect on Hb response. Maximum Hb response was achieved when TSAT was 34%, with minimal incremental effect beyond these levels. Of the two standard clinical iron markers, TSAT should be used as the primary marker of the modifying effect of iron on Hb response to ESA. Long-term safety of iron use to improve Hb response to ESA warrants further study.

  1. Dialysis adequacy in Chinese anuric peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yeqing; Ma, Sha; Tian, Xiangyin; Wang, Tao; Xu, Jiayun

    2013-10-01

    We aimed in this study to explore how lower-protein diet would affect dialysis adequacy in anuric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Patients' demographic features were collected, namely age, gender, weight, height, underlying renal disease, and time on PD. Urea kinetic model was used to assess solute clearance. A consecutive 3-day dietary record was collected to evaluate dietary protein intake (DPI), and normalized protein nitrogen appearance (nPNA) was also calculated to reflect protein intake. Blood samples were collected to measure hemoglobin and biochemistry. Patient's nutritional status was assessed by biochemistry, handgrip strength, and subjective global assessment (SGA). Body fluid distribution was measured by body composition monitor. Patients were 60.8 ± 14.92 years old, and the time on PD was 40.15 ± 22.90 months. Daily prescribed dialysis dose was 7,178 ± 1,326 mL. Kt/V was 1.6 ± 0.32. DPI was 0.8 ± 0.25 g/kg/day. nPNA was 0.9 ± 0.21 g/kg/day. Serum albumin was 39.42 ± 4.83 g/L. Prevalence of malnutrition (assessed by SGA) was 20.2 %. Serum phosphate and serum bicarbonate were 1.68 ± 0.47 and 27.16 ± 3.49 mmol/L, respectively. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were 123.4 ± 20.0 and 74.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, respectively. Patients with nPNA less than 0.6 had significantly lower serum albumin concentrations than the average, and patients with nPNA more than 1.2 g/kg/day had significantly higher levels of serum phosphate and serum urea than the average. Our study suggested that anuric PD patients could achieve adequate dialysis even under lower solute clearance. And lower-protein diet contributed largely to adequate dialysis in these patients.

  2. Dialysis headache in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Stojimirovic, Biljana; Milinkovic, Marija; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Trbojevic-Stankovic, Jasna; Maric, Ivko; Milic, Miodrag; Andric, Branislav; Nikic, Petar

    2015-03-01

    Headache is among most frequently encountered neurological symptom during hemodialysis (HD), but still under investigated in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of dialysis headache (DH) in HD and PD patients. A total of 409 patients (91 on PD and 318 on HD) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, designed according to the diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Classification of Headache Disorders from 2004. Patients with DH underwent a thorough neurological examination. DH was reported by 21 (6.6%) HD patients and 0 PD patients. PD patients had significantly lower serum sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphate, urea and creatinine, calcium-phosphate product, and diastolic blood pressure than HD patients. HD patients had significantly lower hemoglobin compared to PD patients. Primary renal disease was mostly parenchymal in HD patients, and vascular in PD patients. DH appeared more frequently in men, mostly during the third hour of HD. It lasted less than four hours, was bilateral, non-pulsating and without associated symptoms. Biochemical alterations may be implicated in the pathophysiology of DH. Specific features of DH might contribute to better understanding of this secondary headache disorder.

  3. Bacteremia in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Yi-Chih; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chuang, Feng-Rong; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Chung-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Po-Chang; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chen, Jin-Hua

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the incidence rates and risk factors for bacteremia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). The records of 898 consecutive patients undergoing dialysis from January 2003 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Episodes of bacteremia were recorded. China Medical University (Taichung, Taiwan). The overall incidence rate of bacteremia was 7.63 per 100 patient-years in HD patients and 3.56 per 100 patient-years in PD patients and it was higher in HD patients each year from 2003 to 2008. S. aureus (27.53%) was the most common pathogen in HD patients, whereas Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (21.3%) was the most common pathogen in PD patients. Vascular access infection was the most common etiology in HD patients, whereas peritonitis was the most common etiology in PD patients. Older age, shorter dialysis vintage, use of HD rather than PD, current smoker, use of a venous dialysis catheter, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher comorbidity score, and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia-associated mortality. Placement of a permanent access (fistula, graft, or PD catheter) prior to initiation of dialysis, smoking cessation, and better nutritional status (i.e. higher serum albumin) were associated with a reduced risk of bacteremia in dialysis patients. Higher serum albumin was also associated with a reduced bacteremia-associated mortality.

  4. Predictors of progression to chronic dialysis in survivors of severe acute kidney injury: a competing risk study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Survivors of acute kidney injury are at an increased risk of developing irreversible deterioration in kidney function and in some cases, the need for chronic dialysis. We aimed to determine predictors of chronic dialysis and death among survivors of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury. Methods We used linked administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, to identify patients who were discharged from hospital after an episode of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and remained free of further dialysis for at least 90 days after discharge between 1996 and 2009. Follow-up extended until March 31, 2011. The primary outcome was progression to chronic dialysis. Predictors for this outcome were evaluated using cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models, and a competing risk approach was used to calculate absolute risk. Results We identified 4 383 patients with acute kidney injury requiring temporary in-hospital dialysis who survived to discharge. After a mean follow-up of 2.4 years, 356 (8%) patients initiated chronic dialysis and 1475 (34%) died. The cumulative risk of chronic dialysis was 13.5% by the Kaplan-Meier method, and 10.3% using a competing risk approach. After accounting for the competing risk of death, previous nephrology consultation (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) 2.03; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61-2.58), a history of chronic kidney disease (sHR3.86; 95% CI 2.99-4.98), a higher Charlson comorbidity index score (sHR 1.10; 95% CI 1.05-1.15/per unit) and pre-existing hypertension (sHR 1.82; 95% CI 1.28-2.58) were significantly associated with an increased risk of progression to chronic dialysis. Conclusions Among survivors of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury who initially become dialysis independent, the subsequent need for chronic dialysis is predicted by pre-existing kidney disease, hypertension and global comorbidity. This information can identify patients at high risk of progressive kidney disease who may benefit from

  5. 42 CFR 414.316 - Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each... for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (b) CMS determines the amount on the basis of program experience...

  6. 42 CFR 414.316 - Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each... for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (b) CMS determines the amount on the basis of program experience...

  7. Factors influencing access to education, decision making, and receipt of preferred dialysis modality in unplanned dialysis start patients

    PubMed Central

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Reddy Vanga, Satyanarayana; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for patients receiving education, making a decision, and receiving their preferred modality choice in UPS patients following a UPS educational program (UPS-EP). Methods The Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS) study examined the impact of the implementation of a specific UPS-EP, including decision support tools and pathway improvement on dialysis modality choice. Linear regression models were used to examine the factors predicting three key steps: referral and receipt of UPS-EP, modality decision making, and actual delivery of preferred modality choice. A simple economic assessment was performed to examine the potential benefit of implementing UPS-EP in terms of dialysis costs. Results The majority of UPS patients could receive UPS-EP (214/270 patients) and were able to make a decision (177/214), although not all patients received their preferred choice (159/177). Regression analysis demonstrated that the initial dialysis modality was a predictive factor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP and modality decision making. In contrast, age was a predictor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP only, and comorbidity was not a predictor for any step, except for myocardial infarction, which was a weak predictor for lower likelihood of receiving preferred modality. Country practices predicted UPS-EP receipt and decision making. Economic analysis demonstrated the potential benefit of UPS-EP implementation because dialysis modality costs were associated with modality distribution driven by patient preference. Conclusion Education and decision support can allow UPS patients to understand their options and choose dialysis modality, and attention needs to be focused on

  8. Factors influencing access to education, decision making, and receipt of preferred dialysis modality in unplanned dialysis start patients.

    PubMed

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark Dominik; Reddy Vanga, Satyanarayana; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) leads to worse clinical outcomes than planned start, and only a minority of patients ever receive education on this topic and are able to make a modality choice, particularly for home dialysis. This study aimed to determine the predictive factors for patients receiving education, making a decision, and receiving their preferred modality choice in UPS patients following a UPS educational program (UPS-EP). The Offering Patients Therapy Options in Unplanned Start (OPTiONS) study examined the impact of the implementation of a specific UPS-EP, including decision support tools and pathway improvement on dialysis modality choice. Linear regression models were used to examine the factors predicting three key steps: referral and receipt of UPS-EP, modality decision making, and actual delivery of preferred modality choice. A simple economic assessment was performed to examine the potential benefit of implementing UPS-EP in terms of dialysis costs. The majority of UPS patients could receive UPS-EP (214/270 patients) and were able to make a decision (177/214), although not all patients received their preferred choice (159/177). Regression analysis demonstrated that the initial dialysis modality was a predictive factor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP and modality decision making. In contrast, age was a predictor for referral and receipt of UPS-EP only, and comorbidity was not a predictor for any step, except for myocardial infarction, which was a weak predictor for lower likelihood of receiving preferred modality. Country practices predicted UPS-EP receipt and decision making. Economic analysis demonstrated the potential benefit of UPS-EP implementation because dialysis modality costs were associated with modality distribution driven by patient preference. Education and decision support can allow UPS patients to understand their options and choose dialysis modality, and attention needs to be focused on ensuring equity of access to educational

  9. Peritoneal dialysis: update on patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, J. Pedro; Combs, Sara A.; Teitelbaum, Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Due to ongoing limitations in the availability and timeliness of kidney transplantation, most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require some form of dialysis during their lifetime. Worldwide, ESRD patients most commonly receive hemodialysis (HD) or one of two forms of peritoneal dialysis (PD), continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) or automated PD (APD). In this review, we analyze the data available from the last several decades on overall survival associated with HD as compared to PD as well as with CAPD compared to APD. Because of the inherent difficulty in randomly assigning patients to different dialysis modalities, the survival data available are virtually all observational and fraught with many confounding factors and limitations. However, over the last 10 – 15 years as overall survival of dialysis patients has steadily improved and statistical methods to analyze observational data have evolved, a pattern of virtual equivalence in survival among patients on HD vs. PD and on CAPD vs. APD has emerged. As such, impact upon lifestyle and upon quality of life likely should remain the predominant factors in guiding nephrologists and their patients in their choice of dialysis modality. PMID:25345384

  10. Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis in ESRD Patients: Complications and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Haijiao; Fang, Wei; Zhu, Mingli; Yu, Zanzhe; Fang, Yan; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minfang; Wang, Qin; Che, Xiajing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiaying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhang, Haifen; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the impact of the dialysis modality on outcome, especially on short-term complications, in urgent-start dialysis has not been directly evaluated. The aim of the current study was to compare the complications and outcomes of PD and HD in urgent-start dialysis ESRD patients. In this retrospective study, ESRD patients who initiated dialysis urgently without a pre-established functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center from January 2013 to December 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to their dialysis modality (PD and HD). Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion (until January 2016). Dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the two groups. Our study enrolled 178 patients (56.2% male), of whom 96 and 82 patients were in the PD and HD groups, respectively. Compared with HD patients, PD patients had more cardiovascular disease, less heart failure, higher levels of serum potassium, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum pre-albumin, and lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide. There were no significant differences in gender, age, use of steroids, early referral to a nephrologist, prevalence of primary renal diseases, prevalence of co-morbidities, and other laboratory characteristics between the groups. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly higher in HD than PD patients. HD patients had a significantly higher probability of bacteremia compared to PD patients. HD was an independent predictor of short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications. There was no significant difference between PD and HD patients with respect to patient survival rate. In an experienced center, PD is a safe and feasible dialysis alternative to HD for ESRD patients with an urgent need

  11. Urgent-Start Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis in ESRD Patients: Complications and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei; Zhu, Mingli; Yu, Zanzhe; Fang, Yan; Yan, Hao; Zhang, Minfang; Wang, Qin; Che, Xiajing; Xie, Yuanyuan; Huang, Jiaying; Hu, Chunhua; Zhang, Haifen; Mou, Shan; Ni, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a feasible alternative to hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the impact of the dialysis modality on outcome, especially on short-term complications, in urgent-start dialysis has not been directly evaluated. The aim of the current study was to compare the complications and outcomes of PD and HD in urgent-start dialysis ESRD patients. Methods In this retrospective study, ESRD patients who initiated dialysis urgently without a pre-established functional vascular access or PD catheter at a single center from January 2013 to December 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to their dialysis modality (PD and HD). Each patient was followed for at least 30 days after catheter insertion (until January 2016). Dialysis-related complications and patient survival were compared between the two groups. Results Our study enrolled 178 patients (56.2% male), of whom 96 and 82 patients were in the PD and HD groups, respectively. Compared with HD patients, PD patients had more cardiovascular disease, less heart failure, higher levels of serum potassium, hemoglobin, serum albumin, serum pre-albumin, and lower levels of brain natriuretic peptide. There were no significant differences in gender, age, use of steroids, early referral to a nephrologist, prevalence of primary renal diseases, prevalence of co-morbidities, and other laboratory characteristics between the groups. The incidence of dialysis-related complications during the first 30 days was significantly higher in HD than PD patients. HD patients had a significantly higher probability of bacteremia compared to PD patients. HD was an independent predictor of short-term (30-day) dialysis-related complications. There was no significant difference between PD and HD patients with respect to patient survival rate. Conclusion In an experienced center, PD is a safe and feasible dialysis alternative to HD

  12. Venous and arterial thrombosis in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Gurbey; Vossen, Carla Y; Rotmans, Joris I; Lijfering, Willem M; Rosendaal, Frits R; Parlevliet, Karien J; Krediet, Ray T; Boeschoten, Els W; Dekker, Friedo W; Verduijn, Marion

    2011-12-01

    Whether the risk of both venous and arterial thrombosis is increased in dialysis patients as compared to the general population is unknown. In addition, it is unknown which subgroups are at highest risk. Furthermore, it is unknown whether having a history of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to dialysis treatment increases mortality risk. A total of 455 dialysis patients were followed for objectively verified symptomatic thrombotic events between January 1997 and June 2009. The incidence rates in dialysis patients as compared to the general population was 5.6-fold (95% CI 3.1-8.9) increased for venous thrombosis, 11.9-fold (95% CI 9.3-14.9) increased for myocardial infarction, and 8.4-fold (95% CI 5.7-11.5) increased for ischaemic stroke. The combination of haemodialysis, lowest tertile of albumin, history of venous thrombosis, and malignancy was associated with subsequent venous thrombosis. Increased age, renal vascular disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, history of venous thrombosis, and history of arterial thrombosis were associated with subsequent arterial thrombosis. The all-cause mortality risk was 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.1-3.3) increased for patients with a history of venous thrombosis and 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4-2.6) increased for patients with a history of arterial thrombosis. A potential limitation of this study was that in some risk categories associations with venous thrombosis did not reach statistical significance due to small numbers. In conclusion, dialysis patients have clearly elevated risks of venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis and occurrence of venous thrombosis or arterial thrombosis prior to the start of dialysis is associated with an increased mortality risk.

  13. Peritoneal dialysis patient selection: characteristics for success.

    PubMed

    Li, Philip Kam-Tao; Chow, Kai Ming

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on the strategy of patient selection for peritoneal dialysis (PD) based on published epidemiology studies and observational data. With the success of the PD first model in Hong Kong, experience shows that there is no particular patient group that cannot be put on PD except those who have major problems in the abdomen. Incident patients should be offered the choice to receive PD at the start of dialysis in order to preserve better the residual renal function. Concern has also been expressed for a time-dependent negative impact of PD on survival, although PD in general provides survival advantage at least during the first few years after the start of dialysis. Regular patient review is essential to allow prompt adjustment of the dialysis regimen and modality when required. Accumulating research suggests that center size has a significant effect on the patient and technique survival of patients undergoing PD. Comorbid diabetes, large and small body size, peritoneal membrane transport status, elderly age group, and socioeconomic status are important patient factors to consider. Good clinical and psychosocial care of the PD patients are essential as well as the attention to their compliance. Enhanced training to medical and nursing personnel on PD is one of the key success factors for improving its utilization and outcome.

  14. Avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bender, Filitsa H

    2012-05-01

    This review is focused on minimizing complications and avoiding harm in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Issues related to planning for PD are covered first, with emphasis on PD versus hemodialysis outcomes. Catheter types and insertion techniques are described next, including relevant recommendations by the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. A brief review of both noninfectious and infectious complications follows, with emphasis on cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Finally, recommendations for preventing PD-related infections are provided. In conclusion, with proper catheter insertion technique, good training, and attention to detail during the tenure in PD, excellent outcomes can be obtained in a well-informed motivated patient.

  15. Wearable impedance monitoring system for dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.

  16. Variability of blood pressure in dialysis patients: a new marker of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Biagio; Di Micco, Lucia; Torraca, Serena; Sirico, Maria Luisa; Guastaferro, Pasquale; Chiuchiolo, Luigi; Nigro, Filippo; De Blasio, Antonietta; Romano, Paolo; Pota, Andrea; Rubino, Roberto; Morrone, Luigi; Lopez, Teodoro; Casino, Francesco Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients have a high cardiovascular mortality, and hypertension is the most prevalent treatable risk factor. We aimed to assess the predictive significance of dialysis-to-dialysis variability in blood pressure in hemodialysis patients. We performed a historical cohort study in 1,088 prevalent hemodialysis patients, followed up for 5 years. The risk of cardiovascular death was determined in relation to dialysis-to-dialysis variability in blood pressure, maximum blood pressure and pulse pressure. Variability in blood pressure was a predictor of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.242; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.004-1.537; p=0.046). Also age (HR=1.021; 95% CI, 1.011-1.048; p=0.049), diabetes (HR=1.134; 95% CI, 1.128-1.451; p=0.035), creatinine (HR=0.837; 95% CI, 0.717-0.977; p=0.024) and albumin (HR=0.901; 95% CI, 0.821-0.924; p=0.022) influenced mortality. Maximum blood pressure and pulse pressure did not show any effect on cardiovascular death. Dialysis-to-dialysis variability in blood pressure is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, and blood pressure variability may be used in managing hypertension and predicting outcomes in dialysis patients.

  17. Depression Often Untreated in Dialysis Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... finds. Many patients refuse to start or modify depression treatment. And in some cases kidney specialists don't ... bleak, said the authors of an accompanying commentary. "Depression in people receiving dialysis treatment is associated with lower quality of life, increased ...

  18. Pharmacotherapy of Hypertension in Chronic Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2016-11-07

    Among patients on dialysis, hypertension is highly prevalent and contributes to the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Strict volume control via sodium restriction and probing of dry weight are first-line approaches for the treatment of hypertension in this population; however, antihypertensive drug therapy is often needed to control BP. Few trials compare head-to-head the superiority of one antihypertensive drug class over another with respect to improving BP control or altering cardiovascular outcomes; accordingly, selection of the appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized. To individualize therapy, consideration should be given to intra- and interdialytic pharmacokinetics, effect on cardiovascular reflexes, ability to treat comorbid illnesses, and adverse effect profile. β-Blockers followed by dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers are our first- and second-line choices for antihypertensive drug use. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers seem to be reasonable third-line choices, because the evidence base to support their use in patients on dialysis is sparse. Add-on therapy with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in specific subgroups of patients on dialysis (i.e., those with severe congestive heart failure) seems to be another promising option in anticipation of the ongoing trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. Adequately powered, multicenter, randomized trials evaluating hard cardiovascular end points are urgently warranted to elucidate the comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive drug classes in patients on dialysis. In this review, we provide an overview of the randomized evidence on pharmacotherapy of hypertension in patients on dialysis, and we conclude with suggestions for future research to address critical gaps in this important area.

  19. Resting energy expenditure: a valuable predictor for KT/Vurea in peritoneal dialysis patients
.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tian; Xie, Jingyuan; Wang, Weiming; Ren, Hong; Chen, Nan

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify an effective method for predicting small-molecule solute removal at the commencement of or before peritoneal dialysis (PD). The PD patients with a dialysis delivery of 8 L/d and a residual kidney function (RKF) ≤ 5 mL/min were enrolled in the study. Fat-free lean body mass (FFM) and resting energy expenditure (REE) were measured using bioelectrical impedance (BIA). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was drawn to determine the threshold value for REE. The patients were divided into two groups, group A (lower REE) and group B (higher REE), based on their REE value. In total, 164 PD patients were enrolled between April 2013 and February 2015. REE was positively correlated with serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood uric acid (UA), body mass index (BMI), and body surface area (BSA) and negatively correlated with total KT/Vurea (KT/V) and hemoglobin (Hb). REE (HR = 0.987, 95% CI = 0.975 - 1.000, p = 0.044) was the only predictor for KT/V. When REE was less than 1469.2 kal/d, it was easier to achieve the target KT/V. The patients in group B had significantly larger body size than those in group A; however, Hb level and total KT/V for group B were significantly lower than those for group A. REE may be a helpful indicator for choosing a suitable dialysis modality for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and for improving the prognosis after PD.
.

  20. A critical evaluation of glycated protein parameters in advanced nephropathy: a matter of life or death: A1C remains the gold standard outcome predictor in diabetic dialysis patients. Counterpoint.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2012-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease remains as one of the major complications for individuals with diabetes and contributes to considerable morbidity. Individuals subjected to dialysis therapy, half of whom are diabetic, experience a mortality of ~20% per year. Understanding factors related to mortality remains a priority. Outside of dialysis units, A1C is unquestioned as the "gold standard" for glycemic control. In the recent past, however, there is evidence in large cohorts of diabetic dialysis patients that A1C at both the higher and lower levels was associated with mortality. Given the unique conditions associated with the metabolic dysregulation in dialysis patients, there is a critical need to identify accurate assays to monitor glycemic control to relate to cardiovascular endpoints. In this two-part point-counterpoint narrative, Drs. Freedman and Kalantar-Zadeh take opposing views on the utility of A1C in relation to cardiovascular disease and survival and as to consideration of use of other short-term markers in glycemia. In the narrative preceeding this counterpoint, Dr. Freedman suggests that glycated albumin may be the preferred glycemic marker in dialysis subjects. In the counterpoint narrative below, Dr. Kalantar-Zadeh defends the use of A1C as the unquestioned gold standard for glycemic management in dialysis subjects.

  1. Exploring Dynamic Risk Prediction for Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ganssauge, Malte; Padman, Rema; Teredesai, Pradip; Karambelkar, Ameet

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial advances in the treatment of end-stage renal disease, mortality of hemodialysis patients remains high. Several models exist that predict mortality for this population and identify patients at risk. However, they mostly focus on patients at a particular stage of dialysis treatment, such as start of dialysis, and only use the most recent patient data. Generalization of such models for predictions in later periods can be challenging since disease characteristics change over time and the evolution of biomarkers is not adequately incorporated. In this research, we explore dynamic methods which allow updates of initial predictions when patients progress in time and new data is observed. We compare a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) to regularized logistic regression models and a Cox model with landmarking. Our preliminary results indicate that the DBN achieves satisfactory performance for short term prediction horizons, but needs further refinement and parameter tuning for longer horizons. PMID:28269937

  2. Serum irisin levels correlated to peritoneal dialysis adequacy in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhijun; Ye, Zengchun; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Yanru; Cheng, Cailian; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xun; Lou, Tanqi; Peng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Irisin is a recently discovered myokine thought to be involved in multiple metabolism abnormalities in most dialysis patients. However, the myokine has not been thoroughly studied in peritoneal dialysis. This study aimed to evaluate serum irisin levels and establish their relation to dialysis adequacy, insulin resistance, and bone metabolism status in patients on peritoneal dialysis. A total of 59 nondiabetic prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum irisin concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlations between serum irisin and dialysis adequacy, clinical, and metabolic variables were investigated. Serum irisin levels were lower in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients (17.02ng/ml) compared with healthy controls (22.17ng/ml, P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that fasting glucose levels were correlated inversely with serum irisin levels in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum irisin levels were associated with neither insulin resistance nor bone metabolism in our patients. Serum irisin levels were positively associated with peritoneal Kt/Vurea (β = 4.933, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.536-9.331, P = 0.029) and peritoneal CCr (β = 0.259, 95% CI = 0.053-0.465, P = 0.015) among peritoneal dialysis patients. The study demonstrated that non-diabetic peritoneal dialysis patients have lower serum irisin levels, and the levels were correlated with peritoneal dialysis adequacy, indicating adequate dialysis may improve irisin secretion. Additional studies are needed to provide a confirmation.

  3. Serum irisin levels correlated to peritoneal dialysis adequacy in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Yanru; Cheng, Cailian; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Xun; Lou, Tanqi; Peng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background Irisin is a recently discovered myokine thought to be involved in multiple metabolism abnormalities in most dialysis patients. However, the myokine has not been thoroughly studied in peritoneal dialysis. This study aimed to evaluate serum irisin levels and establish their relation to dialysis adequacy, insulin resistance, and bone metabolism status in patients on peritoneal dialysis. Methods A total of 59 nondiabetic prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum irisin concentration was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The correlations between serum irisin and dialysis adequacy, clinical, and metabolic variables were investigated. Results Serum irisin levels were lower in nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients (17.02ng/ml) compared with healthy controls (22.17ng/ml, P<0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that fasting glucose levels were correlated inversely with serum irisin levels in peritoneal dialysis patients. Serum irisin levels were associated with neither insulin resistance nor bone metabolism in our patients. Serum irisin levels were positively associated with peritoneal Kt/Vurea (β = 4.933, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.536–9.331, P = 0.029) and peritoneal CCr (β = 0.259, 95% CI = 0.053–0.465, P = 0.015) among peritoneal dialysis patients. Conclusions The study demonstrated that non-diabetic peritoneal dialysis patients have lower serum irisin levels, and the levels were correlated with peritoneal dialysis adequacy, indicating adequate dialysis may improve irisin secretion. Additional studies are needed to provide a confirmation. PMID:28445520

  4. Satisfaction with care in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, J; Perera-Chang, M; Klinkner, G; Soley, I; Marcelli, D; Arkossy, O; Stopper, A; Kimmel, P L

    2006-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is an important aspect of dialysis care, only recently evaluated in clinical studies. We developed a tool to assess peritoneal dialysis (PD) customer satisfaction, and sought to evaluate and validate the Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), quantifying PD patient satisfaction. The CSQ included questions regarding administrative issues, Delivery Service, PD Training, Handling Requests, and transportation. The study was performed using interviews in all Hungarian Fresenius Medical Care dialysis centers offering PD. CSQ results were compared with psychosocial measures to identify if patient satisfaction was associated with perception of social support and illness burden, or depression. We assessed CSQ internal consistency and validity. Factor analysis explored potential underlying dimensions of the CSQ. One hundred and thirty-three patients treated with PD for end-stage renal disease for more than 3 months were interviewed. The CSQ had high internal consistency. There was high patient satisfaction with customer service. PD patient satisfaction scores correlated with quality of life (QOL) and social support measures, but not with medical or demographic factors, or depressive affect. The CSQ is a reliable tool to assess PD customer satisfaction. PD patient satisfaction is associated with perception of QOL. Efforts to improve customer satisfaction may improve PD patients' quantity as well as QOL.

  5. Aortic valve prosthesis selection in dialysis patients based on the patient's condition.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shinya; Yamamura, Mitsuhiro; Mitsuno, Masataka; Tanaka, Hiroe; Ryomoto, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Yuji

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have examined outcomes in dialysis patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, only a few studies have solely focused on outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR). This study aimed to clarify independent predictors of the long-term survival of dialysis patients with AVR and to determine whether a mechanical valve or bioprosthesis is suitable based on the patient's condition. A total of 38 consecutive dialysis patients who underwent AVR at our institute were reviewed (mean age 69.1 ± 9.4 years). There were 23 bioprostheses and 15 mechanical valve replacements. The operative mortality and the long-term survival were not different between the bioprosthesis and the mechanical valve group (13.0 vs. 13.3%). The significant multivariate predictors for long-term survival were concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and prosthesis size. Valve types and age at operation did not affect long-term survival. Five-year survival of patients with small prosthetic valves and concomitant CABG was 0%. When the patient's quality of life is taken into account, it may be appropriate to use a bioprosthesis in a dialysis patient with a small annulus and concomitant CABG even if the patient is young.

  6. 42 CFR 414.316 - Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.316 Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required...

  7. 42 CFR 414.316 - Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.316 Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required...

  8. 42 CFR 414.316 - Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. 414.316 Section 414.316 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.316 Payment for physician services to patients in training for self-dialysis and home dialysis. (a) For each patient, the carrier pays a flat amount that covers all physician services required...

  9. [Nutritional status of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Bober, Joanna; Mazur, Olech; Gołembiewska, Edyta; Bogacka, Anna; Sznabel, Karina; Stańkowska-Walczak, Dobrosława; Kabat-Koperska, Joanna; Stachowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The main causes of death in patients undergoing dialysis are cardiovascular diseases. Their presence is related to the nutritional status of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis, and has a predicted value in this kind of patient. Long-term therapy entails unfavourable changes, from which a clinically significant complication is protein-energy malnutrition and intensification of inflammatory processes. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis based on anthropometric, biochemical parameters analysis, a survey, as well as the determination of changes in measured parameters occurring over time. The study involved 40 people undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 30 healthy people. For dialyzed patients testing material was collected twice, every 6 months. Proteins, albumins, prealbumins, C-reactive protein and glucose levels were measured. Anthropometric measurements included body height, body weight, triceps skinfold and subscapular skinfold thickness. Body mass index (BMI) value and exponent of tissue protein source were calculated. The examined patients completed the questionnaire, which included, among other factors, the daily intake of nutrients, and lifestyle information. During the 6 month observation of the PD group a stastically significant increase in the energy value of intake food and amount of calories intake from carbohydrates was found. Analysis of nutritional status dependent on the BMI showed that overweight and obese patients are characterized by higher concentrations of the C-reactive protein and glucose, as well as lower concentrations of prealbumin compared to patients with normal body weight. At the same time, the energy value of food and the amount of protein in the group with BMI > 25 were smaller than in the other groups. During the 6 month observation a decrease the concentration of prealbumin and an increase in C-reactive protein in BMI > 25 group

  10. Frailty in Chinese Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jack Kit-Chung; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Chow, Kai-Ming; Cheng, Phyllis Mei-Shan; Law, Man-Ching; Pang, Wing-Fai; Leung, Chi-Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that frailty is prevalent in both pre-dialysis and dialysis patients. However, the prevalence and prognostic implication of frailty in Chinese peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remain unknown. We used a validated questionnaire to determine the Frailty Score of 193 unselected prevalent PD patients. All patients were then followed for 2 years for their need of hospitalization and mortality. Amongst the 193 patients, 134 (69.4%) met the criteria of being frail. Frailty Score significantly correlated with Charlson's comorbidity score (r = 0.40, p < 0.0001), Malnutrition Inflammation Score (r = 0.59, p < 0.0001), and inversely with Subjective Global Assessment score (r = -0.44, p < 0.0001). Frailty was closely associated with the need of hospitalization. Patients with nil, mild, moderate, and severe frailty required 2.4 ± 6.0, 1.6 ± 1.6, 2.7 ± 2.5, 5.2 ± 4.8 hospital admissions per year, respectively (p < 0.0001), and they stayed in hospital for 6.4 ± 9.2, 5.3 ± 6.2, 10.0 ± 10.4, 12.9 ± 20.1 days per hospital admission, respectively (p < 0.0001). However, Frailty Score was not an independent predictor of patient or technique survival. Frailty is prevalent among Chinese PD patients. Frail PD patients have a high risk of requiring hospitalization and their hospital stay tends to be prolonged. Early identification may allow timely intervention to prevent adverse health outcomes in this group of patients. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Dialysis Facility and Patient Characteristics Associated with Utilization of Home Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David R.; Inglese, Gary W.; Sloand, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Nonmedical factors influencing utilization of home dialysis at the facility level are poorly quantified. Home dialysis is comparably effective and safe but less expensive to society and Medicare than in-center hemodialysis. Elimination of modifiable practice variation unrelated to medical factors could contribute to improvements in patient outcomes and use of scarce resources. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Prevalent dialysis patient data by facility were collected from the 2007 ESRD Network’s annual reports. Facility characteristic data were collected from Medicare’s Dialysis Facility Compare file. A multivariate regression model was used to evaluate associations between the use of home dialysis and facility characteristics. Results: The utilization of home dialysis was positively associated with facility size, percent patients employed full- or part-time, younger population, and years a facility was Medicare certified. Variables negatively associated include an increased number of hemodialysis patients per hemodialysis station, chain association, rural location, more densely populated zip code, a late dialysis work shift, and greater percent of black patients within a zip code. Conclusions: Improved understanding of factors affecting the frequency of use of home dialysis may help explain practice variations across the United States that result in an imbalanced use of medical resources within the ESRD population. In turn, this may improve the delivery of healthcare and extend the ability of an increasingly overburdened medical financing system to survive. PMID:20634324

  12. Dialysis modality selection: physician guided or patient led?*

    PubMed Central

    Winterbottom, Anna; Bekker, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    The process of choosing dialysis modality for patients is complex and requires input from the expert renal team. Although it is commonplace for nephrologists to recommend dialysis modalities to patients, this might not always lead to the patient receiving treatment which they regard as most suitable. Nephrologists should consider whether it is appropriate for pre-dialysis education to be directive, or whether the choice between treatment options should be led by the patient. PMID:27994862

  13. A simple score predicts future cardiovascular events in an inception cohort of dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, J P; Neyer, U; Sprenger-Mähr, H; Kollerits, B; Mündle, M; Längle, M; Kronenberg, F

    2006-08-01

    Vascular calcifications are very common in dialysis patients and have been shown to be associated independently with outcome. However, all of these studies used prevalent patients on dialysis since many years. We investigated vascular calcifications in an inception cohort of dialysis patients and followed them for cardiovascular disease outcomes during an average observation period of 66 months. One hundred and fifty-four Caucasian dialysis patients were enrolled in one Austrian dialysis center. Standardized plain radiographs from the pelvis and calves were carried out in all patients at the start of dialysis therapy. Vascular calcifications were assessed by a single radiologist. At the start of renal replacement therapy, 67.5% of the patients showed vascular calcifications. During follow-up, 29.9% of patients suffered a cardiovascular event. An additive 'vascular risk score', constructed from the presence of vascular calcifications and/or previous cardiovascular events before the start of dialysis treatment, showed the strongest independent association with cardiovascular events in the Cox regression model adjusted for various risk factors. The presence of each of these two conditions was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.03 (95% confidence interval 1.19-3.46) and a hazard ratio twice as high if both conditions were present. In summary, vascular calcifications on plain X-rays of pelvis and calves are largely present in incident dialysis patients. A history of a cardiovascular event in the predialysis period together with vascular calcifications at the beginning of dialysis therapy is a more powerful predictor of a cardiovascular event than age, smoking, diabetes, or other traditional risk factors.

  14. Moderator's view: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Several observational studies have reported an association between higher serum bicarbonate level and high mortality risk in dialysis patients. However, in such studies mere discovery of associations does not allow one to infer causal relationships. This association may be related to inadequate dietary protein intake that may lead to less acid generation and hence a higher serum bicarbonate level. Since undernutrition is a strong predictor of death in hemodialysis patients, the observed association may be an epiphenomenon and not a biologically plausible relationship. Higher protein and fluid intake between two subsequent hemodialysis treatments may lead to lower serum bicarbonate level. This low bicarbonate level may appear protective, as patients with higher food intake and better appetite generally exhibit greater survival. In the contemporary three-stream proportioning system of hemodialysis treatment, the bicarbonate concentrate is separate from the acid concentrate, and the contribution of the acid concentrate organic acid (acetate, citrate or diacetate) to the delivered bicarbonate pool of the patient is negligible. The concept of 'total buffer' that assumes that the combination of bicarbonate and acetate concentrations in the dialysate are added equally as bicarbonate equivalents is likely wrong and based on the misleading notion that the acetate of the acid concentrate is fully metabolized to bicarbonate in the dialysate. Given these uncertainties it is prudent to avoid excessively high or low bicarbonate levels in dialysis patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  15. [Patient education in pre-dialysis -- patient-led forums].

    PubMed

    Heatley, S A

    2006-01-01

    In order for patients to make an informed choice about renal replacement therapies, it is important that they are given sufficient and appropriate information, which must include explanations about their condition and likely outcomes with or without treatment. Furthermore information regarding the reality of living with dialysis, its strict regimes and patient's commitment to self care are imperative to enable patients to adapt to a life changing, ongoing, often relentless treatment. Encouraging patients to take control of their chronic illness through the provision of education support and choice is fundamental to the successful outcomes of the patient's journey through the pre-dialysis phase of their illness. This paper describes the implementation of Patient-led Forums designed to offer an education programme for pre-dialysis patients and the benefits gained by those who have attended.

  16. Recent advances in the management of peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is a form of kidney dialysis that is used to remove accumulated metabolic waste products and water in patients with end stage kidney disease. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of glucose and its by-products, both found in peritoneal dialysis fluid, has been implicated in contributing to peritoneal damage over time, in turn limiting long-term use of the technique. Newer peritoneal dialysis solutions have been developed in the hope of reducing the unfavorable effects of peritoneal dialysis solutions. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that newer peritoneal dialysis fluids have salutary effects on the peritoneal membrane. Short-term clinical studies have also found some metabolic benefits of glucose-sparing regimens in chronic peritoneal dialysis. Mixed results have been found in studies examining whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids reduce peritonitis rates. Long-term studies are needed to investigate whether newer peritoneal dialysis fluids provide better peritoneal dialysis technique and/or patient survival, compared to standard glucose-based peritoneal dialysis fluids. PMID:26097730

  17. [Peritonitis in pediatric patients receiving peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Jellouli, Manel; Ferjani, Meriem; Abidi, Kamel; Hammi, Yosra; Boutiba, Ilhem; Naija, Ouns; Zarrouk, Chokri; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gargah, Tahar

    2015-12-01

    Peritonitis on catheter of dialysis represents the most frequent complication of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the pediatric population. It remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the risk factors for peritonitis in children. In this study, we retrospectively collected the records of 85 patients who were treated with PD within the past ten years in the service of pediatrics of the University Hospital Charles-Nicolle of Tunis. Peritonitis rate was 0.75 episode per patient-year. Notably, peritonitis caused by Gram-positive organisms were more common. Analysis of infection risk revealed three significant independent factors: the poor weight (P=0.0045), the non-automated PD (P=0.02) and the short delay from catheter insertion to starting PD (P=0.02). The early onset peritonitis was significantly associated with frequent peritonitis episodes (P=0.0008). The mean duration between the first and second episode of peritonitis was significantly shorter than between PD commencement and the first episode of peritonitis. We revealed a significant association between Gram-negative peritonitis and the presence of ureterostomy (0.018) and between Gram-positive peritonitis and the presence of exit-site and tunnel infections (0.02). Transition to permanent hemodialysis was needed in many children but no death occurred in patients with peritonitis. Considering the important incidence of peritonitis in our patients, it is imperative to establish a targeted primary prevention. Nutritional care must be provided to children to avoid poor weight. The automated dialysis has to be the modality of choice. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of diabetes on peritoneal function assessed by personal dialysis capacity test in patients undergoing CAPD.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Imai, Hirokazu; Kawanishi, Hideki; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Minakuchi, Jun; Kumon, Shinichi; Watanabe, Syuichi; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Ishii, Takeo; Kawahara, Toshihiko; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiromichi

    2002-11-01

    We evaluated differences in individual peritoneal membrane transport function and nutritional status in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and nondiabetic (non-DM) patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We used a newly developed peritoneal function test, personal dialysis capacity, in 88 patients (44 DM and 44 non-DM) on CAPD for 1 to 210 months. Sex, age, past history of peritonitis, and duration of CAPD were matched in DM and non-DM patients. Serum albumin (mean +/- SEM) was lower in DM compared with non-DM patients: 3.0 +/- 0.1 g/dL (30 +/- 1 g/L) versus 3.5 +/- 0.1 g/dL (35 +/- 1 g/L), P < 0.001. Peritoneal area and dialysis protein loss were greater in DM versus non-DM patients. In multiple linear regression analysis, the only independent predictor of serum albumin in patients with DM was dialysis protein loss. In contrast, age, past history of peritonitis, duration of CAPD, caloric intake, protein nitrogen appearance and protein catabolic rate, and residual renal function did not correlate with serum albumin in DM patients. In non-DM patients, age, duration of CAPD, and past history of peritonitis, but not dialysis protein loss, were independent predictors of serum albumin. There was a significant correlation in DM patients, but not in non-DM CAPD patients, between dialysis protein loss and urinary excretion of protein (r = 0.866, P = 0.0005). In this multicenter study, peritoneal membrane transport and peritoneal protein permeability were significantly higher in DM than in non-DM patients. Hypoproteinemia in DM patients is attributable to the high permeability of the peritoneal membrane undergoing CAPD. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

  19. Shewanella algae Peritonitis in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Malini; Goh, Bak Leong; Lim, Christopher; NorFadhlina, Zakaria; Fairol, Ibrahim

    Patients with peritonitis present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. Shewanella algae peritonitis has not yet been reported in PD patients in the literature. We present the first 2 cases of Shewanella algae peritonitis in PD patients. Mupirocin cream is applied on the exit site as prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  20. Oxidative DNA Damage and Mortality in Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong; Watanabe, Makoto; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Heimbürger, Olof; Bárány, Peter; Anderstam, Björn; Eriksson, Monica; Stenvinkel, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    ♦ Background and Aims: Increased oxidative stress in dialysis patients is thought to contribute to increased mortality; however, confirmatory data are scarce. We analyzed the serum concentration of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, in relation to mortality in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ♦ Methods: Serum 8-OHdG, interleukin 6 (IL-6), other biochemical markers, Davies comorbidity score, and protein-energy wasting (PEW) were assessed in 303 prevalent patients treated with HD (n = 220; age: 63 ± 14 years) or PD (n = 83; age: 64 ± 14 years). Mortality was assessed after a median follow-up of 31 months. ♦ Results: The median (25th – 75th percentile) concentration of 8-OHdG was higher in HD than in PD patients: 1.3 ng/mL (0.9 – 1.8 ng/mL) versus 0.5 ng/mL (0.4 – 0.6 ng/mL), p < 0.001. The HD modality (standard β = 0.57, p < 0.001) and dialysis vintage (standard β = 0.12, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of serum 8-OHdG in a multivariable linear regression model including age, sex, body mass index, dialysis modality (HD or PD), preceding time on dialysis (dialysis vintage), PEW, comorbidity score, IL-6, and use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers or statins. During follow-up, 107 patients died. In multivariable Cox regression models including all 303 patients and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, dialysis modality, dialysis vintage, and comorbidity score, 8-OHdG was significantly associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.40; 95% confidence limits: 1.05, 1.87 for 1 standard deviation increase of 8-OHdG). In subgroup analyses according to dialysis modality, 8-OHdG was associated with mortality in HD patients but not in PD patients. ♦ Conclusions: Oxidative stress as assessed by 8-OHdG is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in dialysis patients. This association was seen in HD patients, but no such

  1. Patient perspectives on informed decision-making surrounding dialysis initiation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Lin, Feng-Chang; Gilet, Constance A.; Arnold, Robert M.; Bridgman, Jessica C.; Ward, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Careful patient–clinician shared decision-making about dialysis initiation has been promoted, but few studies have addressed patient perspectives on the extent of information provided and how decisions to start dialysis are made. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance dialysis patients recruited from 15 outpatient dialysis centers in North Carolina completed semistructured interviews on information provision and communication about the initiation of dialysis. These data were examined with content analysis. In addition, informed decision-making (IDM) scores were created by summing patient responses (yes/no) to 10 questions about the decision-making. Results The mean IDM score was 4.4 (of 10; SD = 2.0); 67% scored 5 or lower. Age at the time of decision-making (r = −0.27, P = 0.006), years of education (r = 0.24, P = 0.02) and presence of a warning about progressing to end-stage kidney disease (t = 2.9, P = 0.005) were significantly associated with IDM scores. Nearly 70% said that the risks and burdens of dialysis were not mentioned at all, and only one patient recalled that the doctor offered the option of not starting dialysis. While a majority (67%) said that they felt they had no choice about starting dialysis (because the alternative would be death) or about dialysis modality, only 21.2% said that they had felt rushed to make a decision. About one-third of the patients perceived that the decision to start dialysis and modality was already made by the doctor. Conclusions A majority of patients felt unprepared and ill-informed about the initiation of dialysis. Improving the extent of IDM about dialysis may optimize patient preparation prior to starting treatment and their perceptions about the decision-making process. PMID:23901048

  2. Evaluation of dialysis adequacy in hemodialysis patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barzegar, Hengameh; Moosazadeh, Mahmoud; Jafari, Hedayat; Esmaeili, Ravanbakhsh

    2016-08-25

    Hemodialysis is the common kidney replacement therapy in Iran. Doing an adequate and effective dialysis can improve patients' quality of life and reduce kidney failure complications. Additionally, dialysis quality is an important factor in reducing mortality in patients with chronic kidney failure. This systematic review has investigated the adequacy of dialysis in studies done on hemodialysis patients of Iran. All articles related to the dialysis adequacy in hemodialysis patients in English and Farsi (contemporary Persian) were identified by searching the related keywords in various electronic databases. According to the inclusion criteria 21 studies were identified. The results were analyzed using Stata software version 11. A number of 6677 patients had been enrolled in 21 studies that were chosen for this systematic review. Based on the random effects model, the overall dialysis adequacy (KT/V) (K: clearance of urea, T: duration of dialysis, V: distribution of urea) more than 1.2 and confidence interval were 36.3% and 46.2-26.4, respectively. Also, based on random effects model more than 65% urea reduction ratio in all studies was 28.8% and the confidence interval was 43.3-14.4. KT/V and urea reduction ratio were much less desirable in hemodialysis patients and the dialysis quality was also undesirable. It seems that inadequate dialysis prescription, use of inappropriate filters, low pump speed (blood flow speed), and the short duration and few times of dialysis are the major causes of this inadequacy. .

  3. Torque teno virus among dialysis and renal-transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Okubo, Patrícia; Saito, Patricia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; Veríssimo da Silva Junior, Waldir; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Bedendo, João

    2015-03-01

    Patients who undergo dialysis treatment or a renal transplant have a high risk of blood-borne viral infections, including the Torque teno virus (TTV). This study identified the presence of TTV and its genome groups in blood samples from 118 patients in dialysis and 50 renal-transplant recipients. The research was conducted in a hospital in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná. The viral DNA, obtained from whole blood, was identified by using two nested Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR). The frequencies of TTV were 17% and 36% in dialysis patients using the methodology proposed by Nishizawa et al . (1997) and Devalle and Niel (2004) , respectively, and 10% and 54% among renal-transplant patients. There was no statistically significant association between the frequency of the pathogen and the variables: gender, time in dialysis, time since transplant, blood transfusions, and the concomitant presence of hepatitis B, for either the dialysis patients or the renal-transplant recipients. Among dialysis patients and renal-transplant recipients, genogroup 5 was predominant (48% and 66% respectively), followed by genogroup 4 (37% and 48%) and genogroup 1 (23% and 25%). Genogroup 2 was present in both groups of patients. Some patients had several genogroups, but 46% of the dialysis patients and 51% of the renal-transplant recipients had only a single genogroup. This study showed a high prevalence of TTV in dialysis patients and renal-transplant recipients.

  4. Management of hypertension in patients during percutaneous dialysis access interventions.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Bhavika V; Patel, Tejas B; Costanzo, Eric J; Masud, Avais; Mehandru, Sushil; Salman, Loay

    2017-09-11

    Not infrequently, interventionalists are faced with a patient with increased blood pressure who is about to undergo a dialysis access intervention such as tunneled hemodialysis catheter, percutaneous balloon angioplasty, or declotting procedure for a clotted arteriovenous access. This can frequently create a dilemma as functional dialysis access is needed to provide dialysis therapy and delaying treatment could result in a life-threatening situation, particularly in the presence of hyperkalemia. This article investigates hypertension in patients undergoing percutaneous dialysis access interventions and provides guidance to their management.

  5. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, E.

    1986-11-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has let to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe/sup 2 +/ in hemoglobin to Fe/sup 3 +/ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O/sub 2/ or CO/sub 2/. Chloramine can form not only methemoglobin, but can also denature proteins within the red cell, thus forming aggregates (Heinz bodies). Chloramines also inhibit hexose monophosphate shunt activity, a mechanism that makes the red cell even more susceptible to oxidant damage.

  6. Renal replacement therapy in elderly patients: peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Catizone, Luigi; Malacarne, Franco; Bortot, Alessia; Annaloro, Mariangela; Russo, Giorgia; Barillà, Antonio; Storari, Alda

    2010-01-01

    Management of chronic uremia in elderly patients presents several clinic and organizational difficulties. Hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) are both available for the elderly, and the choice depends on the individual, clinical and familial conditions. Several reports have compared the outcomes for older patients treated by HD or peritoneal dialysis, with those for younger or older patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. CPD is a successful dialysis option for elderly patients, in both patient and technique survival terms. All nutritional parameters are of pivotal importance. Several barriers, such as medical and social factors, physician bias, late referral and education irrespective of the needs of older patients, influence the choice of CPD. The development of assisted peritoneal dialysis, using community-based nurses or health care assistants, can overcome some of the barriers and enable frail older patients to have home-based dialysis treatment. Increasing age is associated with higher peritonitis rates among patients who started CPD in the 1990s, while age is not associated with peritonitis in more recent CPD cohorts, and no greater frequency of adverse outcomes of peritonitis has been seen among those who began CPD after the year 2000. In elderly dialysis patients, the management of quality of life (QOL) is important as well as adequacy of dialysis, nutritional status and survival rate. To obtain a good standard of QOL, it is essential to select carers who are properly educated and who can access an adequate support system, both physical and psychological, to help them cope with their burden.

  7. Hypothyroidism and Mortality among Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Connie M.; Alexander, Erik K.; Bhan, Ishir

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hypothyroidism is highly prevalent among ESRD patients, but its clinical significance and the benefits of thyroid hormone replacement in this context remain unclear. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the association between hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality among 2715 adult dialysis patients with baseline thyrotropin levels measured between April of 2005 and April of 2011. Mortality was ascertained from Social Security Death Master Index and local registration systems. The association between hypothyroidism (thyrotropin greater than assay upper limit normal) and mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. To reduce the risk of observing reverse-causal associations, models included a 30-day lag between thyrotropin measurement and at-risk time. Results Among 350 (12.9%) hypothyroid and 2365 (87.1%) euthyroid (assay within referent range) patients, 917 deaths were observed during 5352 patient-years of at-risk time. Hypothyroidism was associated with higher mortality. Compared with thyrotropin in the low-normal range (0.4–2.9 mIU/L), subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >upper limit normal and ≤10.0 mIU/L) was associated with higher mortality; high-normal thyrotropin (≥3.0 mIU/L and ≤upper limit normal) and overt hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >10.0 mIU/L) were associated with numerically greater risk, but estimates were not statistically significant. Compared with spontaneously euthyroid controls, patients who were euthyroid while on exogenous thyroid replacement were not at higher mortality risk, whereas patients who were hypothyroid were at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analyses indicated that effects on cardiovascular risk factors may mediate the observed association between hypothyroidism and death. Conclusions These data suggest that hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients, which may be ameliorated by thyroid hormone replacement

  8. Hypothyroidism and mortality among dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Connie M; Alexander, Erik K; Bhan, Ishir; Brunelli, Steven M

    2013-04-01

    Hypothyroidism is highly prevalent among ESRD patients, but its clinical significance and the benefits of thyroid hormone replacement in this context remain unclear. This study examined the association between hypothyroidism and all-cause mortality among 2715 adult dialysis patients with baseline thyrotropin levels measured between April of 2005 and April of 2011. Mortality was ascertained from Social Security Death Master Index and local registration systems. The association between hypothyroidism (thyrotropin greater than assay upper limit normal) and mortality was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. To reduce the risk of observing reverse-causal associations, models included a 30-day lag between thyrotropin measurement and at-risk time. Among 350 (12.9%) hypothyroid and 2365 (87.1%) euthyroid (assay within referent range) patients, 917 deaths were observed during 5352 patient-years of at-risk time. Hypothyroidism was associated with higher mortality. Compared with thyrotropin in the low-normal range (0.4-2.9 mIU/L), subclinical hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >upper limit normal and ≤10.0 mIU/L) was associated with higher mortality; high-normal thyrotropin (≥3.0 mIU/L and ≤upper limit normal) and overt hypothyroidism (thyrotropin >10.0 mIU/L) were associated with numerically greater risk, but estimates were not statistically significant. Compared with spontaneously euthyroid controls, patients who were euthyroid while on exogenous thyroid replacement were not at higher mortality risk, whereas patients who were hypothyroid were at higher mortality risk. Sensitivity analyses indicated that effects on cardiovascular risk factors may mediate the observed association between hypothyroidism and death. These data suggest that hypothyroidism is associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients, which may be ameliorated by thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

  9. Enabling self-management: selecting patients for home dialysis?

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Alastair J; Courthold, Jonathan J

    2011-12-01

    Pre-emptive living donor transplantation should always be promoted as the first-line treatment for kidney failure. Where that is not possible, patients must receive timely information and advice regarding all dialysis options available, including home-based peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis. Where a dialysis unit enables and actively encourages self-management, patients will tend to select themselves, and if well motivated may overcome significant difficulties to exceed the expectations or predictions of dialysis staff. Patients then become advocates themselves and can provide other patients with the necessary motivation to consider a home treatment, such that they approach staff, rather than vice versa. For staff to be able to talk to patients with confidence requires direct experience of home dialysis, but in units which do not have a full range of home therapies, this may initially be difficult. Visiting patients in their home environment is an essential part of training for both medical and nursing staff. Before a patient is able to begin to engage in discussion about any dialysis therapy, they must have reached a point of acceptance that dialysis is necessary. If they are not at this point, then any attempt at 'education' will be largely futile. Once a patient has arrived at the point of choosing a home therapy, the pathway to their first dialysis at home must be as smooth and problem-free as possible.

  10. Microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among dialysis patients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and aims Dialysis patients appear to be at special risk for exposure to cyanobacteria toxins; episodes of microcystin (MCYST) exposure via dialysate during 1996 and 2001 have been previously reported. During 2001, as many as 44 dialysis patients were exposed to contam...

  11. Microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among dialysis patients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and aims Dialysis patients appear to be at special risk for exposure to cyanobacteria toxins; episodes of microcystin (MCYST) exposure via dialysate during 1996 and 2001 have been previously reported. During 2001, as many as 44 dialysis patients were exposed to contam...

  12. An opportunistic pathogen in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Ochrobactrum anthropi.

    PubMed

    Alparslan, Caner; Yavascan, Onder; Kose, Engin; Sanlioglu, Pinar; Aksu, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of chronic peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis from Ochrobactrum anthropi. O. anthropi is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. O. anthropi-related peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients has rarely been reported. To the authors' knowledge, no pediatric case of O. anthropi peritonitis has been reported to date in the literature.

  13. Epidemiology and Mortality of Liver Abscess in End-Stage Renal Disease Dialysis Patients: Taiwan National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Chang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Yang, Chun-Ming; Chu, Chin-Chen; Chio, Chung-Ching; Chang, Fu-Lin; Chien, Chih-Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives To determine the incidence rates and mortality of liver abscess in ESRD patients on dialysis. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we collected data from all ESRD patients who initiated dialysis between 2000 and 2006. Patients were followed until death, end of dialysis, or December 31, 2008. Predictors of liver abscess and mortality were identified using Cox models. Results Of the 53,249 incident dialysis patients identified, 447 were diagnosed as having liver abscesses during the follow-up period (224/100,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence rate of liver abscess was 0.3%, 1.1%, and 1.5% at 1 year, 5 years, and 7 years, respectively. Elderly patients and patients on peritoneal dialysis had higher incidence rates. The baseline comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney disease, malignancy, chronic liver disease, biliary tract disease, or alcoholism predicted development of liver abscess. Overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. Conclusions The incidence of liver abscess is high among ESRD dialysis patients. In addition to the well known risk factors of liver abscess, two other important risk factors, peritoneal dialysis and polycystic kidney disease, were found to predict liver abscess in ESRD dialysis patients. PMID:24551077

  14. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vascular calcification in predialysis and dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, So-Young; Kim, Hoe-Young; Gu, Seung Won; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Yang, Dong Ho

    2012-01-01

    The role of vitamin D in the process of vascular calcification is unclear in patients with chronic kidney disease. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with vascular calcification in predialysis and dialysis patients. We included 86 predialysis and 139 dialysis patients. The simple vascular calcification score (SVCS) was evaluated by examining plain X-rays of the pelvis and hands as described previously. The carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) was assessed with a commercially available device. We found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in our population (78.2%). Vascular calcification was present in 46.2% of all patients. Higher calcification (SVCS >3) was significantly associated with lower 25(OH)D levels in predialysis and dialysis patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis for SVCS >3 showed that 25(OH)D levels were negative independent predictors in predialysis (OR: 0.781; 95% CI: 0.623-0.908, p = 0.019) and dialysis patients (OR: 0.805; 95% CI: 0.749-0.853, p = 0.009). Lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with higher CF-PWV in predialysis patients, but this inverse relationship was no longer present in multivariate analysis. We showed an independent relationship between low serum 25(OH)D levels and vascular calcification in both predialysis and dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Association of dialysis adequacy with nutritional and inflammatory status in patients with chronic kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Hemayati, Roya; Lesanpezeshki, Mahboub; Seifi, Sepideh

    2015-11-01

    The number of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure has increased in the past years worldwide. Several parameters have been introduced for the quantitative assessment of dialysis adequacy. The National Cooperative Dialysis Study results indicated that Kt/V and time-averaged concentration of urea (TAC) are predictors of mortality in patients who receive maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Also, the protein catabolic ratio (PCR), which is an indicator of nutritional status, can predict patients' mortality. Our aim was to assess the impact of parameters that show dialysis adequacy on indices of nutrition or inflammation. A total of 46 patients were included in the study; eight patients were excluded during the course of the study and 38 patients were enrolled in the final analysis. All patients were receiving HD for at least for three months. HD was administered three times per week and the study lasted for two months. Kt/V, TAC and PCR were assessed at the beginning of the study based on patients' urea and blood urea nitrogen in the first week of our study; these calculations were repeated at the end of the first and second months using the mean of the mentioned values in the month. Both adequacy indices significantly and positively correlated with changes in PCR (P <0.001). However, no significant correlation was detectable between Kt/V and TAC with either body mass index and albumin or C-reactive protein. Based on the Kt/V values, patients with adequate dialysis had slower decrease in the PCR (P <0.001). Our results indicate that adequacy of dialysis is correlated with patients' nutritional status. No correlation was observed between dialysis adequacy and inflammatory status.

  16. Dialysis access, infections, and hospitalisations in unplanned dialysis start patients: results from the OPTiONS study.

    PubMed

    Machowska, Anna; Alscher, Mark D; Vanga, Satyanarayana Reddy; Koch, Michael; Aarup, Michael; Qureshi, Abdul R; Lindholm, Bengt; Rutherford, Peter

    2017-03-16

    Unplanned dialysis start (UPS) associates with worse clinical outcomes, higher utilisation of healthcare resources, lower chances to select dialysis modality and UPS patients typically commenced in-centre haemodialysis (HD) with central venous catheter (CVC). We evaluated patient outcomes and healthcare utilisation depending on initial dialysis access (CVC or PD catheter) and subsequent pathway of UPS patients. In this study patient demographics, access procedures, hospitalisations, and major infectious complications were analysed over 12 months in 270 UPS patients. PD technique survival and impact of switching from HD to PD was examined along with logistic regression to investigate factors predicting AV fistula formation. 72 UPS patients started with PD catheter and 198 with CVC. PD patients were older and more comorbid but had a significantly lower number of access procedures while there was no difference in hospitalisation or major infections. 13/72 initial PD patients switched to HD and 1-year technique survival was 79%. 158/198 patients remained on HD and 73/158 reported permanent access formation. Older age, OR = 0.34 (CI,0.17-0.68) and cardiac failure, OR = 0.31(CI,0.13-0.78), were significant negative predictors of receiving fistula. Younger patients, OR = 0.29 (CI, 0.11-0.79) and those who received AVF, OR = 0.11 (CI,0.03-0.38), had significantly lower odds of death. UPS with initial PD was possible in many patients and was associated with lower requirement for access procedures. AVF formation in UPS patients starting on HD was associated with better 1-year survival. Modality switching in UPS patients requires careful clinical management, including clinical practice patterns promoting permanent HD access formation.

  17. A prime determinant in selecting dialysis modality: peritoneal dialysis patient survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunwook; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has rapidly increased, as has the cost of dialysis. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an established treatment for ESRD patients worldwide; it has a variety of advantages, including autonomy and flexibility, as well as economic benefits in many countries compared to hemodialysis (HD). However, the long-term survival rate of PD remains poor. Although direct comparison of survival rate between the dialysis modalities by randomized controlled trials is difficult due to the ethical issues, it has always been a crucial point when deciding which dialysis modality should be recommended to patients. Recently, in many countries, including the United States, Brazil, Spain, Australia, and New Zealand, the survival rate in PD patients has significantly improved. PD patient survival in Korea has also improved, but Korean PD patients are known to have higher risk of mortality and major adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular events than HD patients. Herein, we further evaluate why Korean PD patients had worse outcomes; we suggest that special attention should be paid to patients with diabetes, coronary artery disease, or congestive heart failure when they choose PD as the first dialysis modality in order to reduce mortality risk.

  18. Sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients: does vitamin D deficiency have a role?

    PubMed

    Kidir, Veysel; Altuntas, Atila; Inal, Salih; Akpinar, Abdullah; Orhan, Hikmet; Sezer, Mehmet Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in dialysis patients. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to many diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between vitamin D and sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients has not been previously reported in the literature. Cholecalciferol, 50,000 IU/week, was orally administered to 37 dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency for 3 months followed by dosage of 10,000 IU every other week for 3 months. The Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaires were filled out by all patients at baseline and at the sixth month of the study. Sexual dysfunction, poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression rates were 83.7%, 45.9%, 18.9% and 48.6%, respectively in all patients. ASEX total score was found to be positively correlated with age and was negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level and serum albumin level. After cholecalciferol treatment, 25(OH)D levels increased significantly, however no significant change was observed in any of the parameters. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age and 25(OH)D level were found to be independent predictors of ASEX total score. Vitamin D deficiency seems to contribute to sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients. However, it was observed in this study that; cholecalciferol replacement given to dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency did not result in any significant changes in sexual functions.

  19. Predictors of treatment with dialysis modalities in observational studies for comparative effectiveness research*

    PubMed Central

    Kuttykrishnan, Sooraj; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Brunelli, Steve; Heagerty, Patrick J.; Katz, Ronit; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Nissenson, Allen; Ravel, Vanessa; Streja, Elani; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine has identified the comparative effectiveness of renal replacement therapies as a kidney-related topic among the top 100 national priorities. Given the importance of ensuring internal and external validity, the goal of this study was to identify potential sources of bias in observational studies that compare outcomes with different dialysis modalities. Methods This observational cohort study used data from the electronic medical records of all patients that started maintenance dialysis in the calendar years 2007–2011 and underwent treatment for at least 60 days in any of the 2217 facilities operated by DaVita Inc. Each patient was assigned one of six dialysis modalities for each 91-day period from the date of first dialysis (thrice weekly in-center hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), less-frequent HD, home HD, frequent HD and nocturnal in-center HD). Results Of the 162 644 patients, 18% underwent treatment with a modality other than HD for at least one 91-day period. Except for PD, patients started treatment with alternative modalities after variable lengths of treatment with HD; the time until a change in modality was shortest for less-frequent HD (median time = 6 months) and longest for frequent HD (median time = 15 months). Between 30 and 78% of patients transferred to another dialysis facility prior to change in modality. Finally, there were significant differences in baseline and time-varying clinical characteristics associated with dialysis modality. Conclusions This analysis identified numerous potential sources of bias in studies of the comparative effectiveness of dialysis modalities. PMID:25883196

  20. Should dialysis be offered to all elderly patients?

    PubMed

    Germain, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Nephrologist are often faced with the question of the appropriate initiation and withdrawal from dialysis. Many clinicians feel that patient should be offered dialysis when they have ESRD regardless of the potential risks vs. benefits. My position in this debate is that nephrologists have the obligation to order treatments that are indicated and effective for their patients and will provide more benefit that harm. They should not order dialysis in patient that are not likely to benefit from the treatment. Patients have the right to refuse treatments but not the right to demand that a clinician order an ineffective treatment. Shared decision making is the key principle in deciding on the initiation and withdrawal from dialysis. The national guideline; Shared Decision Making: The Appropriate Initiation and Withdrawal from Dialysis supports this approach. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Predicting Early Death Among Elderly Dialysis Patients: Development and Validation of a Risk Score to Assist Shared Decision Making for Dialysis Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Thamer, Mae; Kaufman, James S.; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Qian; Cotter, Dennis J.; Bang, Heejung

    2015-01-01

    Background A shared decision-making tool could help elderly advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients decide about initiating dialysis. Since mortality may be high in the first few months after initiating dialysis, incorporating early mortality predictors in such a tool would be important for an informed decision. Our objective is to derive and validate a predictive risk score for early mortality after initiating dialysis. Study Design Retrospective observational cohort, with development and validation cohorts. Setting & Participants US Renal Data System (USRDS) and claims data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services for 69,441 (aged ≥67 years) end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with previous 2-year Medicare history who initiated dialysis January 1, 2009–December 31, 2010. Candidate Predictors Demographics, predialysis care, laboratory data, functional limitations and medical history. Outcomes All-cause mortality in the first 3 and 6 months. Analytical Approach Predicted mortality via logistic regression. Results The simple risk score (total score, 0–9) included age (0–3 points); low albumin, assistance with daily living, nursing home residence, cancer, heart failure, and hospitalization (1 point each), and showed area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) =0.69 in the validation sample. A comprehensive risk score with additional predictors was also developed (with AUROC=0.72, high concordance between predicted vs. observed risk). Mortality probabilities were estimated from these models: the median score of 3 indicating 12% risk in 3 months and 20% in 6 months, and the highest scores (≥8) indicating 39% risk in 3 months and 55% in 6 months. Limitations Patients who did not choose dialysis and who did not have 2 year Medicare history were excluded. Conclusions Routinely available information can be used by CKD patients, families and their nephrologists to estimate risk of early mortality after dialysis initiation

  2. Naturally nonanemic dialysis patients: Who are they?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Murvet; Kircelli, Fatih; Artan, Ayse Serra; Oto, Ozgur; Asci, Gulay; Gunestepe, Kutay; Basci, Ali; Ok, Ercan; Sever, Mehmet Sukru

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Not only anemia, but also erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA)s for treating anemia may adversely affect prognosis of chronic hemodialysis patients. Various features of naturally (with no ESA usage) nonanemic patients may be useful for defining several factors in the pathogenesis of anemia. Methods Data, retrieved from the European Clinical Database (EuCliD)-Turkey on naturally nonanemic prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients (n: 201) were compared with their anemic (those who required ESA treatment) counterparts (n: 3948). Findings Mean hemoglobin values were 13.5 ± 0.8 and 11.5 ± 0.9 g/dL in nonanemic and anemic patients, respectively (P < 0.001). Nonanemia status was associated with younger age, male gender, longer dialysis vintage, nondiabetic status, more frequent hepatitis-C virus seropositivity and more frequent arteriovenous fistula usage. Serum ferritin and CRP levels and urea reduction ratio were higher in ESA-requiring patients. One (99%) and two (95.3%) years survival rates of the "naturally nonanemic" patients were superior as compared to anemics (91.0% and 82.6%, respectively), (P < 0.001). Discussion "Naturally nonanemic" status is associated with better survival in prevalent chronic hemodialysis patients; underlying mechanisms in this favorable outcome should be investigated by randomized controlled trials including large number of patients. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  3. Optimal choice of dialysis access for chronic kidney disease patients: developing a life plan for dialysis access.

    PubMed

    Lok, Charmaine E; Davidson, Ingemar

    2012-11-01

    Patient-focused dialysis modality and access selection requires a coordinated teamwork approach that emphasizes chronic kidney disease care to be a continuum of care. Individualized and detailed patient history and examination are the mainstays of dialysis modality and access selection. Preoperative vessel mapping by duplex Doppler ultrasonography can be a useful supplementary investigation to the history and physical examination to determine the optimal dialysis access type and site. Dialysis access modality and choice considers many patient factors that can be aided by a clinical risk score, asking key clinical questions, surgical expert opinion, and a multidisciplinary approach to individualized patient care. In many situations, a lifelong access utilization strategy prioritizes peritoneal dialysis as the first dialysis modality followed by appropriately planned hemodialysis. The goal of an integrated patient-focused approach is to achieve complication-free access to help patients achieve their life goals on and off dialysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of disinfectants in renal dialysis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Klein, E

    1986-01-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis therapy risk exposure to both disinfectants and sterilants. Dialysis equipment is disinfected periodically with strong solutions of hypochlorite or formaldehyde. More recently, reuse of dialyzers has introduced the use of additional sterilants, such as hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. The use of these sterilants is recognized by the center staffs and the home patient as a potential risk, and residue tests are carried out for the presence of these sterilants at the ppm level. Gross hemolysis resulting from accidental hypochlorite infusion has led to cardiac arrest, probably as a result of hyperkalemia. Formaldehyde is commonly used in 4% solutions to sterilize the fluid paths of dialysis controllers and to sterilize dialyzers before reuse. It can react with red cell antigenic surfaces leading to the formation of anti-N antibodies. Such reactions probably do not occur with hypochlorite or chloramines. The major exposure risk is the low concentration of disinfectant found in municipal water used to prepare 450 L dialysate weekly. With thrice-weekly treatment schedules, the quality requirements for water used to make this solution must be met rigorously. Standards for water used in the preparation of dialysate have recently been proposed but not all patients are treated with dialysate meeting such standards. The introduction of sterilants via tap water is insidious and has led to more pervasive consequences. Both chlorine and chloramines, at concentrations found in potable water, are strong oxidants that cause extensive protein denaturation and hemolysis. Oxidation of the Fe2+ in hemoglobin to Fe3+ forms methemoglobin, which is incapable of carrying either O2 or CO2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3816735

  5. Multicenter Registry Analysis of Center Characteristics Associated with Technique Failure in Patients on Incident Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Htay, Htay; Cho, Yeoungjee; Pascoe, Elaine M; Darssan, Darsy; Nadeau-Fredette, Annie-Claire; Hawley, Carmel; Clayton, Philip A; Borlace, Monique; Badve, Sunil V; Sud, Kamal; Boudville, Neil; McDonald, Stephen P; Johnson, David W

    2017-07-07

    Technique failure is a major limitation of peritoneal dialysis. Our study aimed to identify center- and patient-level predictors of peritoneal dialysis technique failure. All patients on incident peritoneal dialysis in Australia from 2004 to 2014 were included in the study using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. Center- and patient-level characteristics associated with technique failure were evaluated using Cox shared frailty models. Death-censored technique failure and cause-specific technique failure were analyzed as secondary outcomes. The study included 9362 patients from 51 centers in Australia. The technique failure rate was 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.36) episodes per patient-year, with a sevenfold variation across centers that was mainly associated with center-level characteristics. Technique failure was significantly less likely in centers with larger proportions of patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (>29%; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval, 0.73 to 0.94) and more likely in smaller centers (<16 new patients per year; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.21) and centers with lower proportions of patients achieving target baseline serum phosphate levels (<40%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.29). Similar results were observed for death-censored technique failure, except that center target phosphate achievement was not significantly associated. Technique failure due to infection, social reasons, mechanical causes, or death was variably associated with center size, proportion of patients on peritoneal dialysis, and/or target phosphate achievement, automated peritoneal dialysis exposure, icodextrin use, and antifungal use. The variation of hazards of technique failure across centers was reduced by 28% after adjusting for patient-specific factors and an additional 53% after adding center-specific factors. Technique failure

  6. PATIENTS EXPERIENCES OF INVOLVEMENT IN CHOICE OF DIALYSIS MODE.

    PubMed

    Erlang, Anne S; Nielsen, Ida H; Hansen, Helle O B; Finderup, Jeanette

    2015-12-01

    International guidelines recommend that patients choose dialysis mode based on their own values and preferences; thus, involvement is needed in dialysis choice. A literature review indicated a lack of knowledge concerning patient involvement in decision-making, especially concerning patients' experiences of the decision-making process just after making the decision and before starting dialysis. To gather information about how patients experienced involvement in the decision-making process of renal substation therapy just after they have made the decision and before starting dialysis. A qualitative method with a phenomenological and hermeneutic approach. The study was based on individual semi-structured interviews with nine adult patients with chronic kidney disease. A data-driven analysis based on systematic text condensation was used. Patients are a significant part of the decision. Health care professionals contribute to the experience of being involved. Patients keep putting off the final choice. The patients found themselves involved in the choice of dialysis mode and have different views on what is needed to feel being involved. Information, interaction, and advice from health care professionals affect this experience. However, the experience of not having any symptoms caused patients to put off the final choice of dialysis mode. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  7. Kidney Dialysis Patients Discover New Hope through ABE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonette, Linda; And Others

    A program was developed to provide adult basic education (ABE) to kidney patients while they are receiving dialysis treatment. The program, which relies on an individualized learning approach, involved the coordinated efforts of the following parties: West Virginia Dialysis Facilities, Inc.; the Charleston Renal Group; and the Kanawha County Adult…

  8. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  9. Kidney Dialysis Patients Discover New Hope through ABE Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonette, Linda; And Others

    A program was developed to provide adult basic education (ABE) to kidney patients while they are receiving dialysis treatment. The program, which relies on an individualized learning approach, involved the coordinated efforts of the following parties: West Virginia Dialysis Facilities, Inc.; the Charleston Renal Group; and the Kanawha County Adult…

  10. New directions in peritoneal dialysis patient training.

    PubMed

    Hall, Gayle; Bogan, Amy; Dreis, Sandra; Duffy, AnnMarie; Greene, Suzanne; Kelley, Karen; Lizak, Holly; Nabut, Jose; Schinker, Vicky; Schwartz, Netta

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of training methods on selected patient outcomes in peritoneal dialysis patients. Multi-center, longitudinal prospective quasi-experimental design study conducted over a 2-year period. Thirty-two Gambro Healthcare peritoneal dialysis (PD) home training programs in the United States. New patients starting PD were trained on PD technique and diet using either an adult learning theory-based curriculum in the experimental group (PG) or non-standardized conventional training programs in the control group (CG). Excluded were patients who were non-English speaking, legally blind without sighted caregiver, nursing home residents, and those with previous exposure to PD training. Information was collected by means of manual data collection tools and though the use of Gambro Healthcare computer system and was analyzed for statistical significance by Gambro Healthcare biostatistician. Compared with the CG, initial training took longer in the PG (PG = 29 hrs; CG = 22.6 hrs; p < .0001), and time required for retraining was less but not statistically significant (PG = 8.7 hrs; CG = 12.5 hrs; p = .1324). The peritonitis rate was less in the PG (28.2 per 1000 patient months) than in the CG (36.7 per 1000 patient months), but did not achieve statistical significance (p = .09783). Exit site infections (ESIs) were less in the PG than the CG (PG = 18.5; CG = 31.8; p = .00349). Dropout from PD to hemodialysis secondary to infection was less in the PG (1.6%) than in the CG (5.6%) (p = .0069). Measured on a scale with 4 being the best score, mean fluid balance scores in the PG were 3.41 compared to 3.25 in the CG (p < .0001), and mean compliance scores for the PG versus the CG were 3.62 and 3.52, respectively (p < .0001). Laboratory parameters between the two groups were significantly different only for Kt/V (PG = 2.4; CG = 2.3; p = 0.0107). Use of the adult learning theory-based training method curriculum was positively associated with improved patient outcomes in the

  11. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  12. A Comparison of the Regional Circulation in the Feet between Dialysis and Non-Dialysis Patients using Indocyanine Green Angiography.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, M; Igari, K; Kudo, T; Toyofuku, T; Inoue, Y; Uetake, H

    2017-09-01

    Peripheral artery disease in dialysis cases is more prone to critical limb ischemia compared to non-dialysis cases, with a significantly high rate of major amputation of the lower limbs. Lesions are distributed on the more distal side in dialysis critical limb ischemia cases. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of indocyanine green angiography to determine differences in the regional circulation in the foot between dialysis and non-dialysis patients. The subjects included 62 cases, among which 20 were dialysis patients and 42 were non-dialysis patients. We compared the indocyanine green angiography parameters for regions of interest in the dialysis and non-dialysis groups, which included the magnitude of intensity from indocyanine green onset to maximum intensity (Imax), the time from indocyanine green onset to maximum intensity (Tmax), the time elapsed from the fluorescence onset to half the maximum intensity (T1/2), and the time from maximum intensity to declining to 90% of the maximum intensity (Td90%). These indocyanine green angiography parameters were measured at region of interest 1 (the Chopart joint), region of interest 2 (the Lisfranc joint), and region of interest 3 (the distal region of the first metatarsal bone). In the comparison between the dialysis and non-dialysis groups, a significant difference was observed regarding Tmax, T1/2, and Td90%, especially in region of interest 3. In this study, we show that regional tissue perfusion is more deteriorated in dialysis patients compared with non-dialysis patients using indocyanine green angiography. Tmax, T1/2, and Td90% could be useful clinical parameters to compare ischemic severity of the lower limb between dialysis and non-dialysis patients.

  13. Palliative care for patients with malignancy and end-stage renal failure on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lv; Wu-Jun, Xue; Feng, Tan

    2014-05-01

    Many patients on peritoneal dialysis experience a poor quality of life because of a high burden of comorbid conditions. Dialysists must pay more attention to reducing a patient's pain and suffering, both physical and psychological and improve the quality of life for the patients as much as possible. A consensus regarding eligibility for palliative care and the delivery of these inventions does not currently exist. The present study aimed to describe the implementation of palliative care for end-stage renal failure patients on peritoneal dialysis. A report on three cases. This study included three outpatients on peritoneal dialysis who received palliative care and died between January 2008 and June 2010. The patients' comorbidities, nutritional status, and functional status were evaluated using the Charlson comorbidity score, subjective global assessment, and Karnofsky Performance Score index, respectively. The Hamilton depression and Hamilton anxiety scales were also employed. The patients' clinical manifestations and treatments were reviewed. Each patient displayed 11-16 symptoms. The Charlson comorbidity scores were from 11 to 13, the subjective global assessment indicated that two patients were class assigned to "C" and one to class "B", and the mean Karnofsky index was <40. Among these patients, all experienced depression and two experienced anxiety, Low doses of hypertonic glucose solutions, skin care, psychological services, and tranquillizers were intermittently used to alleviate symptoms, after making the decision to terminate dialysis. The patients died 5 days to 2 months after dialysis withdrawal. The considerable burden associated with comorbid conditions, malnutrition, poor functional status, and serious psychological problems are predictors of poor patient prognoses. Withdrawal of dialysis, palliative care, and psychological interventions can reduce patient distress and improve the quality of life before death, with the care provided.

  14. Advanced wasting in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H; Sun, Yijuan; Vigil, Darlene; Servilla, Karen S; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2017-05-06

    To identify patients with end-stage renal disease treated by peritoneal dialysis (PD) who had zero body fat (BF) as determined by analysis of body composition using anthropometric formulas estimating body water (V) and to compare nutritional parameters between these patients and PD patients whose BF was above zero. Body weight (W) consists of fat-free mass (FFM) and BF. Anthropometric formulas for calculating V allow the calculation of FFM as V/0.73, where 0.73 is the water fraction of FFM at normal hydration. Wasting from loss of BF has adverse survival outcomes in PD. Advanced wasting was defined as zero BF when V/0.73 is equal to or exceeds W. This study, which analyzed 439 PD patients at their first clearance study, used the Watson formulas estimating V to identify patients with VWatson/0.73 ≥ W and compared their nutritional indices with those of PD patients with VWatson/0.73 < W. The study identified at the first clearance study two male patients with VWatson/0.73 ≥ W among 439 patients on PD. Compared to 260 other male patients on PD, the two subjects with advanced wasting had exceptionally low body mass index and serum albumin concentration. The first of the two subjects also had very low values for serum creatinine concentration and total (in urine and spent peritoneal dialysate) creatinine excretion rate while the second subject had an elevated serum creatinine concentration and high creatinine excretion rate due, most probably, to non-compliance with the PD prescription. Advanced wasting (zero BF) in PD patients, identified by the anthropometric formulas that estimate V, while rare, is associated with indices of poor somatic and visceral nutrition.

  15. Restless legs syndrome in dialysis patients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Song; Shen, Hua; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua

    2014-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) occurs frequently in dialysis patients. However, it remains elusive regarding the risk factors for RLS onset in dialysis patients. A meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between clinical measures (age, gender, diabetes mellitus or DM etc.) and RLS in dialysis patients. We searched electronic databases from January 1990 to February 2014 to identify studies that met inclusion criteria. Either a fixed-effects or, in the presence of heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs)/standard mean differences (SMDs) and their corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Twenty-three studies were included in this study. Dialysis patients with RLS demonstrated significantly higher OR of DM compared with non-RLS in Asians (OR: 1.238, 95% CI: 1.032-1.484, P = 0.021). Dialysis patients with RLS showed markedly lower level of hemoglobin (Hb)/iron compared with non-RLS in overall populations/Caucasians (SMD: -0.178/-0.104, 95% CI: -0.352/-0.206 to -0.004/-0.002, P = 0.045/0.045; SMD: -0.283/-0.158, 95% CI: -0.552/-0.304 to -0.013/-0.012, P = 0.04/0.034). No differences of female populations, age, duration of dialysis, body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, albumin, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium were observed between dialysis patients with RLS and non-RLS in overall populations, Caucasians and Asians. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Our findings indicate that dialysis patients with DM are nearly 24% more susceptible to RLS in Asians. Decreased Hb/iron is a risk factor for RLS onset in dialysis patients in overall populations including Caucasians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in paediatric peritoneal dialysis patients: a Turkish Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Study Group (TUPEPD) report.

    PubMed

    Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Saygili, Arda; Sever, Lale; Noyan, Aytul; Akman, Sema; Ekim, Mesiha; Aksu, Nejat; Doganay, Beyza; Yildiz, Nurdan; Duzova, Ali; Soylu, Alper; Alpay, Harika; Sonmez, Ferah; Civilibal, Mahmut; Erdem, Sevcan; Kardelen, Firat

    2009-11-01

    We aimed to clarify arteriosclerotic risk and to document possible relationships between cardiovascular risk factors and echocardiographic parameters in paediatric peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. M-mode/Doppler/tissue Doppler echocardiographic studies and lipid/lipoproteins, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HS-CRP) levels and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) were determined in 59 patients (age: 14.2 +/- 4.5 years) and in 36 healthy subjects. Structural and functional cardiac abnormalities were observed in patients on maintenance dialysis. Increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI, P = 0.000), relative wall thickness (P = 0.000), myocardial performance index (MPI, P = 0.000) were documented in the patients. Lipoprotein (a) (P = 0.000), homocysteine (P = 0.001), HS-CRP (P = 0.000) and CIMT (P = 0.000) were significantly elevated in the patients. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was prevalent in 68% of the patients. Patients with LVH had higher levels of HS-CRP (P = 0.001) and CIMT (P = 0.028) than those without LVH. Haemoglobin was an independent predictor of LVMI (beta: -8.9, P = 0.001), while residual diuresis and CIMT were independent predictors of diastolic dysfunction (beta: -0.45, P = 0.034 and beta: 5.90, P = 0.008, respectively). Albumin (beta: -0.72, P = 0.018) and Kt/V urea (beta: -0.48, P = 0.012) were significant predictors of CIMT. There were positive correlations between LVMI and CIMT. HS-CRP was positively correlated with LVMI as well as CIMT. Elevated levels of atherosclerotic/ inflammatory risk factors, low haemoglobin levels and loss of residual renal function and their negative effects on heart are of remarkable importance in paediatric patients on maintenance peritoneal dialysis. Achieving recommended targets for haemoglobin, blood pressure and Kt/V urea, preserving residual renal function as well as managing inflammation and subsequent arteriosclerosis is obviously essential to improve the patients' prognosis.

  17. Multiple biomarkers including cardiac troponins T and I measured by high-sensitivity assays, as predictors of long-term mortality in patients with chronic renal failure who underwent dialysis.

    PubMed

    Hickman, Peter E; McGill, Darryl; Potter, Julia M; Koerbin, Gus; Apple, Fred S; Talaulikar, Girish

    2015-06-01

    There is a high cardiac mortality in patients on long-term renal dialysis. No studies have reported long-term outcomes relating to both high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) in these patients. Patients who underwent long-term dialysis at the Canberra Hospital had blood samples collected for both cardiac and other biomarkers. Samples were stored at -80°C until analysis. Mortality data were collected at 5 years, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify which biomarkers were predictive of mortality at 5 years. After multivariate analysis, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hs-cTnT remained independently predictive of all-cause mortality, with hs-cTnT having the highest hazard ratio. If hs-cTnT was excluded from the analysis, then hs-cTnI was independently predictive of mortality. For hs-cTnT, for both genders, the ninety-ninth percentile, derived from a population with subjects with subclinical disease excluded, served as an excellent partition between survivors and nonsurvivors. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hs-cTnT had area under the curve of 0.798 and for hs-cTnI of 0.774. Kaplan-Meier curves for the aggregation of albumin, CRP, and hs-cTnT showed a stronger predictive power with receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.805. The addition of echocardiographic data in an analysis of all patients who had an echocardiogram for clinical reasons (n = 105) did not alter the final observations in this subgroup. In conclusion, hs-cTnT retains a superior predictive power in a dialysis-dependent population for identifying those at risk for death and when aggregated with albumin and CRP also has substantial additive value for identifying mortality risk in a renal-dialysis population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis patients with non-diabetic dialysis patients and healthy people

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Roozbeh-Shahroodi, Jamshid; Pooladi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Zamani, Khosro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is associated with higher rates of caries, on the other hand some studies have shown that renal failure can be protective against dental caries. Objectives: In this study we compared oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis and non-diabetic dialysis patients and the normal population. Patients and Methods: During November 2014 to January 2014, 85 people that referred to our medical care center entered the study. The sample included 30 diabetic dialysis, 28 non-diabetic dialysis patients and 27 healthy people. Oral saliva samples were obtained from their tongue and oral floor for microbiological examination. Patients’ data were compared before and after dialysis. Results: The amount of Lactobacillus and S. mutans did not show a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.092 and P=0.966 for S. mutans and lactobacillus, respectively). A positive and meaningful correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and the amount of S. mutans in the diabetic dialysis group (P=0.023; r=0.413). A meaningful and positive correlation was also seen between the amount of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after dialysis and the amount of oral S. mutans in the non-diabetic dialysis group (P=0.03; r=0.403). Conclusion: Despite the differences in the prevalence of caries that have been reported between renal failure patients and diabetic patients, we did not find any significant difference between diabetic dialysis, non-diabetic dialysis patients and the healthy population, regarding their amount of oral cariogenic bacteria. PMID:27689112

  19. Growth rates in pediatric dialysis patients and renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Turenne, M N; Port, F K; Strawderman, R L; Ettenger, R B; Alexander, S R; Lewy, J E; Jones, C A; Agodoa, L Y; Held, P J

    1997-08-01

    We compared growth rates by modality over a 6- to 14-month period in 1,302 US pediatric end-stage renal disese (ESRD) patients treated during 1990. Modality comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and ESRD duration using linear regression models by age group (0.5 to 4 years, 5 to 9 years, 10 to 14 years, and 15 to 18 years). Growth rates were higher in young children receiving a transplant compared with those receiving dialysis (ages 0.5 to 4 years, delta = 3.1 cm/yr v continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis [CCPD], P < 0.01; ages 5 to 9 years, delta = 2.0 to 2.6 cm/yr v CCPD, chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and hemodialysis, P < 0.01). In contrast, growth rates in older children were not statistically different when comparing transplantation with each dialysis modality. For most age groups of transplant recipients, we observed faster growth with alternate-day versus daily steroids that was not fully explained by differences in allograft function. Younger patients (<15 years) grew at comparable rates with each dialysis modality, while older CAPD patients grew faster compared with hemodialysis or CCPD patients (P < 0.02). There was no substantial pubertal growth spurt in transplant or dialysis patients. This national US study of pediatric growth rates with dialysis and transplantation shows differences in growth by modality that vary by age group.

  20. Determinants of survival in patients receiving dialysis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2013-04-01

    Maintenance dialysis is associated with reduced survival when compared with the general population. In Libya, information about outcomes on dialysis is scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of survival in Libyan dialysis patients. This prospective multicenter study included all patients in Libya who had been receiving dialysis for >90 days in June 2009. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected upon enrollment and survival status after 1 year was determined. Two thousand two hundred seventy-three patients in 38 dialysis centers were followed up for 1 year. The majority were receiving hemodialysis (98.8%). Sixty-seven patients were censored due to renal transplantation, and 46 patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, 2159 patients were followed up for 1 year. Four hundred fifty-eight deaths occurred, (crude annual mortality rate of 21.2%). Of these, 31% were due to ischemic heart disease, 16% cerebrovascular accidents, and 16% due to infection. Annual mortality rate was 0% to 70% in different dialysis centers. Best survival was in age group 25 to 34 years. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age at onset of dialysis, physical dependency, diabetes, and predialysis urea as independent determinants of increased mortality. Patients receiving dialysis in Libya have a crude 1-year mortality rate similar to most developed countries, but the mean age of the dialysis population is much lower, and this outcome is thus relatively poor. As in most countries, cardiovascular disease and infection were the most common causes of death. Variation in mortality rates between different centers suggests that survival could be improved by promoting standardization of best practice. © 2012 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2012 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  1. Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Predicts Cardiovascular Outcomes in Prevalent Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, an indicator of atherogenic dyslipidemia, is a predictor of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in the general population and has been correlated with atherosclerotic events. Whether the TG/HDL-C ratio can predict CV outcomes and survival in dialysis patients is unknown. We performed this prospective, observational cohort study and enrolled 602 dialysis patients (539 hemodialysis and 63 peritoneal dialysis) from a single center in Taiwan followed up for a median of 3.9 years. The outcomes were the occurrence of CV events, CV death, and all-cause mortality during follow-up. The association of baseline TG/HDL-C ratio with outcomes was explored with Cox regression models, which were adjusted for demographic parameters and inflammatory/nutritional markers. Overall, 203 of the patients experienced CV events and 169 patients died, of whom 104 died due to CV events. Two hundred fifty-four patients reached the composite CV outcome. Patients with higher TG/HDL-C levels (quintile 5) had a higher incidence of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19–3.47), CV mortality (adjusted HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.07–3.99), composite CV outcome (adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.37–3.55), and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.1–3.39) compared with the patients in quintile 1. However, in diabetic dialysis patients, the TG/HDL-C ratio did not predict the outcomes. The TG/HDL-C ratio is a reliable and easily accessible predictor to evaluate CV outcomes and survival in prevalent nondiabetic dialysis patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01457625 PMID:25761189

  2. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio predicts cardiovascular outcomes in prevalent dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2015-03-01

    Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio, an indicator of atherogenic dyslipidemia, is a predictor of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in the general population and has been correlated with atherosclerotic events. Whether the TG/HDL-C ratio can predict CV outcomes and survival in dialysis patients is unknown. We performed this prospective, observational cohort study and enrolled 602 dialysis patients (539 hemodialysis and 63 peritoneal dialysis) from a single center in Taiwan followed up for a median of 3.9 years. The outcomes were the occurrence of CV events, CV death, and all-cause mortality during follow-up. The association of baseline TG/HDL-C ratio with outcomes was explored with Cox regression models, which were adjusted for demographic parameters and inflammatory/nutritional markers. Overall, 203 of the patients experienced CV events and 169 patients died, of whom 104 died due to CV events. Two hundred fifty-four patients reached the composite CV outcome. Patients with higher TG/HDL-C levels (quintile 5) had a higher incidence of CV events (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-3.47), CV mortality (adjusted HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.07-3.99), composite CV outcome (adjusted HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.37-3.55), and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.1-3.39) compared with the patients in quintile 1. However, in diabetic dialysis patients, the TG/HDL-C ratio did not predict the outcomes. The TG/HDL-C ratio is a reliable and easily accessible predictor to evaluate CV outcomes and survival in prevalent nondiabetic dialysis patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01457625.

  3. Graves' disease in a dialysis dependent chronic renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538

  4. [An irritating cough in dialysis patients. A rare differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Oursin, C; Meyer, E

    1992-02-01

    Soft tissue calcification is a well-known complication in chronic dialysis patients. These calcifications are mainly located around the large joints. Calcification of the visceral organs also occurs in these patients, even though this fact is far less known. These visceral calcifications are mostly diagnosed post mortem as they tend to be discrete and asymptomatic. In this article, we report on a chronic dialysis patient in whom extensive pulmonary calcifications occurred, leading to clinical symptoms.

  5. Association of Physical Activity with Survival among Ambulatory Patients on Dialysis: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, George A.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Grimes, Barbara A.; Glidden, David V.; Anand, Shuchi; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Despite high mortality and low levels of physical activity (PA) among patients starting dialysis, the link between low PA and mortality has not been carefully evaluated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Comprehensive Dialysis Study was a prospective cohort study that enrolled patients who started dialysis between June 2005 and June 2007 in a random sample of dialysis facilities in the United States. The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was administered to estimate PA among 1554 ambulatory enrolled patients in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study. Patients were followed until death or September 30, 2009, and the major outcome was all-cause mortality. Results The average age was 59.8 (14.2) years; 55% of participants were male, 28% were black, and 56% had diabetes mellitus. The majority (57.3%) had low fitness estimated from the HAP score. The median follow-up was 2.6 (interquartile range, 2.2–3.1) years. The association between PA and mortality was linear across the range of scores (1–94). After multivariable adjustment, lower adjusted activity score on the HAP was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–1.39 per 10 points). Patients in the lowest level of fitness experienced a 3.5-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.54–4.89) increase in risk of death compared with those with average or above fitness. Conclusions Low levels of PA are strongly associated with mortality among patients new to dialysis. Interventions aimed to preserve or enhance PA should be prospectively tested. PMID:23124787

  6. Pharmacokinetics of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moberly, James B; Mujais, Salim; Gehr, Todd; Hamburger, Richard; Sprague, Stuart; Kucharski, Andrew; Reynolds, Robin; Ogrinc, Francis; Martis, Leo; Wolfson, Marsha

    2002-10-01

    Pharmacokinetics of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis patients. Icodextrin is a glucose polymer osmotic agent used to provide sustained ultrafiltration during long peritoneal dialysis (PD) dwells. A number of studies have evaluated the steady-state blood concentrations of icodextrin during repeated use; however, to date the pharmacokinetics of icodextrin have not been well studied. The current study was conducted to determine the absorption, plasma kinetics and elimination of icodextrin and metabolites following a single icodextrin exchange. Thirteen PD patients were administered 2.0 L of solution containing 7.5% icodextrin for a 12-hour dwell. Icodextrin (total of all glucose polymers) and specific polymers with degrees of polymerization ranging from two to seven (DP2 to DP7) were measured in blood, urine and dialysate during the dwell and after draining the solution from the peritoneal cavity. A median of 40.1% (60.24 g) of the total administered dose (150 g) was absorbed during the 12-hour dwell. Plasma levels of icodextrin and metabolites rose during the dwell and declined after drain, closely corresponding to the one-compartment pharmacokinetic model assuming zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Peak plasma concentrations (median C peak = 2.23 g/L) were observed at the end of the dwell (median Tmax = 12.7 h) and were significantly correlated with patients' body weight (R2 = 0.805, P < 0.001). Plasma levels of icodextrin and metabolites returned to baseline within 3 to 7 days. Icodextrin had a plasma half-life of 14.73 hours and a median clearance of 1.09 L/h. Urinary excretion of icodextrin and metabolites was directly related to residual renal function (R2 = 0.679 vs. creatinine clearance, P < 0.01). In the nine patients with residual renal function, the average daily urinary excretion of icodextrin was 473 +/- 77 mg per mL of endogenous renal creatinine clearance. Icodextrin metabolites DP2 to DP4 were found in the dialysate of subsequent

  7. Comorbidities in Chronic Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: A Report of the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network

    PubMed Central

    Neu, Alicia M.; Sander, Anja; Borzych-Dużałka, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Vallés, Patricia G.; Ha, Il Soo; Patel, Hiren; Askenazi, David; Balasz-Chmielewska, Irena; Lauronen, Jouni; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Feber, Janusz; Schaefer, Franz; Warady, Bradley A.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background, Objectives, and Methods: Hospitalization and mortality rates in pediatric dialysis patients remain unacceptably high. Although studies have associated the presence of comorbidities with an increased risk for death in a relatively small number of pediatric dialysis patients, no large-scale study had set out to describe the comorbidities seen in pediatric dialysis patients or to evaluate the impact of those comorbidities on outcomes beyond the newborn period. In the present study, we evaluated the prevalence of comorbidities in a large international cohort of pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients from the International Pediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Network registry and began to assess potential associations between those comorbidities and hospitalization rates and mortality. ♦ Results: Information on comorbidities was available for 1830 patients 0 - 19 years of age at dialysis initiation. Median age at dialysis initiation was 9.1 years [interquartile range (IQR): 10.9], median follow-up for calculation of hospitalization rates was 15.2 months (range: 0.2 - 80.9 months), and total follow-up time in the registry was 2095 patient-years. At least 1 comorbidity had been reported for 602 of the patients (32.9%), with 283 (15.5%) having cognitive impairment; 230 (12.6%), motor impairment; 167 (9.1%), cardiac abnormality; 76 (4.2%), pulmonary abnormality; 212 (11.6%), ocular abnormality; and 101 (5.5%), hearing impairment. Of the 150 patients (8.2%) that had a defined syndrome, 85% had at least 1 nonrenal comorbidity, and 64% had multiple comorbidities. The presence of at least 1 comorbidity was associated with a higher hospitalization rate [hospital days per 100 observation days: 1.7 (IQR: 5.8) vs 1.2 (IQR: 3.9), p = 0.001] and decreased patient survival (4-year survival rate: 73% vs 90%, p < 0.0001). ♦ Conclusions: Nearly one third of pediatric CPD patients in a large international cohort had at least 1 comorbidity, and multiple

  8. [Dialysis dose quantification in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano

    2010-01-01

    Acute kidney injury affects about 35% of intensive care unit patients. Renal replacement therapy is required in about 5% of such patients and is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50% to 80%. The latter is likely more related to the failure of extrarenal organs than to an insufficient dialysis dose. This could explain, at least in part, the findings of 2 recent trials (VA/ NIH and RENAL) where the expected dose-outcome relationship was not confirmed. These results cannot be taken to infer that assessing the dialysis dose is no longer required. The contrary is true, in that the common finding of large differences between prescribed and delivered doses calls for accurate dose assessment, at least to avoid underdialysis. The minimum adequate levels are now a Kt/V urea of 1.2 to 1.4 three times a week (3x/wk) on intermittent hemodialysis (IHD), and an effluent of 20 mL/kg/h for 85% of the time on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRTT). Both these parameters can be easily measured but are far from ideal indices because they account neither for residual renal function nor for irregular dose delivery. The equivalent renal urea clearance (EKRjc), by expressing the averaged renal+dialytic urea clearance over the whole treatment period, is able to account for the above factors. Although assessing EKRjc is quite complex, for regular 3x/wk IHD one could use the formula EKRjc=10 Kt/V+1 to compute that a Kt/V of 1.2 and 1.4 corresponds to an EKRjc of 13 and 15 mL/min, respectively. On the other hand, the hourly effluent per kg is numerically similar to EKRjc. On this basis it can be calculated that in non-prediluted really continuous treatment, the recommended CRRT dose (EKRjc=20 mL/min) is 33% higher than the EKRjc of 15 mL/min, corresponding to the recommended Kt/V of 1.4 on 3x/wk IHD.

  9. Con: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Rigothier, Claire; Combe, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is often observed in advanced chronic kidney disease, with deleterious consequences on the nutritional status, bone and mineral status, inflammation and mortality. Through clearance of the daily acid load and a net gain in alkaline buffers, dialysis therapy is aimed at correcting metabolic acidosis. A normal bicarbonate serum concentration is the recommended target in dialysis patients. However, several studies have shown that a mild degree of metabolic acidosis in patients treated with dialysis is associated with better nutritional status, higher protein intake and improved survival. Conversely, a high bicarbonate serum concentration is associated with poor nutritional status and lower survival. It is likely that mild acidosis results from a dietary acid load linked to animal protein intake. In contrast, a high bicarbonate concentration in patients treated with dialysis could result mainly from an insufficient dietary acid load, i.e. low protein intake. Therefore, a high pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration should prompt nephrologists to carry out nutritional investigations to detect insufficient dietary protein intake. In any case, a high bicarbonate concentration should be neither a goal of dialysis therapy nor an index of adequate dialysis, whereas mild acidosis could be considered as an indicator of appropriate protein intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  10. Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly (BOLDE): differences in quality of life on peritoneal dialysis compared to haemodialysis for older patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, Edwina A; Johansson, Lina; Farrington, Ken; Gallagher, Hugh; Sensky, Tom; Gordon, Fabiana; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Beckett, Nigel; Hickson, Mary

    2010-11-01

    Health-related quality of life (QOL) is an important outcome for older people who are often on dialysis for life. Little is, however, known about differences in QOL on haemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in older age groups. Randomising patients to either modality to assess outcomes is not feasible. In this cross-sectional, multi-centred study we conducted QOL assessments (Short Form-12 Mental and Physical Component Summary scales, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale) in 140 people (aged 65 years or older) on PD and HD. The groups were similar in age, gender, time on dialysis, ethnicity, Index of Deprivation (based on postcode), dialysis adequacy, cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Exam and Trail-Making Test B), nutritional status (Subjective Global Assessment) and social networks. There was a higher comorbidity score in the HD group. Regression analyses were undertaken to ascertain which variables significantly influence each QOL assessment. All were influenced by symptom count highlighting that the patient's perception of their symptoms is a critical determinant of their mental and physical well being. Modality was found to be an independent predictor of illness intrusion with greater intrusion felt in those on HD. Overall, in two closely matched demographic groups of older dialysis patients, QOL was similar, if not better, in those on PD. This study strongly supports offering PD to all suitable older people.

  11. Relationship between pulmonary hypertension, peripheral vascular calcification, and major cardiovascular events in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Chul; Chang, Hyo Jung; Kim, Myung-Gyu; Jo, Sang-Kyung; Cho, Won-Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Kyu

    2015-03-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a recently recognized complication of chronic kidney disease. In this study, we investigated the association between PHT, peripheral vascular calcifications (VCs), and major cardiovascular events. In this retrospective study, we included 172 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing dialysis [hemodialysis (HD)=84, peritoneal dialysis=88]. PHT was defined as an estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure>37 mmHg using echocardiography. The Simple Vascular Calcification Score (SVCS) was measured using plain radiographic films of the hands and pelvis. The prevalence of PHT was significantly higher in HD patients (51.2% vs. 22.7%). Dialysis patients with PHT had a significantly higher prevalence of severe VCs (SVCS≥3). In multivariate analysis, the presence of severe VCs [odds ratio (OR), 2.68], mitral valve disease (OR, 7.79), HD (OR, 3.35), and larger left atrial diameter (OR, 11.39) were independent risk factors for PHT. In addition to the presence of anemia, severe VCs, or older age, the presence of PHT was an independent predictor of major cardiovascular events in ESRD patients. The prevalence of PHT was higher in HD patients and was associated with higher rates of major cardiovascular events. Severe VCs are thought to be an independent risk factor for predicting PHT in ESRD patients. Therefore, in dialysis patients with PHT, careful attention should be paid to the presence of VCs and the occurrence of major cardiovascular events.

  12. Pro: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis is common in dialysis patients. Bicarbonate administration via the dialysate helps maintain the acid-base balance in these patients. Serum bicarbonate level in dialysis patients is determined by several factors that include dietary protein intake, nutritional status and dialysis prescription, etc. Additionally, a meaningful interpretation of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients requires an understanding of complexities involving its measurement. Both very low as well very high levels of serum bicarbonate have been associated with adverse outcomes in observational studies. However, recent observational data, when adjusted for the confounding effects of nutritional status, do not associate higher predialysis serum bicarbonate with adverse consequences. At this time, there are no prospective studies available that have examined the association of serum bicarbonate with hard outcomes in dialysis patients. The ideal level of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is therefore unknown. This article examines the available data with regard to the benefits of higher predialysis serum bicarbonate. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of therapies for chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis: a case for excluding dialysis costs.

    PubMed

    Grima, Daniel T; Bernard, Lisa M; Dunn, Elizabeth S; McFarlane, Philip A; Mendelssohn, David C

    2012-11-01

    In many jurisdictions, cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) plays an important role in determining drug coverage and reimbursement and, therefore, has the potential to impact patient access. Health economic guidelines recommend the inclusion of future costs related to the intervention of interest within CEAs but provide little guidance regarding the definition of 'related'. In the case of CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on dialysis but do not impact the need for or the intensity of dialysis, the determination of the relatedness of future dialysis costs to the therapy of interest is particularly ambiguous. The uncertainty as to whether dialysis costs are related or unrelated in these circumstances has led to inconsistencies in the conduct of CEAs for such products, with dialysis costs included in some analyses while excluded in others. Due to the magnitude of the cost of dialysis, whether or not dialysis costs are included in CEAs of such therapies has substantial implications for the results of such analyses, often meaning the difference between a therapy being deemed cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are excluded) or not cost effective (in instances where dialysis costs are included). This paper explores the issues and implications surrounding the inclusion of dialysis costs in CEAs of therapies that extend the lives of dialysis patients but do not impact the need for dialysis. Relevant case studies clearly demonstrate that, regardless of the clinical benefits of a life-extending intervention for dialysis patients, and due to the high cost of dialysis, the inclusion of dialysis costs in the analysis essentially eliminates the possibility of obtaining a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio. This raises the significant risk that dialysis patients may be denied access to interventions that are cost effective in other populations due solely to the high background cost of dialysis itself. Finally, the

  14. Periodontal treatment reduces chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Siribamrungwong, Monchai; Yothasamutr, Kasemsuk; Puangpanngam, Kutchaporn

    2014-06-01

    Chronic systemic inflammation, a non traditional risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is associated with increasing mortality in chronic kidney disease, especially peritoneal dialysis patients. Periodontitis is a potential treatable source of systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Clinical periodontal status was evaluated in 32 stable chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by plaque index and periodontal disease index. Hematologic, blood chemical, nutritional, and dialysis-related data as well as highly sensitive C-reactive protein were analyzed before and after periodontal treatment. At baseline, high sensitive C-reactive protein positively correlated with the clinical periodontal status (plaque index; r = 0.57, P < 0.01, periodontal disease index; r = 0.56, P < 0.01). After completion of periodontal therapy, clinical periodontal indexes were significantly lower and high sensitivity C-reactive protein significantly decreased from 2.93 to 2.21 mg/L. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen increased from 47.33 to 51.8 mg/dL, reflecting nutritional status improvement. Erythropoietin dosage requirement decreased from 8000 to 6000 units/week while hemoglobin level was stable. Periodontitis is an important source of chronic systemic inflammation in peritoneal dialysis patients. Treatment of periodontal diseases can improve systemic inflammation, nutritional status and erythropoietin responsiveness in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  15. Effects of exercise therapy during dialysis for elderly patients undergoing maintenance dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chigira, Yusuke; Oda, Takahiro; Izumi, Masataka; Yoshimura, Tukasa

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise therapy during dialysis is currently being recommended since it is easy for patients to follow and results in high participation rates. In this study, this therapy was performed for elderly patients undergoing maintenance dialysis, and its effects were examined. [Subjects and Methods] Seven elderly patients (age: 70.6 ± 4.4) with chronic renal failure, who were able to perform exercises during maintenance dialysis, received the exercise therapy 2 or 3 times weekly for 3 months. Lower-limb muscle strength as well as the standardized dialysis dose (Kt/V) was measured before and after intervention. The patients were also evaluated using the 30-sec chair stand test (CS-30), the World Health Organization QOL Assessment 26 (WHO-QOL26), and a questionnaire. [Results] The lower-limb muscle strength and circumference, CS-30 score, and Kt/V values improved after intervention, but the difference was not significant. Significant differences were observed only in the WHO-QOL26 score. [Conclusion] The outcome was particularly favorable in terms of the quality of life (QOL). Based on the results from the questionnaire, the higher QOL may be due to the patients’ development of a positive attitude toward these activities. Although there were no significant differences, the values for the other criteria also improved, thereby supporting the effectiveness of exercise therapy to maintain or improve the patients’ motor functions and activity daily living (ADL) ability. PMID:28210031

  16. Septic shock in chronic dialysis patients: clinical characteristics, antimicrobial therapy and mortality.

    PubMed

    Clark, Edward; Kumar, Anand; Langote, Amit; Lapinsky, Stephen; Dodek, Peter; Kramer, Andreas; Wood, Gordon; Bagshaw, Sean M; Wood, Ken; Gurka, Dave; Sood, Manish M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality of chronic dialysis-dependent end-stage kidney disease patients with septic shock in comparison to septic shock patients not receiving chronic dialysis. Using an international, multicenter database, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from 10,414 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with septic shock from 1989 to 2013, of which 800 (7.7 %) were chronic dialysis patients. Data on demographic characteristics, sites of infection, microbial pathogens, antimicrobial usage patterns, and in-hospital mortality were aggregated and compared for chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients. Multivariate time-varying Cox models with and without propensity score matching were constructed to determine the association between dialysis and in-hospital death. Septic shock secondary to central venous catheter infection, peritonitis, ischemic bowel, and cellulitis was more frequent in chronic dialysis patients. The isolation of resistant organisms (10.7 vs. 7.1 %; p = 0.005) and delays in receiving antimicrobials (6.0 vs. 5.0 h) were more common in chronic dialysis patients than in non-dialysis patients. Delayed appropriate antimicrobial therapy was associated with an increased risk of death in chronic dialysis patients (p < 0.0001). In-hospital death occurred in 54.8 and 49.0 % of chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients, respectively. After propensity score matching, there was no difference in overall survival between chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients, but survival in chronic dialysis patients decreased over time compared to non-dialysis patients. The demographic and clinical characteristics of chronic dialysis patients with septic shock differ from those of similar non-dialysis patients. However, there was no significant difference in mortality between the chronic dialysis and non-dialysis patients with septic shock enrolled in this analysis.

  17. Hydration Status of Patients Dialyzed with Biocompatible Peritoneal Dialysis Fluids.

    PubMed

    Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Chmielewski, Michał; Dudziak, Maria; Ryta, Alicja; Rutkowski, Bolesław

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Biocompatible fluids for peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been introduced to improve dialysis and patient outcome in end-stage renal disease. However, their impact on hydration status (HS), residual renal function (RRF), and dialysis adequacy has been a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of a biocompatible dialysis fluid on the HS of prevalent PD patients. ♦ The study population consisted of 18 prevalent PD subjects, treated with standard dialysis fluids. At baseline, 9 patients were switched to a biocompatible solution, low in glucose degradation products (GDPs) (Balance; Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). Hydration status was assessed through clinical evaluation, laboratory parameters, echocardiography, and bioimpedance spectroscopy over a 24-month observation period. ♦ During the study period, urine volume decreased similarly in both groups. At the end of the evaluation, there were also no differences in clinical (body weight, edema, blood pressure), laboratory (N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, NTproBNP), or echocardiography determinants of HS. However, dialysis ultrafiltration decreased in the low-GDP group and, at the end of the study, equaled 929 ± 404 mL, compared with 1,317 ± 363 mL in the standard-fluid subjects (p = 0.06). Hydration status assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy was +3.64 ± 2.08 L in the low-GDP patients and +1.47 ± 1.61 L in the controls (p = 0.03). ♦ The use of a low-GDP biocompatible dialysis fluid was associated with a tendency to overhydration, probably due to diminished ultrafiltration in prevalent PD patients. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  18. Relationship between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Nuran; Kalender, Nurten; Cinar, Fatma Ilknur; Bagcivan, Gulcan; Yenicesu, Mujdat; Dikici, Dilek; Kaya, Dilek

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality in haemodialysis patients. Sleep problems are common in haemodialysis patients. Dialysis adequacy is one of the factors associated with sleep quality. Studies evaluating the association between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality in haemodialysis patients present different results. Descriptive and cross-sectional study. This study was performed with a total of 119 patients who had applied to dialysis centres for haemodialysis treatment between January and March 2014. The data collection form consists of socio-demographic and medical characteristics as well as laboratory parameters. A modified Post-Sleep Inventory was used to examine sleep quality in the research. There were no statistically significant relationship between sleep quality and dialysis adequacy (p > 0·05). When the Post-Sleep Inventory scores were evaluated according to sleep quality, 63·0% of patients had poor sleep quality, and 37·0% had good sleep quality. Sleep quality was worse in unemployed patients (X(2) = 4·852; p = 0·025) and patients who smoked heavily (Z = 2·289; p = 0·022). In this study, there is no statistically significant relationship between dialysis adequacy and sleep quality. However, it was found that the majority of haemodialysis patients had poor sleep quality. Even if the dialysis adequacy of patients is at the recommended level, their sleep qualities may be poor. Therefore, evaluations of the sleep quality of haemodialysis patients during the clinical practice must be taken into consideration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cost Analysis of Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Access in Incident Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Coentrão, Luis A.; Araújo, Carla S.; Ribeiro, Carlos A.; Dias, Claúdia C.; Pestana, Manuel J.

    2013-01-01

    ♦ Background: Although several studies have demonstrated the economic advantages of peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), few reports in the literature have compared the costs of HD and PD access. The aim of the present study was to compare the resources required to establish and maintain the dialysis access in patients who initiated HD with a tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) or an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and in patients who initiated PD. ♦ Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the 152 chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated dialysis treatment at our institution in 2008 (HD-AVF, n = 65; HD-CVC, n = 45; PD, n = 42). Detailed clinical and demographic information and data on access type were collected for all patients. A comprehensive measure of total dialysis access costs, including surgery, radiology, hospitalization for access complications, physician costs, and transportation costs was obtained at year 1 using an intention-to-treat approach. All resources used were valued using 2010 prices, and costs are reported in 2010 euros. ♦ Results: Compared with the HD-AVF and HD-TCC modalities, PD was associated with a significantly lower risk of access-related interventions (adjusted rate ratios: 1.572 and 1.433 respectively; 95% confidence intervals: 1.253 to 1.891 and 1.069 to 1.797). The mean dialysis access-related costs per patient-year at risk were €1171.6 [median: €608.8; interquartile range (IQR): €563.1 - €936.7] for PD, €1555.2 (median: €783.9; IQR: €371.4 - €1571.7) for HD-AVF, and €4208.2 (median: €1252.4; IQR: €947.9 - €2983.5) for HD-TCC (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, total dialysis access costs were significantly higher for the HD-TCC modality than for either PD or HD-AVF (β = -0.53; 95% CI: -1.03 to -0.02; and β = -0.50; 95% CI: -0.96 to -0.04). ♦ Conclusions: Compared with patients initiating HD, those initiating PD required fewer resources to establish and maintain a dialysis

  20. Cost analysis of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis access in incident dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Coentrão, Luis A; Araújo, Carla S; Ribeiro, Carlos A; Dias, Claúdia C; Pestana, Manuel J

    2013-01-01

    Although several studies have demonstrated the economic advantages of peritoneal dialysis (PD) over hemodialysis (HD), few reports in the literature have compared the costs of HD and PD access. The aim of the present study was to compare the resources required to establish and maintain the dialysis access in patients who initiated HD with a tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) or an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and in patients who initiated PD. We retrospectively analyzed the 152 chronic kidney disease patients who consecutively initiated dialysis treatment at our institution in 2008 (HD-AVF, n = 65; HD-CVC, n = 45; PD, n = 42). Detailed clinical and demographic information and data on access type were collected for all patients. A comprehensive measure of total dialysis access costs, including surgery, radiology, hospitalization for access complications, physician costs, and transportation costs was obtained at year 1 using an intention-to-treat approach. All resources used were valued using 2010 prices, and costs are reported in 2010 euros. Compared with the HD-AVF and HD-TCC modalities, PD was associated with a significantly lower risk of access-related interventions (adjusted rate ratios: 1.572 and 1.433 respectively; 95% confidence intervals: 1.253 to 1.891 and 1.069 to 1.797). The mean dialysis access-related costs per patient-year at risk were €1171.6 [median: €608.8; interquartile range (IQR): €563.1 - €936.7] for PD, €1555.2 (median: €783.9; IQR: €371.4 - €1571.7) for HD-AVF, and €4208.2 (median: €1252.4; IQR: €947.9 - €2983.5) for HD-TCC (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, total dialysis access costs were significantly higher for the HD-TCC modality than for either PD or HD-AVF (β = -0.53; 95% CI: -1.03 to -0.02; and β = -0.50; 95% CI: -0.96 to -0.04). Compared with patients initiating HD, those initiating PD required fewer resources to establish and maintain a dialysis access during the first year of treatment.

  1. Pica: an important and unrecognized problem in pediatric dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Katsoufis, Chryso Pefkaros; Kertis, Myerly; McCullough, Judith; Pereira, Tanya; Seeherunvong, Wacharee; Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gaston; Abitbol, Carolyn

    2012-11-01

    Pica is the compulsive consumption of non-nutritive substances, and this disorder may occur more frequently in dialysis patients. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence of pica and the associated demographic and metabolic characteristics. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Hospital-based, outpatient, pediatric hemodialysis unit. Eighty-seven pediatric patients on chronic dialysis therapy were interviewed. Sixty-seven patients were receiving hemodialysis, whereas the remaining 20 were maintained on peritoneal dialysis. The predominantly nonwhite (93%) patient population had a mean age of 17.2 ± 7.2 years. Dialysis efficiency, estimated by urea clearance per patient volume (Kt/V), averaged 1.5 ± 0.5. Standard patient interview and documentation of laboratory and dialytic parameters. Prevalence of pica and associated comorbid conditions. The survey indicated that 46% of patients experienced pica, further divided into simple "ice" pica (34.5%) versus "hard" pica (12.6%). Hard pica included the consumption of chalk, starch, sugar, soap, sand, clay, Ajax cleanser, sponge, wood, and potting soil. Patients on hemodialysis were 8.3 times more likely to have hard pica compared with those on peritoneal dialysis. Greater than 5 years on dialysis was associated with a 3.2 odds ratio of having pica (P = .02). Anemia was the most significant morbid association, occurring at an odds ratio of 4.4 (P = .001) for all pica and 10.6 (P = .004) for hard pica. Pica, therefore, is prevalent and potentially harmful, requiring further attention in the nutritional management of pediatric dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends and outcomes of infective endocarditis in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Aakash; Mohananey, Divyanshu; Sharma, Abhishek; Agarwal, Manyoo; Garg, Lohit; Agrawal, Nikhil; Singh, Amitoj; Nanda, Sudip; Shirani, Jamshid

    2017-03-16

    Dialysis patients are at high risk for infective endocarditis (IE); however, no large contemporary data exist on this issue. We examined outcomes of 44 816 patients with IE on dialysis and 202 547 patients with IE not on dialysis from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2006 thorough 2011. Dialysis patients were younger (59 ± 15 years vs 62 ± 18 years) and more likely to be female (47% vs 40%) and African-American (47% vs 40%; all P < 0.001). Hospitalizations for IE in the dialysis group increased from 175 to 222 per 10 000 patients (P trend  = 0.04). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common microorganism isolated in both dialysis (61%) and nondialysis (45%) groups. IE due to S aureus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.73-1.84), non-aureus staphylococcus (aOR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.64-1.80), and fungi (aOR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.12-1.78) were more likely in the dialysis group, whereas infection due to gram-negative bacteria (aOR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.81-0.89), streptococci (aOR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.36-0.39), and enterococci (aOR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.74-0.82) were less likely (all P < 0.001). Dialysis patients had higher in-hospital mortality (aOR: 2.13, 95% CI: 2.04-2.21), lower likelihood of valve-replacement surgery (aOR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.76-0.86), and higher incidence of stroke (aOR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12; all P < 0.001). We demonstrate rising incidence of IE-related hospitalizations in dialysis patients, highlight significant differences in baseline comorbidities and microbiology of IE compared with the general population, and validate the association of long-term dialysis with worse in-hospital outcomes.

  3. Hyperphosphatemia in Dialysis Patients: Beyond Nonadherence to Diet and Binders.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients is routinely attributed to nonadherence to diet, prescribed phosphate binders, or both. The role of individual patient variability in other determinants of phosphate control is not widely recognized. In a manner that cannot be explained by dialysis parameters or serum phosphate levels, dialytic removal of phosphate may vary by >400mg per treatment. Similarly, enteral phosphate absorption, unexplained by diet or vitamin D intake, may differ by ≥250mg/d among patients. Binder efficacy also varies among patients, with 2-fold differences reported. One or more elements of this triple threat-varying dialytic removal, phosphate absorption, and phosphate binding-may account for hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients rather than nonadherence to therapy. Just as the cause(s) of hyperphosphatemia may vary, so too may an individual patient's response to different therapeutic interventions.

  4. Optical indicators of baseline blood status in dialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagali, Neil S.; Burns, Kevin D.; Zimmerman, Deborah L.; Munger, Rejean

    2007-06-01

    In a step towards the development of improved long-term prognostic indicators for patients with end-stage renal disease, we utilized absorption spectroscopy to determine the baseline status of whole blood in a cohort of 5 clinically-stable hemodialysis patients. The optical absorption spectrum of pre-dialysis and post-dialysis blood samples in the 400-1700nm wavelength range was measured for the cohort over a four-week period. Absorption spectra were consistent over time, with a maximum coefficient of variation (CV) of absorption under 2% (650-1650nm) for any given patient over the four-week period (pre and post-dialysis). Spectra varied by a greater amount across patients, with a maximum CV of 5% in any given week. Analysis of variance indicated a broad spectral range (650-1400nm) where within-patient spectral variation was significantly less than between-patient variation (p<0.001), providing the potential for development of stable baseline blood status indicators. The spectra were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) including a further set of whole blood absorption spectra obtained from 4 peritoneal dialysis patients. PCA revealed the fingerprint-like nature of the blood spectrum, an overall similarity of the spectrum within each treatment mode (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis), and a distinct spectral difference between the treatment modes.

  5. Functional status of chronic renal replacement therapy in elderly patients--comparison between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Văcăroiu, Ileana Adela; Rădulescu, Daniela; Ciocâlteu, A; Peride, Ileana; Ardeleanu, S; Checheriţă, I A

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, nephrologists are confronted with an increasing number of elderly patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in need of dialysis. The benefits of renal replacement therapy are uncertain in this group of patients. Most studies show that the quality of life and survival of elderly dialyzed patients are worse than in younger patients because of multiple comorbidities. Functional status is an important aspect of the quality of life, a strong predictor of survival and a determinant of the health care systems costs. In the present research, we compare the change in the functional status--appreciated with the MDS-ADL score--in a cohort of hemodialyzed versus peritoneal dialyzed elderly patients (> 65 years) during a period of 3 years after starting dialysis treatment. At the time of initiating dialysis, the median minimum data set of activities of daily living (MDS-ADL) score in hemodialysis (HD) elderly patients was 4.04 and in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) group was 6.27 (the median MDS-ADL score at the moment of starting dialysis was statistically significant higher in peritoneal group than in hemodialysis elderly group). The results conclude that elderly treated with peritoneal dialysis have a better evolution of functional status than hemodialyzed elderly patients do.

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency and Mortality in Patients Receiving Dialysis: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Shuchi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Grimes, Barbara; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Kaysen, George A.; Tamura, Manjula Kurella

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although several studies have shown poorer survival among individuals with 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D deficiency, data on patients receiving dialysis are limited. Using data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), we tested the hypothesis that patients new to dialysis with low serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D would experience higher mortality and hospitalizations. Design The CDS is a prospective cohort study. We recruited participants from 56 dialysis units located throughout the United States. Subjects and Intervention We obtained data on demographics, comorbidites, and laboratory values from the CDS Patient Questionnaire as well as the Medical Evidence Form (CMS form 2728). Participants provided baseline serum samples for 25-OH vitamin D measurements. Main Outcome Measure We ascertained time to death and first hospitalization as well as number of first-year hospitalizations via the U.S. Renal Data System standard analysis files. We used Cox proportional hazards to determine the association between 25-OH vitamin D tertiles and survival and hospitalization. For number of hospitalizations in the first year, we used negative binomial regression. Results The analytic cohort was composed of 256 patients with Patient Questionnaire data and 25-OH vitamin D concentrations. The mean age of participants was 62 (±14.0) years, and mean follow-up was 3.8 years. Patients with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations in the lowest tertile (<10.6 ng/mL) at the start of dialysis experienced higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03–2.97) as well as hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.24–2.49). Patients in the lower 2 tertiles (<15.5 ng/mL) experienced a higher rate of hospitalizations in the first year (incidence rate ratio 1.70 [95% CI 1.06–2.72] for middle tertile, 1.66 [95% CI 1.10–2.51] for lowest tertile). Conclusion We found a sizeable increase in mortality and hospitalization for patients on

  7. Assessment and Management of Hypertension in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph; Pogue, Velvie; Rahman, Mahboob; Reisin, Efrain; Weir, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is common, difficult to diagnose, and poorly controlled among patients with ESRD. However, controversy surrounds the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Here, we describe the diagnosis, epidemiology, and management of hypertension in dialysis patients, and examine the data sparking debate over appropriate methods for diagnosing and treating hypertension. Furthermore, we consider the issues uniquely related to hypertension in pediatric dialysis patients. Future clinical trials designed to clarify the controversial results discussed here should lead to the implementation of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques that improve long-term cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ESRD. PMID:24700870

  8. High Parathyroid Hormone Level and Osteoporosis Predict Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Blomquist, Gustav; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Cantor, Thomas L.; Davenport, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery calcifications (CACs) are observed in most patients with CKD on dialysis (CKD-5D). CACs frequently progress and are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular events, the major cause of death in these patients. A link between bone and vascular calcification has been shown. This prospective study was designed to identify noninvasive tests for predicting CAC progression, including measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and novel bone markers in adult patients with CKD-5D. At baseline and after 1 year, patients underwent routine blood tests and measurement of CAC, BMD, and novel serum bone markers. A total of 213 patients received baseline measurements, of whom about 80% had measurable CAC and almost 50% had CAC Agatston scores>400, conferring high risk for cardiovascular events. Independent positive predictors of baseline CAC included coronary artery disease, diabetes, dialysis vintage, fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration, and age, whereas BMD of the spine measured by quantitative computed tomography was an inverse predictor. Hypertension, HDL level, and smoking were not baseline predictors in these patients. Three quarters of 122 patients completing the study had CAC increases at 1 year. Independent risk factors for CAC progression were age, baseline total or whole parathyroid hormone level greater than nine times the normal value, and osteoporosis by t scores. Our results confirm a role for bone in CKD–associated CAC prevalence and progression. PMID:25838468

  9. [Clinical characteristics and indicators of care of dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Kolko, A; Hannedouche, T; Couchoud, C

    2013-09-01

    This chapter provides a set of indicators on patients treated by dialysis at December the 31th 2011. Even if ESRD is found in all classes of age, elders account for the great majority of the patients undergoing dialysis (median age: 70.4 years). These patients present a high rate of comorbidity especially diabetes (37% of patients) and cardiovascular comorbidities (59% of patients) that increases with the patient's age. Considering indicators of care, the main dialysis technique was hemodialysis (93.3% of patients). Even if an important inter-region variability remains considering the choices of treatment, more than 50% of the patients are undergoing hemodialysis in a hospital-based in-center unit, and we noticed an increase in hemodialysis in a medical satellite unit with time whereas the rate of self-care hemodialysis decreases. The rate of peritoneal dialysis remains stable. When comparing guidelines to real-life treatments, 77.5% of patients receive adequate dose of treatment (12H/week, KT/V>1.2), the rate of patients with a hemoglobin blood-level lower than 10 g/dl and without erythropoietin treatment is 1.3%, which confirmed a good management of anemia. On the contrary, 34% of patients have a BMI lower than 23 kg/m(2) and only 23% have an albumin blood-level over 40 g/l, which underlines that nutritional management of ESRD patients can be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients: does vitamin D deficiency have a role?

    PubMed Central

    Kidir, Veysel; Altuntas, Atila; Inal, Salih; Akpinar, Abdullah; Orhan, Hikmet; Sezer, Mehmet Tugrul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sexual dysfunction and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in dialysis patients. Low levels of vitamin D have been linked to many diseases. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between vitamin D and sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients has not been previously reported in the literature. Materials and methods: Cholecalciferol, 50,000 IU/week, was orally administered to 37 dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency for 3 months followed by dosage of 10,000 IU every other week for 3 months. The Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaires were filled out by all patients at baseline and at the sixth month of the study. Results: Sexual dysfunction, poor sleep quality, anxiety and depression rates were 83.7%, 45.9%, 18.9% and 48.6%, respectively in all patients. ASEX total score was found to be positively correlated with age and was negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level and serum albumin level. After cholecalciferol treatment, 25(OH)D levels increased significantly, however no significant change was observed in any of the parameters. In multivariate linear regression analysis, age and 25(OH)D level were found to be independent predictors of ASEX total score. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency seems to contribute to sexual dysfunction in dialysis patients. However, it was observed in this study that; cholecalciferol replacement given to dialysis patients with vitamin D insufficiency did not result in any significant changes in sexual functions. PMID:26885232

  11. Dialysis in the haemophilia patient: a practical approach to care.

    PubMed

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Lanzon, J; Kachalsky, E

    2009-01-01

    The major focus of care for patients with haemophilia is to ensure health with minimal joint dysfunction. As this population ages, additional coexisting conditions can develop including rare instances of nephrotic syndrome in haemophilia B inhibitor patients undergoing immune tolerance, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease, all of which can adversely affect the renal system over time. In haemophilia patients, co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C, these conditions can also increase the risk of renal problems resulting in the need for dialysis. This article provides a practical approach for the haemophilia patient who requires dialysis and outlines the decision making process to ensure a positive outcome. The goal of care is to optimize dialysis treatment without increasing the bleeding risk.

  12. A Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis with Refractory Volume Overload

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The management of volume in patients with diabetes on peritoneal dialysis is affected by several factors, including the degree of residual renal function, peritoneal membrane small-solute transport, salt and water intake, blood sugar control, comorbidity, and nutritional status. It requires sequential evaluation of volume status and adjustment of the peritoneal dialysis prescription on the basis of assessments of membrane function and alterations in urine volume. Steps should be taken to preserve residual renal function for as long as possible. Ultimately, in patients who have become anuric and have developed ultrafiltration failure, timely transfer to hemodialysis may be necessary, requiring discussion and planning with the patient. PMID:26185264

  13. Metabolic response to exercise in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Castellino, P; Bia, M; DeFronzo, R A

    1987-12-01

    The metabolic and hormonal response to acute moderate intensity (40% of VO2 max) bicycle exercise was examined in eight uremic subjects maintained on chronic dialysis and in 12 age- and weight-matched controls before and after the administration of low dose, selective (metoprolol) and nonselective (propranolol), beta adrenergic antagonists. The fasting plasma glucose concentration and basal rates of hepatic glucose production (HGP) and tissue glucose disappearance (Rd) were similar in control and uremic subjects. In both groups HGP and Rd increased in parallel during exercise, and the plasma glucose concentration remained constant at the fasting level. However, the increments in Rd (2.27 +/- 0.27 vs. 0.87 +/- 0.31 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01) and HGP (2.47 +/- 0.22 vs. 0.92 +/- 0.19 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01) were 2.5-3 fold greater in the control compared to uremic subjects. Although the VO2max was decreased by 50% (39 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 2 ml/min.kg; P less than 0.01), the correlation between Rd and VO2max was weak (r = 0.33, P less than 0.10), suggesting that factors other than diminished physical fitness contribute to diminished tissue uptake of glucose in the dialyzed uremic patients. Following the cessation of exercise, HGP and Rd promptly returned toward basal levels in both uremic and control subjects. The glucose homeostatic response to exercise was not significantly altered by either propranolol or metoprolol. In the postabsorptive state fasting levels of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, and norepinephrine all were significantly increased in the uremic group (P less than 0.01 to 0.05). During exercise in the healthy young controls the plasma insulin concentration declined and plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine levels rose three- to fourfold. In contrast, in uremics plasma insulin failed to fall (P less than 0.05) and the increase in circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine levels was markedly impaired (P less than 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Assessment of dietary habits in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Kardasz, Małgorzata; Małyszko, Jacek; Stefańska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2011-01-01

    Adherence to a proper diet has a vast impact on the correct course of dialyses, wellbeing, and the results of some laboratory investigations in patients with declining renal failure. The nutritional status of dialysis patients is closely related to food and specific nutrients intake. The aim of study was assessment of dietary habits in dialysis patients. The study included 27 patients peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 92 hemodialysis (HD). In all of dialysis patients the following measurements were taken: body weight and height. The food intake was assessed by 24-hour dietary recall, (according to nutritional components). The portion size was estimated on the "Album of portions of products and dishes". The results were compared with dietary recommendations for dialysis patients and analyzed by computer software Dietetic 2 designed in the Institute of Food and Nutrition in Warsaw but computer program Statistica 7.0 was used for calculations. In all studied dialysis patients an irregular diet were observed. The diet was characterized by a low energetic value and low intake of proteins, carbohydrates, fiber and calcium, as well as by a too high fats. Among women's and man's in both groups were noted underweight: (W in PD patients--7%, M in DO patients--8%, W in HD patients--4%), overweight (W in PD patients--33%, M in DO patients--25%, W in HD patients--38%, M in HD patients--36%) and obesity (W in PD patients--26%, M in DO patients--33%, W in HD patients--22%, M in HD patients--21%). The study revealed that the daily food rations of peritoneal dialysis women were found to have a significantly higher the average intake dietary fiber (18.3 +/- 5.5 g/day) and higher potassium intake (2758.5 +/- 787.5 mg/day) as compared to the average intake dietary fiber (11.7 +/- 5.4 g/ day; p < 0.0001) and potassium intake (1612.9 +/- 822.9 mg/day; p < 0.0001) of hemodialysis women. The regular dietician advice is necessary for monitoring of patients nutrition.

  15. Optimal use of peritoneal dialysis in patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Hee; Noh, Hyunjin; Ha, Hunjoo; Lee, Hi Bahl

    2009-02-01

    The survival of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) resulting from diabetes continues to improve, but the survival rate among diabetic ESRD patients remains the lowest among all primary diagnoses probably because of the higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidity associated with diabetes. Diabetes, age, and comorbidity all significantly modify the effect of treatment modality on patient survival. As compared with hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) offers an equal or lower risk of death across all subgroups during the first 1-2 years of dialysis. The association of PD with better outcomes than are seen with HD is probably a result of a lower prevalence of infections and congestive heart failure and better preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in PD patients. Use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) helps to preserve RRF in ESRD patients and to maintain peritoneal membrane integrity longer in PD patients. Antioxidants can also support preservation of peritoneal membrane function. Peritoneal dialysis should be the initial modality of dialysis in all ESRD patients. Older patients (age > or = 45 years) with diabetes and patients without diabetes may switch to HD or receive a kidney graft in 1-2 years' time; younger patients (age < 45 years) with diabetes may stay on PD longer. Use of ACEI and ARB or antioxidants can help to maintain peritoneal membrane function longer.

  16. Sudden cardiac death in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Caravaca, Francisco; Chávez, Edgar; Alvarado, Raúl; García-Pino, Guadalupe; Luna, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    A relatively high proportion of deaths in dialysis patients occur suddenly and unexpectedly. The incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in non-dialysis advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages has been less well investigated. This study aims to determine the incidence and predictors of SCD in a cohort of 1078 patients with CKD not yet on dialysis. Prospective observational cohort study, which included patients with advanced CKD not yet on dialysis (stage 4-5). The association between baseline variables and SCD was assessed using Cox and competing-risk (Fine and Grey) regression models. Demographic, clinical information, medication use, and baseline biochemical parameters of potential interest were included as covariates. During the study period (median follow-up time 12 months), 210 patients died (19%), and SCD occurred in 34 cases (16% of total deaths). All-cause mortality and SCD incidence rates were 113 (95% CI: 99-128), and 18 (95% CI: 13-26) events per 1000 patients/year, respectively. By Cox regression analysis, covariates significantly associated with SCD were: Age, comorbidity index, and treatment with antiplatelet drugs. This latter covariate showed a beneficial effect over the development of SCD. By competing-risk regression, in which the competing event was non-sudden death from any cause, only age and comorbidity index remained significantly associated with SCD. SCD is relatively common in non-dialysis advanced CKD patients. SCD was closely related to age and comorbidity, and some indirect data from this study suggest that unrecognised or undertreated cardiovascular disease may predispose to a higher risk of SCD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospitalization rates among dialysis patients during Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Howard, David; Zhang, Rebecca; Huang, Yijian; Kutner, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    Dialysis centers struggled to maintain continuity of care for dialysis patients during and immediately following Hurricane Katrina's landfall on the US Gulf Coast in August 2005. However, the impact on patient health and service use is unclear. The impact of Hurricane Katrina on hospitalization rates among dialysis patients was estimated. Data from the United States Renal Data System were used to identify patients receiving dialysis from January 1, 2001 through August 29, 2005 at clinics that experienced service disruptions during Hurricane Katrina. A repeated events duration model was used with a time-varying Hurricane Katrina indicator to estimate trends in hospitalization rates. Trends were estimated separately by cause: surgical hospitalizations, medical, non-renal-related hospitalizations, and renal-related hospitalizations. The rate ratio for all-cause hospitalization associated with the time-varying Hurricane Katrina indicator was 1.16 (95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P = .004). The ratios for cause-specific hospitalization were: surgery, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-1.04; P = .11); renal-related admissions, 2.53 (95% CI, 2.09-3.06); P < .001), and medical non-renal related, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.89-1.20; P = .63). The estimated number of excess renal-related hospital admissions attributable to Katrina was 140, representing approximately three percent of dialysis patients at the affected clinics. Hospitalization rates among dialysis patients increased in the month following the Hurricane Katrina landfall, suggesting that providers and patients were not adequately prepared for large-scale disasters.

  18. [Management of color-Doppler imaging in dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Yuri; Granata, Antonio; Zamboli, Pasquale; Lusenti, Tiziano; Di Lullo, Luca; Floccari, Fulvio; Logias, Franco; D'Amelio, Alessandro; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, the survival of dialysis patients has gradually increased thanks to the evolution of dialysis techniques and the availability of new drug therapies. These elements have led to an increased incidence of a series of dialysis-related diseases that might compromise the role of dialysis rehabilitation: vascular disease, skeletal muscle disease, infectious disease, cystic kidney disease and cancer. The nephrologist is therefore in charge of a patient group with complex characteristics including the presence of indwelling vascular and/or peritoneal catheters, conditions secondary to chronic renal failure (hyperparathyroidism, anemia, amyloid disease, etc.) and superimposed disorders due to old age (cardiac and respiratory failure, cancer, type 2 diabetes mellitus, etc.). Early clinical and organizational management of such patients is essential in a modern and ''economic'' vision of nephrology. The direct provision of ultrasound services by the nephrologist responds to these requirements. A minimum level of expertise in diagnostic ultrasonography of the urinary tract and dialysis access should be part of the nephrologist's cultural heritage, acquired through theoretical and practical training programs validated by scientific societies, especially for those who choose to specialize in these procedures and become experts in imaging or interventional ultrasonography.

  19. A Comparison of Uremic Pruritus in Patients Receiving Peritoneal Dialysis and Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Chen, Hung-Yuan; Tsai, Wan-Chuan; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Lu, Hui-Min; Chiang, Ju-Fen; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wen, Su-Ying; Chiu, Hsien-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Uremic pruritus is common and bothersome in patients receiving either peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD). To date, the preferred dialysis modality regarding the alleviation of uremic pruritus remains controversial. We conducted this cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence, intensity, and characteristics of uremic pruritus between PD and HD patients. Patients receiving maintenance dialysis at a referral medical center in Taiwan were recruited. Dialysis modality, patient demographic, clinical characteristics, and laboratory data were recorded. The intensity of uremic pruritus was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted to compare the severity of uremic pruritus between PD and HD patients. Generalized additive models were applied to detect nonlinear effects between pruritus intensity and continuous covariates. A total of 380 patients completed this study, with a mean age of 60.3 years and 49.2% being female. Uremic pruritus was presented in 24 (28.6%) of the 84 PD patients and 113 (38.2%) of the 296 HD patients (P = .12). The VAS score of pruritus intensity was significantly lower among the PD patients than the HD patients (1.32 ± 2.46 vs 2.26 ± 3.30, P = .04). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that PD was an independent predictor for lower VAS scores of pruritus intensity compared with HD (β-value −0.88, 95% confidence interval −1.62 to −0.13). The use of active vitamin D was also an independent predictor for a lower intensity of uremic pruritus, whereas hyperphosphatemia and higher serum levels of triglyceride and aspartate transaminase were significantly associated with higher pruritus intensity. There was a trend toward a less affected body surface area of uremic pruritus in the PD patients than in the HD patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .13). In conclusion, the severity of uremic pruritus

  20. Outcomes of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients and Switching to Hemodialysis: A Competing Risks Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pajek, Jernej; Hutchison, Alastair J.; Bhutani, Shiv; Brenchley, Paul E.C.; Hurst, Helen; Perme, Maja Pohar; Summers, Angela M.; Vardhan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: We performed a review of a large incident peritoneal dialysis cohort to establish the impact of current practice and that of switching to hemodialysis. ♦ Methods: Patients starting peritoneal dialysis between 2004 and 2010 were included and clinical data at start of dialysis recorded. Competing risk analysis and Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying covariate (technique failure) were used. ♦ Results: Of 286 patients (median age 57 years) followed for a median of 24.2 months, 76 were transplanted and 102 died. Outcome probabilities at 3 and 5 years respectively were 0.69 and 0.53 for patient survival (or transplantation) and 0.33 and 0.42 for technique failure. Peritonitis caused technique failure in 42%, but ultrafiltration failure accounted only for 6.3%. Davies comorbidity grade, creatinine and obesity (but not residual renal function or age) predicted technique failure. Due to peritonitis deaths, technique failure was an independent predictor of death hazard. When successful switch to hemodialysis (surviving more than 60 days after technique failure) and its timing were analyzed, no adverse impact on survival in adjusted analysis was found. However, hemodialysis via central venous line was associated with an elevated death hazard as compared to staying on peritoneal dialysis, or hemodialysis through a fistula (adjusted analysis hazard ratio 1.97 (1.02 - 3.80)). ♦ Conclusions: Once the patients survive the first 60 days after technique failure, the switch to hemodialysis does not adversely affect patient outcomes. The nature of vascular access has a significant impact on outcome after peritoneal dialysis failure. PMID:24497601

  1. Validation of Mini Nutritional Assessment Scale in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Brzosko, Szymon; Hryszko, Tomasz; Kłopotowski, Mariusz; Myśliwiec, Michał

    2013-08-30

    Malnutrition is a negative predictive factor for survival in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Coincidence of malnutrition, inflammation and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome) in the dialysis population is an exceptionally poor outcome event. Due to flexibility, ease of performance and reproducibility, clinical scales are of particular value in assessment of nutritional status in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical value of Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nutritional status was assessed in 41 peritoneal dialysis patients by means of the MNA scale and malnutrition inflammation score (MIS). Some other clinical and laboratory parameters associated with nutritional status were analyzed. Patients were followed up for 30 months. In the analyzed group of patients a good nutritional state was diagnosed in 22 patients (54%), risk of malnutrition in 17 (41%) and malnutrition in 2 patients (5%) based on the MNA scale. A strong correlation between MNA based nutritional status and MIS was found (r = -0.85, p < 0.01, ANOVA, p < 0.01). Differences in time on dialysis, body mass index, concentration of albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides were noted between at risk/malnourished and well-nourished (according to MNA) patients. Statistically significant factors determining survival of patients by Cox proportional hazard analysis were age (HR 1.07), being at risk/malnourished according to MNA (HR 5.7), MIS (HR 1.2), and albumin (HR 0.13). The MNA scale is a valuable, clinically suitable tool for assessment of nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Risk of malnutrition and malnutrition diagnosed by MNA identifies patients at high mortality risk.

  2. Impact of environmental particulate matter and peritoneal dialysis-related infection in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Chan, Ming-Jen; Su, Yi-Jiun

    2014-11-01

    In patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD), PD-related infection is a major cause of PD failure and hospital admission. Good air quality is required when dialysate exchange or exit site wound care is performed. To our knowledge, investigation of air pollution as a factor for PD-related infection in patients undergoing dialysis is limited. This study aimed to assess the effect of environmental particulate matter (PM) and other important risk factors on 1-year PD-related infection in patients undergoing PD.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD were recruited in this 1-year retrospective observational study. Differences in environmental PMs (PM10 and PM2.5) were analyzed with respect to the patients' living areas. The patients undergoing PD were categorized into 2 groups according to PM2.5 exposure: high (n = 61) and low (n = 114). Demographic, hematological, nutritional, inflammatory, biochemical, and dialysis-related data were analyzed. Multivariate binary logistic and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze 1-year PD-related infection.A total of 175 patients undergoing PD (50 men and 125 women) were enrolled. Thirty-five patients had PD-related infection within 1 year. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high environmental PM2.5 exposure (hazard ratio (HR): 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03-3.91]; P = .04) and female sex (HR: 2.77, 95% CI [1.07-7.19]; P = .03) were risk factors for 1-year PD-related infection.Patients undergoing PD with high environmental PM2.5 exposure had a higher 1-year PD-related infection rate than that in those with low exposure. Therefore, air pollution may be associated with PD-related infection in such patients.

  3. Exercise in Patients on Dialysis: A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Fabio; Mallamaci, Francesca; D'Arrigo, Graziella; Baggetta, Rossella; Bolignano, Davide; Torino, Claudia; Lamberti, Nicola; Bertoli, Silvio; Ciurlino, Daniele; Rocca-Rey, Lisa; Barillà, Antonio; Battaglia, Yuri; Rapanà, Renato Mario; Zuccalà, Alessandro; Bonanno, Graziella; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Rapisarda, Francesco; Rastelli, Stefania; Fabrizi, Fabrizio; Messa, Piergiorgio; De Paola, Luciano; Lombardi, Luigi; Cupisti, Adamasco; Fuiano, Giorgio; Lucisano, Gaetano; Summaria, Chiara; Felisatti, Michele; Pozzato, Enrico; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Castellino, Pietro; Aucella, Filippo; Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Provenzano, Pasquale Fabio; Tripepi, Giovanni; Catizone, Luigi; Zoccali, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested the benefits of physical exercise for patients on dialysis. We conducted the Exercise Introduction to Enhance Performance in Dialysis trial, a 6-month randomized, multicenter trial to test whether a simple, personalized walking exercise program at home, managed by dialysis staff, improves functional status in adult patients on dialysis. The main study outcomes included change in physical performance at 6 months, assessed by the 6-minute walking test and the five times sit-to-stand test, and in quality of life, assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) questionnaire. We randomized 296 patients to normal physical activity (control; n=145) or walking exercise (n=151); 227 patients (exercise n=104; control n=123) repeated the 6-month evaluations. The distance covered during the 6-minute walking test improved in the exercise group (mean distance±SD: baseline, 328±96 m; 6 months, 367±113 m) but not in the control group (baseline, 321±107 m; 6 months, 324±116 m; P<0.001 between groups). Similarly, the five times sit-to-stand test time improved in the exercise group (mean time±SD: baseline, 20.5±6.0 seconds; 6 months, 18.2±5.7 seconds) but not in the control group (baseline, 20.9±5.8 seconds; 6 months, 20.2±6.4 seconds; P=0.001 between groups). The cognitive function score (P=0.04) and quality of social interaction score (P=0.01) in the kidney disease component of the KDQOL-SF improved significantly in the exercise arm compared with the control arm. Hence, a simple, personalized, home-based, low-intensity exercise program managed by dialysis staff may improve physical performance and quality of life in patients on dialysis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Influence of Different Payment Schemes on the Clinical Outcome in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-yan; Lu, Xin-hong; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Cost is always a big issue for dialysis patients. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of different payment schemes on dialysis adequacy and clinical outcome in our peritoneal dialysis program. ♦ This is a single-center cohort study. A total of 175 patients who began dialysis from January 2006 to December 2007 were included. Baseline data, including volume status, dietary intake and nutrition status, dialysis adequacy, and sodium removal were collected at 6 months after peritoneal dialysis. Based on the different payment schemes, the patients were divided into 2 groups, higher payment group (GHP, 130 cases, with more than 85% reimbursement), and lower payment group (GLP, 45 cases, with less than 50% payment or totally self-paid). Patients were followed up until dropout or until December 31, 2013. ♦ At baseline, patients in the 2 groups had nearly the same residual renal function. But the GLP group patients dialyzed at a lower dose (4,516.91 ± 1,768.20 mL vs 6,058.17 ± 2,013.43 mL, p < 0.001). They had lower creatinine clearance (51.64 ± 24.23 L/w vs 70.54 ± 30.27 L/w, p < 0.001), sodium removal (2.23 ± 1.29 g vs 2.77 ± 1.29 g, p = 0.027), and fluid removal (970.33 ± 545.97 mL vs 1,146.66 ± 460.93 mL, p = 0.038). Normalized by height (in meters), the GLP group patients still had a lower normalized dialysis dose (2,890.61 ± 1084.44 mL/m vs 3,761.34 ± 1,237.10 mL/m, p < 0.001). Baseline nutritional and dietary parameters were comparable except that a lower daily protein intake (42.73 ± 10.99 g vs 47.26 ± 14.30 g, p = 0.032) and higher serum urea level (23.43 ± 6.88 mmol/L vs 19.84 ± 5.92 mmol/L, p < 0.001) were presented in the GLP group. There was no difference in volume status. During the follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that there was no significant difference in patient survival and technique survival. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, after adjusting for related factors, payment was again not a strong predictor of

  5. PATIENTS' AND RELATIVES' EXPERIENCES OF PERITONITIS WHEN USING PERITONEAL DIALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jessica; Lankshear, Annette

    2015-09-01

    Internationally, increasing numbers of patients are requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease and greater use of peritoneal dialysis is thus being promoted. However, peritonitis can be a significant problem in this population. It is the leading cause of technique failure in patients using peritoneal dialysis and results in considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a dearth of research exploring patients' and their families' experiences of peritonitis. The aim of this paper is to explore patients' and their families' perspectives and experiences of peritonitis. An ethnographic study was conducted in 2011 in the United Kingdom. Sixteen patients and nine of their relatives were recruited through purposive and convenience sampling. In-depth interviews were undertaken with patients and their families, who were also observed using peritoneal dialysis in their homes. The data were analysed thematically using Wolcott's (1994) three-stage approach. This article describes four themes: learning about the risk of peritonitis; measures taken to prevent the infection; how participants monitored continuously for signs and symptoms of the infection; how they then identified and intervened once peritonitis was suspected. Overall, peritonitis was associated with fear and uncertainty, pain and learning from episodes of the infection. Overall, peritonitis was a distressing experience that participants sought to prevent. However, there was some confusion amongst participants about the signs and symptoms of the infection and further education for patients and their families is thus crucial. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  6. Impact of sevelamer versus calcium-based binders on hospitalizations and missed in-center dialysis treatments among CKD patients on dialysis: a modeled analysis.

    PubMed

    Grima, Daniel T; Dunn, Elizabeth S; Bernard, Lisa M; Mendelssohn, David C

    2013-02-01

    The avoidance of hospitalizations and the maintenance of in-center dialysis sessions in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have obvious benefits to patients, dialysis providers and payers. Benefits include better continuity of care, better patient outcomes, improved quality of life, and reduced healthcare expenditures. The objective of this study was to quantify, from the perspective of a dialysis provider in the US, the potential impact of sevelamer versus calcium-based binders (CBBs) on hospitalization days and maintenance of in-center dialysis sessions among hyperphosphatemic dialysis patients. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed to simulate the number of missed dialysis sessions among three hypothetical cohorts of hyperphosphatemic patients treated with either sevelamer or CBBs. The cohorts were characterized by their size to represent a small, mid-size, or large dialysis organization (75, 30,000, and 120,000 patients, respectively). In any given month, a patient in the model could receive dialysis treatments within the center, experience a hospitalization, or die. Treatment-specific monthly survival rates, hospitalization rates, length of stay, and binder dosages were derived from the Dialysis Clinical Outcomes Revisited (DCOR) study. A dialysis schedule of three treatments per week was assumed. Analyses were conducted for a 1-year time horizon. For a small dialysis center, CBBs were associated with an increased number of missed in-center dialysis treatments (447) compared to sevelamer (395). Thus, sevelamer use avoided 52 missed in-center dialysis sessions during 1 year of treatment compared to CBBs. The magnitude of sevelamer's impact on maintaining in-center dialysis treatments increased with the size of the dialysis organization; for a mid-size dialysis organization sevelamer use avoided 20,571 missed in-center dialysis sessions and for a large dialysis organization sevelamer use avoided 82,286 missed in-center dialysis

  7. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  8. Ultrapure dialysis water obtained with additional ultrafilter may reduce inflammation in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Di Iorio, Biagio; Di Micco, Lucia; Bruzzese, Dario; Nardone, Luca; Russo, Luigi; Formisano, Pietro; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Russo, Domenico

    2017-08-23

    Patients on standard dialysis, in particular those on high-flux and high-efficiency dialysis, are exposed to hundreds of liters of dialysis-water per week. The quality of dialysis-water is a factor responsible for inflammation in dialysis patients. Inflammation is a potent trigger of atherosclerosis and a pathogenetic factor in anemia, increasing mortality and morbidity in dialysis patients. Current systems for water treatment do not completely eliminate bacteria and endotoxins. This prospective study tested whether improved dialysis-water purity by an additional ultrafilter can reduce inflammation and ameliorate hemoglobin levels, with a consequent reduction in erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESA). An ultrafilter, composed of two serially positioned devices with polysulfone membranes of 2.0 and 1.0 m(2), respectively, was positioned within the fluid pathway before the dialysis machine. Prevalent dialysis patients were assigned either to continue dialysis with conventional dialysis-water (control phase) or to initiate dialysis sessions with improved dialysis-water purity (study phase). After 6 months, patients were crossed over. Total study duration was 1 year. Routine chemistry, bacterial count, endotoxin levels in dialysis-water as well as blood levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, human serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein and fraction 5 of complement were measured. Thirty-two patients completed the study. Mean bacterial count was lower and endotoxin levels were absent in dialysis-water obtained with the ultrafilter. At the end of the study-phase, C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines decreased while anti-inflammatory ones increased. Hemoglobin levels were improved with lower ESA doses. An additional ultrafilter improved dialysis-water purity, reduced levels of inflammation markers, ameliorated hemoglobin concentration with reduced ESA doses. These results remain speculative but they may generate studies to assess whether improved

  9. Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

    2015-04-01

    Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials.

  10. Dialysis methods may affect carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhanqin; Zhu, Ming; Guan, Jianming; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Shaoming; Song, Xuequan; Wang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiovascular morbidity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) is an early independent predictor of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to compare the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and the maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) for carotid IMT in Chinese ESRD patients. A total of 72 CAPD patients, 92 MHD patients, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. Dialysis patients were divided into five subgroups according to dialysis duration: 3-6, 7-12, 13-59, 60-119, and 120-179 months. Carotid IMT and carotid plaques were detected for each patient. The carotid IMT and total plaque detection rate in the CAPD and MHD groups were considerably higher than in the healthy control group (p < 0.01). No significant difference was found in the carotid IMT and total plaque detection rate between the CAPD group and the MHD group (p > 0.05). However, after stratification by dialysis duration, the total carotid IMT in the CAPD subgroup was higher than in the MHD subgroup in dialysis duration of 60-119 and 120-179 months (p < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in the total plaque detection rate between the CAPD and MHD subgroups in the same dialysis duration (p > 0.05). Our study showed that both CAPD and MHD affect carotid IMT in Chinese ESRD patients, and the degree of atherosclerosis in CAPD patients might be higher than that in MHD patients after 5 years of dialysis.

  11. Patient-Staff Interactions and Mental Health in Chronic Dialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…

  12. Patient-Staff Interactions and Mental Health in Chronic Dialysis Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Richard D.; Perry, Erica; Brown, Stephanie; Swartz, June; Vinokur, Amiram

    2008-01-01

    Chronic dialysis imposes ongoing stress on patients and staff and engenders recurring contact and long-term relationships. Thus, chronic dialysis units are opportune settings in which to investigate the impact of patients' relationships with staff on patient well-being. The authors designed the present study to examine the degree to which…

  13. Prevalence and management of anemia in pre-dialysis Malaysian patients: A hospital-based study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Khan, Amer Hayat; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Hussain, Khalid; Shehzadi, Naureen; Islam, Muhammad; Jummaat, Fauziah

    2016-11-01

    Anemia, a common complication of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), is involved in significant cardiovascular morbidity. Therefore, the objective of our study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of anemia in pre-dialysis patients, as well as to determine the predictors of anti-anemic therapy. A retrospective, observational study was conducted on adult pre-dialysis patients receiving treatment at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2009 to December 2013. A total of 615 eligible cases were included. The mean age of patients was 64.1±12.0 years. The prevalence of anemia was 75.8%, and the severity of anemia was mild in 47.7% of the patients, moderate in 32.2%, and severe in 20%. Based on morphological classification of anemia, 76.9% of our patients had normochromic-normocytic anemia whereas 21.8 and 1.3% had hypochromic-microcytic anemia and macrocytic anemia, respectively. Oral iron supplements were prescribed to 38.0% of the patients and none of the patients was given erythropoietin stabilizing agents (ESA) or intravenous iron preparations. In logistic regression, significant predictors of anti-anemic preparation use were decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and advanced stages of CKD. The results of the present study suggest that the prevalence of anemia in pre-dialysis patients is higher than currently accepted and it is found to be correlated with renal function; prevalence increases with declined renal function. An earlier identification as well as appropriate management of anemia will not only have a positive impact on quality of life but also reduce hospitalizations of CKD patients due to cardiovascular events.

  14. Nutritional status in dialysis patients: a European consensus.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Francesco; Fouque, Denis; Heimburger, Olof; Drüeke, Tilman B; Cannata-Andía, Jorge B; Hörl, Walter H; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and closely related to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessment of nutritional status and nutritional management of dialysis patients play a central role in everyday nephrological practice. Achieving a consensus on key points relating to pathogenesis, clinical assessment, and nutritional management of dialysis patients. The assessment of nutritional status should be based on clinical assessment and biochemical parameters, including history of weight loss, per cent standard weight, body mass index, muscle mass, subcutaneous fat mass, and plasma albumin, creatinine, bicarbonate and cholesterol. Co-morbid conditions should be assessed and C-reactive protein (CRP) measured--as a marker of inflammation--as there is a close relation between malnutrition, on one side, and co-morbid conditions and inflammation on the other. For a more detailed assessment, subjective global assessment of nutritional status is a well-validated tool, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a useful method for routine assessment of lean body mass. Anthropometric methods are also useful. They are cheap and easy to apply, although less precise than DEXA. The recommended daily protein intake is at least 1.2 g/kg standard body weight and the energy intake 35 kcal/kg standard body weight (BW), in patients <60 years, and 30 kcal/kg standard BW in patients >60 years. The standard bicarbonate level should be at least 22 mmol/l. If CRP is >10 mg/l, it is important to seek and treat the underlying cause. Adequate dialysis (for haemodialysis: Kt/V >1.2) should be ensured and, although no definite evidence of the importance of dialysis water quality is available, the opinion of the authors is that the water quality should be high. The role of the biocompatibility of the dialysis membrane is still not clear. The dietitian plays a pivotal role in the nutritional care of dialysis patients, and patients should be provided with dietary counselling from

  15. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  16. INVESTIGATION OF SERUM MICROCYSTIN CONCENTRATIONS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 1996

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigation of Serum Microcystin Concentrations Among Dialysis Patients, Brazil, 1996

    Elizabeth D. Hilborn 1, Wayne W. Carmichael 2, Sandra M.F.O. Azevedo 3
    1- USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC
    2- Wright State University, Dayton, OH
    3- Federal Univers...

  17. Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Tariq; Michels, Wieneke M; Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A; Dekker, Friedo W; Krediet, Raymond T; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schwartz, George J; Eckfeldt, John H; Coresh, Josef

    2016-05-01

    Residual kidney function contributes substantially to solute clearance in dialysis patients but cannot be assessed without urine collection. We used serum filtration markers to develop dialysis-specific equations to estimate urinary urea clearance without the need for urine collection. In our development cohort, we measured 24-hour urine clearances under close supervision in 44 patients and validated these equations in 826 patients from the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis. For the development and validation cohorts, median urinary urea clearance was 2.6 and 2.4 ml/min, respectively. During the 24-hour visit in the development cohort, serum β-trace protein concentrations remained in steady state but concentrations of all other markers increased. In the validation cohort, bias (median measured minus estimated clearance) was low for all equations. Precision was significantly better for β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin equations and the accuracy was significantly greater for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, compared with the urea plus creatinine equation. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for detecting measured urinary urea clearance by equation-estimated urinary urea clearance (both 2 ml/min or more) were 0.821, 0.850, and 0.796 for β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and cystatin C equations, respectively; significantly greater than the 0.663 for the urea plus creatinine equation. Thus, residual renal function can be estimated in dialysis patients without urine collections.

  18. High cut-off dialysis in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Girndt, Matthias; Fiedler, Roman; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Bohler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Haemodialysis patients suffer from chronic systemic inflammation and high incidence of cardiovascular disease. One cause for this may be the failure of diseased kidneys to eliminate immune mediators. Current haemodialysis treatment achieves insufficient elimination of proteins in the molecular weight range 15-45 kD. Thus, high cut-off dialysis might improve the inflammatory state. In this randomized crossover trial, 43 haemodialysis patients were treated for 3 weeks with high cut-off or high-flux dialysis. Inflammatory plasma mediators, monocyte subpopulation distribution and leucocyte gene expression were quantified. High cut-off dialysis supplemented by a low-flux filter did not influence the primary end-point, expression density of CD162 on monocytes. Nevertheless, treatment reduced multiple immune mediators in plasma. Such reduction proved - at least for some markers - to be a sustained effect over the interdialytic interval. Thus, for example, soluble TNF-receptor 1 concentration predialysis was reduced from median 13·3 (IQR 8·9-17·2) to 9·7 (IQR 7·5-13·2) ng/mL with high cut-off while remaining constant with high-flux treatment. The expression profile of multiple proinflammatory genes in leucocytes was significantly dampened. Treatment was well tolerated although albumin losses in high cut-off dialysis would be prohibitive against long-term use. The study shows for the first time that a dampening effect of high cut-off dialysis on systemic inflammation is achievable. Earlier studies had failed due to short study duration or insufficient dialysis efficacy. Removal of soluble mediators from the circulation influences cellular activation levels in leucocytes. Continued development of less albumin leaky membranes with similar cytokine elimination is justified. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  19. Timing of return to dialysis in patients with failing kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Miklos Z; Ichii, Hirohito; Lineen, James; Foster, Clarence E; Mathe, Zoltan; Schiff, Jeffrey; Kim, S Joseph; Pahl, Madeleine V; Amin, Alpesh N; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the number of patients starting dialysis after a failed kidney transplant has increased substantially. These patients appear to be different from their transplant-naïve counterparts, and so may be the timing of dialysis therapy initiation. An increasing number of studies suggest that in transplant-naïve patients, later dialysis initiation is associated with better outcomes. Very few data are available on timing of dialysis reinitiation in failed transplant recipients, and they suggest that an earlier return to dialysis therapy tended to be associated with worse survival, especially among healthier and younger patients and women. Failed transplant patients may also have unique issues such as continuation of immunosuppression versus withdrawal or the need for remnant allograft nephrectomy with regard to dialysis reinitiation. These patients may have a different predialysis preparation work-up, worse blood pressure control, higher or lower serum phosphorus levels, lower serum bicarbonate concentration, and worse anemia management. The choice of dialysis modality may also represent an important question for these patients, even though there appears to be no difference in mortality between patients starting peritoneal versus hemodialysis. Finally, failed transplant patients returning to dialysis appear to have a higher mortality rate compared with transplant-naïve incident dialysis patients, especially in the first several months of dialysis therapy. In this review, we will summarize the available data related to the timing of dialysis initiation and outcomes in failed kidney transplant patients after returning to dialysis.

  20. Palliative peritoneal dialysis: Implementation of a home care programme for terminal patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD).

    PubMed

    Gorrin, Maite Rivera; Teruel-Briones, José Luis; Vion, Victor Burguera; Rexach, Lourdes; Quereda, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Terminal-stage patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often transferred to haemodialysis as they are unable to perform the dialysis technique themselves since their functional capacities are reduced. We present our experience with five patients on PD with a shortterm life-threatening condition, whose treatment was shared by primary care units and who were treated with a PD modality adapted to their circumstances, which we call Palliative Peritoneal Dialysis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. Self-management support for peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sarian, Mari; Brault, Diane; Perreault, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of chronic illnesses and kidney disease, in particular, makes it necessary to adopt new approaches towards their management (Wagner, 1998). Evidence suggests that promoting self-management improves the health status of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, as they manage upwards of 90% of their own care. Patients who are unable to self-manage suffer from various complications. This project proposes an intervention aimed at improving self-management skills among PD patients. To promote self-management in peritoneal dialysis patients. This is achieved through the following objectives: (a) develop an algorithm that can improve patients' ability to solve the specific problem of fluid balance maintenance, (b) develop an educational session for patients on how to use the algorithm, and (c) develop an implementation strategy in collaboration with the PD nurse. Three measures evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. First, a telephone call log shows that participating patients call the clinic less to inquire about fluid balance maintenance. Next, a pre- and post-intervention knowledge test measures definite knowledge increase. Finally, a Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire reveals overall satisfaction with the intervention. This project, which proved beneficial to our patient population, could be duplicated in other clinics. The algorithm "How do I choose a dialysis bag" and the slides of the educational sessions can be shared with PD nurses across the country for the benefit of PD patients.

  2. [Educational scheme for patients on home peritoneal dialysis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Cirera Segura, F; Martín Espejo, J L; Reina Neyra, M

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to obtain information about the training programme for patients undergoing Domiciliary Peritoneal Dialysis (DPD) in Spain. For the purposes of the study we designed a questionnaire comprising 50 closed-ended items and one open response item. The questionnaire was sent to 104 hospitals and was completed by 78.84% of them (n > or = 82). The average of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the hospitals under study was 27.6: 15.8 of them receiving Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and 11.8 Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD). The questionnaire also served to investigate into the training methodology used in the different units, the involvement of the family in the programme, the basic knowledge patients received about Chronic Renal Insufficiency, the procedures associated with the therapy and the preparation they obtained to solve small-scale contingencies and emergency situations as well as the improvement of their quality of life. We also evaluated the training programme of autonomous patients on DPD and at the end of the questionnaire a blank space was left for facilities to add any comments or suggestions they considered relevant. From the results obtained we may conclude that most Spanish hospitals have devised a training planning for patients undergoing PD which helps them or caregivers to perform domiciliary treatment safely, provides them with basic knowledge about the disease and the routine procedures associated with the treatment, enables them to cope with contingencies and emergency situations and improves their quality of life during the dialysis period.

  3. Effect of statins on survival in patients undergoing dialysis access for end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    De Rango, Paola; Parente, Basso; Farchioni, Luca; Cieri, Enrico; Fiorucci, Beatrice; Pelliccia, Selena; Manzone, Alessandra; Simonte, Gioele; Lenti, Massimo

    2016-12-01

    The benefit of statin therapy in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease remains uncertain. Randomized trials have questioned the efficacy of the drug in improving outcomes for on-dialysis populations, and many patients with end-stage renal disease are not currently taking statins. This study aimed to investigate the impact of statin use on survival of patients with vascular access performed at a vascular center for chronic dialysis. Consecutive end-stage renal disease patients admitted for vascular access surgery in 2006 to 2013 were reviewed. Information on therapy was retrieved and patients on statins were compared to those who were not on statins. Primary endpoint was 5-year survival. Independent predictors of mortality were assessed with Cox regression analysis adjusting for covariates (ie, age, sex, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, and statins). Three hundred fifty-nine patients (230 males; mean age 68.9 ± 13.7 years) receiving 554 vascular accesses were analyzed: 127 (35.4%) were on statins. Use of statins was more frequent in patients with hypertension (89.8% v 81%; P = .034), hyperlipidemia (52.4% v 6.2%; P < .0001), coronary disease (54.1% v 42.6%; P = .043), diabetes (39.4% v 21.6%; P = .001), and obesity (11.6% v 2.0%; P < .0001). Mean follow-up was 35 months. Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 3 and 5 years were 84.4% and 75.9% for patients taking statins and 77.0% and 65.1% for those not taking statins (P = .18). Cox regression analysis selected statins therapy as the only independent negative predictor (odds ratio = 0.55; 95% confidence interval = 0.32-0.95; P = .032) of mortality, while age was an independent positive predictor (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.08; P < .0001). Vascular access patency was comparable in statin takers and those not taking statins (P = .60). Use of statins might halve the risk of all-cause mortality at

  4. Peritoneal Fluid Transport rather than Peritoneal Solute Transport Associates with Dialysis Vintage and Age of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Waniewski, Jacek; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Poleszczuk, Jan; Pietribiasi, Mauro; Lindholm, Bengt; Wankowicz, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    During peritoneal dialysis (PD), the peritoneal membrane undergoes ageing processes that affect its function. Here we analyzed associations of patient age and dialysis vintage with parameters of peritoneal transport of fluid and solutes, directly measured and estimated based on the pore model, for individual patients. Thirty-three patients (15 females; age 60 (21-87) years; median time on PD 19 (3-100) months) underwent sequential peritoneal equilibration test. Dialysis vintage and patient age did not correlate. Estimation of parameters of the two-pore model of peritoneal transport was performed. The estimated fluid transport parameters, including hydraulic permeability (LpS), fraction of ultrasmall pores (α u), osmotic conductance for glucose (OCG), and peritoneal absorption, were generally independent of solute transport parameters (diffusive mass transport parameters). Fluid transport parameters correlated whereas transport parameters for small solutes and proteins did not correlate with dialysis vintage and patient age. Although LpS and OCG were lower for older patients and those with long dialysis vintage, αu was higher. Thus, fluid transport parameters--rather than solute transport parameters--are linked to dialysis vintage and patient age and should therefore be included when monitoring processes linked to ageing of the peritoneal membrane.

  5. Sleep disorders in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis: comparison between hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Losso, Ricardo L M; Minhoto, Gisele R; Riella, Miguel C

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders for patients on dialysis are significant causes of a poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. No study has evaluated patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) to assess their sleep disorders compared to hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A total of 166 clinically stable patients who had been on dialysis for at least 3 months were randomly selected for the study and divided into HD, CAPD or APD. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters and self-administered questionnaires were collected for the investigation of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), bruxism, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression and anxiety. Insomnia was detected in more than 80 % of patients on the three modalities. OSAS was lower for patients on HD (36 %) than on CAPD (65 %) (p < 0.01) or APD (60 %) (p < 0.04). Patients on APD were more likely to have RLS compared to those on HD or CAPD (p < 0.04) (50 vs. 23 vs. 33 %). No differences among the modalities were found in bruxism, EDS, sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression or anxiety. ESRD patients undergoing any one of the three dialysis modalities studied had a high prevalence of sleep disorders. Patients on HD had a lower proportion of OSAS than those on CAPD and APD, which is most likely attributed to their lower body mass indices. The possible causes of higher RLS rates in APD patients have not been established.

  6. Unusual causes of peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Kahveci, Arzu; Asicioglu, Ebru; Tigen, Elif; Ari, Elif; Arikan, Hakki; Odabasi, Zekaver; Ozener, Cetin

    2011-04-10

    An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients.

  7. Timing of dialysis initiation in transplant-naive and failed transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Miklos Z.; Ojo, Akinlolu O.; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, most guidelines have advocated early dialysis initiation on the basis of studies showing improved survival in patients starting dialysis early. These recommendations led to an increase in the proportion of patients initiating dialysis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >10 ml/min/1.73 m2, from 20% in 1996 to 52% in 2008. During this period, patients starting dialysis with an eGFR ≥15 ml/min/1.73 m2 increased from 4% to 17%. However, recent studies have failed to substantiate a benefit of early dialysis initiation and some data have suggested worse outcomes in patients starting dialysis with a higher eGFR. Several reasons for this seemingly paradoxical observation have been suggested, including the fact that patients requiring early dialysis are likely to have more severe symptoms and comorbidities, leading to confounding by indication, as well as biological mechanisms that causally relate early dialysis therapy to adverse outcomes. Dialysis reinitiation in patients with a failing renal allograft encounters similar problems. However, unique factors associated with a failed allograft means that the optimal timing of dialysis initiation in failed transplant patients might differ from that in transplant-naive patients. In this Review, we will discuss studies of dialysis initiation and compare risks and benefits of early versus late dialysis therapy. PMID:22371250

  8. Setting Research Priorities for Patients on or Nearing Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lillie, Erin; Dip, Sally Crowe P.G.; Cyr, Annette; Gladish, Michael; Large, Claire; Silverman, Howard; Toth, Brenda; Wolfs, Wim; Laupacis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    With increasing emphasis among health care providers and funders on patient-centered care, it follows that patients and their caregivers should be included when priorities for research are being established. This study sought to identify the most important unanswered questions about the management of kidney failure from the perspective of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and the health care professionals who care for these patients. Research uncertainties were identified through a national Canadian survey of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and health care professionals. Uncertainties were refined by a steering committee that included patients, caregivers, researchers, and clinicians to assemble a short-list of the top 30 uncertainties. Thirty-four people (11 patients; five caregivers; eight physicians; six nurses; and one social worker, pharmacist, physiotherapist, and dietitian each) from across Canada subsequently participated in a workshop to determine the top 10 research questions. In total, 1570 usable research uncertainties were received from 317 respondents to the survey. Among these, 259 unique uncertainties were identified; after ranking, these were reduced to a short-list of 30 uncertainties. During the in-person workshop, the top 10 research uncertainties were identified, which included questions about enhanced communication among patients and providers, dialysis modality options, itching, access to kidney transplantation, heart health, dietary restrictions, depression, and vascular access. These can be used alongside the results of other research priority–setting exercises to guide researchers in designing future studies and inform health care funders. PMID:24832095

  9. Skin Autofluorescence and Mortality in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mácsai, Emília; Benke, Attila; Kiss, István

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a proven prognostic factor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Traditional and nontraditional risk factors are almost equivalent in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death. Moreover, peritoneal glucose absorption accelerates the degenerative processes of connective tissues as in diabetes. In our study, we examined the predictive value of SAF for total mortality in the PD population. Data were collected from 198 prevalently adult Caucasian PD patients. One hundred twenty-six patients (mean age 66.2 y, men [n = 73], diabetes ratio 75/126) had anamnestic CVD (coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease). Initially, we evaluated factors affecting SAF and CVD by multivariate linear regression. Survival rates were estimated by recording clinical and demographic data associated with mortality during a 36-month follow-up using the Kaplan–Meier method. Analyses were further stratified based on the presence or absence of CVD and SAF levels above or below the upper tercile 3.61 arbitrary units. Skin autofluorescence was influenced by CVD (P < 0.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.1–0.5) and white blood cell counts (P < 0.001, 95% CI 0.031–0.117). According to the Spearman correlation, SAF correlated with peritoneal cumulative glucose exposure (P = 0.02) and elapsed time in PD (P = 0.008). CVD correlated with age (P < 0.001, 95% CI 1.24–1.65) and diabetes (P < 0.001, 95% CI 2.58–10.66). More deaths were observed in the high SAF group than in the low SAF group (34/68 vs 44/130; P = 0.04). Comparing the CVD(−) low SAF group survival (mean 33.9 mos, standard error [SE] 1.39) to CVD(+) low SAF (mean 30.5 mos, SE 1.37, P = 0.03) and to CVD(+) high SAF group (mean 27.1 mos, SE 1.83, P = 0.001), the difference was significant. In conclusion, among PD patients, SAF values over 3.61 arbitrary units seem to be a

  10. [Acid-base status in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Lea; Blaslov, Kristina; Pasini, Eva; Kes, Petar; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina

    2014-04-01

    When compared to hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis is very simple yet low cost method of renal replacement therapy. Series of studies have shown its superiority in preserving residual renal function, postponing uremic complications, maintaining the acid-base balance and achieving better post-transplant outcome in patients treated with this method. Despite obvious advantages, its role in the treatment of chronic kidney disease is still not as important as it should be. Metabolic acidosis is an inevitable complication associated with progressive loss of kidney function. Its impact on mineral and muscle metabolism, residual renal function, allograft function and anemia is very complex but can be successfully managed. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficiency in preserving the acid-base balance in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis at Zagreb University Hospital Center. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. The mean time spent on the treatment was 32.39 ± 43.43 months. Only lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids were used in the treatment. Acid-base balance was completely maintained in 73.07% of patients; 11.54% of patients were found in the state of mild metabolic acidosis, and the same percentage of patients were in the state of mild metabolic alkalosis. In one patient, mixed alkalosis with respiratory and metabolic component was present. The results of this study showed that acid-base balance could be maintained successfully in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, even only with lactate-buffered solutions included in the treatment, although they were continuously proclaimed as inferior in comparison with bicarbonate-buffered ones. In well educated and informed patients who carefully use this method, accompanied by the attentive and thorough care of their physicians, this method can provide quality continuous replacement of lost renal function as well as better quality of life.

  11. Clinical analysis of ANCA-associated renal vasculitis patients with chronic dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Xi; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Xiao-Nong; Ni, Li-Yan; Shen, Ping-Yan; Wang, Wei-Ming; Chen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) constitute a subgroup of life-threatening diseases which affects the kidney in more than half of the patients at diagnosis. Currently, little has been published focusing on AAV patients with dialysis. We analysed AAV patients with chronic dialysis to provide more detailed information. From 1997 to 2011, AAV patients complicated by renal involvement resulting in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and had undergone haemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) for at least 3 months in Shanghai Ruijin hospital were retrospectively analysed in this study. Their data were also compared to those without dialysis at the same time. We enrolled 49 AAV patients with chronic dialysis. 41 required dialysis at initial presentation and rest 8 progressed to ESRD during follow-up. 19 HD patients died and 6 PD patients died during follow-up, and infection was the most common cause among the patients. There was no significant difference regarding survival between HD patients and PD patients (p>0.05). However anaemia and level of triglyceride was more significantly improved in HD patients at the end of observation (p<0.05, p<0.05 respectively). Compared with patients without dialysis dependency, dialysis patients presented higher percentage of hypertension (p<0.01), more severe renal involvement and higher BVAS (p<0.01). For the outcome, survival was significantly higher in non-dialysis patients (p<0.05). Patients with AAV experienced a high rate of renal failure and dialysis dependence. Our study suggests that haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are two comparable dialysis modalities for AAV patients with ESRD. However, AAV patients with dialysis dependency had worse outcome in comparison with those without dialysis.

  12. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment Among Peritoneal Dialysis Patients, Impact on Peritonitis and Role of Assisted Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Shea, Yat Fung; Lam, Man Fai; Lee, Mi Suen Connie; Mok, Ming Yee Maggie; Lui, Sing-Leung; Yip, Terence P S; Lo, Wai Kei; Chu, Leung Wing; Chan, Tak-Mao

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Chronic renal failure and aging are suggested as risk factors for cognitive impairment (CI). We studied the prevalence of CI among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), its impact on PD-related peritonitis in the first year, and the potential role of assisted PD. ♦ One hundred fourteen patients were newly started on PD between February 2011 and July 2013. Montreal Cognitive Assessment was performed in the absence of acute illness. Data on patient characteristics including demographics, comorbidities, blood parameters, dialysis adequacy, presence of helpers, medications, and the number PD-related infections were collected. ♦ The age of studied patients was 59±15.0 years, and 47% were female. The prevalence of CI was 28.9%. Patients older than 65 years old (odds ratio [OR] 4.88, confidence interval [CI] 1.79 - 13.28 p = 0.002) and with an education of primary level or below (OR 4.08, CI 1.30 - 12.81, p = 0.016) were independent risk factors for CI in multivariate analysis. Patients with PD-related peritonitis were significantly older (p < 0.001) and more likely to have CI as defined by MoCA (p = 0.035). After adjustment for age, however, CI was not a significant independent risk factor for PD-related peritonitis among self-care PD patients (OR 2.20, CI 0.65 - 7.44, p = 0.20). When we compared patients with MoCA-defined CI receiving self-care and assisted PD, there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of age, MoCA scores, or comorbidities. There were also no statistically significant differences in 1-year outcome of PD-related peritonitis rates or exit-site infections. ♦ Cognitive impairment is common among local PD patients. Even with CI, peritonitis rate in self-care PD with adequate training is similar to CI patients on assisted PD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  13. Interaction of Time-Varying Albumin and Phosphorus on Mortality in Incident Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zitt, Emanuel; Lamina, Claudia; Sturm, Gisela; Knoll, Florian; Lins, Friederike; Freistätter, Otto; Lhotta, Karl; Neyer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hypoalbuminemia and hyperphosphatemia have been shown to be strong predictors of mortality in dialysis patients that might not be independent from each other. We prospectively investigated the relationship and interaction between serum albumin and phosphorus with all-cause mortality in an inception cohort of incident dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We followed 235 incident dialysis patients in a prospective single-center cohort study (INVOR study) applying a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model using all measured laboratory values (2887 albumin and 10306 phosphorus values). Results Eighty-two patients (35%) died during a median follow-up of 35.1 months. Albumin was inversely associated with mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.23 [0.14 to 0.36]; P < 0.001), whereas higher phosphorus concentrations showed a trend to an increasing risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.57 [95% confidence interval 0.97 to 2.54]; P = 0.07). Importantly, we observed a significant interaction between albumin and phosphorus (P = 0.01). The lowest risk was found with concurrent low phosphorus and high albumin values, whereas risk was increased with either concurrent low phosphorus and low albumin values or high phosphorus and high albumin values. Conclusions In incident dialysis patients the associations of serum phosphorus and albumin concentrations with mortality are modified by each other over time. Phosphorus-lowering interventions that concomitantly can cause a fall in serum albumin level may be harmful and warrant additional studies. If confirmed, epidemiologic studies and therapeutic guidelines aiming for target values should consider this interplay. PMID:21903986

  14. A new paradigm: home therapy for patients who start dialysis in an unplanned way.

    PubMed

    Lecouf, Angelique; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Ficheux, Maxence; Henri, Patrick; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Starting dialysis in a non-planned manner or in a 'suboptimal' manner is a frequent situation in dialysis centres, even for patients with a regular nephrology follow-up. Unplanned dialysis initiation can be defined as a patient beginning dialysis with no functional vascular access or peritoneal dialysis catheter. These patients start haemodialysis with a temporary catheter, frequently converted to a tunnelled catheter pending native fistula creation or whilst waiting for fistula maturation. In this case, conventional in-centre haemodialysis (ICH) is more frequently used than peritoneal dialysis (PD) or home haemodialysis (HHD). This review found that patients who start dialysis in an unplanned way are significantly older and have more heart and peripheral vascular diseases. Home-based dialysis therapies showed better outcomes than ICH (PD for the first two to three years and HHD for the long-term). This review proposes a paradigm shift in the initial form of dialysis offered to new patients starting dialysis in an unplanned way. Even if they require a temporary catheter, it is possible for them to receive a pre-dialysis education programme (PDEP). The PDEP should be based on both individualised information session(s) given by an experienced nurse to the patient and family and therapeutic education (educative diagnosis, individualised and group session(s)) in order to relieve anxiety and promote home modalities. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of cefepime in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pfeffer, M; Zaccardelli, D; Dukes, G M; Mattern, W; Pittman, K A; Hak, L J

    1992-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefepime were studied in 10 male patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy. Five patients received a single 1,000-mg dose and the other five received a single 2,000-mg dose; all doses were given as 30-min intravenous infusions. Serial plasma, urine, and peritoneal dialysate samples were collected; and the concentrations of cefepime in these fluids were measured over 72 h by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The peak concentrations in plasma and the areas under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve for the 2,000-mg dose group were twice as high as those observed for the 1,000-mg dose group. The elimination half-life of cefepime was about 18 h and was independent of the dose. The steady-state volume of distribution was about 22 liters, and values for the 1,000- and 2,000-mg doses were not significantly different. The values for total body clearance and peritoneal dialysis clearance were about 15 and 4 ml/min, respectively. No dose dependency was observed for the clearance estimates. Over the 72-h sampling period, about 26% of the dose was excreted intact into the peritoneal dialysis fluid. For 48 h postdose, mean concentrations of cefepime in dialysate at the end of each dialysis interval exceeded the reported MICs for 90% of the isolates (MIC90s) for bacteria which commonly cause peritonitis resulting from continuous peritoneal dialysis. A parenteral dose of 1,000 or 2,000 mg of cefepime every 48 h would maintain the antibiotic levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid above the MIC90s for the most susceptible bacteria for the treatment of systemic and intraperitoneal infections [corrected]. PMID:1510432

  16. Frailty Screening Tools for Elderly Patients Incident to Dialysis.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Ismay N; Goto, Namiko A; Boereboom, Franciscus T J; Bots, Michiel L; Verhaar, Marianne C; Hamaker, Marije E

    2017-07-17

    A geriatric assessment is an appropriate method for identifying frail elderly patients. In CKD, it may contribute to optimize personalized care. However, a geriatric assessment is time consuming. The purpose of our study was to compare easy to apply frailty screening tools with the geriatric assessment in patients eligible for dialysis. A total of 123 patients on incident dialysis ≥65 years old were included <3 weeks before to ≤2 weeks after dialysis initiation, and all underwent a geriatric assessment. Patients with impairment in two or more geriatric domains on the geriatric assessment were considered frail. The diagnostic abilities of six frailty screening tools were compared with the geriatric assessment: the Fried Frailty Index, the Groningen Frailty Indicator, Geriatric8, the Identification of Seniors at Risk, the Hospital Safety Program, and the clinical judgment of the nephrologist. Outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. In total, 75% of patients were frail according to the geriatric assessment. Sensitivity of frailty screening tools ranged from 48% (Fried Frailty Index) to 88% (Geriatric8). The discriminating features of the clinical judgment were comparable with the other screening tools. The Identification of Seniors at Risk screening tool had the best discriminating abilities, with a sensitivity of 74%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 91%, and a negative predictive value of 52%. The negative predictive value was poor for all tools, which means that almost one half of the patients screened as fit (nonfrail) had two or more geriatric impairments on the geriatric assessment. All frailty screening tools are able to detect geriatric impairment in elderly patients eligible for dialysis. However, all applied screening tools, including the judgment of the nephrologist, lack the discriminating abilities to adequately rule out frailty compared with a geriatric assessment

  17. Coronary artery calcification in Korean patients with incident dialysis.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunjin; Seong, Eun Yong; Han, Byoung-Geun; Kim, Dong Ki; Lim, Chun Soo; Kang, Shin-Wook; Park, Cheol Whee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Shin, Byung Chul; Kim, Sung Gyun; Chung, Wookyung; Park, Jae Yoon; Lee, Joo Yeon; Kim, Yon Su

    2017-07-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease have an extremely high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), coronary artery calcification (CAC) is associated with increased mortality from CVD. The present study aimed to investigate the risk factors for CAC in Korean patients with incident dialysis. Data on 423 patients with ESRD who started dialysis therapy between December 2012 and March 2014 were obtained from 10 university-affiliated hospitals. CAC was identified by using noncontrast-enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography. The CAC score was calculated according to the Agatston score, with CAC-positive subjects defined by an Agatston score >0. Patients' mean age was 55.6 ± 14.6 years, and 64.1% were men. The CAC-positive rate was 63.8% (270 of 423). Results of univariate analyses showed significant differences in age, sex, etiology of ESRD and comorbid conditions according to the CAC score. However, results of multiple regression analysis showed that only a higher age was significantly associated with the CAC score. Receiver operating characteristic curves showed that the sensitivity and specificity of L-spine radiography for diagnosing CAC were 56% and 91%, respectively, for diagnosing CAC (area under the curve, 0.735). CAC was frequent in patients with incident dialysis, and multiple regression analysis showed that only age was significantly associated with the CAC score. In addition, L-spine radiography could be a helpful modality for diagnosing CAC in patients with incident dialysis. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  18. Physical Activity in Patients Treated With Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Thangarasa, Tharshika; Imtiaz, Rameez; Hiremath, Swapnil; Zimmerman, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic diseases are known to benefit from exercise. Despite a lack of compelling evidence, patients with end-stage kidney disease treated with peritoneal dialysis are often discouraged from participating in exercise programs that include resistance training due to concerns about the development of hernias and leaks. The actual effects of physical activity with or without structured exercise programs for these patients remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to more completely define the risks and benefits of physical activity in the end-stage kidney disease population treated with peritoneal dialysis. Methods/design: We will conduct a systematic review examining the effects of physical activity on end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis. For the purposes of this review, exercise will be considered a purposive subcategory of physical activity. The primary objective is to determine if physical activity in this patient population is associated with improvements in mental health, physical functioning, fatigue and quality of life and if there is an increase in adverse outcomes. With the help of a skilled librarian, we will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials and observational studies. We will include adult end-stage kidney disease patients treated with peritoneal dialysis that have participated in an exercise training program or had their level of physical activity assessed directly or by self-report. The study must include an assessment of the association between physical activity and one of our primary or secondary outcomes measures. We will report study quality using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale for observational studies. Quality across studies will be assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. The

  19. A Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis with Refractory Volume Overload.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Martin

    2016-01-07

    The management of volume in patients with diabetes on peritoneal dialysis is affected by several factors, including the degree of residual renal function, peritoneal membrane small-solute transport, salt and water intake, blood sugar control, comorbidity, and nutritional status. It requires sequential evaluation of volume status and adjustment of the peritoneal dialysis prescription on the basis of assessments of membrane function and alterations in urine volume. Steps should be taken to preserve residual renal function for as long as possible. Ultimately, in patients who have become anuric and have developed ultrafiltration failure, timely transfer to hemodialysis may be necessary, requiring discussion and planning with the patient. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  20. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: nurses' experiences of teaching patients.

    PubMed

    Shubayra, Amnah

    2015-03-01

    Nine nurses were interviewed to determine nurses' experiences of teaching patients to use continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The material was analyzed using content analysis. Data were sorted into four themes and ten subthemes. The themes were presented as follows: Importance of language, individualized teaching, teaching needs and structure of care in teaching. The findings highlighted important insights into how nurses experience teaching patients to perform CAPD. The study revealed some barriers for the nurses during teaching. The major barrier was shortage of Arabic speaking nursing staff. Incidental findings involved two factors that played an important role in teaching, retraining and a special team to perform pre-assessments, including home visits. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed several factors that are considered as barriers for the nurses during teaching the CAPD patients and the need to improve the communication and teaching in the peritoneal dialysis units, including the importance of individualized teaching.

  1. Dialysis Catheter Placement in Patients With Exhausted Access.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Syed; Kuban, Joshua D

    2017-03-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease undergo renal transplant, peritoneal dialysis, or intermittent hemodialysis for renal replacement therapy. For hemodialysis, native fistulas or grafts are preferred but hemodialysis catheters are often necessary. Per KDOQI, the right jugular vein is the preferred vessel of access for these catheters. However, in patients with long-standing end-stage renal disease vein thrombosis, stenosis and occlusion occurs. In these patients with end-stage vascular access, unconventional routes of placement of dialysis catheters are needed. These methods include placing them by means of sharp recanalization, via a translumbar route directly into the inferior vena cava, and via transhepatic and transrenal routes. These difficult, but potentially lifesaving methods of gaining vascular access are reviewed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel inflammatory marker in dialysis patients: YKL-40.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Gülay Ulusal; Er, Ramazan Erdem; Tekbudak, Merve Yasemin; Paşaoğlu, Özge; Inal, Salih; Öneç, Kürşad; Paşaoğlu, Hatice; Altok, Kadriye; Derici, Ülver; Erten, Yasemin

    2013-04-01

    YKL-40 has been introduced as a marker of inflammation in different clinical situations. The association between YKL-40 and inflammation in chronic renal failure patients has not been researched currently. The objectives of this study were to establish serum YKL-40 concentrations in dialysis patients with chronic renal failure compared to healthy subjects and to explore its relationships with a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukine-6 (IL-6) and an acute phase mediator, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The study population included hemodialysis patients (N = 43; mean age of 40.9 ± 14.5), peritoneal dialysis patients (N = 38; mean age of 45.8 ± 13.7) and healthy subjects (N = 37; mean age of 45.5 ± 10.6). Serum concentrations of YKL-40, IL-6, hs-CRP and routine laboratory measures were evaluated. Compared to the healthy subjects, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients had higher concentrations of YKL-40, IL-6, hs-CRP, as well as lower concentrations of hemoglobin, serum albumin and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P < 0.001). YKL-40 concentrations were positively correlated with serum creatinine (P < 0.001, r = 0.495), IL-6 (P < 0.001, r = 0.306), hs-CRP (P = 0.001, r = 0.306) levels and inversely correlated with hemoglobin (P = 0.002, r = -0.285), serum albumin (P < 0.001, r = -0.355) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (P = 0.001, r = -0.306). In multivariate regression analysis YKL-40 was associated with creatinine, serum albumin and hs-CRP concentrations after adjustments with covariates. Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure have elevated serum YKL-40 concentrations. Associations with standard inflammatory parameters suggest that YKL-40 might be a novel inflammatory marker in this population.

  3. Acute Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seong; Lee, Yu-Ji; Kim, Sung-Rok

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, complications, and mortality rate associated with acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). A total of 75 patients who were treated at Samsung Changwon Hospital between February 2005 and March 2016 were included in the study sample. The outcomes included in-hospital survival, renal recovery, metabolic and fluid control rates, and technical success rates. Refractory heart failure was the most frequent cause of acute PD (49.3%), followed by hepatic failure (20.0%), septic shock (14.7%), acute pancreatitis (9.3%), and unknown causes (6.7%). The hospital survival of patients in the acute PD was 48.0%. Etiologies of acute kidney injury (AKI) (refractory heart failure, acute pancreatitis compared with hepatic failure, septic shock or miscellaneous causes), use of inotropes, use of a ventilator, and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II were associated with survival differences. Maintenance dialysis required after survival was high (80.1% [29/36]) due to AKI etiologies (heart or hepatic failures). Metabolic and fluid control rates were 77.3%. The technical success rate for acute PD was 93.3%. Acute PD remains a suitable treatment modality for patients with AKI in the era of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Nearly all patients who require dialysis can be dialyzed with acute PD without mechanical difficulties. This is particularly true in patients with refractory heart failure and acute pancreatitis who had a weak requirement for inotropes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  4. Long-Term Survival of Dialysis Patients with Bacterial Endocarditis Undergoing Valvular Replacement Surgery in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Leither, Maxwell D.; Shroff, Gautam R.; Ding, Shu; Gilbertson, David T.; Herzog, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial endocarditis in dialysis patients is associated with high mortality rates. The literature is limited regarding long-term outcomes of valvular replacement surgery and choice of prosthesis in dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis. Methods and Results Dialysis patients hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis, 2004-2007, were studied retrospectively using data from the US Renal Data System. Long-term survival of patients undergoing valve replacement surgery with tissue or non-tissue valves was compared using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valvular replacement surgery. During the study period, 11,156 dialysis patients were hospitalized for bacterial endocarditis and 1267 (11.4%) underwent valvular replacement surgery (tissue valve 44.3%, non-tissue valve 55.7%). In the valve replacement cohort, 60% were men, 50% white, 54% aged 45-64 years, and 36% diabetic. Estimated survival with tissue and non-tissue valves, respectively, at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 years was 59% and 60%, 48% and 50%, 35% and 37%, and 25% and 30% (log rank P = 0.42). Staphylococcus was the predominant organism (66% of identified organisms). Independent predictors of mortality in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery included older age, diabetes as cause of end-stage renal disease, surgery during index hospitalization, staphylococcus as the causative organism, and dysrhythmias as a comorbid condition. Conclusions Valve replacement surgery is appropriate for well-selected dialysis patients with bacterial endocarditis, but is associated with high mortality rates. Survival does not differ with tissue or non-tissue prosthesis. PMID:23785002

  5. Triceps Skinfold Thickness Is Associated With Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Li; Lai, Yu-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Kuo, Chiu-Huang; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Hsu, Bang-Gee

    2017-02-01

    Anthropometric measurements, including body mass index (BMI), body weight and total fat mass are associated with the bone mineral density (BMD) in the general population. Compared to that in the general population, BMD was lower in dialysis patients. However, the association between anthropometric measurements and BMD is not well-established among peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. To study this, we conducted a cross-sectional study in 48 chronic PD patients. Anthropometric parameters, biochemical data, and BMD measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) were collected. Among these PD patients, eight patients (16.7%) had osteoporosis and 22 patients (45.8%) osteopenia, while 18 patients were normal. Older age, decreased height, lower body weight, BMI, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm fat area (MAFA), and higher adiponectin levels were observed in our patients with lower lumbar T-scores. Height, body weight, waist circumference, BMI, body fat mass, TSF, mid-arm circumference, MAFA, and serum phosphorus levels were positively, while age, adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with lumbar BMD levels. According to our multivariate forward stepwise linear regression analysis, TSF (R(2) change = 0.080, P = 0.017) and body weight (R(2) change = 0.333, P = 0.002) were both correlated with low lumbar BMD. In conclusion, either TSF or body weight in our chronic PD patients was proved to be an independent predictor for osteolytic bone lesions.

  6. Human herpesvirus 6 infection in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Altay, Mustafa; Akay, Hatice; Ünverdi, Selman; Altay, Filiz; Ceri, Mevlüt; Altay, F Aybala; Cesur, Salih; Duranay, Murat; Demiroz, Ali Pekcan

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) infection occurs worldwide and can be reactivated from latency during periods of immunosuppression, especially after organ transplantation. No previous study has evaluated the influence of dialysis type on HHV-6 infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-6 antibodies in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We studied 36 PD patients, 35 HD patients, and 20 healthy subjects, all with no history of organ transplantation. After systematic inquiries and a physical examination, blood was drawn for determination of biochemical parameters, cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG), hepatitis B surface antigen, and the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus antibodies. Titers of HHV-6 IgM and IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA. Titers for HHV-6 IgM antibody were positive in 9 HD patients (25.7%), 8 PD patients (22.2%), and 2 control subjects (10.0%, p > 0.05). More HD patients (20.0%) than PD patients (5.6%, p = 0.07) or control subjects (0.0%, p = 0.03) were positive for HHV-6 IgG antibody. In HD patients, HHV-6 IgG seropositivity and duration of dialysis were positively correlated (R = 0.33, p = 0.05). Infection with HHV-6 is not rare in PD and HD patients. In addition, HHV-6 IgG seropositivity was significantly higher in HD patients than in control subjects and approached significance when compared with seropositivity in PD patients. Moreover, in HD patients, HHV-6 IgG seropositivity correlated with duration on HD. These preliminary findings provide insight into the pre-transplantation period for patients and may aid our understanding of how to best protect patients against HHV-6 after transplantation.

  7. ICU Patients Requiring Renal Replacement Therapy Initiation: Fewer Survivors and More Dialysis Dependents From 80 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Commereuc, Morgane; Guérot, Emmanuel; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Constan, Adrien; Katsahian, Sandrine; Schortgen, Frédérique

    2017-08-01

    To assess the role of advanced age on survival and dialysis dependency after initiation of renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury. Retrospective pooled analysis of prospectively collected data. ICUs of two teaching hospitals in Paris area, France. One thousand five hundred thirty adult patients who required renal replacement therapy initiation in the ICU. None. Survival and post acute kidney injury chronic dialysis dependency were assessed at hospital discharge according to the quintile (Q) of age. The oldest quintile included 289 patients 80 years old and over. Seventy-three percent of included patients had respiratory and hemodynamic supports at renal replacement therapy initiation, similarly distributed across quintiles. Mortality increased with age strata from 63% in Q1 (≤ 52 yr) to 76% in Q5 (≥ 80 yr) (p < 0.001). After adjustment, age did not increase the risk of death up to 80 years. The oldest patients (≥ 80 yr) had a significant higher risk of dying (adjusted odds ratio, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.66-4.03). Dialysis dependency was more frequent among survivors 80 years old or older (30% vs 14%; p = 0.001). Age 80 years old or older was an independent risk for dialysis dependency only for patients with prior advanced chronic kidney disease (p = 0.04). Baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was the only one predictor of dialysis dependency identified. Patients with advanced age represent a substantial subgroup of patients requiring renal replacement therapy in the ICU. From 80 years, age should be considered as an additional risk of dying over the severity of organ failures. Patients 80 years old or older are likely to recover sufficient renal function allowing renal replacement therapy discontinuation when baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate is above 44 mL/min/1.73 m. At 3 months, only 6% were living at home, dialysis independent.

  8. Influence of peritoneal dialysis solution biocompatibility on long-term survival of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and the technique itself.

    PubMed

    Stanković-Popović, Verica; Popović, Dragan; Dimković, Nada; Maksić, Djoko; Vasilijić, Sasa; Colić, Miodrag; Vucinić, Zarko; Radjen, Slavica; Milicić, Biljana

    2013-04-01

    , serum triglyceride and cardiovascular score (quantitative scoring system consisting of: ejection fraction (EF) of left ventricle < 50%; IMT > 1 mm; carotid narrowing degree > 50%, presence of carotid plaques in both common carotide, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular event and peripheral vascular disease with or without amputation) were independent predictors of overall patient survival. Duration of dialysis was only independent predictor of overall technique survival. Although patients treated with biocompatible solutions showed significantly better survival, the role of biocompatibility of CAPD solutions in patients and technique survival have to be confirmed. Namely, multivariate analysis confirmed that duration of dialysis, serum triglyceride and cardiovascular score significantly predicted overall CAPD patients survival, while only duration of dialysis was found to be independent predictor of overall techique survival.

  9. Special considerations for antihypertensive agents in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Redon, Josep; Martinez, Fernando; Cheung, Alfred K

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is present in most patients with end-stage renal disease and likely contributes to the premature cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients. Previous practice guidelines have recommended that, in patients on chronic dialysis, blood pressure (BP) should be reduced below 130/80 mm Hg. This is based on opinions but not strong evidence, since no concrete information exists about which BP values should be the parameter to follow and which should be the target BP values. The majority of the antihypertensive agents can be used in this population, but the pharmacokinetics altered by the impaired kidney function and dialyzability influence the appropriate dosage as well as the time and frequency of administration. Combination therapy using multiple agents is often necessary. Because of the prevalence of overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic tone as well as the high calcium influx in vascular smooth muscle cells in dialysis patients, drugs acting in these three specific systems may potentially have additional cardioprotective benefits beyond their BP-lowering effect. Thus, antihypertensive regimens should preferably be based on these classes of drugs, alone or in combination. Other antihypertensive drug classes can play a complementary role. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Challenges of nutrition intervention for malnourished dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition, or protein energy wasting (PEW), is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 dialysis (CKD-5). One criterion of PEW strongly associated with morbidity and mortality in CKD-5 dialysis patients is the serum albumin level. Serum albumin levels have not improved over the past 10 years. Typical intervention strategies need to be reevaluated. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) is a form of parenteral nutrition delivered during dialysis that is a convenient and assured route of nutrition alimentation for high-nutrition-risk PEW patients who cannot improve nutrition status by oral and enteral routes. Recent qualification criteria for IDPN changes in Medicare part D have made this therapy an available option for many more of these high-nutrition-risk PEW patients. Nutrition support knowledge in clinicians is essential to administer IDPN effectively and to optimize clinical response. An improved understanding of the milieu of uremia and PEW of CKD-5, as well as the study of nutrition interventions inclusive of IDPN, will allow for effective strategies toward improved outcomes in the future.

  11. High blood glucose independent of pre-existing diabetic status predicts mortality in patients initiating peritoneal dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Hee; Han, Dong Cheol; Noh, Hyunjin; Jeon, Jin Seok; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Lindholm, Bengt; Lee, Hi Bahl

    2015-06-01

    Poor glycemic control associates with increased mortality in diabetic (DM) dialysis patients, but it is less well established whether high blood glucose (BG) independent of pre-existing diabetic status associates with mortality in dialysis patients. We assessed factors affecting BG at the start of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and its mortality-predictive impact in Korean PD patients. In 174 PD patients (55 % males, 56 % DM), BG, nutritional status, comorbidity (CMD), and residual renal function (RRF) were assessed in conjunction with dialysis initiation. Determinants of BG and its association with mortality after a mean follow-up period of 30 ± 24 months were analyzed. On Cox proportional hazards analysis comprising all patients, old age, high CMD score, presence of protein energy wasting, and low serum albumin (Salb) concentration were independent predictors of mortality but not a high-BG level, while in patients without pre-existing diabetic status, high BG, together with old age and high CMD score, was an independent predictor of mortality. After adjustment for age, CMD score, and Salb, the risk ratio for mortality increased by 12 % per 1 mg/dL increase in BG in the non-DM patients. Patient survival in patients without pre-existing diabetic status with high BG did not differ from DM patients, but the survival of patients with high BG was significantly lower than in patients with low BG. In patients without pre-existing diabetic status, in multiple regression analysis, high BG at initiation of PD associated with high age, high body mass index, and low RRF. High blood glucose at initiation of PD associated with an increased mortality risk in PD patients without pre-existing diabetic status suggesting that blood glucose monitoring and surveillance of factors contributing to poor glycemic control are warranted in patients initiating PD therapy.

  12. A Hyperpigmented Reticular Rash in a Patient on Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    South, Andrew M; Crispin, Milene K; Marqueling, Ann L; Sutherland, Scott M

    Chronically ill patients often develop uncommon exam findings. A 16-year-old female with end-stage renal disease secondary to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis on peritoneal dialysis (PD) developed a pruritic, hyperpigmented reticular rash on her abdomen, sparing the PD catheter insertion site. The rash appeared approximately 6 weeks after initiating PD. She used a heating pad nightly during PD for dialysis drain pain. Testing for systemic and autoimmune disease was negative. She was referred to dermatology, where the diagnosis of erythema ab igne (EAI), a well-described but less well-known hyperpigmented reticular cutaneous eruption caused by chronic exposure to low levels of infrared heat, was confirmed. The eruption is typically painless but is often pruritic. Common sources of heat include fires, stoves, portable heaters, heating pads, and laptop computers. The association between EAI and PD is unknown. Our patient discontinued the heating pad and her rash resolved.

  13. Technique failure in Korean incident peritoneal dialysis patients: a national population-based study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shina; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Hann, Hoo Jae; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Seung-Jung; Kang, Duk-Hee; Choi, Kyu Bok; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol

    2016-12-01

    Technique failure is an important issue for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we aimed to analyze technique failure rate in detail and to determine the predictors for technique failure in Korea. We identified all patients who had started dialysis between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2008, in Korea, using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database. A total of 7,614 PD patients were included, and the median follow-up was 24.9 months. The crude incidence rates of technique failure in PD patients were 54.1 per 1,000 patient-years. The cumulative 1-, 2-, and 3-year technique failure rates of PD patients were 4.9%, 10.3%, and 15.6%, respectively. However, those technique failure rates by Kaplan-Meier analysis were overestimated compared with the values by competing risks analysis, and the differences increased with the follow-up period. In multivariate analyses, diabetes mellitus and Medical Aid as a crude reflection of low socioeconomic status were independent risk factors in both the Cox proportional hazard model and Fine and Gray subdistribution model. In addition, cancer was independently associated with a lower risk of technique failure in the Fine and Gray model. Technique failure was a major concern in patients initiating PD in Korea, especially in diabetic patients and Medical Aid beneficiaries. The results of our study offer a basis for risk stratification for technique failure.

  14. Dialysis access in a patient with multiple central venous stenoses.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tianlei; Zhao, Yuliang; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Li; Liu, Fang; Fu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    We report a female patient, with obstructed right femoral and right brachiocephalic vein, narrowed left femoral vein, left brachiocephalic vein and superior vena cava, due to long-term catheterization for dialysis. Angioplasty and synthesized graft transplant were successfully performed. The new access withstood early cannulation only 3 days after the procedure. Angioplasty can ameliorate existing stenosis and enable permanent access creation, while an artificial graft may provide faster maturation than documented.

  15. Prognostic impact of the indexation of left ventricular mass in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, C; Benedetto, F A; Mallamaci, F; Tripepi, G; Giacone, G; Cataliotti, A; Seminara, G; Stancanelli, B; Malatino, L S

    2001-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is exceedingly frequent in patients undergoing dialysis. Cardiac mass is proportional to body size, but the influence of various indexing methods has not been studied in patients with end-stage renal disease. The issue is important because malnutrition and volume expansion would both tend to distort the estimate of LV mass (LVM) in these patients. In a cohort of 254 patients, the prognostic impact on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes of LVH values, calculated according to two established methods of indexing, either body surface area (BSA) or height(2.7), was assessed prospectively. When LVM was analyzed as a categorical variable, the height(2.7)-based method identified a larger number of patients with LVH than the corresponding BSA-based method. One hundred and thirty-seven fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. Overall, 90 patients died, 51 of cardiovascular causes. In separate Cox models, both the LVM/height(2.7) and the LVM/BSA index independently predicted total and cardiovascular mortality (P < 0.001). However, the height(2.7)-based method coherently produced a closer-fitting model (P < or = 0.02) than did the BSA-based method. The height(2.7) index was also important for the subcategorization of patients according to the presence of concentric or eccentric LVH because the prognostic value of such subcategorization was apparent only when the height(2.7)-based criterion was applied. In conclusion, LVM is a strong and independent predictor of survival and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing dialysis. The indexing of LVM by height(2.7) provides more powerful prediction of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes than the BSA-based method, and the use of this index appears to be appropriate in patients undergoing dialysis.

  16. Effect of dialysis modality on frailty phenotype, disability, and health-related quality of life in maintenance dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hui; Do, Jun Young; Lee, So-Young; Kim, Jun Chul

    2017-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) surveys are needed to evaluate regional and ethnic specificies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences in HRQoL, frailty, and disability according to dialysis modality in the Korean population. We enrolled relatively stable maintenance dialysis patients. A total of 1,616 patients were recruited into our study. The demographic and laboratory data collected at enrollment included age, sex, comorbidities, frailty, disability, and HRQoL scales. A total of 1,250 and 366 participants underwent hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD), respectively. The numbers of participants with pre-frailty and frailty were 578 (46.2%) and 422 (33.8%) in HD patients, and 165 (45.1%) and 137 (37.4%) in PD patients, respectively (P = 0.349). Participants with a disability included 195 (15.6%) HD patients and 109 (29.8%) PD patients (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the mean physical component scale (PCS) and mental component scale (MCS), symptom/problems, and sleep scores were higher in HD patients than in PD patients. Cox regression analyses showed that an increased PCS in both HD and PD patients was positively associated with patient survival and first hospitalization-free survival. An increased MCS in both HD and PD patients was positively associated with first hospitalization-free survival only. There was no significant difference in frailty between patients treated with the two dialysis modalities; however, disability was more common in PD patients than in HD patients. The MCS and PCS were more favorable in HD patients than in PD patients. Symptom/problems, sleep, quality of social interaction, and social support were more favorable in HD patients than in PD patients; however, patient satisfaction and dialysis staff encouragement were more favorable in PD patients than in HD patients.

  17. Relationship of aluminum to neurocognitive dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, S.M.; Corwin, H.L.; Tanner, C.M.; Wilson, R.S.; Green, B.J.; Goetz, C.G.

    1988-10-01

    Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.

  18. Relationship of aluminum to neurocognitive dysfunction in chronic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sprague, S M; Corwin, H L; Tanner, C M; Wilson, R S; Green, B J; Goetz, C G

    1988-10-01

    Aluminum has been proposed as the causative agent in dialysis encephalopathy syndrome. We prospectively assessed whether other, less severe, neuropsychologic abnormalities were also associated with aluminum. A total of 16 patients receiving chronic dialytic therapy were studied. The deferoxamine infusion test (DIT) was used to assess total body aluminum burden. Neurologic function was evaluated by quantitative measures of asterixis, myoclonus, motor strength, and sensation. Cognitive function was assessed by measures of dementia, memory, language, and depression. There were four patients with a positive DIT (greater than 125 micrograms/L increment in serum aluminum) that was associated with an increase in the number of neurologic abnormalities observed, as well as an increase in severity of myoclonus, asterixis, and lower extremity weakness. Patients with a positive DIT also showed significant impairment in memory; however, no differences were noted on tests of dementia, depression, or language. There was no significant correlation between sex, age, presence of diabetes, mode of dialysis, years of chronic renal failure, years of dialysis or years of aluminum ingestion and any neurologic or neurobehavioral measurement, serum aluminum level, or DIT. These changes may represent early aluminum-associated neurologic dysfunction.

  19. Association between diastolic dysfunction by color tissue Doppler imaging and vascular calcification on plain radiographs in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, Won Suk; Lee, Su Mi; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Seong Eun; Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Young Jin; Son, Young Ki

    2012-01-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is frequently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, which is indicative of future cardiovascular events. Vascular calcification (VC) is known to be associated with coronary artery disease in dialysis patients. The present study was to determine the interrelationship between LV diastolic dysfunction by tissue Doppler imaging and VC on plain radiographs in dialysis patients. Fifty-six dialysis patients were recruited and VC scores were evaluated by plain radiographic film. The ratio of early diastolic transmitral inflow velocity (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E') was measured by tissue Doppler imaging. We defined diastolic dysfunction as an E/E' ratio >15 on tissue Doppler imaging. Patients with diastolic dysfunction showed a higher percentage of coronary artery disease history, abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) scores ≥5, high LV mass index, and high left atrium volume compared to patients without diastolic dysfunction. The E/E' ratio was significantly higher in patients with significant VC, VC scores of the pelvis and hands ≥3, and AAC scores ≥5 on plain radiographs. AAC scores ≥5 were considered an independent predictor of diastolic dysfunction. VC on plain radiographs is associated with the E/E' ratio and AAC scores ≥5 are important clues for LV diastolic dysfunction in dialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Serum apelin is associated with affective disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gok Oguz, Ebru; Akoglu, Hadim; Ulusal Okyay, Gulay; Yayar, Ozlem; Karaveli Gursoy, Guner; Buyukbakkal, Mehmet; Canbakan, Basol; Ayli, Mehmet Deniz

    2016-08-01

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent affective disorders in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Recent research has proposed a potential role of apelinergic system in pathogenesis of depression. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of depression and anxiety and their potential relation with serum apelin levels among PD patients. A total of 40 PD patients were enrolled into the study. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed with the Beck's Depression Inventory and the Beck's Anxiety Inventory. Serum apelin-12 levels were measured by immunoenzymatic assays using commercially available ELISA kit for standard human apelin. Of the patients, 16 (40%) had depression, 20 (50%) had anxiety. The patients with depression and anxiety had a significantly longer time on dialysis (p < 0.001 for both), significantly higher serum apelin (p < 0.001 for both) and C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.001 for both) than those without depression and anxiety. In multivariate analysis, serum apelin was the only parameter associated independently with depression and anxiety scores. A substantial number of PD patients had depression and anxiety. Increased levels of serum apelin may constitute a significant independent predictor of development of depression and anxiety in PD patients.

  1. Glycemic Control Modifies Difference in Mortality Risk Between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis in Incident Dialysis Patients With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Park, Kyoung Sook; Kee, Youn Kyung; Yoon, Chang-Yun; Han, In Mee; Han, Seung Gyu; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon Su; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam-Ho; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although numerous studies have tried to elucidate the best dialysis modality in end-stage renal disease patients with diabetes, results were inconsistent and varied with the baseline characteristics of patients. Furthermore, none of the previous studies on diabetic dialysis patients accounted for the impact of glycemic control. We explored whether glycemic control had modifying effect on mortality between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in incident dialysis patients with diabetes. A total of 902 diabetic patients who started dialysis between August 2008 and December 2013 were included from a nationwide prospective cohort in Korea. Based on the interaction analysis between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and dialysis modalities for patient survival (P for interaction = 0.004), subjects were stratified into good and poor glycemic control groups (HbA1c< or ≥8.0%). Differences in survival rates according to dialysis modalities were ascertained in each glycemic control group after propensity score matching. During a median follow-up duration of 28 months, the relative risk of death was significantly lower in PD compared with HD in the whole cohort and unmatched patients (whole cohort, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47–0.90, P = 0.01; patients with available HbA1c [n = 773], HR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.46–0.91, P = 0.01). In the good glycemic control group, there was a significant survival advantage of PD (HbA1c <8.0%, HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.94, P = 0.03). However, there was no significant difference in survival rates between PD and HD in the poor glycemic control group (HbA1c ≥8.0%, HR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.46–2.76, P = 0.80). This study demonstrated that the degree of glycemic control modified the mortality risk between dialysis modalities, suggesting that glycemic control might partly contribute to better survival of PD in incident dialysis patients with diabetes

  2. Early changes in body weight and blood pressure are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel

    2016-01-01

    Background While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. Methods In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Results During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85–0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66–0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30–90. Conclusions BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors. PMID:26985382

  3. Perceived autonomy and self-esteem in Dutch dialysis patients: the importance of illness and treatment perceptions.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Daphne L; Rijken, Mieke; Heijmans, Monique; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W

    2010-07-01

    Compared to healthy people, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients participate less in paid jobs and social activities. This study explored the perceived autonomy, state self-esteem and labour participation in ESRD patients on dialysis, and the role illness and treatment perceptions play in these concepts. Patients completed questionnaires at home or in the dialysis centre (N = 166). Data were analysed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Labour participation among dialysis patients was low, the average autonomy levels were only moderate, and the average self-esteem level was rather high. On the whole, positive illness and treatment perceptions were associated with higher autonomy and self-esteem, but not with labour participation. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that illness and treatment perceptions explained 18 to 27% of the variance in autonomy and self-esteem. Perceptions of personal control, less impact of the illness and treatment, and less concern were important predictors. Our results indicate that dialysis patients' beliefs about their illness and treatment play an important role in their perceived autonomy and self-esteem. Stimulating positive (realistic) beliefs and altering maladaptive beliefs might contribute to a greater sense of autonomy and self-esteem, and to social participation in general. Interventions focusing on these beliefs may assist patients to adjust to ESRD.

  4. Low-dose dialysis combined with low protein intake can maintain nitrogen balance in peritoneal dialysis patients in poor economies
.

    PubMed

    Su, Chun-Yan; Wang, Tao; Lu, Xin-Hong; Ma, Sha; Tang, Wen; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2017-02-01

    Due to limited economic conditions, we tried to provide "fitted" dialysis doses instead of the doses recommended by the international guidelines to the individual patients. In the present cross-sectional study, we studied the dialysis adequacy and nutritional status of 5 peritoneal dialysis patients who had a low dialysis dose (2 bags, 4,000 mL/day). The 3-day dietary records were reviewed to calculate patients' energy, protein, and nitrogen intake (NI). The nitrogen removal (NR) from urine and dialysate was measured by Kjeldahl technique. Fecal nitrogen was estimated as 0.0155 g/kg/day. Subjective global nutritional assessment was used to evaluate the nutritional status. Among the 5 patients, 1 male and 4 female, mean age was 59 (42 - 81) years, dialysis duration 43 (33 - 74) months, body weight 51.05 ± 2.53 kg. The mean dietary protein intake was 0.66 g/kg/day, total weekly Kt/v was 1.25 (residual kidney Kt/v was 0.09), and total daily fluid removal was 699 mL. However, they achieved lower-level neutral nitrogen balance (NI 5.26 ± 0.93 g/day vs. NR 5.33 ± 0.81 g/day, N balance -0.07 ± 0.60 g/day). All of them maintained good nutritional status (SGA "A") without symptoms of nitrogen retention (serum urea 22 ± 4.18 mmol/L). Lower dialysis dose with lower daily protein intake can achieve a lower-level nitrogen balance and does not lead to malnutrition. It may be an effective approach to solve the dialysis problem for the economically week population in China, especially for people with a smaller body size with lower transport membrane.
.

  5. Hepatitis C risk factor for patients submitted to dialysis.

    PubMed

    Baldessar, Maria Zélia; Bettiol, Jane; Foppa, Fabrício; Oliveira, Lúcia Helena das Chagas

    2007-02-01

    This article reports the results of the research which has evaluated the prevalence and factors associated to the presence of Hepatitis C in patients submitted to dialysis at the Clinica de Doenças Renais (Clinic of Renal Diseases) in Tubarao city (CRDT), Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in the period between January 1st, 2004 to December 31st in the same year. The prevalence of 16.8% of Hepatitis C in the studied population and the time-length of dialysis as significative risk factor have become evident. The non-correlation of seropositivity of the followings factors is also indicated: age, gender, base diseases, infrastructures, the type of clinic machines, the type of dialyser, used membranes, the machine sterilisation and substances for this process as well as the number of times of the dialyser reutilization. The data represented in this project suggest that the Hepatitis C presents high prevalence in patients in dialysis and the time-length of the treatment is a risky factor to acquire the infection.

  6. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Among Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Koren, Ronit; Zafrir Danieli, Hadas; Doenyas-Barak, Keren; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Golik, Ahuva

    2017-01-01

    Context • The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been on the rise in the last decade. Subpopulations of patients with chronic diseases are at risk for adverse events and potential drug-herb interactions, among them dialysis patients. Objective • The study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CAM consumption among dialysis patients and to search for potential interactions. Design • The study was cross-sectional, based on questionnaires. Setting • The study occurred in the hemodialysis unit at Assaf Harofeh Medical Center (Zeriffin, Israel). Participants • Participants were patients of the hemodialysis unit. Outcome Measures • The questionnaires obtained demographic data, information about a patient's medical history and use of prescription medication, and all relevant history of CAM use, including the interest of the medical team in the patient's use of supplements. Results • Eighty-four patients participated in the study. Eight patients (9.5%) had used CAM, 5 of whom were women (62.5%). Of the CAM consumers, 4 (50%) had more than 12 y of education vs 14 (8.4%) in the nonconsumer group (P = .061). Six of the consumers were professionals (75%) in comparison with 30 (39.5%) of the nonconsumers, although that difference was not statistically significant (P = .22). The CAM users' monthly incomes were significantly better than that of the nonconsumers (P = .01). No differences were found regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, or physical activity. The study found potential drug-herb interactions in 4 (50%) of the CAM consumers. Moderate potential interactions were found between Aloe vera and diuretics; Aloe vera and insulin; pyridoxine and calcium-channel blockers and diuretics; and niacin and statins. Those interactions had the potential to result in hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, and lower blood pressure. Conclusions • The study found a lower prevalence of CAM consumption in dialysis patients than had been found in other

  7. Setting research priorities for patients on or nearing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Lillie, Erin; Dip, Sally Crowe P G; Cyr, Annette; Gladish, Michael; Large, Claire; Silverman, Howard; Toth, Brenda; Wolfs, Wim; Laupacis, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    With increasing emphasis among health care providers and funders on patient-centered care, it follows that patients and their caregivers should be included when priorities for research are being established. This study sought to identify the most important unanswered questions about the management of kidney failure from the perspective of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and the health care professionals who care for these patients. Research uncertainties were identified through a national Canadian survey of adult patients on or nearing dialysis, their caregivers, and health care professionals. Uncertainties were refined by a steering committee that included patients, caregivers, researchers, and clinicians to assemble a short-list of the top 30 uncertainties. Thirty-four people (11 patients; five caregivers; eight physicians; six nurses; and one social worker, pharmacist, physiotherapist, and dietitian each) from across Canada subsequently participated in a workshop to determine the top 10 research questions. In total, 1570 usable research uncertainties were received from 317 respondents to the survey. Among these, 259 unique uncertainties were identified; after ranking, these were reduced to a short-list of 30 uncertainties. During the in-person workshop, the top 10 research uncertainties were identified, which included questions about enhanced communication among patients and providers, dialysis modality options, itching, access to kidney transplantation, heart health, dietary restrictions, depression, and vascular access. These can be used alongside the results of other research priority-setting exercises to guide researchers in designing future studies and inform health care funders. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. A palliative approach to dialysis care: a patient-centered transition to the end of life.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Moss, Alvin H; Cohen, Lewis M; Fischer, Michael J; Germain, Michael J; Jassal, S Vanita; Perl, Jeffrey; Weiner, Daniel E; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2014-12-05

    As the importance of providing patient-centered palliative care for patients with advanced illnesses gains attention, standard dialysis delivery may be inconsistent with the goals of care for many patients with ESRD. Many dialysis patients with life expectancy of <1 year may desire a palliative approach to dialysis care, which focuses on aligning patient treatment with patients' informed preferences. This commentary elucidates what comprises a palliative approach to dialysis care and describes its potential and appropriate use. It also reviews the barriers to integrating such an approach into the current clinical paradigm of care and existing infrastructure and outlines system-level changes needed to accommodate such an approach.

  9. Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate at Dialysis Initiation and Clinical Outcomes of Indian Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N; Patel, M R; Chandra, A; Rangaswamy, D; Sinha, A; Bhadauria, D; Sharma, R K; Kaul, A; Gupta, A

    2017-01-01

    The optimal time for dialysis initiation remains controversial. Studies have failed to show better outcomes with early initiation of hemodialysis; even a few had shown increased adverse outcomes including poorer survival. Few studies have examined the same in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) not creatinine-based estimated GFR is recommended as the measure of kidney function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The objective of this observational study was to compare the outcomes of Indian patients initiated on PD with different residual renal function (RRF) as measured by 24-h urinary clearance method. A total of 352 incident patients starting on chronic ambulatory PD as the first modality of renal replacement therapy were followed prospectively. Patients were categorized into three groups as per mGFR at the initiation of PD (≤5, >5-10, and >10 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Patient survival and technique survival were compared among the three groups. Patients with GFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR] - 3.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 1.85-6.30, P = 0.000) and >5-10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (HR - 2.16, 95% CI - 1.26-3.71, P = 0.005) had higher risk of mortality as compared to those with GFR of >10 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Each increment of 1 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in baseline GFR was associated with 10% reduced risk of death (HR - 0.90, 95% CI - 0.85-0.96, P = 0.002). Technique survival was poor in those with an initial mGFR of ≤5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) as compared to other categories. RRF at the initiation was also an important factor predicting nutritional status at 1 year of follow-up. To conclude, initiation of PD at a lower baseline mGFR is associated with poorer patient and technique survival in Indian ESRD patients.

  10. Comparison of the impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality in hemodialysis patients with and without residual renal function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of flux membranes on mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients is controversial. Residual renal function (RRF) has shown to not only be as a predictor of mortality but also a contributor to β2-microglobulin clearance in HD patients. Our study aimed to determine the interaction of residual renal function with dialyzer membrane flux on mortality in HD patients. HD Patients were included from the Clinical Research Center registry for End Stage Renal Disease, a prospective observational cohort study in Korea. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to study the association between use of high-flux dialysis membranes and all-cause mortality with RRF and without RRF. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. This study included 893 patients with 24 h-residual urine volume ≥100 ml (569 and 324 dialyzed using low-flux and high-flux dialysis membranes, respectively) and 913 patients with 24 h-residual urine volume <100 ml (570 and 343 dialyzed using low-flux and high-flux dialysis membranes, respectively). After a median follow-up period of 31 months, mortality was not significantly different between the high and low-flux groups in patients with 24 h-residual urine volume ≥100 ml (HR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.38-1.95, P = 0.723). In patients with 24 h-residual urine volume <100 ml, HD using high-flux dialysis membrane was associated with decreased mortality compared to HD using low-flux dialysis membrane in multivariate analysis (HR 0.40, 95% CI, 0.21-0.78, P = 0.007). Our data showed that HD using high-flux dialysis membranes had a survival benefit in patients with 24 h-residual urine volume <100 ml, but not in patients with 24 h-residual urine volume ≥100 ml. These findings suggest that high-flux dialysis rather than low-flux dialysis might be considered in HD patients without RRF.

  11. Patient stories about their dialysis experience biases others' choices regardless of doctor's advice: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Winterbottom, Anna E; Bekker, Hilary L; Conner, Mark; Mooney, Andrew F

    2012-01-01

    Renal services provide resources to support patients in making informed choices about their dialysis modality. Many encourage new patients to talk with those already experiencing dialysis. It is unclear if these stories help or hinder patients' decisions, and few studies have been conducted into their effects. We present two studies comparing the impact of patient and doctor stories on hypothetical dialysis modality choices among an experimental population. In total, 1694 participants viewed online information about haemodialysis and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis and completed a questionnaire. In Study 1, using actors, treatment information was varied by presenter (Doctor, Patient), order of presenter (Patient first, Doctor first) and mode of delivery (written, video). Information in Study 2 was varied (using actors) by presenter (Doctor, Patient), order of presenter (Patient first, Doctor first), inclusion of a decision table (no table, before story, after story) and sex of the 'patient' (male, female) and 'Doctor' (male, female). Information was controlled to ensure comparable content and comprehensibility. In both studies, participants were more likely to choose the dialysis modality presented by the patient rather than that presented by the doctor. There was no effect for mode of delivery (video versus written) or inclusion of a decision table. As 'new' patients were making choices based on past patient experience of those already on dialysis, we recommend caution to services using patient stories about dialysis to support those new to the dialysis in delivering support to those who are new to the decision making process for dialysis modality.

  12. Pulmonary Congestion and Physical Functioning in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enia, Giuseppe; Tripepi, Rocco; Panuccio, Vincenzo; Torino, Claudia; Garozzo, Maurizio; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Zoccali, Carmine

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Purpose: Decline in physical function is commonly observed in patients with kidney failure on dialysis. Whether lung congestion, a predictable consequence of cardiomyopathy and fluid overload, may contribute to the low physical functioning of these patients has not been investigated. ♦ Methods: In 51 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we investigated the cross-sectional association between the physical functioning scale of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF: Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, USA) and an ultrasonographic measure of lung water recently validated in dialysis patients. The relationship between physical functioning and lung water was also analyzed taking into account the severity of dyspnea measured using the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification currently used to grade the severity of heart failure. ♦ Results: Evidence of moderate-to-severe lung congestion was evident in 20 patients, and this alteration was asymptomatic (that is, NHYHA class I) in 11 patients (55%). On univariate analysis, physical functioning was inversely associated with lung water (r = -0.48, p < 0.001), age (r = -0.44, p = 0.001), previous cardiovascular events (r = -0.46, p = 0.001), and fibrinogen (r = -0.34, p = 0.02). Physical functioning was directly associated with blood pressure, the strongest association being with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.38, p = 0.006). The NYHA class correlated inversely with physical functioning (r = -0.51, p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, only lung water and fibrinogen remained independent correlates of physical functioning. The NYHA class failed to maintain its independent association. ♦ Conclusions: This cross-sectional study supports the hypothesis that symptomatic and asymptomatic lung congestion is a relevant factor in the poor physical functioning of patients on PD. PMID:22942271

  13. Reported pica behavior in a sample of incident dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ward, P; Kutner, N G

    1999-01-01

    In a prospective study, pica behavior was investigated during baseline interviews with a cohort of incident patients (n = 226) who began chronic dialysis therapy in metropolitan Atlanta, GA, during 1996 to 1997. Pica, defined as current pica behavior and/or reported history of pica behavior, was reported by 16% of the sample. Patients reporting pica were significantly more likely to be African American women and were significantly younger than the remainder of the sample. Approximately two thirds of patients who reported pica behaviors craved and excessively consumed ice; the remainder craved and consumed starch, dirt, flour, or aspirin. Among patients reporting pica, average serum albumin values were low and average phosphorus was increased. The average hematocrit of patients reporting ice pica was low. Over half of the hemodialysis patients reporting pica behavior had excessive usual interdialytic weight gain. Potential symptoms/problems affecting quality of life among patients practicing pica, eg, cramps, are shown in a case report. The data indicate the need for targeted education and support for dietitians' increased interaction with dialysis patients involved in pica behaviors.

  14. Dialysis exercise team: the way to sustain exercise programs in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Salotti, Emilio; Tavolaro, Alba; Baronti, Maria E; Giannese, Domenico; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2014-01-01

    Patients affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD) show quite lower physical activity and exercise capacity when compared to healthy individuals. In addition, a sedentary lifestyle is favoured by lack of a specific counseling on exercise implementation in the nephrology care setting. Increasing physical activity level should represent a goal for every dialysis patient care management. Three crucial elements of clinical care may contribute to sustain a hemodialysis exercise program: a) involvement of exercise professionals, b) real commitment of nephrologists and dialysis professionals, c) individual patient adaptation of the exercise program. Dialysis staff have a crucial role to encourage and assist patients during intra-dialysis exercise, but other professionals should be included in the ideal "exercise team" for dialysis patients. Evaluation of general condition, comorbidities (especially cardiovascular), nutritional status and physical exercise capacity are mandatory to propose an exercise program, in either extra-dialysis or intra-dialysis setting. To this aim, nephrologist should lead a team of specialists and professionals including cardiologist, physiotherapist, exercise physiologist, renal dietician and nurse. In this scenario, dialysis nurses play a pivotal role since they guarantee a constant and direct approach. Unfortunately dialysis staff may often lack of information and formation about exercise management while they take care patients during the dialysis session. Building an effective exercise team, promoting the culture of exercise and increasing physical activity levels lead to a more complete and modern clinical care management of ESRD patients.

  15. Incident Dialysis Access in Patients With End-Stage Kidney Disease: What Needs to Be Improved.

    PubMed

    Moist, Louise M; Lok, Charmaine E

    2017-03-01

    The initiation of dialysis is a challenging time of transition for patients, families, and their supporters. Patients with exposure to a comprehensive chronic kidney disease clinic may have had education and subsequent decision making regarding dialysis modality and access; however, many patients with or without prior education will require an urgent start to dialysis, requiring quick decisions regarding dialysis modality and access. In many countries, hemodialysis (HD) using a central venous catheter (CVC) is the most common initial renal replacement modality and dialysis access. Multiple factors, both remedial and nonremedial, contribute to this including late referral, rapid decrease in kidney function, delay in delivery or acceptance of education, and decision making and other system delays. Recent use of urgent peritoneal dialysis as the initial dialysis modality has resulted in decreased exposure to CVCs and in-center HD. This article addresses the current state of incident dialysis access, recent trends toward urgent peritoneal dialysis start, and opportunities to avoid the use of CVCs for HD when appropriate, with a focus on considering dialysis access as a critical component of the end-stage kidney disease life-plan, which requires consideration of future modalities and access when making the choice of the initial dialysis access. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A communication framework for dialysis decision-making for frail elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Schell, Jane O; Cohen, Robert A

    2014-11-07

    Frail elderly patients with advanced kidney disease experience many of the burdens associated with dialysis. Although these patients constitute the fastest-growing population starting dialysis, they often suffer loss of functional status, impaired quality of life, and increased mortality after dialysis initiation. Nephrology clinicians face the challenges of helping patients decide if the potential benefits of dialysis outweigh the risks and preparing such patients for future setbacks. A communication framework for dialysis decision-making that aligns treatment choices with patient goals and values is presented. The role of uncertainty is highlighted, and the concept of a goal-directed care plan is introduced. This plan incorporates a time-limited trial that promotes frequent opportunities for reassessment. Using the communication skills presented, the clinician can prepare and guide patients for the dialysis trajectory as it unfolds.

  17. Valvular calcification, inflammation, and mortality in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Bonita A; Yang, Wei; Litt, Harold; Rosas, Sylvia E

    2013-07-01

    The study aim was to determine the correlates of valvular calcification (VC), including clinical and physiologic parameters, in individuals new to dialysis. In addition, the association of VC with coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression and mortality was investigated. A total of 101 incident dialysis individuals underwent electrocardiogram-triggered multislice computed tomography (CT) to monitor the presence and quantification of calcification. The average follow up was 2.85 +/- 0.72 years. Twenty-six (25.7%) patients had only one valve calcified, while 10 (9.9%) had calcifications in both valves. Patients with VC were older, more likely to have a history of diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD), more likely to have CAC, and to be Caucasian; fibrinogen and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also higher in these patients. Multivariable Poisson regression analysis revealed older age, history of CVD, increasing fibrinogen, and presence of CAC were independently associated with the presence of VC. Patients with VC also had a higher median annualized CAC progression compared to those without VC (2.90 versus 105.2, p = 0.004). The mortality rate per 100 years was 2.57 in patients without VC, compared to 4.20 and 13.76, respectively, for those with one or two calcified valves. An increasing number of calcified valves was associated with a higher mortality after adjustment for gender and race [HR 2.2 (1.03-4.69), p = 0.04], but was not statistically significant after adjustment for inflammatory markers such as IL-6 or fibrinogen. Traditional and novel risk factors are associated with the presence of VC, which is a risk marker for CAC progression and mortality in incident dialysis patients.

  18. Phosphorus metabolism in peritoneal dialysis- and haemodialysis-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Evenepoel, Pieter; Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Viaene, Liesbeth; Claes, Kathleen; Sprangers, Ben; Naesens, Maarten; Hoekstra, Tiny; Schlieper, Georg; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Kuypers, Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Phosphorus control is generally considered to be better in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients as compared with haemodialysis (HD) patients. Predialysis phosphorus concentrations are misleading as a measure of phosphorus exposure in HD, as these neglect significant dialysis-related fluctuations. Parameters of mineral metabolism, including parathyroid hormone (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), were determined in 79 HD and 61 PD patients. In PD, phosphorus levels were determined mid-morning. In HD, time-averaged phosphorus concentrations were modelled from measurements before and after the mid-week dialysis session. Weekly renal, dialytic and total phosphorus clearances as well as total mass removal were calculated from urine and dialysate collections. Time-averaged serum phosphorus concentrations in HD (3.5 ± 1.0 mg/dL) were significantly lower than the mid-morning concentrations in PD (5.0 ± 1.4 mg/dL, P < 0.0001). In contrast, predialysis phosphorus concentrations (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/dL) were not different from PD. PTH and FGF-23 levels were significantly higher in PD. Despite higher residual renal function, total phosphorus clearance was significantly lower in PD (P < 0.0001). Total phosphorus mass removal, conversely, was significantly higher in PD (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that the time-averaged phosphorus concentrations in patients treated with PD are higher as compared with patients treated with HD. Despite a better preserved renal function, total phosphorus clearance is lower in patients treated with PD. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings in a population with a different demographic profile and dietary background and to define clinical implications. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. A Palliative Approach to Dialysis Care: A Patient-Centered Transition to the End of Life

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Alvin H.; Cohen, Lewis M.; Fischer, Michael J.; Germain, Michael J.; Jassal, S. Vanita; Perl, Jeffrey; Weiner, Daniel E.; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2014-01-01

    As the importance of providing patient-centered palliative care for patients with advanced illnesses gains attention, standard dialysis delivery may be inconsistent with the goals of care for many patients with ESRD. Many dialysis patients with life expectancy of <1 year may desire a palliative approach to dialysis care, which focuses on aligning patient treatment with patients’ informed preferences. This commentary elucidates what comprises a palliative approach to dialysis care and describes its potential and appropriate use. It also reviews the barriers to integrating such an approach into the current clinical paradigm of care and existing infrastructure and outlines system-level changes needed to accommodate such an approach. PMID:25104274

  20. Lower serum uric acid level predicts mortality in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjin; Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Shin, Nara; Kim, Sun Moon; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated the impact of serum uric acid (SUA) on mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. A total of 4132 adult patients on dialysis were enrolled prospectively between August 2008 and September 2014. Among them, we included 1738 patients who maintained dialysis for at least 3 months and had available SUA in the database. We categorized the time averaged-SUA (TA-SUA) into 5 groups: <5.5, 5.5–6.4, 6.5–7.4, 7.5–8.4, and ≥8.5 mg/dL. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality according to SUA group. The mean TA-SUA level was slightly higher in men than in women. Patients with lower TA-SUA level tended to have lower body mass index (BMI), phosphorus, serum albumin level, higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM), and higher proportion of malnourishment on the subjective global assessment (SGA). During a median follow-up of 43.9 months, 206 patients died. Patients with the highest SUA had a similar risk to the middle 3 TA-SUA groups, but the lowest TA-SUA group had a significantly elevated HR for mortality. The lowest TA-SUA group was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.720; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–2.937; P = 0.047) even after adjusting for demographic, comorbid, nutritional covariables, and medication use that could affect SUA levels. This association was prominent in patients with well nourishment on the SGA, a preserved serum albumin level, a higher BMI, and concomitant DM although these parameters had no significant interaction in the TA-SUA-mortality relationship except DM. In conclusion, a lower TA-SUA level <5.5 mg/dL predicted all-cause mortality in patients with chronic dialysis. PMID:27310949

  1. Impact on peritoneal membrane of use of icodextrin-based dialysis solution in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Moriishi, Misaki; Kawanishi, Hideki; Tsuchiya, Shinichiro

    2006-01-01

    The usefulness of icodextrin-containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution for the management of body fluid and blood pressure has been reported. However, icodextrin PD solution is a foreign solution in the body, and the possible induction of intraperitoneal inflammation has been reported. In this study, we investigated at 6-month intervals the influence of icodextrin solution on peritoneal permeability and inflammatory reactions in patients in whom glucose solution had been changed to icodextrin solution for the overnight dwell. We enrolled 9 anuric PD patients (5 men, 4 women) of mean age 58 +/- 5.9 years (range: 45.6-64.8 years) into the study. The patients' mean duration of PD was 61.9 +/- 42 months (range: 6.7-142.5 months). The cause of end-stage renal disease was chronic glomerulonephritis in all patients. For evaluation ofperitoneal permeability, we performed peritoneal equilibration tests (PETs) immediately after an overnight dwell and determined the dialysate-to-plasma ratios of creatinine (D/P Cr), beta2-microglobulin (D/P beta2m), albumin (D/P Alb), immunoglobulin G (D/P IgG), and alpha2-macroglobulin (D/P alpha2m). We also measured interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) in overnight effluent as indices of inflammation and of the fibrinolysis-coagulation system. The evaluation was performed every 6 months for 24 months. The FDPs in effluent increased significantly at 6 months after the change to icodextrin solution, and IL-6 tended to increase. The D/P beta2m, D/P Alb, D/P IgG, and D/P alpha2m all significantly increased in the course of follow-up. In the PETs, the D/P Cr increased slightly, but the change was nonsignificant. At 30 months after the change to icodextrin solution, 1 patient was diagnosed as having a risk of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (pre-EPS). In this patient, rapid increases in IL-6, D/P Cr and macromolecular and small molecular D/P by PET were noted after the change to icodextrin solution. Steroids were

  2. Fatigue experienced by patients receiving maintenance dialysis in hemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    Letchmi, Santhna; Das, Srijit; Halim, Hasliza; Zakariah, Farid Azizul; Hassan, Hamidah; Mat, Samsiah; Packiavathy, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise.

  3. Calciphylaxis in peritoneal dialysis patients: a single center cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanchen; Corapi, Kristin M; Luongo, Maria; Thadhani, Ravi; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-01-01

    Background Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Most research in the field of calciphylaxis is focused on hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, data on calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are limited. Methods In this cohort study, we examined data from adult patients who initiated PD for ESRD management at our institute’s PD unit from January 2001 to December 2015. Associations with the development of calciphylaxis were examined for clinical, laboratory, and medication exposures. Incidence of calciphylaxis and mortality in PD patients who developed calciphylaxis were analyzed. Treatments administered to treat calciphylaxis in PD patients were summarized. Results In this cohort of 63 patients, 7 patients developed calciphylaxis (incidence rate: 9.0 per 1,000 patient-years). Median age of PD patients who developed calciphylaxis was 50 years, 57% were white, 71% females, and 71% were previously on HD. Female sex, obesity, HD as a prior dialysis modality, recurrent hypotension, elevated time-averaged serum phosphorous levels, reduced time-averaged serum albumin levels, and warfarin therapy were associated with increased calciphylaxis risk in univariate logistic regression analyses. Intravenous sodium thiosulfate was administered in 57% of PD patients who developed calciphylaxis. One-year mortality in PD patients who developed calciphylaxis was 71% despite multimodal treatment including sodium thiosulfate, hyperbaric oxygen, cinacalcet, and wound debridement. Conclusion Calciphylaxis is a rare but frequently fatal condition in PD patients. Our study provides critical early insights into calciphylaxis incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in PD patients. Sample size and characteristics of patients included in our study limit generalizability to overall PD population and warrant examination in larger independent studies. PMID:27698566

  4. Skin disorders in peritoneal dialysis patients: An underdiagnosed subject

    PubMed Central

    Gursu, Meltem; Uzun, Sami; Topcuoğlu, Derya; Koc, Leyli Kadriye; Yucel, Lamiye; Sumnu, Abdullah; Cebeci, Egemen; Ozkan, Oktay; Behlul, Ahmet; Koc, Leyla; Ozturk, Savas; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine all skin changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients followed up in our unit. METHODS: Patients on PD program for at least three months without any known chronic skin disease were included in the study. Patients with already diagnosed skin disease, those who have systemic diseases that may cause skin lesions, patients with malignancies and those who did not give informed consent were excluded from the study. All patients were examined by the same predetermined dermatologist with all findings recorded. The demographic, clinical and laboratory data including measures of dialysis adequacy of patients were recorded also. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows 16.0 standard version was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among the patients followed up in our PD unit, those without exclusion criteria who gave informed consent, 38 patients were included in the study with male/female ratio and mean age of 26/12 and 50.3 ± 13.7 years, respectively. The duration of CKD was 7.86 ± 4.16 years and the mean PD duration was 47.1 ± 29.6 mo. Primary kidney disease was diabetic nephropathy in 11, nephrosclerosis in six, uropathologies in four, chronic glomerulonephritis in three, chronic pyelonephritis in three, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in three patients while cause was unknown in eight patients. All patients except for one patient had at least one skin lesion. Loss of lunula, onychomycosis and tinea pedis are the most frequent skin disorders recorded in the study group. Diabetic patients had tinea pedis more frequently (P = 0.045). No relationship of skin findings was detected with primary renal diseases, comorbidities and medications that the patients were using. CONCLUSION: Skin abnormalities are common in in PD patients. The most frequent skin pathologies are onychomycosis and tinea pedis which must not be overlooked. PMID:27458566

  5. Risk of major nonemergent inpatient general surgical procedures in patients on long-term dialysis.

    PubMed

    Gajdos, Csaba; Hawn, Mary T; Kile, Deidre; Robinson, Thomas N; Henderson, William G

    2013-02-01

    Patients on long-term dialysis undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures are thought to have high rates of postoperative complications and death. Retrospective cohort study. Academic and private hospitals. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to select dialysis and nondialysis patients who had undergone nonemergent major general surgical procedures between 2005 and 2008. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of dialysis on 30-day surgical outcomes adjusted for age, race, sex, work relative value units, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and recent operations (within the past 30 days). Patient morbidity, mortality, and failure-to-rescue rates. Dialysis patients undergoing major nonemergent general surgical procedures were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependence, and need for a reoperation within 30 days from the index procedure. Dialysis patients also had a higher risk of vascular complications and postoperative death. Older dialysis patients (aged ≥ 65 years) had a significantly higher postoperative mortality rate compared with their younger counterparts. Dialysis patients were significantly more likely to die after any complication occurred, and mortality rates were especially high following stroke, myocardial infarction, and reintubation. Abnormalities in potentially modifiable preoperative variables (blood urea nitrogen level, albumin level, and hematocrit) did not increase the risk of postoperative complications or death in dialysis patients compared with nondialysis patients. Dialysis patients undergoing nonemergent general surgery have significantly elevated risks of postoperative complications and death, particularly if they are aged 65 years or older.

  6. Outcomes following cardiac surgery in patients with preoperative renal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Hunaid A; Armstrong, Lesley A; Modi, Amit; Barlow, Clifford W

    2014-01-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was that whether patients who are dependent on chronic dialysis have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population when undergoing cardiac surgery. These patients often require surgery in view of their heightened risk of cardiac disease. Altogether 278 relevant papers were identified using the below mentioned search, 16 papers represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Dialysis-dependent (DD) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve replacement have higher morbidity but acceptable outcomes. There is some evidence to show that outcomes after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) are better than after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (ONCAB) and that results are worse in DD patients with diabetic nephropathy. Patients undergoing combined procedures have a higher mortality.

  7. Clinical determinants of reduced physical activity in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Gabriela; Gallar, Paloma; Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Di Gioia, Cristina; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Camacho, Rosa; Vigil, Ana; Heimbürger, Olof; Ortega, Olimpia; Rodriguez, Isabel; Herrero, Juan Carlos; Bárány, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt; Stenvinkel, Peter; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2015-08-01

    The phenotype associated to reduced physical activity (PA) in dialysis patients is poorly documented. We here evaluate weekly PA in two independent cohorts. Cross-sectional study with PA assessed by the number of steps/day measured by pedometer in two cohorts of prevalent dialysis patients: (1) peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients (n = 64; 62 ± 14 years; 70 % men) from Stockholm, Sweden using the pedometer for 7 consecutive days; (2) hemodialysis (HD) patients (n = 78; 63 ± 12 years; 65% men) from a single center in Madrid, Spain using the pedometer for 6 consecutive days: 2 HD days, 2 non-HD midweek days and 2 non-HD weekend days. In both cohorts, comorbidities, body composition, nutritional status, and related biomarkers were assessed. Cohorts were not merged; instead data were analyzed separately serving as reciprocal replication analyses. Most patients (63% of PD and 71% of HD) were considered sedentary (<5,000 steps/day). PD patients had on average 4,839 ± 3,313 steps/day. HD patients had 3,767 ± 3,370 steps/day on HD-free days, but fewer steps/day on HD days (2,274 ± 2,048 steps/day; p < 0.0001). In both cohorts, and across increasing PA tertiles, patients were younger and had less comorbidities. Higher PA was also accompanied by better nutritional status (depicted by albumin, pre-albumin, creatinine and normalized protein catabolic rate in HD, and by albumin and subjective global assessment [SGA] in PD), higher lean body mass, and lower fat body mass (bioimpedance and/or dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]). Higher levels of PA were accompanied by lower levels of C-reactive protein in PD. Age and lean body mass were the strongest multivariate predictors of PA in both cohorts. There is a high prevalence of sedentary behavior in dialysis patients. Better physical activity was consistently associated with younger age, lower presence of comorbidities and better nutritional status. Pedometers represent a simple and inexpensive tool to objectively evaluate

  8. Initiation of dialysis.

    PubMed

    Hakim, R M; Lazarus, J M

    1995-11-01

    The decision to initiate dialysis in a patient with progressive renal disease often depends on the physician's assessment of the patient's subjective symptoms of uremia. There is an increasing need to identify objective criteria for such a decision. Recent evidence suggests that malnutrition at the initiation of dialysis is a strong predictor of subsequent increased relative risk of death on dialysis. In this context, the role of prescribed protein restriction as well as the influence of the progression of renal disease on spontaneous dietary protein intake is examined. It is proposed that the indices of malnutrition such as progressive weight loss, serum albumin levels below 4.0 g/dL, serum transferrin levels below 200 mg/dL, and spontaneous dietary protein intake (using 24-hr urinary nitrogen measurement) below 0.8 to 0.7 g/kg per day be considered as objective criteria for the initiation of dialysis. Studies that have examined the role of "early" versus "late" dialysis have consistently shown a better outcome in the patients starting dialysis early. Other studies also suggest that early referral to nephrologists results in improved morbidity and mortality as well as hospitalization costs. An adequate vascular access, as well as social and psychological preparation of the patient, is an important early step in the process.

  9. Is Peritonitis Risk Increased in Elderly Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis? Report from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry (RDPLF).

    PubMed

    Duquennoy, Simon; Béchade, Clémence; Verger, Christian; Ficheux, Maxence; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    ♦ This study was carried out to examine whether or not elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) had an increased risk of peritonitis. ♦ This was a retrospective cohort study based on data from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. We analyzed 8,396 incident patients starting PD between January 2003 and December 2010. The end of the observation period was 31 December 2012. Patients were separated into 2 age groups: up to 75 and over of 75 years old. ♦ Among 8,396 patients starting dialysis there were 3,173 patients older than 75. When using a Cox model, no association was found between age greater than 75 years and increased risk of peritonitis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97 [0.88 - 1.07]). Diabetes (HR: 1.14 [1.01 - 1.28] and continuous ambulatory PD (HR: 1.13 [1.04 - 1.23]) were significantly associated with a higher risk of peritoneal infection whereas nurse-assisted PD was associated with a lower risk of peritonitis (HR: 0.85 [0.78 - 0.94]. In the analysis restricted to the 3,840 self-care PD patients, there was no association between age older than 75 years and risk of peritonitis. ♦ The risk of peritonitis is not increased in elderly patients on PD in a country where assisted PD is available. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  10. Quality of Life and Physical Function in Older Patients on Dialysis: A Comparison of Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis with Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Iyasere, Osasuyi U.; Johansson, Lina; Huson, Les; Smee, Joanna; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives In-center hemodialysis (HD) is often the default dialysis modality for older patients. Few centers use assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD), which enables treatment at home. This observational study compared quality of life (QoL) and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and HD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Patients on assisted PD who were >60 years old and on dialysis for >3 months were recruited and matched to patients on HD (needing hospital transport) by age, sex, diabetes, dialysis vintage, ethnicity, and index of deprivation. Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale. QoL assessments included Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form-12, Palliative Outcomes Symptom Scale (renal), Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, and Renal Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RTSQ). Physical function was evaluated by Barthel Score and timed up and go test. Results In total, 251 patients (129 PD and 122 HD) were recruited. In unadjusted analysis, patients on assisted PD had a higher prevalence of possible depression (HADS>8; PD=38.8%; HD=23.8%; P=0.05) and higher HADS depression score (median: PD=6; HD=5; P=0.05) but higher RTSQ scores (median: PD=55; HD=51; P<0.01). In a generalized linear regression model adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, dialysis vintage, and frailty, assisted PD continued to be associated with higher RTSQ scores (P=0.04) but not with other QoL measures. Conclusions There are no differences in measures of QoL and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and comparable patients on HD, except for treatment satisfaction, which is higher in patients on PD. Assisted PD should be considered as an alternative to HD for older patients, allowing them to make their preferred choices. PMID:26712808

  11. Quality of Life and Physical Function in Older Patients on Dialysis: A Comparison of Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis with Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Iyasere, Osasuyi U; Brown, Edwina A; Johansson, Lina; Huson, Les; Smee, Joanna; Maxwell, Alexander P; Farrington, Ken; Davenport, Andrew

    2016-03-07

    In-center hemodialysis (HD) is often the default dialysis modality for older patients. Few centers use assisted peritoneal dialysis (PD), which enables treatment at home. This observational study compared quality of life (QoL) and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and HD. Patients on assisted PD who were >60 years old and on dialysis for >3 months were recruited and matched to patients on HD (needing hospital transport) by age, sex, diabetes, dialysis vintage, ethnicity, and index of deprivation. Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale. QoL assessments included Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Short Form-12, Palliative Outcomes Symptom Scale (renal), Illness Intrusiveness Rating Scale, and Renal Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RTSQ). Physical function was evaluated by Barthel Score and timed up and go test. In total, 251 patients (129 PD and 122 HD) were recruited. In unadjusted analysis, patients on assisted PD had a higher prevalence of possible depression (HADS>8; PD=38.8%; HD=23.8%; P=0.05) and higher HADS depression score (median: PD=6; HD=5; P=0.05) but higher RTSQ scores (median: PD=55; HD=51; P<0.01). In a generalized linear regression model adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, dialysis vintage, and frailty, assisted PD continued to be associated with higher RTSQ scores (P=0.04) but not with other QoL measures. There are no differences in measures of QoL and physical function between older patients on assisted PD and comparable patients on HD, except for treatment satisfaction, which is higher in patients on PD. Assisted PD should be considered as an alternative to HD for older patients, allowing them to make their preferred choices. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Assessment of the nutritional state of dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kerr, P G; Strauss, B J; Atkins, R C

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the nutritional state of our dialysis patients has been stressed for many years. Although the calculation of the protein catabolic rate has become common practice in many dialysis units, there are several problems with this measurement. In addition, the serum albumin level is subject to multiple influences making its interpretation in individual patients difficult. This paper examines a different approach to nutritional assessment-that of using longer term measures of nutrition. Several techniques for measuring body composition are explored and their use in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) examined. Total body nitrogen measurement is a gold standard technique which has been validated in renal patients, unfortunately it is not widely available. Of the alternatives, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning for assessment of fat-free mass appears to be the best technique with the narrowest limits of agreement compared to gold standard techniques. Whilst bioelectrical impedance is reasonable for body water assessment, it is not reliable in ESRD patients for lean-body mass estimation.

  13. Risk factors and outcomes of high peritonitis rate in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients’ technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes. During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality. We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start

  14. Perceived illness intrusions among continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Usha; Kedlya, Prashanth G

    2012-09-01

    To study the perceived illness intrusion of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, to examine their demographics, and to find out the association among demographics, duration of illness as well as illness intrusion, 40 chronic kidney disease stage V patients on CAPD during 2006-2007 were studied. Inclusion criteria were patients' above 18 years, willing, stable, and completed at least two months of dialysis. Those with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. Sociodemographics were collected using a semi-structured interview schedule. A 14-item illness intrusion checklist covering various aspects of life was administered. The subjects had to rate the illness intrusion in their daily life and the extent of intrusion. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi square test of association. The mean age of the subjects was 56.05 ± 10.05 years. There was near equal distribution of gender. 82.5% were married, 70.0% belonged to Hindu religion, 45.0% were pre-degree, 25.0% were employed, 37.5% were housewives and 30.0% had retired. 77.5% belonged to the upper socioeconomic strata, 95.0% were from an urban background and 65.0% were from nuclear families. The mean duration of dialysis was 19.0 ± 16.49 months. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents were performing the dialysis exchanges by themselves. More than 95.0%were on three or four exchanges per day. All the 40 subjects reported illness intrusion in their daily life. Intrusion was perceived to some extent in the following areas: health 47.5%, work 25.0%, finance 37.5%, diet 40.0%, and psychological 50.0%. Illness had not intruded in the areas of relationship with spouse 52.5%, sexual life 30.0%, with friends 92.5%, with family 85.5%, social functions 52.5%, and religious functions 75.0%. Statistically significant association was not noted between illness intrusion and other variables. CAPD patients perceived illness intrusion to some extent in their daily life. Elderly, educated

  15. Isotopic bone mineralization rates in maintenance dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.; Stephens, E.

    1983-09-01

    The expanding pool model of radiocalcium kinetics has been used in 13 maintenance dialysis patients to measure bone mineralization rate. No difficulties were met in applying the data to the model, and values for the bone mineralization rate ranged from 0.0 to 2.0 mmol/kg Ca++ per day. The bone histology obtained at the time of the study showed a correlation between the degree of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the bone mineralization rate, with low values of the latter occurring in atypical osteomalacia (two patients) or inactive-looking bone (one patient) and raised values in seven patients. The plasma alkaline phosphatase and immunoassayable parathyroid hormone levels each correlated significantly with the bone mineralization rate. These findings suggest that the technique is valid when applied to hemodialysis patients and provides quantitative information about skeletal calcium metabolism in different types of renal bone disease.

  16. Consolidation in the Dialysis Industry, Patient Choice, and Local Market Competition.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kevin F; Zheng, Yuanchao; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Ho, Vivian; Bhattacharya, Jay; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-11-09

    The Medicare program insures >80% of patients with ESRD in the United States. An emphasis on reducing outpatient dialysis costs has motivated consolidation among dialysis providers, with two for-profit corporations now providing dialysis for >70% of patients. It is unknown whether industry consolidation has affected patients' ability to choose among competing dialysis providers. We identified patients receiving in-center hemodialysis at the start of 2001 and 2011 from the national ESRD registry and ascertained dialysis facility ownership. For each hospital service area, we determined the maximum distance within which 90% of patients traveled to receive dialysis in 2001. We compared the numbers of competing dialysis providers within that same distance between 2001 and 2011. Additionally, we examined the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, a metric of market concentration ranging from near zero (perfect competition) to one (monopoly) for each hospital service area. Between 2001 and 2011, the number of different uniquely owned competing providers decreased 8%. However, increased facility entry into markets to meet rising demand for care offset the effect of provider consolidation on the number of choices available to patients. The number of dialysis facilities in the United States increased by 54%, and patients experienced an average 10% increase in the number of competing proximate facilities from which they could choose to receive dialysis (P<0.001). Local markets were highly concentrated in both 2001 and 2011 (mean Herfindahl-Hirschman Index =0.46; SD=0.2 for both years), but overall market concentration did not materially change. In summary, a decade of consolidation in the United States dialysis industry did not (on average) limit patient choice or result in more concentrated local markets. However, because dialysis markets remained highly concentrated, it will be important to understand whether market competition affects prices paid by private insurers, access to

  17. Effects of renal care coordinator case management on outcomes in incident dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Dugan W; Usvyat, Len A; DeFalco, Daniel; Kotanko, Peter; Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Maddux, Franklin W

    2016-03-01

    Pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) care impacts dialysis start and incident dialysis outcomes. We describe the use of late stage CKD population data coupled with CKD case management to improve dialysis start. The Renal Care Coordinator (RCC) program is a nephrology practice and Fresenius Medical Care North America (FMCNA) partnership involving a case manager resource and data analytics. We studied patients starting dialysis between August 1, 2009 and February 28, 2013 in 9 nephrology practices partnering in the RCC program. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match patients who had participated in the RCC program to patients who had not. Primary outcomes were use of a permanent access or peritoneal dialysis (PD) at first outpatient dialysis. Serum albumin at the first outpatient dialysis treatment and mortality and hospitalization rates in the first 120 days of dialysis were secondary outcomes. In the nephrology practices studied, 7,626 patients started dialysis. Of these, 738 patients (9.7%) were enrolled in the RCC program; 693 RCC patients (93.9%) were matched with 693 patients who did not participate in the RCC program. Logistic regression analysis indicates that RCC program patients are more likely to start PD or use a permanent vascular access at dialysis start and are more likely to start treatment with a serum albumin level ≥ 4.0 g/ dL. Late stage CKD data-driven case management is associated with a higher rate of PD use, lower central venous catheter (CVC) use, and higher albumin levels at first outpatient dialysis.

  18. HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Craig, Jonathan C; Johnson, David W; Perkovic, Vlado; Nigwekar, Sagar U; Hegbrant, Jorgen; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2013-09-11

    People with advanced kidney disease treated with dialysis experience mortality rates from cardiovascular disease that are substantially higher than for the general population. Studies that have assessed the benefits of statins (HMG CoA reductase inhibitors) report conflicting conclusions for people on dialysis and existing meta-analyses have not had sufficient power to determine whether the effects of statins vary with severity of kidney disease. Recently, additional data for the effects of statins in dialysis patients have become available. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and last updated in 2009. To assess the benefits and harms of statin use in adults who require dialysis (haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis). We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 29 February 2012 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that compared the effects of statins with placebo, no treatment, standard care or other statins on mortality, cardiovascular events and treatment-related toxicity in adults treated with dialysis were sought for inclusion. Two or more authors independently extracted data and assessed study risk of bias. Treatment effects were summarised using a random-effects model and subgroup analyses were conducted to explore sources of heterogeneity. Treatment effects were expressed as mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes together with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The risk of bias was high in many of the included studies. Random sequence generation and allocation concealment was reported in three (12%) and four studies (16%), respectively. Participants and personnel were blinded in 13 studies (52%), and outcome assessors were blinded in five studies (20%). Complete outcome reporting occurred in nine studies (36%). Adverse events were only reported in nine studies (36

  19. A Case Report of Neisseria Mucosa Peritonitis in a Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Awdisho, Alan; Bermudez, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Peritonitis is a leading complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, very rarely does Neisseria mucosa cause peritonitis. We describe an unusual case of N. mucosa peritonitis in a chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient. A 28-year-old Hispanic male presents with diffuse abdominal pain exacerbated during draining of the peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal fluid examination was remarkable for leukocytosis and gramnegative diplococci. Bacterial cultures were positive for N. mucosa growth. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with preservation of the dialysis catheter. This case highlights the rarity and importance of Neisseria mucosa causing peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. There seems to be a unique association between N. mucosa peritonitis and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. The patient was successfully managed with ciprofloxacin along with salvaging of the dialysis catheter. PMID:28191300

  20. Assessing the utility of testing aluminum levels in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish K; Toussaint, Nigel D; Pickering, Janice; Beeston, Tony; Smith, Edward R; Holt, Stephen G

    2015-04-01

    Plasma aluminum (Al) is routinely tested in many dialysis patients. Aluminum exposure may lead to acute toxicity and levels in excess of ∼2.2 μmol/L (60 μg/L) should be avoided. Historically, toxicity has been caused by excessive dialyzate Al but modern reverse osmosis (RO) water should be Al free. Nevertheless, many units continue to perform routine Al levels on dialysis patients. This single-center study retrospectively analyzed Al levels in plasma, raw water feed, and RO product between 2010 and 2013 using our database (Nephworks 6) with the aim of determining the utility of these measurements. Two thousand fifty-eight plasma Al tests in 755 patients (61.9% male, mean age 64.7 years) were reviewed showing mean ± SD of 0.41 ± 0.30 μmol/L. One hundred eleven (5.4%) tests from 61 patients had Al levels >0.74 μmol/L and 45 (73.8%) of these patients were or had been prescribed Al hydroxide (Al(OH)(3)) as a phosphate binder. Seven patients had Al concentrations >2.2 μmol/L with no source of Al identified in 1 patient. One hundred sixty-six patients taking Al(OH)(3) (78.7% of all patients on Al(OH)(3)) had levels ≤0.74 μmol/L, the odds ratio of plasma Al > 0.74 μmol/L on Al(OH)3 was 9. The cost of plasma Al assay is $A30.60; thus, costs were $A62,974.80 over the study period. Despite RO feed water Al levels as high as 48 μmol/L, Al output from the RO was almost always undetectable (<0.1 μmol/L) with dialyzate Al levels > 2.2 μmol/L only 3 times since 2010, and never in the last 3 years. Routine unselected testing of plasma Al appears unnecessary and expensive and more selective testing in dialysis patients should be considered. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  1. The grown-up patient. The new customer in dialysis or--how to handle the demanding and emancipated dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Hippold, I

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of dialysis patients is under pressure. As a result of strict budgeting and increased administrative work, enhancement and the further development of the dialysis health care system is needed. An essential element of that development is a radical change in the patient/nurse relationship. Customer relationship management assumes that the patient is seen as a client, is encouraged to make decisions on their treatment and also emphasises the professionalism of nursing.

  2. Peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis in patients with delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Thomson, B K A; Moser, M A J; Marek, C; Bloch, M; Weernink, C; Shoker, A; Luke, P P

    2013-01-01

    Delayed graft function (DGF) in kidney transplantation affects adverse outcomes. It remains unclear whether the post-transplant dialysis modality alters perioperative or long-term graft outcomes. We performed a retrospective observational quality initiative at two Canadian renal transplant centers, in which DGF occurred in the recipient, necessitating one of peritoneal dialysis (PD) or hemodialysis (HD). There was no difference in baseline factors between patients with post-transplant PD (n = 14) or HD (n = 63). The use of PD was associated with an increased risk of wound infection/leakage (PD 5/14 vs. HD 6/63, p = 0.024), shorter length of hospitalization (13.7 vs. 18.7 d, p = 0.009) and time requiring dialysis post-operatively (6.5 vs 11.0 d, p = 0.043). There were no differences in readmission to hospital within 6 months (4/14 vs. 23/63, p = 0.759), graft loss (0/14 vs. 2/63, p = 1.000) or acute rejection episodes (1/14 vs. 4/63, p = 1.000) at one yr, and GFR did not differ between the PD or HD groups at 30 d (35.7 vs. 33.8 mL/min/m(2), p = 0.731), six months (46.9 vs. 45.5 mL/min/m(2), p = 0.835) or one yr (46.6 vs. 44.5 mL/min/m(2), p = 0.746). Further research is needed to determine which transplant patients are most appropriate to undergo PD catheter removal at the time of transplantation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Geographic Variation in Cardioprotective Antihypertensive Medication Usage in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wetmore, James B.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Hou, Qingjiang; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Rigler, Sally K.; Spertus, John A.; Shireman, Theresa I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite their high risk for adverse cardiac outcomes, persons on chronic dialysis have been shown to have lower use of antihypertensive medications with cardioprotective properties, such as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), β-blockers, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), than might be expected. We constructed a novel database that permits detailed exploration into the demographic, clinical and geographic factors associated with the use these agents of among hypertensive chronic dialysis patients. Study Design National cross-sectional retrospective analysis linking Medicaid prescription drug claims with United States Renal Data System core data. Setting & Participants 48,882 hypertensive chronic dialysis patients who were dually-eligible for Medicaid and Medicare services in 2005. Factors Demographics, comorbidities, functional status, and state of residence. Outcomes Prevalence of cardioprotective antihypertensive agents in Medicaid pharmacy claims and state-specific observed:expected odds ratios of medication exposure. Measurements Factors associated with medication use were modeled using multi-level logistic regression models. Results In multivariable analyses, cardioprotective antihypertensive medication exposure was significantly associated with younger age, female sex, non-Caucasian race, intact functional status, and use of in-center hemodialysis. Diabetes was associated with a statistically-significant 28% higher odds of ACE inhibitor/ARB use, but congestive heart failure (CHF) was associated with only a 9% increase in the odds of β-blockers and no increase in ACE inhibitor/ARB use. There was substantial state-by-state variation in use of all classes of agents, with a greater than 2.9-fold difference in adjusted rate odds ratios between the highest- and lowest-prescribing states for ACE inhibitors/ARBs and a 3.6-fold difference for β-blockers. Limitations Limited generalizability beyond study

  4. Roxadustat (FG-4592): Correction of Anemia in Incident Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Besarab, Anatole; Chernyavskaya, Elena; Motylev, Igor; Shutov, Evgeny; Kumbar, Lalathaksha M; Gurevich, Konstantin; Chan, Daniel Tak Mao; Leong, Robert; Poole, Lona; Zhong, Ming; Saikali, Khalil G; Franco, Marietta; Hemmerich, Stefan; Yu, Kin-Hung Peony; Neff, Thomas B

    2016-04-01

    Safety concerns with erythropoietin analogues and intravenous (IV) iron for treatment of anemia in CKD necessitate development of safer therapies. Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally bioavailable hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that promotes coordinated erythropoiesis through HIF-mediated transcription. We performed an open-label, randomized hemoglobin (Hb) correction study in anemic (Hb≤10.0 g/dl) patients incident to hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). Sixty patients received no iron, oral iron, or IV iron while treated with roxadustat for 12 weeks. Mean±SD baseline Hb was 8.3±1.0 g/dl in enrolled patients. Roxadustat at titrated doses increased mean Hb by ≥2.0 g/dl within 7 weeks regardless of baseline iron repletion status, C-reactive protein level, iron regimen, or dialysis modality. Mean±SEM maximal change in Hb from baseline (ΔHb(max)), the primary endpoint, was 3.1±0.2 g/dl over 12 weeks in efficacy-evaluable patients (n=55). In groups receiving oral or IV iron, ΔHb(max) was similar and larger than in the no-iron group. Hb response (increase in Hb of ≥1.0 g/dl from baseline) was achieved in 96% of efficacy-evaluable patients. Mean serum hepcidin decreased significantly 4 weeks into study: by 80% in HD patients receiving no iron (n=22), 52% in HD and PD patients receiving oral iron (n=21), and 41% in HD patients receiving IV iron (n=9). In summary, roxadustat was well tolerated and corrected anemia in incident HD and PD patients, regardless of baseline iron repletion status or C-reactive protein level and with oral or IV iron supplementation; it also reduced serum hepcidin levels.

  5. Patients initiating peritoneal dialysis started on two icodextrin exchanges daily.

    PubMed

    Awuah, Kwabena T; Gorban-Brennan, Nancy; Yalamanchili, Hima Bindu; Finkelstein, Fredric O

    2013-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) are often put on standard one size fits all" regimens, despite having varying degrees of residual renal function (RRF). The present study reports our experience with initiation of PD using 2 icodextrin exchanges daily in patients with RRF corresponding to a weekly Kt/Vurea of at least 1.0. Peritoneal and RRF Kt/Vurea were tracked closely, and total Kt/Vurea was maintained between 1.7 and 2.0. One patient developed a rash and was changed to 3 dextrose exchanges daily. All patients were satisfied with their treatment regimen, and no other adverse events or symptoms were reported.

  6. Social functioning and socioeconomic changes after introduction of regular dialysis treatment and impact of dialysis modality: a multi-centre survey of Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Ishida, Mari; Ogihara, Masahiko; Hanaoka, Kazushige; Tamura, Masahito; Kanai, Hidetoshi; Tonozuka, Yukio; Marshall, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    Patient socialization and preservation of socioeconomic status are important patient-centred outcomes for those who start dialysis, and retention of employment is a key enabler. This study examined the influence of dialysis inception and modality upon these outcomes in a contemporary Japanese cohort. We conducted a survey of prevalent chronic dialysis patients from 5 dialysis centres in Japan. All patients who had been on peritoneal dialysis (PD) since dialysis inception were recruited, and matched with a sample of those on in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD). We assessed patients' current social functioning (Short Form 36 Health Survey), and evaluated changes to patient employment status, annual income, and general health condition from the pre-dialysis period to the current time. A total of 179 patients were studied (102 PD and 77 ICHD). There were no differences in social functioning by modality. Among them, 113 were employed in the pre-dialysis period with no difference by modality. Of these, 22% became unemployed after dialysis inception, with a corresponding decline in average working hours and annual income. The odds of unemployment after dialysis inception were 5.02 fold higher in those on ICHD compared to those on PD, after adjustment for covariates. There were no changes for those who were already unemployed in the pre-dialysis period. Employment status is significantly hampered by dialysis inception, although PD was associated with superior retention of employment and greater income compared to ICHD. This supports a positive role for PD in preservation of socioeconomic status and potentially other patient-centred outcomes. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  7. Telemedicine system for patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Hidetomo

    2007-06-01

    Over recent decades, rapid progress in information and telecommunications technology has led to the application of these technologies in the medical field. In 1999, we reported on a telemedicine system (version 1.0) that used an automated peritoneal dialysis machine to collect data on patients with end-stage renal disease. After 2002, we focused on using cellular telephones in a new telemedicine system (version 2.0) to monitor patient data at home, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate, body weight, urine volume, and blood glucose. By 2003, we had developed a fully automatic system called I-converter (version 3.0) to collect data from a fully automatic device and send it via cellular telephone. After the fully automatic device measures a patient's BP, I-converter sends the data directly to the main server in our central data center. That server is directly connected to Web site by application service provider (ASP) technology. Recently, to make the system simpler, we developed a new version called D-converter (version 4.0). The telephone used in this new system is a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS). The PHS has several advantages: high-speed data transmission, low power output, little electromagnetic interference with medical devices, and easy locating of patients. The D-converter system uses a small computer and a PHS card called a Dopa card. Our telemedicine systems monitor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients at home. For elderly and handicapped patients, these systems are very advantageous because they reduce visits to the outpatient clinic. In addition, data can be monitored at the patient's home in real time. The present paper reports our recent advances in telemedicine systems for CAPD patients.

  8. Exploring the opinion of hemodialysis patients about their dialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Donia, Ahmed Farouk; Elhadedy, Mohamed Ahmed; El-Maghrabi, Hanzada Mohamed; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Foda, Mohamed Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are subjected to a number of physical and mental stresses. Physicians might be unaware of some of these problems. We assessed our patients' opinion about the service provided at the dialysis unit. Our unit has 89 patients on HD. A questionnaire exploring our patients' opinion relative to the service provided was prepared. The patients were asked to fill-in the questionnaire in a confidential manner. Questionnaires were then collected and examined while unaware of patient identities. Sixty-nine patients (77.5%) responded to the questionnaire. Eight patients (11.6%) revealed their names on the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, the patients were asked to assess the service of each service by choosing one of the following grades: "excellent," "mediocre" or "bad." For the whole group of contributing patients, there were 563 "excellent," 85 "mediocre" and five "bad" choices in addition to 37 blank "no comment" choices. Food service had the least percentage (68%) of evaluation as "excellent," while doctor' performance got the highest excellent evaluation (85.5%). Thirty-five patients (50.7%) added further comment(s). An audit meeting was conducted to discuss these results. Exploring the opinion of patients on HD might uncover some areas of dissatisfaction and help in improving the provided service. We recommend widespread usage of questionnaires to assess patient satisfaction as well as to assess other health-care aspects.

  9. Mesenchymal stroma cells in peritoneal dialysis effluents from patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Guan, Qiunong; Li, Jing; da Roza, Gerald; Wang, Hao; Du, Caigan

    2017-04-01

    Mesenchymal stroma cells (MSCs) have potential as an emerging cell therapy for treating many different diseases, but discovery of the practical sources of MSCs is needed for the large-scale clinical application of this therapy. This study was to identify MSCs in peritoneal dialysis (PD) effluents that were discarded after PD. The effluents were collected from patients who were on the dialysis for less than 1 month. Adherent cells from the effluents were isolated by incubation in serum-containing medium in plastic culture dishes. Cell surface markers were determined by a flow cytometric analysis, and the in vitro differentiation to chondrocytes, osteocytes or adipocytes was confirmed by staining with a specific dye. After four passages, these isolated cells displayed the typical morphology of mesenchymal cells in traditional 2-D cultures, and were grown to form spherical colonies in 3-D collagen cultures. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the unsorted cells from all of seven patient samples showed robust expression of typical mesenchymal marker CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD166, and the absence of CD34, CD79a, CD105, CD271, SSEA-4, Stro-1 and HLA-DR. In differentiation assays, these cells were induced in vitro to chondrocytes, osteocytes or adipocytes. In conclusion, this preliminary study suggests the presence of MSCs in the "discarded" PD effluents. Further characterization of the phenotypes of these MSCs and evaluation of their therapeutic potential, particularly for the prevention of PD failure, are needed.

  10. Multidisciplinary team approach to end-stage dialysis access patients.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Clark; Brownie, Evan; Bream, Peter; Moore, Derek

    2015-11-01

    The hemodialysis reliable outflow (HeRO) access device is a permanent dialysis graft used in patients with central venous obstruction. Given the complexity of care related to end-stage dialysis access (ESDA) patients, a multidisciplinary approach has been used to achieve operative success of HeRO graft placement. The single-center retrospective review included adult patients that were seen in ESDA clinic who underwent a HeRO graft placement from September 2010-September 2014 under the care of a team consisting of a nephrologist, an interventional radiologist, and a surgeon. The effectiveness of the multidisciplinary approach was evaluated using outcome variables including successful HeRO graft placement, operative complications, the rate of obtaining central venous access, and advanced endovascular maneuvers performed by interventional radiology to obtain central venous access. A multidisciplinary approach has been used in 33 ESDA patients. Access to the right atrium was achieved in 100% of cases. Fifty-eight percent of patients required advanced endovascular maneuvers in the interventional radiology suite to obtain central venous access. Successful HeRO graft placement was achieved in 94% (31 of 33) of the study population. No intraoperative complications were encountered. Median primary and secondary patency rates were 83 d (interquartile range: 45-170) and 345 d (interquartile range: 146-579) per HeRO graft placement, respectively. Primary and secondary patency rates at 60 d were 70% (23 of 33) and 79% (26 of 33), respectively. In this difficult patient population, a multidisciplinary team can provide a unique and collaborative approach to HeRO graft placement in patients with complex central venous outflow obstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A multicentric, international matched pair analysis of body composition in peritoneal dialysis versus haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    van Biesen, Wim; Claes, Kathleen; Covic, Adrian; Fan, Stanley; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Schoder, Volker; Verger, Christian; Wabel, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Volume status, lean and fat tissue are gaining interest as prognostic predictors in patients on dialysis. Comparative data in peritoneal dialysis (PD) versus haemodialysis (HD) patients are lacking. In a cohort of PD (EuroBCM) and HD (Euclid database) patients, matched for country, gender, age and dialysis vintage, body composition was assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BCM, Fresenius Medical Care). Time-averaged volume overload (TAVO) was defined as the mean of pre- and post-dialysis volume overload (VO), and relative (%) (TA)VO as (TA)VO/ECV. Four hundred and ninety-one matched pairs (55.2% males, median age 60.0 years) were included. The body mass index (BMI, PD = 26.5 ± 4.7 versus HD = 25.9 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.18 in males and 27.4 ± 5.8 versus 27.5 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), P = 0.75 in females) and fat tissue index (males: 11.5 ± 5.3 versus 11.4 ± 5.4 kg/m(2), P = 0.90, females: 14.8 ± 6.7 versus 15.4 ± 7.2 kg/m(2), P = 0.30) were not different in PD versus HD patients, whereas the lean tissue index (LTI) was higher in PD versus HD patients (males: 14.5 ± 3.4 versus 13.7 ± 3.1 kg/m(2), P = 0.001, females: 12.6 ± 3.3 versus 11.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2), P < 0.0001). VO/extracellular water (ECW) was not different between PD versus just before the HD treatment (males: 10.8 ± 12.1 versus 9.2 ± 10.2%, P = 0.09; females: 6.5 ± 10.8 versus 7.7 ± 9.4%, P = 0.19). The relative TAVO was higher in PD versus HD (10.8 ± 12.1% versus 3.2 ± 11.2%, and 6.5 ± 10.8% versus 1.2 ± 10.9%, both P < 0.0001). The LTI was impaired, and this was more in males versus females, but was better preserved on PD versus HD, whereas fat tissue index (FTI) was increased, but not different between PD and HD. Volume overload was more present in PD versus HD when TAVO, but not when predialysis volume status, was used as a reference.

  12. Peritoneal mucormycosis in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Polo, J R; Luño, J; Menarguez, C; Gallego, E; Robles, R; Hernandez, P

    1989-03-01

    A 48-year-old man receiving maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 1 year developed a clinical picture compatible with peritonitis. Three successive fluid cultures were negative, and only after filtration of a large volume of peritoneal fluid a fungus identified as a Rhizopus sp was isolated in cultures of the filtering devices. The same fungus was also isolated from the peritoneal catheter cuff. Intravenous amphotericin B was administered and both the abdominal and general conditions of the patient improved transiently. Twenty days after initiation of antifungal treatment, a clinical suspicion of intestinal perforation arose and an exploratory laparotomy was scheduled, but the patient died during the anesthetic induction. The patient never received deferoxamine; any conditions predisposing to mucormycosis, such as diabetes or immunosuppression, were also absent.

  13. Outbreak of bloodstream infection with the mold Phialemonium among patients receiving dialysis at a hemodialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Clark, Thomas; Huhn, Gregory D; Conover, Craig; Cali, Salvatore; Arduino, Matthew J; Hajjeh, Rana; Brandt, Mary E; Fridkin, Scott K

    2006-11-01

    Molds are a rare cause of disseminated infection among dialysis patients. We evaluated a cluster of intravascular infections with the mold Phialemonium among patients receiving hemodialysis at the same facility in order to identify possible environmental sources and prevent further infection. Environmental assessment and case-control study. A hemodialysis center affiliated with a tertiary care hospital. We reviewed surveillance and clinical microbiology records and performed a blood culture survey for all patients. The following data for case patients were compared with those for control patients: underlying illness, dialysis characteristics, medications, and other possible exposure for 120 days prior to infection. Environmental assessment of water treatment, dialysis facilities, and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of the current and previous locations of the dialysis center was performed. Samples were cultured for fungus; Phialemonium isolates were confirmed by sequencing of DNA. Investigators observed dialysis access site disinfection technique. Four patients were confirmed as case patients, defined as a patient having intravascular infection with Phialemonium species; 3 presented with fungemia, and 1 presented with an intravascular graft infection. All case patients used a fistula or graft for dialysis access, as did 12 (75%) of 16 of control patients (P=.54). Case and control patients did not differ in other dialysis characteristics, medications received, physiologic findings, or demographic factors. Phialemonium species were not recovered from samples of water or dialysis machines, but were recovered from the condensation drip pans under the blowers of the HVAC system that supplied air to the dialysis center. Observational study of 21 patients detected suboptimal contact time with antiseptic agents used to prepare dialysis access sites. The report of this outbreak adds to previous published reports of Phialemonium infection occurring

  14. Standardized Prevalence Ratios for Atrial Fibrillation in Adult Dialysis Patients in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohsawa, Masaki; Tanno, Kozo; Okamura, Tomonori; Yonekura, Yuki; Kato, Karen; Fujishima, Yosuke; Obara, Wataru; Abe, Takaya; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Omama, Shinichi; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Miyamatsu, Naomi; Ishibashi, Yasuhiro; Morino, Yoshihiro; Itoh, Tomonori; Onoda, Toshiyuki; Kuribayashi, Toru; Makita, Shinji; Yoshida, Yuki; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Tanaka, Fumitaka; Ohta, Mutsuko; Sakata, Kiyomi; Okayama, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Background While it is assumed that dialysis patients in Japan have a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) than the general population, the magnitude of this difference is not known. Methods Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) for AF in dialysis patients (n = 1510) were calculated compared to data from the general population (n = 26 454) living in the same area. Results The prevalences of AF were 3.8% and 1.6% in dialysis patients and the general population, respectively. In male subjects, these respective values were 4.9% and 3.3%, and in female subjects they were 1.6% and 0.6%. The SPRs for AF were 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.88–3.19) in all dialysis patients, 1.80 (95% CI, 1.30–2.29) in male dialysis patients, and 2.13 (95% CI, 0.66–3.61) in female dialysis patients. Conclusions The prevalence of AF in dialysis patients was twice that in the population-based controls. Since AF strongly contributes to a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the general population, further longitudinal studies should be conducted regarding the risk of several outcomes attributable to AF among Japanese dialysis patients. PMID:26804038

  15. Care of the Patient with Renal Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis and Transplants, Nursing 321A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulburd, Kimberly

    A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…

  16. An observational study of microcirculation in dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yu Chang; Chao, Anne; Lee, Chih-Yuan; Lee, Chen-Tse; Yeh, Chi-Chuan; Liu, Chih-Min; Tsai, Meng-Kun

    2017-09-01

    Microcirculatory dysfunction contributes to acute and chronic kidney diseases. To the best of our knowledge, no study has compared differences in microcirculation among healthy volunteers, dialysis patients and kidney transplant recipients. Sublingual microcirculation was examined using sidestream dark field imaging and was compared among 90 healthy volunteers, 40 dialysis patients and 40 kidney transplant recipients. The gender effect on microcirculation and the correlations among the microcirculation parameters, age, body mass index, heart rate and blood pressure were analysed. Total small vessel density, perfused small vessel density and the proportion of perfused small vessels were lower in the dialysis patients than in the healthy volunteers and kidney transplant recipients [total small vessel density; healthy volunteers vs. dialysis patients vs. kidney transplant recipients, 25·2 (2·3) vs. 22·8 (2·6) vs. 24·2 (2·9) mm/mm(2) , P < 0·001]. Systolic blood pressure showed a weak negative correlation with the microvascular flow index scores in the healthy volunteers. By contrast, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure showed weak positive correlations with proportion of perfused small vessels and the microvascular flow index scores in the dialysis patients. Microcirculatory dysfunction is noted in dialysis patients, and this alteration is ameliorated in KT recipients. The positive correlation between blood pressure and microcirculation in dialysis patients suggests that additional studies should investigate the optimal goal of blood pressure management for dialysis patients. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  17. Care of the Patient with Renal Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis and Transplants, Nursing 321A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulburd, Kimberly

    A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…

  18. Bimodal Solutions or Twice-Daily Icodextrin to Enhance Ultrafiltration in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dousdampanis, Periklis; Trigka, Konstantina; Bargman, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of icodextrin has been well established. In this paper, we will discuss the pharmacokinetics and biocompatibility of icodextrin and its clinical effect on fluid management in peritoneal dialysis patients. Novel strategies for its prescription for peritoneal dialysis patients with inadequate ultrafiltration are reviewed. PMID:23365749

  19. Association of cinacalcet adherence and costs in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andrew; Song, Xue; Khan, Irfan; Belozeroff, Vasily; Goodman, William; Fulcher, Nicole; Diakun, David

    2011-01-01

    In addition to negative impacts on clinical effectiveness in treating secondary hyperparathyroidism, low adherence to cinacalcet may have negative impacts on healthcare costs. This study assessed the relationship between medication adherence and healthcare costs among US patients on dialysis given cinacalcet to manage secondary hyperparathyroidism. Retrospective cohort study of patients who were receiving dialysis with an initial cinacalcet prescription between January 2004 and April 2010 and who survived ≥12 months. Longitudinal, integrated medical, and pharmacy claims data from the MarketScan? database were used to calculate medication possession ratios (MPR) over 12 months and to examine the association of adherence with inpatient, outpatient, emergency room, outpatient medication, and total costs while controlling for patient characteristics, co-morbid medical conditions, and concomitant medication MPR in a multivariate regression model. Patients were dichotomized as adherent (<180 days refill gap) or non-adherent (≥180 day refill gap). Adherent patients were further dichotomized as low adherent (<0.8 MPR) and high adherent (≥0.8 MPR). The final study cohort included 4923 patients. After 12 months, 46% were non-adherent, 27% were low adherent, and 28% were high adherent. Greater cinacalcet adherence was associated with significantly lower inpatient costs with cost-savings of a greater magnitude than the increased medication costs. This study demonstrated that low adherence to cinacalcet, which may be associated with undesirable clinical and health-economic outcomes, is common. Despite limitations inherent in retrospective studies of claims databases, such as unobserved confounding, non-discrimination between prescription fill and actual use, and not knowing the reasons for non-adherence, these results suggest that inpatient cost savings of $8899, more than offset higher medication costs of $5858 associated with increased cinacalcet adherence.

  20. Arthritis associated with calcium oxalate crystals in an anephric patient treated with peritoneal dialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, A.; Ryan, L.M.; McCarty, D.J.

    1988-09-02

    The authors report a case of calcium oxalate arthropathy in a woman undergoing intermittent peritoneal dialysis who was not receiving pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid. She developed acute arthritis, with calcium oxalate crystals in Heberden's and Bouchard's nodes, a phenomenon previously described in gout. Intermittent peritoneal dialysis may be less efficient than hemodialysis in clearing oxalate, and physicians should now consider calcium oxalate-associated arthritis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis who are not receiving large doses of ascorbic acid.

  1. The impact of patient preference on dialysis modality and hemodialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Keating, Patrick T; Walsh, Michael; Ribic, Christine M; Brimble, Kenneth Scott

    2014-02-22

    Home-based dialysis, including peritoneal dialysis (PD) and home hemodialysis (HHD), is associated with improved health related quality of life and reduced health resource costs. It is uncertain to what extent initial preferences for dialysis modality influence the first dialysis therapy actually utilized. We examined the relationship between initial dialysis modality choice and first dialysis therapy used. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from a single centre who started dialysis after receiving modality education were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to assess the independent association of patient characteristics and initial dialysis modality choice with actual dialysis therapy used and starting hemodialysis (HD) with a central venous catheter (CVC). Of 299 eligible patients, 175 (58.5%) initially chose a home-based therapy and 102 (58.3%) of these patients' first actual dialysis was a home-based therapy. Of the 89 patients that initially chose facility-based HD, 84 (94.4%) first actual dialysis was facility-based HD. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for first actual dialysis as a home-based therapy was 29.0 for patients intending to perform PD (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.7-78.8; p < 0.001) and 12.4 for patients intending to perform HHD (95% CI 3.29-46.6; p < 0.001). Amongst patients whose first actual dialysis was HD, an initial choice of PD or not choosing a modality was associated with an increased risk of starting dialysis with a CVC (adjusted OR 3.73, 95% CI 1.51-9.21; p = 0.004 and 4.58, 95% CI 1.53-13.7; p = 0.007, respectively). Although initially choosing a home-based therapy substantially increases the probability of the first actual dialysis being home-based, many patients who initially prefer a home-based therapy start with facility-based HD. Programs that continually re-evaluate patient preferences and reinforce the values of home based therapies that led to the initial preference may

  2. Comparison of progression to end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis after partial or radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with severe chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshio; Kondo, Tsunenori; Omae, Kenji; Iizuka, Junpei; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2016-09-01

    We analyzed trends related to surgical approach for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN), in patients with stage 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD), and identified predictors for postoperative progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring permanent dialysis. We enrolled patients with stage 4 CKD who underwent surgery for non-metastatic RCC. We compared their characteristics according to surgical approach (PN vs. RN). Moreover, predictors for postoperative progression to requiring permanent dialysis were determined using multivariable analyses. The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was adjusted for age. Fifty-one patients (PN 23, RN 28) were evaluated in the present study. Their mean preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 24 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and four patients had a solitary kidney. Three of 23 patients (13 %) who underwent PN progressed to requiring dialysis after surgery after a median 16 months. In contrast, 13 of 28 patients (46 %) who underwent RN developed dialysis immediately after surgery (median 2 days). Patients who underwent PN had lower T stages (T1, PN 100 % vs. RN 50 %, p = 0.004) and smaller tumors (31 mm vs. 65 mm, p < 0.0001) than did those who underwent RN. RN and lower preoperative eGFR significantly predicted progression to requiring dialysis, while tumor size and CCI did not. PN tended to be selected for patients with lower T stage and smaller tumors in the limited cohort of stage 4 CKD patients. PN had a significant benefit of preventing dialysis in the multivariable analysis.

  3. Low prealbumin levels are independently associated with higher mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kwon, Owen; Kim, Sang-Un; Kim, Ryang Hi; Cho, Young Wook; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim; Park, Sun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Prealbumin, a sensitive marker for protein-energy status, is also known as an independent risk factor for mortality in hemodialysis patients. We investigated the impact of prealbumin on survival in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In total, 136 incident PD patients (mean age, 53.0 ± 15.8 years) between 2002 and 2007 were enrolled in the study. Laboratory data, dialysis adequacy, and nutritional parameters were assessed 3 months after PD initiation. Patients were classified into 2 groups according to prealbumin level: high prealbumin (≥ 40 mg/dL) and low prealbumin (< 40 mg/dL). The patients in the low-prealbumin group were older and had more comorbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases compared with the patients in the high-prealbumin group. Mean subjective global assessment scores were lower, and the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were higher in the low-prealbumin group. Serum creatinine, albumin, and transferrin levels; percent lean body mass; and normalized protein catabolic rate were positively associated, whereas subjective global assessment scores and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were negatively associated with prealbumin concentration. During the median follow-up of 49 months, patients in the lower prealbumin group had a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis revealed that prealbumin < 40 mg/dL (hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-4.64) was an independent risk factor for mortality. In receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve of prealbumin for mortality was the largest among the parameters. Prealbumin levels were an independent and sensitive predictor for mortality in incident PD patients, showing a good correlation with nutritional and inflammatory markers.

  4. Lower serum potassium associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients: A nationwide prospective observational cohort study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunhwa; Kang, Eunjeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Dong Ki; Joo, Kwon Wook; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2017-01-01

    Background Abnormal serum potassium concentration has been suggested as a risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing dialysis patients. We investigated the impact of serum potassium levels on survival according to dialysis modality. Methods A nationwide, prospective, observational cohort study for end stage renal disease patients has been ongoing in Korea since August 2008. Our analysis included patients whose records contained data regarding serum potassium levels. The relationship between serum potassium and mortality was analyzed using competing risk regression. Results A total of 3,230 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, 64.3%) or peritoneal dialysis (PD, 35.7%) were included. The serum potassium level was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in PD (median, 4.5 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.0–4.9 mmol/L) than in HD patients (median, 4.9 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.5–5.4 mmol/L). During 4.4 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, 751 patients (23.3%) died, mainly from cardiovascular events (n = 179) and infection (n = 120). In overall, lower serum potassium level less than 4.5 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for mortality after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and nutritional status (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.10–1.53; P = 0.002). HD patients showed a U-shaped survival pattern, suggesting that both lower and higher potassium levels were deleterious, although insignificant. However, in PD patients, only lower serum potassium level (<4.5 mmol/L) was an independent predictor of mortality (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.80; P = 0.048). Conclusion Lower serum potassium levels (<4.5 mmol/L) occur more commonly in PD than in HD patients. It represents an independent predictor of survival in overall dialysis, especially in PD patients. Therefore, management of dialysis patients should focus especially on reducing the risk of hypokalemia, not only that of hyperkalemia. PMID:28264031

  5. Lower serum potassium associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients: A nationwide prospective observational cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunhwa; Kang, Eunjeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Dong Ki; Joo, Kwon Wook; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal serum potassium concentration has been suggested as a risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing dialysis patients. We investigated the impact of serum potassium levels on survival according to dialysis modality. A nationwide, prospective, observational cohort study for end stage renal disease patients has been ongoing in Korea since August 2008. Our analysis included patients whose records contained data regarding serum potassium levels. The relationship between serum potassium and mortality was analyzed using competing risk regression. A total of 3,230 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, 64.3%) or peritoneal dialysis (PD, 35.7%) were included. The serum potassium level was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in PD (median, 4.5 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.0-4.9 mmol/L) than in HD patients (median, 4.9 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.5-5.4 mmol/L). During 4.4 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, 751 patients (23.3%) died, mainly from cardiovascular events (n = 179) and infection (n = 120). In overall, lower serum potassium level less than 4.5 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for mortality after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and nutritional status (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.53; P = 0.002). HD patients showed a U-shaped survival pattern, suggesting that both lower and higher potassium levels were deleterious, although insignificant. However, in PD patients, only lower serum potassium level (<4.5 mmol/L) was an independent predictor of mortality (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.80; P = 0.048). Lower serum potassium levels (<4.5 mmol/L) occur more commonly in PD than in HD patients. It represents an independent predictor of survival in overall dialysis, especially in PD patients. Therefore, management of dialysis patients should focus especially on reducing the risk of hypokalemia, not only that of hyperkalemia.

  6. Aortic valve reconstruction with autologous pericardium for dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Isamu; Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Uchida, Shin; Nozawa, Yukinari; Matsuyama, Takayoshi; Takatoh, Mikio; Hagiwara, So

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to report on original aortic valve reconstruction for patients on dialysis. Aortic valve reconstruction has been performed on 404 cases from April 2007 through September 2011. Among them, 54 cases on haemodialysis were retrospectively studied. Forty-seven patients had aortic stenosis, 5 had aortic regurgitation (AR), and 2 had infective endocarditis. Mean age was 70.2 ± 8.5 years. There were 35 males and 19 females. There were 27 primary aortic valve reconstructions, 11 with CABG, 6 with ascending aortic replacement, 5 with mitral valve repair and 4 with maze. First, in the procedure, harvested pericardium was treated with 0.6% glutaraldehyde solution. After resecting the cusps, we measured the distance between commissures with original sizing instrument. Then, the pericardium was trimmed with the original template. Three cusps were sutured to each annulus. Peak pressure gradient averaged to 66.0 ± 28.2 mmHg preoperatively, and decreased to 23.4 ± 10.7, 13.8 ± 5.5 and 13.3 ± 2.3 mmHg, 1 week, 1 year, and 3 years after the operation, respectively. No calcification was detected with echocardiographic follow-up. Recurrence of AR was not recorded with the mean follow-up of 847 days except for 1 case reoperated on for infective endocarditis 2.5 years after the operation. Three hospital deaths were recorded due to non-cardiac causes. Other patients were in good condition. There was no thromboembolic event. Medium-term results are excellent. Since warfarin for dialysis patients becomes problematic, a postoperative warfarin-free status is desirable. Aortic valve reconstruction can provide patients with a better quality of life without warfarin.

  7. Serum immunoglobulin G levels and peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Courivaud, Cécile; Bardonnet, Karine; Crepin, Thomas; Bresson-Vautrin, Catherine; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Ducloux, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Peritonitis is a frequent and serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Whether low immunoglobulin level is associated with PD-related peritonitis is unknown. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether immunoglobulin levels at PD onset could predict the occurrence of peritonitis. All patients starting peritoneal dialysis between 01/2005 and 12/2010 at the University hospital of Besançon, France, were included in the study. Of 240 consecutive PD patients enrolled (mean follow-up 25 ± 12 months), 76 (32%) had at least one episode of peritonitis. Mean immunoglobulin (Ig)G level at PD start was lower in patients who subsequently experienced peritonitis (7.9 + 3.4 vs. 9.7 + 3.4 g/l, p = 0.005). An increased IgG level at PD onset was associated with a reduced risk of peritonitis [hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.97 for each increase of 1 g/l in IgG, p = 0.008]. IgG level ≤6.4 g/l ("low IgG") was the best predictive value for the occurrence of subsequent peritonitis: 52 patients (24%) had low IgG levels. At multivariate analysis, both low IgG level (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.32-4.69, p = 0.005) and diabetes (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.49-5.20, p = 0.001) were predictive of the occurrence of peritonitis. Low IgG levels predict the occurrence of PD-related peritonitis. Randomized studies should determine whether such patients could benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin administration.

  8. Healing of fracturing-bone disease occurring in patients on dialysis. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Milne, F J; Hudson, G A; Meyers, A M; Baily, P; Barmeir, E; Dubowitz, B; Reis, P

    1982-06-19

    Ten patients developed fracturing-bone disease (osteomalacia) while on dialysis against water with high levels of aluminium. Eight patients remained on dialysis, using de-ionized or reverse-osmosis water, and 2 received a renal transplant. Clinical improvement as regards bone pain and proximal muscle weakness occurred in 6 months and radiographic evidence of healing of the pseudofractures was seen at approximately 12 months. Associated osteopenia and hyperparathyroidism were found in most patients, but no significant change in either was noted during the study period. The serum parathyroid hormone levels rose significantly in the patients who remained on dialysis. The chest and pelvic deformities typical of healed osteomalacia were seen. This dramatic improvement can only be attributed to the removal of some water-borne element, either by changing the water used in the dialysis or by successful renal transplantation. Aluminium-containing phosphate binders were used throughout the study in the patients on dialysis, and hypophosphataemia was never a feature.

  9. The interview with a patient on dialysis: feeling, emotions and fears.

    PubMed

    Brunori, Francesco; Dozio, Beatrice; Colzani, Sara; Pozzi, Marco; Pisano, Lucia; Galassi, Andrea; Santorelli, Gennaro; Auricchio, Sara; Busnelli, Luisa; Di Carlo, Angela; Viganò, Monica; Calabrese, Valentina; Mariani, Laura; Mossa, Monica; Longoni, Stefania; Scanziani, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    This study has been performed in the Nephrology and Dialysis Unit, in Desio Hospital, Italy. The aim of this study is to evaluate, starting from research questions, which information is given to patient in the pre-dialysis colloquia for his/her chosen dialysis methods. Moreover, the study evaluated feelings, emotions and fears since the announcement of the necessity of dialysis treatment. The objective of the study was reached through the interview with patients on dialysis. The fact-finding survey was based on the tools of social research, as the semi-structured interview. Instead of using the questionnaire, even though it make it easier to collect larger set of data, the Authors decided to interview patients in person, since the interview allows direct patient contact and to build a relationship of trust with the interviewer, in order to allow patient explain better his/her feeling.

  10. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Makmor; Raja Ariffin, Raja Noriza; Mohd Satar, NurulHuda; Ng, Kok-Peng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Chong, Chin-Sieng

    2014-07-01

    Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ' preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents' willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia.

  11. Organ Donation Campaigns: Perspective of Dialysis Patient's Family Members

    PubMed Central

    TUMIN, Makmor; RAJA ARIFFIN, Raja Noriza; MOHD SATAR, NurulHuda; NG, Kok-Peng; LIM, Soo-Kun; CHONG, Chin-Sieng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Solving the dilemma of the organ shortage in Malaysia requires educating Malaysians about organ donation and transplantation. This paper aims at exploring the average Malaysian households ’ preferred channels of campaigns and the preferred campaigners in a family setting, targeting at the dialysis family members. Methods We analyzed the responses of 350 respondents regarding organ donation campaigns. The respondents are 2 family members of 175 dialysis patients from 3 different institutions. The information on respondents’ willingness to donate and preferred method and channel of organ donation campaign were collected through questionnaire. Results Malaysian families have a good tendency to welcome campaigns in both the public and private (their homes) spheres. We also found that campaigns facilitated by the electronic media (Television and Radio) and executed by experienced doctors are expected to optimize the outcomes of organ donation, in general. Chi-square tests show that there are no significant differences in welcoming campaigns among ethnics. However, ethnics preferences over the campaign methods and campaigners are significantly different (P <0.05). Conclusion Ethnic differences imply that necessary modifications on the campaign channels and campaigners should also be taken under consideration. By identifying the preferred channel and campaigners, this study hopes to shed some light on the ways to overcome the problem of organ shortage in Malaysia. PMID:25909060

  12. Disaster preparedness of dialysis patients for Hurricanes Gustav and Ike 2008.

    PubMed

    Kleinpeter, Myra A

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita resulted in massive devastation of the Gulf Coast at Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas during 2005. Because of those disasters, dialysis providers, nephrologists, and dialysis patients used disaster planning activities to work to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with the 2005 hurricane season for future events affecting dialysis patients. As Hurricane Gustav approached, anniversary events for Hurricane Katrina were postponed because of evacuation orders for nearly the entire Louisiana Gulf Coast. As part of the hurricane preparation, dialysis units reviewed the disaster plans of patients, and patients made preparation for evacuation. Upon evacuation, many patients returned to the dialysis units that had provided services during their exile from Hurricane Katrina; other patients went to other locations as part of their evacuation plan. Patients uniformly reported positive experiences with dialysis providers in their temporary evacuation communities, provided that those communities did not experience the effects of Hurricane Gustav. With the exception of evacuees to Baton Rouge, patients continued to receive their treatments uninterrupted. Because of extensive damage in the Baton Rouge area, resulting in widespread power losses and delayed restoration of power to hospitals and other health care facilities, some patients missed one treatment. However, as a result of compliance with disaster fluid and dietary recommendations, no adverse outcomes occurred. In most instances, patients were able to return to their home dialysis unit or a nearby unit to continue dialysis treatments within 4 - 5 days of Hurricane Gustav. Hurricane Ike struck the Texas Gulf Coast near Galveston, resulting in devastation of that area similar to the devastation seen in New Orleans after Katrina. The storm surge along the Louisiana Gulf Coast resulted in flooding that temporarily closed coastal dialysis units. Patients were prepared and experienced

  13. Historical Study (1986-2014): Improvements in Nutritional Status of Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Koefoed, Mette; Kromann, Charles Boy; Hvidtfeldt, Danni; Juliussen, Sophie Ryberg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Marckmann, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Despite an increased focus on improved nutrition in dialysis patients, it is claimed that the prevalence of malnutrition in this group of patients has not changed during the last decades. Direct historical comparisons of the nutritional status of dialysis patients have never been published. To directly compare the nutritional status of past and current dialysis patients, we implemented the methodology of a study from 1986 on a population of dialysis patients in 2014. Historical study comparing results of two cross-sectional studies performed in 1986 and 2014. We compared the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients attending the dialysis center at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, in February to June 2014, with that of HD and PD patients treated at the dialysis center at Fredericia Hospital, Denmark, in April 1986. Maintenance PD and HD patients (n = 64 in 2014 and n = 48 in 1986). We performed anthropometry (body weight, triceps skinfold, and midarm muscle circumferences [MAMCs]) and determined plasma transferrin. Relative body weight, triceps skinfold, MAMC, body mass index, and prevalence of protein-caloric malnutrition as defined in the original study from 1986. Average relative body weight, triceps skinfold, MAMC, and body mass index were significantly higher in 2014 compared with 1986. The prevalence of protein-caloric malnutrition was significantly lower in 2014 (18%) compared with 1986 (52%). The nutritional status of maintenance dialysis patients has improved during the last 3 decades. The reason for this improvement could not be identified in the present study, but the most likely contributors are the higher prevalence of obesity in the general population, less predialytic malnutrition, and an improved focus on nutrition in maintenance dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by

  14. Influence of dialysis modality on complications and patient and graft survival after pancreas-kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Manrique, A; Morales, J M; Andrés, A; Ortuño, T; Abradelo, M; Gimeno, A; Calvo, J; Cambra, F; Sterup, R L; Moreno, E

    2008-11-01

    We investigated whether hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis prior to pancreas-kidney transplantation was a risk factor for the development of surgical complications, recipient mortality, or graft loss. From March 1995 to December 2006, 90 patients with type 1 diabetes underwent pancreas transplantation. Dialysis before transplantation was provides to 81 patients. We compared outcomes of recipients classified as two groups: (A) hemodialysis (n = 49, 60.5%) versus (B) peritoneal dialysis (n = 32, 39.5%) groups. Donor and recipient characteristics were similar in both groups. Enteric drainage was more frequently used in the hemodialysis group and bladder drainage in the peritoneal dialysis group (P < .05). The rate of intra-abdominal infections was similar in both groups: 10 patients (20.4%) in the hemodialysis group and 9 patients (28.1%) in the peritoneal dialysis group (P = NS). The incidence of enteric or bladder leakage was slightly higher in the peritoneal dialysis group (5 cases, 15.6% vs 4 cases, 8.2% in the hemodialysis group; P = NS). The rate of reoperations was also slightly higher in the peritoneal dialysis group B (15 cases, 46.9% vs 14 cases, 28.6% in the hemodialysis group; P = .07). Pancreas transplantectomy was significantly greater in the peritoneal dialysis (9 cases; 28.1%) than the hemodialysis group (5 cases; 10.2%; P < .05). The actuarial 3-year patient survival was 95.9% in the hemodialysis group and 93.4% in the peritoneal dialysis group (P = NS); actuarial 3-year pancreas graft survival was 79.3% in the hemodialysis group and 68.3% in the peritoneal dialysis group (P = NS). We noted an insignificantly greater rate of reoperations but significantly higher incidence of pancreas transplantectomy in the peritoneal dialysis group; however, patient and pancreas graft survivals were similar in both study groups.

  15. The economic considerations of patients and caregivers in choice of dialysis modality

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Kirsten; Tong, Allison; Palmer, Suetonia C.; Marshall, Mark R.; Morton, Rachael L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Broader adoption of home dialysis could lead to considerable cost savings for health services. Globally, however, uptake remains low. The aim of this study was to describe patient and caregiver perspectives of the economic considerations that influence dialysis modality choice, and elicit policy‐relevant recommendations. Methods Semistructured interviews with predialysis or dialysis patients and their caregivers, at three hospitals in New Zealand. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically. Findings 43 patients and 9 caregivers (total n = 52) participated. The three themes related to economic considerations were: (i) productivity losses associated with changes in employment; (ii) the need for personal subsidization of home dialysis expenses; and (iii) the role of socio‐economic disadvantage as a barrier to home dialysis. Patients weighed the flexibility of home dialysis which allowed them to remain employed, against time required for training and out‐of‐pocket costs. Patients saw the lack of reimbursement of home dialysis costs as unjust and suggested that reimbursement would incentivize home dialysis uptake. Social disadvantage was a barrier to home dialysis as patients’ housing was often unsuitable; they could not afford the additional treatment costs. Home hemodialysis was considered to have the highest out‐of‐pocket costs and was sometimes avoided for this reason. Discussion Our data suggests that economic considerations underpin the choices patients make about dialysis treatments, however these are rarely reported. To promote home dialysis, strategies to improve employment retention and housing, and to minimize out‐of‐pocket costs, need to be addressed directly by healthcare providers and payers. PMID:27196634

  16. Morbidity and mortality in ESRD patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Al Wakeel, Jamal S; Mitwalli, Ahmed H; Al Mohaya, S; Abu-Aisha, Hassan; Tarif, Nauman; Malik, Ghulam H; Hammad, D

    2002-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD), due to its high morbidity and mortality as well as social and financial implications, is a major public health problem. Outcome depends not only on different modalities of treatment like hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, but also on existing co-morbidities, age, duration on dialysis, supportive therapies and infection control strategies. Thus, a detailed study becomes necessary to improve health care delivery, provide medical care and to establish a geographical reference. The present study was undertaken to characterize the ESRD patients by their demographic and co-morbid conditions and relate this to the morbidity and mortality trends. The medical records of 110 ESRD patients seen over a five-year period (June 1995 to December 1999) in two tertiary-care hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were studied retrospectively. There were 79 (64.5%) males and 31 (35.5%) females; their age ranged from 17 to 92 years (mean age 53.8 +/- 17.8 years). Diabetes was the commonest cause of ESRD seen in 26 (26.6%) followed by nephrosclerosis, unknown etiology, lupus nephritis, pyelonephritis and primary glomerulonephritis. Diabetes mellitus was the most prevalent co-morbidity seen during the study period and occurred in 65 patients (59%) followed by heart disease in 36 (32.7%), liver disease in 30 (27.3%), cerebrovascular accidents in 13 (11.8%) and neoplasm in 11 (10%). Seven (6.3%) patients only were smokers. Hemodialysis was the most frequent treatment choice as renal replacement therapy. Among the causes of hospitalization, cardiovascular conditions were the leading single cause (19.1%), followed by access related reasons and infections (11.5% each). The overall hospitalization rate was 11.2 days/year. The overall mortality rate was 8.07 deaths/year. The leading cause of death was cardiovascular in 15 (51.7%) followed by unknown/sudden death in eight (27.5%). Other causes of death included fluid overload, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, septicemia

  17. Nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis: pitfalls and potentials for practice.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Juliana; Cuppari, Lilian; Campbell, Katrina L; Avesani, Carla Maria

    2017-03-22

    The chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is aging. Currently a high percentage of patients treated on dialysis are older than 65 years. As patients get older, several conditions contribute to the development of malnutrition, namely protein energy wasting (PEW), which may be compounded by nutritional disturbances associated with CKD and from the dialysis procedure. Therefore, elderly patients on dialysis are vulnerable to the development of PEW and awareness of the identification and subsequent management of nutritional status is of importance. In clinical practice, the nutritional assessment of patients on dialysis usually includes methods to assess PEW, such as the subjective global assessment, the malnutrition inflammation score, and anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Studies investigating measures of nutritional status specifically tailored to the elderly on dialysis are scarce. Therefore, the same methods and cutoffs used for the general adult population on dialysis are applied to the elderly. Considering this scenario, the aim of this review is to discuss specific considerations for nutritional assessment of elderly patients on dialysis addressing specific shortcomings on the interpretation of markers, in addition to providing clinical practice guidance to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients on dialysis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. Baseline hyponatremia does not predict two-year mortality in patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Chen, Chao-Yu; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Weng, Chu-Man; Hung, Cheng-Chieh

    2014-10-01

    Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality in a variety of medical conditions. Lower predialysis serum sodium concentration is associated with an increased risk of death in oligoanuric patients on hemodialysis. However, whether hyponatremia affects the short-term mortality in chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) patients remains unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional and two-year follow-up review retrospectively, and 318 patients with CPD were enrolled in a medical center. Serum sodium levels were measured at baseline and categorized as quartile of Na: quartile 1 (124-135 mEq/L), quartile 2 (136-139), quartile 3 (140-141) and quartile 4 (142-148). Mortality and cause of death were recorded for longitudinal analyses. The patients with higher quartile (higher serum sodium) had a trend of lower age, peritoneal dialysis (PD) duration, co-morbidity index, D/P Cr and white blood cell counts and higher renal Kt/Vurea (Kt/V) and serum albumin level. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum sodium level was positively associated with albumin, residual renal Kt/V and negatively associated with age and PD duration in CPD patients. After two-year follow-up, stepwise multivariate Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that age, co-morbidity index and serum albumin were the significant risk factors for all-cause two-year mortality, but not serum sodium levels. Serum sodium level in CPD patients is associated with nutritional status, residual renal function and duration of PD. However, baseline serum sodium level is not an independent predictor of two-year mortality in CPD patients.

  19. Falsely Elevated Glucose Concentrations in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Using Icodextrin.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kübra; Kayalp, Damla; Ceylan, Gözde; Azak, Alper; Senes, Mehmet; Duranay, Murat; Yucel, Dogan

    2016-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is used as an alternative to hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Icodextrin has been used as a hyperosmotic agent in PD. The aim of the study was to assess two different point-of-care testing (POCT) glucose strips, affected and not affected by icodextrin, with serum glucose concentrations of the patients using and not using icodextrin. Fifty-two chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients using icodextrin (Extraneal®) and 20 CAPD patients using another hyperosmotic fluid (Dianeal®) were included in the study. Duplicate capillary and serum glucose concentrations were measured with two different POCT glucose strips and central laboratory hexokinase method. Assay principles of glucose strips were based on glucose dehydrogenase-pyrroloquinoline quinone (GDH-PQQ) and a mutant variant of GDH (Mut Q-GDH). The results of both strips were compared with those of hexokinase method. Regression equations between POCT and hexokinase methods in icodextrin group were y = 2.55x + 1.12 mmol/l and y = 1.057x + 0.16 mmol/l for the GDH-PQQ and Mut Q-GDH methods, respectively. The mean difference between the results of hexokinase and those of GDH-PQQ and Mut Q-GDH in icodextrin group was 3.41 ± 1.56 and 0.72 ± 0.64 mmol/l, respectively. However, the mean differences were found much lower in the control group; 0.64 mmol/l for GDH-PQQ and 0.52 mmol/l for Mut Q-GDH. Compared to GDH-PQQ, glucose strips of Mut Q-GDH correlated better with hexokinase method in PD patients using icodextrin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Obese and diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease: Peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis?

    PubMed

    Ekart, Robert; Hojs, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that is increasingly prevalent around the world and is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The obese diabetic patient with ESRD is a challenge for the nephrologist with regard to the type of renal replacement therapy that should be suggested and offered to the patient. There is no evidence that either peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis is contraindicated in obese ESRD patients. In the literature, we can find a discrepancy in the impact of obesity on mortality among hemodialysis vs. peritoneal dialysis patients. Several studies in hemodialysis patients suggest that a higher BMI confers a survival advantage - the so-called "reverse epidemiology". In contrast, the literature among obese peritoneal dialysis patients is inconsistent, with various studies reporting an increased risk of death, no difference, or a decreased risk of death. Many of these studies only spanned across a few years, and this is probably too short of a time frame for a realistic assessment of obesity's impact on mortality in ESRD patients. The decision for dialysis modality in an obese diabetic patient with ESRD should be individualized. According to the results of published studies, we cannot suggest PD or HD as a better solution for all obese diabetic patients. The obese patient should be educated about all their dialysis options, including home dialysis therapies. In this review, the available literature related to the dialysis modality in obese patients with diabetes and ESRD was reviewed.

  1. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in a peritoneal dialysis patient presenting with complicated Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Simbli, Mohammed Amin; Niaz, Faraz A; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S

    2012-05-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious complication seen in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysisAPD after prolonged duration on dialysis. Patients usally present with vague complaints of abdominal pain, vomitting, diarrhea, weight loss and change in peritoneal transport characte-ristics. High degree of suspicion is needed in PD patients who have been on dialysis for prolonged duration and have been using high-concentrated dialysis fluid. Mycobacterium fortuitum (MF) is a rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium that has rarely been reported as a pathogen causing peritonits in patients on PD. We report a case of CAPD presenting with culture-negative peritonits, which, on specific culture, grew MF and, on radiological evaluation, showed diagnostic features of EPS.

  2. Outpatient Dialysis for Patients with AKI: A Policy Approach to Improving Care.

    PubMed

    Heung, Michael; Faubel, Sarah; Watnick, Suzanne; Cruz, Dinna N; Koyner, Jay L; Mour, Girish; Liu, Kathleen D; Cerda, Jorge; Okusa, Mark D; Lukaszewski, Mark; Vijayan, Anitha

    2015-10-07

    The rate of AKI requiring dialysis has increased significantly over the past decade in the United States. At the same time, survival from AKI seems to be improving, and thus, more patients with AKI are surviving to discharge while still requiring dialysis. Currently, the options for providing outpatient dialysis in patients with AKI are limited, particularly after a 2012 revised interpretation of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services guidelines, which prohibited Medicare reimbursement for acute dialysis at ESRD facilities. This article provides a historical perspective on outpatient dialysis management of patients with AKI, reviews the current clinical landscape of care for these patients, and highlights key areas of knowledge deficit. Lastly, policy changes that have the opportunity to significantly improve the care of this at-risk population are suggested.

  3. Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the “Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative,” dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420

  4. Preferences for dialysis withdrawal and engagement in advance care planning within a diverse sample of dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Goldstein, Mary K; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2010-01-01

    Rates of dialysis withdrawal are higher among the elderly and lower among Blacks, yet it is unknown whether preferences for withdrawal and engagement in advance care planning also vary by age and race or ethnicity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We recruited 61 participants from two dialysis clinics to complete questionnaires regarding dialysis withdrawal preferences in five different health states. Engagement in advance care planning (end-of-life discussions), completion of advance directives and 'do not resuscitate' or 'do not intubate' (DNR/DNI) orders were ascertained by a questionnaire and from dialysis unit records. The mean age was 62 +/- 15 years; 38% were Black, 11% were Latino, 34% were White and 16% of participants were Asian. Blacks were less likely to prefer dialysis withdrawal as compared with Whites (odds ratio 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.88) and other race/ethnicity groups, and this difference was not explained by age, education, comorbidity and other confounders. In contrast, older age was not associated with preferences for withdrawal. Rates of engagement in end-of-life discussions were higher than for documentation of advance care planning for all age and most race/ethnicity groups. Although younger participants and minorities were generally less likely to document treatment preferences as compared with older patients and Whites, they were not less likely to engage in end-of-life discussions. Preferences for withdrawal vary by race/ ethnicity, whereas the pattern of engagement in advance care planning varies by age and race/ethnicity. Knowledge of these differences may be useful for improving communication about end-of-life preferences and in implementing effective advance care planning strategies among diverse haemodialysis patients.

  5. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if...

  6. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if...

  7. 42 CFR 414.310 - Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... services furnished to renal dialysis patients. 414.310 Section 414.310 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Program § 414.310 Determination of reasonable charges for physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients. (a) Principle. Physician services furnished to renal dialysis patients are subject to payment if...

  8. Factors influencing skin autofluorescence of patients with peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Mácsai, Emília; Benke, A; Cseh, A; Vásárhelyi, B

    2012-06-01

    Skin autofluorescence (SAF) measurement is a simple, noninvasive method to assess tissue advanced glycation end products (AGE). In patients with end-stage renal disease and in those on hemodialysis AGE production is increased. Less is known about those treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study we tested if SAF is influenced by clinical and treatment characteristics in PD patients.This cross-sectional study included 198 PD patients (of those, 128 were on traditional glucose-based solutions and 70 patients were partially switched to icodextrin-based PD). SAF measurements were done with a specific AGE Reader device. The impact of patients' age, gender, current diabetes, duration of PD, cumulative glucose exposure, body mass index, smoking habits and use of icodextrin on SAF values were tested with multiple regression analysis.Our analysis revealed that patients' age, current diabetes and icodextrin use significantly increase patients' SAF values (p = 0.015, 0.012, 0.005, respectively). AGE exposure of PD patients with diabetes and on icodextrin solution is increased. Further investigation is required whether this finding is due to the icodextrin itself or for a still unspecified clinical characteristic of PD population treated with icodextrin.

  9. Is serum phosphorus control related to parathyroid hormone control in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed

    Frazão, João M; Braun, Johann; Messa, Piergiorgio; Dehmel, Bastian; Mattin, Caroline; Wilkie, Martin

    2012-08-03

    Elevated serum phosphorus (P) levels have been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) but may be difficult to control if parathyroid hormone (PTH) is persistently elevated. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from an earlier interventional study (OPTIMA) to explore the relationship between PTH control and serum P. The OPTIMA study randomized dialysis patients with intact PTH (iPTH) 300-799 pg/mL to receive conventional care alone (vitamin D and/or phosphate binders [PB]; n=184) or a cinacalcet-based regimen (n=368). For patients randomized to conventional care, investigators were allowed flexibility in using a non-cinacalcet regimen (with no specific criteria for vitamin D analogue dosage) to attain KDOQI™ targets for iPTH, P, Ca and Ca x P. For those assigned to the cinacalcet-based regimen, dosages of cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, and PB were optimized over the first 16 weeks of the study, using a predefined treatment algorithm. The present analysis examined achievement of serum P targets (≤ 4.5 and ≤ 5.5 mg/dL) in relation to achievement of iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL during the efficacy assessment phase (EAP; weeks 17-23). Patients who achieved iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL (or a reduction of ≥ 30% from baseline) were more likely to achieve serum P targets than those who did not, regardless of treatment group. Of those who did achieve iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL, 43% achieved P ≤ 4.5 mg/dL and 70% achieved P ≤ 5.5 mg/dL, versus 21% and 46% of those who did not achieve iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL. Doses of PB tended to be higher in patients not achieving serum P targets. Patients receiving cinacalcet were more likely to achieve iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL than those receiving conventional care (73% vs 23% of patients). Logistic regression analysis identified lower baseline P, no PB use at baseline and cinacalcet treatment to be predictors of achieving P ≤ 4.5 mg/dL during EAP in patients above this threshold at baseline

  10. Is serum phosphorus control related to parathyroid hormone control in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elevated serum phosphorus (P) levels have been linked to increased morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) but may be difficult to control if parathyroid hormone (PTH) is persistently elevated. We conducted a post hoc analysis of data from an earlier interventional study (OPTIMA) to explore the relationship between PTH control and serum P. Methods The OPTIMA study randomized dialysis patients with intact PTH (iPTH) 300–799 pg/mL to receive conventional care alone (vitamin D and/or phosphate binders [PB]; n = 184) or a cinacalcet-based regimen (n = 368). For patients randomized to conventional care, investigators were allowed flexibility in using a non-cinacalcet regimen (with no specific criteria for vitamin D analogue dosage) to attain KDOQI™ targets for iPTH, P, Ca and Ca x P. For those assigned to the cinacalcet-based regimen, dosages of cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, and PB were optimized over the first 16 weeks of the study, using a predefined treatment algorithm. The present analysis examined achievement of serum P targets (≤4.5 and ≤5.5 mg/dL) in relation to achievement of iPTH ≤300 pg/mL during the efficacy assessment phase (EAP; weeks 17–23). Results Patients who achieved iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL (or a reduction of ≥30% from baseline) were more likely to achieve serum P targets than those who did not, regardless of treatment group. Of those who did achieve iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL, 43% achieved P ≤4.5 mg/dL and 70% achieved P ≤5.5 mg/dL, versus 21% and 46% of those who did not achieve iPTH ≤ 300 pg/mL. Doses of PB tended to be higher in patients not achieving serum P targets. Patients receiving cinacalcet were more likely to achieve iPTH ≤300 pg/mL than those receiving conventional care (73% vs 23% of patients). Logistic regression analysis identified lower baseline P, no PB use at baseline and cinacalcet treatment to be predictors of achieving P

  11. Study of prolonged administration of lanthanum carbonate in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Junichi; Kukita, Kazutaka; Tsuchihashi, Seiichiro; Hattori, Masahiro; Iida, Junichi; Horie, Takashi; Onodera, Kazuhiko; Furui, Hidenori; Tamaki, Toru; Meguro, Junichi; Yonekawa, Motoki; Kawamura, Akio

    2013-04-01

    Data of 36 months were accumulated regarding the effects of lanthanum carbonate (LA) on serum phosphate concentrations in dialysis patients. Fifty-three patients (average age and dialysis history 58.4 years and 9.1 years) were included in this study who have been receiving outpatient treatment since March 2009, and who have been unable to maintain serum phosphate concentrations of ≤6.0 mg/dL via traditional therapeutic agents used for hyperphosphatemia. Patients were given dosage of LA in addition to, or instead of, co-hyperphosphatemia treatments already being received. Mean dosages of calcium carbonate (CC) and sevelamer hydrochloride (SH) before starting LA administration were 1301.9 mg and 2462.3 mg, respectively. Dosage of LA for all cases was 750 mg at initial dose; 1528.3 mg at 5 months; and 1416.7 mg at 30 months. Dosage of other phosphate binders were 905.7 mg of CC and 820.8 mg of SH at 5 months; and 687.5 mg of CC and 1031.3 mg of SH at 30 months. Serum phosphorus levels (P levels) were significantly decreased at 1 month of LA administration, and continued until 30 months of La treatment. These results suggest that LA successfully controlled serum P and Ca concentrations simultaneously within target ranges without affecting serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration, although further long-term prospective cohort study on LA would be required.

  12. Pancreatic lipase activity in overnight effluent predicts high transport status in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Idei, Mayumi; Tabe, Yoko; Hamada, Chieko; Miyake, Kazunori; Takemura, Hiroyuki; Io, Hiroaki; Wakita, Mitsuru; Horii, Takashi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Ohsaka, Akimichi; Miida, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) causes peritoneal morphological and functional changes, resulting in high transport status featuring increased peritoneal permeability. High transport status is diagnosed by peritoneal equilibration test (PET), a reliable but time-consuming method. We identifed a reliable biomarker in peritoneal effluent to predict high transport status in PD patients. We collected peritoneal effluent and serum from 33 PD patients and measured common laboratory test parameters. High transport status was determined by PET if the dialysate/plasma ratio of creatinine at 4h dwell (D/P Cr 4h) was ≥0.81. There were significant correlations between D/P Cr 4h and some laboratory parameters in overnight effluent (pancreatic lipase activity, r=0.65, p<0.001; β2-microglobulin concentration, r=0.59, p<0.001; IL-6 concentration, r=0.53, p<0.001; and CA125 concentration, r=0.29, p=0.027). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the pancreatic lipase activity in overnight effluent was identified as an independent predictor of high transport status even after adjusting for age, PD duration, and glomerular filtration rate [OR=1.43 (95% CI: 1.11-1.83), p=0.005]. The pancreatic lipase activity in overnight effluent is an independent predictor of high transport status in PD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk of hypoglycemia during hemodialysis in diabetic patients is related to lower pre-dialysis glycemia.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Miltersteiner, Diego da Rosa; Burmeister, Bruna Ortega; Campos, Juliana Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    To compare the occurrence of hypoglycemia during hemodialysis in chronic kidney disease diabetic patients who present different levels of pre-dialysis glycemia both when using dialysis solutions with and without glucose. Twenty type 2 diabetic patients in maintenance hemodialysis were submitted to three dialysis sessions (at a 7-day interval each) with dialysis solutions without glucose, with glucose at 55 mg/dL, and at 90 mg/dL subsequently. Blood glucose levels were measured immediately pre-dialysis and at 4 moments during the session, and values under 70 mg/dL were considered as hypoglycemia. Average pre-dialysis glycemia was lower in those who presented intra-dialytic hypoglycemia than in those who did not, both in glucose-free (140.4 ± 50.7 vs. 277.7 ± 91.0 mg/dL; p = 0.005; 95%CI: 46.4 to 228.1) and in glucose 55 mg/dL (89.5 ± 10.6 vs. 229.7 ± 105.0 mg/dL; p < 0.05; 95%CI: 9.8 to 270.5). In patients with pre-dialysis glycemia under 140 mg/dL, average intradialytic glycemia was significantly lower than pre-dialysis glycemia only when using glucose-free dialysate (p < 0.0001; 95%CI: 29.9 to 56.0 - t-test). Hypoglycemia during dialysis was observed only when using glucose-free or glucose-poor dialysis solutions. The use of glucose-free or glucose-poor dialysis solution presents a high risk of intradialytic hypoglycemia in diabetic renal patients, especially in those with presumed better glycemic control.

  14. Patients with learning difficulties: outcome on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Borràs, Mercè; Sorolla, Carol; Carrera, Dolores; Martín, Marisa; Villagrassa, Esther; Fernández, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we identified patients who had difficulties learning the minimum knowledge and skills required to carry out peritoneal dialysis (PD), and we compared the outcomes in this subgroup of patients with outcomes in the general PD population. We calculated the mean learning sessions needed by our total PD population during the training period. We then assigned patients to one of two groups according to the number of learning sessions they needed. Patients who required a number of sessions equal to or less than the mean were placed in the "standard learning" group; patients who required more sessions but who reached the minimum knowledge and skills were placed in the "learning difficulties " group. We compared these two groups in terms of age, sex, diabetes status, autonomy to perform PD, family support, education level, residual renal function, and Charlson comorbidity index. Outcomes on PD included time to first peritonitis episode, peritonitis rate, percentage of patients free of peritonitis during follow-up, survival time on PD, and transfer to hemodialysis. Patients with learning difficulties were older and had more comorbidities. Outcomes on PD in the learning difficulties group were similar to those in the standard learning group, except for time to first peritonitis.

  15. Heart rhythm complexity impairment in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yen-Hung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Heng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Liu, Li-Yu Daisy; Lin, Lian-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Chung-Kang

    2016-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death in patients with advanced renal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate impairments in heart rhythm complexity in patients with end-stage renal disease. We prospectively analyzed 65 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) without prior cardiovascular disease and 72 individuals with normal renal function as the control group. Heart rhythm analysis including complexity analysis by including detrended fractal analysis (DFA) and multiscale entropy (MSE) were performed. In linear analysis, the PD patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDRR) and percentage of absolute differences in normal RR intervals greater than 20 ms (pNN20). Of the nonlinear analysis indicators, scale 5, area under the MSE curve for scale 1 to 5 (area 1–5) and 6 to 20 (area 6–20) were significantly lower than those in the control group. In DFA anaylsis, both DFA α1 and DFA α2 were comparable in both groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, scale 5 had the greatest discriminatory power for two groups. In both net reclassification improvement model and integrated discrimination improvement models, MSE parameters significantly improved the discriminatory power of SDRR, pNN20, and pNN50. In conclusion, PD patients had worse cardiac complexity parameters. MSE parameters are useful to discriminate PD patients from patients with normal renal function.

  16. Renal cell carcinoma co-existent with other renal disease: clinico-pathological features in pre-dialysis patients and those receiving dialysis or renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Miguel, José Luis; Arrieta, Javier; Costero, Olga; Górriz, José Luis; Picazo, Mari-Luz; Fresno, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    Patients on chronic dialysis are prone to developing acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The risk factors for the development of RCC so far have not been determined in pre-dialysis patients with co-existent renal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinico-pathological features of RCC in pre-dialysis patients with associated renal diseases or in those undergoing chronic dialysis and renal transplantation. We studied 32 kidneys from 31 patients with RCC and associated renal diseases. Of those, 18 kidneys were from 17 patients not on renal replacement therapy (RRT) when diagnosed with RCC; 14 patients received dialysis or dialysis followed by renal transplantation. Several clinico-pathological features were analysed and compared between the two groups. Overall, there was a preponderance of males (75%); nephrosclerosis was the predominant co-existent disease (31%). The median intervals from renal disease to RCC in the dialysis and transplanted groups were significantly longer than in the pre-dialysis group (15.8+/-1.1 vs 2.4+/-0.7 years, P<0.0001). In contrast to pre-dialysis RCC, the dialysis and transplant RCC groups had greater frequency of ACKD (100 vs 28%, P<0.0001), papillary type RCC (43 vs 11%, P<0.05) and multifocal tumours (43 vs 5%, P<0.05). At the end of the study, 71% of dialysis and transplanted patients and 72% of pre-dialysis patients were alive. ACKD develops in dialysis patients, as it does in those with renal disease prior to RRT. The duration of renal disease, rather than the dialysis procedure itself, appears to be the main determinant of ACKD and RCC. The RCC occurring in patients with ACKD and prolonged RRT is more frequently of the papillary type and multifocal than the RCC occurring in patients with no or few acquired cysts and a short history of renal disease. Long-term outcomes did not differ between the two groups.

  17. Incremental Hemodialysis, Residual Kidney Function, and Mortality Risk in Incident Dialysis Patients: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M.; Ravel, Vanessa; Amin, Alpesh N.; Cupisti, Adamasco; Chen, Jing; Mathew, Anna T.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Maintenance hemodialysis is typically prescribed thrice-weekly irrespective of patient's residual kidney function (RKF). We hypothesized that a less frequent schedule at hemodialysis initiation is associated with greater preservation of RKF without compromising survival among patients with substantial RKF. Study Design A longitudinal cohort Setting & Participants 23,645 patients who initiated maintenance hemodialysis in a large dialysis organization in the United States (1/2007–12/2010), who had available RKF data during the first 91 days (or quarter) of dialysis, and who survived the first year. Predictor Incremental (routine twice-weekly for >6 continuous weeks during the first 91 days upon transition to dialysis) versus conventional (thrice-weekly) hemodialysis regimens during the same time. Outcomes Changes in renal urea clearance (KRU) and urine volume (UV) during one year after the first quarter, and survival after the first year. Results Among 23,645 included patients, 51% had substantial KRU (≥3.0 mL/min/1.73m2) at baseline. Compared to 8,068 patients with conventional hemodialysis regimen matched based on baseline KRU, UV, age, gender, diabetes, and central venous catheter use, 351 patients with incremental regimen exhibited 16% (95% CI, 5%-28%) and 15% (95% CI, 2%-30%) more preserved KRU and UV at second quarter, respectively, which remained across the following quarters. Incremental regimen showed higher mortality risk in patients with inadequate baseline KRU (≤3.0 mL/min/1.73m2; HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.44), but not in those with higher baseline KRU (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76-1.28). Results were similar in subgroup defined by baseline UV of 600 mL/day. Limitations Potential selection bias and wide CIs. Conclusions Among incident hemodialysis patients with substantial RKF, incremental hemodialysis may be a safe treatment regimen and associated with greater preservation of RKF while higher mortality is observed after a year in those with

  18. Predicting technique and patient survival over 12 months in peritoneal dialysis: the role of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Griva, Konstadina; Kang, Augustine W C; Yu, Zhen Li; Lee, Vanessa Y W; Zarogianis, Sotiris; Chan, Moong Chen; Foo, Marjorie

    2016-05-01

    Emotional distress is common in dialysis patients, but its role on clinical outcomes for patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) is uncertain. To evaluate the effect of depression and anxiety on 1-year prognosis in PD patients. A total of N = 201 PD patients (58.9 ± 12.59 years) completed the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and measures of social support at baseline and were followed up for CC technique and actuarial patient survival. Mortality and technique failure rates were 9.9 and 5.97 %, respectively. Carer-assisted PD, anxiety, comorbid burden and albumin were significant univariate predictors. Multivariate proportional hazard model to adjust for confounders indicated that anxiety remained significant with HR of 2.145 [95 % CI 1.03, 4.49, p = 0.043] for death/technique failure. Anxiety is an important predictor of actuarial and technique survival in PD. Effective treatment for symptoms of anxiety may represent an easily achievable means of improving the clinical outcome of PD patients.

  19. Unusual causes of peritonitis in a peritoneal dialysis patient: Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:21477370

  20. Discovering New Hope through ABE: A Program for Kidney Dialysis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonette, Linda M.

    1984-01-01

    Kidney dialysis patients often suffer emotional problems and face life adjustment problems. Adult basic education can be a useful tool to address these and to make positive use of idle time during dialysis. This article describes such a program, emphasizes the self-concept gain for students, and highlights the critical role of the understanding…

  1. Discovering New Hope through ABE: A Program for Kidney Dialysis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amonette, Linda M.

    1984-01-01

    Kidney dialysis patients often suffer emotional problems and face life adjustment problems. Adult basic education can be a useful tool to address these and to make positive use of idle time during dialysis. This article describes such a program, emphasizes the self-concept gain for students, and highlights the critical role of the understanding…

  2. First year survival of patients on maintenance dialysis treatment in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Brodowska-Kania, Dorota; Rymarz, Aleksandra; Gibin´ski, Krzysztof; Kiełczewska, Julia; Smoszna, Jerzy; Saracyn, Marek; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data of all patients starting dialysis over two years in our Department (n = 105) has been conducted. Factors such as type of dialysis treatment, reason of end-stage renal disease, Body Mass Index (BMI), laboratory tests results, number and cause of death during first year of dialysis were taken under consideration. Five patients have been excluded from the analysis of mortality (four received renal transplantation, one changed dialysis center). Twenty tree deaths have been noted during first year of dialysis treatment. Nine of them occurred during the first three months of therapy. The leading cause of death was cardio-vascular events (n = 14, 60.9%), the second was malignancy (8, 34,8%), one patient died due to catheter associated infection. Malignancy as a cause of end-stage renal disease, lack of outpatient nephrology care, acute mode of beginning renal replacement therapy and lack of erythropoiesis stimulating agents therapy were associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality during first year of dialysis. Being under the outpatient nephrology care, etiology of ESRD other than malignancy and erythropoiesis stimulating agents therapy were independently associated with better survival during this period of time. Other independent variables did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in order to improve one year survival of dialysis patients, outpatient nephrology care with adequate amount of visits and associated dialysis therapy should be employed. PMID:26663941

  3. Timing for Removal of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters in Pediatric Renal Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Melek, Engin; Baskın, Esra; Gülleroğlu, Kaan Savaş; Kırnap, Mahir; Moray, Gökhan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis, the preferred long-term renal replacement modality in the pediatric population, can also be used during the post transplant period. Although it is well known that peritonitis or other complications may occur related to the peritoneal dialysis catheter, less is known about complications related to the peritoneal dialysis during the posttransplant period. Our objective was to evaluate the complications related to use of a peritoneal dialysis catheter during the posttransplant period and to determine the optimum time for removal of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. We retrospectively analyzed 33 chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. Pretransplant and posttransplant demographics and clinical and laboratory data for each patient were recorded, including incidence of peritonitis and incidence of peritoneal dialysis catheter requirement after transplant. Mean age of patients at transplant was 12.8 ± 4.0 years (range, 3.5-18.0 y). Mean catheter removal time was 81.1 ± 36.2 days (range, 22.0-152.0 d). The peritoneal dialysis catheter was used in 6 of 33 patients (18.2%); none of these patients developed peritonitis. In contrast, 2 of the 27 patients who did not use the peritoneal dialysis catheter developed peritonitis. Our data suggest that the need for catheter use occurs predominantly during the first month, and infectious complications usually happen later. Previously, the trend was to not remove the peritoneal dialysis catheter at the time of transplant. However, in light of recent literature and our present study, we recommend that the time of catheter removal should be modified and decided for each patient on an individual basis.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, E D; Blair, A D

    1983-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime were studied in 12 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. After a 3-g intravenous dose, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.23 +/- 0.05 liter kg-1, with an elimination half-life of 9.7 +/- 5.1 h. The peritoneal clearance of ceftizoxime (2.8 +/- 0.7 ml min-1) contributed modestly to the overall serum clearance of the drug (17.1 +/- 7.4 ml min-1) and was greater than the renal clearance (0.8 +/- 0.8 ml min-1). The peritoneal concentration rose to 91 +/- 29 micrograms ml-1 at 6 h, which was 0.61 +/- 0.17 of the serum concentration. A 3-g intravenous dose of ceftizoxime given every 48 h would result in adequate activity against most susceptible organisms, but more frequent dosing may be necessary for less susceptible organisms. PMID:6314887

  5. Association of Lead aVR T-wave Amplitude With Cardiovascular Events or Mortality Among Prevalent Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuji; Hayashi, Toshihide; Joki, Nobuhiko; Fujimoto, Shouichi

    2017-06-01

    In dialysis patients, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities are common. However, the associations between the T-wave of the lead aVR (aVRT) amplitude and cardiovascular (CV) events or total mortality are unknown. We performed a prospective, observational cohort study of prevalent hemodialysis patients (N = 474), followed for 4 years. Outcomes were composite CV events and all-cause mortality. Predictors were baseline aVRT and other ECG findings. ECG parameters were analyzed in three models: model 1, univariate; model 2, basic adjustments; and model 3, model 2 plus serum albumin, C-reactive protein level, and NT-proBNP. By Cox analysis, aVRT was best associated with both endpoints through model 1 to 3 compared to other ECG findings. Patients categorized according to aVRT amplitude showed a step-by-step increase in hazard ratios for both endpoints. The aVRT amplitude level was significantly associated with not only composite CV events but also with all-cause mortality in prevalent dialysis patients. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  6. Antibiotic dosing during sustained low-efficiency dialysis: special considerations in adult critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Bogard, Kimberly N; Peterson, Nicole T; Plumb, Troy J; Erwin, Michael W; Fuller, Patrick D; Olsen, Keith M

    2011-03-01

    To address issues of antibiotic dosing during sustained low-efficiency dialysis by using available pharmacokinetic data, intermittent and continuous renal replacement therapy dialysis guidelines, and our experience with sustained low-efficiency dialysis. Published clinical trials, case reports, and reviews of antibiotic dosing in humans during sustained low-efficiency dialysis. A search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, and Ovid) was conducted by using key words of extended daily dialysis, sustained low-efficiency dialysis, antibiotics, antimicrobial agents, and pharmacokinetics. MEDLINE identified 32 sustained low-efficiency dialysis articles, and PubMed identified 33 articles. All papers describing antibiotic clearance prospectively in patients were considered for this article. We identified nine original research articles and case reports that determined the impact of sustained low-efficiency dialysis on antibiotic clearance in patients. The blood and dialysate flow rates, duration of dialysis, type of filter, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were extracted from each article. If multiple articles on the same drug were published, they were compared for consistency with the aforementioned dialysis parameters and then compared with forms of continuous renal replacement therapy. Antibiotic clearance by sustained low-efficiency dialysis was determined to be similar or higher than continuous renal replacement therapy therapies. The estimated creatinine clearance during sustained low-efficiency dialysis was approximately 60 mL/min to 100 mL/min depending on the blood and dialysate flow rates and the type of filter used. The potential for significant drug removal during an 8-hr-or-longer sustained low-efficiency dialysis session is evident by the limited number of studies available. Because significant amounts of drug may be removed by sustained low-efficiency dialysis combined with altered pharmacokinetic variables in critically ill patients, the risk for

  7. The prognostic value of time needed on dialysis in patients with delayed graft function.

    PubMed

    Marek, Caitlyn; Thomson, Benjamin; Shoker, Ahmed; Luke, Patrick P; Moser, Michael A J

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesize that in patients with delayed graft function (DGF), the need for a longer time needed on dialysis (TND) post-kidney transplant is associated with poorer long-term function and an increase in complications. This was a retrospective chart review involving collaboration between Western University (WU) Renal Transplant Program of London, Ontario and the Saskatchewan renal transplant program (SRTP). A total of 774 patients (567 WU and 207 SRTP) received kidney transplants between 2004 and 2011, of which 83 patients with deceased donor transplants (59 WU and 24 SRTP) developed DGF, defined as the need for dialysis in the first week posttransplant. Patients with DGF were divided into three groups depending on TND [group 1: <7 days (n = 52), group 2: 7-14 days (n = 13) and group 3 (n = 18): >14 days]. The creatinine clearance (CrCl) at 30 days (42.5, 33.8, 20.0 cc/min; P < 0.001) and 1 year (56.7, 49.2, 37.3 cc/min, P = 0.031) were significantly different between the three groups. Multivariate regression analysis identified length of TND posttransplant (β = -0.5, P < 0.001) and donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor (β = 19.5, P < 0.001) as the most significant predictors of CrCl at 1 year in these patients with DGF. DCD kidneys with DGF had a higher CrCl at 1 year and fewer readmissions in the first year compared with non-DCD kidneys with DGF. Our study suggests that increased TND is associated with worse CrCl at 1 year. The data also support the hypothesis of a different mechanism for DGF in DCD and non-DCD kidneys.

  8. CT of acquired cystic kidney disease and renal tumors in long-term dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.; Slusher, S.L.; Greathouse, J.L.; Krohn, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kidneys of long term dialysis patients frequently demonstrate multiple small acquired cysts and renal cell tumors on pathologic examination. The original kidneys of 30 long-term dialysis patients and six renal transplant patients were evaluated by computed tomography to determine the incidence of these abnormalities. Among dialysis patients, 43.3% had diffuse bilateral cysts, while 16.7% had occasional cysts (fewer than five per kidney), and 40% showed no renal cysts. Seven solid renal tumors were detected in four dialysis patients with renal cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease tends to result in renal enlargement, is more common in patients who have been maintained on dialysis for prolonged periods, and may lead to spontaneous renal hemorrhage. The six transplant patients showed no evidence of renal cysts, and all had markedly shrunken kidneys. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell tumors in the original kidneys of dialysis patients may be due to biologically active substances that are not cleared effectively by dialysis but that are removed by normally functioning transplant kidneys.

  9. Measurement and Correlation of Indices of Insulin Resistance in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    King-Morris, Kelli R; Deger, Serpil Muge; Hung, Adriana M; Egbert, Phyllis Ann; Ellis, Charles D; Graves, Amy; Shintani, Ayumi; Ikizler, T Alp

    2016-01-01

    ♦ Insulin resistance (IR) is common in maintenance dialysis patients and is associated with excess mortality. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic glucose clamp (HEGC) is the gold standard for measuring IR. There are limited studies using HEGC for comparison to other indirect indices of IR in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, nor have there been direct comparisons between patients receiving PD and those on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) with regard to severity of IR, methods of measurement, or factors associated with the development of IR. ♦ This is a cross-sectional, single-center study performed in 10 prevalent PD patients of median age 48 years (range 41 - 54); 50% were female and 60% were African American. Insulin resistance was assessed by HEGC (glucose disposal rate [GDR]), homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), HOMA-IR corrected by adiponectin (HOMA-AD), leptin adiponectin ratio (LAR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), McAuley's index, and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at each time point for a total of 18 studies. Retrospective analysis compared this cohort to 12 hemodialysis patients who had previously undergone similar testing. ♦ The median GDR was 6.4 mg/kg/min (interquartile range [IQR] 6.0, 7.8) in the PD cohort compared with the MHD group, which was 5.7 mg/kg/min (IQR 4.3, 6.6). For both the PD and MHD cohorts, the best predictors of GDR by HEGC after adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI), were HOMA-AD (PD: r = -0.69, p = 0.01; MHD: r = -0.78, p = 0.03) and LAR (PD: r = -0.68, p < 0.001; MHD: r = -0.65, p = 0.04). In both groups, HOMA-IR and QUICKI failed to have strong predictive value. Eight of 10 PD patients had at least 1 abnormal OGTT, demonstrating impaired glucose tolerance. ♦ Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in PD patients. The adipokine based formulas, HOMA-AD and LAR, correlated well in both the PD and MHD populations in predicting GDR by HEGC, outperforming HOMA-IR. The use of these novel

  10. Patient and family perspectives on peritoneal dialysis at home: findings from an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jessica; Lankshear, Annette

    2015-01-01

    To discuss findings from an ethnographic study, considering the experiences of patients and families, using peritoneal dialysis at home in the United Kingdom. Peritoneal dialysis is a daily, life-preserving treatment for end-stage renal disease, undertaken in the patient's home. With ever-growing numbers of patients requiring treatment for this condition, the increased use of peritoneal dialysis is being promoted. While it is known that quality of life is reduced when using dialysis, few studies have sought to explore experiences of peritoneal dialysis specifically. No previous studies were identified that adopted an ethnographic approach. A qualitative design was employed, utilising ethnographic methodology. Ethical and governance approvals were gained in November 2010 and data were generated in 2011. Patients (n = 16) and their relatives (n = 9) were interviewed and observed using peritoneal dialysis in their homes. Thematic analysis was undertaken using Wolcott's (1994) three stage process: Description, Analysis and Interpretation. This article describes four themes: initiating peritoneal dialysis; the constraints of peritoneal dialysis due to medicalisation of the home environment and the imposition of rigid timetables; the uncertainty of managing crises and inevitable deterioration; and seeking freedom through creativity and hope of a kidney transplant. This study highlights the culture of patients and their families living with peritoneal dialysis. Despite the challenges posed by the treatment, participants were grateful they were able to self-manage at home. Furthermore, ethnographic methods offer an appropriate and meaningful way of considering how patients live with home technologies. Participants reported confusion about kidney transplantation and also how to identify peritonitis, and ongoing education from nurses and other healthcare professionals is thus vital. Opportunities for sharing experiences of peritoneal dialysis were valued by participants and

  11. Serum phosphorus reduction in dialysis patients treated with cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism results mainly from parathyroid hormone reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zitt, Emanuel; Fouque, Denis; Jacobson, Stefan H.; Malberti, Fabio; Ryba, Miroslav; Ureña, Pablo; Rix, Marianne; Dehmel, Bastian; Manamley, Nick; Vervloet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background The calcimimetic cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). We explored serum P changes in dialysis patients treated with cinacalcet, while controlling for vitamin D sterol and phosphate binder (PB) changes, based on data from the pan-European observational study ECHO. Methods Patients were categorized by serum P change (decreased/unchanged/increased) at 12 months after starting cinacalcet and subcategorized by vitamin D sterol and PB dose changes (decreased/unchanged/increased). The impact of PTH, Ca and P, and vitamin D sterol, PB and cinacalcet doses (absolute values and/or change) was evaluated. Predictors of P change were explored using univariate and multivariate general linear models (GLM) and logistic regression analysis. Results At Month 12, 661 (41%) of 1607 patients had decreased, 61 (4%) unchanged and 400 (25%) increased serum P, while 485 patients had missing data. In 45% of the patients with serum P reduction, vitamin D was either increased or unchanged and P binders decreased or unchanged. PTH was a key predictor of serum P reduction, with an estimated 3% decrease in P per 10% reduction in PTH. Changes in vitamin D sterol and PB doses were not generally significant factors in GLM and regression analyses. Conclusions The serum P reduction observed in a significant proportion of dialysis patients after adding cinacalcet to an existing therapeutic regimen for SHPT appears to result mainly from PTH reduction, rather than from changes in vitamin D sterol or PB doses. Financial support for the ECHO study was provided by Amgen. PMID:23717787

  12. Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Physical Symptoms Among Patients Receiving Maintenance Dialysis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Flythe, Jennifer E.; Powell, Jill D.; Poulton, Caroline J.; Westreich, Katherine D.; Handler, Lara; Reeve, Bryce B.; Carey, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis have poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Physical symptoms are highly prevalent among dialysis-dependent patients and play important roles in HRQoL. A range of symptom assessment tools have been used in dialysis-dependent patients, but there has been no previous systematic assessment of the existing symptom measures’ content, validity, and reliability. Study Design systematic review of the literature Settings & Population ESRD patients on maintenance dialysis Selection Criteria for Studies instruments with ≥3 physical symptoms previously used in dialysis-dependent patients and evidence of validity or reliability testing Intervention patient-reported physical symptom assessment instrument Outcomes instrument symptom-related content, validity, and reliability Results From 3,148 screened abstracts, 89 full-text articles were eligible for review. After article exclusion and further article identification via reference reviews, 58 articles on 23 symptom assessment instruments with documented reliability or validity testing were identified. Of the assessment instruments, 43.5% were generic and 56.5% were ESRD-specific. Symptoms most frequently assessed were fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, and appetite. The instruments varied widely in respondent time burden, recall period, and symptom attributes. Few instruments considered recall periods less than 2 weeks and few assessed a range of symptom attributes. Psychometric testing was completed for congruent validity (70%), known group validity (25%), responsiveness (30%), internal consistency (78%), and test-retest reliability (65%). Content validity was assessed in dialysis populations in 57% of the 23 instruments. Limitations Consideration of physical symptoms only and exclusion of single symptom-focused instruments Conclusions The number of available instruments focused exclusively on physical symptoms in

  13. Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments for Physical Symptoms Among Patients Receiving Maintenance Dialysis: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Powell, Jill D; Poulton, Caroline J; Westreich, Katherine D; Handler, Lara; Reeve, Bryce B; Carey, Timothy S

    2015-12-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis have poor health-related quality of life. Physical symptoms are highly prevalent among dialysis-dependent patients and play important roles in health-related quality of life. A range of symptom assessment tools have been used in dialysis-dependent patients, but there has been no previous systematic assessment of the existing symptom measures' content, validity, and reliability. Systematic review of the literature. Patients with ESRD on maintenance dialysis therapy. Instruments with 3 or more physical symptoms previously used in dialysis-dependent patients and evidence of validity or reliability testing. Patient-reported physical symptom assessment instrument. Instrument symptom-related content, validity, and reliability. From 3,148 screened abstracts, 89 full-text articles were eligible for review. After article exclusion and further article identification by reference reviews, 58 articles on 23 symptom assessment instruments with documented reliability or validity testing were identified. Of the assessment instruments, 43.5% were generic and 56.5% were ESRD specific. Symptoms most frequently assessed were fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, and appetite. Instruments varied widely in respondent time burden, recall period, and symptom attributes. Few instruments considered recall periods less than 2 weeks and few assessed a range of symptom attributes. Psychometric testing was completed for congruent validity (70%), known-group validity (25%), responsiveness (30%), internal consistency (78%), and test-retest reliability (65%). Content validity was assessed in dialysis populations in 57% of the 23 instruments. Consideration of physical symptoms only and exclusion of single symptom-focused instruments. The number of available instruments focused exclusively on physical symptoms in dialysis patients is limited. Few symptom-containing instruments have short recall periods, assess

  14. Cryptococcosis in HIV-negative Patients with Renal Dialysis: A Retrospective Analysis of Pooled Cases.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nan; Chen, Min; Fang, Wenjie; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Boekhout, Teun; Xu, Jianping; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jia; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2017-06-30

    Cryptococcosis is a lethal fungal infection mainly caused by Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species. Currently, our understanding of cryptococcosis episodes in HIV-negative patients during renal dialysis remains scarce and fragmented. Here, we performed an analysis of pooled cases to systemically summarize the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis among HIV-negative patients with renal dialysis. Using pooled data from our hospital and studies identified in four medical databases, 18 cases were identified and analyzed. The median duration time of renal dialysis for peritoneal renal dialysis and hemodialysis cases was 8 months and 36 months, respectively. Several non-neoformans/gattii species were identified among the renal dialysis recipients with cryptococcosis, particularly Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus albidus, which share similar clinical manifestations as those caused by C. neoformans and C. gattii. Our analyses suggest that physicians should consider the possibility of the occurrence of cryptococcosis among renal dialysis recipients even when cryptococcal antigen test result is negative. The timely removal of the catheter is crucial for peritoneal dialysis patients with cryptococcosis. In addition, there is a need for optimized antifungal treatment strategy in renal dialysis recipients with cryptococcal infections.

  15. Hypervolemia, hypoalbuminemia and mitral calcification as markers of cardiovascular risk in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Querido, Sara; Quadros Branco, Patrícia; Silva Sousa, Henrique; Adragão, Teresa; Araújo Gonçalves, Pedro; Gaspar, Maria Augusta; Barata, José Diogo

    2017-09-01

    Mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease is higher than in the general population. This is linked to traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, as well as with risk factors associated with end-stage renal disease itself. The aim of this study is to identify CV risk markers in patients beginning peritoneal dialysis (PD) and their association with CV events and CV mortality. This was a retrospective cohort study of 112 incident PD patients, in which demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters, valvular calcifications, types of PD solutions, hospitalizations, CV events and death were analyzed. Occurrence of CV events or death due to a CV event after PD initiation was defined as the primary endpoint. The use of icodextrin solution was taken as a marker of hypervolemia. Mean age was 53.7±16.1 years. Patients were treated with PD for 29.3±17.4 months. Eighteen patients (16.1%) had valvular calcifications at baseline, 15 patients (13.4%) had major CV events and 11 patients (9.8%) died from CV-related causes. Cox proportional hazards analysis of CV events or CV-related mortality revealed that mitral calcification, use of icodextrin solution and low albumin were independent predictors of CV events or mortality. Traditional CV risk factors appear to have little impact on CV complications in PD patients. Nevertheless, hypervolemia, hypoalbuminemia and mitral calcifications were independent predictors of CV events or mortality in this group of patients. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term results of coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H L; Hsu, H P; Yu, B F; Lu, T M; Huang, C Y; Shih, C C; Cheng, B C; Hsu, C P

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in dialysis-dependent renal failure patients. Both the prevalence and incidence of renal failure are high in Taiwan. However, there were few reports exploring the outcome of coronary aortic bypass grafting (CABG) in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the survival outcome and risk factors for mortality from CABG in this population. The operative, early postoperative and late results of 170 dialysis patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting from January, 2000 to January, 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Operative mortality, long-term survival, and risk factors were analyzed. One hundred and seventeen patients (68.8%) were male, and the mean age was 61.5±10.3 years (range, 34-86 years). Follow-up was 40.3±32.1 months. Operative mortality was 8.2%. Actuarial survival, including operative mortality, was 81±3% at 1 year, 68±4% at 3 years, 58±5% at 5 years and 49±6% at 10 years, better than the natural course of dialysis-dependent renal failure patients. Age, emergent operation, postoperative ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, postoperative intra-aortic balloon pump insertion, gastrointestinal bleeding, and left internal mammary artery graft were significant predictors of operative or long term mortality. Most causes of late death were due to infection or cardiac events. CABG in dialysis patients is associated with a higher incidence of complications, but has acceptable mortality. CABG is beneficial in this population. Internal mammary artery grafting may provide more favorable long term outcomes.

  17. Pazopanib in Renal Cell Carcinoma Dialysis Patients: A Mini-Review and a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bersanelli, Melissa; Facchinetti, Francesco; Tiseo, Marcello; Maiorana, Mariarosa; Buti, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic data are available about pazopanib use in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) undergoing dialysis and no systematic review has been previously performed about this issue. The objective of the present mini-review is to provide an overview of clinical outcomes of pazopanib in this population, in order to support the clinical oncologist for the treatment choice and management. All the literature ever published about mRCC dialysis patients receiving pazopanib, until August 2015, was evaluated: only two case series emerged from our search and one more patient from our department was also included, with a total of 11 mRCC dialysis patients overall. Moreover, we described our case of intrapatient dose titration of pazopanib during dialysis. The continued treatment schedule, the short half-life, the predominantly hepatic metabolism, the wide possibility of dose modulation, the favorable tolerability profile and the similar efficacy respect to sunitinib represent factors in favor of pazopanib as first line mRCC treatment in dialysis patients. The knowledge and the good management of toxicity during pazopanib treatment can lead, also in dialysis patients, to the best and longest application of the drug, taking into account the concept of a dose escalation guided by toxicity as a marker of efficacy. The review, together with our single case report, confirmed the efficacy, the good tolerability and the maneuverability of pazopanib treatment in mRCC patients undergoing dialysis.

  18. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis....335 Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. (a) Prior to January 1, 2011, payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only to either a Medicare...

  19. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis....335 Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. (a) Prior to January 1, 2011, payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only to either a Medicare...

  20. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis....335 Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. (a) Prior to January 1, 2011, payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only to either a Medicare...

  1. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis... for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. (a) Prior to January 1, 2011, payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only to either a Medicare approved ESRD...

  2. 42 CFR 414.335 - Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for EPO furnished to a home dialysis... for EPO furnished to a home dialysis patient for use in the home. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49202, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) Payment for EPO used at home by a home dialysis patient is made only...

  3. Views of Japanese patients on the advantages and disadvantages of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Muranaka, Yoshimi; Miwa, Masako; Kin, Seikon; Hirai, Kei

    2013-08-01

    The preference for dialysis modalities is not well understood in Japan. This study explored the subjective views of Japanese patients undergoing dialysis regarding their treatments. The participants were receiving in-center hemodialysis (CHD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In Study 1, 34 participants (17 CHD and 17 CAPD) were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis modalities. In Study 2, 454 dialysis patients (437 CHD and 17 CAPD) rated the advantages and disadvantages of CHD and CAPD in a cross-sectional survey. Interviews showed that professional care and dialysis-free days were considered as advantages of CHD, while independence, less hospital visits, and flexibility were considered as advantages of CAPD. Disadvantages of CHD included restriction of food and fluids and unpleasant symptoms after each dialysis session. Catheter care was an additional disadvantage of CAPD. Survey showed that the highly ranked advantages were professional care in CHD and less frequent hospital visits in CAPD, while the highly ranked disadvantages were concerns about emergency and time restrictions in CHD, and catheter care and difficulty in soaking in a bath in CAPD. The total scores of advantages and disadvantages showed that CHD patients subjectively rated their own modality better CHD over CAPD, while CAPD patients had the opposite opinion. The results of this study indicate that the factors affecting the decision-making process of Japanese patients are unique to Japanese culture, namely considering the trouble caused to the people around patients (e.g., families, spouses, and/or caregivers).

  4. [Effect of a dialysis solution with icodextrin on ultrafiltration and selected metabolic parameters in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis].

    PubMed

    Opatrná, S; Racek, J; Stehlík, P; Senft, V; Sefrna, F; Topolcan, O; Opatrný, K

    2002-05-10

    To date, peritoneal dialysis has been performed almost exclusively using dialysis solutions containing glucose as the osmotic agent. Use of these solutions is fraught with problems regarding adequate fluid removal from the body and is also associated with undesirable metabolic effects; hence the search for alternative osmotic agents. A dialysis solution with the glucose polymer icodextrin generates ultrafiltration on the principle of colloidal osmosis. The aim of the study was to establish the effect of icodextrin-base dialysis solution on the magnitude of ultrafiltration and evaluate selected metabolic parameters of patients treated by ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. A total of 9 patients whose glucose-based solution was replaced by an icodextrin-based solution during the night-time exchange were evaluated. A control group of 9 patients used glucose-solution during all exchanges. Night-time bag ultrafiltration, blood pressure, and the serum levels of lipids, insulin, leptin, maltose, and amylase were determined before icodextrin administration (time 0), at one-month intervals (time 1, 2, 3), and one month after study completion (time 4). In icodextrin-treated patients, ultrafiltration rose from 246.5 +/- 60.5 ml (mean +/- SEM) at time 0 to 593.1 +/- 87.4 ml; p < 0.01, at time 1, to 547 +/- 67 ml; p < 0.05, at time 2, and to 586.7 +/- 58.8 ml; p < 0.01, at time 3, the icodextrin administration led to a rise in maltose from 0.02 +/- 0.01 g/l at time 0 to 0.1 +/- 0.1 g/l; p < 0.01, at time 1, to 1.0 +/- 0.09 g/l; p < 0.01, at time 2, and to 1.1 +/- 0.09 g/l; p < 0.01, at time 3, with a fall to zero values at time 4 (NS). Icodextrin administration was followed by a decrease in leptinemia from 34.6 +/- 17.2 ng/ml at time 0 to 21.7 +/- 8.9 ng/ml; p < 0.05, at time 1, to 21.4 +/- 9.5 ng/ml; p < 0.05, at time 2, and to 15.9 +/- 24.1 ng/ml; p < 0.05 at time 4. Insulin and lipid levels were not affected. There was no change in the above parameters in the control group

  5. Herbs and supplements in dialysis patients: panacea or poison?

    PubMed

    Dahl, N V

    2001-01-01

    The safety of herbal remedies and supplement use is of particular concern in patients with renal disease, and reliable information is not always easy to find. Predialysis patients may be drawn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) because they believe it can help prevent the progression of their renal disease. The purpose of this series of articles on alternative medicine for nephrologists is to address concerns and issues specific to CAM use in dialysis patients and to provide a guide to reliable sources of information. This introductory article emphasizes safety issues with a focus primarily on herbal medicine. Lack of regulation means that patients may not actually be taking what they think they are. Independent laboratory analyses have shown a lack of stated label ingredients and many instances of supplements and traditional remedies being contaminated with pesticides, poisonous plants, heavy metals, or conventional drugs. While certain supplements are always unsafe (carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, glandular extracts), others are specifically contraindicated in renal disease. Supplement use may be especially hazardous in renal disease because of unpredictable pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, negative effects on kidney function, nephrotoxicity, hemodynamic alterations, unpredictable effects on blood pressure or blood glucose, or potentiation of electrolyte abnormalities. There are no data on potential dialyzability of either active compounds, or their potentially active or toxic metabolites. Many supplements contain metal ions and other minerals. Transplant recipients are also at risk from potential unpredictable effects on immune function. Recommendations and information resources are listed.

  6. Effect of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in patients undergoing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chertow, Glenn M; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Drüeke, Tilman B; Floege, Jürgen; Goodman, William G; Herzog, Charles A; Kubo, Yumi; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Mix, T Christian H; Moe, Sharon M; Trotman, Marie-Louise; Wheeler, David C; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2012-12-27

    Disorders of mineral metabolism, including secondary hyperparathyroidism, are thought to contribute to extraskeletal (including vascular) calcification among patients with chronic kidney disease. It has been hypothesized that treatment with the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet might reduce the risk of death or nonfatal cardiovascular events in such patients. In this clinical trial, we randomly assigned 3883 patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (median level of intact parathyroid hormone, 693 pg per milliliter [10th to 90th percentile, 363 to 1694]) who were undergoing hemodialysis to receive either cinacalcet or placebo. All patients were eligible to receive conventional therapy, including phosphate binders, vitamin D sterols, or both. The patients were followed for up to 64 months. The primary composite end point was the time until death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or a peripheral vascular event. The primary analysis was performed on the basis of the intention-to-treat principle. The median duration of study-drug exposure was 21.2 months in the cinacalcet group, versus 17.5 months in the placebo group. The primary composite end point was reached in 938 of 1948 patients (48.2%) in the cinacalcet group and 952 of 1935 patients (49.2%) in the placebo group (relative hazard in the cinacalcet group vs. the placebo group, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.85 to 1.02; P=0.11). Hypocalcemia and gastrointestinal adverse events were significantly more frequent in patients receiving cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not significantly reduce the risk of death or major cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism who were undergoing dialysis. (Funded by Amgen; EVOLVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00345839.).

  7. Microbiology of Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients with Multiple Episodes

    PubMed Central

    Nessim, Sharon J.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M.; Jassal, Sarbjit V.

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. ♦ Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p < 0.001). Among patients with repeat CNS peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. ♦ Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. PMID:22215659

  8. The relationship between dialysis adequacy and serum uric acid in dialysis patients; a cross-sectional multi-center study in Iranian hemodialysis centers.

    PubMed

    Nemati, Eghlim; Khosravi, Arezoo; Einollahi, Behzad; Meshkati, Mehdi; Taghipour, Mehrdad; Abbaszadeh, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Uric acid is one of the most significant uremic toxins accumulating in chronic renal failure patients treated with standard dialysis. Its clearance has not any exact relation with urea and creatinine clearance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adequacy of dialysis and serum level of uric acid in dialysis patients of some dialysis centers in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this study 1271 hemodialysis patients who have been treated for more than 3 months were evaluated. Their information and examinations from their files in all over the country were gathered and analyzed using SPSS versin18.0. Results: In this study, a significant relationship between dialysis duration and serum level of uric acid was not detected, however, a significant relationship between patients Kt/V and uric acid (R=0.43, P=0.029) was seen. Patients who had higher adequacy of dialysis had a higher level of plasma uric acid. Conclusion: For better controlling of plasma uric acid level of hemodialysis patients, increasing of the adequacy of dialysis or its duration is not effective. Other modalities of decreasing of serum uric acid like, changing diet or lifestyle or medical therapy may be necessary.

  9. The Negative Impact of Early Peritonitis on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Wang, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Chu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    ♦ Background: Peritonitis rate has been reported to be associated with technique failure and overall mortality in previous literatures. However, information on the impact of the timing of the first peritonitis episode on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is sparse. The aim of this research is to study the influence of time to first peritonitis on clinical outcomes, including technique failure, patient mortality and dropout from peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted over 10 years at a single PD unit in Taiwan. A total of 124 patients on CAPD with at least one peritonitis episode comprised the study subjects, which were dichotomized by the median of time to first peritonitis into either early peritonitis patients or late peritonitis patients. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the correlation of the timing of first peritonitis with clinical outcomes. ♦ Results: Early peritonitis patients were older, more diabetic and had lower serum levels of creatinine than the late peritonitis patients. Early peritonitis patients were associated with worse technique survival, patient survival and stay on PD than late peritonitis patients, as indicated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, p = 0.04, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate Cox regression model, early peritonitis was still a significant predictor for technique failure (hazard ratio (HR), 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30 - 0.98), patient mortality (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13 - 0.92) and dropout from PD (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30 - 0.82). In continuous analyses, a 1-month increase in the time to the first peritonitis episode was associated with a 2% decreased risk of technique failure (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99), a 3% decreased risk of patient mortality (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 - 0.99), and a 2% decreased risk of dropout from PD (HR, 98%; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99). Peritonitis rate was inversely

  10. The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Results This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). Conclusions HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients. PMID:25378976

  11. The impact of high-flux dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Wook; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Song, Ho Chul; Choi, Euy Jin; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Yong Kyun

    2014-11-01

    The effect of high-flux (HF) dialysis on mortality rates could vary with the duration of dialysis. We evaluated the effects of HF dialysis on mortality rates in incident and prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients. Incident and prevalent HD patients were selected from the Clinical Research Center registry for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a Korean prospective observational cohort study. Incident HD patients were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD patients initiating HD. Prevalent HD patients were defined as patients who had been receiving HD for > 3 months. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. This study included 1,165 incident and 1,641 prevalent HD patients. Following a median 24 months of follow-up, the mortality rates of the HF and low-flux (LF) groups did not significantly differ in the incident patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.592 to 1.847; p = 0.878). In the prevalent patients, HF dialysis was associated with decreased mortality compared with LF dialysis (HR, 0.606; 95% CI, 0.416 to 0.885; p = 0.009). HF dialysis was associated with a decreased mortality rate in prevalent HD patients, but not in incident HD patients.

  12. Functional Linear Models for Zero-Inflated Count Data with Application to Modeling Hospitalizations in Patients on Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We propose functional linear models for zero-inflated count data with a focus on the functional hurdle and functional zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models. While the hurdle model assumes the counts come from a mixture of a degenerate distribution at zero and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution, the ZIP model considers a mixture of a degenerate distribution at zero and a standard Poisson distribution. We extend the generalized functional linear model framework with a functional predictor and multiple cross-sectional predictors to model counts generated by a mixture distribution. We propose an estimation procedure for functional hurdle and ZIP models, called penalized reconstruction (PR), geared towards error-prone and sparsely observed longitudinal functional predictors. The approach relies on dimension reduction and pooling of information across subjects involving basis expansions and penalized maximum likelihood techniques. The developed functional hurdle model is applied to modeling hospitalizations within the first two years from initiation of dialysis, with a high percentage of zeros, in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study participants. Hospitalization counts are modeled as a function of sparse longitudinal measurements of serum albumin concentrations, patient demographics and comorbidities. Simulation studies are used to study finite sample properties of the proposed method and include comparisons with an adaptation of standard principal components regression (PCR). PMID:24942314

  13. Functional linear models for zero-inflated count data with application to modeling hospitalizations in patients on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, Damla; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Nguyen, Danh V

    2014-11-30

    We propose functional linear models for zero-inflated count data with a focus on the functional hurdle and functional zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models. Although the hurdle model assumes the counts come from a mixture of a degenerate distribution at zero and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution, the ZIP model considers a mixture of a degenerate distribution at zero and a standard Poisson distribution. We extend the generalized functional linear model framework with a functional predictor and multiple cross-sectional predictors to model counts generated by a mixture distribution. We propose an estimation procedure for functional hurdle and ZIP models, called penalized reconstruction, geared towards error-prone and sparsely observed longitudinal functional predictors. The approach relies on dimension reduction and pooling of information across subjects involving basis expansions and penalized maximum likelihood techniques. The developed functional hurdle model is applied to modeling hospitalizations within the first 2 years from initiation of dialysis, with a high percentage of zeros, in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study participants. Hospitalization counts are modeled as a function of sparse longitudinal measurements of serum albumin concentrations, patient demographics, and comorbidities. Simulation studies are used to study finite sample properties of the proposed method and include comparisons with an adaptation of standard principal components regression.

  14. [New dialysis therapy modalities: what role do they play in the hemodialysis patient's outcome?].

    PubMed

    Mandolfo, S; Imbasciati, E

    2002-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to investigating new techniques and new dialysis strategies aimed at achieving adequate removal of "uremic toxins". Conversely, few studies focus on the effect of different dialysis techniques on long-term outcome, including large series and with adequate follow-up. Dialysis dose, membrane biocompatibility and permeability, convective techniques, and the number and duration of dialysis sessions have all been considered as potentially related to patient outcome. The available data from the literature clearly show a significant relationship between the urea kinetic model based dialysis delivered and long-term patient outcome. A significant positive correlation between survival and Kt/V up to 1.3 per session in patients treated three times a week with standard low flux cellulosic dialyzers has been shown. Many studies have shown an effect of high flux membranes on the appearance of symptoms related to dialysis amyloidosis. It is likely that such an effect is further enhanced by convective or mixed techniques. The role of these techniques in patient survival is suggested by some studies, but should be confirmed in larger series. The use of techniques suitable for ultra-pure dialysis fluids are mandatory whenever high permeability membranes are used. Treatment schedules which include long dialysis sessions or an increased number of sessions such as daily dialysis, seem to be beneficial for the control of hypertension or hyperphosphatemia. However, their role on patient survival has not yet been clearly assessed. Together with the choice of the best strategy, great attention should be paid to other factors known to be related to patient outcome, such as early patient referral, and the type and efficiency of vascular access.

  15. Improving first-year mortality in patients on dialysis: a focus on nutrition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Beto, Judith

    2010-01-01

    Early mortality is a significant concern for patients initiating dialysis. Nutrition and exercise are two factors that affect mortality rates that can be significantly influenced by a successful partnership between the healthcare team and the patient. This article provides an overview of current data on the importance of appropriate nutritional and exercise regimens for patients initiating dialysis, as well as tips for how nurses and other members of the healthcare team can work to incrementally improve these components of care.

  16. Incorporating patient travel times in decisions about size and location of dialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Eben-Chaime, M; Pliskin, J S

    1992-01-01

    This report demonstrates the power and usefulness of mathematical optimization as a decision support tool in the medical services industry by presenting an application to dialysis service planning. Models to predict the number of dialysis beds in a given region are usually population-based. Dialysis planners and providers have found a need to accommodate sparsely populated regions by making some allowance for patient travel times. A formal approach to incorporating travel times into dialysis planning, based on the formulation and solution of a mixed-integer programming model, is presented. The development of a method for dialysis planning serves as a platform to demonstrate the use of integer programming to support decision making. Major modeling principles are presented; output interpretation and sensitivity analysis are illustrated by examples; and computational requirements are discussed.

  17. Design of a multimedia PC-based telemedicine network for the monitoring of renal dialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohme, Walid G.; Winchester, James F.; Dai, Hailei L.; Khanafer, Nassib; Meissner, Marion C.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Johnson, Ayah E.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    This paper investigates the design and implementation of a multimedia telemedicine application being undertaken by the Imaging Science and Information Systems Center of the Department of Radiology and the Division of Nephrology of the Department of Medicine at the Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC). The Renal Dialysis Patient Monitoring network links GUMC, a remote outpatient dialysis clinic, and a nephrologist's home. The primary functions of the network are to provide telemedicine services to renal dialysis patients, to create, manage, transfer and use electronic health data, and to provide decision support and information services for physicians, nurses and health care workers. The technical parameters for designing and implementing such a network are discussed.

  18. Choosing to live with home dialysis-patients' experiences and potential for telemedicine support: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines the patients' need for information and guidance in the selection of dialysis modality, and in establishing and practicing home dialysis. The study focuses on patients' experiences living with home dialysis, how they master the treatment, and their views on how to optimize communication with health services and the potential of telemedicine. Methods We used an inductive research strategy and conducted semi-structured interviews with eleven patients established in home dialysis. Our focus was the patients' experiences with home dialysis, and our theoretical reference was patients' empowerment through telemedicine solutions. Three informants had home haemodialysis (HHD); eight had peritoneal dialysis (PD), of which three had automated peritoneal dialysis (APD); and five had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The material comprises all PD-patients in the catchment area capable of being interviewed, and all known HHD-users in Norway at that time. Results All of the interviewees were satisfied with their choice of home dialysis, and many experienced a normalization of daily life, less dominated by disease. They exhibited considerable self-management skills and did not perceive themselves as ill, but still required very close contact with the hospital staff for communication and follow-up. When choosing a dialysis modality, other patients' experiences were often more influential than advice from specialists. Information concerning the possibility of having HHD, including knowledge of how to access it, was not easily available. Especially those with dialysis machines, both APD and HHD, saw a potential for telemedicine solutions. Conclusions As home dialysis may contribute to a normalization of life less dominated by disease, the treatment should be organized so that the potential for home dialysis can be fully exploited. Pre-dialysis information should be unbiased and include access to other patients' experiences. Telemedicine

  19. The Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) study: Comparative measures of glycemic control in diabetic dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Mark E; Mittman, Neal; Ma, Lin; Brennan, Julia I; Mooney, Ann; Johnson, Curtis D; Jani, Chinu M; Maddux, Franklin W; Lacson, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The validity of hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) is undergoing increasing scrutiny in the advanced CKD/ESRD (chronic kidney disease/end-stage renal disease) population, where it appears to be discordant from other glycemic indices. In the Glycemic Indices in Dialysis Evaluation (GIDE) Study, we sought to assess correlation of HgbA1c with casual glucose, glycated albumin, and serum fructosamine in a large group of diabetic patients on dialysis. From 26 dialysis facilities in the United States, 1758 diabetic patients (hemodialysis = 1476, peritoneal dialysis = 282) were enrolled in the first quarter of 2013. The distributions of HgbA1c and the other glycemic indices were analyzed. Intra-patient coefficients of variation and correlations among the four glycemic indices were determined. Patients with low HgbA1c values were both on higher erythropoietin (ESA) doses and more anemic. Serum glucose exhibited the highest intra-patient variability over a 3-month period; variability was modest among the other glycemic indices, and least with HgbA1c. Statistical analyses inclusive of all glycemic markers indicated modest to strong correlations. HgbA1c was more likely to be in the target range than glycated albumin or serum fructosamine, suggesting factors which may or may not be directly related to glycemic control, including anemia, ESA management, and iron administration, in interpreting HgbA1c values. These initial results from the GIDE Study clarify laboratory correlations among glycemic indices and add to concerns about reliance on HgbA1c in patients with diabetes and advanced kidney disease.

  20. Exfoliated mesothelial cell and CA-125 in automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients.

    PubMed

    Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Puttipittayathorn, Nopadol; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Lieusuwan, Songkiat; Katavetin, Pisut; Mahatanan, Nanta; Sriudom, Kanda; Chirananthavat, Thanit; Thongbor, Nisa; Eiam-Ong, Somchai

    2011-09-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) becomes the first option for peritoneal dialysis, nowadays overtaking continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in many countries. The comparison of peritoneal membrane alteration in CAPD and APD is inconclusive. The authors therefore compared the peritoneal membrane changes in patients undergoing CAPD and APD. In naive end stage renal disease patients, the choice of PD modes (CAPD or APD) was dependent on the patient's decision. Thirty-six CAPD and 25APD patients with a total of 287 patient-months were compared. The peritoneal mass parameter, exfoliated mesothelial cell (MTC) and dialysate CA-125, as well as modified peritoneal equilibrium test (mPET) with 4.25% dextrose solution was simultaneously evaluated at 1 and 6 month follow-up. Although the peritoneal function (as measured by D/P creatinine, D/D0 glucose, sodium dipping, and dialysate protein loss), adequacy, serum albumin, nutritional status, and residual renal function showed no significant differences between groups at 1 and 6 months, CA-125 but not MTC was higher in APD compared with CAPD at the first month of PD beginning. Due to the single time-point measurement limitation, the authors compared the peritoneal mass parameter differences between 1 and 6 month. During 6-month follow-up, CA-125 decreased 30 +/- 5% vs. 7 +/- 5% and MTC decreased 5 +/- 12% vs. 40 +/- 11% in APD and CAPD, respectively. The higher CA-125 reduction in APD and greater changes of MTC in CAPD suggested that there was less viable mesothelial cell in APD compared with CAPD. The authors observed that both APD and CAPD damaged peritoneum. However, there might be higher peritoneal injury in APD patients. The proper randomization study in longer follow-up period is mandatory to confirm this observation.

  1. Effect of Dialysis Modality on Survival of Hepatitis C-Infected ESRF Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Bhadran; McDonald, Stephen P.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Brown, Fiona G.; Badve, Sunil V.; Wiggins, Kathryn J.; Bannister, Kym M.; Boudville, Neil; Clayton, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in end-stage renal failure (ESRF) patients. Despite a lower incidence and risk of transmission of HCV infection with peritoneal dialysis (PD), the optimal dialysis modality for HCV-infected ESRF patients is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of dialysis modality on the survival of HCV-infected ESRF patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The study included all adult incident ESRF patients in Australia and New Zealand who commenced dialysis between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2008, and were HCV antibody-positive at the time of dialysis commencement. Time to all-cause mortality was compared between hemodialysis (HD) and PD according to modality assignment at day 90, using Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Results A total of 424 HCV-infected ESRF patients commenced dialysis during the study period and survived for at least 90 days (PD n = 134; HD n = 290). Mortality rates were comparable between PD and HD in the first year (10.7 versus 13.8 deaths per 100 patient-years, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.65, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.26) and thereafter (20 versus 15.9 deaths per 100 patient-years, respectively; HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.88). Conclusions The survival of HCV-infected ESRF patients is comparable between PD and HD. PMID:21903989

  2. Prevalence and correlates of functional dependence among maintenance dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Niall T; Schiller, Brigitte; Saxena, Anjali B; Thomas, I-Chun; Kurella Tamura, Manjula

    2015-10-01

    Functional dependence is an important determinant of longevity and quality of life. The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of functional dependence among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving maintenance dialysis. We enrolled 148 participants with ESRD from five clinics. Functional status, as measured by basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), was ascertained by validated questionnaires. Functional dependence was defined as needing assistance in at least one of seven IADLs or at least one of four ADLs. Demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, anthropometric measurements, and laboratories were assessed by a combination of self-report and chart review. Cognitive function was assessed with a neurocognitive battery, and depressive symptoms were assessed by questionnaire. Mean age of the sample was 56.2 ± 14.6 years. Eighty-seven participants (58.8%) demonstrated dependence in ADLs or IADLs, 70 (47.2%) exhibited IADL dependence alone, and 17 (11.5%) exhibited combined IADL and ADL dependence. In a multivariable-adjusted model, stroke, cognitive impairment, and higher systolic blood pressure were independent correlates of functional dependence. We found no significant association between demographic characteristics, chronic health conditions, depressive symptoms or laboratory measurements, and functional dependence. Impairment in executive function was more strongly associated with functional dependence than memory impairment. Functional dependence is common among ESRD patients and independently associated with stroke, systolic blood pressure, and executive function impairment.

  3. Can Bioimpedance Measurements of Lean and Fat Tissue Mass Replace Subjective Global Assessments in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients?

    PubMed

    Paudel, Klara; Visser, Annemarie; Burke, Sinead; Samad, Nasreen; Fan, Stanley L

    2015-11-01

    Malnutrition and protein energy wasting (PEW) determined by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is associated with increased mortality. There is an inverse relationship between body mass and overhydration in dialysis patients. Is the predictive accuracy of SGA (for death) independent of hydration status? Can bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis of lean tissue index (LTI) and fat tissue index (FTI) accurately identify dialysis patients with protein energy wasting and increased mortality? We report an observational study of 455 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We found that 96 patients (21%) were malnourished (SGA score between 1 and 5), and 192 (42%) had LTI values below 10th centile (age, gender adjusted). FTI was significantly lower in the SGA-defined malnourished cohort. By contrast, there was an inverse relationship between LTI and FTI. Malnourished (by SGA) patients were significantly more overhydrated (P < .0001), but SGA remained highly predictive of survival in multivariate analysis that included hydration status (hazard ratio: 3.12, 95% confidence interval 1.86-5.23, P < .0001). Obesity (patients with the highest 20% FTI) predicted survival (hazard ratio of death was 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.85, P < .02) on univariate but not multivariate analysis. We have confirmed that SGA is an accurate predictor of mortality in PD patients, and its predictive value is independent of the hydration status. Predictive power of SGA was not affected when LTI and FTI were included in multivariate analysis. Patients with low LTI were different from patients with low SGA (associated with high FTI). Sensitivity and specificity of Body Composition Monitor to diagnose patients with low SGA readings were poor (area under the curve for receiver operator characteristics analysis 0.66). The phenomenon of reverse epidemiology (high FTI predicting a survival advantage) was found in our PD cohort. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier

  4. Mycobacterium fortuitum Peritonitis in a Patient on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD): A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Jyoti; Lathwal, Sumit; Kumar, Satish; Juyal, Deepak

    2013-12-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum, an environmental organism, is capable of producing a variety of clinical infections such as cutaneous infections, abscesses and nosocomial infections. Rarely, it has been a documented as a cause of peritonitis in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is one of the treatment options which are used for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although peritonitis rates have declined in parallel with advances in peritoneal dialysis (PD) technology, peritonitis remains a leading complication of CAPD and it is the major cause for transfer to other methods of dialysis. We are reporting a case of M. fortuitum peritonitis in a patient who was undergoing CAPD, which was successfully treated. This case emphasizes the importance of mycobacterial cultures in patients with CAPD-associated peritonitis, whose routine cultures may yield no organisms.

  5. Understanding by older patients of dialysis and conservative management for chronic kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Okamoto, Ikumi; Leydon, Geraldine M; Murtagh, Fliss E M; Farrington, Ken; Caskey, Fergus; Rayner, Hugh; Roderick, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 may be offered a choice between dialysis and conservative management. Few studies have explored patients' reasons for choosing conservative management and none have compared the views of those who have chosen different treatments across renal units. Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Patients 75 years or older recruited from 9 renal units. Units were chosen to reflect variation in the scale of delivery of conservative management. Semistructured interviews audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. 42 interviews were completed, 4 to 6 per renal unit. Patients were sampled from those receiving dialysis, those preparing for dialysis, and those choosing conservative management. 14 patients in each group were interviewed. Patients who had chosen different treatments held varying beliefs about what dialysis could offer. The information that patients reported receiving from clinical staff differed between units. Patients from units with a more established conservative management pathway were more aware of conservative management, less often believed that dialysis would guarantee longevity, and more often had discussed the future with staff. Some patients receiving conservative management reported that they would have dialysis if they became unwell in the future, indicating the conditional nature of their decision. Recruitment of older adults with frailty and comorbid conditions was difficult and therefore transferability of findings to this population is limited. Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 who have chosen different treatment options have contrasting beliefs about the likely outcomes of dialysis for those who are influenced by information provided by renal units. Supporting renal staff in discussing conservative management as a valid alternative to dialysis for a subset of patients will aid informed decision making. There is a need for better

  6. The effect of coix seed on the nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yifan; Li, Yin; Tong, Xiaozhen; Lu, Fuhua; Mao, Wei; Fu, Lizhe; Deng, Lili; Liu, Xi; Li, Chuang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-02-01

    To observe the effect of coix seed diet therapy on the nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients and to discuss the potential reasons. 30 dialysis patients with regular return visit to peritoneal dialysis center of Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine were recruited and divided into two groups according to their willingness. 13 patients in control group continued their usual dialysis prescriptions and medications, whereas 30g of coix seed per day was added to the usual therapies of 17 patients in coix seed group. Changes in nutritional status of dialysis patients in two groups were evaluated after a 12-week treatment. Two patients (one in each group) quitted the study because of pulmonary infection. After treatment, the nutritional parameters of serum albumin level (P=0.004), total protein level (P=0.008), and body mass index (P=0.023) were increased significantly in coix seed group. And the statistical differences of serum albumin level and body mass index were significantly compared to control group (P=0.008 and P=0.032, respectively). Moreover, the C-reactive protein level had a significant decrease (P=0.001) and the clinical symptoms of dialysis patients including tiredness, anorexia, xerostomia, and abdominal distension showed a significant improvement (P<0.05) in coix seed group. And urinary volume of dialysis patients in coix seed group also had a significant increase (P=0.027). However, there is no significant difference showed in control group. Coix seed diet therapy plays a role in improving the nutritional status of peritoneal dialysis patients by relieving digestive tract symptoms, increasing urinary volume, and meliorating micro-inflammatory state. But as a pilot study, the results still need to be validated by further large-scale researches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fat tissue and inflammation in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Rincón Bello, Abraham; Bucalo, Laura; Abad Estébanez, Soraya; Vega Martínez, Almudena; Barraca Núñez, Daniel; Yuste Lozano, Claudia; Pérez de José, Ana; López-Gómez, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Body weight has been increasing in the general population and is an established risk factor for hypertension, diabetes, and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) gain weight, mainly during the first months of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between body composition and metabolic and inflammatory status in patients undergoing PD. Methods This was a prospective, non-interventional study of prevalent patients receiving PD. Body composition was studied every 3 months using bioelectrical impedance (BCM®). We performed linear regression for each patient, including all BCM® measurements, to calculate annual changes in body composition. Thirty-one patients in our PD unit met the inclusion criteria. Results Median follow-up was 26 (range 17–27) months. Mean increase in weight was 1.8 ± 2.8 kg/year. However, BCM® analysis revealed a mean increase in fat mass of 3.0 ± 3.2 kg/year with a loss of lean mass of 2.3 ± 4.1 kg/year during follow-up. The increase in fat mass was associated with the conicity index, suggesting that increases in fat mass are based mainly on abdominal adipose tissue. Changes in fat mass were directly associated with inflammation parameters such as C-reactive protein (r = 0.382, P = 0.045) and inversely associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.50, P = 0.008). Conclusions Follow-up of weight and body mass index can underestimate the fat mass increase and miss lean mass loss. The increase in fat mass is associated with proinflammatory state and alteration in lipid profile. PMID:27274820

  8. Bariatric Surgery in Patients with Dialysis-Dependent Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    Mozer, Anthony B; Pender, John R; Chapman, William H H; Sippey, Megan E; Pories, Walter J; Spaniolas, Konstantinos

    2015-11-01

    Laparoscopic procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity are commonly offered to patients with comorbidities previously thought to carry prohibitive operative risk. In this study, we reviewed characteristics and perioperative outcomes of patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure (DDRF) who underwent laparoscopic bariatric procedures. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database from 2006 to 2011 was reviewed. Preoperative characteristics and 30-day outcome data of patients who underwent three common laparoscopic procedures were analyzed using ANOVA and Pearson chi-squared tests. One hundred thirty-eight patients (52.5 % female) with DDRF and a median body mass index (BMI) of 45.5 kg/m(2) were identified; 33.8 % (n = 47) underwent laparoscopic banding (LAGB), 48.9 % (n = 68) laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), and 16.5 % (n = 23) laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). No differences were found among groups in age, prevalence of American Society of Anesthesiology IV classification, BMI, weight, gender, prevalence of diabetes, and vascular or neurologic comorbidities. Total operation time and length of hospital stay were significantly different between groups. Mortality was 0.7 %, and overall morbidity was 5.8 %. The case mix reflected a decrease in LAGB procedures from 45.5 to 23.3 % from 2006-2009 to 2010-2011 and an increase in LSG procedures from 9.1 to 24.7 % (p < 0.006). When performed in selected DDRF patients, bariatric surgery is safe. An increase in LSG with a concurrent decline in LAGB procedures was demonstrated over the period of the study.

  9. Ghrelin plasma levels and appetite in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Cirugeda, Antonio; Amair, Ruth; Sansone, Gabriela; Alegre, Laura; Codoceo, Rosa; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; del Peso, Gloria; Díez, Juan J; Sánchez-Tomero, José A; Selgas, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia-associated malnutrition is a severe complication that increases mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Ghrelin is a recently-discovered orexigenic hormone with actions in brain and stomach. We analyzed, in 42 PD patients, the possible relationship between ghrelin and appetite regulation with regard to other orexigens [neuropeptide Y (NPY), NO3] and anorexigens [cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]. All orexigens and anorexigens were determined in plasma. Eating motivation was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The patients were divided into three groups: those with anorexia (n = 12), those with obesity associated with high intake (n = 12), and those with no eating behavior disorders (n = 18). A control group of 10 healthy volunteers was also evaluated. Mean plasma levels of ghrelin were high (3618.6 +/- 1533 mg/mL), with 36 patients showing values above the normal range (< 2600 mg/mL). Patients with anorexia had lower ghrelin and NPY levels and higher peptide-C, CCK, interleukin-1 (IL-1), TNFalpha, and GIP levels than did the other patients. Patients with anorexia also had an early satiety score and low desire and pleasure in eating on the VAS and diet survey. We observed significant positive linear correlations between ghrelin and albumin (r = 0.43, p < 0.05), prealbumin (r = 0.51, p < 0.05), transferrin (r = 0.4, p < 0.05), growth hormone (r = 0.66, p < 0.01), NO3 (r = 0.36, p < 0.05), and eating motivation (VAS). At the same time, negative relationships were observed between blood ghrelin and GIP (r = -0.42, p < 0.05), insulin (r = -0.4, p < 0.05), leptin (r = -0.45, p < 0.05), and creatinine clearance [r = -0.33, p = 0.08 (nonsignificant)]. Ghrelin levels were not related to Kt/V or to levels of CCK and cytokines. Ghrelin plasma levels are elevated in PD patients. Uremic patients with anorexia show relatively lower ghrelin plasma levels than the levels

  10. Survival of patients ≥70 years with advanced chronic kidney disease: Dialysis vs. conservative care.

    PubMed

    Martínez Echevers, Yeleine; Toapanta Gaibor, Néstor Gabriel; Nava Pérez, Nathasha; Barbosa Martin, Francisco; Montes Delgado, Rafael; Guerrero Riscos, María Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    The number of elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD) has increased in recent years, and the best therapeutic approach has not been determined due to a lack of evidence. To observe the progression of elderly patients with ACKD (stages 4 and 5) and to compare the survival of stage 5 CKD patients with and without dialysis treatment. All patients ≥70 years who began ACKD follow-up from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2008 were included, and their progression was observed until 31/12/2013. Demographic data, the Charlson comorbidity index, history of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) were assessed. A total of 314 patients ≥70 years with stages 4 and 5 CKD were studied. Of these patients, 162 patients had stage 5 CKD at the beginning of follow-up or progressed to stage 5 during the study, and 69 of these patients were treated with dialysis. In the stage 5 group: median age was 77 years (74-81); 48% had IHD; 50% had DM, Charlson 7 (6-9). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis: ≥70 years (93 vs. 69 patients with dialysis, log rank: 15 P<.001); patients ≥75 years (74 vs. 46 patients with dialysis, log rank: 8.9 P=.003); patients ≥80 (40 vs. 15 patients with dialysis) and p=0,2. Patients receiving dialysis were younger, with a lower Charlson comorbidity index and shorter follow-up time. Our study shows that dialysis treatment improves survival, although this benefit is lost in patients ≥80 years. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. CKD in Elderly Patients Managed without Dialysis: Survival, Symptoms, and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Collett, Gemma K.; Josland, Elizabeth A.; Foote, Celine; Li, Qiang; Brennan, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Survival, symptom burden, and quality of life (QOL) are uncertain for elderly patients with advanced CKD managed without dialysis. We examined these outcomes in patients managed with renal supportive care without dialysis (RSC-NFD) and those planned for or commencing dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this prospective observational study, symptoms were measured using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and the Palliative care Outcomes Scale - Symptoms (renal) inventory and QOL was measured using the Short Form-36 survey. This study comprised 273 predialysis patients who had usual nephrology care and 122 nondialysis pathway patients who also attended a renal supportive care clinic adding the skills of a palliative medicine team. A further 72 patients commenced dialysis during this period without attending either clinic. Results Nondialysis patients were older than the predialysis group (82 versus 67 years; P<0.001) but had similar eGFR at the first clinic visit (16 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P=0.92). Of the predialysis patients, 92 (34%) commenced dialysis. Compared with the RSC-NFD group, the death rate was lower in the predialysis group who did not require dialysis (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 0.41] and in those requiring dialysis (0.30; 0.13 to 0.67) but not in dialysis patients who had not attended the predialysis clinic (0.60; 0.35 to 1.03). Median survival in RSC-NFD patients was 16 (interquartile range, 9, 37) months and 32% survived >12 months after eGFR fell below 10 ml/min per 1.73 m2. For the whole group, age, serum albumin, and eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2 were associated with poorer survival. Of the nondialysis patients, 57% had stable or improved symptoms over 12 months and 58% had stable or improved QOL. Conclusions Elderly patients who choose not to have dialysis as part of shared decision making survive a median of 16 months and about one-third survive 12 months past a time when

  12. Quality of life in chronic haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in Turkey and related factors.

    PubMed

    Oren, Besey; Enç, Nuray

    2013-12-01

    Turkey is the fifth country in Europe with regard to the number of patients receiving haemodialysis (HD). However, only a limited number of studies have comparatively investigated the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Turkey. The purpose of the study was to investigate the factors that affect quality of life in haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients, as well as providing a comparison of quality of life between these groups. In this cross-sectional study, Quality of Life Scale and a data form was completed by 300 dialysis patients who received treatment at five hospital-based dialysis units in Istanbul, Turkey. The data were evaluated using arithmetic mean values, standard deviations, minimums, maximums, percentages, independent groups t-tests, Spearman correlation analyses and one-way variance analyses. The quality of life values in peritoneal dialysis patients were found to be higher than those of haemodialysis patients (P < 0.05). It was concluded that the quality of life in chronic dialysis patients was affected by various factors.

  13. Understanding by Older Patients of Dialysis and Conservative Management for Chronic Kidney Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin-Crine, Sarah; Okamoto, Ikumi; Leydon, Geraldine M.; Murtagh, Fliss E.M.; Farrington, Ken; Caskey, Fergus; Rayner, Hugh; Roderick, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 may be offered a choice between dialysis and conservative management. Few studies have explored patients’ reasons for choosing conservative management and none have compared the views of those who have chosen different treatments across renal units. Study Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Settings & Participants Patients 75 years or older recruited from 9 renal units. Units were chosen to reflect variation in the scale of delivery of conservative management. Methodology Semistructured interviews audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Analytical Approach Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results 42 interviews were completed, 4 to 6 per renal unit. Patients were sampled from those receiving dialysis, those preparing for dialysis, and those choosing conservative management. 14 patients in each group were interviewed. Patients who had chosen different treatments held varying beliefs about what dialysis could offer. The information that patients reported receiving from clinical staff differed between units. Patients from units with a more established conservative management pathway were more aware of conservative management, less often believed that dialysis would guarantee longevity, and more often had discussed the future with staff. Some patients receiving conservative management reported that they would have dialysis if they became unwell in the future, indicating the conditional nature of their decision. Limitations Recruitment of older adults with frailty and comorbid conditions was difficult and therefore transferability of findings to this population is limited. Conclusions Older adults with chronic kidney disease stage 5 who have chosen different treatment options have contrasting beliefs about the likely outcomes of dialysis for those who are influenced by information provided by renal units. Supporting renal staff in discussing conservative management as a valid

  14. Serum cardiac troponin T and effective blood flow in stable extracorporeal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E; Cieszyński, Krzysztof; Niepolski, Leszek; Kaczmarek, Andrzej; Sowińska, Anna

    2016-03-01

    We examined the association between extracorporeal dialysis (ED)-related effective blood flow (eQB) and serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) as a possible indicator of silent myocardial damage in stable ED patients. In a cross-sectional study, cTnT was determined in 247 ED patients dialyzed using stable eQB and dialysate flow (QD). In a prospective study, 91 patients were switched from low-flux (LF) to high-flux (HF) hemodialysis (HD), and subsequently, the eQB increased, and the QD decreased; 65 patients continued LF-HD with stable eQB and QD. Clinical/laboratory evaluations were performed at 0, 15, 36, and 53 weeks from the start of the study. In the cross-sectional study, the main cTnT predictors were dialysis vintage, age, eQB, phosphorus, and C-reactive protein. Patients with cTnT levels in the highest quartile were excluded from the analysis, and subjects dialyzed with eQB ≤316 ml/min exhibited lower cTnT levels compared with patients dialyzed with higher eQB (P = 0.002). The all-cause and cardiac mortality rates of 154 patients, without changes in ED modality for up to 42 months, were associated with the initial cTnT concentrations but not with the initial eQB. In the prospective study, higher values for eQB and cTnT were observed during HF-HD at weeks 36 (P = 0.045) and 53 (P = 0.01) of the present study. The initial cTnT, ∆eQB, and ∆albumin influenced the ∆cTnT. The all-cause and cardiac mortality rates were not different between LF and HF groups at 21 months after the prospective study was completed. In stable ED patients, higher eQB rates and QB/QD values might contribute to silent myocardial injury, particularly in patients with lower cTnT levels, but do not affect the outcome of ED patients.

  15. [A burden questionnaire for caregivers of peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Teixidó, J; Tarrats, L; Arias, N; Cosculluela, A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the interest generated by the increasing number of studies that measure Quality of Life among patients and caregivers, few of these studies measure the caregivers burden in Peritoneal Dialysis (PD). The main target of this study was to create a burden measure questionnaire applicable amongst caregivers of PD patients. 1) Patients had to be in PD treatment for more than 3 months; 2) Patients had to receive help with the PD treatment from a caregiver. The study was divided into 3 phases: 1st) design and use of the initial questionnaire; 2nd) a test-retest on a modified scale; and 3rd) to provide the questionnaire-3 to two collaborative centres with similar PD programs. Four groups of caregivers were established: A1:23, A2:17, B:7 and C:16 caregivers. We applied 5 scales (5): 1--Patient Dependence on caregiver, from caregivers' view (D); 2--Complete caregiver burden (CB), including 12 items which measure the caregivers' subjective burden, 3--Reduced caregiver burden (RB), as the one before but with only 8 items, 4--Repercussions on the caregiver (R), which measures objective burden; 5--Specific PD tasks (ST), a scale that measures the effort the tasks implied in the PD treatment represent for the caregiver. We studied 63 caregivers (table I): mean age: 53.43 (SD = 12.3); Sex: Females: 86.4%, Males: 13.6%, corresponding to 63 patients: mean age: 59.79 (SD = 15.9); Sex: Males: 80.3%, Females: 19.7%. Valuable results for reliability, unidimensionality, and discrimination were obtained in the 1st and 2nd phases, except for burden scale which was compound of two factors; then one of those factors was suppressed. In the 3rd phase, ANOVA did not show any differences between centres (table II). Consequently, all caregivers could be analysed together. Reliability results for each one of the third phase scales (table III) were: D: Cronbach alpha = 0,886; CB: alpha = 0,894; RB: alpha = 0,857; R: alpha = 0,892; ST: alpha = 0,62. Although the ST scale obtained an

  16. Quality of Life and Survival in Patients with Advanced Kidney Failure Managed Conservatively or by Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Wellsted, David; Greenshields, Hannah; Norton, Sam; Chandna, Shahid M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Benefits of dialysis in elderly dependent patients are not clearcut. Some patients forego dialysis, opting for conservative kidney management (CKM). This study prospectively compared quality of life and survival in CKM patients and those opting for dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Quality-of-life assessments (Short-Form 36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Satisfaction with Life Scale) were performed every 3 months for up to 3 years in patients with advanced, progressive CKD (late stage 4 and stage 5). Results After 3 years, 80 and 44 of 170 patients had started or were planned for hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis, respectively; 30 were undergoing CKM; and 16 remained undecided. Mean baseline estimated GFR ± SD was similar (14.0±4.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2) in all groups but was slightly higher in undecided patients. CKM patients were older, more dependent, and more highly comorbid; had poorer physical health; and had higher anxiety levels than the dialysis patients. Mental health, depression, and life satisfaction scores were similar. Multilevel growth models demonstrated no serial change in quality-of-life measures except life satisfaction, which decreased significantly after dialysis initiation and remained stable in CKM. In Cox models controlling for comorbidity, Karnofsky performance scale score, age, physical health score, and propensity score, median survival from recruitment was 1317 days in HD patients (mean of 326 dialysis sessions) and 913 days in CKM patients. Conclusions Patients choosing CKM maintained quality of life. Adjusted median survival from recruitment was 13 months shorter for CKM patients than HD patients. PMID:22956262

  17. Predicting one-year mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients: an analysis of the China Peritoneal Dialysis Registry.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xue-Ying; Zhou, Jian-Hui; Cai, Guang-Yan; Tan, Ni-Na; Huang, Jing; Xie, Xiang-Cheng; Tang, Li; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate basic clinical features of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, their prognostic risk factors, and to establish a prognostic model for predicting their one-year mortality. A national multi-center cohort study was performed. A total of 5,405 new PD cases from China Peritoneal Dialysis Registry in 2012 were enrolled in model group. All these patients had complete baseline data and were followed for one year. Demographic and clinical features of these patients were collected. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze prognostic risk factors and establish prognostic model. A validation group was established using 1,764 new PD cases between January 1, 2013 and July 1, 2013, and to verify accuracy of prognostic model. Results indicated that model group included 4,453 live PD cases and 371 dead cases. Multivariate survival analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (DM), residual glomerular filtration rate (rGFR), , SBP, Kt/V, high PET type and Alb were independently associated with one-year mortality. Model was statistically significant in both within-group verification and outside-group verification. In conclusion, DM, rGFR, SBP, Kt/V, high PET type and Alb were independent risk factors for short-term mortality in PD patients. Prognostic model established in this study accurately predicted risk of short-term death in PD patients.

  18. The impact of nutritional status, physical function, comorbidity and early versus late start in dialysis on quality of life in older dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lægreid, Inger Karin; Aasarød, Knut; Bye, Asta; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Jordhøy, Marit

    2014-02-01

    For the majority of the older patients in dialysis, the treatment will be lifelong. Thus, quality of life (QoL) is a crucial outcome. Our aim was to assess the QoL of older Norwegian dialysis patients and to investigate the impact of early (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR ≥10 mL/min) versus late (eGFR <10 mL/min) start in dialysis, comorbidity, nutritional status and physical capacity. A self-report questionnaire including SF-36 (QoL) and the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA; nutritional status) was mailed to all patients (n = 320) ≥75 years registered in the Norwegian Renal Registry (NRR) as being in dialysis by September 2009. Reply was received from 233 patients (73%). Medical data including comorbidities and eGFR at dialysis start (obtained for 194 patients) were retrieved from the NRR. Functional capacity was determined from the SGA. Compared to reports from younger dialysis patients, our patients scored poorer on all SF-36 subscales. Early start in dialysis was registered for 52 patients, 142 patients started late, 51.4% were well nourished (SGA A), 32.3% moderately malnourished (SGA B) and 16.4% were severely malnourished (SGA C). No significant association between any SF-36 scores and early versus late start, nutritional status or comorbidity was found. Better physical function was significantly associated with better scores on all SF-36 scales. Our results indicate that physical function is important to all QoL aspects. Increased focus on physical rehabilitation seems pertinent. Early start of dialysis treatment was not associated with better long term QoL scores.

  19. [Serum phosphate level and the prognosis of dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takayuki

    2009-02-01

    U-shaped relationship was observed between serum phosphate and mortality in dialysis patients. The connection between high serum phosphate and mortality can be explained partially by the contribution of phosphate to vascular calcification and oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Epidemiological study about the prior history of hip fracture in Japan revealed that high serum phosphate was associated with lower prevalence of prior fracture by univariate analysis. However, this association was eliminated by including many nutritional variables in multivariate analysis. This analysis also showed that severe hypophosphatemia less than 3 mg/dL was independently associated with high prevalence, implying the connection of malnutrition with bone health. Epidemiological data regarding incident fracture is also needed to know the factors really contributing to bone fragility. There is no way other than to determine target ranges of serum phosphate using observational studies, since interventional trial with hard outcome was practically impossible. The focus of observational studies will move on, in future, to the association between mortality and the methods to decrease serum phosphate level.

  20. Fabry disease: experience of screening dialysis patients for Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Eiji; Saito, Osamu; Akimoto, Tetsu; Asano, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence rate for Fabry disease is conventionally considered to be 1 case in 40,000; however, due to increased screening accuracy, reports now suggest that prevalence is 1 case in 1,500 among male children, and it is likely that the clinical importance of the condition will increase in the future. In dialysis patients to date, prevalence rates are between 0.16 and 1.2 %. Globotriaosylsphingosine (Lyso-GL-3), which is a substrate of α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A), has surfaced as a new biomarker, and is also effective in the determination and monitoring of the effects of enzyme replacement therapy. In terms of genetic abnormalities, the E66Q mutation has recently become a topic of discussion, and although doubts have been expressed over whether or not it is the gene responsible for Fabry disease, there is still a strong possibility that it is a functional genetic polymorphism. At present, the standard treatment for Fabry disease is enzyme replacement therapy, and in order to overcome the problems involved with this, a method of producing recombinant human α-Gal A using methanol-assimilating yeast, and chemical or medicinal chaperone treatment are of current interest. Migalastat hydrochloride is known as a pharmacological chaperone, but is currently in Phase III global clinical trials. Adding saposin B to modified α-N-acetyl galactosaminidase is also under consideration as a treatment method.

  1. Significance of nitrogen removal mass in uremic patients on different modalities of dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, T W; Huang, T P; Wang, M L

    2000-02-01

    While most nephrologists use Kt/V values for dialysis prescriptions, some researchers are beginning to view the role of solute removal mass as an indicator of adequate dialysis. This study, using nitrogen as a surrogate for solute removal, probed whether solute removal mass can be used as the target of adequate dialysis. Mathematical formulas for easy bedside calculation of nitrogen removal mass were used to avoid the problems associated with direct measurement. The weekly removal mass of urea nitrogen (M) and the urea generation rate (G) of 32 conventional hemodialysis (HD) and 21 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were calculated. All the patients were anuric, clinically stable, and under adequate dialysis pursuant to either the criterion of the urea index, Kt/V, or clinical requirements. The difference in MHD (MHD = 41.9 +/- 9.5 g/week, MCAPD = 38.8 +/- 11.9 g/week) and G (GHD = 3.90 +/- 1.02 mg/min, GCAPD = 3.85 +/- 1.21 mg/min) between the two groups was statistically insignificant (p = 0.119 and p = 0.868, respectively). When protein nitrogen leaking through the peritoneal membrane was considered and added to MCAPD, nitrogen removal in CAPD patients (M'CAPD = 42.3 +/- 13.0 g/week) approached that in HD patients (p = 0.886). There was no correlation between dialysis dosage and urea removal mass in either the CAPD or HD groups. Urea nitrogen removal mass is similar to the protein catabolic rate (PCR) in stable patients. It is meaningful in dialysis evaluation only when it is used simultaneously with blood urea nitrogen measurement. However, because M changes at the inception of dialysis, it more significant than PCR in the evaluation of unstable patients.

  2. Single Nucleotide Variants in the Protein C Pathway and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ocak, Gürbey; Drechsler, Christiane; Vossen, Carla Y.; Vos, Hans L.; Rosendaal, Frits R.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Hoffmann, Michael M.; März, Winfried; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Krediet, Raymond T.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Wanner, Christoph; Verduijn, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Background The protein C pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of endothelial barrier function and in the inflammatory and coagulant processes that are characteristic of patients on dialysis. We investigated whether common single nucleotide variants (SNV) in genes encoding protein C pathway components were associated with all-cause 5 years mortality risk in dialysis patients. Methods Single nucleotides variants in the factor V gene (F5 rs6025; factor V Leiden), the thrombomodulin gene (THBD rs1042580), the protein C gene (PROC rs1799808 and 1799809) and the endothelial protein C receptor gene (PROCR rs867186, rs2069951, and rs2069952) were genotyped in 1070 dialysis patients from the NEtherlands COoperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD) cohort) and in 1243 dialysis patients from the German 4D cohort. Results Factor V Leiden was associated with a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.1–1.9) increased 5-year all-cause mortality risk and carriers of the AG/GG genotypes of the PROC rs1799809 had a 1.2-fold (95% CI 1.0–1.4) increased 5-year all-cause mortality risk. The other SNVs in THBD, PROC, and PROCR were not associated with 5-years mortality. Conclusion Our study suggests that factor V Leiden and PROC rs1799809 contributes to an increased mortality risk in dialysis patients. PMID:24816905

  3. Dialysis or conservative care for frail older patients: ethics of shared decision-making.

    PubMed

    Muthalagappan, Seetha; Johansson, Lina; Kong, Wing May; Brown, Edwina A

    2013-11-01

    Increasing numbers of frail elderly with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and multiple comorbidities are undertaking dialysis treatment. This has been accompanied by increasing dialysis withdrawal, thus warranting investigation into why this is occurring and whether a different approach to choosing treatment should be implemented. Despite being a potentially life-saving treatment, the physical and psychosocial burdens associated with dialysis in the frail elderly usually outweigh the benefits of correcting uraemia. Conservative management is less invasive and avoids the adverse effects associated with dialysis, but unfortunately it is often not properly considered until patients withdraw from dialysis. Shared decision-making has been proposed to allow patients active participation in healthcare decisions. Through this approach, patients will focus on their personal values to receive appropriate treatment, and perhaps opt for conservative management. This may help address the issue of dialysis withdrawal. Moreover, shared decision-making attempts to resolve the conflict between autonomy and other ethical principles, including physician paternalism. Here, we explore the ethical background behind shared decision-making, and whether it is genuinely in the patient's best interests or whether it is a cynical solution to encourage more patients to consider conservative care, thus saving limited resources.

  4. Impact of Pediatric Chronic Dialysis on Long-Term Patient Outcome: Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Irit; Dagan, Amit; Cleper, Roxana; Falush, Yafa; Davidovits, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Owing to a shortage of kidney donors in Israel, children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) may stay on maintenance dialysis for a considerable time, placing them at a significant risk. The aim of this study was to understand the causes of mortality. Study Design. Clinical data were collected retrospectively from the files of children on chronic dialysis (>3 months) during the years 1995–2013 at a single pediatric medical center. Results. 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 10.7 ± 5.27 yrs. (range: 1 month–24 yrs). Forty-five children (42%) had dysplastic kidneys and 19 (17.5%) had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-five (22.7%) received peritoneal dialysis, 59 (53.6%) hemodialysis, and 6 (23.6%) both modalities sequentially. Median dialysis duration was 1.46 years (range: 0.25–17.54 years). Mean follow-up was 13.5 ± 5.84 yrs. Seventy-nine patients (71.8%) underwent successful transplantation, 10 (11.2%) had graft failure, and 8 (7.3%) continued dialysis without transplantation. Twelve patients (10.9%) died: 8 of dialysis-associated complications and 4 of their primary illness. The 5-year survival rate was 84%: 90% for patients older than 5 years and 61% for younger patients. Conclusions. Chronic dialysis is a suitable temporary option for children awaiting renal transplantation. Although overall long-term survival rate is high, very young children are at high risk for life-threatening dialysis-associated complications. PMID:27597898

  5. Feasibility and Safety of Intra-Dialysis Yoga and Education in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Birdee, Gurjeet S.; Rothman, Russell L.; Sohl, Stephanie J.; Wertenbaker, Dolphi; Wheeler, Amy; Bossart, Chase; Balasire, Oluwaseyi; Ikizler, T. Alp

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis are much more sedentary than healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and safety of a 12-week intra-dialysis yoga intervention versus a kidney education intervention on the promotion of physical activity. Design and Methods We randomized participants by dialysis shift to either 12-week intra-dialysis yoga or an educational intervention. Intra-dialysis yoga was provided by yoga teachers to participants while receiving hemodialysis. Participants receiving the 12-week educational intervention received a modification of a previously developed comprehensive educational program for patients with kidney disease (“Kidney School”). The primary outcome for this study was feasibility based on recruitment and adherence to the interventions, and safety of intra-dialysis yoga. Secondary outcomes were to determine the feasibility of administering questionnaires at baseline and 12-weeks including the Kidney Disease-Related Quality of Life-36. Results Among 56 eligible patients approached for the study, 55% (n=31) were interested and consented to participation with 18 assigned to intra-dialysis yoga and 13 to the educational program. A total of 5 participants withdrew from the pilot study, all from the intra-dialysis yoga group. Two of these participants reported no further interest in participation. Three withdrawn participants switched dialysis times and therefore could no longer receive intra-dialysis yoga. As a result, 72% (13 of 18) and 100% (13 of 13) of participants completed 12-week intra-dialysis yoga and educational programs, respectively. There were no adverse events related to intra-dialysis yoga. Intervention participants practiced yoga a median of 21 sessions (70% participation frequency), with 60% of participants practicing at least 2 times a week. Participants in the educational program completed a median of 30 sessions (83% participation frequency

  6. Successful Pregnancy in a 31-Year-Old Peritoneal Dialysis Patient with Bilateral Nephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nazer, Ahmed; AlOmar, Osama; Al-Badawi, Ismail A.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency of pregnancy among childbearing age women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing long-term periodic dialysis ranges from 1% to 7%. Although pregnancy in dialysis women with ESRD is considered a largely high-risk pregnancy, occurrence of successful pregnancy is not impossible with success rates approaching 70%. Rates of successful pregnancy are greatly impacted by early pregnancy diagnosis and preserved residual renal functions. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of successful pregnancy (despite late diagnosis at 14 weeks of gestation) in a 31-year-old peritoneal dialysis patient with bilateral nephrectomy and no whatsoever preserved residual renal function. Moreover, a literature review on pregnancy in dialysis patients is presented. PMID:24198990

  7. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are related to left ventricular mass and function and predict mortality in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, C; Mallamaci, F; Benedetto, F A; Tripepi, G; Parlongo, S; Cataliotti, A; Cutrupi, S; Giacone, G; Bellanuova, I; Cottini, E; Malatino, L S

    2001-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship among brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and left ventricular mass (LVM), ejection fraction, and LV geometry in a large cohort of dialysis patients without heart failure (n = 246) and to test the prediction power of these peptides for total and cardiovascular mortality. In separate multivariate models of LVM, BNP and ANP were the strongest independent correlates of the LVM index. In these models, the predictive power of BNP was slightly stronger than that of ANP. Both natriuretic peptides also were the strongest independent predictors of ejection fraction, and again BNP was a slightly better predictor of ejection fraction than ANP. In separate multivariate Cox models, the relative risk of death was significantly higher in patients of the third tertile of the distribution of BNP and ANP than in those of the first tertile (BNP, 7.14 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.83 to 18.01, P = 0.00001]; ANP, 4.22 [95% CI, 1.79 to 9.92, P = 0.001]), and a similar difference was found for cardiovascular death (BNP, 6.72 [95% CI, 2.44 to 18.54, P = 0.0002]; ANP, 3.80 [95% CI, 1.44 to 10.03, P = 0.007]). BNP but not ANP remained as an independent predictor of death in a Cox's model including LVM and ejection fraction. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are linked independently to LVM and function in dialysis patients and predict overall and cardiovascular mortality. The measurement of the plasma concentration of BNP and ANP may be useful for risk stratification in these patients.

  8. Large Artery Calcification on Dialysis Patients Is Located in the Intima and Related to Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coll, Blai; Betriu, Angels; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Amoedo, Maria Luisa; Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Borras, Merce; Valdivielso, Jose Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) has a significant effect in cardiovascular diseases on dialysis patients. However, VC is assessed with x-ray-based techniques, which do not inform about calcium localization (intima, media, atherosclerosis-related). The aim of this work is to study VC and its related factors using arterial ultrasound to report the exact location of calcium. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This was an observational, cross-sectional, case-control study that included 232 patients in dialysis and 208 age- and sex-matched controls with normal kidney function. Demographic data and laboratory values were collated. Carotid, femoral, and brachial ultrasounds were performed to assess VC and atherosclerosis burden using a standardized protocol. Results Cardiovascular risk factors were predominantly found in controls, although the burden of atherosclerosis was higher in the dialysis group. VC was significantly more prevalent in the group of patients on dialysis than control subjects, and in both groups the most prevalent pattern of VC was linear calcification located in the intima of the artery wall. Age and undergoing dialysis (with or without previous cardiovascular diseases) were positively and significantly associated with linear calcification. Conversely, the absence of atherosclerosis and low levels of C-reactive protein and phosphorus significantly impeded the development of linear calcification. Conclusions VC in large, conduit arteries is more prevalent in patients on dialysis than controls and is predominantly located in a linear fashion in the intima of the arteries. PMID:20930091

  9. Epidemiology, diagnosis and management of hypertension among patients on chronic dialysis.

    PubMed

    Georgianos, Panagiotis I; Agarwal, Rajiv

    2016-10-01

    The diagnosis and management of hypertension among patients on chronic dialysis is challenging. Routine peridialytic blood pressure recordings are unable to accurately diagnose hypertension and stratify cardiovascular risk. By contrast, blood pressure recordings taken outside the dialysis setting exhibit clear prognostic associations with survival and might facilitate the diagnosis and long-term management of hypertension. Once accurately diagnosed, management of hypertension in individuals on chronic dialysis should initially involve non-pharmacological strategies to control volume overload. Accordingly, first-line strategies should focus on achieving dry weight, individualizing dialysate sodium concentrations and ensuring dialysis sessions are at least 4 h in duration. If blood pressure remains unresponsive to volume management strategies, pharmacological treatment is required. The choice of appropriate antihypertensive regimen should be individualized taking into account the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties of the antihypertensive medications as well as any comorbid conditions and the overall risk profile of the patient. In contrast to their effects in the general hypertensive population, emerging evidence suggests that β-blockers might offer the greatest cardioprotection in hypertensive patients on dialysis. In this Review, we discuss estimates of the epidemiology of hypertension in the dialysis population as well as the challenges in diagnosing and managing hypertension among these patients.

  10. The dose of dialysis in hemodialysis patients: impact on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Gerald

    2004-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence have indicated that the dose of hemodialysis impacts upon patient outcome. Among these outcome measures, nutrition is inextricably linked to the adequacy of the treatment. All of the methods of determining dialysis adequacy are based on assessing the removal of toxic substances retained in renal failure, the majority of which are derivatives of protein metabolism. Urea kinetics, employing urea as a surrogate for quantifying the elimination of small molecular weight nitrogenous substances, is the method that has been most thoroughly validated to date as defining a dose range for thrice-weekly hemodialysis: Both inadequate and optimal levels of hemodialysis dose have been identified by prospective, randomized clinic trials utilizing Kt/V(urea) as the index of adequacy. The impact of urea kinetics on nutritional status during thrice-weekly hemodialysis is discussed. Recently, in an attempt to improve outcome beyond that achievable with thrice-weekly hemodialysis, alternative regimens, consisting of daily treatments, have received increasing interest. In order to compare the dose of hemodialysis associated with these regimens with conventional thrice-weekly regimens in terms of removal of small molecular weight substances, standard Kt/V(urea), a parameter that combines treatment dose with treatment frequency, and thus allows for various intermittent therapies to be compared to continuous therapy, must be used. In addition, membrane flux and middle molecule removal, factors that have not yet been well defined as parameters of adequacy during thrice-weekly regimens, may be shown to be important indices with longer hemodialysis treatments, particularly daily nocturnal hemodialysis. The impact that these alternative regimens have had on nutritional status in hemodialysis patients and how they compare to conventional therapy are important considerations.

  11. [Elevated serum aldosterone levels in dialysis patients: Are we underusing renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers?

    PubMed

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Velasco, S; Gutierrez, C; Gonzalez Villalba, M J; Heras, M; Molina, A; Callejas, R; Rodríguez, A; Calle, L; Lopes, V

    Serum aldosteronelevels (SA) are a marker of cardiovascular (CV) risk in the general population. To analyze SA levels in dialysis patients and its relationship with characteristics of dialysis; comorbidity; blood pressure and the use of blocking renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system agents (BSRAA). We determined SA in 102 patients: 81 on hemodialysis (HD) and 21 on peritoneal dialysis. Mean age 71.4±12 years; 54.9% male; 29.4% diabetics. Mean time on dialysis 59.3±67 months. In 44 HD patients plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured. Mean SA was 72.6±114.9ng/dl (normal range 1.17-23.6ng/dl). A total of 57.8% of patients had above normal levels which were not related to dialysis characteristics or comorbidity. Only 21% of patients with heart failure and 19.2% with ischemic heart disease used BSRAA. A number of 25 patients treated with BSRAA had significantly lower levels of SA. There was an inverse correlation between AS and systolic blood pressure (SBP), and direct with PRA. The logistic regression analysis conducted to find SA levels above the median associated factors showed that SBP was the only independent risk variable in the overall population (OR 0.97; P=.022); in the 44 patients in whom PRA was determined this was the only independent risk factor (OR 2.24; P=.012). A high percentage of dialysis patients have elevated levels of SA that are associated to diminished SBP and activated PRA and not to dialysis characteristics. In patients with a history of heart disease we underuse BSRAA. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. The extent of informed decision-making about starting dialysis: does patients' age matter?

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of elderly patients with end-stage renal disease start dialysis. We examined elderly (≥65 years) patients' views about their decision-making experience after starting dialysis in comparison with patients aged 50-64 years, and patients ≤49 years. Ninety-nine patients from 15 outpatient dialysis centers in North Carolina, USA completed a semi-structured interview asking them about the context of decision-making and their decision-making experience, and a 10-item investigator-developed Informed Decision-Making (IDM) questionnaire with binary response options (yes/no). While IDM scores were low for all three groups (<5 out of 10), they were significantly lower for the older group compared to the other two younger groups (p = 0.02). A significantly lower percentage of the older group said that the doctor explained underlying conditions that led to kidney failure (p = 0.04), the impact of dialysis on daily life (p = 0.04), and the life-long need for dialysis (p < 0.01), and that the doctor tried to make sure the patient understood the information (p = 0.01). Also a significantly higher percentage of elderly patients felt the decision was made by the doctor rather than on their own or with their family, or collaboratively with the doctor (p = 0.04). Informed decision-making is significantly poorer in patients aged 65 years or older than in younger patients. Clinicians should communicate clearly about the benefits and burdens of dialysis to older adults and provide an opportunity for them to understand the significant trade-offs that dialysis may require.

  13. Impact of dialysis modality on technique survival in end-stage renal disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Hak; Park, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang Un; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Seung Chan; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Owen; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study analyzed the risk factors for technique survival in dialysis patients and compared technique survival rates between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a prospective cohort of Korean patients. Methods: A total of 1,042 patients undergoing dialysis from September 2008 to June 2011 were analyzed. The dialysis modality was defined as that used 90 days after commencing dialysis. Technique survival was compared between the two dialysis modalities, and the predictive risk factors were evaluated. Results: The dialysis modality was an independent risk factor predictive of technique survival. PD had a higher risk for technique failure than HD (hazard ratio [HR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 62.0; p = 0.008) during a median follow-up of 11.0 months. In the PD group, a high body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for technique failure (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.036). Peritonitis was the most common cause of PD technique failure. The difference in technique survival between PD and HD was more prominent in diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and in non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status. Conclusions: In a prospective cohort of Korean patients with end-stage renal disease, PD was associated with a higher risk of technique failure than HD. Diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status, as well as patients with a higher BMI, had an inferior technique survival rate with PD compared to HD. PMID:26767864

  14. Impact of dialysis modality on technique survival in end-stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Hak; Park, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Young-Jae; Kim, Sang Un; Lee, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Seung Chan; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Kwon, Owen; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the risk factors for technique survival in dialysis patients and compared technique survival rates between hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) in a prospective cohort of Korean patients. A total of 1,042 patients undergoing dialysis from September 2008 to June 2011 were analyzed. The dialysis modality was defined as that used 90 days after commencing dialysis. Technique survival was compared between the two dialysis modalities, and the predictive risk factors were evaluated. The dialysis modality was an independent risk factor predictive of technique survival. PD had a higher risk for technique failure than HD (hazard ratio [HR], 10.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9 to 62.0; p = 0.008) during a median follow-up of 11.0 months. In the PD group, a high body mass index (BMI) was an independent risk factor for technique failure (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.8; p = 0.036). Peritonitis was the most common cause of PD technique failure. The difference in technique survival between PD and HD was more prominent in diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and in non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status. In a prospective cohort of Korean patients with end-stage renal disease, PD was associated with a higher risk of technique failure than HD. Diabetic patients with a good nutritional status and non-diabetic patients with a poor nutritional status, as well as patients with a higher BMI, had an inferior technique survival rate with PD compared to HD.

  15. Successful pregnancy in an end-stage renal disease patient on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Inal, Salih; Reis, Kadriye Altok; Armağan, Berkan; Oneç, Küşrad; Biri, Aydan

    2012-01-01

    Among women with chronic kidney disease, successful pregnancy with a surviving infant is rather rare. Although these pregnancies carry higher risk, with the possibility of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, they can be managed with close monitoring and intense renal replacement therapy. Given the hemodynamic advantages of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis in pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis therapy is thought to be a favorable renal replacement option in pregnant patients with chronic kidney disease.

  16. Severe cutaneous hypersensitivity to icodextrin in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Sim, Soung Rok; Chung, Soo Jin; Kim, Ki Joong; Park, Woo Il; Hong, Soon Won; Ha, Sung Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Icodextrin, a glucose polymer, is widely used as an alternative to glucose as the osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe a case of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient who developed severe cutaneous hypersensitivity after initiation of icodextrin PD solution. Erythematous skin lesions gradually disappeared after discontinuation of icodextrin PD solution. Although the safety and efficacy of icodextrin PD solution is well documented, clinicians should be mindful of the possibility of severe adverse cutaneous reactions to icodextrin PD solution.

  17. Hospitalization Rates for Patients on Assisted Peritoneal Dialysis Compared with In-Center Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A.; Dixon, Stephanie N.; Perl, Jeffrey; Jain, Arsh K.; Lavoie, Susan D.; Nash, Danielle M.; Paterson, J. Michael; Lok, Charmaine E.; Quinn, Robert R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Assisted peritoneal dialysis is a treatment option for individuals with barriers to self-care who wish to receive home dialysis, but previous research suggests that this treatment modality is associated with a higher rate of hospitalization. The objective of our study was to determine whether assisted peritoneal dialysis has a different rate of hospital days compared to in-center hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study by linking a quality assurance dataset to administrative health data in Ontario, Canada. Subjects were accrued between January 1, 2004 and July 9, 2013. Individuals were grouped into assisted peritoneal dialysis (family or home care assisted) or in-center hemodialysis on the basis of their first outpatient dialysis modality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting using a propensity score was used to create a sample in which the baseline covariates were well balanced. Results The study included 872 patients in the in–center hemodialysis group and 203 patients in the assisted peritoneal dialysis group. Using an intention to treat approach, patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis had a similar hospitalization rate of 11.1 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 9.4 to 13.0) compared with 12.9 d/yr (95% confidence interval, 10.3 to 16.1) in the hemodialysis group (P=0.19). Patients on assisted peritoneal dialysis were more likely to be hospitalized for dialysis-related reasons (admitted for 2.4 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 3.2] compared with 1.6 d/yr [95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.3] in the hemodialysis group; P=0.04). This difference was partly explained by more hospital days because of peritonitis. Modality switching was associated with high rates of hospital days per year. Conclusions Assisted peritoneal dialysis was associated with similar rates of all-cause hospitalization compared with in-center hemodialysis. Patients on assisted

  18. The Role of NGAL in Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent in Early Diagnosis of Peritonitis: Case-Control Study in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Martino, Francesca; Scalzotto, Elisa; Giavarina, Davide; Rodighiero, Maria Pia; Crepaldi, Carlo; Day, Sonya; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    patients with and without peritonitis. In univariate analysis, CRP (odds ratio [OR] 1,339; p = 0.001), PCT (OR 2,473; p < 0,001), WBC in PDE (OR 3,986; p < 0,001), and NGAL in PDE (OR 36.75 p < 0.001) were significantly associated with episodes of peritonitis. In multivariate regression analysis, only WBC (OR 24.84; p = 0,012), and peritoneal NGAL levels (OR 136.6; p = 0,01) were independent predictors of peritonitis events. Moreover, AUC for NGAL in peritoneal effluent was 0,936 (p < 0.001) while AUC for CRP, PCT, and WBC count in peritoneal effluent were 0,704 (p = 0.001), 0.762 (p = 0.039), 0,975 (p < 0.001), respectively. Finally, combined WBC and peritoneal NGAL test increased the specificity (= 96%) of the single test. These results identify NGAL in peritoneal effluent as a reliable marker of peritonitis episodes in PD patients. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that the use of peritoneal NGAL cooperatively with current clinical diagnostic tools as a prognostic indicator, presents a valuable diagnostic tool in PD-associated peritonitis. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  19. Comparison of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid contents in renal transplant recipients and dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Oh, J S; Kim, S M; Sin, Y H; Kim, J K; Park, Y; Bae, H R; Son, Y K; Nam, H K; Kang, H J; An, W S

    2012-12-01

    Alterations of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (FA) composition play important roles in cellular function because they change the membrane microenvironment, including transmembrane receptors. The erythrocyte membrane oleic acid content is higher among patients with acute coronary syndrome and also in dialysis patients. However, available data are limited concerning erythrocyte membrane FA content in kidney transplant recipients (KTP). We sought to test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membrane FA content among KTP were different from those in dialysis patients. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 35 hemodialysis, 33 peritoneal dialysis 49 KTP, and 33 normal control subjects (CTL). Their erythrocyte membrane FA content were measured by gas chromatography. The mean ages of the enrolled dialysis patients, KTP, and CTL were 56.4 ± 10.1, 48.9 ± 10.4, and 49.5 ± 8.3 years, respectively. Mean kidney transplant duration was 89.8 ± 64.8 months and mean dialysis duration, 49.0 ± 32.6 months. The intakes of vegetable lipid and vegetable protein including total calories were significantly increased among KTP versus dialysis patients. Total cholesterol (P < .001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL; P < .001) levels were significantly higher and C-reactive protein was significantly lower among KTP compared with dialysis patients. The erythrocyte membrane content of palmitoleic acid (P < .001) was significantly higher but oleic acid (P < .001) significantly lower in KTP compared with dialysis patients. The erythrocyte membrane contents of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were significantly higher, and linoleic acid and the omega-6 FA to omega-3 FA ratio (P < .001) significantly lower in KTP compared with dialysis patients. The erythrocyte membrane content of oleic acid was independently associated with monounsaturated fatty acid (beta = 0.771, P < .001), eicosapentaeonic acid (beta = -0.244, P = .010), and HDL (beta = -0.139, P = .049) in KTP. FA

  20. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Low T3 Syndrome in Non-Dialysis Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingxian; Yan, Peng; Wang, Yingdeng; Shen, Bo; Ding, Feng; Liu, Yingli

    2016-01-01

    Background There are few data on the prevalence of low T3 (triiodothyronine) syndrome in patients with non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and it is unclear whether low T3 can be used to predict the progression of CKD. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied 279 patients who had been definitively diagnosed with CKD, without needing maintenance dialysis. Thyroid function was analyzed in all enrolled subjects and the incidence of thyroid dysfunction (low T3 syndrome, low T4 syndrome, and subclinical hypothyroidism) in patients at different stages of CKD was determined. Results Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of CKD patients was estimated as follows: 145 subjects (52%) had GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2; 47 subjects (16.8%) had GFR between 30 and 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 98 subjects (35.1%) had GFR <30 ml/min per 1.7