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Sample records for diamond light source

  1. Diamond Light Source: status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Materlik, Gerhard; Rayment, Trevor; Stuart, David I

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source, a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the UK, celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2012. A private limited company was set up in April 2002 to plan, construct and operate the new user-oriented SR facility, called in brief Diamond. It succeeded the Synchrotron Radiation Source in Daresbury, a second-generation synchrotron that opened in 1980 as the world's first dedicated X-ray-providing facility, closing finally in 2008, by which time Diamond's accelerators and first beamlines were operating and user experiments were under way. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A gives some examples of the rich diversity of research done in the initial five years, with some glimpses of activity up to 2014. Speakers at the 10 year anniversary symposium were drawn from a small number of major thematic areas and each theme was elaborated by a few speakers whose contributions were placed into a broader context by a leading member of the UK academic community in the role of rapporteur. This introduction gives a summary of the design choices and strategic planning of Diamond as a coherent user facility, a snapshot of its present status and some consideration of future perspectives.

  2. Diamond Light Source: status and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Materlik, Gerhard; Rayment, Trevor; Stuart, David I.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond Light Source, a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the UK, celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2012. A private limited company was set up in April 2002 to plan, construct and operate the new user-oriented SR facility, called in brief Diamond. It succeeded the Synchrotron Radiation Source in Daresbury, a second-generation synchrotron that opened in 1980 as the world's first dedicated X-ray-providing facility, closing finally in 2008, by which time Diamond's accelerators and first beamlines were operating and user experiments were under way. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A gives some examples of the rich diversity of research done in the initial five years, with some glimpses of activity up to 2014. Speakers at the 10 year anniversary symposium were drawn from a small number of major thematic areas and each theme was elaborated by a few speakers whose contributions were placed into a broader context by a leading member of the UK academic community in the role of rapporteur. This introduction gives a summary of the design choices and strategic planning of Diamond as a coherent user facility, a snapshot of its present status and some consideration of future perspectives. PMID:25624517

  3. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  4. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  5. Pixel detector system development at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, J.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-10-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors consisting of an array of silicon photodiodes bump-bonded to CMOS read-out chips provide high signal-to-noise ratio and high dynamic range compared to CCD-based detectors and Image Plates. These detector features are important for SAXS experiments where a wide range of intensities are present in the images. For time resolved SAXS experiments, high frame rates are compulsory. The latest CMOS read-out chip developed by the MEDIPIX collaboration provides high frame rate and continuous acquisition mode. A read-out system for an array of MEDIPIX3 sensors is under development at Diamond Light Source. This system will support a full resolution frame rate of 1 kHz at a pixel counter depth of 12-bit and a frame rate of 30 kHz at a counter depth of 1 bit. Details concerning system design and MEDIPIX sensors characterization are presented.

  6. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years.

  7. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  8. Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Alianelli, L; Sawhney, K J S; Tiwari, M K; Dolbnya, I P; Stevens, R; Jenkins, D W K; Loader, I M; Wilson, M C; Malik, A

    2009-05-01

    The unprecedented brilliance achieved by third-generation synchrotron sources and the availability of improved optics have opened up new opportunities for the study of materials at the micrometre and nanometre scale. Focusing the synchrotron radiation to smaller and smaller beams is having a huge impact on a wide research area at synchrotrons. The key to the exploitation of the improved sources is the development of novel optics that deliver narrow beams without loss of brilliance and coherence. Several types of synchrotron focusing optics are successfully fabricated using advanced miniaturization techniques. Kinoform refractive lenses are being developed for hard X-ray beamlines, and the first test results at Diamond are discussed in this paper.

  9. Diamond colour centres as a nanoscopic light source for scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kühn, S; Hettich, C; Schmitt, C; Poizat, J P; Sandoghdar, V

    2001-04-01

    Recently it was shown that a single molecule at cryogenic temperatures could be used as a local light source for illumination of a sample in the near field. Conventional light-emitting systems such as dye molecules and semiconductor quantum dots could also be used for this purpose, but they suffer from lack of photostability. However, colour centres in diamond have been found to be remarkably stable against bleaching and blinking effects. Here we present the first SNOM images taken with nanoscopic diamond crystals as a light source.

  10. The Nanoscience Beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Mott, R. A.; Steadman, P.; Peach, A.; Shepherd, E. L.; Ren, X.; Wagner, U. H.; Reininger, R.

    2010-06-23

    The Nanoscience beamline (I06) is one of seven Diamond Phase-I beamlines which has been operational since January 2007 delivering polarised soft x-rays, for a PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) and branchline, in the energy range 80-2100 eV. The beamline is based on a collimated plane grating monochromator with sagittal focusing elements, utilising two APPLE II helical undulator sources, and has been designed for high flux density at the PEEM sample position. A {approx}5 {mu}m ({sigma}) diameter beam is focussed onto the sample in the PEEM allowing a range of experiments using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) as contrast mechanisms. The beamline is also equipped with a branchline housing a 6T superconducting magnet for XMCD and XMLD experiments. The magnet is designed to move on and off the branchline which allows a diverse range of experiments.

  11. The Nanoscience Beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Mott, R. A.; Steadman, P.; Peach, A.; Shepherd, E. L.; Ren, X.; Wagner, U. H.; Reininger, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Nanoscience beamline (I06) is one of seven Diamond Phase-I beamlines which has been operational since January 2007 delivering polarised soft x-rays, for a PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) and branchline, in the energy range 80-2100 eV. The beamline is based on a collimated plane grating monochromator with sagittal focusing elements, utilising two APPLE II helical undulator sources, and has been designed for high flux density at the PEEM sample position. A ˜5 μm (σ) diameter beam is focussed onto the sample in the PEEM allowing a range of experiments using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) as contrast mechanisms. The beamline is also equipped with a branchline housing a 6T superconducting magnet for XMCD and XMLD experiments. The magnet is designed to move on and off the branchline which allows a diverse range of experiments.

  12. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaluk, Victor; Martin, Ian; Fielder, Richard; Bartolini, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS) to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  13. Experience with low-alpha lattices at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I. P. S.; Rehm, G.; Thomas, C.; Bartolini, R.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we present the experience at Diamond Light Source in the design, implementation, and operation of low momentum compaction factor lattices for the generation of short x-ray pulses and coherent THz radiation. The effects of higher-order terms in the expansion of the momentum compaction factor on beam dynamics are reviewed from a theoretical point of view, and the details of both high- and low-emittance solutions at Diamond are discussed. Measurements taken to characterize the lattices under a variety of machine conditions are presented, along with the practical limitations that exist as the momentum compaction factor is made to approach zero.

  14. Automated in-situ optimization of bimorph mirrors at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, John P.; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.

    2011-09-01

    Bimorph mirrors are used on many synchrotron beamlines to focus or collimate light. They are highly adaptable because not only their overall figure but also their local slope errors can be corrected. However, the optimization procedure is complex. At Diamond Light Source, highly repeatable and accurate pencil beam measurements are used to determine a mirror's slope errors. These data are then used by automated scripts to calculate the necessary corrections. This procedure may be applied to any type of active mirror, but for hard X-ray mirrors, diffraction from the slits must be considered.

  15. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav; Terentyev, Sergey A; Lemke, Henrik T; Fritz, David M; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J M; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; van Driel, Tim B; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Blank, Vladimir D; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V; Robert, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ~100 μm to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transmission for the other wavelengths for downstream use. The second crystal is about 300 μm thick and makes the exit beam of the monochromator parallel to the incoming beam with an offset of 600 mm. Here we present details on the monochromator design and its performance.

  16. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Diling Feng, Yiping; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J. M.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Robert, Aymeric; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.; Terentyev, Sergey A.; Blank, Vladimir D.; Driel, Tim B. van

    2014-06-15

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ∼100 μm to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transmission for the other wavelengths for downstream use. The second crystal is about 300 μm thick and makes the exit beam of the monochromator parallel to the incoming beam with an offset of 600 mm. Here we present details on the monochromator design and its performance.

  17. Diamond anvil cell radial x-ray diffraction program at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

    PubMed

    Hu, J Z; Mao, H K; Shu, J F; Guo, Q Z; Liu, H Z

    2006-06-28

    During the past decade, the radial x-ray diffraction method using a diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been developed at the X17C beamline of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The detailed experimental procedure used with energy dispersive x-ray diffraction is described. The advantages and limitations of using the energy dispersive method for DAC radial diffraction studies are also discussed. The results for FeO at 135 GPa and other radial diffraction experiments performed at X17C are discussed in this report.

  18. CDApps: integrated software for experimental planning and data processing at beamline B23, Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Rohanah; Benning, Kristian; Javorfi, Tamas; Longo, Edoardo; Rudd, Timothy R; Pulford, Bill; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-03-01

    The B23 Circular Dichroism beamline at Diamond Light Source has been operational since 2009 and has seen visits from more than 200 user groups, who have generated large amounts of data. Based on the experience of overseeing the users' progress at B23, four key areas requiring the most assistance are identified: planning of experiments and note-keeping; designing titration experiments; processing and analysis of the collected data; and production of experimental reports. To streamline these processes an integrated software package has been developed and made available for the users. The subsequent article summarizes the main features of the software.

  19. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, W.; Bartolini, R.; Boorman, G.; Karataev, P.; Lyapin, A.; Puntree, J.; Rehm, G.

    2012-05-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  20. Development of at-wavelength metrology using grating-based shearing interferometry at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sawhney, Kawal

    2013-03-01

    The grating-based shearing interferometer has been established and further developed on B16 at Diamond Light Source. The beamline performances of both an X-ray plane mirror and a compound refractive lens (CRL) have been investigated using this technique. The slope error of the X-ray mirror was retrieved from the wavefront phase gradient, which was measured using two different processing schemes: phase stepping and moiré fringe analysis. The interferometer has demonstrated a high sensitivity with sub-microradian accuracy. Some of the advantages, disadvantages and limitations for the two approaches will also be presented.

  1. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-05-01

    I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50-150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics.

  2. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-01-01

    I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50–150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics. PMID:25931103

  3. I18--the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D; Dent, Andrew J; Cavill, Stuart A; Moreno, Sofia Diaz; Peach, Andrew; Leicester, Peter J; Keylock, Stephen J; Gregory, Simon R; Atkinson, Kirk D; Rosell, Josep Roque

    2009-11-01

    The design and performance of the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source are described. The beamline is based on a 27 mm-period undulator to give an operable energy range between 2 and 20.7 keV, enabling it to cover the K-edges of the elements from P to Mo and the L(3)-edges from Sr to Pu. Micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro-EXAFS and micro-X-ray diffraction have all been achieved on the beamline with a spot size of approximately 3 microm. The principal optical elements of the beamline consist of a toroid mirror, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled double-crystal monochromator and a pair of bimorph Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The performance of the optics is compared with theoretical values and a few of the early experimental results are summarized.

  4. I19, the small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Harriott; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Teat, Simon J; Allan, David R

    2012-05-01

    The dedicated small-molecule single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) at Diamond Light Source has been operational and supporting users for over three years. I19 is a high-flux tunable-wavelength beamline and its key details are described in this article. Much of the work performed on the beamline involves structure determination from small and weakly diffracting crystals. Other experiments that have been supported to date include structural studies at high pressure, studies of metastable species, variable-temperature crystallography, studies involving gas exchange in porous materials and structural characterizations that require analysis of the diffuse scattering between Bragg reflections. A range of sample environments to facilitate crystallographic studies under non-ambient conditions are available as well as a number of options for automation. An indication of the scope of the science carried out on the beamline is provided by the range of highlights selected for this paper.

  5. A double multilayer monochromator for the B16 Test beamline at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, K. J. S.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Scott, S. M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Preece, G. M.; Alcock, S. G.; Malandain, A. W.

    2011-09-01

    The B16 Test beamline at the Diamond Light Source is in user operation. It has been recently upgraded with the addition of a double multilayer monochromator (DMM), which provides further functionality and versatility to the beamline. The multilayer monochromator is equipped with two pairs of multilayer optics (Ni/B4C and Ru/B4C) to cover the wide photon energy range of 2 - 20 keV, with good efficiency. The DMM provides a broad bandpass / high flux operational mode for the beamline and, when used in tandem with the Si (111) double crystal monochromator, it gives a very high higher-order harmonics suppression. The design details of the DMM and the first commissioning results obtained using the DMM are presented.

  6. Fast X-ray imaging at beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Fanis, A.; Pešić, Z. D.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The imaging branch of the dual-branch beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source has been operational since April 2012. This branch is dedicated to hard X-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast radiography and tomography, and full-field microscopy), with energies in the ranges 6-30keV. At present we aim to achieve spatial resolution of the order of 1 μm over a field of view of l-20mm2. This branch aims to excel at imaging experiment of fast dynamic processes, where it is of interest to have short exposure times and high frame rates. To accommodate for this, we prepared for the beamline to operate with "pink" beam to provide higher flux, an efficient detection system, and rapid data acquisition, transfer, and saving to storage. This contributed paper describes the present situation and illustrate the author's goal for the mid-future.

  7. A time resolved microfocus XEOL facility at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Taylor, R. P.; Quinn, P. D.; Finch, A. A.; Cibin, G.; Gianolio, D.; Sapelkin, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a Time-Resolved X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (TR-XEOL) detection system at the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline I18 at the Diamond Light Source. Using the synchrotron in "hybrid bunch mode", the data collection is triggered by the RF clock, and we are able to record XEOL photons with a time resolution of 6.1 ps during the 230 ns gap between the hybrid bunch and the main train of electron bunches. We can detect photons over the range 180-850 nm using a bespoke optical fibre, with X-ray excitation energies between 2 and 20 keV. We have used the system to study a range of feldspars. The detector is portable and has also been used on beamline B18 to collect Optically Determined X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (OD-XAS) in QEXAFS mode.

  8. The contribution of Diamond Light Source to the study of strongly correlated electron systems and complex magnetic structures.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, P G; Dhesi, S S

    2015-03-06

    We review some of the significant contributions to the field of strongly correlated materials and complex magnets, arising from experiments performed at the Diamond Light Source (Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, UK) during the first few years of operation (2007-2014). We provide a comprehensive overview of Diamond research on topological insulators, multiferroics, complex oxides and magnetic nanostructures. Several experiments on ultrafast dynamics, magnetic imaging, photoemission electron microscopy, soft X-ray holography and resonant magnetic hard and soft X-ray scattering are described.

  9. The contribution of Diamond Light Source to the study of strongly correlated electron systems and complex magnetic structures

    SciTech Connect

    Radaelli, P. G.; Dhesi, S. S.

    2015-01-26

    We review some of the significant contributions to the field of strongly correlated materials and complex magnets, arising from experiments performed at the Diamond Light Source (Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, UK) during the first few years of operation (2007–2014). We provide a comprehensive overview of Diamond research on topological insulators, multiferroics, complex oxides and magnetic nanostructures. Several experiments on ultrafast dynamics, magnetic imaging, photoemission electron microscopy, soft X-ray holography and resonant magnetic hard and soft X-ray scattering are described.

  10. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  11. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

  12. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Ian T.; Mosselmans, J. Frederick W.; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L.; Benning, Liane G.; Coker, Victoria S.

    2015-01-01

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral–fluid–microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use. PMID:25624516

  13. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  14. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, U. H.; Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  15. Measuring circular dichroism in a capillary cell using the b23 synchrotron radiation CD beamline at diamond light source.

    PubMed

    Jávorfi, Tamás; Hussain, Rohanah; Myatt, Daniel; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well-established method in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline dedicated to circular dichroism at Diamond Light Source, a third generation synchrotron facility in South Oxfordshire, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein we present an important application of SRCD: the CD measurement of protein solutions in fused silica rectangular capillary cells. This was achieved without the use of any lens between the photoelastic modulator and the photomultiplier tube detectors by exploiting the high photon flux of the collimated beam that can be as little as half a millimeter squared. Measures to minimize or eliminate vacuum-UV protein denaturation effects are discussed. The CD spectra measured in capillaries is a proof of principle to address CD measurements in microdevice systems using the new B23 SRCD beamline.

  16. Design, Build & Test of a Double Crystal Monochromator for Beamlines I09 & I23 at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, J.; Lee, T.; Alcock, S.; Patel, H.

    2013-03-01

    A high stability Double Crystal Monochromator has been developed at The Diamond Light Source for beamlines I09 and I23. The design specification was a cryogenic, fixed exit, energy scanning monochromator, operating over an energy range of 2.1 - 25 keV using a Si(111) crystal set. The novel design concepts are the direct drive, air bearing Bragg axis, low strain crystal mounts and the cooling scheme. The instrument exhibited superb stability and repeatability on the B16 Test Beamline. A 20 keV Si(555), 1.4 μrad rocking curve was demonstrated. The DCM showed good stability without any evidence of vibration or Bragg angle nonlinearity.

  17. Ultra-high performance mirror systems for the imaging and coherence beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, U. H.; Alcock, S.; Ludbrook, G.; Wiatryzk, J.; Rau, C.

    2012-05-01

    I13L is a 250m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) currently under construction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. To minimise the impact of thermal fluctuations and vibrations onto the beamline performance, we are developing a new generation of ultra-stable beamline instrumentation with highly repeatable adjustment mechanisms using low thermal expansion materials like granite and large piezo-driven flexure stages. For minimising the beam distortion we use very high quality optical components like large ion-beam polished mirrors. In this paper we present the first metrology results on a newly designed mirror system following this design philosophy.

  18. Calibration of the nonlinear ring model at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolini, R.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rehm, G.; Schmidt, F.

    2011-05-01

    Nonlinear beam dynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of a storage ring. The beam lifetime, the injection efficiency, and the dynamic and momentum apertures available to the beam are optimized during the design phase by a proper optimization of the linear lattice and of the distribution of sextupole families. The correct implementation of the design model, especially the nonlinear part, is a nontrivial accelerator physics task. Several parameters of the nonlinear dynamics can be used to compare the real machine with the model and eventually to correct the accelerator. Most of these parameters are extracted from the analysis of turn-by-turn data after the excitation of betatron oscillations of the particles in the ring. We present the experimental results of the campaign of measurements carried out at the Diamond storage ring to characterize the nonlinear beam dynamics. A combination of frequency map analysis with the detuning with momentum measurements has allowed for a precise calibration of the nonlinear model that can accurately reproduce the nonlinear beam dynamics in Diamond.

  19. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakins, D. E.; Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  20. All-diamond optical assemblies for a beam-multiplexing X-ray monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Stoupin, S; Terentyev, S A; Blank, V D; Shvyd'ko, Yu V; Goetze, K; Assoufid, L; Polyakov, S N; Kuznetsov, M S; Kornilov, N V; Katsoudas, J; Alonso-Mori, R; Chollet, M; Feng, Y; Glownia, J M; Lemke, H; Robert, A; Sikorski, M; Song, S; Zhu, D

    2014-08-01

    A double-crystal diamond (111) monochromator recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) enables splitting of the primary X-ray beam into a pink (transmitted) and a monochromatic (reflected) branch. The first monochromator crystal, with a thickness of ∼100 µm, provides sufficient X-ray transmittance to enable simultaneous operation of two beamlines. This article reports the design, fabrication and X-ray characterization of the first and second (300 µm-thick) crystals utilized in the monochromator and the optical assemblies holding these crystals. Each crystal plate has a region of about 5 × 2 mm with low defect concentration, sufficient for use in X-ray optics at the LCLS. The optical assemblies holding the crystals were designed to provide mounting on a rigid substrate and to minimize mounting-induced crystal strain. The induced strain was evaluated using double-crystal X-ray topography and was found to be small over the 5 × 2 mm working regions of the crystals.

  1. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voutta, R.; Gerstl, S.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2016-05-01

    The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS). In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014)]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  2. All-diamond optical assemblies for a beam-multiplexing X-ray monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Stoupin, S.; Terentyev, S. A.; Blank, V. D.; Shvyd’ko, Yu. V.; Goetze, K.; Assoufid, L.; Polyakov, S. N.; Kuznetsov, M. S.; Kornilov, N. V.; Katsoudas, J.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Chollet, M.; Feng, Y.; Glownia, J. M.; Lemke, H.; Robert, A.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Zhu, D.

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond (111) monochromator recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) enables splitting of the primary X-ray beam into a pink (transmitted) and a monochromatic (reflected) branch. The first monochromator crystal, with a thickness of ∼100 µm, provides sufficient X-ray transmittance to enable simultaneous operation of two beamlines. This article reports the design, fabrication and X-ray characterization of the first and second (300 µm-thick) crystals utilized in the monochromator and the optical assemblies holding these crystals. Each crystal plate has a region of about 5 × 2 mm with low defect concentration, sufficient for use in X-ray optics at the LCLS. The optical assemblies holding the crystals were designed to provide mounting on a rigid substrate and to minimize mounting-induced crystal strain. The induced strain was evaluated using double-crystal X-ray topography and was found to be small over the 5 × 2 mm working regions of the crystals. PMID:25242912

  3. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Eakins, D. E. Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-15

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  4. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Eakins, D E; Chapman, D J

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  5. A diamond nanowire single-photon source.

    PubMed

    Babinec, Thomas M; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R; Hemmer, Philip R; Loncar, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy.

  6. Design, development and use of the spectrometer for investigating coherent THz radiation produced by micro-bunching instabilities at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Aiveen; Karataev, Pavel; Rehm, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are known for their low noise, ultra-fast response and excellent sensitivity. They are often implemented as detectors in the millimetre wavelength regime. Micro-bunch instabilities (MBI) have been detected at many light sources around the world including the Diamond Light Source, UK. These MBI can result in bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with millimetre wavelengths. More research needs to be carried out with regards to the dynamics of MBI in order to confirm the simulations and to eventually harness the power of the CSR bursts. A single shot spectrometer has been designed and is under operation at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). It is composed of eight SBDs ranging from 33-1000 GHz. Unlike previous measurements carried out, each of the SBDs has been individually characterised thus making the results obtained comparable to simulations. In this paper, we present the assessment of each SBD in the spectrometer and the first results of the spectrometer's use in the beam.

  7. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  8. A high-throughput system for high-quality tomographic reconstruction of large datasets at Diamond Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Robert C.; Bodey, Andrew J.; Price, Stephen W. T.; Basham, Mark; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tomographic datasets collected at synchrotrons are becoming very large and complex, and, therefore, need to be managed efficiently. Raw images may have high pixel counts, and each pixel can be multidimensional and associated with additional data such as those derived from spectroscopy. In time-resolved studies, hundreds of tomographic datasets can be collected in sequence, yielding terabytes of data. Users of tomographic beamlines are drawn from various scientific disciplines, and many are keen to use tomographic reconstruction software that does not require a deep understanding of reconstruction principles. We have developed Savu, a reconstruction pipeline that enables users to rapidly reconstruct data to consistently create high-quality results. Savu is designed to work in an ‘orthogonal’ fashion, meaning that data can be converted between projection and sinogram space throughout the processing workflow as required. The Savu pipeline is modular and allows processing strategies to be optimized for users' purposes. In addition to the reconstruction algorithms themselves, it can include modules for identification of experimental problems, artefact correction, general image processing and data quality assessment. Savu is open source, open licensed and ‘facility-independent’: it can run on standard cluster infrastructure at any institution. PMID:25939626

  9. A high-throughput system for high-quality tomographic reconstruction of large datasets at Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Robert C; Bodey, Andrew J; Price, Stephen W T; Basham, Mark; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-06-13

    Tomographic datasets collected at synchrotrons are becoming very large and complex, and, therefore, need to be managed efficiently. Raw images may have high pixel counts, and each pixel can be multidimensional and associated with additional data such as those derived from spectroscopy. In time-resolved studies, hundreds of tomographic datasets can be collected in sequence, yielding terabytes of data. Users of tomographic beamlines are drawn from various scientific disciplines, and many are keen to use tomographic reconstruction software that does not require a deep understanding of reconstruction principles. We have developed Savu, a reconstruction pipeline that enables users to rapidly reconstruct data to consistently create high-quality results. Savu is designed to work in an 'orthogonal' fashion, meaning that data can be converted between projection and sinogram space throughout the processing workflow as required. The Savu pipeline is modular and allows processing strategies to be optimized for users' purposes. In addition to the reconstruction algorithms themselves, it can include modules for identification of experimental problems, artefact correction, general image processing and data quality assessment. Savu is open source, open licensed and 'facility-independent': it can run on standard cluster infrastructure at any institution.

  10. COMPRES X-ray beamlines (X17B3 and X17C) for the diamond anvil cell at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, X.; Chen, Z.; Sengupta, A.; Goncharov, A. F.; Ehm, L.; Duffy, T. S.; Weidner, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    The laser heated diamond anvil cell technique can readily achieve the pressure and temperature domain of Earth from upper mantle to outer core. The laser heating diamond anvil cell X-ray facilities (X17-DAC), consists of X17B3 and X17C stations on a superconducting wiggler beamline and a sample preparation/spectroscopy laboratory at the National Synchrotron Light Source). As the first dedicated high-pressure (HP) beamline in the world, X17-DAC has been a workhorse for HP research for two decades, and has led the way in many developments, Here we report current capabilities and recent developments at X17-DAC beamlines including a new double-side laser heating system . At the X17B3 station, high-temperature high-pressure X-ray diffraction experiments can be carried out either with monochromatic beam (~30 keV or ~80 keV), or with white beam for energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. In-situ laser heating system will be available for users in Geosciences starting from September, 2011. With a monochromatic beam at 30 keV, the X-ray beam can be focused to a beam size of ~10 μm. By combing with the laser heating technique, we can support in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments at the domain of temperature and pressure up to Earth's outer core. With high energy at 80 keV, total scattering pair distribution function (PDF) measurements are performed. Originally, this method was used to study amorphous and highly disordered materials, but more recently, it has been used for the analysis of crystalline and nanostructured materials. This novel technique provides useful information about the long- and short-range ordering of the atoms in the materials. It is promising to combine laser heating and total scattering PDF measurements so as to probe phase transitions and phase relations for geophysical important materials at X17B3 station. At X17C, we conduct angle and energy dispersive x-ray diffraction on polycrystalline samples in either axial or radial geometry. Energy dispersive

  11. Source assemblage types for cratonic diamonds from X-ray synchrotron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, F.; Alvaro, M.; Casati, M. N.; Wilhelm, H.; Kleppe, A. K.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Domeneghetti, M. C.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Three single crystals of clinopyroxene trapped within three different gem-quality diamonds from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) were analysed in situ by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to obtain information on their chemical composition and infer source assemblage type. A non-destructive approach was used with high-energy (≈ 60 keV; λ ≈ 0.206 Å) at I15, the extreme-conditions beamline at Diamond Light Source. A dedicated protocol was used to center the mineral inclusions located deep inside the diamonds in the X-ray beam. Our results reveal that two of the inclusions can be associated with peridotitic paragenesis whereas the third is eclogitic. This study also demonstrates that this non-destructive experimental approach is extremely efficient in evaluating the origin of minerals trapped in their diamond hosts.

  12. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    PubMed Central

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics. PMID:27731379

  13. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-10-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  14. Study of low multiplicity electron source LEETECH with diamond detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubytskyi, V.; Krylov, V.; Bambade, P.; Cabouat, B.; Wicek, F.; Bogard, F.; Barsuk, S.; Rodin, V.; Burmistrov, L.; Bezshyyko, O.; Attie, D.; Colas, P.; Fedorchuk, O.; Golinka-Bezshyyko, L.; Lopez, R.; Monard, H.; Cayla, J.-N.; Sukhonos, D.; Titov, M.; Tomassini, D.; Variola, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present experimental and numerical studies of the calibration of low-multiplicity electron source using signals from electrons incident on a diamond detector. The experiments were performed at the newly commissioned versatile LEETECH platform at the PHIL photoinjector facility at LAL. We show that with a single crystal CVD diamonds of 500 micrometers thickness, the energy losses from the first three electrons of 2.5–3 MeV are clearly resolved. The described technique can be used as a complementary approach for calibration of diamond detectors as well as for diagnostics of accelerated beam halos in a regime down to a few particles.

  15. Photonic crystal light source

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  16. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  17. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    BNL

    2016-07-12

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  18. Fifth generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2016-12-01

    Coherent light sources are one of the most fundamental research tools in biology, technology and in other areas. Synchrotron light source consists of a few basic parts: energy source - which is an electron beam accelerator, energy converter between electron and photon beams - which is an undulator, and photon user experimental lines. Each of these parts is separately a complex system, which is currently a subject to fast technological development. Future light sources of the fifth generation are based on completely new solutions of these fundamental parts, in comparison with the sources of the previous generations. Energy source is a new generation laser - plasma accelerator with electrical field in the area of multiple GV/m. A miniature undulator is tested in the MEMS technology from new materials. Classical light beam lines, vacuum, and difficult for management and beam distribution, change their meaning in the case of availability of miniature undulators positioned immediately at or even inside the experimental stations. After an introduction concerning the light sources of the previous generations, the article shows current research efforts on the mentioned key components of the fifth generation light sources. In some cases this is a continuation and modernization of the previous technologies, in the majority it is a brave endeavour to apply completely new technologies, like laser - plasma acceleration.

  19. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-10

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  1. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end radiation of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency (Fig. 10.1), lifetime and color properties.

  2. Incoherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Dietrich; Born, Matthias; Jüstel, Thomas

    Since the invention and industrialization of incandescent lamps at the end of the 19th century electrical lighting has become a commodity in our daily life. Today, incoherent light sources are used for numerous application areas. Major improvements have been achieved over the past decades with respect to lamp efficiency Fig. 10.1, lifetime and color properties.

  3. Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources.

    PubMed

    Ampem-Lassen, E; Simpson, D A; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S

    2009-07-06

    The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a approximately 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.

  4. Light Sources 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M. Q.; Devonshire, R.

    2007-04-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held in Fudan University, Shanghai, China in the period May 20th to 24th, 2007. In the 32 years since the first symposium was held in Loughborough, UK, the LS series has established itself as the major international event which brings together on a regular basis the world's leading scientists and engineers involved in the research and development of light source technologies. The participants come from the R&D laboratories of the world’s leading light source manufacturing companies and from research groups in universities, government laboratories and research institutes. The highly multi-disciplinary nature of the field results in a unique mix of physicists, chemists, chemical physicists, materials scientists and electrical, electronic and mechanical engineers attending the symposia. The more than 250 papers in these LS:11 proceedings provide an excellent overview of the current status of light source science and technology. The energy efficiency and light emission characteristics of existing technologies continue to be improved, solid state technologies are advancing rapidly and innovation flourishes generally. Audience Professional scientists and engineers involved in light source related R&D. Postgraduate-level students in the physical sciences, applied mathematics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering. The contents will also be of interest to anyone with a background in science and engineering wishing to gain an overview of current activity in this important global industry and research field.

  5. Plasmonic resonators for enhanced diamond NV-center single photon sources.

    PubMed

    Bulu, Irfan; Babinec, Thomas; Hausmann, Birgit; Choy, Jennifer T; Loncar, Marko

    2011-03-14

    We propose a novel source of non-classical light consisting of plasmonic aperture with single-crystal diamond containing a single Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) color center. Theoretical calculations of optimal structures show that these devices can simultaneously enhance optical pumping by a factor of 7, spontaneous emission rates by Fp~50 (Purcell factor), and offer collection efficiencies up to 40%. These excitation and collection enhancements occur over a broad range of wavelengths (~30 nm), and are independently tunable with device geometry, across the excitation (~530 nm) and emission (~600-800 nm) spectrum of the NV center. Implementing this system with top-down techniques in bulk diamond crystals will provide a scalable architecture for a myriad of diamond NV center applications.

  6. MEMS Incandescent Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

  7. Alpha-Voltaic Sources Using Diamond as Conversion Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagadish U.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    A family of proposed miniature sources of power would exploit the direct conversion of the kinetic energy of a particles into electricity in diamond semiconductor diodes. These power sources would function over a wide range of temperatures encountered in terrestrial and outer-space environments. These sources are expected to have operational lifetimes of 10 to 20 years and energy conversion efficiencies >35 percent. A power source according to the proposal would include a pair of devices like that shown in the figure. Each device would contain Schottky and p/n diode devices made from high-band-gap, radiation-hard diamond substrates. The n and p layers in the diode portion would be doped sparsely (<1014 cm-3) in order to maximize the volume of the depletion region and thereby maximize efficiency. The diode layers would be supported by an undoped diamond substrate. The source of a particles would be a thin film of 244Cm (half-life 18 years) sandwiched between the two paired devices. The sandwich arrangement would force almost every a particle to go through the active volume of at least one of the devices. Typical a particle track lengths in the devices would range from 20 to 30 microns. The a particles would be made to stop only in the undoped substrates to prevent damage to the crystalline structures of the diode portions. The overall dimensions of a typical source are expected to be about 2 by 2 by 1 mm. Assuming an initial 244Cm mass of 20 mg, the estimated initial output of the source is 20 mW (a current of 20 mA at a potential of 1 V).

  8. Structure of the cyanobactin oxidase ThcOx from Cyanothece sp. PCC 7425, the first structure to be solved at Diamond Light Source beamline I23 by means of S-SAD.

    PubMed

    Bent, Andrew F; Mann, Greg; Houssen, Wael E; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Duman, Ramona; Thomas, Louise; Jaspars, Marcel; Wagner, Armin; Naismith, James H

    2016-11-01

    Determination of protein crystal structures requires that the phases are derived independently of the observed measurement of diffraction intensities. Many techniques have been developed to obtain phases, including heavy-atom substitution, molecular replacement and substitution during protein expression of the amino acid methionine with selenomethionine. Although the use of selenium-containing methionine has transformed the experimental determination of phases it is not always possible, either because the variant protein cannot be produced or does not crystallize. Phasing of structures by measuring the anomalous diffraction from S atoms could in theory be almost universal since almost all proteins contain methionine or cysteine. Indeed, many structures have been solved by the so-called native sulfur single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (S-SAD) phasing method. However, the anomalous effect is weak at the wavelengths where data are normally recorded (between 1 and 2 Å) and this limits the potential of this method to well diffracting crystals. Longer wavelengths increase the strength of the anomalous signal but at the cost of increasing air absorption and scatter, which degrade the precision of the anomalous measurement, consequently hindering phase determination. A new instrument, the long-wavelength beamline I23 at Diamond Light Source, was designed to work at significantly longer wavelengths compared with standard synchrotron beamlines in order to open up the native S-SAD method to projects of increasing complexity. Here, the first novel structure, that of the oxidase domain involved in the production of the natural product patellamide, solved on this beamline is reported using data collected to a resolution of 3.15 Å at a wavelength of 3.1 Å. The oxidase is an example of a protein that does not crystallize as the selenium variant and for which no suitable homology model for molecular replacement was available. Initial attempts collecting anomalous

  9. Structure of the cyanobactin oxidase ThcOx from Cyanothece sp. PCC 7425, the first structure to be solved at Diamond Light Source beamline I23 by means of S-SAD

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Andrew F.; Mann, Greg; Houssen, Wael E.; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Duman, Ramona; Thomas, Louise; Jaspars, Marcel; Wagner, Armin; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of protein crystal structures requires that the phases are derived independently of the observed measurement of diffraction intensities. Many techniques have been developed to obtain phases, including heavy-atom substitution, molecular replacement and substitution during protein expression of the amino acid methionine with selenomethionine. Although the use of selenium-containing methionine has transformed the experimental determination of phases it is not always possible, either because the variant protein cannot be produced or does not crystallize. Phasing of structures by measuring the anomalous diffraction from S atoms could in theory be almost universal since almost all proteins contain methionine or cysteine. Indeed, many structures have been solved by the so-called native sulfur single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (S-SAD) phasing method. However, the anomalous effect is weak at the wavelengths where data are normally recorded (between 1 and 2 Å) and this limits the potential of this method to well diffracting crystals. Longer wavelengths increase the strength of the anomalous signal but at the cost of increasing air absorption and scatter, which degrade the precision of the anomalous measurement, consequently hindering phase determination. A new instrument, the long-wavelength beamline I23 at Diamond Light Source, was designed to work at significantly longer wavelengths compared with standard synchrotron beamlines in order to open up the native S-SAD method to projects of increasing complexity. Here, the first novel structure, that of the oxidase domain involved in the production of the natural product patellamide, solved on this beamline is reported using data collected to a resolution of 3.15 Å at a wavelength of 3.1 Å. The oxidase is an example of a protein that does not crystallize as the selenium variant and for which no suitable homology model for molecular replacement was available. Initial attempts collecting anomalous

  10. Advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sah, R. C.

    1983-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a new synchrotron radiation source which was proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The ALS will be a key component in a major new research facility, the National Center for Advanced Materials. The ALS will consist of an electron linear accelerator, a booster synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines. Most of all photon beam lines will originate from wiggler and undulator magnets placed in the 12 long straight sections of the ALS. A very low electron beam emittance will provide photon beams of unsurpassed spectral brilliance from specially-designed undulators, and a high radiofrequency will produce very short pulse lengths.

  11. Nitride quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T.; Oliver, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Prototype nitride quantum light sources, particularly single-photon emitters, have been successfully demonstrated, despite the challenges inherent in this complex materials system. The large band offsets available between different nitride alloys have allowed device operation at easily accessible temperatures. A wide range of approaches has been explored: not only self-assembled quantum dot growth but also lithographic methods for site-controlled nanostructure formation. All these approaches face common challenges, particularly strong background signals which contaminate the single-photon stream and excessive spectral diffusion of the quantum dot emission wavelength. If these challenges can be successfully overcome, then ongoing rapid progress in the conventional III-V semiconductors provides a roadmap for future progress in the nitrides.

  12. Ultrabright single-photon source on diamond with electrical pumping at room and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanin, D. Yu; Agio, M.

    2016-07-01

    The recently demonstrated electroluminescence of color centers in diamond makes them one of the best candidates for room temperature single-photon sources. However, the reported emission rates are far off what can be achieved by state-of-the-art electrically driven epitaxial quantum dots. Since the electroluminescence mechanism has not yet been elucidated, it is not clear to what extent the emission rate can be increased. Here we develop a theoretical framework to study single-photon emission from color centers in diamond under electrical pumping. The proposed model comprises electron and hole trapping and releasing, transitions between the ground and excited states of the color center as well as structural transformations of the center due to carrier trapping. It provides the possibility to predict both the photon emission rate and the wavelength of emitted photons. Self-consistent numerical simulations of the single-photon emitting diode based on the proposed model show that the photon emission rate can be as high as 100 kcounts s-1 at standard conditions. In contrast to most optoelectronic devices, the emission rate steadily increases with the device temperature achieving of more than 100 Mcount s-1 at 500 K, which is highly advantageous for practical applications. These results demonstrate the potential of color centers in diamond as electrically driven non-classical light emitters and provide a foundation for the design and development of single-photon sources for optical quantum computation and quantum communication networks operating at room and higher temperatures.

  13. Diamond Field Emission Source using Transfer Mold Technique Prepared by Diamond Powder Seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tezuka, Sachiaki; Matsuba, Yohei; Takahashi, Kohro

    Diamond thin films fabricated by MPCVD (microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition) are available for use as a field emitter material, because of its high mechanical quality, thermal conductivity, chemical stability, environmental tolerance, and NEA (negative electron affinity). Diode and triode emitter arrays using P-doped polycrystalline diamond were manufactured on a SiO2/Si(100) substrate with reverse pyramids formed by the transfer mold technique. As the diamond nucleation process, spin-coat seeding with pure diamond powder dispersed in isoamyl acetate has been introduced in place of the bias method. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the crystal quality of the diamond thin film fabricated by spin-coat seeding is superior to that fabricated by the bias method. The diamond crystal completely grew on top of the diode emitter by the US (ultrasonic) treatment in a diamond powder solution before spin-coat seeding. The tip radius was smaller than 50 nm. The beginning voltage of the emission of the diode emitter is 3 V after the DC glow discharge treatment in H2, which is lower than that of an emitter array fabricated by the bias method, 40 V. On the other hand, the emission of the diamond triode emitter starts at a gate voltage of only 0.5 V, and the emission current of 50∼60 mA is obtained at a gate voltage of 2 V.

  14. Identifying the Source of Gem Diamonds: Requirements for a Certification System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigley, J. E.

    2002-05-01

    Recent civil conflicts in several countries, in which profits from the sales of gem diamonds have supported the rival factions, have forced the jewelry industry to confront the need to certify the geographic sources of gem diamonds. The goals of this program are to prohibit the sale of so-called "conflict diamonds", and to prevent the loss of consumer confidence. Efforts to identify unique characteristics of gem diamonds have been hampered so far by the absence of chemical or physical features that are diagnostic of particular sources, and the lack of a representative collection of diamonds from major producing areas that would be required for a rigorous scientific study. The jewelry industry has therefore adopted plans to track gem diamonds from the mine through the manufacturing process to the consumer. Practical requirements for implementation of such a certification system will be summarized. Any proposed solutions for determining the sources of gem diamonds by some analytical technique, or for following diamonds from the mine, must take into account the annual production of several tens of millions of carats of rough diamonds, which are transformed during manufacturing into several hundreds of millions of polished gemstones (with an average weight of only about 0.03 carat, or 0.006 gram).

  15. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-05-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed.

  16. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    White, William E.; Robert, Aymeric; Dunne, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was the first hard X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) to operate as a user facility. After five years of operation, LCLS is now a mature FEL user facility. Our personal views about opportunities and challenges inherent to these unique light sources are discussed. PMID:25931055

  17. The SAGA Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, K.; Iwasaki, Y.; Koda, S.; Okajima, S.; Setoyama, H.; Takabayashi, Y.; Tomimasu, T.; Yoshimura, D.; Ohgaki, H.

    2007-01-19

    Saga prefectural government operates a synchrotron light facility mainly for industrial applications of the synchrotron light. The facility comprises a 1.4 GeV storage ring, a 250 MeV linac as an electron injector and beamlines. The lattice of the storage ring is designed to perform as small emittance as 25 nm-radian and has long straight sections of 2.9 m length for installing insertion devices. Three beam lines have been prepared by Saga prefectural government and one by Saga University.

  18. Understanding the source: The nitrogen isotope composition of Type II mantle diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, Sami; Howell, Dan; Jones, Adrian; Milledge, Judith; Verchovsky, Sasha

    2010-05-01

    Diamonds can be broadly subdivided into 2 groups based on their nitrogen content; type I with > 10ppm nitrogen and type II with < 10ppm (1). Roughly 98 % of upper mantle diamonds are classified as type I, interestingly nearly all lower mantle diamonds are of type II (2). This study aims to identify the processes involved or source of type II diamonds from several localities by measuring their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions simultaneously for the first time. Samples have been categorised as type II using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) analysis. The carbon and nitrogen isotopes as well as additional nitrogen content data have been acquired using a custom made a hi-sensitivity gas sourced mass spectrometer built and housed at the Open University, UK. There are two ways in which we can model the petrogenesis of type II diamonds. 1- During diamond growth nitrogen can be incorporated into diamond as a compatible element in a closed system and therefore the N/C ratio in the source can be depleted by Rayleigh fractionation as the first diamonds to crystallise will partition nitrogen atoms into their lattice as a 1:1 substitution for carbon atoms (type I diamonds). However nitrogen may behave as an incompatible element in diamond (and be a compatible element in the metasomatic fluid), this coupled with an open system would lead to the removal of nitrogen by the metasomatic fluids, thus causing the source to progressively become depleted in nitrogen. Continued diamond crystallization in either system will produce diamonds with ever decreasing nitrogen concentrations with time, possibly to the point of them being almost nitrogen free. 2- It is conceivable that type I & II diamonds found in the same deposit and sharing a common paragenesis (eclogitic or peridotitic) may have formed from different metasomatic fluids in separate diamond forming events. The latter has been proposed for samples from the Cullinan mine (South Africa) based on their carbon

  19. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  20. Multiple growth events, processes and fluid sources involved in diamond genesis: A micro-analytical study of sulphide-bearing diamonds from Finsch mine, RSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palot, M.; Pearson, D. G.; Stern, R. A.; Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-one sulphide inclusion-bearing diamonds from the Finsch mine, South Africa, were analysed for nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope compositions by microbeam methods. On the basis of sulphide Ni contents, one diamond is of peridotitic affinity, the rest belongs to the eclogitic suite. FTIR analyses show nitrogen abundances and aggregation states from 21 to 1093 at.ppm and 0% to 83% IaB, statistically indistinguishable from previous results for Finsch eclogitic silicate inclusion-bearing diamonds (Appleyard et al., 2004) but significantly higher than observed before for diamonds of the peridotitic suite (Deines et al., 1989). Detailed analyses revealed marked variations in nitrogen characteristics within individual diamonds, demonstrating a complex mantle residence, consistent with multiple episodes of diamond growth over time. Linked to the growth stratigraphy of the diamond, SIMS micro-analyses show variations in δ13C from -8.90‰ to -2.80‰ with a mean value of -5.54 ± 1.80‰ (1 standard deviation), closely overlapping the typical worldwide value. The C-isotopic variability within individual diamonds ranges up to 3.26‰. SIMS based nitrogen abundances are 3-2221 at.ppm with heterogeneous distribution within individual diamond. From the δ13C-[N] co-variations within individual diamonds, three major processes of diamond growth for sulphide inclusion-bearing samples at Finsch are proposed. (1) Some diamonds were precipitated during a single event of open system isotopic fractionation, in fluids that varied from oxidised (carbonatitic) to reduced (CH4-rich). In this growth scenario, nitrogen is either compatible or incompatible during diamond growth. (2) Other diamonds show abrupt δ13C-[N] changes indicative of diamond growth involving mixing of several fluid sources. (3) Some diamonds grow from a combination of the two previous processes. The models are consistent with metasomatic diamond growth involving single and multiple fluid sources. Multiple

  1. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of clinopyroxene inclusions in African diamonds: implications for source ages of detrital diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D.; Harris, J. W.; Kiviets, G. B.

    2004-01-01

    Clinopyroxene inclusions in diamond contain elevated potassium contents and can potentially be dated by 40Ar/ 39Ar techniques. Previous 40Ar/ 39Ar studies of clinopyroxene inclusions contained in cleaved diamonds have suggested that argon, produced from the decay of potassium prior to eruption of the host kimberlite magma, diffuses to the diamond/clinopyroxene interface under mantle conditions. After intrusion and cooling below the closure temperature for argon diffusion, radiogenic argon is retained by the clinopyroxene inclusions. This behaviour complicates efforts to date diamond crystallisation events; however, extraction of inclusions from their host diamond should induce loss of all interface argon, thus raising the possibility of determining kimberlite emplacement ages. This possibility has important implications for constraining the source localities of detrital diamond deposits worldwide, with concomitant benefits to diamond exploration. To investigate this premise, 40Ar/ 39Ar laser probe results are presented for single clinopyroxene inclusions extracted from a total of fifteen gem-quality diamonds from the Mbuji-Mayi kimberlite in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and the Jwaneng and Orapa kimberlites in Botswana. Initial fusion analyses of clinopyroxene inclusions from Mbuji-Mayi diamonds yielded ages older than the time of host kimberlite intrusion, indicating partial retention of extraneous argon by the clinopyroxene inclusions themselves. Step-heating analyses of clinopyroxene inclusions from Orapa and Jwaneng diamonds produced older apparent ages from lower temperature steps and the 'rim' fragment of one Orapa inclusion. High temperature (fusion) analyses yielded younger apparent ages, commonly approaching the times of host kimberlite eruption. Total-gas integrated 40Ar/ 39Ar ages are mostly intermediate between the times of inferred diamond crystallisation and kimberlite eruption. Ca/K ratios for each sample are uniform across step

  2. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.; Experimental Facilities Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  3. Synchrotron light source data book

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ''Synchrotron Light Source Data Book'' is as its name implies a collection of data on existing and planned synchrotron light sources. The intention was to provide a compendium of tools for the design of electron storage rings as synchrotron radiation sources. The slant is toward the accelerator physicist as other booklets such as the X-ray Data Booklet, edited by D. Vaughan (LBL PUB-490), address the 'use' of synchrotron radiation. It is hoped that the booklet serves as a pocket sized reference to facilitate back of the envelope type calculations. It contains some useful formulae in 'practical units' and a brief description of many of the existing and planned light source lattices.

  4. Large scale fabrication of nitrogen vacancy-embedded diamond nanostructures for single-photon source applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qianqing; Li, Wuxia; Tang, Chengchun; Chang, Yanchun; Hao, Tingting; Pan, Xinyu; Ye, Haitao; Li, Junjie; Gu, Changzhi

    2016-11-01

    Some color centers in diamond can serve as quantum bits which can be manipulated with microwave pulses and read out with laser, even at room temperature. However, the photon collection efficiency of bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, we fabricated arrays of diamond nanostructures, differing in both diameter and top end shape, with HSQ and Cr as the etching mask materials, aiming toward large scale fabrication of single-photon sources with enhanced collection efficiency made of nitrogen vacancy (NV) embedded diamond. With a mixture of O2 and CHF3 gas plasma, diamond pillars with diameters down to 45 nm were obtained. The top end shape evolution has been represented with a simple model. The tests of size dependent single-photon properties confirmed an improved single-photon collection efficiency enhancement, larger than tenfold, and a mild decrease of decoherence time with decreasing pillar diameter was observed as expected. These results provide useful information for future applications of nanostructured diamond as a single-photon source. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0200402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11574369, 11574368, 91323304, 11174362, and 51272278), and the FP7 Marie Curie Action (project No. 295208) sponsored by the European Commission.

  5. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Robert W; Plum, Michael A; Wilson, Leslie L; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I; Takagi, A

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} foils as large as 17 x 25 mm{sup 2} have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 {micro}C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H{sup -}) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  6. Unusual Cathodoluminescence in Diamonds: Evidence for Metamorphism or a Source Characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. F.; Longo, M.; Kopylova, M.; Ryder, J.

    2009-05-01

    main factor influencing the CL colors of the suites. Diamonds in the volcaniclastic breccias and sedimentary conglomerates may have come from different deep sources, but acquired similar cathodoluminescence due to a metamorphic overprint. Metamorphic fluids have been shown to have a potential to percolate through diamond fractures and affect diamond inclusions. Furthermore, diamonds found in the Kokchetav metamorphic massif are reported to have green CL with an emission at 514-537 nm. The "metamorphic" model is supported by the contrast in the diamond indicator minerals recovered from the volcaniclastic breccias and sedimentary conglomerates. Only the latter contain kimberlite indicator minerals from a proximal source, such as diopside and garnet with preserved kelyphitic rims. The second model suggests the presence of the 520 nm CL peak controlling the green-red CL visible colors is an internal characteristic of the two Wawa diamond suites related to their origin from the same deep source. Currently, we are studying the N content and aggregation state of the conglomerate diamonds using the Fourier transform infrared technique to compare these data with the corresponding values for the breccia diamonds. Further work is needed to determine if either model can explain all observed properties of the Wawa diamond suites.

  7. : Light Interception in Single Row, Twin Row, and Diamond Planting Patterns of Valencia Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted on a growers farm South of Clovis, NM in 2006 to compare light interception and radiation use efficiency in single row, twin row, and diamond planted Valencia peanuts with line quantum sensors (Apogee instruments, Logan) installed across the crop row. Data were recorded ...

  8. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-04-25

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  9. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Hill, John; Dooryhee, Eric; Wilkins, Stuart; Miller, Lisa; Chu, Yong

    2016-07-12

    NSLS-II is a synchrotron light source helping researchers explore solutions to the grand energy challenges faced by the nation, and open up new regimes of scientific discovery that will pave the way to discoveries in physics, chemistry, and biology — advances that will ultimately enhance national security and help drive the development of abundant, safe, and clean energy technologies.

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2016-07-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  12. Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-05-01

    With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6+/-1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science.

  13. Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond

    PubMed Central

    Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6±1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. PMID:27240553

  14. Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond.

    PubMed

    Hou, P-Y; Huang, Y-Y; Yuan, X-X; Chang, X-Y; Zu, C; He, L; Duan, L-M

    2016-05-31

    With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6±1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science.

  15. N-type control of single-crystal diamond films by ultra-lightly phosphorus doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Makino, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    A wide impurity doping range of p- and n-type diamond semiconductors will facilitate the development of various electronics. This study focused on producing n-type diamond with ultra-lightly impurity doping concentrations. N-type single-crystal diamond films were grown on (111)-oriented diamond substrates by phosphorus doping using the optimized doping conditions based on microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with a high magnetron output power of 3600 W. The surface morphology was investigated by an optical microscopy using the Nomarski prism and confocal laser microscopy, and the phosphorus concentration was estimated by a secondary ion mass spectrometry. The phosphorus concentration was reproducibly controlled to between 2 × 1015 and 3 × 1017 cm-3 using a standard mass flow controller, and the average incorporation efficiency was around 0.1%. The electrical properties of the films were characterized by the Hall effect measurements as a function of temperature over a wide range from 220 to 900 K. N-type conductivity with thermal activation from a phosphorus donor level at around 0.57 eV was clearly observed for all the phosphorus-doped diamond films. The electron mobility of the film with a phosphorus concentration of 2 × 1015 cm-3 was recorded at 1060 cm2/V s at 300 K and 1500 cm2/V s at 225 K.

  16. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-Min; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wu, Cong-Feng; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The conceptual of Hefei Advanced Light Source, which is an advanced VUV and Soft X-ray source, was developed at NSRL of USTC. According to the synchrotron radiation user requirements and the trends of SR source development, some accelerator-based schemes were considered and compared; furthermore storage ring with ultra low emittance was adopted as the baseline scheme of HALS. To achieve ultra low emittance, some focusing structures were studied and optimized in the lattice design. Compromising of emittance, on-momentum and off-momentum dynamic aperture and ring scale, five bend acromat (FBA) was employed. In the preliminary design of HALS, the emittance was reduced to sub nm · rad, thus the radiation up to water window has full lateral coherence. The brilliance of undulator radiation covering several eVs to keVs range is higher than that of HLS by several orders. The HALS should be one of the most advanced synchrotron radiation light sources in the world.

  17. Lasers and Coherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svelto, Orazio; Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Huber, Günter; Kück, Stefan; Pollnau, Markus; Hillmer, Hartmut; Kusserow, Thomas; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Rohlfing (deceased), Frank; Kaiser, Jeffrey; Malz, Ralf; Marowsky, Gerd; Mann, Klaus; Simon, Peter; Rhodes, Charles K.; Duarte, Frank J.; Borsutzky, Annette; L'Huillier, Johannes A.; Sigrist, Markus W.; Wächter, Helen; Saldin, Evgeny; Schneidmiller, Evgeny; Yurkov, Mikhail; Sauerbrey, Roland; Hein, Joachim; Gianella, Michele; Helmcke, Jürgen; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Riehle, Fritz; Steinberg, Steffen; Brand, Hans

    This chapter describes lasers and other sources of coherent light that operate in a wide wavelength range. First, the general principles for the generation of coherent continuous-wave and pulsed radiation are treated including the interaction of radiation with matter, the properties of optical resonators and their modes as well as such processes as Q-switching and mode-locking. The general introduction is followed by sections on numerous types of lasers, the emphasis being on today's most important sources of coherent light, in particular on solid-state lasers and several types of gas lasers. An important part of the chapter is devoted to the generation of coherent radiation coherent radiation by nonlinear processes with optical parametric oscillators, difference- and sum-frequency generation, and high-order harmonics. Radiation in the extended ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray ranges can be generated by free electron lasers (FEL) and advanced x-ray sources. Ultrahigh light intensities up to 1021 W/cm2 open the door to studies of relativistic laser-matter interaction and laser particle acceleration. The chapter closes with a section on laser stabilization.

  18. Lasers and Coherent Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svelto, Orazio; Longhi, Stefano; Valle, Giuseppe; Kück, Stefan; Huber, Günter; Pollnau, Markus; Hillmer, Hartmut; Hansmann, Stefan; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Brand, Hans; Kaiser, Jeffrey; Peterson, Alan; Malz, Ralf; Steinberg, Steffen; Marowsky, Gerd; Brinkmann, Uwe; Lo, Dennis; Borsutzky, Annette; Wächter, Helen; Sigrist, Markus; Saldin, Evgeny; Schneidmiller, Evgeny; Yurkov, Mikhail; Midorikawa, Katsumi; Hein, Joachim; Sauerbrey, Roland; Helmcke, Jürgen

    This chapter describes lasers and other sources of coherent light that operate in a wide wavelength range. First, the general principles for the generation of coherent continuous-wave and pulsed radiation are treated including the interaction of radiation with matter, the properties of optical resonators and their modes as well as such processes as Q-switching and mode-locking. The general introduction is followed by sections on numerous types of lasers, the emphasis being on today's most important sources of coherent light, in particular on solid-state lasers and several types of gas lasers. An important part of the chapter is devoted to the generation of coherent radiation by nonlinear processes with optical parametric oscillators, difference- and sum-frequency generation, and high-order harmonics. Radiation in the extended ultraviolet (EUV) and X-ray ranges can be generated by free electron lasers (FEL) and advanced X-ray sources. Ultrahigh light intensities up to 1021 W/cm2 open the door to studies of relativistic laser-matter interaction and laser particle acceleration. The chapter closes with a section on laser stabilization.

  19. Highly saline fluids from a subducting slab as the source for fluid-rich diamonds.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Yaakov; McNeill, John; Pearson, D Graham; Nowell, Geoff M; Ottley, Chris J

    2015-08-20

    The infiltration of fluids into continental lithospheric mantle is a key mechanism for controlling abrupt changes in the chemical and physical properties of the lithospheric root, as well as diamond formation, yet the origin and composition of the fluids involved are still poorly constrained. Such fluids are trapped within diamonds when they form and so diamonds provide a unique means of directly characterizing the fluids that percolate through the deep continental lithospheric mantle. Here we show a clear chemical evolutionary trend, identifying saline fluids as parental to silicic and carbonatitic deep mantle melts, in diamonds from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Fluid-rock interaction along with in situ melting cause compositional transitions, as the saline fluids traverse mixed peridotite-eclogite lithosphere. Moreover, the chemistry of the parental saline fluids--especially their strontium isotopic compositions--and the timing of host diamond formation suggest that a subducting Mesozoic plate under western North America is the source of the fluids. Our results imply a strong association between subduction, mantle metasomatism and fluid-rich diamond formation, emphasizing the importance of subduction-derived fluids in affecting the composition of the deep lithospheric mantle.

  20. An important source of 4He (and 3He) in diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, D.

    1989-12-01

    A large data base has recently accumulated on the concentrations of helium isotopes in diamonds mined from various regions. It was noted earlier (Ozima et al. (1985) [1]; Lal et al. (1989) [2]) that the frequency distribution of the 4He concentrations is a fairly narrow one, whereas that of 3He concentrations is a broad one with no pronounced peaks. The ratios 3He/ 4He , on the other hand show a broad maximum around 2 R a ( R a equals atmospheric 3He/ 4He ratio, = 1.40 × 10 -6) with a slow decrease over two orders of magnitude on either side. Does this imply that the diamonds sample a wide variety of helium reservoirs having a range of 3He/ 4He ratios but somehow attain similar 4He concentrations? We propose that in a majority of the diamonds studied, 4He is primarily due to implantation of radiogenic alpha particles from the host material after emplacement in the crust, usually kimberlite, and that the concentrations of 4He in diamonds often get appreciably altered by this process. Thus the 4He trapped in the diamond at the time of its crystallization is usually overwhelmed by the implanted helium and the measured 3He/ 4He ratios do not generally correspond to any "sources" in the mantle. However, the implanted 4He resides in the outer 16 μm of the diamond, and the intrinsic 4He and 3He/ 4He ratios in the diamond can be studied if its outer layers are removed. The wider implications of diamond being the "target" material for nuclear reaction products from the host material are discussed. Radiogenic 3He produced in the host material is also implanted in the diamond, but this contribution is small on a gross basis. However, since the depth of implantation of 3He is greater than that of 4He, some of the very high 3He/ 4He ratios observed in diamonds could be due to the "implantation" of radiogenic 3He. The radiogenic reactions in the host material can also contribute to appreciable 21Ne in diamonds.

  1. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages).

  2. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  3. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    discharge models were reported. Further, studies on ultra high-pressure mercury lamps as light sources for projectors are becoming the mainstream of HID lamp related researches. For high-pressure sodium lamps, many studies on plant growing and pest control utilizing low insect attracting aspects were also reported in 2006. Additionally, for discharge lamps, the minimum sustaining electric power for arc tubes employed in electrode-less compact fluorescent lamps was investigated. For Hg-free rare-gas fluorescent lamps, a luminance of 10,000cd/m2 was attained by a 1 meter-long external duplex spiral electrode prototype using Xe/Ne barrier discharge. As to startup circuits, the commercialization of energy saving and high value added products mainly associated with fluorescent lamps and HID lamps are becoming common. Further, the miniaturization of startup circuits for self electronic-ballasted lamps has advanced. Speaking of the overall light sources and startup circuits in 2006 and with the enforcement of RoHS in Europe in July, the momentum toward hazardous substance-free and energy saving initiatives has been enhanced from the perspective of protecting the global environment. It is anticipated that similar restrictions will be globally enforced in the future.

  4. Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). Below details the Principal Investigators and contact information. Each PI submits separately for a budget through his corresponding institute. The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-­conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-­antimonide cathodes (BNL – LBNL) b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes (SBU -­ BNL) c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns (SBU) and copper RF photoguns (LBNL) Our work made extensive use of synchrotron radiation materials science techniques, such as powder-­ and single-­crystal diffraction, x-­ray fluorescence, EXAFS and variable energy XPS. BNL and LBNL have many complementary facilities at the two light sources associated with these laboratories (NSLS and ALS, respectively); use of these will be a major thrust of our program and bring our understanding of these complex materials to a new level. In addition, CHESS at Cornell will be used to continue seamlessly throughout the NSLS dark period and

  5. Heterogeneous integration of gallium nitride light-emitting diodes on diamond and silica by transfer printing.

    PubMed

    Trindade, A J; Guilhabert, B; Xie, E Y; Ferreira, R; McKendry, J J D; Zhu, D; Laurand, N; Gu, E; Wallis, D J; Watson, I M; Humphreys, C J; Dawson, M D

    2015-04-06

    We report the transfer printing of blue-emitting micron-scale light-emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) onto fused silica and diamond substrates without the use of intermediary adhesion layers. A consistent Van der Waals bond was achieved via liquid capillary action, despite curvature of the LED membranes following release from their native silicon growth substrates. The excellence of diamond as a heat-spreader allowed the printed membrane LEDs to achieve optical power output density of 10 W/cm(2) when operated at a current density of 254 A/cm(2). This high-current-density operation enabled optical data transmission from the LEDs at 400 Mbit/s.

  6. Advanced Light Source elliptical wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Humphries, D.; Marks, S.; Minamihara, Y.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    A 3.5-m-long elliptical wiggler, optimized to produce elliptically polarized light in the 50 eV to 10 keV range, is currently under design and construction at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Calculations of spectral performance show that the flux of circularly polarized photons exceeds 1013 photons/s over the 50 eV to 10 keV operating range for current of 0.4 A and 1.5 GeV electron energy. This device features vertical and horizontal magnetic structures of 14 and 141/2 periods, respectively. The period length is 20.0 cm. The vertical structure is a hybrid permanent magnet design with tapered pole tips that produce a peak field of 2.0 T. The horizontal structure is an iron core electromagnetic design, shifted longitudinally 1/4 period, that is tucked between the upper and lower vertical magnetic structure sections. A maximum peak oscillating field of 0.095 T at a frequency up to 1 Hz will be achieved by excitation of the horizontal poles with a trapezoidal current waveform. The vacuum chamber is an unconventional design that is removable from the magnetic structure, after magnetic measurements, for UHV processing. The chamber is fabricated from non-magnetic stainless steel to minimize the effects of eddy currents. Device design is presented.

  7. EDITORIAL: LED light sources (light for the future) LED light sources (light for the future)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, N.

    2010-09-01

    comprehensive review of the different localization mechanisms and their implication for internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is proposed by Oliver and co-workers from Cambridge University. When discussing IQE in InGaN-based LEDs, the efficiency droop at high-current injection always emerges, which is a major concern for the future of SSL technology. Here, a collaborative work between Samsung and the Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea) proves that a specific design of the active region can limit this detrimental effect. Once the issue of the IQE is solved, one still has to let the photons out of the chip. Matioli and Weisbuch from the University of California at Santa Barbara introduce the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) to improve light extraction efficiency. They describe different approaches to overcoming the main limitation of LEDs when implementing surface PhCs. The technology of SSL, and in particular of colour rendering, is tackled by Zukauskas et al who studied in detail different white light sources. They show that extreme colour-fidelity indices need to cover the entire spectrum, with a broad-band at 530-610 nm and a component beyond 610 nm. Then, the reliability of GaN-based LEDs is discussed in the paper of Meneghesso and co-workers. The authors consider the most important physical mechanisms that are (i) the degradation of the active layer of LEDs, (ii) the degradation of the package/phosphor system, (iii) the failure of GaN-based LEDs against electrostatic discharge. Finally, GaN LEDs on silicon developed in the group of Egawa at the Nagoya Institute of Technology are presented. This technology could allow a significant decrease in the fabrication cost of white LEDs.

  8. Photometer for tracking a moving light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawa, Anthony W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photometer that tracks a path of a moving light source with little or no motion of the photometer components. The system includes a non-moving, truncated paraboloid of revolution, having a paraboloid axis, a paraboloid axis, a small entrance aperture, a larger exit aperture and a light-reflecting inner surface, that receives and reflects light in a direction substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis. The system also includes a light processing filter to receive and process the redirected light, and to issue the processed, redirected light as processed light, and an array of light receiving elements, at least one of which receives and measures an associated intensity of a portion of the processed light. The system tracks a light source moving along a path and produces a corresponding curvilinear image of the light source path on the array of light receiving elements. Undesired light wavelengths from the light source may be removed by coating a selected portion of the reflecting inner surface or another light receiving surface with a coating that absorbs incident light in the undesired wavelength range.

  9. Development of a circadian light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicol, David B.; Ferguson, Ian T.

    2002-11-01

    Solid state lighting presents a new paradigm for lighting - controllability. Certain characteristics of the lighting environment can be manipulated, because of the possibility of using multiple LEDs of different emission wavelengths as the illumination source. This will provide a new, versatile, general illumination source due to the ability to vary the spectral power distribution. New effects beyond the visual may be achieved that are not possible with conventional light sources. Illumination has long been the primary function of lighting but as the lighting industry has matured the psychological aspects of lighting have been considered by designers; for example, choosing a particular lighting distribution or color variation in retail applications. The next step in the evolution of light is to consider the physiological effects of lighting that cause biological changes in a person within the environment. This work presents the development of a source that may have important bearing on this area of lighting. A circadian light source has been developed to provide an illumination source that works by modulating its correlated color temperature to mimic the changes in natural daylight through the day. In addition, this source can cause or control physiological effects for a person illuminated by it. The importance of this is seen in the human circadian rhythm's peak response corresponding to blue light at ~460 nm which corresponds to the primary spectral difference in increasing color temperature. The device works by adding blue light to a broadband source or mixing polychromatic light to mimic the variation of color temperature observed for the Planckian Locus on the CIE diagram. This device can have several applications including: a tool for researchers in this area, a general illumination lighting technology, and a light therapy device.

  10. Rate dependence, polarization, and light sensitivity of neutron-irradiated scCVD diamond sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentele, B.; Cumalat, J. P.; Schaeffer, D.; Wagner, S. R.; Riley, G.; Spanier, S.

    2016-12-01

    We study the dependence of the charge-collection-efficiency, or CCE, on the rate of charged particles impinging on neutron-irradiated single-crystal Chemical-Vapor-Deposition (scCVD) diamond sensors. These effects are not observed in un-irradiated high quality scCVD sensors. The rate dependence appears to be associated with the build-up of an electric field opposing the applied charge-collection field in the sensor. We find that exposure of the detector to red or near-IR light reverses this effect on the CCE during operation.

  11. The First Sources of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Avi

    2011-09-01

    Looking deep into the Universe through powerful telescopes, we can see images of the Universe when it was younger because of the finite time it takes light to travel to us from distant sources. Existing data sets include an image of the Universe when it was 0.4 million years old (in the form of the cosmic microwave background), as well as images of individual galaxies when the Universe was older than a billion years. But there is a serious challenge: in between these two epochs was a period when the Universe was dark, stars had not yet formed, and the cosmic microwave background no longer traced the distribution of matter. And this is precisely the most interesting period, when the primordial soup evolved into the rich zoo of objects we now see. The observers are moving ahead along several fronts. The first involves the construction of large infrared telescopes on the ground and in space, that will provide us with new photos of the first galaxies. Current plans include ground-based telescopes which are 24-42 meter in diameter, and NASA's successor to the Hubble Space Telescope, called the James Webb Space Telescope. In addition, several observational groups around the globe are constructing radio arrays that will be capable of mapping the three-dimensional distribution of cosmic hydrogen in the infant Universe. These arrays are aiming to detect the long-wavelength (redshifted 21-cm) radio emission from hydrogen atoms. The images from these antenna arrays will reveal how the non-uniform distribution of neutral hydrogen evolved with cosmic time and eventually was extinguished by the ultra-violet radiation from the first galaxies. Theoretical research has focused in recent years on predicting the expected signals for the above instruments and motivating these ambitious observational projects.

  12. Solid-state light sources getting smart.

    PubMed

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2005-05-27

    More than a century after the introduction of incandescent lighting and half a century after the introduction of fluorescent lighting, solid-state light sources are revolutionizing an increasing number of applications. Whereas the efficiency of conventional incandescent and fluorescent lights is limited by fundamental factors that cannot be overcome, the efficiency of solid-state sources is limited only by human creativity and imagination. The high efficiency of solid-state sources already provides energy savings and environmental benefits in a number of applications. However, solid-state sources also offer controllability of their spectral power distribution, spatial distribution, color temperature, temporal modulation, and polarization properties. Such "smart" light sources can adjust to specific environments and requirements, a property that could result in tremendous benefits in lighting, automobiles, transportation, communication, imaging, agriculture, and medicine.

  13. A compact, coherent light source system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedron, S. G.; Dattoli, G.; DiPalma, E.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S. V.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, J. V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I. P.; van der Slot, P. J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Our team has been examining several architectures for short-wavelength, coherent light sources. We are presently exploring the use and role of advanced, high-peak power lasers for both accelerating the electrons and generating a compact light source with the same laser. Our overall goal is to devise light sources that are more accessible by industry and in smaller laboratory settings. Although we cannot and do not want to compete directly with sources such as third-generation light sources or that of national-laboratory-based free-electron lasers, we have several interesting schemes that could bring useful and more coherent, short-wavelength light source to more researchers. Here, we present and discuss several results of recent simulations and our future steps for such dissemination.

  14. Linear parabolic single-crystal diamond refractive lenses for synchrotron X-ray sources.

    PubMed

    Terentyev, Sergey; Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Di Michiel, Marco; Zholudev, Sergey; Yunkin, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Blank, Vladimir; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Linear parabolic diamond refractive lenses are presented, designed to withstand high thermal and radiation loads coming from upgraded accelerator X-ray sources. Lenses were manufactured by picosecond laser treatment of a high-quality single-crystal synthetic diamond. Twelve lenses with radius of curvature at parabola apex R = 200 µm, geometrical aperture A = 900 µm and length L = 1.5 mm were stacked as a compound refractive lens and tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline. A focal spot of size 2.2 µm and a gain of 20 were measured at 8 keV. The lens profile and surface quality were estimated by grating interferometry and X-ray radiography. In addition, the influence of X-ray glitches on the focusing properties of the compound refractive lens were studied.

  15. The sources and time-integrated evolution of diamond-forming fluids - Trace elements and isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-BenDavid, Ofra; Pearson, D. Graham; Nowell, Geoff M.; Ottley, Chris; McNeill, John C. R.; Logvinova, Alla; Sobolev, Nikolay V.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-micrometer inclusions in fibrous diamond growth zones carry high-density fluids (HDF) from which the host diamonds have precipitated. The chemistry of these fluids is our best opportunity of characterizing the diamond-forming environment. The major and trace element patterns of diamond-forming fluids vary widely. Such elemental signatures can be easily modified by a variety of mantle processes whereas radiogenic isotopes give a clear fingerprint of the time-integrated evolution of the fluid source region. Thus, the combination of elemental and isotope data is a powerful tool in constraining the origin of fluids from which diamonds precipitate. Here we present combined trace element composition (34 diamonds) and Sr isotopic data (23 diamonds) for fluid-rich diamonds from six worldwide locations. The Nd and Pb isotopic composition of two of the diamonds were also obtained. Several of the samples were analyzed in at least 2 locations to investigate variations in the fluid during diamond growth. The data was acquired using an off-line laser sampling technique followed by solution ICPMS and TIMS analysis. The Sr isotopic compositions of diamond fluids from the different suites range between convecting mantle values for Udachnaya (87Sr/86Sr363 = 0.70300 ± 16 to 0.70361 ± 4), to highly enriched values, up to 87Sr/86Sr = 0.72330 ± 3, for a diamond from Congo. No isochronous relationships were observed in any of the suites. The lowest Nd isotopic composition recorded so far in a diamond is from Congo (εNd71 = -40.4), which also contains the most radiogenic Sr isotopic composition. In contrast, a less enriched but still rather unradiogenic Nd isotope composition (εNd540 = -11) was obtained for a diamond from Snap Lake, which has moderately radiogenic Sr isotopic enrichment (87Sr/86Sr540 = 0.70821 ± 1). The Pb isotopic system measured in one diamond indicates a complex evolution for the fluid source, with extreme 207Pb/204Pb ratio (15.810 ± 3) and moderate

  16. Light sources currently used in photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasńy, Mirosław; Gietka, Andrzej; Kotowski, Paweł; Mierczyk, Zygmunt

    2016-12-01

    The availability of low-cost therapeutic illuminators was one of the key factors to limit clinical use of PDT. The paper presents modern light sources which have revolutionized PDT method, contributing to its more common use. The technical parameters of different illuminators are compared. Finally, own light sources were presented and developed in Polish clinics.

  17. Microwave-driven ultraviolet light sources

    DOEpatents

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.

    2002-01-29

    A microwave-driven ultraviolet (UV) light source is provided. The light source comprises an over-moded microwave cavity having at least one discharge bulb disposed within the microwave cavity. At least one magnetron probe is coupled directly to the microwave cavity.

  18. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Huang, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Chen, Shengyi

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the "Diamond ID" and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  19. Very High Efficiency, Miniaturized, Long-Lived Alpha Particle Power Source Using Diamond Devices for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai U. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source that converts a-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films is described. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by free- ing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the hT- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of a-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from a-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from a-particle collision. N-doped silicon may be used instead of N-doped diamond.

  20. Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Panyu; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Xinxing; Chang, Xiuying; Zu, Chong; He, Li; Duan, Luming; CenterQuantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China Team; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA Team

    2016-05-01

    Quantum teleportation is an unusual disembodied form of quantum information transfer through pre-shared entanglement and classical communication, which has found important applications for realization of various quantum technologies. It is of both fundamental interest and practical importance to push quantum teleportation towards macroscopic objects. With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Built on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states in diamond, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum state tomography, we demonstrate an average teleportation fidelity (90.6 +/- 1.0)%, exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for quantum foundational studies, optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. Center for Quantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University.

  1. Comparative Study of Light Sources for Household

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlak, Andrzej; Zalesińska, Małgorzata

    2017-03-01

    The article describes test results that provided the ground to define and evaluate basic photometric, colorimetric and electric parameters of selected, widely available light sources, which are equivalent to a traditional incandescent 60-Watt light bulb. Overall, one halogen light bulb, three compact fluorescent lamps and eleven LED light sources were tested. In general, it was concluded that in most cases (branded products, in particular) the measured and calculated parameters differ from the values declared by manufacturers only to a small degree. LED sources prove to be the most beneficial substitute for traditional light bulbs, considering both their operational parameters and their price, which is comparable with the price of compact fluorescent lamps or, in some instances, even lower.

  2. The Advanced Light Source: Technical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1984-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation source consisting of a 50-MeV linear accelerator, a 1.3-GeV 'booster' synchrotron, a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring, and a number of photon beam lines, as shown in Figure 1. As an introduction to a detailed description of the Advanced Light Source, this section provides brief discussions on the characteristics of synchrotron radiation and on the theory of storage rings. Appendix A contents: Introduction to Synchrotron-Radiation Sources; Storage Ring; Injection System; Control System; Insertion Devices; Photon Beam Lines; and References.

  3. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-04-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.; Lazarz, N.; Williams, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the experiment done at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Most experiments discussed involves the use of the x-ray beams to study physical properties of solid materials. (LSP)

  5. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  6. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Duque, Theresa; Greiner, Annette; Moxon, Elizabeth; Robinson, Arthur; Tamura, Lori

    2003-06-12

    This annual report of the Advanced Light Source details science highlights and facility improvements during the year. It also offers information on events sponsored by the facility, technical specifications, and staff and publication information.

  7. Microwave generated plasma light source apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ito, H.; Kodama, H.; Komura, H.; Minowa, Y.

    1985-02-05

    A microwave generated plasma light source including a microwave generator, a microwave cavity having a light reflecting member forming at least a portion of the cavity, and a member transparent to light and opaque to microwaves disposed across an opening of the cavity opposite the feeding opening through which the microwave generator is coupled. An electrodeless discharge bulb is disposed at a position in the cavity such that the cavity operates as a resonant cavity at least when the bulb is emitting light. In the bulb is encapsulated at least one discharge light emissive substance. The bulb has a shape and is sufficiently small that the bulb acts substantially as a point light source.

  8. Application of Light Sources to Medical Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizojiri, Takafumi; Kimura, Makoto

    The purpose of this paper is to show application of light sources to medical field. It is described the process of light sources development applied to photodynamic therapy; PDT or photodynamic diagnosis; PDD. Actually, as a successful experience, we show the verification results obtained by primary and clinical experiments using metal halide lamp which emitted spectra is optimized to absorbed wavelength of photosensitizer for PDT.

  9. Superresolving multiphoton interferences with independent light sources.

    PubMed

    Oppel, S; Büttner, T; Kok, P; von Zanthier, J

    2012-12-07

    We propose to use multiphoton interferences from statistically independent light sources in combination with linear optical detection techniques to enhance the resolution in imaging. Experimental results with up to five independent thermal light sources confirm this approach to improve the spatial resolution. Since no involved quantum state preparation or detection is required, the experiment can be considered an extension of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiment for spatial intensity correlations of order N>2.

  10. Bright diode laser light source.

    PubMed

    Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf

    2006-05-20

    A simplified multiwavelength prototype of an axially symmetric diode laser device based on stacks made of single emitters has been made, and the performance of the device has been demonstrated experimentally. The results verify that kilowatt-level light power can be focused into a circular spot with a 1/e2 diameter of 360 microm, a focal length of 100 mm, and a numerical aperture of 0.24, thus producing an average power density in excess of 10 kW/mm2 and a brightness of 6x10(10) W m-2 sr-1. The experiments also predict that it will be possible to increase these values to more than 60 kW/mm2 and 3x10(11) W m-2 sr-1.

  11. Synchrotron Light Sources in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman; Pianetta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    The more than 50 light sources now in operation around the world include facilities in Brazil, Korea, and Taiwan which started their programs in the 1980's when they were developing countries. They came on line in the 1990's and have since trained hundreds of graduate students locally, without sending them abroad and losing many of them. They have also attracted dozens of mid-career diaspora scientists to return. Their growing user communities have demanded more advanced facilities, leading to the funding of higher performance new light sources that are now coming into operation. Light sources in the developing world now include the following: SESAME in the Middle East which is scheduled to start research in 2017 (www.sesame.org); The African Light Source, in the planning stage (www.africanlightsource.org); and The Mexican Light Source, in the planning stage (http://www.aps.org/units/fip/newsletters/201509/mexico.cfm). See: http://wpj.sagepub.com/content/32/4/92.full.pdf +html; http://www.lightsources.org/press-release/2015/11/20/grenoble-resolutions-mark-historical-step-towards-african-light-source. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  12. Method to fabricate portable electron source based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD)

    DOEpatents

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Divan, Ralu; Posada, Chrystian M.; Castano, Carlos H.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-29

    A source cold cathode field emission array (FEA) source based on ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) field emitters. This system was constructed as an alternative for detection of obscured objects and material. Depending on the geometry of the given situation a flat-panel source can be used in tomography, radiography, or tomosynthesis. Furthermore, the unit can be used as a portable electron or X-ray scanner or an integral part of an existing detection system. UNCD field emitters show great field emission output and can be deposited over large areas as the case with carbon nanotube "forest" (CNT) cathodes. Furthermore, UNCDs have better mechanical and thermal properties as compared to CNT tips which further extend the lifetime of UNCD based FEA.

  13. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Broadband Light Source Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature, low-power broadband light source has been developed for aerospace applications, including calibrating spectrometers and powering miniature optical sensors. The initial motivation for this research was based on flight tests of a Fabry-Perot fiberoptic temperature sensor system used to detect aircraft engine exhaust gas temperature. Although the feasibility of the sensor system was proven, the commercial light source optically powering the device was identified as a critical component requiring improvement. Problems with the light source included a long stabilization time (approximately 1 hr), a large amount of heat generation, and a large input electrical power (6.5 W). Thus, we developed a new light source to enable the use of broadband optical sensors in aerospace applications. Semiconductor chip-based light sources, such as lasers and light-emitting diodes, have a relatively narrow range of emission wavelengths in comparison to incandescent sources. Incandescent light sources emit broadband radiation from visible to infrared wavelengths; the intensity at each wavelength is determined by the filament temperature and the materials chosen for the filament and the lamp window. However, present commercial incandescent light sources are large in size and inefficient, requiring several watts of electrical power to obtain the desired optical power, and they emit a large percentage of the input power as heat that must be dissipated. The miniature light source, developed jointly by the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Lighting Innovations Institute, requires one-fifth the electrical input power of some commercial light sources, while providing similar output light power that is easily coupled to an optical fiber. Furthermore, it is small, rugged, and lightweight. Microfabrication technology was used to reduce the size, weight, power consumption, and potential cost-parameters critical to future aerospace applications. This chip

  14. Light emitting diodes as a plant lighting source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Tennessen, D. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1994-01-01

    Electroluminescence in solid materials is defined as the generation of light by the passage of an electric current through a body of solid material under an applied electric field. A specific type of electroluminescence, first noted in 1923, involves the generation of photons when electrons are passed through a p-n junction of certain solid materials (junction of a n-type semiconductor, an electron donor, and a p-type semiconductor, an electron acceptor). The development of this light emitting semiconductor technology dates back less than 30 years. During this period of time, the LED has evolved from a rare and expensive light generating device to one of the most widely used electronic components. A number of LED characteristics are of considerable importance in selecting a light source for plant lighting in a controlled environment facility. Of particular importance is the characteristic that light is generated by an LED at a rate far greater than the corresponding thermal radiation predicted by the bulk temperature of the device as defined by Plank's radiation law. This is in sharp contrast to other light sources, such as an incandescent or high intensity discharge lamp. A plant lighting system for controlled environments must provide plants with an adequate flux of photosynthetically active radiation, plus providing photons in the spectral regions that are involved in the photomorphogenic and phototropic responses that result in normal plant growth and development. Use of light sources that emit photons over a broad spectral range generally meet these two lighting requirements. Since the LED's emit over specific spectral regions, they must be carefully selected so that the levels of photsynthetically active and photomorphogenic and phototropic radiation meet these plant requirements.

  15. Proposals for synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Teng, L.C.

    1985-06-01

    Ever since it was first applied in the 1960's synchrotron radiation from an accelerating electron beam has been gaining popularity as a powerful tool for research and development in a wide variety of fields of science and technology. By now there are some 20 facilities operating either parasitically or dedicatedly for synchrotron radiation research in different parts of the world. In addition there are another 20 facilities either in construction or in various stages of proposal and design. The experiences gained from the operating facilities and the recent development of insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators as radiation sources led to a new set of requirements on the design of synchrotron radiation storage rings for optimum utility. The surprisingly uniform applicability and unanimous acceptance of these criteria give assurance that they are indeed valid criteria derived form mature considerations and experiences. Instead of describing the design of each of these new facilities it is, thus, more effective to discuss these desirable design features and indicate how they are incorporated in the design using machines listed as examples. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. High-intensity sources for light ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, K.N.

    1995-10-01

    The use of the multicusp plasma generator as a source of light ions is described. By employing radio-frequency induction discharge, the performance of the multicusp source is greatly improved, both in lifetime and in high brightness H{sup +} and H{sup {minus}} beam production. A new technique for generating multiply-charged ions in this type of ion source is also presented.

  17. The advanced photon source X-ray transmitting beam-position-monitor tests at the national synchrotron light source X-25 beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, D.; Collins, J. T.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T. M.

    1994-08-01

    A synthetic-diamond-based X-ray transmitting beam-position monitor has been studied using focused white beam at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-25 wiggler beamline. Of particular interest are the possibilities to design an integral window and filter/photon beam-position monitor for the Advanced Photon Source high-heat-flux insertion-device beamlines. The preliminary measurements were taken using two synthetic-diamond blade samples with different thicknesses and cooling configurations. The monitor (consisting of a vacuum vessel, an ion pump, a water-cooling base, a blade mounting block, and electric feedthroughs) was mounted on a three-dimensional ( x, y, φ) stepping-motor-driven stage with a 0.064-μm stepping size and a 0.1-μm linear encoder resolution. An infrared camera system was used to monitor and record the diamond blade surface temperature field through a sapphire window and test results are presented.

  18. Light sources based on semiconductor current filaments

    DOEpatents

    Zutavern, Fred J.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Buttram, Malcolm T.; Mar, Alan; Helgeson, Wesley D.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Baca, Albert G.; Chow, Weng W.; Vawter, G. Allen

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a new type of semiconductor light source that can produce a high peak power output and is not injection, e-beam, or optically pumped. The present invention is capable of producing high quality coherent or incoherent optical emission. The present invention is based on current filaments, unlike conventional semiconductor lasers that are based on p-n junctions. The present invention provides a light source formed by an electron-hole plasma inside a current filament. The electron-hole plasma can be several hundred microns in diameter and several centimeters long. A current filament can be initiated optically or with an e-beam, but can be pumped electrically across a large insulating region. A current filament can be produced in high gain photoconductive semiconductor switches. The light source provided by the present invention has a potentially large volume and therefore a potentially large energy per pulse or peak power available from a single (coherent) semiconductor laser. Like other semiconductor lasers, these light sources will emit radiation at the wavelength near the bandgap energy (for GaAs 875 nm or near infra red). Immediate potential applications of the present invention include high energy, short pulse, compact, low cost lasers and other incoherent light sources.

  19. Chemical analysis of impurity boron atoms in diamond using soft X-ray emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D

    2008-07-01

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  1. Research on Modern Gas Discharge Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, M.; Markus, T.

    This article gives an overview of today's gas discharge light sources and their application fields with focus on research aspects. In Sect. 15.1 of this chapter, an introduction to electric light sources, the lighting market and related research topics is outlined. Due to the complexity of the subject, we have focused on selected topics in the field of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps since these represent an essential part of modern lamp research. The working principle and light technical properties of HID lamps are described in Sect. 15.2. Physical and thermochemical modelling procedures and tools as well as experimental analysis are discussed in Sects. 15.3 and 15.4, respectively. These tools result in a detailed scientific insight into the complexity of real discharge lamps. In particular, analysis and modelling are the keys for further improvement and development of existing and new products.

  2. Infrared light sources with semimetal electron injection

    DOEpatents

    Kurtz, Steven R.; Biefeld, Robert M.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    1999-01-01

    An infrared light source is disclosed that comprises a layered semiconductor active region having a semimetal region and at least one quantum-well layer. The semimetal region, formed at an interface between a GaAsSb or GalnSb layer and an InAsSb layer, provides electrons and holes to the quantum-well layer to generate infrared light at a predetermined wavelength in the range of 2-6 .mu.m. Embodiments of the invention can be formed as electrically-activated light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, and as optically-pumped lasers. Since the active region is unipolar, multiple active regions can be stacked to form a broadband or multiple-wavelength infrared light source.

  3. Robust photometric stereo using structural light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tian-Qi; Cheng, Yue; Shen, Hui-Liang; Du, Xin

    2014-05-01

    We propose a robust photometric stereo method by using structural arrangement of light sources. In the arrangement, light sources are positioned on a planar grid and form a set of collinear combinations. The shadow pixels are detected by adaptive thresholding. The specular highlight and diffuse pixels are distinguished according to their intensity deviations of the collinear combinations, thanks to the special arrangement of light sources. The highlight detection problem is cast as a pattern classification problem and is solved using support vector machine classifiers. Considering the possible misclassification of highlight pixels, the ℓ1 regularization is further employed in normal map estimation. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world scenes verify that the proposed method can robustly recover the surface normal maps in the case of heavy specular reflection and outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques.

  4. Monitoring performance of the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Warren E.; Lampo, Edward J.; Samuelson, Bruce C.

    2001-06-13

    Providing high quality light to users in a consistent and reliable manner is one of the main goals of the accelerator physics group at the Advanced Light source (ALS). To meet this goal considerable time is spent monitoring the performance of the machine. At the Group's weekly meeting the performance of the accelerator over the previous week's run is reviewed. This paper describes the parameters that are monitored to optimize the performance of the ALS.

  5. Enhanced Extraction of Silicon-Vacancy Centers Light Emission Using Bottom-Up Engineered Polycrystalline Diamond Photonic Crystal Slabs.

    PubMed

    Ondič, Lukáš; Varga, Marian; Hruška, Karel; Fait, Jan; Kapusta, Peter

    2017-03-03

    Silicon vacancy (SiV) centers are optically active defects in diamond. The SiV centers, in contrast to nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers, possess narrow and efficient luminescence spectrum (centered at ≈738 nm) even at room temperature, which can be utilized for quantum photonics and sensing applications. However, most of light generated in diamond is trapped in the material due to the phenomenon of total internal reflection. In order to overcome this issue, we have prepared two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs from polycrystalline diamond thin layers with high density of SiV centers employing bottom-up growth on quartz templates. We have shown that the spectral overlap between the narrow light emission of the SiV centers and the leaky modes extracting the emission into almost vertical direction (where it can be easily detected) can be obtained by controlling the deposition time. More than 14-fold extraction enhancement of the SiV centers photoluminescence was achieved compared to an uncorrugated sample. Computer simulation confirmed that the extraction enhancement originates from the efficient light-matter interaction between light emitted from the SiV centers and the photonic crystal slab.

  6. Plasmas as Light Sources for Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    RD-R159 460 PLASMS RS LIGHT SOURCES FOR LSERS(U) LBANA UNIV IN ./I HUNTSVILLE T A BARR ET AL. SEP 64 ANSMI/RH-CR-85-14 pAAHS-82-D-AS±6 N...and experimental results are presented, together with a * possible explanation of the optical radiation-tim history of the plasm . Potential...into a cold pl’sma device at Te - 1 eV and l018 / cc ions. Incidentally this experiment showed why there may be a need for a plasma light source

  7. Solid-State Spectral Light Source System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maffione, Robert; Dana, David

    2011-01-01

    A solid-state light source combines an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with advanced electronic control and stabilization over both the spectrum and overall level of the light output. The use of LEDs provides efficient operation over a wide range of wavelengths and power levels, while electronic control permits extremely stable output and dynamic control over the output. In this innovation, LEDs are used instead of incandescent bulbs. Optical feedback and digital control are used to monitor and regulate the output of each LED. Because individual LEDs generate light within narrower ranges of wavelengths than incandescent bulbs, multiple LEDs are combined to provide a broad, continuous spectrum, or to produce light within discrete wavebands that are suitable for specific radiometric sensors.

  8. Third-generation synchrotron light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Wuilleumier, F.J.

    1993-09-01

    X rays are a powerful probe of matter because they interact with electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids. They are commonly produced by relativistic electrons or positrons stored in a synchrotron. Recent advances in technology are leading to the development of a new third generation of synchrotron radiation sources that produce vacuum-ultraviolet and x-ray beams of unprecedented brightness. These new sources are characterized by a very low electron-beam emittance and by long straight sections to accommodate permanent-magnet undulators and wigglers. Several new low-energy light sources, including the Advanced Light Source, presently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and ELETTRA, presently being constructed in Trieste, will deliver the world`s brightest synchrotron radiation in the VUV and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. Applications include atomic and molecular physics and chemistry, surface and materials science, microscopy, and life sciences.

  9. Electric field breakdown of lateral-type Schottky diodes formed on lightly doped homoepitaxial diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraji, Tokuyuki; Koizumi, Satoshi; Koide, Yasuo; Ito, Toshimichi

    2008-07-01

    The reverse current of lateral-type Schottky diodes fabricated on p-type homoepitaxial diamond was analyzed by changing the distance between Schottky and Ohmic electrodes and the metal materials in the Schottky electrodes. The maximum electric field at breakdown was 0.56 MV cm -1 for the Au Schottky contact and less than 0.26 MV cm -1 for the Al Schottky contact. The breakdown voltage depended on the electrode distance when the diamond surface was revealed in vacuum, whereas the Schottky diodes sustained the applied voltage of 500 V, corresponding to 0.69 MV cm -1, after covering of the diamond surface with an insulating liquid. Diamond surface protection is an indispensable technique for fabrication of high-voltage Schottky diodes based on diamond.

  10. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  11. Tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source

    DOEpatents

    Powers, Peter E.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    A tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source and a method of operating a light source are provided. The light source includes a pump laser, first and second non-linear optical crystals, a tunable filter, and light pulse directing optics. The method includes the steps of operating the pump laser to generate a pulsed pump beam characterized by a nanosecond pulse duration and arranging the light pulse directing optics so as to (i) split the pulsed pump beam into primary and secondary pump beams; (ii) direct the primary pump beam through an input face of the first non-linear optical crystal such that a primary output beam exits from an output face of the first non-linear optical crystal; (iii) direct the primary output beam through the tunable filter to generate a sculpted seed beam; and direct the sculpted seed beam and the secondary pump beam through an input face of the second non-linear optical crystal such that a secondary output beam characterized by at least one spectral bandwidth on the order of about 0.1 cm.sup.-1 and below exits from an output face of the second non-linear optical crystal.

  12. Operation of an ungated diamond field-emission array cathode in a L-band radiofrequency electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Choi, B. K.; Blomberg, B.; Gabella, W. E.; Ivanov, B.; Jarvis, J.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Mihalcea, D.; Panuganti, H.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.

    2014-06-30

    We report on the first successful operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of $\\sim 10^6$ diamond diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15~mA were reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed. Numerical simulations of the beam dynamics are also presented.

  13. Mobile-phone based visible light communication using region-grow light source tracking for unstable light source.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kevin; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang

    2016-07-25

    In order to increase the data rate of the camera-based visible light communication (VLC) system, using rolling shutter effect has been demonstrated successfully, in which the pixel rows of the complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor are activated sequentially. Previous camera-based VLCs focused on using a stable LED light source, and its illumination area is positioned at the center of an image frame. In this work, we investigate the performance of a camera-based VLC with light source at different parts of an image frame. We propose and demonstrate using region-grow algorithm to track the light source. We also evaluate and discuss different scenarios when the light source is moved. Besides, a recorded > 5 kbit/s net data rate can be achieved by using only a single phosphor-based white-light LED source. Here, we demonstrate that 4.502 pixel/bit can be achieved.

  14. An Upgrade for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chemla, Daniel S.; Feinberg, Benedict; Hussain, Zahid; Kirz, Janos; Krebs, Gary F.; Padmore, Howard A.; Robin, David S.; Robinson, Arthur L.; Smith, Neville V.

    2004-09-01

    One of the first third-generation synchrotron light sources, the ALS, has been operating for almost a decade at Berkeley Lab, where experimenters have been exploiting its high brightness for forefront science. However, accelerator and insertion-device technology have significantly changed since the ALS was designed. As a result, the performance of the ALS is in danger of being eclipsed by that of newer, more advanced sources. The ALS upgrade that we are planning includes full-energy, top-off injection with higher storage-ring current and the replacement of five first-generation insertion devices with nine state-of-the art insertion devices and four new application-specific beamlines now being identified in a strategic planning process. The upgrade will help keep the ALS at the forefront of soft x-ray synchrotron light sources for the next two decades.

  15. Photonic crystal light-emitting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Aurélien; Benisty, Henri; Weisbuch, Claude

    2012-12-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodically structured optical media offering the opportunity for spontaneous emission (SpE) to be strongly controlled in spatial terms (directions) or in absolute terms (rates). We discuss the application of this concept for practical light-emitting sources, summarizing the principles and actual merits of various approaches based on two- and three-dimensional PhCs. We take into consideration the numerous constraints on real-world light-emitting structures and materials. The various mechanisms through which modified photonic bands and band gaps can be used are first revisited in view of their use in light sources. We then present an in-depth discussion of planar emitters and enhanced extraction of light thanks to grating diffraction. Applications to conventional III-V semiconductors and to III-nitrides are reviewed. Comparison with random surface roughening reveals some common physical limitations. Some advanced approaches with complex structures or etched active structures are also discussed. Finally, the most promising mechanism to enhance the SpE rate, the Purcell effect, is considered. Its implementation, including through plasmonic effects, is shown to be effective only for very specific sources. We conclude by outlining the mix of physics and material parameters needed to grasp the relevant issues.

  16. IR beamline at the Swiss Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ph, Lerch; L, Quaroni; J, Wambach; J, Schneider; B, Armstrong D.; D, Rossetti; L, Mueller F.; P, Peier; V, Schlott; L, Carroll; P, Friedli; H, Sigg; S, Stutz; M, Tran

    2012-05-01

    The infrared beamline at the Swiss light source uses dipole radiation and is designed to transport light to four experimental stations, A, B, C, D. Branch A is dedicated to far IR work in vacuum; branch B is a micro-spectrometer; branch C is dedicated to high resolution spectroscopy in the gas phase; branch D is a pump and probe set-up. This contribution describes the optical layout and provides a brief survey of currently available experimental stations. The beamline is in regular user operation since 2009.

  17. Structural and interface properties of an AlN diamond ultraviolet light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Miskys, C.R.; Garrido, J.A.; Hermann, M.; Eickhoff, M.; Nebel, C.E.; Stutzmann, M.; Vogg, G.

    2004-10-25

    Two practically fully relaxed AlN domains were identified by x-ray diffractometry for AlN grown on (100) diamond. The epitaxial orientation relationships (0001)[1010] AlN{sup I} parallel (100)[011] diamond for the predominant AlN domain (type I) and (0001)[1210] AlN{sup II} parallel (100)[011] diamond for the second domain (type II) are obtained. Surface morphology measurements corroborate the good structural quality of the AlN film. In addition, the intrinsic built-in voltage of a n-AlN/p-diamond diode was determined as 1.15 V. By spectrally resolved photocurrent measurements, the ultraviolet electroluminescence emission was confirmed to originate at the heterojunction interface, and is most probably due to a defect center.

  18. Diamond color measurement instrument based on image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Mandal, S.; Toosi, M.; Zeng, J.; Wang, W.

    2016-09-01

    Gemological Institute of America (GIA) has developed a diamond color measurement instrument that can provide accurate and reproducible color measurement results. The instrument uses uniform illumination by a daylight-approximating light source; observations from a high-resolution color-camera with nearly zero-distortion bi-telecentric lens, and image processing to calculate color parameters of diamonds. Experiments show the instrument can provide reproducible color measurement results and also identify subtle color differences in diamonds with high sensitivity. The experimental setup of the prototype instrument and the image processing method for calculating diamond color parameters are presented in this report.

  19. Biological infrared microspectroscopy at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lisa M.; Carr, G. Lawrence; Williams, Gwyn P.; Sullivan, Michael; Chance, Mark R.

    2000-06-01

    Beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source has been designed and built as an infrared beamline dedicated to the study of biomedical problems. In 1997, the horizontal and vertical acceptances of Beamline U2B were increased in order to increase the overall flux of the beamline. A wedged, CVD diamond window separates the UHV vacuum of the VUV ring from the rough vacuum of the beamline. The endstation consists of a Nicolet Magna 860 step-scan FTIR and a NicPlan infrared microscope. The spectrometer is equipped with beamsplitter/detector combinations that permit data collection in the mid-and far-infrared regions. We have also made provisions for mounting an external detector (e.g. bolometer) for far infrared microspectroscopy. Thus far, Beamline U2B has been used to (1) perform chemical imaging of bone tissue and brain cells to address issues related to bone disease and epilepsy, respectively, and (2) examine time-resolved protein structure in the sub-millisecond folding of cytochrome c.

  20. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed.

  1. The upgraded scheme of Hefei Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Li Weimin; Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Feng Guangyao; Zhang Shancai; Hao Hao

    2010-06-23

    To enhance the performance of Hefei Light Source, which was designed and constructed two decades ago, an upgrade project would be carried out in the near future. The detail upgrade scheme was described in this paper. Firstly, the magnet lattice of storage ring should be reconstructed with 4 DBA cells, whose advantages are lower beam emittance and more straight section available for insertion devices. Secondly, the beam diagnostics, main power supply, transverse and longitudinal multi-bunch feedback, beam control and manipulation system would be upgrade to improve the beam orbit stability. Finally, the injection system of storage ring and injector, which is composed of electron linac and beam transfer line, would be updated in order to assure smooth beam accumulation process under new low emittance lattice. With above improvement, it is hopeful to increase the brilliance of Hefei Light Source by two orders approximately. After three-year upgrade project, the performance of HLS would meet the demands of advanced SR users.

  2. Rf capacitively-coupled electrodeless light source

    DOEpatents

    Manos, Dennis M.; Diggs, Jessie; Ametepe, Joseph D.; Fugitt, Jock A.

    2000-01-01

    An rf capacitively-coupled electrodeless light source is provided. The light source comprises a hollow, elongated chamber and at least one center conductor disposed within the hollow, elongated chamber. A portion of each center conductor extends beyond the hollow, elongated chamber. At least one gas capable of forming an electronically excited molecular state is contained within each center conductor. An electrical coupler is positioned concentric to the hollow, elongated chamber and the electrical coupler surrounds the portion of each center conductor that extends beyond the hollow, elongated chamber. A rf-power supply is positioned in an operable relationship to the electrical coupler and an impedance matching network is positioned in an operable relationship to the rf power supply and the electrical coupler.

  3. A single-crystal diamond-based thermal neutron beam monitor for instruments at pulsed neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Verona Rinati, G.; Verona, C.; Schooneveld, E. M.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    2009-11-01

    Single-crystal diamond detectors manufactured through a Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) technique are recent technology devices that have been employed in reactor and Tokamak environments in order to detect both thermal and almost monochromatic 14 MeV neutrons produced in deuterium-tritium ( d-t) nuclear fusion reactions. Their robustness and compactness are the key features that can be exploited for different applications as well. Aim of the present experimental investigation is the assessment of the performance of a diamond detector as a thermal neutron beam monitor at pulsed neutron sources. To this aim, a test measurement was carried out on the Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) beam line at the ISIS spallation neutron source (Great Britain). The experiment has shown the capability of these devices to work at a pulsed neutron source for beam monitoring purposes. Other interesting possible applications are also suggested.

  4. Backscatter absorption gas imaging systems and light sources therefore

    DOEpatents

    Kulp, Thomas Jan; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Sommers, Ricky; Goers, Uta-Barbara; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2006-12-19

    The location of gases that are not visible to the unaided human eye can be determined using tuned light sources that spectroscopically probe the gases and cameras that can provide images corresponding to the absorption of the gases. The present invention is a light source for a backscatter absorption gas imaging (BAGI) system, and a light source incorporating the light source, that can be used to remotely detect and produce images of "invisible" gases. The inventive light source has a light producing element, an optical amplifier, and an optical parametric oscillator to generate wavelength tunable light in the IR. By using a multi-mode light source and an amplifier that operates using 915 nm pump sources, the power consumption of the light source is reduced to a level that can be operated by batteries for long periods of time. In addition, the light source is tunable over the absorption bands of many hydrocarbons, making it useful for detecting hazardous gases.

  5. Creation of deep blue light emitting nitrogen-vacancy center in nanosized diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Himics, L. Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Koós, M.; Balogh, Z.

    2014-03-03

    This paper reports on the formation of complex defect centers related to the N3 center in nanosized diamond by employing plasma immersion and focused ion beam implantation methods. He{sup +} ion implantation into nanosized diamond “layer” was performed with the aim of creating carbon atom vacancies in the diamond structure, followed by the introduction of molecular N{sub 2}{sup +} ion and heat treatment in vacuum at 750 °C to initiate vacancy diffusion. To decrease the sp{sup 2} carbon content of nanosized diamond formed during the implantation processes, a further heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing air atmosphere was used. The modification of the bonding properties after each step of defect creation was monitored by Raman scattering measurements. The fluorescence measurements of implanted and annealed nanosized diamond showed the appearance of an intensive and narrow emission band with fine structures at 2.98 eV, 2.83 eV, and 2.71 eV photon energies.

  6. The JLab high power ERL light source

    SciTech Connect

    G.R. Neil; C. Behre; S.V. Benson; M. Bevins; G. Biallas; J. Boyce; J. Coleman; L.A. Dillon-Townes; D. Douglas; H.F. Dylla; R. Evans; A. Grippo; D. Gruber; J. Gubeli; D. Hardy; C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Jordan; M.J. Kelley; L. Merminga; J. Mammosser; W. Moore; N. Nishimori; E. Pozdeyev; J. Preble; R. Rimmer; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; C. Tennant; R. Walker; G.P. Williams and S. Zhang

    2005-03-19

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz {approx} half cycle pulse whose average brightness is > 5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted[1]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [2]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 microns in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 microseconds long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the system and discuss some of the discoveries we have made

  7. The JLab high power ERL light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, G. R.; Behre, C.; Benson, S. V.; Bevins, M.; Biallas, G.; Boyce, J.; Coleman, J.; Dillon-Townes, L. A.; Douglas, D.; Dylla, H. F.; Evans, R.; Grippo, A.; Gruber, D.; Gubeli, J.; Hardy, D.; Hernandez-Garcia, C.; Jordan, K.; Kelley, M. J.; Merminga, L.; Mammosser, J.; Moore, W.; Nishimori, N.; Pozdeyev, E.; Preble, J.; Rimmer, R.; Shinn, M.; Siggins, T.; Tennant, C.; Walker, R.; Williams, G. P.; Zhang, S.

    2006-02-01

    A new THz/IR/UV photon source at Jefferson Lab is the first of a new generation of light sources based on an Energy-Recovered, (superconducting) Linac (ERL). The machine has a 160 MeV electron beam and an average current of 10 mA in 75 MHz repetition rate hundred femtosecond bunches. These electron bunches pass through a magnetic chicane and therefore emit synchrotron radiation. For wavelengths longer than the electron bunch the electrons radiate coherently a broadband THz ˜ half cycle pulse whose average brightness is >5 orders of magnitude higher than synchrotron IR sources. Previous measurements showed 20 W of average power extracted [Carr, et al., Nature 420 (2002) 153]. The new facility offers simultaneous synchrotron light from the visible through the FIR along with broadband THz production of 100 fs pulses with >200 W of average power. The FELs also provide record-breaking laser power [Neil, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 (2000) 662]: up to 10 kW of average power in the IR from 1 to 14 μm in 400 fs pulses at up to 74.85 MHz repetition rates and soon will produce similar pulses of 300-1000 nm light at up to 3 kW of average power from the UV FEL. These ultrashort pulses are ideal for maximizing the interaction with material surfaces. The optical beams are Gaussian with nearly perfect beam quality. See www.jlab.org/FEL for details of the operating characteristics; a wide variety of pulse train configurations are feasible from 10 ms long at high repetition rates to continuous operation. The THz and IR system has been commissioned. The UV system is to follow in 2005. The light is transported to user laboratories for basic and applied research. Additional lasers synchronized to the FEL are also available. Past activities have included production of carbon nanotubes, studies of vibrational relaxation of interstitial hydrogen in silicon, pulsed laser deposition and ablation, nitriding of metals, and energy flow in proteins. This paper will present the status of the

  8. Superbend upgrade on the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, D.; Krupnick, J.; Schlueter, R.; Steier, C.; Marks, S.; Wang, B.; Zbasnik, J.; Benjegerdes, R.; Biocca, A.; Bish, P.; Brown, W.; Byrne, W.; Chen, J.; Decking, W.; DeVries, J.; DeMarco, W. R.; Fahmie, M.; Geyer, A.; Harkins, J.; Henderson, T.; Hinkson, J.; Hoyer, E.; Hull, D.; Jacobson, S.; McDonald, J.; Molinari, P.; Mueller, R.; Nadolski, L.; Nishimura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Ottens, F.; Paterson, J. A.; Pipersky, P.; Portmann, G.; Ritchie, A.; Rossi, S.; Salvant, B.; Scarvie, T.; Schmidt, A.; Spring, J.; Taylor, C.; Thur, W.; Timossi, C.; Wandesforde, A.

    2005-02-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron light source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). There was an increasing demand for additional high brightness hard X-ray beamlines in the 7-40 keV range, so in August 2001, three 1.3 T normal conducting bending magnets were removed from the storage ring and replaced with 5 T superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV, making them excellent sources of hard X-rays for protein crystallography and other hard X-ray applications. The Superbends did not compromise the performance of the facility in the VUV and soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new beam lines, greatly enhancing the facility's capability and capacity in the hard X-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade since the ALS storage ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present an overview of the Superbend project, its challenges and the resulting impact on the ALS.

  9. Plasma-based EUV light source

    DOEpatents

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  10. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-10-28

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics.

  11. Operation of an ungated diamond field-emission array cathode in a L-band radiofrequency electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; Brau, C. A.; Gabella, W. E.; Ivanov, B.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Choi, B. K.; Blomberg, B.; Mihalcea, D.; Panuganti, H.; Jarvis, J.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.

    2014-06-30

    We report on the operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of ∼10{sup 6} diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15 mA was reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed.

  12. Operator scheduling at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.

    1998-06-01

    Scheduling Operations staff at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has evolved from 5 shifts/week for commissioning operations in 1992 to the present 24 hour/day, 21 shift coverage as the ALS went to full operation for users. A number of schedules were developed and implemented in an effort to accommodate changing ALS shift coverage requirements. The present work schedule and the lessons learned, address a number of issues that are useful to any facility that is operating 24 hours/day, 7 days/week.

  13. Linac Coherent Light Source Electron Beam Collimation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC

    2007-04-27

    This paper describes the design and simulation of the electron beam collimation system in the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Dark current is expected from the gun and some of the accelerating cavities. Particle tracking of the expected dark current through the entire LCLS linac, from gun through FEL undulator, is used to estimate final particle extent in the undulator as well as expected beam loss at each collimator or aperture restriction. A table of collimators and aperture restrictions is listed along with halo particle loss results, which includes an estimate of average continuous beam power lost. In addition, the transverse wakefield alignment tolerances are calculated for each collimator.

  14. Scientific opportunities at the advanced light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.

    1989-04-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory with a projected completion date of September 1992, the ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in eleven long straight sections. It will also have up to 48 bending-magnet ports. Scientific opportunities in materials science, surface science, chemistry, atomic and molecular physics, life science and other fields are reflected in Letters of Interest received for the establishment of beamlines.

  15. Status of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Galayda, John N.; /SLAC

    2011-11-04

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a free electron laser facility in construction at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is designed to operate in the wavelength range 0.15-1.5 nanometers. At the time of this conference, civil construction of new tunnels and buildings is complete, the necessary modifications to the SLAC linac are complete, and the undulator system and x-ray optics/diagnostics are being installed. The electron gun, 135 MeV injector linac and 250 MeV bunch compressor were commissioned in 2007. Accelerator commissioning activities are presently devoted to the achievement of performance goals for the completed 14 GeV linac.

  16. Advanced Light Source: Activity report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) produces the world`s brightest light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The first low-energy third-generation synchrotron source in the world, the ALS provides unprecedented opportunities for research in science and technology not possible anywhere else. This year marked the beginning of operations and the start of the user research program at the ALS, which has already produced numerous high quality results. A national user facility located at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory of the University of California, the ALS is available to researchers from academia, industry, and government laboratories. This report contains the following: (1) director`s message; (2) operations overview; (3) user program; (4) users` executive committee; (5) industrial outreach; (6) accelerator operations; (7) beamline control system; (8) insertion devices; (9) experimental systems; (10) beamline engineering; (11) first results from user beamlines; (12) beamlines for 1994--1995; (13) special events; (14) publications; (15) advisory panels; and (16) ALS staff.

  17. Status of the Synchrotron Light Source DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.; Sternemann, C.; Tolan, M.; Westphal, C.; Weis, T.; Wille, K.

    2007-01-19

    The Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA, a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source located at University of Dortmund, is operated for 3000 h per year including 2000 h beam time for synchrotron radiation use and 1000 h for machine physics, optimisation and maintenance. The status of the synchrotron light source is presented with emphasis on the operation, commissioning and installation of beamlines and insertion devices. The soft X-ray undulator beamlines provide photon energies between 5 to 400 eV (U250) and 55 and 1500 eV (U55), respectively. One dipole beamline covers soft X-rays between 6 to 200 eV, and a second dipole beamline is used without a monochromator at 2.2 keV critical energy of the dipole spectrum. For photons in the hard X-ray regime, a superconducting asymmetric wiggler (SAW) with a field of 5.3 T and 7.9 keV critical energy was installed, providing circularly polarized X-rays in the range of 2 to 30 keV. Due to its broad radiation fan, three beamlines are simultaneously served. The first SAW-beamline with an energy range between 4 to 30 keV is in full operation, the second is under commissioning, serving the energy range between 2 to 30 keV. The third SAW beamline is near completion, additional dipole beamlines are under construction.

  18. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharmby, D. O.

    2008-07-01

    The papers in this Special Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics originate from the 11th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources (LS:11) held at Fudan University, Shanghai, China, during 20 24 May 2007. Abstracts of all papers were published in the conference book Light Sources 2007 (Sheffield: FAST-LS) edited by Muqing Liu and R Devonshire. Special issues were produced after LS:9 and LS:10 and have proved to be well-cited and important sources of information for this community. The Symposia occur at three-year intervals. In this one over 200 papers were presented—the majority as posters—with ample time provided for active discussion. As all submitted papers had to be refereed in the normal way for J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., I was concerned that too many submissions would overwhelm the small number of referees available in this area. To ensure a broad spread of interests and opinions, I invited 10 senior colleagues to give me their recommendations about who should be asked to submit papers for this Special Issue. The criteria were that the work should be new, complete and within the scope of the journal. As a result of their suggestions 42 authors were asked to submit papers. Not all authors were able to submit a manuscript in time and some, at my request, combined their work into a single paper. The 28 papers published here are the result of that process. The issue starts with a comprehensive review by Benilov of the remarkable progress that has been made in the past 15 years in understanding the behaviour of cathode and anode terminations in arcs. It is fair to say that we now have a fundamental understanding of the formerly baffling behaviour of spot and diffuse terminations, at least in the quasi-steady state. A number of following papers cover applications of this theory, extensions to time dependence and examination of the effects of the different gaseous atmospheres in which lighting arcs operate. Mercury has very

  19. Surface invasive cleavage assay on a maskless light-directed diamond DNA microarray for genome-wide human SNP mapping.

    PubMed

    Nie, Bei; Yang, Min; Fu, Weiling; Liang, Zhiqing

    2015-07-07

    The surface invasive cleavage assay, because of its innate accuracy and ability for self-signal amplification, provides a potential route for the mapping of hundreds of thousands of human SNP sites. However, its performance on a high density DNA array has not yet been established, due to the unusual "hairpin" probe design on the microarray and the lack of chemical stability of commercially available substrates. Here we present an applicable method to implement a nanocrystalline diamond thin film as an alternative substrate for fabricating an addressable DNA array using maskless light-directed photochemistry, producing the most chemically stable and biocompatible system for genetic analysis and enzymatic reactions. The surface invasive cleavage reaction, followed by degenerated primer ligation and post-rolling circle amplification is consecutively performed on the addressable diamond DNA array, accurately mapping SNP sites from PCR-amplified human genomic target DNA. Furthermore, a specially-designed DNA array containing dual probes in the same pixel is fabricated by following a reverse light-directed DNA synthesis protocol. This essentially enables us to decipher thousands of SNP alleles in a single-pot reaction by the simple addition of enzyme, target and reaction buffers.

  20. End-member fluids for diamond formation and their possible sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navon, O.; Weiss, Y.; Klein-Bendavid, O.; Bell, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    ) suggested that a saline melt can interact with silicate minerals to form immiscible silicic melt that may later evolve into a carbonatitic HDF. In an ultramafic environment a saline melt may evolve along the array to high-Mg carbonatites without forming an immiscible silicate melt (Safonov, 2008). The source of the saline fluid is not clear. It may be present as discrete halides or as a grain-boundary phase in the carbonate-bearing rock, or it may form deeper in the mantle and migrate upwards either as a saline melt, or as a hydrous fluid that is concentrated enough to preclude interaction with the mantle rocks it traverses. A second alternative is to introduce the carbonate as the penetrating fluid in the form of carbonatitic melt. A third alternative involves the upward migration of CH4 and heavier hydrocarbons. Such a fluid should be stable in eclogitic or peridotitic environments, as long as the oxygen fugacity is low enough. During ascent, such fluids migrate to more oxidized regions and eventually will react with the mantle rocks to form C+H2O (Luth, 1993; Malkovets et al. 2007) and later CO2. In eclogitic rocks, the water will react to form a silicic HDF and the C may precipitate as diamond. In a peridotitic environment, at temperatures below the carbonate solidus, such water may leach and dissolve K and Cl from the rock and evolve into a saline HDF. Temperature increase or further diamond oxidation may initiate the formation of carbonatitic HDF's.

  1. On the role of multiphoton light absorption in pulsed laser nanoablation of diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Komlenok, M S; Kononenko, V V; Gololobov, V M; Konov, V I

    2016-02-28

    The rates of multipulse nanoablation of the diamond surface in air by pico- and nanosecond laser pulses that cause singlephoton, two-photon, three-photon and four-photon absorption in diamond are measured. In the experiments the radiation of ArF, KrF and Ti : Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lasers and the second harmonic of the Yb : YAG laser was used. The power dependence of the material etching rate on the fluence of laser pulses was found. The power exponent of this dependence appeared to be twice lower than that found earlier for femtosecond pulses. We discuss the causes of the difference in the nanoablation regularities for 'short' and 'long' laser pulses.

  2. Status of SESAME Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarawneh, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    During this presentation, I will talk about the current status of the SESAME synchrotron radiation source (SESAME: Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East). SESAME is an international research center located in Allan, Jordan and the accelerator complex consists of new storage ring of an energy of 2.5 GeV injected at 800 MeV and the injector is based on the upgraded 22.5 MeV Microtron and 800 MeV booster from the BESSY-I machine donated by Germany. The results of the design work and the optimizations of the beam optics for the SESAME storage ring and booster accelerators' lattices will be presented. I will also report on the status of the storage ring main sub-systems and the scientific case of the SESAME facility with the planned day-one beamlines.

  3. Status of the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Jay N.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be a national user facility for the production ofhigh-brightness and partially coherent soft x-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1. 5 GeV with insertion devices in 10 long straight sections and 24 premier bend-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 2 keY will be produced by undulators thereby providing many research opportunities in materials and surface science biology atomic physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bend magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keY. 2.

  4. Research opportunities at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility based on a low-emittance, 1.5-GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports. Undulators will provide high-brightness radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes to above 10 keV. Scheduled to begin operations as a US Department of Energy national user facility in the spring of 1993, the ALS will support an extensive research program in which soft X-ray and ultraviolet radiation is used to study matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Participating research teams to implement the initial scientific program have been selected.

  5. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  6. ENERGY SOURCES AND LIGHT CURVES OF MACRONOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Takami, Hajime E-mail: takami@post.kek.jp

    2015-04-01

    A macronova (kilonova) was discovered with a short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B, which is widely believed to be powered by the radioactivity of r-process elements synthesized in the ejecta of a neutron star (NS)–binary merger. As an alternative, we propose that macronovae are energized by the central engine, i.e., a black hole or NS, and the injected energy is emitted after the adiabatic expansion of ejecta. This engine model is motivated by extended emission of short GRBs. In order to compare the theoretical models with observations, we develop analytical formulae for the light curves of macronovae. The engine model allows a wider parameter range, especially smaller ejecta mass, and a better fit to observations than the r-process model. Future observations of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves should distinguish energy sources and constrain the activity of the central engine and the r-process nucleosynthesis.

  7. Status of the SAGA Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyasu, T.; Takabayashi, Y.; Iwasaki, Y.; Koda, S.

    2010-06-23

    The SAGA Light Source (SAGA-LS) is a synchrotron radiation facility consisting of a 255 MeV injector linac and a 1.4 GeV storage ring that is 75.6 m in circumference. The SAGA-LS has been stably providing synchrotron radiation to users since it first started user operation in February 2006. Along with the user operation, various machine improvements have been made over the past years, including upgrading the injector linac control system, replacing a septum magnet and constructing a beam diagnostic system. In addition to these improvements, insertion devices have been developed and installed. An APPLE-II type variable polarization undulator was installed in 2008. To address the demand from users for high-flux hard x-rays, a superconducting 4 T class wiggler is being developed. An experimental setup for generating MeV photons by laser Compton scattering is being constructed for beam monitoring and future user experiments.

  8. Integrated source of broadband quadrature squeezed light.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Ulrich B; Nielsen, Bo M; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2015-05-04

    An integrated silicon nitride resonator is proposed as an ultra-compact source of bright single-mode quadrature squeezed light at 850 nm. Optical properties of the device are investigated and tailored through numerical simulations, with particular attention paid to loss associated with interfacing the device. An asymmetric double layer stack waveguide geometry with inverse vertical tapers is proposed for efficient and robust fibre-chip coupling, yielding a simulated total loss of -0.75 dB/facet. We assess the feasibility of the device through a full quantum noise analysis and derive the output squeezing spectrum for intra-cavity pump self-phase modulation. Subject to standard material loss and detection efficiencies, we find that the device holds promises for generating substantial quantum noise squeezing over a bandwidth exceeding 1 GHz. In the low-propagation loss regime, approximately -6 dB squeezing is predicted for a pump power of only 75 mW.

  9. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  10. LED intense headband light source for fingerprint analysis

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    2005-03-08

    A portable, lightweight and high-intensity light source for detecting and analyzing fingerprints during field investigation. On-site field analysis requires long hours of mobile analysis. In one embodiment, the present invention comprises a plurality of light emitting diodes; a power source; and a personal attachment means; wherein the light emitting diodes are powered by the power source, and wherein the power source and the light emitting diodes are attached to the personal attachment means to produce a personal light source for on-site analysis of latent fingerprints. The present invention is available for other applications as well.

  11. An ALS (Advanced Light Source) handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This booklet aims to provide the prospective user of the Advanced Light Source with a concise description of the radiation a researcher might expect at his or her experimental station. The focus is therefore on the characteristics of the light that emerges from insertion devices and bending magnets and on how components of the beam lines further alter the properties of the radiation. The specifications and operating parameters of the ALS injection system and storage ring are of only peripheral interest. To this end, Sections 3 and 5 and most of Section 4 are devoted to summary presentations, by means of performance plots and tabular compilations, of radiation characteristics at the ALS--spectral brightness, flux, coherent power, resolution, time structure, etc.--assuming a representative set of four undulators and one wiggler and a corresponding set of five beam lines. As a complement to these performance summaries, Section 1 is a general introductory discussion of synchrotron radiation and the ALS, and Section 2 provides a compendious introduction to the characteristics of synchrotron radiation from bending magnets, wigglers, and undulators. In addition, Section 4 briefly introduces the theory of diffraction grating and crystal monochromators. 15 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. The age of predictable primary diamond sources in the northeastern Siberian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grakhanov, S. A.; Zinchuk, N. N.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    The U-Pb (SHRIMP) age was determined for zircons collected from 26 observation and sampling sites of diamonds and index minerals in the northeastern Siberian Platform. This part of the region hosts 15 low-diamondiferous Paleozoic and Mesozoic kimberlite fields, excluding the near economic Triassic Malokuonapskaya pipe in the Kuranakh field. Four epochs of kimberlite formation (Silurian, Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, Middle to Late Triassic, and Middle to Late Jurassic) of the Siberian Platform, including its northeastern part, are confirmed as a result of our studies. Most observation points, including economic Quaternary diamond placers, contain Middle to Late Triassic zircons, which confirms the abundant Late Triassic volcanism in this region. The positive correlation of diamonds and major index minerals of kimberlites (mostly, garnets) at some observation sites indicates the possible Triassic age of the predictable diamondiferous kimberlites.

  13. Lower pressure synthesis of diamond material

    DOEpatents

    Lueking, Angela; Gutierrez, Humberto; Narayanan, Deepa; Burgess Clifford, Caroline E.; Jain, Puja

    2010-07-13

    Methods of synthesizing a diamond material, particularly nanocrystalline diamond, diamond-like carbon and bucky diamond are provided. In particular embodiments, a composition including a carbon source, such as coal, is subjected to addition of energy, such as high energy reactive milling, producing a milling product enriched in hydrogenated tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon compared to the coal. A milling product is treated with heat, acid and/or base to produce nanocrystalline diamond and/or crystalline diamond-like carbon. Energy is added to produced crystalline diamond-like carbon in particular embodiments to produce bucky diamonds.

  14. A light carbon reservoir recorded in zircon-hosted diamond from the Jack Hills.

    PubMed

    Nemchin, Alexander A; Whitehouse, Martin J; Menneken, Martina; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

    2008-07-03

    The recent discovery of diamond-graphite inclusions in the Earth's oldest zircon grains (formed up to 4,252 Myr ago) from the Jack Hills metasediments in Western Australia provides a unique opportunity to investigate Earth's earliest known carbon reservoir. Here we report ion microprobe analyses of the carbon isotope composition of these diamond-graphite inclusions. The observed delta(13)C(PDB) values (expressed using the PeeDee Belemnite standard) range between -5 per mil and -58 per mil with a median of -31 per mil. This extends beyond typical mantle values of around -6 per mil to values observed in metamorphic and some eclogitic diamonds that are interpreted to reflect deep subduction of low-delta(13)C(PDB) biogenic surface carbon. Low delta(13)C(PDB) values may also be produced by inorganic chemical reactions, and therefore are not unambiguous evidence for life on Earth as early as 4,250 Myr ago. Regardless, our results suggest that a low-delta(13)C(PDB) reservoir may have existed on the early Earth.

  15. Multiple carbon and nitrogen sources associated with the parental mantle fluids of fibrous diamonds from Diavik, Canada, revealed by SIMS microanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petts, D. C.; Stachel, T.; Stern, R. A.; Hunt, L.; Fomradas, G.

    2016-02-01

    separate pulses of fluid that remained isotopically uniform throughout the duration of growth. Significant isotopic and abundance differences were observed between the gem and fibrous growth zones, including in one detailed isotopic profile δ 13C and δ 15N offsets of ~-2.4 and ~-3.7 ‰, respectively, and a ~230 at. ppm increase in N-abundance. Combined with the well-defined gem-fibrous boundaries in plane light and CL, these sharp isotopic differences indicate separate parental fluid histories. Notably, in the combined fibrous diamond dataset prominent C- and N-isotope differences between the whole-crystal cuboid and fibrous rim data were observed, including a consistent ~1.3 ‰ offset in δ 15N values between the two growth types. This bimodal N-isotope distribution is interpreted as formation from separate parental fluids, associated with distinct nitrogen sources. The bimodal N-isotope distribution could also be explained by differences in N-speciation between the respective parental fluids, which would largely be controlled by the oxidation state of the fibrous rim and cuboid growth environments (i.e., N2 vs. NH4 + or NH3). We also note that this C- and N-isotope variability could indicate temporal changes to the source(s) of the respective parental fluids, such that each stage of fibrous diamond growth reflects the emplacement of separate pulses of proto-kimberlitic fluid—from distinct carbon and nitrogen sources, and/or with varying N-species—into the lithospheric mantle.

  16. Status of the Metrology Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Ulm, G.; Feikes, J.; Hartrott, M. v.; Wüstefeld, G.

    2010-06-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, has set up the low-energy electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) in close cooperation with the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB, formerly BESSY). This new storage ring has been in regular user operation since April 2008 and is dedicated to synchrotron-radiation-based metrology and technological developments in the far-IR/THz, IR, UV, VUV and EUV spectral range. The MLS has a double-bend-achromate lattice structure, injection is from a 105 MeV racetrack microtron. The electron energy can be ramped to any value from 105 MeV up to 630 MeV and the electron beam current covers the range from one stored electron (1 pA) up to 200 mA. The MLS is the first electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation, based on an electron bunch shortening mode. In this mode, MLS delivers coherent radiation in the far-IR/THz spectral range with enhanced intensity as compared to the normal mode of operation. Several beamlines are in operation or in construction, including one undulator beamline, bending magnet beamlines for the calibration of radiation sources and detectors and for reflectometry, an EUV metrology beamline and three IR/THz beamlines.

  17. The 4th Generation Light Source at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Albert Grippo; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Daniel Sexton; Michelle D. Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Shukui Zhang; Gwyn Williams

    2007-04-25

    A number of "Grand Challenges" in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab. Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources.

  18. National Synchrotron Light Source 2008 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nasta,K.

    2009-05-01

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is a national user facility that operates two electron storage rings: X-Ray (2.8 GeV, 300 mA) and Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) (800 mev, 1.0A). These two rings provide intense light spanning the electromagnetic spectrum -- from very long infrared rays to ultraviolet light and super-short x-rays -- to analyze very small or highly dilute samples. The properties of this light, and the specially designed experimental stations, called beamlines, allow scientists in many diverse disciplines of research to perform experiments not possible at their own laboratories. Each year, about 2,200 scientists from more than 400 universities and companies use the NSLS for research in such diverse fields as biology, physics, chemistry, geology, medicine, and environmental and materials sciences. For example, researchers have used the NSLS to examine the minute details of computer chips, decipher the structures of viruses, probe the density of bone, determine the chemical composition of moon rocks, and reveal countless other mysteries of science. The facility has 65 operating beamlines, with 51 beamlines on the X-Ray Ring and 14 beamlines on the VUV-Infrared Ring. It runs seven days a week, 24 hours a day throughout the year, except during periods of maintenance and studies. Researchers are not charged for beam time, provided that the research results are published in open literature. Proprietary research is conducted on a full-cost-recovery basis. With close to 1,000 publications per year, the NSLS is one of the most prolific scientific facilities in the world. Among the many accolades given to its users and staff, the NSLS has won nine R&D 100 Awards for innovations ranging from a closed orbit feedback system to the first device able to focus a large spread of high-energy x-rays. In addition, a visiting NSLS researcher shared the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work

  19. The Sun: the Earth light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrilli, Francesco; Giovannelli, Luca; Del Moro, Dario; Piazzesi, Roberto; Catena, Liu` Maria; Amicucci, Giordano; Vittorio, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    We have implemented at Department of Physics of University of Rome Tor Vergata a project called "The Sun: the Earth light source". The project obtained the official endorsement from the IAU Executive Committee Working Group for the International Year of Light. The project, specifically designed for high school students, is focused on the "scientific" study of Sun light by means of a complete acquisition system based on "on the shelf" appropriately CMOS low-cost sensor with free control s/w and self-assembled telescopes. The project (hereafter stage) plan is based on a course of two weeks (60 hours in total). The course contains 20 hours of theoretical lectures, necessary to learn basics about Sun, optics, telescopes and image sensors, and 40 hours of laboratory. During the course, scientists and astronomers share with high schools students, work activities in real research laboratories. High schools teachers are intensely involved in the project. Their role is to share activities with university teachers and realize outreach actions in the home institutions. Simultaneously, they are introduced to innovative teaching methods and the project in this way is regarded as a professional development course. Sun light analysis and Sun-Earth connection through light are the main scientific topics of this project. The laboratory section of the stage is executed in two phases (weeks): First phase aims are the realization of a keplerian telescope and low-cost acquisition system. During this week students are introduced to astronomical techniques used to safety collect and acquire solar light; Second phase aims is the realization of a low-cost instrument to analyse sunlight extracting information about the solar spectrum, solar irradiance and Sun-Earth connection. The proposed stage has been already tested in Italy reached the fifth edition in 2014. Since 2010, the project has been a cornerstone outreach program of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, the Italian Ministry of

  20. LIGHT SOURCE: TW Laser system for Thomson scattering X-ray light source at Tsinghua University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li-Xm; Du, Ying-Chao; Du, Qiang; Li, Ren-Kai; Hua, Jian-Fei; Huang, Wen-Hui; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2009-06-01

    A TW (Tera Watt) laser system based on Ti:sapphire mainly for the Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray light source (TTX) is being built. Both UV (ultraviolet) laser pulse for driving the photocathode radio-frequency (RF) gun and the IR (infrared) laser pulse as the electron-beam-scattered-light are provided by the system. Efforts have also been made in laser pulse shaping and laser beam transport to optimize the high-brightness electron beam production by the photocathode RF gun.

  1. Broiler performance when reared under various light sources.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, N G

    1988-01-01

    Three trials were conducted to determine if modern energy-efficient light sources, which vary in wavelength emission, affect broiler growth performance. The effect of light source on growth performance was determined by measuring body weight, feed conversion, and livability at intervals throughout rearing and at market age in three flocks of approximately 3,600 broilers each. Illuminance within the light-proof experimental facility was approximately 5 1x and photoregimen was 1 h dark:23 h light. Trial 1 compared incandescent (IN), warm white fluorescent (WWF), and daylight fluorescent (DLF) light sources. The WWF source provided superior body weight compared to IN light but feed conversion ratios were similar. Both IN and WWF light sources resulted in better body weight and feed conversion than that of the DLF light source. Trial 2 used IN, WWF, DLF, PL-5 fluorescent (PLF), design white fluorescent (DWF), and high pressure sodium (HPS) light sources. The PLF source resulted in mean body weight significantly higher than those produced by IN, HPS, and DWF. No other significant differences were observed. Trial 3 used IN, WWF, DLF, PLF, HPS, and low pressure sodium (LPS) light sources. Feed conversion for the HPS treatment was superior to that of PLF and LPS treatments. No other significant differences were observed. Light source did not affect livability in any of the trials. These trials demonstrated that energy-efficient light sources varying in wavelength emission may affect broiler growth performance, but consistent differences were not observed. Generally, IN light sources may be replaced with more energy-efficient light sources without adverse effects on broiler growth performance.

  2. Simulation of Charge Collection in Diamond Detectors Irradiated with Deuteron-Triton Neutron Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Milocco, Alberto; Trkov, Andrej; Pillon, Mario

    2011-12-13

    Diamond-based neutron spectrometers exhibit outstanding properties such as radiation hardness, low sensitivity to gamma rays, fast response and high-energy resolution. They represent a very promising application of diamonds for plasma diagnostics in fusion devices. The measured pulse height spectrum is obtained from the collection of helium and beryllium ions produced by the reactions on {sup 12}C. An original code is developed to simulate the production and the transport of charged particles inside the diamond detector. The ion transport methodology is based on the well-known TRIM code. The reactions of interest are triggered using the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data for the neutron interactions on carbon. The model is implemented in the TALLYX subroutine of the MCNP5 and MCNPX codes. Measurements with diamond detectors in a {approx}14 MeV neutron field have been performed at the FNG (Rome, Italy) and IRMM (Geel, Belgium) facilities. The comparison of the experimental data with the simulations validates the proposed model.

  3. The Jefferson Lab High Power Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    James R. Boyce

    2006-01-01

    Jefferson Lab has designed, built and operated two high average power free-electron lasers (FEL) using superconducting RF (SRF) technology and energy recovery techniques. Between 1999-2001 Jefferson Lab operated the IR Demo FEL. This device produced over 2 kW in the mid-infrared, in addition to producing world record average powers in the visible (50 W), ultraviolet (10 W) and terahertz range (50 W) for tunable, short-pulse (< ps) light. This FEL was the first high power demonstration of an accelerator configuration that is being exploited for a number of new accelerator-driven light source facilities that are currently under design or construction. The driver accelerator for the IR Demo FEL uses an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) configuration that improves the energy efficiency and lowers both the capital and operating cost of such devices by recovering most of the power in the spent electron beam after optical power is extracted from the beam. The IR Demo FEL was de-commissioned in late 2001 for an upgraded FEL for extending the IR power to over 10 kW and the ultraviolet power to over 1 kW. The FEL Upgrade achieved 10 kW of average power in the mid-IR (6 microns) in July of 2004, and its IR operation currently is being extended down to 1 micron. In addition, we have demonstrated the capability of on/off cycling and recovering over a megawatt of electron beam power without diminishing machine performance. A complementary UV FEL will come on-line within the next year. This paper presents a summary of the FEL characteristics, user community accomplishments with the IR Demo, and planned user experiments.

  4. Frequency down-conversion of 637 nm light to the telecommunication band for non-classical light emitted from NV centers in diamond.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Yasui, Shuto; Miki, Shigehito; Yamashita, Taro; Terai, Hirotaka; Fujiwara, Mikio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Sasaki, Masahide; Wang, Zhen; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-05-05

    We demonstrate a low-noise frequency down-conversion of photons at 637 nm to the telecommunication band at 1587 nm by the difference frequency generation in a periodically-poled lithium niobate. An internal conversion efficiency of the converter is estimated to be 0.44 at the maximum which is achieved by a pump power of 0.43 W, whereas a rate of internal background photons caused by the strong cw pump laser is estimated to be 9 kHz/mW within a bandwidth of about 1 nm. By using the experimental values related to the intrinsic property of the converter, and using the intensity correlation and the average photon number of a 637 nm input light pulse, we derive the intensity correlation of a converted telecom light pulse. Then we discuss feasibility of a single-photon frequency conversion to the telecommunication band for a long-distance quantum communication based on NV centers in diamond.

  5. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2002-04-01

    Advances in technology make it possible to use the SLAC linac to drive the LCLS (1), a coherent x-ray source which will deliver sub-picosecond pulses at wavelengths down to 1.5 Angstroms with an instantaneous (peak) power up to 10 GW, corresponding to a brightness 10 orders of magnitude greater than x-ray beams from the most advanced synchrotron light sources. The LCLS operates on the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission-SASE (2); i.e., coherent emission is achieved without an optical cavity by inducing a bunch-density modulation at the scale of the optical wavelength in a single pass of a high peak current, low emittance, 15 GeV electron beam through a 100m undulator. The LCLS, and a similar project planned at DESY in Hamburg, exploit recent technological developments; high-brightness rf photocathode electron guns, emittance preservation during acceleration and compression, precision undulator magnets, and high power x-ray optics. The unique properties of LCLS radiation enable new scientific opportunities in femtochemistry, nanoscale dynamics in condensed matter, atomic physics, biological imaging, plasma physics, and warm condensed matter. A collaboration including 4 US national labs (Argonne, Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, and Los Alamos) along with SLAC and UCLA is conducting r&d aiming for an LCLS construction start in 2004. 1. P.Emma; Proc. Part. Accel. Conf.(PAC2001); June 18-22, 2001. 2. R.Bonifacio, C.Pellegrini, L.Narducci; Optics Comm. 50,373(1984) *Supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Dept. of Energy.

  6. High Pressure Microwave Powered UV Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cekic, M.; Frank, J. D.; Popovic, S.; Wood, C. H.

    1997-10-01

    Industrial microwave powered (*electrodeless*) light sources have been limited to quiescent pressures of 300 Torr of buffer gas and metal- halide fills. Recently developed multi-atmospheric electronegative bu lb fills (noble gas-halide excimers, metal halide) require electric field s for ionization that are often large multiples of the breakdown voltage for air. For these fills an auxiliary ignition system is necessary. The most successful scheme utilizes a high voltage pulse power supply and a novel field emission source. Acting together they create localized condition of pressure reduction and high free electron density. This allows the normal microwave fields to drive this small region into avalanche, ignite the bulb, and heat the plasma to it's operating poin t Standard diagnostic techniques of high density discharges are inapplicable to the excimer bulbs, because of the ionic molecular exci ted state structure and absence of self-absorption. The method for temperature determination is based on the equilibrium population of certain vibrational levels of excimer ionic excited states. Electron d ensity was determined from the measurements of Stark profiles of H_β radiation from a small amount of hydrogen mixed with noble gas and halogens. At the present time, high pressure (Te 0.5eV, ne 3 x 10^17 cm-3) production bulbs produce over 900W of radiation in a 30nm band, centered at 30nm. Similarly, these prototypes when loaded with metal-halide bulb fills produce 1 kW of radiation in 30nm wide bands, centered about the wavelength of interest.

  7. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  8. Status Of The Synchrotron Light Source DELTA

    SciTech Connect

    Berges, U.; Friedl, J.; Hartmann, P.; Schirmer, D.; Schmidt, G.; Sternemann, C.; Tolan, M.; Weis, T.; Westphal, C.; Wille, K.

    2004-05-12

    The Dortmund Electron Accelerator DELTA, located at the University of Dortmund, changed its scope during the last years into a 1.5 GeV synchrotron light source. DELTA is now operated for 3000 h per year including 2000 h dedicated beam time for synchrotron radiation use and 1000 h for machine physics, optimization and maintenance. The status of the accelerator complex is presented together with the beam operation, the installation and commissioning of beamlines and insertion devices. To serve user demands of photon energies up to more than 10 keV a 5.3 T superconducting asymmetric multipole wiggler (SAW) with a critical energy of 7.9 keV has been installed serving three beamlines in the hard X-ray regime with also circular polarization. Two undulator beamlines for photon energies between 5 and 400 eV (U250) and between 55 and 1500 eV (U55) and several dipole beamlines up to 200 eV are under operation. The construction and operation of the different beamlines is done by various universities and laboratories in Nordrhein-Westfalen.

  9. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  10. Radioluminescent light source for the development of optical sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Holthoff, William G; Tehan, Elizabeth C; Bukowski, Rachel M; Kent, Nigel; Maccraith, Brian D; Bright, Frank V

    2005-01-15

    A radioluminescent (RL) light source is evaluated for the development of photonically based chemical-responsive sensor arrays (CRSAs). The RL light source is comprised of a strontium-90 (90Sr) radionuclide and a plastic scintillator. The beta particles emitted from the 90Sr generate blue light (lambda(max) = 435 nm) from the plastic scintillator, and the blue light excites the analyte-responsive luminophores within the CRSA. To assess the RL light source utility, we have determined the analytical figures of merit from two tris(4,7'-diphenyl-1,10'-phenathroline)ruthenium(II)-doped xerogel-based sensor platforms: (i) a planar 5 x 5 multielement array and (ii) a discrete sensor element formed on the proximal face of poly(styrene) pillars that have a frustrated cone (frustum) geometry. We compare the performance from each platform when it is excited by a He-Cd laser (442 nm), a blue light-emitting diode (460-470 nm), and the RL light source. The RL light source yields results that are statistically equivalent to results from either electrically powered light source. The RL light source consumes no electrical power, is compact and simple, and has an extremely stable time-averaged signal. The primary trade-offs for these advantages are the RL light source's lower radiant power and the corresponding longer data acquisition times.

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source 2010 Activity Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.; Snyder, K. J.

    2010-12-29

    This is a very exciting period for photon sciences at Brookhaven National Laboratory. It is also a time of unprecedented growth for the Photon Sciences Directorate, which operates the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and is constructing NSLS-II, both funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Reflecting the quick pace of our activities, we chose the theme 'Discovery at Light Speed' for the directorate's 2010 annual report, a fiscal year bookended by October 2009 and September 2010. The year began with the news that NSLS users Venki Ramakrishnan of Cambridge University (also a former employee in Brookhaven's biology department) and Thomas A. Steitz of Yale University were sharing the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Every research project has the potential for accolades. In 2010, NSLS users and staff published close to 900 papers, with about 170 appearing in premiere journals. Those are impressive stats for a facility nearly three decades old, testament to the highly dedicated team keeping NSLS at peak performance and the high quality of its user community. Our NSLS users come from a worldwide community of scientists using photons, or light, to carry out research in energy and environmental sciences, physics, materials science, chemistry, biology and medicine. All are looking forward to the new capabilities enabled by NSLS-II, which will offer unprecedented resolution at the nanoscale. The new facility will produce x-rays more than 10,000 times brighter than the current NSLS and host a suite of sophisticated instruments for cutting-edge science. Some of the scientific discoveries we anticipate at NSLS-II will lead to major advances in alternative energy technologies, such as hydrogen and solar. These discoveries could pave the way to: (1) catalysts that split water with sunlight for hydrogen production; (2) materials that can reversibly store large quantities of electricity or hydrogen; (3

  12. Diamond Nanowire for UV Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-28

    addition to the stated goal of solar - blind , radiation-hard diamond nanowire UV detectors [3]. The use of diamond nanowires in field-effect transistors could...the next phase. As a result, a working diamond nanowire UV detector can be expected within the coming few months. And, a completely new diamond...attractive candidate for use in ultraviolet ( UV ) light detectors and emitters[2]. Of all known materials, it is the hardest, and has the highest

  13. Filter selection based on light source for multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Haisong

    2016-07-01

    In multispectral imaging, it is necessary to select a reduced number of filters to balance the imaging efficiency and spectral reflectance recovery accuracy. Due to the combined effect of filters and light source on reflectance recovery, the optimal filters are influenced by the employed light source in the multispectral imaging system. By casting the filter selection as an optimization issue, the selection of optimal filters corresponding to the employed light source proceeds with respect to a set of target samples utilizing one kind of genetic algorithms, regardless of the detailed spectral characteristics of the light source, filters, and sensor. Under three light sources with distinct spectral power distributions, the proposed filter selection method was evaluated on a filter-wheel based multispectral device with a set of interference filters. It was verified that the filters derived by the proposed method achieve better spectral and colorimetric accuracy of reflectance recovery than the conventional one under different light sources.

  14. Undulators at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, E.; Akre, J.; Chin, J.; Gath, W.; Hassenzahl, W. V.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Marks, S.; Pipersky, P.; Plate, D.; Portmann, G.; Schlueter, R.

    1995-02-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Advanced Light Source, three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested, and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 μm over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within ±5 μm. Gap adjusting range is from 14 to 210 mm, which can be scanned in 1 min. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are in the mid-10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23% and 0.20% for the two U5.0s and the U8.0, respectively, and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm×6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented.

  15. Monolithic LED arrays, next generation smart lighting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Alexandre; Bono, Hubert; Templier, François

    2016-03-01

    LED have become the main light sources of the future as they open the path for intelligent use of light in time, intensity and color. In many usages, strong energy economy is done by adjusting these properties. The smart lighting has three dimensions, energy efficiency brought by GaN blue emitting LEDs, integration of electronics, sensors, microprocessors in the lighting system and development of new functionalities and services provided by the light. Monolithic LED arrays allow two major innovations, the spatial control of light emission and the adjustment of the electrical properties of the source.

  16. Barium light source method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  17. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  18. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Scott; Walko, Robert J.; Ashley, Carol S.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light.

  19. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  20. Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ɛHf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

  1. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    2001-08-01

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  2. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  3. Flexible microstructured organic light sources for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melpignano, Patrizia; Sinesi, Sabino; Toaldo, A. Baron; Biondo, Viviana; Muccini, Michele; Zamboni, Roberto; Gale, Michael T.; Westenhofer, Susanne

    2004-09-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) are rapidly reaching large-scale marketing figures, driven by attractive features like low cost and fast response, being also suitable for application on flexible substrates. All these aspects enable a wide range of applications such as displays, innovative devices in optoelectronics and novel light sources. Furthermore, the benefits expected from OLEDs based devices, if compared to "classical semiconductors" based devices consist of low production costs, lightweight and geometrical flexibility. Novel OLEDs based light sources fulfilling the above-mentioned requirements, call for a considerable effort both in the production processes and in product innovation. Among the variety of possible applicative OLED applications, we focused our research effort on the Automotive sector. Our envisioned approach enabling control of light distribution from an OLED light source include modeling and patterning of the light source, design and fabrication of suitable micro-optics coupled to the flexible transparent Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) substrate.

  4. 21 CFR 352.71 - Light source (solar simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Light source (solar simulator). 352.71 Section 352... Light source (solar simulator). A solar simulator used for determining the SPF of a sunscreen drug... total energy output contributed by nonsolar wavelengths shorter than 290 nanometers; and it has not...

  5. 21 CFR 352.71 - Light source (solar simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Light source (solar simulator). 352.71 Section 352... Light source (solar simulator). A solar simulator used for determining the SPF of a sunscreen drug... total energy output contributed by nonsolar wavelengths shorter than 290 nanometers; and it has not...

  6. 21 CFR 352.71 - Light source (solar simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Light source (solar simulator). 352.71 Section 352... Light source (solar simulator). A solar simulator used for determining the SPF of a sunscreen drug... total energy output contributed by nonsolar wavelengths shorter than 290 nanometers; and it has not...

  7. 21 CFR 352.71 - Light source (solar simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Light source (solar simulator). 352.71 Section 352... Light source (solar simulator). A solar simulator used for determining the SPF of a sunscreen drug... total energy output contributed by nonsolar wavelengths shorter than 290 nanometers; and it has not...

  8. 21 CFR 352.71 - Light source (solar simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light source (solar simulator). 352.71 Section 352... Light source (solar simulator). A solar simulator used for determining the SPF of a sunscreen drug... total energy output contributed by nonsolar wavelengths shorter than 290 nanometers; and it has not...

  9. Phosphor-Free Solid State Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nause, Jeff E; Ferguson, Ian; Doolittle, Alan

    2007-02-28

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate a light emitting diode that emitted white light without the aid of a phosphor. The device was based on the combination of a nitride LED and a fluorescing ZnO substrate. The early portion of the work focused on the growth of ZnO in undoped and doped form. The doped ZnO was successfully engineered to emit light at specific wavelengths by incorporating various dopants into the crystalline lattice. Thereafter, the focus of the work shifted to the epitaxial growth of nitride structures on ZnO. Initially, the epitaxy was accomplished with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Later in the program, metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was successfully used to grow nitrides on ZnO. By combining the characteristics of the doped ZnO substrate with epitaxially grown nitride LED structures, a phosphor-free white light emitting diode was successfully demonstrated and characterized.

  10. Simple, fast, bright, and stable light sources.

    PubMed

    Tordera, Daniel; Meier, Sebastian; Lenes, Martijn; Costa, Rubén D; Ortí, Enrique; Sarfert, Wiebke; Bolink, Henk J

    2012-02-14

    In this work we show that solution-processed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) based on only an ionic iridium complex and a small amount of ionic liquid exhibit exceptionally good performances when applying a pulsed current: sub-second turn-on times and almost constant high luminances (>600 cd m(-2) ) and power efficiencies over the first 600 h. This demonstrates the potential of LECs for applications in solid-state signage and lighting.

  11. Study on paper moisture measurement method by monochromatic light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Changtao; Du, Xin; He, Ping; Zhang, Lili; Li, Nan; Wang, Ming

    2010-10-01

    We design the emission and detection optical paths of three monochromatic infrared light sources with different wavelength. The three light sources are placed according to the different angles, so that the three kinds of monochromatic lights are converged on the same point of the sample. Using the method, we can detect the same point and improve the measurement accuracy. We choose the standard near-infrared monochromatic light source, so that we can save some equipments, such as tungsten- halogen lamp, filtered wheel, collimation focalizer, electric machine, and so on. In particular, we save the cumbersome cooling system, reduce the volume of the instrument greatly and reduce the cost. The three monochromatic light sources are supplied by the same pulse power source, to ensure their synchronous working.

  12. Synchrotron Mössbauer Source technique for in situ measurement of iron-bearing inclusions in natural diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestola, F.; Cerantola, V.; Milani, S.; Anzolini, C.; McCammon, C.; Novella, D.; Kupenko, I.; Chumakov, A.; Rüffer, R.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new methodology to collect energy domain Mössbauer spectra of inclusions in natural diamonds using a Synchrotron Mössbauer Source (SMS). Measurements were carried out at the Nuclear Resonance beamline ID18 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). We applied this non-destructive approach to collect SMS spectra of a ferropericlase inclusion still contained within its diamond host from Juina (Brazil). The high spatial resolution of the measurement ( 15 μm) enabled multiple regions of the 190 × 105 μm2 inclusion to be sampled and showed that while Fe3 +/Fetot values in ferropericlase were below the detection limit (0.02) overall, there was a magnetic component whose abundance varied systematically across the inclusion. Hyperfine parameters of the magnetic component are consistent with magnesioferrite, and the absence of superparamagnetism allows the minimum particle size to be estimated as 30 nm. Bulk Fe3 +/Fetot values are similar to those reported for other ferropericlase inclusions from Juina, and their variation across the inclusion can provide constraints on its history.

  13. Microwave Plasma Source for Fabrication of Micro- and Nano-Crystalline Diamond Thin Films for Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Rujisamphan, Nopporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan

    2013-01-01

    The design and utilization of an affordable compact-size high-density plasma reactor for micro- and nano-crystalline diamond (MCD/NCD) thin film deposition is presented. The system is based on a 2.45 GHz domestic microwave oven magnetron. A switching power supply module, which yields a low-voltage high-current AC filament feeding and a high-voltage low-current DC cathode bias, is constructed to serve as the magnetron power source. With a high stability of the power module combined with the usage of water cooling gaskets, over 100 h of plasma processing time was achieved without overheating or causing any damage to the magnetron. Depositions of well-faceted MCD/NCD thin films, with distinct diamond Raman characteristics, were obtained using H2-CH4 discharge with 1-5% CH4. Metal-semiconductor diode structures were fabricated using gold and aluminum as ohmic and rectifying contacts, respectively, and their responses to DC signals revealed a high rectification ratio of up to 106 in the intrinsic MCD/NCD devices.

  14. UV emissions from low energy artificial light sources.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Leona; Moseley, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficient light sources have been introduced across Europe and many other countries world wide. The most common of these is the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), which has been shown to emit ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are an alternative technology that has minimal UV emissions. This brief review summarises the different energy efficient light sources available on the market and compares the UV levels and the subsequent effects on the skin of normal individuals and those who suffer from photodermatoses.

  15. Light extraction by Lambertian sources from light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, James R.

    2013-03-01

    Internal back-and-forth propagation of photons within a light emitting diode (LED) will naturally tend towards a Lambertian intensity profile when surface texturing is sufficiently rough. Novel designs in light extraction efficiency (LEE) can therefore benefit by optimizing under this expectation. This paper develops a framework for calculating LEE from a planar LED structure with textured surface features under the assumption of Lambertian intensity within the substrate. The method can estimate the total LEE value when given a substrate width w, an attenuation constant α, and the transmittance function T(θ,Φ) through the top interface. We demonstrate our theory on a pyramidal surface texture over a GaSb substrate at 4.5 μm wavelength by computing the expected LEE as a function of w.

  16. Optical properties of femtosecond laser-treated diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvani, P.; Bellucci, A.; Girolami, M.; Orlando, S.; Valentini, V.; Lettino, A.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2014-10-01

    A laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) has been fabricated on polycrystalline diamond by an ultrashort Ti:Sapphire pulsed laser source ( λ = 800 nm, P = 3 mJ, 100 fs) in a high vacuum chamber (<10-7 mbar) in order to increase diamond absorption in the visible and infrared wavelength ranges. A horizontally polarized laser beam had been focussed perpendicularly to the diamond surface and diamond target had been moved by an automated X- Y translational stage along the two directions orthogonal to the optical axis. Scanning electron microscopy of samples reveals an LIPSS with a ripple period of about 170 nm, shorter than the laser wavelength. Raman spectra of processed sample do not point out any evident sp 2 content, and diamond peak presents a right shift, indicating a compressive stress. The investigation of optical properties of fs-laser surface textured diamond is reported. Spectral photometry in the range 200/2,000 nm wavelength shows a significant increase of visible and infrared absorption (more than 80 %) compared to untreated specimens (less than 40 %). The analysis of optical characterization data highlights a close relationship between fabricated LIPSS and absorption properties, confirming the optical effectiveness of such a treatment as a light-trapping structure for diamond: these properties, reported for the first time, open the path for new applications of CVD diamond.

  17. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    ROTHMAN,E.

    1999-05-01

    thereafter for half of the running time in FY 1998. In combination with the development of narrow gap undulators this mode opens the possibility of new undulators which could produce hard X-rays in the fundamental, perhaps up to 10 keV. On 27 September 1998, a low horizontal emittance lattice became operational at 2.584 GeV. This results in approximately a 50% decrease in the horizontal beam-size on dipole bending magnet beamlines, and somewhat less of a decrease on the insertion device lines. The beam lifetime is not degraded by the low emittance lattice. This represents an important achievement, enhancing for all users the x-ray ring brightness. The reduced horizontal emittance electron beam will produce brighter x-ray beams for all the beamlines, both bending magnets and insertion devices, adding to other recent increases in the X-Ray ring brightness. During FY 1999 users will gain experience of the new running mode and plans are in place to do the same at 2.8GeV during further studies sessions. Independent evidence of the reduced emittance is shown in Figure 2. This is a pinhole camera scan showing the X-ray beam profile, obtained on the diagnostic beamline X28. Finally, work has begun to update and refine the proposal of the Phase III upgrade endorsed by the Birgeneau panel and BESAC last year. With the whole NSLS facility in teenage years and with many demonstrated enhancements available, the time has come to herald in the next stage of life at the Light Source.

  18. Next Generation Accelerator-Based Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gwyn Williams

    2005-06-26

    We discuss the physics which is driving the evolution of new sources for microscopy and spectroscopy. A new generation of sources, called energy recovery linacs or ERL’s, will be described and reviewed with particular emphasis on the examples of imaging and spectroscopic applications enabled by them.

  19. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y; Alonso-Mori, R; Barends, T R M; Blank, V D; Botha, S; Chollet, M; Damiani, D S; Doak, R B; Glownia, J M; Koglin, J M; Lemke, H T; Messerschmidt, M; Nass, K; Nelson, S; Schlichting, I; Shoeman, R L; Shvyd'ko, Yu V; Sikorski, M; Song, S; Stoupin, S; Terentyev, S; Williams, G J; Zhu, D; Robert, A; Boutet, S

    2015-05-01

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using a dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality.

  20. Development of implantable light source for optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusakov, Konstantin; Radzewicz, Czesław

    2016-09-01

    The research described here aims at a design and fabrication of a light emitting module for a mobile optogenetic device for animals that are freely moving in the IntelliCage system cages. The device is designed to stimulate selected brain areas of the animal with light. The approach described here is based on a LED chip attached to the tip of a cannula which will be directly implanted into a mouse's brain. The device has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory. In addition, we have observed optogenetic effect on the slice of mice brain tissue in vitro stimulated with our implants.

  1. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  2. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  3. Cathodoluminescent Source of Intense White Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    The device described exploits cathodoluminescence to generate intense light in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. In this device, the material to be excited to luminescence is a layer of quartz or alumina powder on an electrically conductive plate exposed to a low-pressure plasma discharge. The plate is electrically biased positively to collect electron current.

  4. The use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milewska, D.; Karpienko, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the use of thin diamond films in fiber-optic low-coherence interferometers. Two kinds of diamond surfaces were used: undoped diamond film and boron- doped diamond film. They were deposited on glass plates as well as silicon layers. A conventionally used mirror was used as a reference layer. Diamond films were deposited using Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (μPE CVD) system. Measurements were performed using two superluminescent diodes (SLD) with wavelengths of 1300 mm and 1550 mm. The optimal conditions for each layers were examined: the required wavelength of the light source and the length of Fabry-Perot interferometer cavity. Metrological parameters of Fabry-Perot interferometer with different mirrors were compared. The presented thin diamond films may be an interesting alternative to the commonly used reflective surfaces.

  5. LEDs as light source: examining quality of acquired images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachnak, Rafic; Funtanilla, Jeng; Hernandez, Jose

    2004-05-01

    Recent advances in technology have made light emitting diodes (LEDs) viable in a number of applications, including vehicle stoplights, traffic lights, machine-vision-inspection, illumination, and street signs. This paper presents the results of comparing images taken by a videoscope using two different light sources. One of the sources is the internal metal halide lamp and the other is a LED placed at the tip of the insertion tube. Images acquired using these two light sources were quantitatively compared using their histogram, intensity profile along a line segment, and edge detection. Also, images were qualitatively compared using image registration and transformation. The gray-level histogram, edge detection, image profile and image registration do not offer conclusive results. The LED light source, however, produces good images for visual inspection by an operator. The paper will present the results and discuss the usefulness and shortcomings of various comparison methods.

  6. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  7. A numerical experiment on light pollution from distant sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, M.

    2011-08-01

    To predict the light pollution of the night-time sky realistically over any location or measuring point on the ground presents quite a difficult calculation task. Light pollution of the local atmosphere is caused by stray light, light loss or reflection of artificially illuminated ground objects or surfaces such as streets, advertisement boards or building interiors. Thus it depends on the size, shape, spatial distribution, radiative pattern and spectral characteristics of many neighbouring light sources. The actual state of the atmospheric environment and the orography of the surrounding terrain are also relevant. All of these factors together influence the spectral sky radiance/luminance in a complex manner. Knowledge of the directional behaviour of light pollution is especially important for the correct interpretation of astronomical observations. From a mathematical point of view, the light noise or veil luminance of a specific sky element is given by a superposition of scattered light beams. Theoretical models that simulate light pollution typically take into account all ground-based light sources, thus imposing great requirements on CPU and MEM. As shown in this paper, a contribution of distant sources to the light pollution might be essential under specific conditions of low turbidity and/or Garstang-like radiative patterns. To evaluate the convergence of the theoretical model, numerical experiments are made for different light sources, spectral bands and atmospheric conditions. It is shown that in the worst case the integration limit is approximately 100 km, but it can be significantly shortened for light sources with cosine-like radiative patterns.

  8. Applications Of Diamond In Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal, M.; van Enckevort, W. J. P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews existing and new applications of single crystal diamond, both natural and synthetic, in optical science. The traditional application is as transmissive components, making use of the very wide spectral transmission range, high thermal conductivity, and chemical inertness of diamond. Diamond windows for corrosive environments are well known; diamond surgical endoscope components are under development; and the use of sharpened diamonds as combined surgical cutting instruments and light pipes for internal illumination of the edge is commercial reality. The superb ability of diamond to conduct heat, combined with its very low thermal expansion coefficient makes it suitable for the transmission of high power laser energy, though there is a problem currently being addressed of a high surface reflection coefficient. It is very probable that CVD diamond-like films will form good anti-reflection coatings for diamond. In new applications, the technology of making diamond lenses is being developed. The use of diamond as a detector of ionising radiation is well known, but recent work shows its possibilities in thermoluminescent as well as conduction and pulse counting modes. There are further possibilities of using diamond for the detection and measurement of optical radiation. Examples are low, medium, and high intensity far ultraviolet (< 225 nm) and very high intensity near ultraviolet and visible light from excimer, dye, or argon lasers. Diamond is very radiation resistant! Sensitivities, response times and impurity trap levels have been measured and appropriate diamonds can be synthesised. The use of diamond as fast opto-electronic switches has been reported in the literature and the mechanical and thermal design of diamond "heat sink" substrates for semiconductor laser diodes is advancing rapidly.

  9. Holographic free-electron light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanhai; Clarke, Brendan P.; So, Jin-Kyu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in the physics and technology of light generation via free-electron proximity and impact interactions with nanostructures (gratings, photonic crystals, nano-undulators, metamaterials and antenna arrays) have enabled the development of nanoscale-resolution techniques for such applications as mapping plasmons, studying nanoparticle structural transformations and characterizing luminescent materials (including time-resolved measurements). Here, we introduce a universal approach allowing generation of light with prescribed wavelength, direction, divergence and topological charge via point-excitation of holographic plasmonic metasurfaces. It is illustrated using medium-energy free-electron injection to generate highly-directional visible to near-infrared light beams, at selected wavelengths in prescribed azimuthal and polar directions, with brightness two orders of magnitude higher than that from an unstructured surface, and vortex beams with topological charge up to ten. Such emitters, with micron-scale dimensions and the freedom to fully control radiation parameters, offer novel applications in nano-spectroscopy, nano-chemistry and sensing.

  10. Holographic free-electron light source

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanhai; Clarke, Brendan P.; So, Jin-Kyu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the physics and technology of light generation via free-electron proximity and impact interactions with nanostructures (gratings, photonic crystals, nano-undulators, metamaterials and antenna arrays) have enabled the development of nanoscale-resolution techniques for such applications as mapping plasmons, studying nanoparticle structural transformations and characterizing luminescent materials (including time-resolved measurements). Here, we introduce a universal approach allowing generation of light with prescribed wavelength, direction, divergence and topological charge via point-excitation of holographic plasmonic metasurfaces. It is illustrated using medium-energy free-electron injection to generate highly-directional visible to near-infrared light beams, at selected wavelengths in prescribed azimuthal and polar directions, with brightness two orders of magnitude higher than that from an unstructured surface, and vortex beams with topological charge up to ten. Such emitters, with micron-scale dimensions and the freedom to fully control radiation parameters, offer novel applications in nano-spectroscopy, nano-chemistry and sensing. PMID:27910853

  11. Measurement of the speed of light from extraterrestrial sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jingshown; Huang, Yen-Ru; Tsao, Hen-Wai; Lee, San-Liang; Chang, Shenq-Tsong; Tsay, Ho-Lin; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2015-09-01

    The conventional measurements of the speed of light were performed before the early twentieth century. Only few used extraterrestrial sources and got the result with large uncertainty. We design a transmitter to modulate the rays from the local infrared light source and the extraterrestrial sources simultaneously into pulses. Both are received by a distant receiver. We have the white light travelling exactly along the path of the starlight pulses for calibration. It is found that the travel times of Aldebaran and Capella pulses are longer than that of Vega pulses. The results indicate that the speeds of starlights are different.

  12. Potential Sources of Polarized Light from a Plant Canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Field measurements have demonstrated that sunlight polarized during a first surface reflection by shiny leaves dominates the optical polarization of the light reflected by shiny-leafed plant canopies having approximately spherical leaf angle probability density functions ("Leaf Angle Distributions" - LAD). Yet for other canopies - specifically those without shiny leaves and/or spherical LADs - potential sources of optically polarized light may not always be obvious. Here we identify possible sources of polarized light within those other canopies and speculate on the ecologically important information polarization measurements of those sources might contain.

  13. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the

  14. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  15. Pulse-modulated light source for psychometric and vision experiments.

    PubMed

    Scholfield, C N; Murdock, M

    1987-03-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LED) of various colours were used to produce accurately controllable light sources. Variable light intensity was obtained by applying 800-ns current pulses to the LEDs at frequencies 1-1000 kHz using a single potentiometer. These current pulses were generated from an oscillator which was voltage-controlled from a potentiometer and an antilogarithmic amplifier. Its output was gated to produce an optional flicker of 1-100 Hz. The light intensity was indicated by a frequency meter connected to the oscillator. The reading of this was found to linearly indicate light intensity.

  16. Open-source products for a lighting experiment device.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Kevin M; Milburn, Nelda

    2014-12-01

    The capabilities of open-source software and microcontrollers were used to construct a device for controlled lighting experiments. The device was designed to ascertain whether individuals with certain color vision deficiencies were able to discriminate between the red and white lights in fielded systems on the basis of luminous intensity. The device provided the ability to control the timing and duration of light-emitting diode (LED) and incandescent light stimulus presentations, to present the experimental sequence and verbal instructions automatically, to adjust LED and incandescent luminous intensity, and to display LED and incandescent lights with various spectral emissions. The lighting device could easily be adapted for experiments involving flashing or timed presentations of colored lights, or the components could be expanded to study areas such as threshold light perception and visual alerting systems.

  17. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOEpatents

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  18. Interference of light from independent sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pegg, David T.

    2006-12-15

    We extend and generalize previous work on the interference of light from independent cavities that began with the suggestion of Pfleegor and Mandel [Phys. Rev. 159, 1084 (1967)] that their observed interference of laser beams should not be associated too closely with particular states of the beams but more with the detection process itself. In particular we examine how the detection of interference induces a nonrandom-phase difference between internal cavity states with initial random phases for a much broader range of such states than has previously been considered. We find that a subsequent interference measurement should give results consistent with the induced phase difference. The inclusion of more cavities in the interference measurements enables the construction in principle of a laboratory in the sense used by Aharonov and Susskind, made up of cavity fields that can serve as frames of phase reference. We also show reasonably simply how intrinsic phase coherence of a beam of light leaking from a single cavity arises for any internal cavity state, even a photon number state. Although the work presented here may have some implications for the current controversy over whether or not a typical laboratory laser produces a coherent state, it is not the purpose of this paper to enter this controversy; rather it is to examine the interesting quantum physics that arises for cavities with more general internal states.

  19. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Quigley, Gerard P.

    1996-01-01

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  20. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOEpatents

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  1. Interferometer combines laser light source and digital counting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Measurement of small linear displacements in digital readouts with extreme accuracy and sensitivity is achieved by an interferometer. The instrument combines a digital electro-optical fringe-counting system and a laser light source.

  2. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.; Young, J.

    1991-11-11

    This paper is a status report on the ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE (ALS) control system. The current status, performance data, and future plans will be discussed. Manpower, scheduling, and costs issues are addressed.

  3. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dierker,S.; Bergmann, U.; Corlett, J.; Dierker, S.; Falcone, R.; Galayda, J.; Gibson, M.; Hastings, J.; Hettel, B.; Hill, J.; Hussain, Z.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirx, J.; Long, G.; McCurdy, B.; Raubenheimer, T.; Sannibale, F.; Seeman, J.; Shen, Z.-X.; Shenoy, g.; Schoenlein, B.; Shen, Q.; Stephenson, B.; Stohr, J.; Zholents, A.

    2008-12-01

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects. The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee [1]. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  4. Science and Technology of Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe; Corlett, John; Dierker, Steve; Falcone, Roger; Galayda, John; Gibson, Murray; Hastings, Jerry; Hettel, Bob; Hill, John; Hussain, Zahid; Kao, Chi-Chang; Kirz, Janos; Long, Danielle; McCurdy, Bill; Raubenheimer, Tor; Sannibale, Fernando; Seeman, John; Shen, Z. -X.; Schenoy, Gopal; Schoenlein, Bob; Shen, Qun; Stephenson, Brian; Stohr, Joachim; Zholents, Alexander

    2009-01-28

    Many of the important challenges facing humanity, including developing alternative sources of energy and improving health, are being addressed by advances that demand the improved understanding and control of matter. While the visualization, exploration, and manipulation of macroscopic matter have long been technological goals, scientific developments in the twentieth century have focused attention on understanding matter on the atomic scale through the underlying framework of quantum mechanics. Of special interest is matter that consists of natural or artificial nanoscale building blocks defined either by atomic structural arrangements or by electron or spin formations created by collective correlation effects The essence of the challenge to the scientific community has been expressed in five grand challenges for directing matter and energy recently formulated by the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. These challenges focus on increasing our understanding of, and ultimately control of, matter at the level of atoms, electrons. and spins, as illustrated in Figure 1.1, and serve the entire range of science from advanced materials to life sciences. Meeting these challenges will require new tools that extend our reach into regions of higher spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. X-rays with energies above 10 keV offer capabilities extending beyond the nanoworld shown in Figure 1.1 due to their ability to penetrate into optically opaque or thick objects. This opens the door to combining atomic level information from scattering studies with 3D information on longer length scales from real space imaging with a resolution approaching 1 nm. The investigation of multiple length scales is important in hierarchical structures, providing knowledge about function of living organisms, the atomistic origin of materials failure, the optimization of industrial synthesis, or the working of devices. Since the fundamental interaction that holds matter together is of

  5. Survey, alignment, and beam stability at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1997. The ALS is a third generation light source requiring magnet alignment to within 150 microns. To accomplish this, a network of monuments was established and maintained. Monthly elevation surveys show the movement of the floor over time. Inclinometers have recently been employed to give real time information about magnet, vacuum tank and magnet girder motion in the ALS storage ring.

  6. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    ScienceCinema

    Falcone, Roger

    2016-07-12

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  7. Performance of single mechanoluminescent particle as ubiquitous light source.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Nao; Xu, Chao-Nan

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we have investigated mechanoluminescent (ML) performance of single ML particle as ubiquitous light source. When using high-speed CCD camera with image intensifier and microscopic equipment, mechanoluminescence from single particle was observed. As to the quantitative ML evaluation of the single ML particle was carried out using photomultiplier, and successfully estimated the performance of the single ML particle as an intensity controllable light source in nW order.

  8. New Directions in X-Ray Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Falcone, Roger

    2008-07-18

    July 15, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Molecular movies of chemical reactions and material phase transformations need a strobe of x-rays, the penetrating light that reveals how atoms and molecules assemble in chemical and biological systems and complex materials. Roger Falcone, Director of the Advanced Light Source,will discuss a new generation of x ray sources that will enable a new science of atomic dynamics on ultrafast timescales.

  9. Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozakov, R.; Schöpp, H.; Franke, St.; Stoll, C.; Kunz, D.

    2010-06-01

    The impact of the non-visual action of light on the design of novel light sources is discussed. Therefore possible modifications of lamps dealing with spectral tailoring and their action on melatonin suppression in usual life situations are investigated. The results of melatonin suppression by plasma lamps are presented. It is shown that even short-time exposure to usual light levels in working areas has an influence on the melatonin onset.

  10. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOEpatents

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  11. Hyperspectral microscopy to identify foodborne bacteria with optimum lighting source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Since scattering spectral signatures from hyperspectral microscopic images (HMI) vary with lighting sources, it is important to select optimal lights. The objective of this study is to compare t...

  12. Advanced light source, User`s Handbook, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a national facility for scientific research and development located at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) of the University of California. Its purpose is to generate beams of very bright light in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regions of the spectrum. The facility is open to researchers from industry, universities, and government laboratories.

  13. Compact synchrotron light source of the HSRC.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takayama, T; Hori, T

    1998-05-01

    A 700 MeV synchrotron radiation source optimized in order to be incorporated in the university laboratory is under commissioning at Hiroshima University. The storage ring is of a racetrack type with two long straight sections for installing undulators. The bending field is as strong as 2.7 T, produced by normal-conducting magnet technology, and delivers synchrotron radiation with a critical wavelength of 1.42 nm. The strong magnetic field also enables a low-energy injection scheme to be employed owing to the fast radiation damping. A 150 MeV microtron has been adopted as the injector.

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source annual report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hulbert, S.L.; Lazarz, N.M.

    1992-04-01

    This report discusses the following research conducted at NSLS: atomic and molecular science; energy dispersive diffraction; lithography, microscopy and tomography; nuclear physics; UV photoemission and surface science; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; x-ray scattering and crystallography; x-ray topography; workshop on surface structure; workshop on electronic and chemical phenomena at surfaces; workshop on imaging; UV FEL machine reviews; VUV machine operations; VUV beamline operations; VUV storage ring parameters; x-ray machine operations; x-ray beamline operations; x-ray storage ring parameters; superconducting x-ray lithography source; SXLS storage ring parameters; the accelerator test facility; proposed UV-FEL user facility at the NSLS; global orbit feedback systems; and NSLS computer system.

  15. Electrically driven and electrically tunable quantum light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. P.; Murray, E.; Bennett, A. J.; Ellis, D. J. P.; Dangel, C.; Farrer, I.; Spencer, P.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots in the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  17. A multi-source portable light emitting diode spectrofluorometer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A portable luminescence spectrofluorometer weighing only 1.5 kg that uses multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources was developed and evaluated. Excitation using a sequence of seven individual broad-band LED emission sources enabled the generation of excitation-emission spectra usi...

  18. Conversion degrees of resin composites using different light sources

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Bora; Cobanoglu, Nevin; Cetin, Ali Rıza; Gunduz, Beniz

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the conversion degree of six different composite materials (Filtek Z 250, Filtek P60, Spectrum TPH, Pertac II, Clearfil AP-X, and Clearfil Photo Posterior) using three different light sources (blue light-emitting diode [LED], plasma arc curing [PAC], and conventional halogen lamp [QTH]). Methods: Composites were placed in a 2 mm thick and 5 mm diameter Teflon molds and light cured from the top using three methods: LED for 40 s, PAC for 10 s, and QTH for 40 s. A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) (n=5). The results were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD test. Results: DC was significantly influenced by two variables, light source and composite (P<.05). QTH revealed significantly higher DC values than LED (P<.05). However, there were no significant differences between DC values of QTH and PAC or between DC values of LED and PAC (P>.05). The highest DC was observed in the Z 250 composite specimens following photopolymerization with QTH (70%). The lowest DC was observed in Clearfil Photo Posterior composite specimens following photo-polymerization with LED (43%). Conclusions: The DC was found to be changing according to both light sources and composite materials used. Conventional light halogen (QTH) from light sources and Filtek Z 250 and Filtek P 60 among composite materials showed the most DC performance. PMID:23407765

  19. Demonstration of the light source color on a photograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Rumi; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    2002-06-01

    We don't normally perceive the light source color in a night scene photograph even at the spot of a shining lamp, although of course we do perceive the color if we are in the corresponding real world. This different experience can be nicely explained by the concept of the recognized visual space of illumination, RVSI. We see the light source color for a shining lamp in a real world because its luminance is too high to be included within the RVSI constructed for the world. On the contrary, the luminance of the shining lamp in the photograph never goes beyond that of N10 in Munsell Value and it is easily included within the RVSI constructed for the space where the photograph is observed. The spot should appear a mere white, not a light source color. We proposed in the present paper a new method to perceive the light source color in a printed photograph. A subject used a dimension-up goggle to input only the photograph into his/her monocular eye so that he/she can perceive a 3D scene in it. The RVSI of a small brightness size was made for the scene by employing a night scene photograph and a spot in the scene was perceived as the light source color when the area had lightness 8.1 or larger in Munsell Value.

  20. Cell structure imaging with bright and homogeneous nanometric light source.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Masahiro; Ono, Atsushi; Nawa, Yasunori; Inami, Wataru; Shen, Lin; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terekawa, Susumu

    2017-04-01

    Label-free optical nano-imaging of dendritic structures and intracellular granules in biological cells is demonstrated using a bright and homogeneous nanometric light source. The optical nanometric light source is excited using a focused electron beam. A zinc oxide (ZnO) luminescent thin film was fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD) to produce the nanoscale light source. The ZnO film formed by ALD emitted the bright, homogeneous light, unlike that deposited by another method. The dendritic structures of label-free macrophage receptor with collagenous structure-expressing CHO cells were clearly visualized below the diffraction limit. The inner fiber structure was observed with 120 nm spatial resolution. Because the bright homogeneous emission from the ZnO film suppresses the background noise, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the imaging results was greater than 10. The ALD method helps achieve an electron beam excitation assisted microscope with high spatial resolution and high SNR.

  1. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  2. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  3. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  4. Status of the MAX IV Light Source Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wallen, Erik; Eriksson, Mikael; Berglund, Magnus; Malmgren, Lars; Lindgren, Lars-Johan; Tarawneh, Hamed; Brandin, Mathias; Werin, Sverker; Thorin, Sara; Sjoestroem, Magnus; Svensson, Haakan; Kumbaro, Dionis; Hansen, Tue

    2007-01-19

    The MAX IV light source project is presented. The MAX IV light source will consist of three low emittance storage rings and a 3 GeV injector linac. The three storage rings will be operated at 700 MeV, 1.5 GeV, and 3.0 GeV, which make it possible to cover a large spectral range from IR to hard X-rays with high brilliance undulator radiation from insertion devices optimised for each storage ring. The preparation of the injector linac to serve as a short pulse source and the major sub-systems of the facility are also presented.

  5. Photo-illuminated diamond as a solid-state source of solvated electrons in water for nitrogen reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di; Zhang, Linghong; Ruther, Rose E; Hamers, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of N₂ to NH₃ is typically hampered by poor binding of N₂ to catalytic materials and by the very high energy of the intermediates involved in this reaction. Solvated electrons directly introduced into the reactant solution can provide an alternative pathway to overcome such limitations. Here we demonstrate that illuminated hydrogen-terminated diamond yields facile electron emission into water, thus inducing reduction of N₂ to NH₃ at ambient temperature and pressure. Transient absorption measurements at 632 nm reveal the presence of solvated electrons adjacent to the diamond after photoexcitation. Experiments using inexpensive synthetic diamond samples and diamond powder show that photocatalytic activity is strongly dependent on the surface termination and correlates with the production of solvated electrons. The use of diamond to eject electrons into a reactant liquid represents a new paradigm for photocatalytic reduction, bringing electrons directly to reactants without requiring molecular adsorption to the surface.

  6. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  7. Fifth-Generation Free-Electron Laser Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, Claudio

    2011-03-02

    During the past few years, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) have demonstrated the outstanding capability of free-electron lasers (FELs) as sources of coherent radiation in the soft and hard x-ray region. The high intensity, tens of GW, short pulses (few to less than 100 femtoseconds, and the unique transverse coherence properties are opening a new window to study the structure and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. The LCLS, FLASH, and the other FELs now under construction are only the beginning of the development of these light sources. The next generations will reach new levels of performance: terawatt, atto-second, ultra-small line-width, high repetition rate, full longitudinal and transverse coherence. These future developments and the R&D needed to successfully build and operate the next generation of FEL light sources will be discussed.

  8. The roles of primary kimberlitic and secondary Dwyka glacial sources in the development of alluvial and marine diamond deposits in Southern Africa [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J. M.; Moore, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    The source area of Dwyka Group glacial sedimentary rocks in southern Africa contains a province of pre-Karoo diamondiferous kimberlites. Ice-flow vectors and facies variations indicate that diamonds and kimberlitic indicator minerals, acquired in this source region during the Dwyka glaciation, were transported to and deposited in areas adjacent to the modern Atlantic coast of southern Africa. Diamonds and kimberlite garnets, recovered from the Koa River gravel deposits on the Bushmanland Plateau, were probably derived by weathering of these Dwyka Group rocks. Along the west coast of South Africa and Namibia, marine and fluvial diamond concentrations of Cretaceous, Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene ages were also partly derived from Dwyka sources in both the Karoo and Kalahari Basins, as well as from other secondary sources such as glacial and fluvial sedimentary rocks of the Gariep Complex, Nama Group and Table Mountain Group. On the coastal plain, Cretaceous fluvial deposits formed during scarp retreat under podzolic weathering conditions. Miocene and younger fluvial and marine deposits formed by weathering processes that involved stripping of back-escarpment Karoo cover. Due to the presence of oversized diamictite-clast trapsites, concentrations of diamonds accumulated on exposed pre-Karoo surfaces during extended periods of crustal stability. Brief episodes of increased precipitation and uplift during the Miocene and Pliocene caused the flushing of these concentrations, in discrete events, via a few major drainages, into marine and near-coastal fluvial and aeolian settings. The majority of inland alluvial diamond deposits are located in a broad belt to the north and west of the Cretaceous diamondiferous kimberlite clusters in central South Africa. This distribution is probably the result of north-westward-flowing fluvial systems, inland of the Great Escarpment, which eroded significant thicknesses (up to 1.5 km) of Karoo cover rocks and drained into the palaeo

  9. Cathodoluminescence of diamond as an indicator of its metamorphic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Longo, Micaela; Ryder, John; Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa

    2010-05-01

    Diamond displays a supreme resistance to chemical and mechanical weathering, ensuring its survival through complex and prolonged crustal processes, including metamorphism and exhumation. For these reasons, volcanic sources and secondary and tertiary collectors for detrital placer diamonds, like Ural or Bingara diamonds, may be difficult to determine. If metamorphic processes leave their marks on diamond, they can be used to reconstruct crustal geologic processes and ages of primary diamondiferous volcanics. Four diamond suites extracted from metamorphic rocks have been characterized using optical CL, infrared and CL spectroscopy, and photoluminescence at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The studied diamonds are from the ~2.7 Ga sedimentary conglomerate and lamprophyric breccia metamorphosed in the greenschist facies (Wawa, Northern Ontario, Canada) during the 2.67 Ga Kenoran orogeny, and from the ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes of Kokchetav (Kazakhstan) and Erzgebirge (Germany) exhumated in the Paleozoic. Wawa diamonds (Type IaAB and Type II) displayed green, yellow, orange, and red CL colours controlled by the CL emittance at 520, 576 nm, and between 586 and 664 nm. The UHP terranes diamonds show much weaker CL; few luminescent stones display CL peaks at 395, 498, 528 nm and a broad band at 580-668 nm. In contrast, most common diamonds found in unmetamorphosed rocks, i.e. octahedrally grown Type IaAB stones, luminescence blue emitting light at ~415-440 nm and 480-490 nm. There is a noticeable difference between cathodoluminescence of these diamonds and diamonds in metamorphic rocks. The studied diamonds that experienced metamorphism show a shift of CL emission to longer wavelengths (above 520 nm) and to green, yellow and red CL colours. Photoluminescence has the high resolution necessary to assign luminescence to specific optical centers of diamond. Diamonds in metamorphic rocks contain H3 (pairs of substitutional nitrogen atoms separated by a vacancy) and NVo

  10. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  11. LED-based endoscopic light source for spectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, Craig M.; Mayes, Samuel; Favreau, Peter; Rich, Thomas C.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer is the United States 3rd leading cancer in death rates.1 The current screening for colorectal cancer is an endoscopic procedure using white light endoscopy (WLE). There are multiple new methods testing to replace WLE, for example narrow band imaging and autofluorescence imaging.2 However, these methods do not meet the need for a higher specificity or sensitivity. The goal for this project is to modify the presently used endoscope light source to house 16 narrow wavelength LEDs for spectral imaging in real time while increasing sensitivity and specificity. The process to do such was to take an Olympus CLK-4 light source, replace the light and electronics with 16 LEDs and new circuitry. This allows control of the power and intensity of the LEDs. This required a larger enclosure to house a bracket system for the solid light guide (lightpipe), three new circuit boards, a power source and National Instruments hardware/software for computer control. The results were a successfully designed retrofit with all the new features. The LED testing resulted in the ability to control each wavelength's intensity. The measured intensity over the voltage range will provide the information needed to couple the camera for imaging. Overall the project was successful; the modifications to the light source added the controllable LEDs. This brings the research one step closer to the main goal of spectral imaging for early detection of colorectal cancer. Future goals will be to connect the camera and test the imaging process.

  12. Suboptimal Light Conditions Influence Source-Sink Metabolism during Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Christiaens, Annelies; De Keyser, Ellen; Pauwels, Els; De Riek, Jan; Gobin, Bruno; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids). Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS) was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural) and optimal (supplemental light) light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark) to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions. PMID:26973689

  13. Phototaxis of Grapholitha molesta (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) to Different Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y-X; Tian, A; Zhang, X-B; Zhao, Z-G; Zhang, Z-W; Ma, R-Y

    2014-10-01

    The Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta (Busck) causes substantial damage to stone and pome fruit crops worldwide. Light-based traps offer a potential means for pest monitoring and management. In this study, we tested the preference of G. molesta for the following light sources: monochromatic light produced from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, and white), specific wavelengths of light produced from filters (405, 450, 480, 512, 540, 576, and 610 nm), and polychromatic light produced by different numbers (0, 12, 24, and 36) of green, blue, and violet LEDs. The arrangement of polychromatic lights was based on an orthogonal design matrix of L16 (4(3)). Based on the results of former studies, we further determined the optimal number of green and violet LEDs. The results showed that: 1) G. molesta strongly preferred the green, violet, and blue LEDs; 2) G. molesta significantly preferred light at 405 nm, followed by 540 nm, and showed no phototaxis to 480 nm; 3) for the polychromatic light configuration, violet and green were the factors that determined the preference of G. molesta, and the lamp with 12 violet LEDs captured the most moths; and 4) for the lamps with different light intensities, 36 violet LEDs or 12 green LEDs attracted the most moths, with the former performing better.

  14. A beamline for high-pressure studies at the Advanced Light Source with a superconducting bending magnet as the source.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Martin; MacDowell, Alastair A; Caldwell, Wendel A; Cambie, Daniella; Celestre, Richard S; Domning, Edward E; Duarte, Robert M; Gleason, Arianna E; Glossinger, James M; Kelez, Nicholas; Plate, David W; Yu, Tony; Zaug, Joeseph M; Padmore, Howard A; Jeanloz, Raymond; Alivisatos, A Paul; Clark, Simon M

    2005-09-01

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 T superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful X-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness-preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of a plane parabola collimating mirror, followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with Si(111) crystals (E/DeltaE approximately equal 7000) and W/B4C multilayers (E/DeltaE approximately equal 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam-positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detector (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second endstation dedicated to in situ laser heating and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic and polychromatic techniques.

  15. A BEAMLINE FOR HIGH PRESSURE STUDIES AT THE ADVANCED LIGHT SOURCE WITH A SUPERCONDUCTING BENDING MAGNET AS THE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, M; MacDowell, A A; Caldwell, W A; Cambie, D; Celestre, R S; Domning, E E; Duarte, R M; Gleason, A; Glossinger, J; Kelez, N; Plate, D W; Yu, T; Zaug, J M; Padmore, H A; Jeanloz, R; Alivisatos, A P; Clark, S M

    2005-04-19

    A new facility for high-pressure diffraction and spectroscopy using diamond anvil high-pressure cells has been built at the Advanced Light Source on Beamline 12.2.2. This beamline benefits from the hard X-radiation generated by a 6 Tesla superconducting bending magnet (superbend). Useful x-ray flux is available between 5 keV and 35 keV. The radiation is transferred from the superbend to the experimental enclosure by the brightness preserving optics of the beamline. These optics are comprised of: a plane parabola collimating mirror (M1), followed by a Kohzu monochromator vessel with a Si(111) crystals (E/{Delta}E {approx} 7000) and a W/B{sub 4}C multilayer (E/{Delta}E {approx} 100), and then a toroidal focusing mirror (M2) with variable focusing distance. The experimental enclosure contains an automated beam positioning system, a set of slits, ion chambers, the sample positioning goniometry and area detectors (CCD or image-plate detector). Future developments aim at the installation of a second end station dedicated for in situ laser-heating on one hand and a dedicated high-pressure single-crystal station, applying both monochromatic as well as polychromatic techniques.

  16. Data format standard for sharing light source measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, G. Groot; Ashdown, Ian; Brandenburg, Willi; Chabaud, Dominique; Dross, Oliver; Gangadhara, Sanjay; Garcia, Kevin; Gauvin, Michael; Hansen, Dirk; Haraguchi, Kei; Hasna, Günther; Jiao, Jianzhong; Kelley, Ryan; Koshel, John; Muschaweck, Julius

    2013-09-01

    Optical design requires accurate characterization of light sources for computer aided design (CAD) software. Various methods have been used to model sources, from accurate physical models to measurement of light output. It has become common practice for designers to include measured source data for design simulations. Typically, a measured source will contain rays which sample the output distribution of the source. The ray data must then be exported to various formats suitable for import into optical analysis or design software. Source manufacturers are also making measurements of their products and supplying CAD models along with ray data sets for designers. The increasing availability of data has been beneficial to the design community but has caused a large expansion in storage needs for the source manufacturers since each software program uses a unique format to describe the source distribution. In 2012, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) formed a working group to understand the data requirements for ray data and recommend a standard file format. The working group included representatives from software companies supplying the analysis and design tools, source measurement companies providing metrology, source manufacturers creating the data and users from the design community. Within one year the working group proposed a file format which was recently approved by the IES for publication as TM-25. This paper will discuss the process used to define the proposed format, highlight some of the significant decisions leading to the format and list the data to be included in the first version of the standard.

  17. Electrodeless lighting RF power source development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-30

    An efficient, solid state RF power source has been developed on this NICE project for exciting low power electrodeless lamp bulbs. This project takes full advantage of concurrent advances in electrodeless lamp technology. Electrodeless lamp lighting systems utilizing the sulfur based bulb type developed by Fusion Lighting, Inc., is an emerging technology which is based on generating light in a confined plasma created and sustained by RF excitation. The bulb for such a lamp is filled with a particular element and inert gas at low pressure when cold. RF power from the RF source creates a plasma within the bulb which reaches temperatures approaching those of high pressure discharge lamp plasmas. At these temperatures the plasma radiates substantial visible light with a spectrum similar to sunlight.

  18. A Multipurpose LED Light Source for Optics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Se-yuen

    2004-12-01

    The traditional light source for studying lenses and mirrors is either a bare white light bulb, or one encased inside a lamphouse.2, 3 A simple pattern like an arrow, mounted on an optical bench or printed on the window of a lamphouse, serves as the object. Ironically, the image captured on a translucent screen is often the shadow of the pattern with no light falling on it. Although LEDs have been used in commercial display boards for decades, the advantage of using LEDs as a multipurpose light source in the physics laboratory has been overlooked by many physics teachers. In this paper, we remind readers of a few examples of how LEDs can be used to replace the incandescent lamp for geometrical optics, physical optics, and fiber optics experiments.

  19. Increased collection efficiency of LIFI high intensity electrodeless light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidi, Abdeslam; DeVincentis, Marc; Duelli, Markus; Gilliard, Richard

    2008-02-01

    Recently, RF driven electrodeless high intensity light sources have been implemented successfully in the projection display systems for HDTV and videowall applications. This paper presents advances made in the RF waveguide and electric field concentrator structures with the purpose of reducing effective arc size and increasing light collection. In addition, new optical designs are described that further improve system efficiency. The results of this work demonstrate that projection system light throughput is increased relative to previous implementations and performance is optimized for home theater and other front projector applications that maintain multi-year lifetime without re-lamping, complete spectral range, fast start times and high levels of dynamic contrast due to dimming flexibility in the light source system.

  20. Tunable light source for use in photoacoustic spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Bisson, Scott E.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Armstrong, Karla M.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides a photoacoustic spectrometer that is field portable and capable of speciating complex organic molecules in the gas phase. The spectrometer has a tunable light source that has the ability to resolve the fine structure of these molecules over a large wavelength range. The inventive light source includes an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) having combined fine and coarse tuning. By pumping the OPO with the output from a doped-fiber optical amplifier pumped by a diode seed laser, the inventive spectrometer is able to speciate mixtures having parts per billion of organic compounds, with a light source that has a high efficiency and small size, allowing for portability. In an alternative embodiment, the spectrometer is scanned by controlling the laser wavelength, thus resulting in an even more compact and efficient design.

  1. Structural biology research at the National Synchroton Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for scientific research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation is operated by the national synchrotron Light Source Department. This year alone, a total of 2200 guest researchers performed experiments at the world`s largest source of synchrotron light. Researchers are trying to define the three- dimensional structures of biological macromolecules to create a map of life, a guide for exploring the biological and chemical interactions of the vast variety of molecules found in living organisms. Studies in structural biology may lead to new insights into how biological systems are formed and nourished, how they survive and grow, how they are damaged and die. This document discusses some the the structural biological research done at the National Synchrotron Light Source.

  2. Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangzhen; Wang, Lili; Li, Fuli; Zhang, Gongjian

    2012-04-10

    A collimating lens for a light-emitting-diode (LED) light source is an essential device widely used in lighting engineering. Lens surfaces are calculated by geometrical optics and nonimaging optics. This design progress does not rely on any software optimization and any complex iterative process. This method can be used for any type of light source not only Lambertian. The theoretical model is based on point source. But the practical LED source has a certain size. So in the simulation, an LED chip whose size is 1 mm*1 mm is used to verify the feasibility of the model. The mean results show that the lenses have a very compact structure and good collimating performance. Efficiency is defined as the ratio of the flux in the illuminated plane to the flux from LED source without considering the lens material transmission. Just investigating the loss in the designed lens surfaces, the two types of lenses have high efficiencies of more than 90% and 99%, respectively. Most lighting area (possessing 80% flux) radii are no more than 5 m when the illuminated plane is 200 m away from the light source.

  3. Diamond growth in mantle fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Hélène; Frost, Daniel J.; Bolfan-Casanova, Nathalie; Leroy, Clémence; Esteve, Imène; Cordier, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    In the upper mantle, diamonds can potentially grow from various forms of media (solid, gas, fluid) with a range of compositions (e.g. graphite, C-O-H fluids, silicate or carbonate melts). Inclusions trapped in diamonds are one of the few diagnostic tools that can constrain diamond growth conditions in the Earth's mantle. In this study, inclusion-bearing diamonds have been synthesized to understand the growth conditions of natural diamonds in the upper mantle. Diamonds containing syngenetic inclusions were synthesized in multi-anvil presses employing starting mixtures of carbonates, and silicate compositions in the presence of pure water and saline fluids (H2O-NaCl). Experiments were performed at conditions compatible with the Earth's geotherm (7 GPa, 1300-1400 °C). Results show that within the timescale of the experiments (6 to 30 h) diamond growth occurs if water and carbonates are present in the fluid phase. Water promotes faster diamond growth (up to 14 mm/year at 1400 °C, 7 GPa, 10 g/l NaCl), which is favorable to the inclusion trapping process. At 7 GPa, temperature and fluid composition are the main factors controlling diamond growth. In these experiments, diamonds grew in the presence of two fluids: an aqueous fluid and a hydrous silicate melt. The carbon source for diamond growth must be carbonate (CO32) dissolved in the melt or carbon dioxide species in the aqueous fluid (CO2aq). The presence of NaCl affects the growth kinetics but is not a prerequisite for inclusion-bearing diamond formation. The presence of small discrete or isolated volumes of water-rich fluids is necessary to grow inclusion-bearing peridotitic, eclogitic, fibrous, cloudy and coated diamonds, and may also be involved in the growth of ultradeep, ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic diamonds.

  4. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option.

  5. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1994-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond film thickness on the substrate.

  6. Conversion of fullerenes to diamond

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.

    1993-01-01

    A method of forming synthetic diamond on a substrate is disclosed. The method involves providing a substrate surface covered with a fullerene or diamond coating, positioning a fullerene in an ionization source, creating a fullerene vapor, ionizing fullerene molecules, accelerating the fullerene ions to energies above 250 eV to form a fullerene ion beam, impinging the fullerene ion beam on the substrate surface and continuing these steps to obtain a diamond thickness on the substrate.

  7. LPP-EUV light source for HVM lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, T.; Ueno, Y.; Yabu, T.; Kurosawa, A.; Nagai, S.; Yanagida, T.; Hori, T.; Kawasuji, Y.; Abe, T.; Kodama, T.; Nakarai, H.; Yamazaki, T.; Mizoguchi, H.

    2017-01-01

    We have been developing a laser produced plasma extremely ultra violet (LPP-EUV) light source for a high volume manufacturing (HVM) semiconductor lithography. It has several unique technologies such as the high power short pulse carbon dioxide (CO2) laser, the short wavelength solid-state pre-pulse laser and the debris mitigation technology with the magnetic field. This paper presents the key technologies for a high power LPP-EUV light source. We also show the latest performance data which is 188W EUV power at intermediate focus (IF) point with 3.7% conversion efficiency (CE) at 100 kHz.

  8. Laser wakefield accelerator based light sources: potential applications and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Thomas, A. G.; Mangles, S. P.D.; Banerjee, S.; Corde, S.; Flacco, A.; Litos, M.; Neely, D.; Viera, J.; Najmudin, Z.; Bingham, R.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.

    2015-01-15

    In this article we review the prospects of laser wakefield accelerators as next generation light sources for applications. This work arose as a result of discussions held at the 2013 Laser Plasma Accelerators Workshop. X-ray phase contrast imaging, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear resonance fluorescence are highlighted as potential applications for laser-plasma based light sources. We discuss ongoing and future efforts to improve the properties of radiation from plasma betatron emission and Compton scattering using laser wakefield accelerators for these specific applications.

  9. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, Peter; A; Anastasio, Cort; Dodge, Cleveland; Fendorf, Scott; Francis, A.J.; Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Tomutsa, Liviu; Tufano, Kate; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Werner, Michelle; Williams, Ken

    2006-04-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a variety of capabilities that are applicable to very different types of environmental systems. Shown are the basic descriptions of four of the approximately 35 beam lines at the ALS. The complimentary capabilities of these four beam lines allow for investigations that range from a spatial scale of a few nanometers to several millimeters. The Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source seeks to promote and assist environmental research, particularly on the four beam lines described in this report. Several short examples of the types of research conducted on these beam lines are also described.

  10. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  11. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Félicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-11-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons in the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. We first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.

  12. Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source: current results and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roque da Silva, Antonio Jose

    2013-03-01

    The application of synchrotron radiation in a great variety of fields in general, and condensed matter in particular, has increased steadily worldwide. This, to a large extent, is a result of the availability of the much brighter third-generation light sources, which opened up new experimental techniques. Brazil gave an important contribution to science in Latin America through the development of the necessary technology and the construction of the first synchrotron in the southern hemisphere, still the only one in Latin America. The Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron - LNLS, operates this installation as an open facility since 1997, having today more than 1300 users yearly. Despite all this success, the current Brazilian light source is a second-generation machine, with relatively low electron energy, high emittance and few straight sections for insertion devices. LNLS is currently engaged in the design and construction of a new, third-generation synchrotron light source. It is being planned to be a state of the art machine, providing tools for cutting edge research that are non existent today in Brazil. In this talk an overview of the status of the current Brazilian light source will be provided, illustrated with some experimental results from users, as well as the future perspectives of the new synchrotron source.

  13. Applications of laser wakefield accelerator-based light sources

    DOE PAGES

    Albert, Felicie; Thomas, Alec G. R.

    2016-10-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators (LWFAs) were proposed more than three decades ago, and while they promise to deliver compact, high energy particle accelerators, they will also provide the scientific community with novel light sources. In a LWFA, where an intense laser pulse focused onto a plasma forms an electromagnetic wave in its wake, electrons can be trapped and are now routinely accelerated to GeV energies. From terahertz radiation to gamma-rays, this article reviews light sources from relativistic electrons produced by LWFAs, and discusses their potential applications. Betatron motion, Compton scattering and undulators respectively produce x-rays or gamma-rays by oscillating relativistic electrons inmore » the wakefield behind the laser pulse, a counter-propagating laser field, or a magnetic undulator. Other LWFA-based light sources include bremsstrahlung and terahertz radiation. Here, we first evaluate the performance of each of these light sources, and compare them with more conventional approaches, including radio frequency accelerators or other laser-driven sources. We have then identified applications, which we discuss in details, in a broad range of fields: medical and biological applications, military, defense and industrial applications, and condensed matter and high energy density science.« less

  14. Synthesis of diamonds with mineral, fluid and melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bataleva, Yuliya V.; Palyanov, Yuri N.; Borzdov, Yuri M.; Kupriyanov, Igor N.; Sokol, Alexander G.

    2016-11-01

    Experiments on the synthesis of inclusions-bearing diamond were performed in the SiO2-((Mg,Ca)CO3-(Fe,Ni)S system at 6.3 GPa and 1650-1750 °C, using a multi-anvil high pressure apparatus of the ;split-sphere; type. Diamond synthesis was realized in the ;sandwich-type; experiments, where the carbonate-oxide mixture acted as a source of both CO2-dominated fluid and carbonate-silicate melt, and Fe,Ni-sulfide played a role of reducing agent. As a result of redox reactions in the carbonate-oxide-sulfide system, diamond was formed in association with graphite and Mg,Fe-silicates, coexisting with CO2-rich fluid, carbonate-silicate and sulfide melts. The synthesized diamonds are predominantly colorless or light-yellow monocrystals with octahedral habit (20-200 μm), and polycrystalline aggregates (300-400 μm). Photoluminescence spectroscopy revealed defects related to nickel impurity (S3 optical centers), which are characteristic of many diamonds in nature. The density of diamond crystallization centers over the entire reaction volume was 3 × 102-103 cm- 3. The overwhelming majority of diamonds synthesized were inclusions-bearing. According to Raman spectroscopy data, diamond trapped a wide variety of inclusions (both mono- and polyphase), including orthopyroxene, olivine, carbonate-silicate melt, sulfide melt, CO2-fluid, graphite, and diamond. The Raman spectral pattern of carbonate-silicate melt inclusions have bands characteristic of magnesite and orthopyroxene (± SiO2). The spectra of sulfide melt displayed marcasite and pyrrhotite peaks. We found that compositions of sulfide, silicate and carbonate phases are in good agreement not only with diamond crystallization media in experiments, but with data on natural diamond inclusions of peridotitic and eclogitic parageneses. The proposed methodological approach of diamond synthesis can be used for experimental simulation of the formation of several types of mineral, fluid and melt inclusions, observed in natural

  15. High-speed OCT light sources and systems [Invited

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Imaging speed is one of the most important parameters that define the performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. During the last two decades, OCT speed has increased by over three orders of magnitude. New developments in wavelength-swept lasers have repeatedly been crucial for this development. In this review, we discuss the historical evolution and current state of the art of high-speed OCT systems, with focus on wavelength swept light sources and swept source OCT systems. PMID:28270988

  16. Seeing "the Dress" in the Right Light: Perceived Colors and Inferred Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Ivanchei, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    In the well-known "dress" photograph, people either see the dress as blue with black stripes or as white with golden stripes. We suggest that the perception of colors is guided by the scene interpretation and the inferred positions of light sources. We tested this hypothesis in two online studies using color matching to estimate the colors observers see, while controlling for individual differences in gray point bias and color discrimination. Study 1 demonstrates that the interpretation of the dress corresponds to differences in perceived colors. Moreover, people who perceive the dress as blue-and-black are two times more likely to consider the light source as frontal, than those who see the white-and-gold dress. The inferred light sources, in turn, depend on the circadian changes in ambient light. The interpretation of the scene background as a wall or a mirror is consistent with the perceived colors as well. Study 2 shows that matching provides reliable results on differing devices and replicates the findings on scene interpretation and light sources. Additionally, we show that participants' environmental lighting conditions are an important cue for perceiving the dress colors. The exact mechanisms of how environmental lighting and circadian changes influence the perceived colors of the dress deserve further investigation.

  17. High efficiency light source using solid-state emitter and down-conversion material

    DOEpatents

    Narendran, Nadarajah; Gu, Yimin; Freyssinier, Jean Paul

    2010-10-26

    A light emitting apparatus includes a source of light for emitting light; a down conversion material receiving the emitted light, and converting the emitted light into transmitted light and backward transmitted light; and an optic device configured to receive the backward transmitted light and transfer the backward transmitted light outside of the optic device. The source of light is a semiconductor light emitting diode, a laser diode (LD), or a resonant cavity light emitting diode (RCLED). The down conversion material includes one of phosphor or other material for absorbing light in one spectral region and emitting light in another spectral region. The optic device, or lens, includes light transmissive material.

  18. Spectral matching research for light-emitting diode-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ruting; Guo, Zhenning; Lin, Jieben

    2015-09-01

    To decrease the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy and minimize the need for exchange transfusions, we report a novel design for light source of light-emitting diode (LED)-based neonatal jaundice therapeutic device (NJTD). The bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target. Based on spectral constructing theory, we used commercially available LEDs with different peak wavelengths and full width at half maximum as matching light sources. Simple genetic algorithm was first proposed as the spectral matching method. The required LEDs number at each peak wavelength was calculated, and then, the commercial light source sample model of the device was fabricated to confirm the spectral matching technology. In addition, the corresponding spectrum was measured and the effect was analyzed finally. The results showed that fitted spectrum was very similar to the target spectrum with 98.86 % matching degree, and the actual device model has a spectrum close to the target with 96.02 % matching degree. With higher fitting degree and efficiency, this matching algorithm is very suitable for light source matching technology of LED-based spectral distribution, and bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo will be auspicious candidate for the target spectrum of new LED-based NJTD light source.

  19. Determining and quantifying specific sources of light alkane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Determining and quantifying specific sources of emission of methane (an important greenhouse gas) and light alkanes from abandoned gas and oil wells, hydraulic fracturing or associated with CO2 sequestration are a challenge in determining their contribution to the atmospheric greenhouse gas budget or to identify source of groundwater contamination. Here, we review organic biogeochemistry proprieties and isotopic fingerprinting of C1-C5 alkanes to address this problem. For instance, the concentration ratios of CH4 to C2-C5 alkanes can be used to distinguish between thermogenic and microbial generated CH4. Together C and H isotopes of CH4 are used to differentiate bacterial generated sources and thermogenic CH4 and may also identify processes such as alteration and source mixing. Carbon isotope ratios pattern of C1-C5 alkanes highlight sources and oxidation processes in the gas reservoirs. Stable carbon isotope measurements are a viable tool for monitoring the degradation progress of methane and light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotope ratios of the reactants and products are independent of the concentration and only depend on the relative progress of the particular reaction. Oxidation/degradation of light alkanes are typically associated with increasing ð13C values. Isotopic mass balances offer the possibility to independently determine the fractions coming from microbial versus thermogenic and would also permit differentiation of the isotope fractionations associated with degradation. Unlike conventional concentration measurements, this approach is constrained by the different isotopic signatures of various sources and sinks.

  20. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits). PMID:27140147

  1. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  2. Transmission-mode diamond white-beam position monitor at NSLS.

    PubMed

    Muller, Erik M; Smedley, John; Bohon, Jen; Yang, Xi; Gaowei, Mengjia; Skinner, John; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Sullivan, Michael; Allaire, Marc; Keister, Jeffrey W; Berman, Lonny; Héroux, Annie

    2012-05-01

    Two transmission-mode diamond X-ray beam position monitors installed at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) beamline X25 are described. Each diamond beam position monitor is constructed around two horizontally tiled electronic-grade (p.p.b. nitrogen impurity) single-crystal (001) CVD synthetic diamonds. The position, angle and flux of the white X-ray beam can be monitored in real time with a position resolution of 500 nm in the horizontal direction and 100 nm in the vertical direction for a 3 mm × 1 mm beam. The first diamond beam position monitor has been in operation in the white beam for more than one year without any observable degradation in performance. The installation of a second, more compact, diamond beam position monitor followed about six months later, adding the ability to measure the angular trajectory of the photon beam.

  3. Transmission-mode diamond white-beam position monitor at NSLS

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Erik M.; Smedley, John; Bohon, Jen; Yang, Xi; Gaowei, Mengjia; Skinner, John; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Sullivan, Michael; Allaire, Marc; Keister, Jeffrey W.; Berman, Lonny; Héroux, Annie

    2012-01-01

    Two transmission-mode diamond X-ray beam position monitors installed at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) beamline X25 are described. Each diamond beam position monitor is constructed around two horizontally tiled electronic-grade (p.p.b. nitrogen impurity) single-crystal (001) CVD synthetic diamonds. The position, angle and flux of the white X-ray beam can be monitored in real time with a position resolution of 500 nm in the horizontal direction and 100 nm in the vertical direction for a 3 mm × 1 mm beam. The first diamond beam position monitor has been in operation in the white beam for more than one year without any observable degradation in performance. The installation of a second, more compact, diamond beam position monitor followed about six months later, adding the ability to measure the angular trajectory of the photon beam. PMID:22514173

  4. PREFACE: Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources: pushing the limits Diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources: pushing the limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissis, Georges; Haverlag, Marco

    2010-06-01

    Light sources play an indispensable role in the daily life of any human being. Quality of life, health and urban security related to traffic and crime prevention depend on light and on its quality. In fact, every day approximately 30 billion electric light sources operate worldwide. These electric light sources consume almost 19% of worldwide electricity production. Finding new ways to light lamps is a challenge where the stakes are scientific, technological, economic and environmental. The production of more efficient light sources is a sustainable solution for humanity. There are many opportunities for not only enhancing the efficiency and reliability of lighting systems but also for improving the quality of light as seen by the end user. This is possible through intelligent use of new technologies, deep scientific understanding of the operating principles of light sources and knowledge of the varied human requirements for different types of lighting in different settings. A revolution in the domain of light source technology is on the way: high brightness light emitting diodes arriving in the general lighting market, together with organic LEDs (OLEDs), are producing spectacular advances. However, unlike incandescence, electrical discharge lamps are far from disappearing from the market. In addition, new generations of discharge lamps based on molecular radiators are becoming a reality. There are still many scientific and technological challenges to be raised in this direction. Diagnostics are important for understanding the fundamental mechanisms taking place in the discharge plasma. This understanding is an absolute necessity for system optimization leading to more efficient and high quality light sources. The studied medium is rather complex, but new diagnostic techniques coupled to innovative ideas and powerful tools have been developed in recent years. This cluster issue of seven papers illustrates these efforts. The selected papers cover all domains, from

  5. The effect of light-activation sources on tooth bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Baroudi, Kusai; Hassan, Nadia Aly

    2014-01-01

    Vital bleaching is one of the most requested cosmetic dental procedures asked by patients who seek a more pleasing smile. This procedure consists of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide gel applications that can be applied in-office or by the patient (at-home/overnight bleaching system). Some in-office treatments utilise whitening light with the objective of speeding up the whitening process. The objective of this article is to review and summarise the current literature with regard to the effect of light-activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. A literature search was conducted using Medline, accessed via the National Library of Medicine Pub Med from 2003 to 2013 searching for articles relating to effectiveness of light activation sources on in-office tooth bleaching. This study found conflicting evidence on whether light truly improve tooth whitening. Other factors such as, type of stain, initial tooth colour and subject age which can influence tooth bleaching outcome were discussed. Conclusions: The use of light activator sources with in-office bleaching treatment of vital teeth did not increase the efficacy of bleaching or accelerate the bleaching. PMID:25298598

  6. Cavity-Enhanced Single-Photon Source Based on the Silicon-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedikter, Julia; Kaupp, Hanno; Hümmer, Thomas; Liang, Yuejiang; Bommer, Alexander; Becher, Christoph; Krueger, Anke; Smith, Jason M.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Hunger, David

    2017-02-01

    Single-photon sources are an integral part of various quantum technologies, and solid-state quantum emitters at room temperature appear to be a promising implementation. We couple the fluorescence of individual silicon-vacancy centers in nanodiamonds to a tunable optical microcavity to demonstrate a single-photon source with high efficiency, increased emission rate, and improved spectral purity compared to the intrinsic emitter properties. We use a fiber-based microcavity with a mode volume as small as 3.4 λ3 and a quality factor of 1.9 ×1 04 and observe an effective Purcell factor of up to 9.2. Furthermore, we study modifications of the internal rate dynamics and propose a rate model that closely agrees with the measurements. We observe lifetime changes of up to 31%, limited by the finite quantum efficiency of the emitters studied here. With improved materials, our achieved parameters predict single-photon rates beyond 1 GHz.

  7. A mobile light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trower, W. P.; Karev, A. I.; Melekhin, V. N.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Sobenin, N. P.

    1995-05-01

    The pulsed light source for carbon/nitrogen cameras developed to image concealed narcotics/explosives is described. This race-track microtron will produce 40 mA pulses of 70 MeV electrons, have minimal size and weight, and maximal ruggedness and reliability, so that it can be transported on a truck.

  8. Enabling instrumentation and technology for 21st century light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Shea, T.J.; Denes, P.; Siddons, P.; Attwood, D.; Kaertner, F.; Moog, L.; Li, Y.; Sakdinawat, A.; Schlueter, R.

    2010-06-01

    We present the summary from the Accelerator Instrumentation and Technology working group, one of the five working groups that participated in the BES-sponsored Workshop on Accelerator Physics of Future Light Sources held in Gaithersburg, MD September 15-17, 2009. We describe progress and potential in three areas: attosecond instrumentation, photon detectors for user experiments, and insertion devices.

  9. Measurement of storage ring motion at the advanced light source

    SciTech Connect

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The mechanical stability of the Advanced Light Source storage ring is examined over a period of 1.5 years from the point of view of floor motion. The storage ring beam position monitor stability is examined under various operating conditions.

  10. Miniature Incandescent Lamps as Fiber-Optic Light Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; Collura, Joe; Helvajian, Henry; Pocha, Michael; Meyer, Glenn; McConaghy, Charles F.; Olsen, Barry L.

    2008-01-01

    Miniature incandescent lamps of a special type have been invented to satisfy a need for compact, rapid-response, rugged, broadband, power-efficient, fiber-optic-coupled light sources for diverse purposes that could include calibrating spectrometers, interrogating optical sensors, spot illumination, and spot heating.

  11. Research by industry at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The world`s foremost facility for research using x-rays and ultraviolet and infrared radiation, is operated by the National Synchrotron Light Source dept. This pamphlet described the participating research teams that built most of the beam lines, various techniques for studying materials, treatment of materials, and various industrial research (catalysis, pharmaceuticals, etc.).

  12. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 1997/1998

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, Annette

    1999-03-01

    This Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Advanced Light Source (ALS) activity report for 1997/98 discusses the following topics: Introduction and Overview; Science Highlights; Facility Report; Special Events; ALS Advisory Panels 1997/98; ALS Staff 1997/98 and Facts and Figures for the year.

  13. Compact X-ray Light Source Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Evans, James E.; Terminello, Louis J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Manke, Kristin L.; Plata, Charity

    2012-12-01

    This report, produced jointly by EMSL and FCSD, is the result of a workshop held in September 2011 that examined the utility of a compact x-ray light source (CXLS) in addressing many scientific challenges critical to advancing energy science and technology.

  14. Superconducting RF Linac Technology for ERL Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Tennant, Chris

    2005-08-01

    Energy Recovering Linacs (ERLs) offer an attractive alternative as drivers for light sources as they combine the desirable characteristics of both storage rings (high efficiency) and linear accelerators (superior beam quality). Using superconducting RF technology allows ERLs to operate more efficiently because of the inherent characteristics of SRF linacs, namely that they are high gradient-low impedance structures and their ability to operate in the long pulse or CW regime. We present an overview of the physics challenges encountered in the design and operation of ERL based light sources with particular emphasis on those issues related to SRF technology. These challenges include maximizing a cavity's Qo to increase cryogenic efficiency, maintaining control of the cavity field in the presence of the highest feasible loaded Q and providing adequate damping of the higher-order modes (HOMs). If not sufficiently damped, dipole HOMs can drive the multipass beam breakup (BBU) instability which ERLs are particularly susceptible to. Another challenge involves efficiently extracting the potentially large amounts of HOM power that are generated when a bunch traverses the SRF cavities and which may extend over a high range of frequencies. We present experimental data from the Jefferson Lab FEL Upgrade, a 10 mA ERL light source presently in operation, aimed at addressing some of these issues. We conclude with an outlook towards the future of ERL based light sources.

  15. The light curve of a transient X-ray source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaluzienski, L. J.; Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Eadie, G.; Pounds, K. A.; Ricketts, M. J.; Watson, M.

    1975-01-01

    The Ariel-5 satellite has monitored the X-ray light curve of A1524-62 almost continuously from 40 days prior to maximum light until its disappearance below the effective experimental sensitivity. The source exhibited maximum light on Dec. 4, 1974, at a level of 0.9 the apparent magnitude of the Crab Nebula in the energy band 3-6 keV. Although similar to previously reported transient sources with a decay time constant of about 2 months, the source exhibited an extended, variable preflare on-state of about 1 month at a level of greater than 0.1 maximum light. The four bright (greater than 0.2 of the Crab Nebula) transient sources observed during the first half-year of Ariel-5 operation are indicative of a galactic disk distribution, a luminosity at maximum in excess of 10 to the 37-th power ergs/sec, a frequency of occurrence which may be as high as 100/yr, and a median decay time which is less than 1 month.

  16. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Willmott, P. R.; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Böge, M.; Calvi, M.; Cancellieri, C.; Casati, N.; Cervellino, A.; Chen, Q.; David, C.; Flechsig, U.; Gozzo, F.; Henrich, B.; Jäggi-Spielmann, S.; Jakob, B.; Kalichava, I.; Karvinen, P.; Krempasky, J.; Lüdeke, A.; Lüscher, R.; Maag, S.; Quitmann, C.; Reinle-Schmitt, M. L.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, B.; Streun, A.; Vartiainen, I.; Vitins, M.; Wang, X.; Wullschleger, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs. PMID:23955029

  17. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-03-31

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths ({lambda}=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range ({lambda}=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution.

  18. Light extraction by directional sources within optically dense media.

    PubMed

    Nagel, James R

    2012-12-03

    Light extraction efficiency (LEE) from a light-emitting diode is commonly referenced against an isotropic radiator within a dense dielectric medium. However, this description is not necessarily accurate for photonic devices with directional source elements. We therefore derive exact solutions for the LEE of a directive radiating source next to a planar dielectric boundary, accounting for any Fresnel reflections at the interface. These results can be used to validate numerical simulations and to quantify the baseline LEE for different source models. Four variations are explored, including the isotropic radiator, parallel and perpendicular orientations of the Hertzian dipole, and Lambertian scattering. Due to index matching, Fresnel reflections are generally negligible for materials with large escape cones, but reduce LEE by 20 % or more when critical angle is below 25°.

  19. All diamond self-aligned thin film transistor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbi, Jennifer

    2008-07-01

    A substantially all diamond transistor with an electrically insulating substrate, an electrically conductive diamond layer on the substrate, and a source and a drain contact on the electrically conductive diamond layer. An electrically insulating diamond layer is in contact with the electrically conductive diamond layer, and a gate contact is on the electrically insulating diamond layer. The diamond layers may be homoepitaxial, polycrystalline, nanocrystalline or ultrananocrystalline in various combinations.A method of making a substantially all diamond self-aligned gate transistor is disclosed in which seeding and patterning can be avoided or minimized, if desired.

  20. Effects of laryngoscope handle light source on the light intensity from disposable laryngoscope blades.

    PubMed

    Milne, A D; Brousseau, P A; Brousseau, C A

    2014-12-01

    A bench-top study was performed to assess the effects of different laryngoscope handles on the light intensity delivered from disposable metal or plastic laryngoscope blades. The light intensity from both the handle light sources themselves and the combined handle and laryngoscope blade sets was measured using a custom-designed testing system and light meter. Five samples of each disposable blade type were tested and compared with a standard re-usable stainless steel blade using three different handle/light sources (Vital Signs LED, Heine 2.5 V Xenon and 3.5 V Xenon). The light intensity delivered by the disposable blades ranged from 790 to 3846 lux for the different handle types. Overall, the 3.5 V Heine handle delivered the highest light output (p < 0.007) in comparison with the other handles. For the disposable blades, the overall light output was significantly higher from the plastic than the metal blades (p < 0.001).

  1. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Dhesi, S S; Maccherozzi, F; Cavill, S; Shepherd, E; Yuan, F; Deshmukh, R; Scott, S; van der Laan, G; Sawhney, K J S

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B(4)C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  2. High-precision soft x-ray polarimeter at Diamond Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Dhesi, S. S.; Maccherozzi, F.; Cavill, S.; Shepherd, E.; Yuan, F.; Deshmukh, R.; Scott, S.; van der Laan, G.; Sawhney, K. J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The development and performance of a high-precision polarimeter for the polarization analysis in the soft x-ray region is presented. This versatile, high-vacuum compatible instrument is supported on a hexapod to simplify the alignment with a resolution less than 5 μrad, and can be moved with its own independent control system easily between different beamlines and synchrotron facilities. The polarimeter can also be used for the characterization of reflection and transmission properties of optical elements. A W/B4C multilayer phase retarder was used to characterize the polarization state up to 1200 eV. A fast and accurate alignment procedure was developed, and complete polarization analysis of the APPLE II undulator at 712 eV has been performed.

  3. The Diamond Light Source and the challenges ahead for structural biology: some informal remarks

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, V.

    2015-01-01

    The remarkable advances in structural biology in the past three decades have led to the determination of increasingly complex structures that lie at the heart of many important biological processes. Many of these advances have been made possible by the use of X-ray crystallography using synchrotron radiation. In this short article, some of the challenges and prospects that lie ahead will be summarized. PMID:25624524

  4. The Diamond Light Source and the challenges ahead for structural biology: some informal remarks.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, V

    2015-03-06

    The remarkable advances in structural biology in the past three decades have led to the determination of increasingly complex structures that lie at the heart of many important biological processes. Many of these advances have been made possible by the use of X-ray crystallography using synchrotron radiation. In this short article, some of the challenges and prospects that lie ahead will be summarized.

  5. Effects of light sources and visible light-activated titanium dioxide photocatalyst on bleaching.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Otsuki, Masayuki; Ogisu, Shinichiro; Kishikawa, Ryuzo; Tagami, Junji; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kurata, Hiroshi; Cho, Takahiro

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate, using methylene blue (MB), the effects of various light sources on the bleaching action of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with two titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) photocatalysts - an ultraviolet light-activated TiO(2) photocatalyst (UVTiO(2)) versus a visible light-activated TiO(2) photocatalyst (VL-TiO(2)). Five experimental solutions (VL-TiO(2)+H(2)O(2), UV-TiO(2)+H(2)O(2), H(2)O(2), VL-TiO(2), UV-TiO(2)) were prepared by mixing varying concentrations of H(2)O(2 )and/or TiO(2 )photocatalyst with MB solution. For H(2)O(2)-containing solutions (VL-TiO(2)+H(2)O(2), UV-TiO(2)+H(2)O(2), and H(2)O(2)), the concentration of H(2)O(2) was adjusted to 3.5%. For the four different light sources, low- and high-intensity halogen lamps and blue LED LCUs were used. All the experimental solutions were irradiated by each of the light sources for 7 minutes, and the absorbance at 660 nm was measured every 30 seconds to determine the concentration of MB as an indicator of the bleaching effect. On the interaction between the effects of light source and bleaching treatment, the high-intensity halogen with VL-TiO(2)+H(2)O(2) caused the most significant reduction in MB concentration. On the effect of light sources, the halogen lamps resulted in a greater bleaching effect than the blue LED LCUs.

  6. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source.

  7. The advanced light source: America`s brightest light for science and industry

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Lawler, G.

    1994-03-01

    America`s brightest light comes from the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility for scientific research, product development, and manufacturing. Completed in 1993, the ALS produces light in the ultraviolet and x-ray regions of the spectrum. Its extreme brightness provides opportunities for scientific and technical progress not possible anywhere else. Technology is poised on the brink of a major revolution - one in which vital machine components and industrial processes will be drastically miniaturized. Industrialized nations are vying for leadership in this revolution - and the huge economic rewards the leaders will reap.

  8. Method and apparatus for acquisition and tracking of light sources in a transient event rich environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissh, Frank (Inventor); Flynn, David (Inventor); Fowski, Walter (Inventor); Abreu, Rene (Inventor); Miklus, Kenneth (Inventor); Bolin, Kenneth (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for tracking a light source in a transient event rich environment locks on to a light source incident on a field-of-view 1 of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) array 6, validates the permanence of said light source and transmits data relating to the brilliance and location of said light source if said light source is determined to be permanent.

  9. Simulating Dicke-like superradiance with classical light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, D.; Oppel, S.; Wiegner, R.; Agarwal, G. S.; von Zanthier, J.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the close relationship between Dicke superradiance, originally predicted for an ensemble of two-level atoms in entangled states, and the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, initially established in astronomy to determine the dimensions of classical light sources such as stars. By studying the state evolution of the fields produced by classical sources—defined by a positive Glauber-Sudarshan P function—when recording intensity correlations of higher order in a generalized Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup we find that the angular distribution of the last detected photon, apart from an offset, is identical to the superradiant emission pattern generated by an ensemble of two-level atoms in entangled symmetric Dicke states. We show that the phenomenon derives from projective measurements induced by the measurement of photons in the far field of the sources and the permutative superposition of quantum paths identical to those leading to superradiance in the case of single photon emitters. We thus point out an important similarity between classical sources and quantum emitters upon detection of photons if the particular photon source remains unknown. We finally present a compact result for the characteristic functional which generates intensity correlations of arbitrary order for any kind of light source.

  10. New markets and new light-sources for projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger

    2008-02-01

    Projection systems have the unique advantage that they can produce large images from compact devices. The specialized UHP and Ujoy lamps enabled a tremendous progress towards compact and highly efficient systems. Beyond the existing markets of rear and professional front projection new applications are possible addressing personal projection and micro-projection. These new applications can profit from laser light sources. Today laser technology is still costly and complicated especially for green wavelengths. Several competing approaches for a green laser are reviewed and the basic requirements of a laser source for projection are described.

  11. Ultraminiature broadband light source with spiral shaped filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Collura, Joseph S. (Inventor); Helvajian, Henry (Inventor); Pocha, Michael D. (Inventor); Meyer, Glenn A. (Inventor); McConaghy, Charles F. (Inventor); Olsen, Barry L. (Inventor); Hansen, William W (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An ultraminiature light source using a double-spiral shaped tungsten filament includes end contact portions which are separated to allow for radial and length-wise unwinding of the spiral. The double-spiral filament is spaced relatively far apart at the end portions thereof so that contact between portions of the filament upon expansion is avoided. The light source is made by fabricating a double-spiral ultraminiature tungsten filament from tungsten foil and housing the filament in a ceramic package having a reflective bottom and a well wherein the filament is suspended. A vacuum furnace brazing process attaches the filament to contacts of the ceramic package. Finally, a cover with a transparent window is attached onto the top of the ceramic package by solder reflow in a second vacuum furnace process to form a complete hermetically sealed package.

  12. Insertion devices for the Advanced Light Source at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Hassenzahl, W.; Chin, J.; Halbach, K.; Hoyer, E.; Humphries, D.; Kincaid, B.; Savoy, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory will be the first of the new generation of dedicated synchrotron light sources to be put into operation. Specially designed insertion devices will be required to realize the high brightness photon beams made possible by the low emittance of the electron beam. The complement of insertion devices on the ALS will include undulators with periods as short as 3.9 cm and one or more high field wigglers. The first device to be designed is a 5 m long, 5 cm period, hybrid undulator. The goal of very high brightness and high harmonic output imposes unusually tight tolerances on the magnetic field quality and thus on the mechanical structure. The design process, using a generic structure for all undulators, is described. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cathode R&D for Future Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Bazarov, I.; Dunham, B.; Harkay, K.; Hernandez-Garcia; Legg, R.; Padmore, H.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wan, W.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2010-05-26

    This paper reviews the requirements and current status of cathodes for accelerator applications, and proposes a research and development plan for advancing cathode technology. Accelerator cathodes need to have long operational lifetimes and produce electron beams with a very low emittance. The two principal emission processes to be considered are thermionic and photoemission with the photocathodes being further subdivided into metal and semi-conductors. Field emission cathodes are not included in this analysis. The thermal emittance is derived and the formulas used to compare the various cathode materials. To date, there is no cathode which provides all the requirements needed for the proposed future light sources. Therefore a three part research plan is described to develop cathodes for these future light source applications.

  14. New robust and highly customizable light source management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minegishi, Yuji; Takahisa, Kenji; Ochiai, Hideyuki; Ohta, Takeshi; Enami, Tatsuo

    2015-03-01

    In semiconductor lithography, light sources play a significant role in the wafer production process as well as impacting the manufacturing cost per wafer. Chip manufacturers going forward will be challenged to develop new ways to become more cost effective than their competitors, and the software tools necessary to compete in this environment must be capable of effectively adapting to the unique needs of each manufacturer. Gigaphoton has developed a new highly customizable software system for managing light sources. It not only offers a simple and intuitive user interface that can be operated using a standard web browser on PCs, tablets, and smartphones, but also a platform for users and third parties to develop unique extensions and optimizations.

  15. The advanced light source at the Lawrence Berkeley laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Alan

    1991-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation, in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1-1.9 GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. In this paper we describe the main accelerator components of the ALS, the variety of insertion devices, the radiation spectra expected from these devices, and the complement of experiments that have been approved for initial operation, starting in April 1993.

  16. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; ...

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a newmore » generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.« less

  17. Hyperspectral retinal imaging with a spectrally tunable light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Robert P.; Zuzak, Karel J.; Ufret-Vincenty, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Hyperspectral retinal imaging can measure oxygenation and identify areas of ischemia in human patients, but the devices used by current researchers are inflexible in spatial and spectral resolution. We have developed a flexible research prototype consisting of a DLP®-based spectrally tunable light source coupled to a fundus camera to quickly explore the effects of spatial resolution, spectral resolution, and spectral range on hyperspectral imaging of the retina. The goal of this prototype is to (1) identify spectral and spatial regions of interest for early diagnosis of diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and diabetic retinopathy (DR); and (2) define required specifications for commercial products. In this paper, we describe the challenges and advantages of using a spectrally tunable light source for hyperspectral retinal imaging, present clinical results of initial imaging sessions, and describe how this research can be leveraged into specifying a commercial product.

  18. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced. PMID:25931071

  19. X-ray detectors at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Blaj, Gabriel; Caragiulo, Pietro; Carini, Gabriella; Carron, Sebastian; Dragone, Angelo; Freytag, Dietrich; Haller, Gunther; Hart, Philip; Hasi, Jasmine; Herbst, Ryan; Herrmann, Sven; Kenney, Chris; Markovic, Bojan; Nishimura, Kurtis; Osier, Shawn; Pines, Jack; Reese, Benjamin; Segal, Julie; Tomada, Astrid; Weaver, Matt

    2015-04-21

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) present new challenges for camera development compared with conventional light sources. At SLAC a variety of technologies are being used to match the demands of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and to support a wide range of scientific applications. In this paper an overview of X-ray detector design requirements at FELs is presented and the various cameras in use at SLAC are described for the benefit of users planning experiments or analysts looking at data. Features and operation of the CSPAD camera, which is currently deployed at LCLS, are discussed, and the ePix family, a new generation of cameras under development at SLAC, is introduced.

  20. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  1. National Synchrotron Light Source safety-analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Batchelor, K.

    1982-07-01

    This document covers all of the safety issues relating to the design and operation of the storage rings and injection system of the National Synchrotron Light Source. The building systems for fire protection, access and egress are described together with air and other gaseous control or venting systems. Details of shielding against prompt bremstrahlung radiation and synchrotron radiation are described and the administrative requirements to be satisfied for operation of a beam line at the facility are given.

  2. Ultraviolet light output of compact fluorescent lamps: comparison to conventional incandescent and halogen residential lighting sources.

    PubMed

    Nuzum-Keim, A D; Sontheimer, R D

    2009-05-01

    Patients with photosensitive dermatologic and systemic diseases often question the ultraviolet light (UVL) output of household lighting sources. Such individuals have increasing concern about potential UVL exposure from energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), as little data have been presented concerning their UVL output. The objective was to compare, via pilot study, the levels of ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) leak between residential lighting sources. Equivalent wattage CFL, incandescent and halogen bulbs were purchased from local retailers in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. The UVA and UVB outputs of these sources were measured under controlled conditions at 10, 25, 50, 100 and 150 cm away from the light source using an IL-1700 research radiometer equipped with UVA and UVB detectors. Negligible UVB and UVA was detected at 100 and 150 cm. Therefore, data were analysed from measurements at 10, 25 and 50 cm only. The results demonstrated UVA leak highest from incandescent and halogen bulbs, and UVB leak highest from CFL. The overall UVA/UVB leak was lowest from CFL shielded during the manufacturing process. In conclusion, patients with photosensitivity have choices depending on their relative risk from different UVL wavelength spectra. UVB exposure risk may be reduced the greatest by utilising CFL with manufacturer-provided shields.

  3. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm-1. For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm-1. With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  4. Stray light in cone beam optical computed tomography: II. Reduction using a convergent light source.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Kurtis H; Battista, Jerry J; Jordan, Kevin J

    2016-04-07

    Optical cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using a broad beam and CCD camera is a fast method for densitometry of 3D optical gel dosimeters. However, diffuse light sources introduce considerable stray light into the imaging system, leading to underestimation of attenuation coefficients and non-uniformities in CT images unless corrections are applied to each projection image. In this study, the light source of a commercial optical CT scanner is replaced with a convergent cone beam source consisting of almost exclusively image forming primary rays. The convergent source is achieved using a small isotropic source and a Fresnel lens. To characterize stray light effects, full-field cone beam CT imaging is compared to fan beam CT (FBCT) using a 1 cm high fan beam aperture centered on the optic axis of the system. Attenuating liquids are scanned within a large 96 mm diameter uniform phantom and in a small 13.5 mm diameter finger phantom. For the uniform phantom, cone and fan beam CT attenuation coefficients agree within a maximum deviation of (1  ±  2)% between mean values over a wide range from 0.036 to 0.43 cm(-1). For the finger phantom, agreement is found with a maximum deviation of (4  ±  2)% between mean values over a range of 0.1-0.47 cm(-1). With the convergent source, artifacts associated with refractive index mismatch and vessel optical features are more pronounced. Further optimization of the source size to achieve a balance between quantitative accuracy and artifact reduction should enable practical, accurate 3D dosimetry, avoiding time consuming 3D scatter measurements.

  5. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  6. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  7. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Y.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barends, T. R. M.; Blank, V. D.; Botha, S.; Chollet, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Doak, R. B.; Glownia, J. M.; Koglin, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Nass, K.; Nelson, S.; Schlichting, I.; Shoeman, R. L.; Shvyd’ko, Yu. V.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Stoupin, S.; Terentyev, S.; Williams, G. J.; Zhu, D.; Robert, A.; Boutet, S.

    2015-01-01

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using a dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality. PMID:25931078

  8. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Feng, Y.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barends, T. R. M.; ...

    2015-04-10

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using amore » dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality.« less

  9. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Alonso-Mori, R.; Barends, T. R. M.; Blank, V. D.; Botha, S.; Chollet, M.; Damiani, D. S.; Doak, R. B.; Glownia, J. M.; Koglin, J. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Nass, K.; Nelson, S.; Schlichting, I.; Shoeman, R. L.; Shvyd'ko, Yu. V.; Sikorski, M.; Song, S.; Stoupin, S.; Terentyev, S.; Williams, G. J.; Zhu, D.; Robert, A.; Boutet, S.

    2015-04-10

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using a dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality.

  10. Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field Geometry Light Ion Helicon Plasma Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Yoshitaka; Nakashima, Hideki; Goulding, R. H.; Carter Baity, M. D., Jr.; Sparks, D. O.; Barber, G. C.; White, K. F.; Jaeger, E. F.; Chang-Díaz, F. R.; Squire, J. P.

    2002-11-01

    Helicon plasma source is a well-known high-density plasma source for many applications including plasma processing and fusion. However, most helicon research has been focused on a uniform static magnetic field and relatively heavy ions. Light ion helicon operation is more sensitive to magnetic field strength and geometry than heavy ions. The axially inhomogeneous Mini-Radio Frequency Test Facility (Mini-RFTF) has a capability for controlling static magnetic fields then is applicative for light ion source plasma operation. Inhomogeneous static magnetic field geometry also can procedure a high velocity to plasma exhaust when combined with ICRF heating enabling the possibility of use in plasma propulsion. In this poster, we will show how the source has been optimized for a hydrogen operation and a specific plasma propulsion concept: The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). Measurements of the rf magnetic fields and profile of plasma parameters for several magnetic field strengths and geometries will be discussed. Comparisons with a RF modeling code EMIR3 also will be reported here.

  11. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    World production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 648 million carats in 2006, with 79 percent of the production coming from Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa, and the U.S. U.S. consumption was was an estimated 602 million carats, imports were over 391 million carats, and exports were about 83 million carats. About 87 percent of the industrial diamonds market uses synthetic diamonds, which are expected to become less expensive as technology improves and competition from low-cost producers increases.

  12. Ideas for a Future PEP-X Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hettel, R.O.; Bane, K.L.F.; Bentson, L.D.; Bertsche, Kirk J.; Brennan, S.M.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; DeBarger, S.; Dolgashev, V.A.; Huang, X.; Huang, Z.; Kharakh, D.; Nosochkov, Y.; Rabedeau, T.; Safranek, J.A.; Seeman, J.; Stohr, J.; Stupakov, G.V.; Tantawi, S.G.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.H.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UCLA

    2011-11-02

    SLAC is developing a long-range plan to transfer the evolving scientific programs at SSRL from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing synchrotron source -- PEP-X -- a new storage ring that would occupy the existing PEP-II tunnel and support two experimental halls, each containing 16 x-ray beam lines. Operating at 4.5 GeV and 1.5 A with a horizontal emittance of 0.14 nm-rad, reached using 90 m of damping wigglers, PEP-X would have an order of magnitude higher average brightness and flux in the 1-{angstrom} x-ray range than any existing or planned future storage ring sources. Higher brightness in the soft x-ray regime might be reached with partial lasing in long undulators, and high peak brightness could be reached with seeded FEL emission. The status of preliminary studies of PEP-X is presented.

  13. Optical microscopy using a single-molecule light source

    PubMed

    Michaelis; Hettich; Mlynek; Sandoghdar

    2000-05-18

    Rapid progress in science on nanoscopic scales has promoted increasing interest in techniques of ultrahigh-resolution optical microscopy. The diffraction limit can be surpassed by illuminating an object in the near field through a sub-wavelength aperture at the end of a sharp metallic probe. Proposed modifications of this technique involve replacing the physical aperture by a nanoscopic active light source. Advances in the spatial and spectral detection of individual fluorescent molecules, using near-field and far-field methods, suggest the possibility of using a single molecule as the illumination source. Here we present optical images taken with a single molecule as a point-like source of illumination, by combining fluorescence excitation spectroscopy with shear-force microscopy. Our single-molecule probe has potential for achieving molecular resolution in optical microscopy; it should also facilitate controlled studies of nanometre-scale phenomena (such as resonant energy transfer) with improved lateral and axial spatial resolution.

  14. Multifrequency light curves of low-frequency variable radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altschuler, D. R.; Broderick, J. J.; Dennison, B.; Mitchell, K. J.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.; Payne, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Light curves for the low-frequency variable sources AO 0235 + 16, NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3, obtained in monthly observations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz using the 305-m telescope at Arecibo and in bimonthly observations at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz using the 91-m Green Bank transit telescope during 1980-1983, are presented and analyzed. AO 0235 + 16 is found to have basically canonical variability which is attributed to relativistically moving evolving synchrotron components; but in the other sources, strong simultaneous variations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz are observed to be greatly diminished in amplitude at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz, confirming the existence of the intermediate-frequency gap at about 1 GHz proposed by Spangler and Cotton (1981). The possibility that a second variability mechanism is active in these sources is explored.

  15. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    PubMed Central

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Boutet, S.; Carini, G.; dePonte, D.; Drell, P.; Doniach, S.; Downing, K. H.; Earnest, T.; Elmlund, H.; Elser, V.; Gühr, M.; Hajdu, J.; Hastings, J.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Huang, Z.; Lattman, E. E.; Maia, F. R. N. C.; Marchesini, S.; Ourmazd, A.; Pellegrini, C.; Santra, R.; Schlichting, I.; Schroer, C.; Spence, J. C. H.; Vartanyants, I. A.; Wakatsuki, S.; Weis, W. I.; Williams, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electron laser sources. PMID:26798801

  16. Multifrequency light curves of low-frequency variable radio sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, D. R.; Broderick, J. J.; Dennison, B.; Mitchell, K. J.; Odell, S. L.; Condon, J. J.; Payne, H. E.

    1984-12-01

    Light curves for the low-frequency variable sources AO 0235 + 16, NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3, obtained in monthly observations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz using the 305-m telescope at Arecibo and in bimonthly observations at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz using the 91-m Green Bank transit telescope during 1980-1983, are presented and analyzed. AO 0235 + 16 is found to have basically canonical variability which is attributed to relativistically moving evolving synchrotron components; but in the other sources, strong simultaneous variations at 318, 430, and 606 MHz are observed to be greatly diminished in amplitude at 880 MHz and 1.4 GHz, confirming the existence of the intermediate-frequency gap at about 1 GHz proposed by Spangler and Cotton (1981). The possibility that a second variability mechanism is active in these sources is explored.

  17. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    DOE PAGES

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; ...

    2015-07-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electronmore » laser sources.« less

  18. The linac coherent light source single particle imaging road map

    SciTech Connect

    Aquila, A.; Barty, A.; Bostedt, C.; Boutet, S.; Carini, G.; dePonte, D.; Drell, P.; Doniach, S.; Downing, K. H.; Earnest, T.; Elmlund, H.; Elser, V.; Gühr, M.; Hajdu, J.; Hastings, J.; Hau-Riege, S. P.; Huang, Z.; Lattman, E. E.; Maia, F. R.N.C.; Marchesini, S.; Ourmazd, A.; Pellegrini, C.; Schlichting, I.; Schroer, C.; Spence, J. C. H.; Vartanyants, I. A.; Wakatsuki, S.; Weis, W. I.; Williams, G. J.

    2015-07-01

    Intense femtosecond x-ray pulses from free-electron laser sources allow the imaging of individual particles in a single shot. Early experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) have led to rapid progress in the field and, so far, coherent diffractive images have been recorded from biological specimens, aerosols, and quantum systems with a few-tens-of-nanometers resolution. In March 2014, LCLS held a workshop to discuss the scientific and technical challenges for reaching the ultimate goal of atomic resolution with single-shot coherent diffractive imaging. This paper summarizes the workshop findings and presents the roadmap toward reaching atomic resolution, 3D imaging at free-electron laser sources.

  19. Linac Coherent Light Source: The first five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostedt, Christoph; Boutet, Sébastien; Fritz, David M.; Huang, Zhirong; Lee, Hae Ja; Lemke, Henrik T.; Robert, Aymeric; Schlotter, William F.; Turner, Joshua J.; Williams, Garth J.

    2016-01-01

    A new scientific frontier opened in 2009 with the start of operations of the world's first x-ray free-electron laser (FEL), the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. LCLS provides femtosecond pulses of x rays (270 eV to 11.2 keV) with very high peak brightness to access new domains of ultrafast x-ray science. This article presents the fundamental FEL physics and outlines the LCLS source characteristics along with the experimental challenges, strategies, and instrumentation that accompany this novel type of x-ray source. The main part of the article reviews the scientific achievements since the inception of LCLS in the five primary areas it serves: atomic, molecular, and optical physics; condensed matter physics; matter in extreme conditions; chemistry and soft matter, and biology.

  20. Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needle by a LED light source integrated transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agano, Toshitaka; Sato, Naoto; Nakatsuka, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Morisono, Koji; Shigeta, Yusuke; Tanaka, Chizuyo

    2016-03-01

    We have achieved penetration depth of 30mm by photoacoustic imaging system using LED light source integrated transducer to image a clinical metal needle inserted into a tissue mimicking phantom. We developed the transducer that integrated near-infrared LED array light source, which was connected to a photoacoustic imaging system which drove LED array light source and controlled photoacoustic data acquisition process. Conventionally solid-state laser has been used as the light source for photoacoustic imaging system. Because LED is diffused light source, laser safety glasses is not necessary, also inflexible fibers are not used to guide light close to a transducer, and we integrated LED light source inside the transducer, which became compact and practical size for conventional ultrasound equipment users. We made LED light source unit as detachable to the transducer easily, so wave-length of light can be selectable by changing the LED light source unit.

  1. Beacon system based on light-emitting diode sources for runways lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Mario González; Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio A.; Bernabeu, Eusebio

    2014-06-01

    New aeronautical ground lighting techniques are becoming increasingly important to ensure the safety and reduce the maintenance costs of the plane's tracks. Until recently, tracks had embedded lighting systems whose sources were based on incandescent lamps. But incandescent lamps have several disadvantages: high energy consumption and frequent breakdowns that result in high maintenance costs (lamp average life-time is ˜1500 operating hours) and the lamp's technology has a lack of new lighting functions, such as signal handling and modification. To solve these problems, the industry has developed systems based on light-emitting diode (LED) technology with improved features: (1) LED lighting consumes one tenth the power, (2) it improves preventive maintenance (an LED's lifetime range is between 25,000 and 100,000 hours), and (3) LED lighting technology can be controlled remotely according to the needs of the track configuration. LEDs have been in use for more than three decades, but only recently, around 2002, have they begun to be used as visual aids, representing the greatest potential change for airport lighting since their inception in the 1920s. Currently, embedded LED systems are not being broadly used due to the specific constraints of the rules and regulations of airports (beacon dimensions, power system technology, etc.). The fundamental requirements applied to embedded lighting systems are to be hosted on a volume where the dimensions are usually critical and also to integrate all the essential components for operation. An embedded architecture that meets the lighting regulations for airport runways is presented. The present work is divided into three main tasks: development of an optical system to optimize lighting according to International Civil Aviation Organization, manufacturing prototype, and model validation.

  2. UV light source adaptive sensing technology for flue gas measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The UV absorption spectrometry technique DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) has been widely used in continuous monitoring of flue gas, and has achieved good results. DOAS method is based on the basic law of light absorption--Lambert-Beer law. SO2, NOX are the principal component of the flue gas. These components are considered by DOAS method at the same time. And certain mathematical methods are used for concentrations measuring. The Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) based on the principle of DOAS mainly has two probe-styles present: in-situ probe-style and extractive probe-style. For the in-situ probe-style CEMS based on DOAS method, prolonged use for the UV light source, contaminated lens caused by floating oil and complex environment of the flue will all bring attenuation of the spectral intensity, it will affect the accuracy of measurement. In this article, an in-situ continuous monitoring system based on DOAS method is described, and a component adaptive sensing technology is proposed. By using this adaptive sensing technology, CEMS can adjust the integral time of the spectrometer according to the non-measuring attenuation of the light source intensity and automatically compensate the loss of spectral intensity. Under the laboratory conditions, the experiments for SO2, NO standard gas measurement using adaptive sensing technology is made. Many different levels of light intensity attenuation are considered in the experiments. The results show that the adaptive sensing technology can well compensate the non-measuring loss of spectral intensity. In the field measurement, this technology can well reduce the measurement error brought by attenuation of light intensity, compared with the handheld gas analyzer, the average error of concentration measurement is less than 2% FS(Full Scale).

  3. Focused-ion-beam overlay-patterning of three-dimensional diamond structures for advanced single-photon properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Qianqing; Liu, Dongqi; Liu, Gangqin; Chang, Yanchun; Li, Wuxia E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Pan, Xinyu; Gu, Changzhi E-mail: czgu@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-07-28

    Sources of single photons are of fundamental importance in many applications as to provide quantum states for quantum communication and quantum information processing. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, even at room temperature. However, the efficiency of photon collection of the color centers in bulk diamond is greatly reduced by refraction at the diamond/air interface. To address this issue, diamond structuring has been investigated by various methods. Among them, focused-ion-beam (FIB) direct patterning has been recognized as the most favorable technique. But it has been noted that diamond tends to present significant challenges in FIB milling, e.g., the susceptibility of forming charging related artifacts and topographical features. In this work, periodically-positioned-rings and overlay patterning with stagger-superimposed-rings were proposed to alleviate some problems encountered in FIB milling of diamond, for improved surface morphology and shape control. Cross-scale network and uniform nanostructure arrays have been achieved in single crystalline diamond substrates. High quality diamond solid immersion lens and nanopillars were sculptured with a nitrogen-vacancy center buried at the desired position. Compared with the film counterpart, an enhancement of about ten folds in single photon collection efficiency was achieved with greatly improved signal to noise ratio. All these results indicate that FIB milling through over-lay patterning could be an effective approach to fabricate diamond structures, potentially for quantum information studies.

  4. Light source comprising a common substrate, a first led device and a second led device

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Vi-En

    2010-02-23

    At least one stacked organic or polymeric light emitting diode (PLEDs) devices to comprise a light source is disclosed. At least one of the PLEDs includes a patterned cathode which has regions which transmit light. The patterned cathodes enable light emission from the PLEDs to combine together. The light source may be top or bottom emitting or both.

  5. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction in the diamond anvil, high-pressure apparatus - Comparison of synchrotron and conventional X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spain, I. L.; Black, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The use of both conventional fixed-anode X-ray sources and synchrotron radiation to carry out energy-dispersive X-ray diffraction experiments at high pressure in a diamond anvil cell, is discussed. The photon flux at the sample and at the detector for the two cases are compared and the results are presented in graphs. It is shown that synchrotron radiation experiments can be performed with nearly two orders of magnitude increase in data rate if superior detectors and detector electronics are available.

  6. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    Natural diamond has been valued for its appearance and mechanical properties for at least two thousand years. As a gem stone diamond is unsurpassed. However, scientific work, especially in the last 20 years, has demonstrated that diamond has numerous surprising properties and many unique ones. Some of the extreme properties have been known for many years, but the true scale of diamond's other highly desirable features is still only coming to light as control in the synthesis of diamond, and hence material perfection, improves. The ultimate prize for man-made diamond is surely not in the synthesis of gem stones, but in delivering technological solutions enabled by diamond to the challenges facing our society today. If the special properties are to be exploited to their full potential, at least four crucial factors must be considered. First, there must be sufficient scientific understanding of diamond to make applications effective, efficient and economical. Secondly, the means of fabrication and control of properties have to be achieved so that diamond's role can be optimised. Thirdly, it is not enough that its properties are superior to existing materials: they must be so much better that it is worth initiating new technologies to exploit them. Finally, any substantial applications will have to address the society's major needs worldwide. The clear technology drivers for the 21st century come from the biomedical technologies, the demand for energy subject to global constraints, and the information technologies, where perhaps diamond will provide the major enabling technology [1]. The papers in this volume concern the solid state physics of diamond, and primarily concern the first two factors: understanding, and control of properties. They address many of the outstanding basic problems, such as the identification of existing defects, which affect the material's properties, both desirable and less so. Regarding future substantial applications, one paper discusses

  7. The Use of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) as Green and Red/Far-Red Light Sources in Plant Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, David L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The use of green, red, and far-red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources for plant physiological studies is outlined and evaluated. Indicates that LED lamps have the advantage over conventional light sources in that they are lightweight, low-cost, portable, easily constructed, and do not require color filters. (Author/DH)

  8. Application of semiconductor light sources for investigations of photochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, S.

    2001-09-01

    Semiconductor light sources, like laser diodes or ultrabright light emitting diodes, are widely used in optical spectroscopy. In this presentation an overview of applications in photochemistry is given. Since the beginning of the 1990s an increasing number of publications with the application of semiconductor light sources appeared. Three different techniques were used: single photon counting with short pulses, phase-modulation fluorometry using a conventional modulation spectrometer, or a lock-in amplifier. Using continuous wave laser diodes in the visible region, which are available from 690 to 630 nm (and, recently, down to 400 nm), a new compact fluorescence spectrometer was developed in our laboratory. Using the phase fluorometric method, measurements down to 100 ps are now possible. Values can be measured in steps of 10 ps with good reproducibility using a high-frequency signal generator and a GHz digital storage oscilloscope. Several investigations have been carried out applying this technique including time-resolved detection of crude oil as an example for possible practical applications.

  9. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  10. An Optically Stabilized Fast-Switching Light Emitting Diode as a Light Source for Functional Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience research increasingly relies on optical methods for evoking neuronal activity as well as for measuring it, making bright and stable light sources critical building blocks of modern experimental setups. This paper presents a method to control the brightness of a high-power light emitting diode (LED) light source to an unprecedented level of stability. By continuously monitoring the actual light output of the LED with a photodiode and feeding the result back to the LED's driver by way of a proportional-integral controller, drift was reduced to as little as 0.007% per hour over a 12-h period, and short-term fluctuations to 0.005% root-mean-square over 10 seconds. The LED can be switched on and off completely within 100 s, a feature that is crucial when visual stimuli and light for optical recording need to be interleaved to obtain artifact-free recordings. The utility of the system is demonstrated by recording visual responses in the central nervous system of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana using voltage-sensitive dyes. PMID:22238663

  11. An optically stabilized fast-switching light emitting diode as a light source for functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience research increasingly relies on optical methods for evoking neuronal activity as well as for measuring it, making bright and stable light sources critical building blocks of modern experimental setups. This paper presents a method to control the brightness of a high-power light emitting diode (LED) light source to an unprecedented level of stability. By continuously monitoring the actual light output of the LED with a photodiode and feeding the result back to the LED's driver by way of a proportional-integral controller, drift was reduced to as little as 0.007% per hour over a 12-h period, and short-term fluctuations to 0.005% root-mean-square over 10 seconds. The LED can be switched on and off completely within 100 μs, a feature that is crucial when visual stimuli and light for optical recording need to be interleaved to obtain artifact-free recordings. The utility of the system is demonstrated by recording visual responses in the central nervous system of the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana using voltage-sensitive dyes.

  12. A lighting assembly based on red and blue light-emitting diodes as a lighting source for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avercheva, Olga; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana; Bassarskaya, Elizaveta; Zhigalova, Tatiana; Ptushenko, Vasiliy; Erokhin, Alexei

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are a promising lighting source for space agriculture due to their high efficiency, longevity, safety, and other factors. Assemblies based on red and blue LEDs have been recommended in literature, although not all plants show sufficient productivity in such lighting conditions. Adding of green LEDs proposed in some works was aimed at psychological support for the crew, and not at the improvement of plant growth. We studied the growth and the state of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) plants grown under red (650 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Plants grown under a high-pressure sodium lamp (HPS lamp) were used as a control. The plants were illuminated with two photosynthetic photon flux levels: nearly 400 µE and about 100 µE. Plants grown under LEDs with 400 µE level, as compared to control plants, showed lower fresh weight, edible biomass, growth rate, and sugar content. The difference in fresh weight and edible biomass was even more pronounced in plants grown with 100 µE level; the data indicate that the adaptability of the test plants to insufficient lighting decreased. Under LEDs, we observed the decreasing of root growth and the absence of transition to the flowering stage, which points to a change in the hormonal balance in plants grown in such lighting conditions. We also found differences in the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus and its reaction to a low lighting level. We have concluded that a lighting assembly with red and blue LEDs only is insufficient for the plant growth and productivity, and can bring about alterations in their adaptive and regulatory mechanisms. Further studies are needed to optimize the lighting spectrum for space agriculture, taking into account the photosynthetic, phototropic and regulatory roles of light. Using white LEDs or adding far-red and green LEDs might be a promising approach.

  13. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, L.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  14. Boron-Containing Red Light-Emitting Phosphors And Light Sources Incorporating The Same

    DOEpatents

    Srivastava, Alok Mani; Comanzo, Holly Ann; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2006-03-28

    A boron-containing phosphor comprises a material having a formula of AD1-xEuxB9O16, wherein A is an element selected from the group consisting of Ba, Sr, Ca, Mg, and combinations thereof; D is at least an element selected from the group consisting of rare-earth metals other than europium; and x is in the range from about 0.005 to about 0.5. The phosphor is used in a blend with other phosphors in a light source for generating visible light with a high color rendering index.

  15. Concepts for the PEP-X Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hettel, Robert; Bane, Karl; Bertsche, Kirk; Cai, Yunhai; Chao, Alex; Dolgashev, Valery; Fox, John; Huang, Xiaobiao; Huang, Zhirong; Mastorides, Themistoklis; Ng, Cho; Nosochkov, Yuri; Novokhatski, Alexander; Rabedeau, Thomas; Rivetta, Claudio; Safranek, James; Seeman, John; Stohr, Joachim; Stupakov, Gennady; Tantawi, Sami G.; Wang, Lanfa; /SLAC /Stanford U. /UCLA

    2010-08-26

    SSRL and SLAC groups are developing a long-range plan to transfer its evolving scientific programs from the SPEAR3 light source to a much higher performing photon source that would be housed in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel. While various concepts for the PEP-X light source are under consideration, including ultimate storage ring and ERL configurations, the present baseline design is a very low-emittance storage ring. A hybrid lattice has double bend achromat (DBA) cells in two of the six arcs that provide a total 30 straight sections for insertion device (ID) beam lines extending into two new experimental halls. The remaining arcs contain TME cells. Using 90 m of damping wigglers the horizontal emittance at 4.5 GeV would be 100 pm-rad with 1.5-A stored beam. PEP-X will produce photon beams having brightnesses near 10{sup 22} (ph/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW) at 10 keV. Studies indicate that a 90-m undulator could have FEL gain and brightness enhancement at soft x-ray wavelengths with the stored beam. Crab cavities or other beam manipulation systems could be used to reduce bunch length or otherwise enhance photon emission properties. The present status of the design of PEP-X as a storage ring is presented.

  16. Ultraminiature Broadband Light Source and Method of Manufacturing Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret L. (Inventor); Collura, Joseph S. (Inventor); Helvajian, Henry (Inventor); Pocha, Michael D. (Inventor); Meyer, Glenn A. (Inventor); McConaghy, Charles F. (Inventor); Olsen, Barry L. (Inventor); Hansen, William W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ultraminiature light source using a double-spiral shaped tungsten filament includes end contact portions which are separated to allow for radial and length-wise unwinding of the spiral. The double-spiral filament is spaced relatively far apart at the end portions thereof so that contact between portions of the filament upon expansion is avoided. The light ource is made by fabricating a double-spiral ultraminiature tungsten filament from tungsten foil and housing the filament in a ceramic package having a reflective bottom and a well wherein the filament is suspended. A vacuum furnace brazing process attaches the filament to contacts of the ceramic package. Finally, a cover with a transparent window is attached onto the top of the ceramic package by solder reflow in a second vacuum furnace process to form a complete hermetically sealed package.

  17. A 75 MHz light source for femtosecond stimulated raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, E; Marx, B; Klein, T; Huber, R; Gilch, P

    2009-10-12

    In femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy (FSRM) a spectrally broad pulse (Raman probe) and a spectrally narrow pulse (Raman pump) interact in a sample and thereby generate a Raman spectrum of the focal volume. Here a novel light source for FSRM is presented. It consists of an 8-fs laser (repetition rate of 75 MHz) operating as Raman probe. A Yb(3+) based fiber amplifier generates the Raman pump light at 980 nm. The amplifier is seeded by the spectral wing of the 8-fs laser output which ensures synchronisation of pump and probe pulses. Spectral and temporal characteristics of these pulses are reported and simultaneous recording of broadband Raman spectra relying on these pulses is demonstrated.

  18. Topomineralogy of the Siberian diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Valentin; Lobanov, Sergey; Vasiliy, Koptil; Bogdan, Pomazanskiy; Alexander, Gerasimchuk; Nikolay, Pokhilenko

    2010-05-01

    Diamond placers are widespread in the modern alluvial deposits and ancient sedimentary collectors of the Siberian craton and can be divided into two major types: 1) related with the rich and famous kimberlites such as Mir and International pipe and 2) with unidentified root source. The lattert are wide spread, industrially significant and in use in the north-east of the Siberian craton. Yet, kimberlites known in the north-east of the Siberian craton have poor diamond concentrations or non-diamondiferous at all. A contradiction occur between high alluvial and extremely-low host diamond content of this region. Detailed studies of this problem led to the fact that diamonds from the alluvial deposits of the Siberian craton, as well as other diamondiferous regions, show broader spectrum of typomorphic features than diamonds from the known kimberlites. Moreover, some diamond groups are not typical for the phanerozoic kimberlites of Siberia, or do not occur in significant amounts. The foregoing suggests that diamonds from the unknown host rock type occur in the diamond placers of the Siberian craton along with typical kimberlite diamonds. Based on the detailed studies of the typomorphic features of the alluvial diamonds from Siberian craton 5 parasteresis groups, probably related to different host rock types, were distinguished. Parasteresis is a regular spatial mineral association which are united by single geological process, such as kimberlite indicator minerals and diamonds from kimberlites which differ in genesis but united by the whole kimberlitic process. Parasteresis 1 (kimberlite-type) involves diamonds which are common for the phanerozoic kimberlites. Parasteresis 2 (supposed to be lamproitic) includes roundish (cryptolaminar) diamonds of dodecahedron habit, the so called "brazilian" or "ural" types. In Siberian phanerozoic industrial kimberlites the part of such diamonds does not exceed 15%. That is the diamonds which dominate in the placers of the Urals and

  19. Spectral confocal reflection microscopy using a white light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, M.; Juškaitis, R.; Wilson, T.

    2008-08-01

    We present a reflection confocal microscope incorporating a white light supercontinuum source and spectral detection. The microscope provides images resolved spatially in three-dimensions, in addition to spectral resolution covering the wavelength range 450-650nm. Images and reflection spectra of artificial and natural specimens are presented, showing features that are not normally revealed in conventional microscopes or confocal microscopes using discrete line lasers. The specimens include thin film structures on semiconductor chips, iridescent structures in Papilio blumei butterfly scales, nacre from abalone shells and opal gemstones. Quantitative size and refractive index measurements of transparent beads are derived from spectral interference bands.

  20. Radiation properties of Turkish light source facility TURKAY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nergiz, Zafer

    2015-09-01

    The synchrotron light source TURKAY, which is one of the sub-project of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC), has been supported by Ministry of Development of Turkey since 2006. The facility is designed to generate synchrotron radiation (SR) in range 0.01-60 keV from a 3 GeV storage ring with a beam emittance of 0.51 nm rad. Synchrotron radiation will be produced from the bending magnets and insertion devices in the storage ring. In this paper design studies for possible devices to produce synchrotron radiation and radiation properties of these devices with TURKAY storage ring parameters are presented.

  1. Status report on the Advanced Light Source control system, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.; Brown, W. Jr.; Cork, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), under construction for the past seven years, has become operational. The accelerator has been successfully commissioned using a control system based on hundreds of controllers of our own design and high performance personal computers which are the operator interface. The first beamlines are being commissioned using a control system based on VME hardware and the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) software. The two systems are being integrated, and this paper reports on the current work being done.

  2. Producing terahertz coherent synchrotron radiation at the Hefei Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, De-Rong; Xu, Hong-Liang; Shao, Yan

    2015-07-01

    This paper theoretically proves that an electron storage ring can generate coherent radiation in the THz region using a quick kicker magnet and an AC sextupole magnet. When the vertical chromaticity is modulated by the AC sextupole magnet, the vertical beam collective motion excited by the kicker produces a wavy spatial structure after a number of longitudinal oscillation periods. The radiation spectral distribution was calculated from the wavy bunch parameters at the Hefei Light Source (HLS). When the electron energy is reduced to 400 MeV, extremely strong coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at 0.115 THz should be produced. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375176)

  3. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DOE PAGES

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; ...

    2015-04-22

    Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  4. The Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Perera, R. C. C.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), scheduled to be operational in the spring of 1993 as a U.S. Department of Energy national user facility, will be a next-generation source of soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) synchrotron radiation. Undulators will provide the world's brightest synchrotron radiation at photon energies from below 10 eV to above 2 keV; wiggler and bend-magnet radiation will extend the spectral coverage with high fluxes above 10 keV. These capabilities will support an extensive research program in a broad spectrum of scientific and technological areas in which XUV radiation is used to study and manipulate matter in all its varied gaseous, liquid, and solid forms. The ALS will also serve those interested in developing the fabrication technology for microstructures and nanostructures, as well as for characterizing them.

  5. Photoinjectors R&D for future light sources & linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, P.; /Northern Illinois U. /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    Linac-driven light sources and proposed linear colliders require high brightness electron beams. In addition to the small emittances and high peak currents, linear colliders also require spin-polarization and possibly the generation of asymmetric beam in the two transverse degrees of freedom. Other applications (e.g., high-average-power free-electron lasers) call for high duty cycle and/or (e.g., electron cooling) angular-momentum-dominated electron beams. We review ongoing R&D programs aiming at the production of electron beams satisfying these various requirements. We especially discuss R&D on photoemission electron sources (with focus on radiofrequency guns) along with the possible use of emittance-manipulation techniques.

  6. Broadband visible light source based on AllnGaN light emitting diodes

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Mary H.; Nelson, Jeffrey S.

    2003-12-16

    A visible light source device is described based on a light emitting diode and a nanocluster-based film. The light emitting diode utilizes a semiconductor quantum well structure between n-type and p-type semiconductor materials on the top surface a substrate such as sapphire. The nanocluster-based film is deposited on the bottom surface of the substrate and can be derived from a solution of MoS.sub.2, MoSe.sub.2, WS.sub.2, and WSe.sub.2 particles of size greater than approximately 2 nm in diameter and less than approximately 15 nm in diameter, having an absorption wavelength greater than approximately 300 nm and less than approximately 650 nm.

  7. Diamond fiber field emitters

    DOEpatents

    Blanchet-Fincher, Graciela B.; Coates, Don M.; Devlin, David J.; Eaton, David F.; Silzars, Aris K.; Valone, Steven M.

    1996-01-01

    A field emission electron emitter comprising an electrode formed of at least one diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon composite fiber, said composite fiber having a non-diamond core and a diamond, diamond-like carbon or glassy carbon coating on said non-diamond core, and electronic devices employing such a field emission electron emitter.

  8. Penning plasma based simultaneous light emission source of visible and VUV lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, G. L.; Prakash, R.; Pal, U. N.; Manchanda, R.; Halder, N.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a laboratory-based penning plasma discharge source is reported which has been developed in two anode configurations and is able to produce visible and VUV lights simultaneously. The developed source has simultaneous diagnostics facility using Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The two anode configurations, namely, double ring and rectangular configurations, have been studied and compared for optimum use of the geometry for efficient light emissions and recording. The plasma is produced using helium gas and admixture of three noble gases including helium, neon, and argon. The source is capable to produce eight spectral lines for pure helium in the VUV range from 20 to 60 nm and total 24 spectral lines covering the wavelength range 20-106 nm for the admixture of gases. The large range of VUV lines is generated from gaseous admixture rather from the sputtered materials. The recorded spectrum shows that the plasma light radiations in both visible and VUV range are larger in double ring configuration than that of the rectangular configurations at the same discharge operating conditions. To clearly understand the difference, the imaging of the discharge using ICCD camera and particle-in-cell simulation using VORPAL have also been carried out. The effect of ion diffusion, metastable collision with the anode wall and the nonlinear effects are correlated to explain the results.

  9. Photochemical functionalization of diamond surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Beth Marie

    Diamond surfaces are excellent substrates for potential applications in fields such as biotechnology, molecular sensing, and molecular electronics. In order to develop new diamond-based technologies, it is important to develop a fundamental understanding of diamond surface chemistry. Previous work in the Hamers group has demonstrated covalent functionalization of hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces with molecules bearing a terminal vinyl group via a photochemical process using sub-bandgap light at 254 nm. While the reaction was shown to occur reproducibly with self-terminating monolayer surface coverage, the mechanism was never fully understood. This thesis investigates the photochemical modification of hydrogen-terminated surfaces of diamond. The results show that this reaction is a surface-mediated radical process initiated by the UV-assisted photoejection of electrons from the diamond surfaces into the liquid phase. To develop a better understanding of the photochemical mechanism, an electrical bias was applied to the diamond samples during the photochemical reaction. Applying a 1 volt potential between two diamond electrodes significantly increases the rate of functionalization of the negative electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance measurements show that the applied potential induces downward band-bending within the negative diamond film electrode. At higher voltages a Faradaic current is observed, with no further acceleration of the functionalization rate. The bias-dependent changes in rate are attributed to a field effect; the applied potential induces a downward band-bending on the negative electrode and facilitates electron ejection into the adjacent organic fluid. The ability to directly organically photopattern the surface on length scales of <25 microns has also been demonstrated using simple photomasking techniques. Techniques for the functionalization of diamond may be applied to other 'unreactive' surfaces. The activation of a

  10. DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTER

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, I.; RAO, T.; BURRILL, A.; CHANG, X.; GRIMES, J.; RANK, J.; SEGALOV, Z.; SMEDLEY, J.

    2005-10-09

    We present the design and experimental progress on the diamond secondary emitter as an electron source for high average power injectors. The design criteria for average currents up to 1 A and charge up to 20 nC are established. Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) exceeding 200 in transmission mode and 50 in emission mode have been measured. Preliminary results on the design and fabrication of the self contained capsule with primary electron source and secondary electron emitter will also be presented.

  11. A multi-source portable light emitting diode spectrofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Obeidat, Safwan; Bai, Baolong; Rayson, Gary D; Anderson, Dean M; Puscheck, Adam D; Landau, Serge Y; Glasser, Tzach

    2008-03-01

    A portable luminescence spectrofluorometer weighing only 1.5 kg that uses multiple light emitting diodes (LEDs) as excitation sources was developed and evaluated. Excitation using a sequence of seven individual broad-band LED emission sources enabled the generation of excitation-emission spectra using a light weight (<1.5 kg) spectrometer. Limits of detection for rhodamine 6G, rhodamine B, and fluorescein were 2.9, 3.2, and 11.0 nM, respectively. Generation of excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) enabled the analysis of samples containing mixtures of rhodamine B and fluorescein. Buffered saline plant and animal feed extracts were also analyzed using this instrument. These samples included the woody plants Pistacia lentiscus (Evergreen pistache or Mastic) and Philyria latifolia, and the herbaceous species Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium spp. (clover), and a feed concentrate. Application of multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) to the resulting three-dimensional data sets enabled discernment among these various diet constituents.

  12. Light source halos in night vision goggles: psychophysical assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Greg; Macuda, Todd; Thomas, Paul; Allison, Rob; Jennings, Sion

    2005-05-01

    Anecdotal reports by pilots flying with Night Vision Goggles (NVGs) in urban environments suggest that halos produced by bright light sources impact flight performance. The current study developed a methodology to examine the impact of viewing distance on perceived halo size. This was a first step in characterizing the subtle phenomenon of halo. Observers provided absolute size estimates of halos generated by a red LED at several viewing distances. Physical measurements of these halos were also recorded. The results indicated that the perceived halo linear size decreased as viewing distance was decreased. Further, the data showed that halos subtended a constant visual angle on the goggles (1°48", +/-7") irrespective of distance up to 75". This invariance with distance may impact pilot visual performance. For example, the counterintuitive apparent contraction of halo size with decreasing viewing distance may impact estimates of closure rates and of the spatial layout of light sources in the scene. Preliminary results suggest that halo is a dynamic phenomenon that requires further research to characterize the specific perceptual effects that it might have on pilot performance.

  13. A squeezed light source operated under high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Andrew R.; Mansell, Georgia L.; Chua, Sheon S. Y.; Ward, Robert L.; Slagmolen, Bram J. J.; Shaddock, Daniel A.; McClelland, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Non-classical squeezed states of light are becoming increasingly important to a range of metrology and other quantum optics applications in cryptography, quantum computation and biophysics. Applications such as improving the sensitivity of advanced gravitational wave detectors and the development of space-based metrology and quantum networks will require robust deployable vacuum-compatible sources. To date non-linear photonics devices operated under high vacuum have been simple single pass systems, testing harmonic generation and the production of classically correlated photon pairs for space-based applications. Here we demonstrate the production under high-vacuum conditions of non-classical squeezed light with an observed 8.6 dB of quantum noise reduction down to 10 Hz. Demonstration of a resonant non-linear optical device, for the generation of squeezed light under vacuum, paves the way to fully exploit the advantages of in-vacuum operations, adapting this technology for deployment into new extreme environments. PMID:26657616

  14. SESAME -- A light source for the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winick, Herman

    2012-02-01

    Developed under UNESCO and modelled on CERN, SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) is an international research centre in construction in Jordan, enabling world-class research while promoting peace through scientific cooperation. Its centerpiece, a new 2.5 GeV 3rd Generation Electron Storage Ring (133m circumference, 26nm-rad emittance, 12 places for insertion devices), will provide intense light from infra-red to hard X-rays. The Council (Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Turkey), provides the annual budget. Concrete shielding is complete, and a staff of 21 is installing the refurbished 0.8 GeV BESS Y I injector system, a gift from Germany. The facility can serve 25 simultaneous experiments. Beamline equipment has been provided by Daresbury (UK), the Helmholtz Assoc. (Germany), the Swiss Light Source, LURE (France), the Univ. of Liverpool, Elettra (Italy) and US labs. Jordan has contributed 3.3M, in addition to a building and land. The EU has contributed 4.8M. Commitments confirmed by Members look set to provide most of 35M needed to complete construction of the ring and 3 beamlines. A training program has been underway since 2000. See www.sesame.org.jo

  15. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  16. Plasma-Based Studies on 4th Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W; Baldis, H A; Cauble, R C; Landen, O L; Wark, J S; Ng, A; Rose, S J; Lewis, C; Riley, D; Gauthier, J-C; Audebert, P

    2000-11-28

    The construction of a short pulse tunable x-ray laser source will be a watershed for plasma-based and warm dense matter research. The areas we will discuss below can be separated broadly into warn dense matter (WDM) research, laser probing of near solid density plasmas, and laser-plasma spectroscopy of ions in plasmas. The area of WDM refers to that part of the density-temperature phase space where the standard theories of condensed matter physics and/or plasma statistical physics are invalid. Warm dense matter, therefore, defines a region between solids and plasmas, a regime that is found in planetary interiors, cool dense stars, and in every plasma device where one starts from a solid, e.g., laser-solid matter produced plasma as well as all inertial fusion schemes. The study of dense plasmas has been severely hampered by the fact that laser-based methods have been unavailable. The single most useful diagnostic of local plasma conditions, e.g., the temperature (T{sub e}), the density (n{sub e}), and the ionization (Z), has been Thomson scattering. However, due to the fact that visible light will not propagate at electron densities, n{sub e}, {ge} 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3} implies dense plasmas can not be probed. The 4th generation sources, LCLS and Tesla will remove these restrictions. Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at redistribution of radiation. However. the possibilities end for plasmas with n{sub e} {ge} 10{sup 22} since light propagation through the medium is severely altered by the plasma. The entire field of high Z plasma kinetics from laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source.

  17. Terahertz Light Source and User Area at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Z.; Li, S.Z.; Litos, M.; Fisher, A.D.; Hogan, M.J.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    FACET at SLAC provides high charge, high peak current, low emittance electron beam that is bunched at THz wavelength scale during its normal operation. A THz light source based coherent transition radiation (CTR) from this beam would potentially be the brightest short-pulse THz source ever constructed. Efforts have been put into building this photon source together with a user area, to provide a platform to utilize this unique THz radiation for novel nonlinear and ultrafast phenomena researches and experiments. Being a long-time underutilized portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz (100 GHz {approx} 10 THz) spectral range is experiencing a renaissance in recent years, with broad interests from chemical and biological imaging, material science, telecommunication, semiconductor and superconductor research, etc. Nevertheless, the paucity of THz sources especially strong THz radiation hinders both its commercial applications and nonlinear processes research. FACET - Facilities for Accelerator science and Experimental Test beams at SLAC - provides 23 GeV electron beam with peak currents of {approx} 20 kA that can be focused down to 100 {mu}m{sup 2} transversely. Such an intense electron beam, when compressed to sub-picosecond longitudinal bunch length, coherently radiates high intensity EM fields well within THz frequency range that are orders of magnitude stronger than those available from laboratory tabletop THz sources, which will enable a wide variety of THz related research opportunities. Together with a description of the FACET beamline and electron beam parameters, this paper will report FACET THz radiation generation via coherent transition radiation and calculated photon yield and power spectrum. A user table is being set up along the THz radiation extraction sites, and equipped with various signal diagnostics including THz power detector, Michelson interferometer, sample stages, and sets of motorized optical components. This setup will also be

  18. The Advanced Light Source: A third-generation Synchrotron Radiation Source

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    2002-08-14

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the University of California is a ''third-generation'' synchrotron radiation source optimized for highest brightness at ultraviolet and soft x-ray photon energies. It also provides world-class performance at hard x-ray photon energies. Berkeley Lab operates the ALS for the United States Department of Energy as a national user facility that is available 24 hours/day around the year for research by scientists from industrial, academic, and government laboratories primarily from the United States but also from abroad.

  19. EDITORIAL: Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources Special Issue on advanced and emerging light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverlag, Marco; Kroesen, Gerrit; Ferguson, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The papers in this special issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics (JPhysD) originate from the 12th International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Light Sources and the 3rd International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting, held 11-16 July 2010 at Eindhoven University. Abstracts of all papers presented at this combined conference were published in the Conference Proceedings LS-WLED 2010 by FAST-LS, edited by M Haverlag, G M W Kroesen and T Taguchi. Special issues of the previous three LS conferences have been well-cited and have proven to be an important source of information for the lighting community. The 2010 LS-Symposium was a combined conference with the White LED Conference in order to enhance the scope of this conference series towards new light source technologies such as LEDs and OLEDs, and this co-operation will be continued in the future. Given the faster technology development in these areas it was also decided to shorten the interval between conferences from three to two years. Well over 200 invited presentations, landmark presentations and poster contributions were presented at the 2010 LS-Symposium. The organizing committee have selected from these a number of outstanding contributions with a high technological content and invited the authors to submit a full paper in JPhysD. The criteria were that the work should not be a repetition of the work already published in the Proceedings, but should be new, complete, within the scope of JPhysD, and meeting the normal quality standards of this journal. After peer review a combined set of 18 papers is published in this JPhysD special issue. In addition, a number of lighting-application-orientated papers will be published in a special issue of Journal of Light & Visual Environment later in 2011. The papers in this special issue of JPhysD show that research in the science and technology of light sources still covers a broad set of subject areas which includes both 'classical

  20. Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, J A; de la Torre Pérez, J; Martín Sánchez, A; Martel, I

    2014-08-01

    An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 μm thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 μm passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions.

  1. Optical pumping experiments on next-generation light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Stephen J.; Fournier, Kevin B.; Scott, H.; Chung, H.-K.; Lee, R. W.

    2004-11-01

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with ne > 1022 cm-3 as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility (TTF) at DESY (Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE (self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 1013 photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from ~6 nm to 100 nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with the tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can be easily monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  2. Light-emitting diodes as a radiation source for plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Barta, D. J.; Ignatius, R. W.; Martin, T. S.

    1991-01-01

    Development of a more effective radiation source for use in plant-growing facilities would be of significant benefit for both research and commercial crop production applications. An array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that produce red radiation, supplemented with a photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) of 30 micromoles s-1 m-2 in the 400- to 500-nm spectral range from blue fluorescent lamps, was used effectively as a radiation source for growing plants. Growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. Grand Rapids') plants maintained under the LED irradiation system at a total PPF of 325 micromoles s-1 m-2 for 21 days was equivalent to that reported in the literature for plants grown for the same time under cool-white fluorescent and incandescent radiation sources. Characteristics of the plants, such as leaf shape, color, and texture, were not different from those found with plants grown under cool-white fluorescent lamps. Estimations of the electrical energy conversion efficiency of a LED system for plant irradiation suggest that it may be as much as twice that published for fluorescent systems.

  3. Optical Pumping Experiments on Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, S J; Fournier, K B; Scott, H; Chung, H K; Lee, R W

    2004-07-29

    Laser-based plasma spectroscopic techniques have been used with great success to determine the line shapes of atomic transitions in plasmas, study the population kinetics of atomic systems embedded in plasmas, and look at the redistribution of radiation. However, the possibilities for optical lasers end for plasmas with n{sub e}>10{sup 22}cm{sup -3} as light propagation is severely altered by the plasma. The construction of the Tesla Test Facility(TTF) at DESY(Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron), a short pulse tunable free electron laser in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray regime (VUV FEL), based on the SASE(self amplified spontaneous emission) process, will provide a major advance in the capability for dense plasma-related research. This source will provide 10{sup 13} photons in a 200 fs duration pulse that is tunable from {approx} 6nm to 100nm. Since an VUV FEL will not have the limitation associated with optical lasers the entire field of high density plasmas kinetics in laser produced plasma will then be available to study with tunable source. Thus, one will be able to use this and other FEL x-ray sources to pump individual transitions creating enhanced population in the excited states that can easily be monitored. We show two case studies illuminating different aspects of plasma spectroscopy.

  4. Diamond photonic crystal slab: leaky modes and modified photoluminescence emission of surface-deposited quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Ondič, Lukáš; Babchenko, Oleg; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Ctyroký, Jiří; Pelant, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Detailed analysis of a band diagram of a photonic crystal (PhC) slab prepared on a nano-diamond layer is presented. Even though the PhC is structurally imperfect, the existence of leaky modes, determined both theoretically and experimentally in the broad spectral region, implies that an efficient light interaction with a material periodicity occurs in the sample. It is shown that the luminescence emission spectrum of a light source placed directly on the PhC surface can be modified by employing the optical modes of the studied structure. We stress also the impact of intrinsic optical losses of the nano-diamond on this modification.

  5. Band gap opening in strongly compressed diamond observed by x-ray energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Lee, H. J.; MacDonald, M. J.; Zastrau, U.; Gauthier, M.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Granados, E.; Hastings, J. B.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2016-01-25

    The extraordinary mechanical and optical properties of diamond are the basis of numerous technical applications and make diamond anvil cells a premier device to explore the high-pressure behavior of materials. However, at applied pressures above a few hundred GPa, optical probing through the anvils becomes difficult because of the pressure-induced changes of the transmission and the excitation of a strong optical emission. Such features have been interpreted as the onset of a closure of the optical gap in diamond, and can significantly impair spectroscopy of the material inside the cell. In contrast, a comparable widening has been predicted for purely hydrostatic compressions, forming a basis for the presumed pressure stiffening of diamond and resilience to the eventual phase change to BC8. We here present the first experimental evidence of this effect at geo-planetary pressures, exceeding the highest ever reported hydrostatic compression of diamond by more than 200 GPa and any other measurement of the band gap by more than 350 GPa. We here apply laser driven-ablation to create a dynamic, high pressure state in a thin, synthetic diamond foil together with frequency-resolved x-ray scattering as a probe. The frequency shift of the inelastically scattered x-rays encodes the optical properties and, thus, the behavior of the band gap in the sample. Using the ultra-bright x-ray beam from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), we observe an increasing direct band gap in diamond up to a pressure of 370 GPa. This finding points to the enormous strains in the anvils and the impurities in natural Type Ia diamonds as the source of the observed closure of the optical window. Our results demonstrate that diamond remains an insulating solid to pressures approaching its limit strength.

  6. State of Art in the Science and Technology of Electrical Discharge Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zissis, Georges; Rouffet, Jean-Baptiste

    Light is vital for life: Light sources play an indispensable role to daily life of any Human being. Our World cannot be conceived without light. Quality of life, health and, somehow, urban security related with traffic and crime prevention measures depend on light and on its quality. The lighting industry is an important economic factor in Europe, USA and many Asiatic Countries. All in all, lighting is an important socio-economic factor and lighting system development should be an integral part of any Sustainable Development and of any program of improvement of Quality of Life. This presentation provides an overview of the present state of research in the science and technology of light sources. Existing technologies and future challenges for the lighting industry will be presented. To better understanding the light source technology an part of this presentation will be devoted to the physics of light sources.

  7. Light-assisted drying (LAD) of small volume biologics: a comparison of two IR light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Madison A.; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D.; Trammell, Susan R.

    2016-03-01

    Protein therapeutics have been developed to treat diseases ranging from arthritis and psoriasis to cancer. A challenge in the development of protein-based drugs is maintaining the protein in the folded state during processing and storage. We are developing a novel processing method, light-assisted drying (LAD), to dehydrate proteins suspended in a sugar (trehalose) solution for storage at supra-zero temperatures. Our technique selectively heats the water in small volume samples using near-IR light to speed dehydration which prevents sugar crystallization that can damage embedded proteins. In this study, we compare the end moisture content (EMC) as a function of processing time of samples dried with two different light sources, Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and Thulium fiber (1850 nm) lasers. EMC is the ratio of water to dry weight in a sample and the lower the EMC the higher the possible storage temperature. LAD with the 1064 and 1850 nm lasers yielded 78% and 65% lower EMC, respectively, than standard air-drying. After 40 minutes of LAD with 1064 and 1850 nm sources, EMCs of 0.27+/-.27 and 0.15+/-.05 gH2O/gDryWeight were reached, which are near the desired value of 0.10 gH2O/gDryWeight that enables storage in a glassy state without refrigeration. LAD is a promising new technique for the preparation of biologics for anhydrous preservation.

  8. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-03-27

    potentially revolutionary science involves soft excitations such as magnons and phonons; in general, these are well below the resolution that can be probed by today’s optical systems. The study of these low-energy excitations will only move forward if advances are made in high-resolution gratings for the soft X-ray energy region, and higher-resolution crystal analyzers for the hard X-ray region. In almost all the forefront areas of X-ray science today, the main limitation is our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate X-rays at the level required for these advanced measurements. To address these issues, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) sponsored a workshop, X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities, which was held March 27–29, 2013, near Washington, D.C. The workshop addressed a wide range of technical and organizational issues. Eleven working groups were formed in advance of the meeting and sought over several months to define the most pressing problems and emerging opportunities and to propose the best routes forward for a focused R&D program to solve these problems. The workshop participants identified eight principal research directions (PRDs), as follows: Development of advanced grating lithography and manufacturing for high-energy resolution techniques such as soft X-ray inelastic scattering. Development of higher-precision mirrors for brightness preservation through the use of advanced metrology in manufacturing, improvements in manufacturing techniques, and in mechanical mounting and cooling. Development of higher-accuracy optical metrology that can be used in manufacturing, verification, and testing of optomechanical systems, as well as at wavelength metrology that can be used for quantification of individual optics and alignment and testing of beamlines. Development of an integrated optical modeling and design framework that is designed and maintained specifically for X-ray optics. Development of

  9. Using Raman Spectroscopy to Study Diamond Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Zwicker, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    Diamond thin films (DTF), due to their extreme hardness, low electrical conductivity and chemical inertness, have various applications in semiconductor and machining industry. DTF strengthen machining and cutting tools that demand more precision and resist chemical corrosions as electrodes. The DTF created in this investigation were produced using a hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition process in an electron cyclotron resonance sputter source. The samples formed can be amorphous carbon, graphite, or diamond. A method to test whether the sputter source successfully created diamond is Raman spectroscopy, a non-invasive technique that utilizes photo excitation and Raman scattering of monochromatic light. A sharp peak at 1332 inverse cm indicates the signature Raman shift of the sp3 C-C bond of pure diamond in these spectra. Graphite and amorphous carbon have their signature peaks near 1580 inverse cm and 1343 inverse cm. The technique is used to study wafer quality as a function of plasma parameters. Results will ultimately be benchmarked against Raman spectroscopy system at The College of New Jersey, and more samples will be produced to ensure the uniformity of the sputter source.

  10. Native NIR-emitting single colour centres in CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto Monticone, D.; Traina, P.; Moreva, E.; Forneris, J.; Olivero, P.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Taccetti, F.; Giuntini, L.; Brida, G.; Amato, G.; Genovese, M.

    2014-05-01

    Single-photon sources are a fundamental element for developing quantum technologies, and sources based on colour centres in diamonds are among the most promising candidates. The well-known nitrogen vacancy centres are characterized by several limitations, and thus few other defects have recently been considered. In the present work, we characterize, in detail, native efficient single colour centres emitting in the near infra-red (λ = 740-780 nm) in both standard IIa single-crystal and electronic-grade polycrystalline commercial chemical vapour deposited (CVD) diamond samples. In the former case, a high-temperature (T > 1000 °C) annealing process in vacuum is necessary to induce the formation/activation of luminescent centres with good emission properties, while in the latter case the annealing process has marginally beneficial effects on the number and performance of native centres in commercially available samples. Although displaying significant variability in several photo-physical properties (emission wavelength, emission rate instabilities, saturation behaviours), these centres generally display appealing photophysical properties for applications as single photon sources: short lifetimes (0.7-3 ns), high emission rates (˜50-500 × 103 photons s-1) and strongly (>95%) polarized light. The native centres are tentatively attributed to impurities incorporated in the diamond crystal during the CVD growth of high-quality type-IIa samples, and offer promising perspectives in diamond-based photonics.

  11. LED based powerful nanosecond light sources for calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubsandorzhiev, B. K.; Poleshuk, R. V.; Shaibonov, B. A. J.; Vyatchin, Y. E.

    2009-04-01

    Powerful nanosecond light sources based on LEDs have been developed for use in calibration systems of deep underwater neutrino telescopes. The light sources use either matrixes of ultra bright blue InGaN LEDs or new generation high power blue LEDs. It is shown that such light sources have light yield of up to 1010-1012 photons per pulse with very fast light emission kinetics. The developed light sources are currently used in a number of astroparticle physics experiments, namely: the lake Baikal neutrino experiment, the TUNKA EAS experiment, etc.

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source II storage ring vacuum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, Hsiao-Chaun; Hetzel, Charles; Leng, Shuwei; Wilson, King; Xu, Huijuan; Zigrosser, Douglas

    2016-04-05

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II, completed in 2014, is a 3-GeV synchrotron radiation (SR) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory and has been in steady operation since. With a design electron current of 500 mA and subnanometer radians horizontal emittance, this 792-m circumference storage ring is providing the highest flux and brightness x-ray beam for SR users. Also, the majority of the storage ring vacuum chambers are made of extruded aluminium. Chamber sections are interconnected using low-impedance radiofrequency shielded bellows. SR from the bending magnets is intercepted by water-cooled compact photon absorbers resided in the storage ring chambers. Finally, this paper presents the design of the storage ring vacuum system, the fabrication of vacuum chambers and other hardware, the installation, the commissioning, and the continuing beam conditioning of the vacuum systems.

  13. Supercontinuum as a light source for miniaturized endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Lu, M K; Lin, H Y; Hsieh, C C; Kao, F J

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we have successfully implemented supercontinuum based illumination through single fiber coupling. The integration of a single fiber illumination with a miniature CMOS sensor forms a very slim and powerful camera module for endoscopic imaging. A set of tests and in vivo animal experiments are conducted accordingly to characterize the corresponding illuminance, spectral profile, intensity distribution, and image quality. The key illumination parameters of the supercontinuum, including color rendering index (CRI: 72%~97%) and correlated color temperature (CCT: 3,100K~5,200K), are modified with external filters and compared with those from a LED light source (CRI~76% & CCT~6,500K). The very high spatial coherence of the supercontinuum allows high luminosity conduction through a single multimode fiber (core size~400μm), whose distal end tip is attached with a diffussion tip to broaden the solid angle of illumination (from less than 10° to more than 80°).

  14. Supercontinuum as a light source for miniaturized endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, M. K.; Lin, H. Y.; Hsieh, C. C.; Kao, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have successfully implemented supercontinuum based illumination through single fiber coupling. The integration of a single fiber illumination with a miniature CMOS sensor forms a very slim and powerful camera module for endoscopic imaging. A set of tests and in vivo animal experiments are conducted accordingly to characterize the corresponding illuminance, spectral profile, intensity distribution, and image quality. The key illumination parameters of the supercontinuum, including color rendering index (CRI: 72%~97%) and correlated color temperature (CCT: 3,100K~5,200K), are modified with external filters and compared with those from a LED light source (CRI~76% & CCT~6,500K). The very high spatial coherence of the supercontinuum allows high luminosity conduction through a single multimode fiber (core size~400μm), whose distal end tip is attached with a diffussion tip to broaden the solid angle of illumination (from less than 10° to more than 80°). PMID:27699102

  15. Design of the Advanced Light Source timing system

    SciTech Connect

    Fahmie, M.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation synchrotron radiation facility, and as such, has several unique timing requirements. Arbitrary Storage Ring filling patterns and high single bunch purity requirements demand a highly stable, low jitter timing system with the flexibility to reconfigure on a pulse-to-pulse basis. This modular system utilizes a highly linear Gauss Clock with ``on the fly`` programmable setpoints to track a free-running Booster ramping magnet and provides digitally programmable sequencing and delay for Electron Gun, Linac, Booster Ring, and Storage Ring RF, Pulsed Magnet, and Instrumentation systems. It has proven itself over the last year of accelerator operation to be reliable and rock solid.

  16. Observations of collective effects at the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Barry, W.; Corlett, J.N.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1995-10-01

    We present a summary of measurements of single beam collective effects in the Advanced Light Source (ALS). We describe measurements of coupled-bunch instabilities, including some recent results using the newly commissioned feedback systems and the results of an initial search for the fast ion instability. Single bunch effects include bunch lengthening, energy spread increase, HOM loss measurements, head-tail damping rates, current dependent tune shifts, and transverse mode coupling instability threshold. The longitudinal measurements are consistent with a broadband impedance {vert_bar}{Zeta}{sub {parallel}}/{eta}{vert_bar}{sub eff} = 0.22{plus_minus}0.07 {Omega} and transverse measurements indicate broadband impedances of {Zeta}{sub y,eff} = 155 k{Omega}/m and Z{sub x,eff} = 58 k{Omega}/m.

  17. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  18. Laue diffraction protein crystallography at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Getzoff, E.D.; McRee, D.; Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Sweet, R.M.; Moffat, K.; Ng, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Schildkamp, W.; Teng, T.Y.; Singer, P.T.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1992-12-31

    A new facility for the study of protein crystal structure using Laue diffraction has been established at the X26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characteristics of the beam line and diffraction apparatus are described. Selected results of some of the initial experiments are discussed briefly by beam line users to illustrate the scope of the experimental program. Because the Laue method permits the recording of large data sets in a single shot, one goal in establishing this facility has been to develop the means to study time-resolved structures within protein crystals. Systems being studied include: the reactions catalyzed by trypsin; photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin; and the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein.

  19. Laue diffraction protein crystallography at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Getzoff, E.D.; McRee, D. ); Jones, K.W.; Spanne, P.; Sweet, R.M. ); Moffat, K.; Ng, K.; Rivers, M.L.; Schildkamp, W.; Teng, T.Y. ); Singer, P.T.; Westbrook, E.M. )

    1992-01-01

    A new facility for the study of protein crystal structure using Laue diffraction has been established at the X26 beam line of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The characteristics of the beam line and diffraction apparatus are described. Selected results of some of the initial experiments are discussed briefly by beam line users to illustrate the scope of the experimental program. Because the Laue method permits the recording of large data sets in a single shot, one goal in establishing this facility has been to develop the means to study time-resolved structures within protein crystals. Systems being studied include: the reactions catalyzed by trypsin; photolysis of carbonmonoxy myoglobin; and the photocycle of photoactive yellow protein.

  20. Compact light source performance in recessed type luminaires

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, E.E.

    1998-11-01

    Photometric comparisons were made with an indoor, recessed, type luminaire using incandescent, high intensity discharge and compact fluorescent lamps. The test results show substantial performance advantages, as expected, for the discharge light sources where the efficacy gains can be in the order for 400% even when including the ballast losses associated with the discharge lamps. The candlepower distribution patterns emerging from these luminaries are also different from those associated with the baseline incandescent lamps, and which are in some ways, even more desirable from a uniformity of illuminance perspective. A section on fluorescent lamp starting is also included which describes a system having excellent starting characteristics in terms of electrode starting temperature (RH/RC technique), proper operating frequency to minimize unwanted IR interactions, and satisfactory current crest factor values to help insure life performance.

  1. Research opportunities in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlachter, A. S.; Robinson, A. L.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is being planned as a national user facility for the production of high-brightness and partially coherent X-ray and ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The ALS is based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with insertion devices in 11 long straight sections and up to 48 bending-magnet ports. High-brightness photon beams from less than 10 eV to more than 1 keV will be produced by undulators, thereby providing many research opportunities in atomic and molecular physics and chemistry. Wigglers and bending magnets will provide high-flux broad-band radiation at energies to 10 keV.

  2. Neon reduction program on Cymer ArF light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Dinesh; Roman, Yzzer; Cacouris, Ted; Thornes, Josh; O'Brien, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    In response to significant neon supply constraints, Cymer has responded with a multi-part plan to support its customers. Cymer's primary objective is to ensure that reliable system performance is maintained while minimizing gas consumption. Gas algorithms were optimized to ensure stable performance across all operating conditions. The Cymer neon support plan contains four elements: 1. Gas reduction program to reduce neon by >50% while maintaining existing performance levels and availability; 2. short-term containment solutions for immediate relief. 3. qualification of additional gas suppliers; and 4. long-term recycling/reclaim opportunity. The Cymer neon reduction program has shown excellent results as demonstrated through the comparison on standard gas use versus the new >50% reduced neon performance for ArF immersion light sources. Testing included stressful conditions such as repetition rate, duty cycle and energy target changes. No performance degradation has been observed over typical gas lives.

  3. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses ; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  4. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS` Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region.

  5. Complex space source theory of partially coherent light wave.

    PubMed

    Seshadri, S R

    2010-07-01

    The complex space source theory is used to derive a general integral expression for the vector potential that generates the extended full Gaussian wave in terms of the input value of the vector potential of the corresponding paraxial beam. The vector potential and the fields are assumed to fluctuate on a time scale that is large compared to the wave period. The Poynting vector in the propagation direction averaged over a wave period is expressed in terms of the cross-spectral density of the fluctuating vector potential across the input plane. The Schell model is assumed for the cross-spectral density. The radiation intensity distribution and the power radiated are determined. The effect of spatial coherence on the radiation intensity distribution and the radiated power are investigated for different values of the physical parameters. Illustrative numerical results are provided to bring out the effect of spatial coherence on the propagation characteristics of the fluctuating light wave.

  6. National Synchrotron Light Source II storage ring vacuum systems

    DOE PAGES

    Hseuh, Hsiao-Chaun; Hetzel, Charles; Leng, Shuwei; ...

    2016-04-05

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II, completed in 2014, is a 3-GeV synchrotron radiation (SR) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory and has been in steady operation since. With a design electron current of 500 mA and subnanometer radians horizontal emittance, this 792-m circumference storage ring is providing the highest flux and brightness x-ray beam for SR users. Also, the majority of the storage ring vacuum chambers are made of extruded aluminium. Chamber sections are interconnected using low-impedance radiofrequency shielded bellows. SR from the bending magnets is intercepted by water-cooled compact photon absorbers resided in the storage ring chambers. Finally, thismore » paper presents the design of the storage ring vacuum system, the fabrication of vacuum chambers and other hardware, the installation, the commissioning, and the continuing beam conditioning of the vacuum systems.« less

  7. The ORNL beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habenschuss, Anton; Ice, Gene E.; Sparks, Cullier J.; Neiser, Richard A.

    1988-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) incorporates several novel features, including X-ray optics based on sagittal focusing with crystals and a cantilevered mirror whose center becomes the pivot for all downstream optical elements. Crystal focusing accepts a much larger horizontal divergence of radiation than a mirror while maintaining excellent momentum transfer and energy resolution [C.J. Sparks, G.E. Ice, J. Wong and B.W. Batterman, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 194 (1982) 73]. This sagitally bent crystal serves as the second element of a two-crystal, nondispersive monochromator. The cantilevered mirror provides a simple design for vertical focusing of the radiation. The beamline is suitable for both X-ray scattering and spectroscopy experiments requiring good energy resolution and high intensity in the energy range from 2.5 to 40 keV. This paper describes the optics of the ORNL beamline and reports its performance to date.

  8. Semiconductor light source with electrically tunable emission wavelength

    DOEpatents

    Belenky, Gregory; Bruno, John D.; Kisin, Mikhail V.; Luryi, Serge; Shterengas, Leon; Suchalkin, Sergey; Tober, Richard L.

    2011-01-25

    A semiconductor light source comprises a substrate, lower and upper claddings, a waveguide region with imbedded active area, and electrical contacts to provide voltage necessary for the wavelength tuning. The active region includes single or several heterojunction periods sandwiched between charge accumulation layers. Each of the active region periods comprises higher and lower affinity semiconductor layers with type-II band alignment. The charge carrier accumulation in the charge accumulation layers results in electric field build-up and leads to the formation of generally triangular electron and hole potential wells in the higher and lower affinity layers. Nonequillibrium carriers can be created in the active region by means of electrical injection or optical pumping. The ground state energy in the triangular wells and the radiation wavelength can be tuned by changing the voltage drop across the active region.

  9. Performance of Advanced Light Source particle beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron radiation facility, is complete. The particle beam diagnostics have been installed and tested. The beam injection systems have been running for two years. We have performance data on beam position monitors, beam intensity monitors, scintillators, beam collimators, a 50 {Omega} Faraday cup, and broad-band striplines and kickers used in the linac, transport lines, and the booster synchrotron. The single-turn monitoring capability of the booster beam position monitoring system has been particularly useful for studying beam dynamics. Beam diagnostics for the storage ring are being commissioned. In this paper we describe each instrument, show its performance, and outline how the instruments are controlled and their output data displayed.

  10. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification—Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, Peter P.; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min-1. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp3 bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  11. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  12. Diamond LED substrate and novel quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sung, James C; Sung, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Nitride LED (e.g., GaN) has become the mainstream of blue light source. The blue light can be converted to white light by exciting a phosphor (e.g., Nichia's YAG or Osram's TAG) with the complementary yellow emission. However, GaN is typically deposited on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates formed by crystal pulling or hexagonal (e.g., 4 H or 6 H) SiC wafers condensed from SiC vapor. In either case, the nitride lattice is ridden (e.g., 10(9)/cm2) with dislocations. The high dislocation density with sapphire is due to the large (>13%) lattice mismatch; and with hexagonal SiC, because of intrinsic defects. Cubic (beta) SiC may be deposited epitaxially using a CVD reactor onto silicon wafer by diffusing the interface and by chemical gradation. A reactive echant (e.g., hydrogen or fluorine) can be introduced periodically to gasify mis-aligned atoms. In this case, large single crystal wafers would be available for the manufacture of high bright LED with superb electro-optical efficiency. The SiC wafer may be coated with diamond film that can eliminate heat in real time. As a result of lower temperature, the nitride LED can be brighter and it will last longer. The blue light of GaN LED formed on SiC on Diamond (SiCON) LED may also be scattered by using novel quantum dots (e.g., 33 atom pairs of CdSe) to form a broad yellow light that blend in with the original blue light to form sunlight-like white light. This would be the ideal source for general illumination (e.g., for indoor) or backlighting (e.g., for LCD).

  13. Scientific program of the advanced light source at LBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1992-08-01

    Construction of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is nearing completion, with operation as a US Department of Energy national user facility scheduled to begin in the spring of 1993. Based on a low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring with ten long straight sections available for insertion devices and, initially, 24 bend-magnet ports, the ALS will be a third-generation source of soft X-ray and ultraviolet (collectively, the XUV) synchrotron radiation. Experimental facilities (insertion devices, beamlines, and end stations) will be developed and operated by participating research teams working with the ALS staff. The ability to exploit the high spectral brightness of the ALS was the main criterion for PRT selection. In the XUV spectral regions served by the ALS, a major benefit of high brightness will be the ability to achieve spatial resolution in the neighborhood of 200 Å in X-ray microscopy and holography and in spatially resolved spectroscopy. Other beneficiaries of high brightness include very-high-resolution spectroscopy, spectroscopy of dilute species, diffraction from very small samples, and time-resolved spectroscopy and diffraction.

  14. Status of PEP-X Light Source Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Bertsche, K.J.; Cai, Y.; Chao, A.; Huang, X.; Jiao, Y.; Ng, C.-K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Rivetta, C.H.; Safranek, J.A.; Stupakov, G.V.; Wang, L.; Wang, M.-H.; Xiao, L.; Hettel, R.O.; Rabedeau, T.; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    The SLAC Beam Physics group and other SLAC collaborators continue to study options for implementing a near diffraction-limited ring-based light source in the 2.2-km PEP-II tunnel that will serve the SSRL scientific program in the future. The study team has completed the baseline design for a 4.5-GeV storage ring having 160 pm-rad emittance with stored beam current of 1.5 A, providing >10{sup 22} brightness for multi-keV photon beams from 3.5-m undulator sources. The team has also investigated possible 5-GeV ERL configurations which, similar to the Cornell and KEK ERL plans, would have {approx}30 pm-rad emittance with 100 mA current, and {approx}10 pm-rad emittance with 25 mA or less. Now a 4.5-GeV 'ultimate' storage ring having emittance similar to the ERL and operating with {approx}200 mA is under study. An overview of the progress of the PEP-X design study and SSRL's plans for defining performance parameters that will guide the choice of ring options is presented.

  15. A two-metric proposal to specify the color-rendering properties of light sources for retail lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Rea, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Lighting plays an important role in supporting retail operations, from attracting customers, to enabling the evaluation of merchandise, to facilitating the completion of the sale. Lighting also contributes to the identity, comfort, and visual quality of a retail store. With the increasing availability and quality of white LEDs, retail lighting specifiers are now considering LED lighting in stores. The color rendering of light sources is a key factor in supporting retail lighting goals and thus influences a light source's acceptance by users and specifiers. However, there is limited information on what consumers' color preferences are, and metrics used to describe the color properties of light sources often are equivocal and fail to predict preference. The color rendering of light sources is described in the industry solely by the color rendering index (CRI), which is only indirectly related to human perception. CRI is intended to characterize the appearance of objects illuminated by the source and is increasingly being challenged because new sources are being developed with increasingly exotic spectral power distributions. This paper discusses how CRI might be augmented to better use it in support of the design objectives for retail merchandising. The proposed guidelines include the use of gamut area index as a complementary metric to CRI for assuring good color rendering.

  16. Ultrananocrystalline diamond contacts for electronic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik

    2016-11-01

    A method of forming electrical contacts on a diamond substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The mixture of gases include a source of a p-type or an n-type dopant. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the diamond substrate. The diamond substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the diamond substrate for a first time, and a UNCD film, which is doped with at least one of a p-type dopant and an n-type dopant, is disposed on the diamond substrate. The doped UNCD film is patterned to define UNCD electrical contacts on the diamond substrate.

  17. Controlled Nucleation and Growth of Semiconducting Diamond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-18

    analytical measurements of film growth have been coupled with novel precursor chemistry to study the effect of precursor chemical structure on the...efficiency of diamond film nucleation and growth. The goal is to optimize source gases and substrate surface preparation methods for both doped and...undoped diamond film nucleation and growth, enabling the use of diamond in field emission, semiconductor, and optoelectronic applications. "Surface

  18. Variable light source with a million-to-one intensity ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. B.

    1964-01-01

    A wide range, variable intensity light source of constant color characteristics has been developed for testing and calibrating photomultiplier tubes. A light attenuator first diffuses light from a constant source, then permits variable attenuation through a series of chambers and adjustable apertures.

  19. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, David H.; Jongewaard, Erik; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2008-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of

  20. Physical sciences at Diamond: past achievements and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, D F

    2015-03-06

    The start of user operation at the Diamond Light Source in January 2007 marks a major milestone for the physical sciences in the UK. The routine delivery to the UK community of ultra-bright X-ray beams from the third-generation source has provided us with capabilities that were available previously only at international sources, and indeed has created some that are unique. Here, a personal view is given of some of the achievements to date, and possible future opportunities outlined.

  1. Feasibility of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes as an Alternative Light Source for Photocatalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Langanf H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Soler, Robert; Maxik, Fred; Coutts, Janelle; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) could serve as an alternative photon source efficiently for heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO). An LED module consisting of 12 high-power UV-A LEDs was designed to be interchangeable with a UV-A fluorescent black light blue (BLB) lamp in a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) packed bed annular reactor. Lighting and thermal properties were characterized to assess the uniformity and total irradiant output. A forward current of (I(sub F)) 100 mA delivered an average irradiance of 4.0 m W cm(exp -2), which is equivalent to the maximum output of the BLB, but the irradiance of the LED module was less uniform than that of the BLB. The LED- and BLB-reactors were tested for the oxidization of 50 ppmv ethanol in a continuous flow-through mode with 0.94 sec space time. At the same irradiance, the UV-A LED reactor resulted in a lower PCO rate constant than the UV-A BLB reactor (19.8 vs. 28.6 nM CO2 sec-I), and consequently lower ethanol removal (80% vs. 91%) and mineralization efficiency (28% vs. 44%). Ethanol mineralization increased in direct proportion to the irradiance at the catalyst surface. This result suggests that reduced ethanol mineralization in the LED- reactor could be traced to uneven irradiance over the photocatalyst, leaving a portion of the catalyst was under-irradiated. The potential of UV-A LEDs may be fully realized by optimizing the light distribution over the catalyst and utilizing their instantaneous "on" and "off' feature for periodic irradiation. Nevertheless, the current UV-A LED module had the same wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 13% as that of the UV-A BLB. These results demonstrated that UV-A LEDs are a viable photon source both in terms of WPE and PCO efficiency.

  2. Use of an alternative light source to assess strangulation victims.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Debra S; Jackson, M Christine

    2013-01-01

    Alternative light sources (ALSs) are commonly used at crime scenes and in forensic laboratories to collect evidence such as latent fingerprints, body fluids, hair, and fibers. This article describes the use of this technology to reveal soft tissue injuries that are not visible to the naked or unaided eye in patients who report strangulation. The value of this information to the medical, nursing, and judicial systems is discussed. The records of the 172 strangulation patients seen in our forensic nurse examiner program between 2009 and 2010 were reviewed. The SPEX Crimescope (SPEX Forensics, Edison, New Jersey) was used during the assessment of all of them. Ninety-three percent of the patients had no visible evidence of external injuries on physical examination. The ALS revealed positive findings of intradermal injuries in 98% of that group. Information obtained with ALS devices helps medical and nursing practitioners understand the gravity of patients' injuries, influences medical treatment decisions and follow-up care, and supports the prosecution of the perpetrators of crimes of violence. Educational programs about the application of ALS and the interpretation of its findings are valuable for medical, nursing, and other forensic disciplines.

  3. Single-layer mirrors for advanced research light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Störmer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Siewert, F.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Hertlein, F.; Matiaske, M.; Wiesmann, J.; Gaudin, J.

    2010-06-01

    X-ray mirrors are needed for beam guidance, beam alignment and monochromatisation at third-generation synchrotron light sources (PETRA III) and forthcoming Free-Electron Lasers (LCLS, European XFEL). Amorphous carbon coatings are currently used as total reflection mirrors at FLASH to guide the photon beam to the various beamlines. These coatings were prepared by means of magnetron sputtering. The new GKSS sputtering facility for the deposition of single and multilayer mirrors with a length of up to 1500 mm and a width of up to 120 mm is in operation. In this contribution we present the results of this new deposition system. A major advantage is that it is now possible to prepare one, two or more mirrors with similar properties over the whole deposition length. The mirror properties were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The performance of the mirrors is analyzed, considering X-ray reflectivity, film thickness and surface roughness. The uniformity of these properties over the whole deposition length of 1500 mm is demonstrated. The results obtained will be discussed and compared with former results.

  4. Single-layer mirrors for advanced research light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Stoermer, M.; Horstmann, C.; Siewert, F.; Hertlein, F.; Matiaske, M.; Wiesmann, J.; Gaudin, J.

    2010-06-23

    X-ray mirrors are needed for beam guidance, beam alignment and monochromatisation at third-generation synchrotron light sources (PETRA III) and forthcoming Free-Electron Lasers (LCLS, European XFEL). Amorphous carbon coatings are currently used as total reflection mirrors at FLASH to guide the photon beam to the various beamlines. These coatings were prepared by means of magnetron sputtering. The new GKSS sputtering facility for the deposition of single and multilayer mirrors with a length of up to 1500 mm and a width of up to 120 mm is in operation. In this contribution we present the results of this new deposition system. A major advantage is that it is now possible to prepare one, two or more mirrors with similar properties over the whole deposition length. The mirror properties were investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry and interference microscopy. The performance of the mirrors is analyzed, considering X-ray reflectivity, film thickness and surface roughness. The uniformity of these properties over the whole deposition length of 1500 mm is demonstrated. The results obtained will be discussed and compared with former results.

  5. Water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Irick, S.C.; Lunt, D.L.J.

    1991-10-28

    The program for providing water cooled metal optics for the Advanced Light Source at Berkeley is reviewed with respect to fabrication and metrology of the surfaces. Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from prototype mirrors and grating blanks will be presented, which show exceptionally low microroughness and mid-period error. We will briefly describe out improved version of the Long Trace Profiler, and its importance to out metrology program. We have completely redesigned the mechanical, optical and computational parts of the profiler system with the cooperation of Peter Takacs of Brookhaven, Continental Optical, and Baker Manufacturing. Most important is that one of our profilers is in use at the vendor to allow testing during fabrication. Metrology from the first water cooled mirror for an ALS beamline is presented as an example. The preplating processing and grinding and polishing were done by Tucson Optical. We will show significantly better surface microroughness on electroless nickel, over large areas, than has been reported previously.

  6. Alternate Tunings for the Linac Coherent Light Source Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2006-03-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project based on the SLAC linac. The LCLS Photoinjector beamline has been designed to deliver 10-ps long electron bunches of 1 nC with a normalized projected transverse emittance smaller than 1.2 mm-mrad at 135 MeV. Tolerances and regulation requirements are tight for this tuning. Half of the total emittance at the end of the injector comes from the ''cathode emittance'' which is 0.7 mm-mrad for our nominal 1nC tuning. As the ''cathode emittance'' scales linearly with laser spot radius, the emittance will be dramatically reduced for smaller radius, but this is only possible at lower charge. In particular, for a 0.2 nC charge, we believe we can achieve an emittance closer to 0.4 mm-mrad. This working point will be easier to tune and the beam quality should be much easier to maintain than for the 1 nC case. In the second half of this paper, we discuss optimum laser pulse shapes. We demonstrate that the benefits of the ellipsoidal shapes seem to be important enough so that serious investigations should be carried out in the production of such pulses.

  7. SESAME, a Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East Region

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, D.; Sarraf, R.H.; Attal, M.; Tavakoli, K.; Hashemi, H.; Hassanzadegan, H.; Elsisi, A.; Amro, A.; Foudeh, D.; Kalantari, B.; Aladwan, A.; Varnasery, S.; Al-Dmour, E.; Tarawneh, H.

    2003-08-26

    Developed under the auspices of UNESCO, SESAME (Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Application in the Middle East) will be a major international research centre in the Middle East / Mediterranean region. Most of the applications require hard x-rays up to 20 keV photons. SESAME will be a 2GeV 3rd Generation Ligth Source with an emittance of 17 nmrad and 13 places for the installation of insertion devices with a length around 3 meter. The circumference of the machine will be 120m. As injector the 800 MeVBooster Synchrotron will be used with small changes. Furthermore also the BESSY I quadrupoles and sextupoles can be used. In a later stage these new ones will be replaced in order to increase the length of the straight sections and to introduce mini beta sections for the reduction of the beam cross section. At SESAME around 35 % of the circumference can be used for the installation of insertion devices.

  8. Beam-based Feedback for the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley, D.; Allison, S.; Chevtsov, S.; Chu, P.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Himel, T.; Kim, K.; Krejcik, P.; Loos, H.; Lahey, T.; Natampalli, P.; Peng, S.; Rogind, D.; Shoaee, H.; Straumann, T.; Williams, E.; White, G.; Wu, J.; Zelazney, M.; /SLAC

    2010-02-11

    Beam-based feedback control loops are required by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) program in order to provide fast, single-pulse stabilization of beam parameters. Eight transverse feedback loops, a 6 x 6 longitudinal feedback loop, and a loop to maintain the electron bunch charge were successfully prototyped in MATLAB for the LCLS, and have been maintaining stability of the LCLS electron beam at beam rates up to 30Hz. In the final commissioning phase of LCLS the beam will be operating at up to 120Hz. In order to run the feedback loops at beam rate, the feedback loops will be implemented in EPICS IOCs with a dedicated ethernet multi-cast network. This paper will discuss the design of the beam-based Fast Feedback System for LCLS. Topics include MATLAB feedback prototyping, algorithm for 120Hz feedback, network design for fast data transport, actuator and sensor design for single-pulse control and sensor readback, and feedback configuration and runtime control.

  9. New Large Volume Press Beamlines at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, H. J.; Hormes, J.; Lauterjung, J.; Secco, R.; Hallin, E.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian Light Source, the German Research Centre for Geosciences and the Western University recently agreed to establish two new large volume press beamlines at the Canadian Lightsource. As the first step a 250 tons DIA-LVP will be installed at the IDEAS beamline in 2014. The further development is associated with the construction of a superconducting wiggler beamline at the Brockhouse sector. A 1750 tons DIA LVP will be installed there about 2 years later. Up to the completion of this wiggler beamline the big press will be used for offline high pressure high temperature experiments under simulated Earth's mantle conditions. In addition to X-ray diffraction, all up-to-date high pressure techniques as ultrasonic interferometry, deformation analyses by X-radiography, X-ray densitometry, falling sphere viscosimetry, multi-staging etc. will be available at both beamlines. After the required commissioning the beamlines will be open to the worldwide user community from Geosciences, general material sciences, physics, chemistry, biology etc. based on the evaluation and ranking of the submitted user proposals by an international review panel.

  10. Ozone production at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Weilandics, C.; Rohrig, N.; Gmur, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    Ozone production by synchrotron radiation as a function of power density in air was investigated using a white beam at the BNL National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) x-ray ring. Power densities were calculated from the energy spectrum at 2.52 GeV. Ozone concentrations in small beam pipes were measured for power densities between I = 10/sup 12/ and 10/sup 15/ eV . cm/sup -3/ . sec/sup -1/. The measured ozone half-life was 37 +- 2 min. The measured G-value was 2.69 +- 0.14 mol/100 eV and the ozone destruction factor k was less than 7 x 10/sup -19/ cm/sup 3/ . eV/sup -1/. The random uncertainties stated are approximately one standard error. The large departure of the values for G and k from previous values suggest that some undiscovered systematic error may exist in the experiment. Ozone concentration in excess of the 0.1 ppM ACGIH TLV can be generated in the experimental hutches but can readily be controlled. Industrial hygiene aspects of operation and possible control measures will be discussed. 19 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Vacuum system for the LBL Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, K.; Henderson, T.; Meneghetti, J. )

    1989-03-01

    A 1.5 to 1.9 GeV synchrotron light source is being built at LBL. The vacuum system is designed to permit most synchrotron photons to escape the electron channel and be absorbed in an antechamber. The gas generated by the photons hitting the absorbers in the antechambers will be pumped by titanium sublimation pumps located directly under the absorbers. The electron channel and the antechamber are connected by a 10-mm-high slot that offers good electrodynamic isolation of the two chambers of frequencies affecting the store electron orbit. Twelve 10-meter-long vessels constitute the vacuum chambers for all the lattice magnets. Each chamber will be machined from two thick plates of 5083-H321 aluminum and welded at the perimeter. Machining both the inside and outside of the vacuum chamber permits the use of complex and accurate surfaces. The use of thick plates allows flanges to be machined directly into the wall of each chamber, thus avoiding much welding. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  12. Validation of ultraviolet, infrared, and narrow band light alternate light sources for detection of bruises in a pigskin model.

    PubMed

    Olds, Kelly; Byard, Roger W; Winskog, Calle; Langlois, Neil E I

    2016-12-01

    Alternate light sources such as ultraviolet, narrow band, and infrared have been used in an attempt to reveal the presence of bruising that is not otherwise apparent (inapparent). The following study evaluates the ability of alternate light sources to enhance visibility of bruises by employing an objective assessment of digital photography images in conjunction with histology. A pigskin model was employed with bruises created by injection of blood to be not visible or barely visible (inapparent) under white light. The pigskin was photographed using alternate light source illumination. Images were assessed using the program Fiji(®) to measure enhancement in terms of bruise length (cm). Photography results were compared with histology to confirm the presence of bruising. Violet and blue light sources produced the greatest enhancement, both with a p < 0.0001. Regions that were not bruises were also enhanced with light sources in this study, indicating that light sources are not specific, and that their use to enhance the visibility of bruising should be undertaken with caution.

  13. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded descriptions (Ch. V), and a

  14. Diamond Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On April 24, a group traveling with Diamond Tours visited StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The trip marked Diamond Tours' return to StenniSphere since Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast on Aug. 29, 2005. About 25 business professionals from Georgia enjoyed the day's tour of America's largest rocket engine test complex, along with the many displays and exhibits at the museum. Before Hurricane Katrina, the nationwide company brought more than 1,000 visitors to StenniSphere each month. That contributed to more than 100,000 visitors from around the world touring the space center each year. In past years StenniSphere's visitor relations specialists booked Diamond Tours two or three times a week, averaging 40 to 50 people per visit. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars. For more information or to book a tour, visit http://www.nasa.gov/centers/stennis/home/index.html and click on the StenniSphere logo; or call 800-237-1821 or 228-688-2370.

  15. Primitive Mantle Nitrogen Revealed by SIMS in 3.5 Ga Harzburgitic Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerlund, K.; Richardson, S. H.; Shirey, S. B.; Hauri, E. H.; Gurney, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The advent of the ion microprobe (SIMS) some 30 years ago marked the start of an exciting new approach to subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) studies. In-situ SIMS analysis of trace element zoning in mantle minerals, in combination with TIMS analysis of mineral separates, has revolutionized our understanding of equilibrium/disequilibrium relationships on a variety of time and length scales. For example, octahedral diamonds isolate mineral inclusions from diffusive exchange at mantle temperatures on a Gyr time scale, as well as preserving host diamond isotopic signatures that have long been used as indicators of the sources of diamond-forming fluids. Nitrogen, the main trace element in diamond, behaves as a compatible element during diamond growth [1] and SIMS has proved essential to determining C and N isotopic compositions on the scale of inclusions and associated diamond growth zones [2]. A suite of harzburgitic sulfide inclusion bearing diamonds from the 53 Ma Panda kimberlite, NWT, Canada, provides an ideal opportunity to characterize the source of diamond fluids in the world’s oldest macrodiamonds [3]. This suite gave a sulfide Re-Os isochron age of 3.52 ± 0.17 Ga with a radiogenic initial Os isotope signature characteristic of subduction-related fluids. The first-order variation in C (δ13C = -9 to 0‰) and N (δ15N = -25 to -7‰) isotopic composition of the host diamonds has been mapped by SIMS profiling of diamond plates. Collectively, the specimens show the following features: (i) compositional zoning/discontinuities indicating discrete growth stages and multiple fluids, (ii) overall core-to-rim decrease in N concentration variably well correlated with C and N isotopic composition, suggesting both open and closed system fractionation during diamond growth, (iii) initial N concentration correlated with N isotopic composition for different stones suggesting mixing of an ambient, isotopically light N component (<-26‰) and a heavier N component

  16. Diamond optics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 20, 21, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, A.; Sandor, H.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to unconventional diamond and DLC deposition processes, deposition characterization; diamond characterization, and structural, thermal, and optical properties. Particular attention is given to diamond CVD growth chemistry; a synthesis technique of diamondlike carbon films by a laser ablation ion source in the atmosphere; mass spectrometry studies of diamond deposition; characterization of electron cyclotron resonance plasmas for diamond deposition; thinning and polishing of diamond films by a diffusional reaction with metals; twin quituplets in a CVD diamond; characterization of diamond films deposited by hot-filament CVD using CF4 as a doping gas by Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy; properties of optically smooth diamond thin films produced by ECR-PACVD; calculations of energy barriers to CVD diamon growth; thermal properties of optical-quality diamond films; attenuated total reflectance infrared absorption in CVD diamond films; and optical properties of boron-doped diamond films.

  17. The provenance of Borneo's enigmatic alluvial diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Lloyd; Graham, Ian; Tanner, Dominique; Hall, Robert; Armstrong, Richard; Yaxley, Greg; Barron, Larry; Spencer, Lee; van Leeuwen, Theo

    2016-04-01

    Gem-quality diamonds occur in several alluvial deposits across central and southern Borneo. Borneo has been a known source of diamonds for centuries, but the location of their primary igneous source remains enigmatic. Numerous geological models have been proposed to explain the distribution of Borneo's diamonds. To assess these models, we used a variety of techniques to examine heavy minerals from Kalimantan's Cempaka paleoalluvial diamond deposit. This involved collecting U-Pb isotopic data, fission track and trace element geochemistry of zircon as well as major element geochemical data of spinels and morphological descriptions of zircon and diamond. Our results indicate that the Cempaka diamonds were likely derived from at least two sources, one which was relatively local and/or involved little reworking, and the other more distal recording several periods of reworking. The distal diamond source is interpreted to be diamond-bearing pipes that intruded the basement of a block that: (1) rifted from northwest Australia (East Java or SW Borneo) and the diamonds were recycled into its sedimentary cover, or: (2) were emplaced elsewhere (e.g. NW Australia) and transported to a block (e.g. East Java or SW Borneo). Both of these scenarios require the diamonds to be transported with the block when it rifted from NW Australia in the Late Jurassic. The 'local' diamonds could be associated with ophiolitic rocks that are exposed in the nearby Meratus Mountains, or could be diamondiferous diatremes associated with eroded Miocene high-K alkaline intrusions north of the Barito Basin. If this were the case, these intrusions would indicate that the lithosphere beneath SW Borneo is thick (~150 km or greater).

  18. n-Type diamond and method for producing same

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    A new n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed, which is doped with n-type dopant atoms. Such diamond is advantageously formed by chemical vapor deposition from a source gas mixture comprising a carbon source compound for the diamond, and a volatile hot wire filament for the n-type impurity species, so that the n-type impurity atoms are doped in the diamond during its formation. A corresponding chemical vapor deposition method of forming the n-type semiconducting diamond is disclosed. The n-type semiconducting diamond of the invention may be usefully employed in the formation of diamond-based transistor devices comprising pn diamond junctions, and in other microelectronic device applications.

  19. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.

    2016-04-26

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. Here, this shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  20. Advanced Light Source activity report 1996/97

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Ten years ago, the Advanced Light Source (ALS) existed as a set of drawings, calculations, and ideas. Four years ago, it stored an electron beam for the first time. Today, the ALS has moved from those ideas and beginnings to a robust, third-generation synchrotron user facility, with eighteen beam lines in use, many more in planning or construction phases, and hundreds of users from around the world. Progress from concepts to realities is continuous as the scientific program, already strong in many diverse areas, moves in new directions to meet the needs of researchers into the next century. ALS staff members who develop and maintain the infrastructure for this research are similarly unwilling to rest on their laurels. As a result, the quality of the photon beams the authors deliver, as well as the support they provide to users, continues to improve. The ALS Activity Report is designed to share the results of these efforts in an accessible form for a broad audience. The Scientific Program section, while not comprehensive, shares the breadth, variety, and interest of recent research at the ALS. (The Compendium of User Abstracts and Technical Reports provides a more comprehensive and more technical view.) The Facility Report highlights progress in operations, ongoing accelerator research and development, and beamline instrumentation efforts. Although these Activity Report sections are separate, in practice the achievements of staff and users at the ALS are inseparable. User-staff collaboration is essential as they strive to meet the needs of the user community and to continue the ALS's success as a premier research facility.

  1. Advanced light source at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornacchia, M.

    1989-07-01

    The 1-2-GeV synchrotron radiation source will be a national user-based facility providing photon beams of unprecedented brightness in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The facility design is optimized to emphasize the use of undulators to provide high-spectral brilliance in the few electron volt to 1-keV spectral range; wigglers provide high flux up to approximately 10 keV. Beam structure of a few tens of picoseconds will be available for time-resolved experiments. The facility is designed for operational flexibility and to assure rapid commissioning. The initial complement of experimental stations consists of five insertion devices (four undulators and our wiggler) and associated beamlines, and two white light beams from bend magnets. Six other straight sections are available for additional insertion devices, and the design provides for up to 48 ports for beams from bending magnets. The storage ring is optimized for operation at 1.5 GeV with a maximum energy of 1.9 GeV. The injection system includes a 1-Hz, 1.5-GeV booster synchrotron for full energy injection at the nominal operating energy of the storage ring. Filling time for the maximum stored current of 400 mA is expected to be 2 min, and the beam half-life will be about 6 h. Attention is being given to the severe requirements for beam stability and the need to independently control photon beam alignment. We describe the important characteristics of the facility, significant aspects of the technical design of accelerator systems, insertion devices and photon beamlines, and considerations related to addressing projected user needs in the development of the project.

  2. The ALS — A third-generation light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A. L.; Schlachter, A. S.

    1990-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in April 1993. Based on a low-emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 11 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers). Undulators will generate high-brightness soft-X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation; wigglers will extend the spectrum generated into the hard-X-ray region, but at a lower brightness. Up to 48 bending-magnet ports will also be available. Engineering design has begun on a complement of three undulators with periods of 8.0, 5.0, and 3.9 cm. Among them, the photon-energy range from 5.4 eV to 2.5 keV will be covered when the first, third, and fifth undulator harmonics are used. Also being designed is a wiggler with a critical energy of 3.1 keV. Undulator beam lines will be based on high-resolution spherical-grating monochromators. A Call for Proposals has been issued for those who wish to participate in the design, development, commissioning, and operation of the initial complement of the ALS experimental facilities (insertion devices, beam lines, and experimental stations) as members of a participating research team. The deadline for receipt of proposals was August 15, 1989. Proposals are expected to reflect the Letters of Interest received from potential participating research teams (PRTs) during the previous year.

  3. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    DOE PAGES

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.

    2016-04-26

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons producedmore » in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. Here, this shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.« less

  4. Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator to drive the future FEL Light Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Power, J.; Zholents, A. )

    2011-04-20

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expensive instruments and a large part of the cost of the entire facility is driven by the accelerator. Using a high-energy gain dielectric wake-field accelerator (DWA) instead of the conventional accelerator may provide a significant cost saving and reduction of the facility size. In this article, we investigate using a collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator to provide a high repetition rate, high current, high energy beam to drive a future FEL x-ray light source. As an initial case study, a {approx}100 MV/m loaded gradient, 850 GHz quartz dielectric based 2-stage, wakefield accelerator is proposed to generate a main electron beam of 8 GeV, 50 pC/bunch, {approx}1.2 kA of peak current, 10 x 10 kHz (10 beamlines) in just 100 meters with the fill factor and beam loading considered. This scheme provides 10 parallel main beams with one 100 kHz drive beam. A drive-to-main beam efficiency {approx}38.5% can be achieved with an advanced transformer ratio enhancement technique. rf power dissipation in the structure is only 5 W/cm{sup 2} in the high repetition rate, high gradient operation mode, which is in the range of advanced water cooling capability. Details of study presented in the article include the overall layout, the transform ratio enhancement scheme used to increase the drive to main beam efficiency, main wakefield linac design, cooling of the structure, etc.

  5. Shielding synchrotron light sources: Advantages of circular shield walls tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, S. L.; Ghosh, V. J.; Breitfeller, M.

    2016-08-01

    Third generation high brightness light sources are designed to have low emittance and high current beams, which contribute to higher beam loss rates that will be compensated by Top-Off injection. Shielding for these higher loss rates will be critical to protect the projected higher occupancy factors for the users. Top-Off injection requires a full energy injector, which will demand greater consideration of the potential abnormal beam miss-steering and localized losses that could occur. The high energy electron injection beam produce significantly higher neutron component dose to the experimental floor than lower energy injection and ramped operations. High energy neutrons produced in the forward direction from thin target beam losses are a major component of the dose rate outside the shield walls of the tunnel. The convention has been to provide thicker 90° ratchet walls to reduce this dose to the beam line users. We present an alternate circular shield wall design, which naturally and cost effectively increases the path length for this forward radiation in the shield wall and thereby substantially decreasing the dose rate for these beam losses. This shield wall design will greatly reduce the dose rate to the users working near the front end optical components but will challenge the beam line designers to effectively utilize the longer length of beam line penetration in the shield wall. Additional advantages of the circular shield wall tunnel are that it's simpler to construct, allows greater access to the insertion devices and the upstream in tunnel beam line components, as well as reducing the volume of concrete and therefore the cost of the shield wall.

  6. Characteristics of Impact Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skala, R.; Bouska, V. J.

    1992-07-01

    Having studied two Czech diamonds in UV light (lambda=366 nm) they appeared to be an extraordinary dirty orange color [1], the same as in the case of Popigai and ureilites impact diamonds (ID) [2]. SEM images show evidence of a thatch-like surface that is very similar to that of the Abee chondrite [3]. Commonly, the ID contain microscopic black plates which are formed by graphite or a carbon matter with indefinite structure, and they are always associated with hexagonal moissanite [2,4]. One unexplained fact is connected with a fabric of the ID aggregates, i.e. both Czech diamonds are single crystals, otherwise other ID form polycrystalline strongly textured aggregates. [1] Bouska V.J. and Skala R.M. (1992) Abstracts for International Conference on Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution, in press. [2] Masaitis V.L., Shafranovskii G.I., Ezerskii V.A., and Reshetnyak N.B. (1990) Meteoritica 49, 180-196. [3] Russell S.S. and Pillinger C.T. (1991) Abstracts 54th Ann. Meet. Meteor. Soc. 200. [4] Bauer J., Fiala J., and Hrichova R. (1963) Amer. Mineral. 48, 620-634.

  7. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bosgra, Jeroen; Eastwood, David S.; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; David, Christian; Rau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  8. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    SciTech Connect

    Vila-Comamala, Joan Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph; Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian; Eastwood, David S.

    2016-01-28

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  9. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOEpatents

    Choong, Vi-En; Choulis, Stelios; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Mathai, Mathew; So, Franky

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  10. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  11. Surface extensions of 3T3 cells towards distant infrared light sources

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Using a specially designed phase-contrast light microscope with an infrared spot illuminator we found that approximately 25% of 3T3 cells were able to extend pseudopodia towards single microscopic infrared light sources nearby. If the cells were offered a pair of such light sources next to each other, 47% of the cells extended towards them. In the latter case 30% of the responding cells extended separate pseudopodia towards each individual light source of a pair. The strongest responses were observed if the infrared light sources emitted light of wavelengths in the range of 800-900 nm intermittently at rates of 30-60 pulses per min. The temperature increases of the irradiated spots can be shown to be negligible. The results suggest that the cells are able to sense specific infrared wavelengths and to determine the direction of individual sources. PMID:1860881

  12. Clinopyroxenes still trapped in diamonds: high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction as a chemical probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casati, Nicola; Nestola, Fabrizio; Alvaro, Matteo; Wilhelm, Heribert; Kleppe, Annette; Nimis, Paolo; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    radiation at I15 extreme-conditions beamline, Diamond Light Source Ltd. Such approach makes the absorption from the large diamond host nearly negligible (i.e. with a decrease in the mass attenuation coefficient of more than 75% with respect to a conventional laboratory X-ray source for single crystal diffraction) and allows to collect extremely high quality data on the inclusions. The details will be discussed. We thank the Diamond Light Source for beamtime allocation (beamline I15, experiment number EE8754-1). The research was also funded by the ERC Starting Grant 2012 to FN. References Fedortchouk Y., Manghnani M.H., Hushur A., Shiryaev A., Nestola F. (2011) An atomic force microscopy study of diamond dissolution features: The effect of H2O and CO2 in the fluid on diamond morphology. American Mineralogist, 96, 1768-1775. Nestola F., Longo M., McCammon C., Boffa Ballaran T. (2007) Crystal-structure refinement of Na-bearing clinopyroxenes from mantle-derived eclogite xenoliths. American Mineralogist, 92, 1242-1245.

  13. Effective implantation of light emitting centers by plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam methods into nanosized diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himics, L.; Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Tóth, A.; Koós, M.

    2015-02-01

    Two different implantation techniques, plasma immersion ion implantation and focused ion beam, were used to introduce nitrogen ions into detonation nanodiamond crystals with the aim to create nitrogen-vacancy related optically active centers of light emission in near UV region. Previously samples were subjected to a defect creation process by helium irradiation in both cases. Heat treatments at different temperatures (750 °C, 450 °C) were applied in order to initiate the formation of nitrogen-vacancy related complex centers and to decrease the sp2 carbon content formed under different treatments. As a result, a relatively narrow and intensive emission band with fine structure at 2.98, 2.83 and 2.71 eV photon energies was observed in the light emission spectrum. It was assigned to the N3 complex defect center. The formation of this defect center can be expected by taking into account the relatively high dose of implanted nitrogen ions and the overlapped depth distribution of vacancies and nitrogen. The calculated depth profiles distribution for both implanted nitrogen and helium by SRIM simulation support this expectation.

  14. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Zvanya, John Cullen, Christopher Morris, Thomas Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William Basnett, Andrew Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp{sup 3} peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm{sup −1}) and that negligible amounts of the sp{sup 2} band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films.

  15. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  16. Comparative effectiveness of clinically used light sources for cutaneous protoporphyrin IX-based photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Robert M; Dowdy, John C; Gottschalk, Ronald W

    2011-04-01

    This report documents the optical characteristics of a number of photodynamic therapy (PDT) light sources of varied types, measured and indexed relative to estimated effectiveness for activation of the PDT chromaphore protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). PDT sources in use at several clinics, including intense pulsed light (IPL) sources, lasers, and continuous wave (CW) light sources, were spectroradiometrically measured and indexed relative to their overlap to an absorption spectrum of PpIX. The sources were highly disparate, varying in power from irradiance in the mW/cm(2) range for the CW sources up to ∼30 J/cm(2) per flash for the IPL sources. Our PpIX Index ranged by a factor of nearly 100 (0.008-0.630) in estimated PpIX PDT effectiveness following the distinct spectral characteristics of the light sources surveyed. Application of this PpIX Index, tempered with an understanding of the biology of the lesion being treated and effective spectrum of the light source reaching the lesion requiring therapy, provides a rational algorithm to approximate equivalent light doses prior to clinical protocols to establish equivalent patient outcomes employing alternative PDT light sources.

  17. A low-cost low-maintenance ultraviolet lithography light source based on light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Erickstad, M; Gutierrez, E; Groisman, A

    2015-01-07

    A source of collimated ultraviolet (UV) light is a central piece of equipment needed for lithographic fabrication of microfluidic devices. Conventional UV light sources based on high-pressure mercury lamps require considerable maintenance and provide broad-band illumination with intensity that often changes with time. Here we present a source of narrow-band UV light based on an array of nine 365 nm light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Each LED has two dedicated converging lenses, reducing the divergence of light emanating from it to 5.4°. Partial overlap of the areas illuminated by individual LEDs provides UV illumination with a mean intensity of ~1.7 mW cm(-2) and coefficient of variation <3% over a 90 × 90 mm target area. The light source was used to lithographically fabricate micro-reliefs with thicknesses from ~25 to 311 μm with SU8 photoresists. A cumulative irradiation of 370 mJ cm(-2) (4 min exposure) produced reliefs of good quality for all SU8 thicknesses. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replicas of the SU8 reliefs had microchannels with nearly rectangular cross-sections that were highly consistent over the entire target area, and partitions between the channels had depth to width ratios up to 5. The UV light source has also been successfully used for photolithography with positive photoresists, AZ40XT and SPR-220. The proposed light source is built with a total cost of <$1000, consumes a minimal amount of power, is expected to last for ~50,000 exposures, is maintenance-free, and is particularly appealing for small research-and-development microfluidic fabrication.

  18. Survey of light sources for image display systems to achieve brightness with efficient energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Dah Yu; Chen, Li-Min

    1995-04-01

    This paper will review the currently available light sources, and also introduces a new, patented compound orthogonal parabolic reflector to be integrated with the light source, which focuses a relatively large light source into a very small point. The reflector creates a nearly ideal intense point source for all next generation image display systems. The proposed system is not limited by the radiation source whether it is a short arc lamp or a long tungsten filament lamp. Our technologies take the finite size of radiation sources into account to address the common problem for all reflector lamp systems, i.e., intensity and uniformity (dark hole). Successful examples will be shown on how to make the efficient intense light source match the requirements of LCD and DMD display systems. A method for reducing U.V. and I.R. radiation will also be demonstrated.

  19. 19 CFR 12.152 - Prohibitions and conditions on the importation and exportation of rough diamonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... exportation of rough diamonds. 12.152 Section 12.152 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... rough diamonds. (a) General. The Clean Diamond Trade Act (Pub. L. 108-19) requires the President... States, of any rough diamond, from whatever source, that has not been controlled through the...

  20. Formation of diamond in the Earth's mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachel, Thomas; Harris, Jeff W.

    2009-09-01

    The principal sources of natural diamonds are peridotitic (about 2/3 of diamonds) and eclogitic (1/3) domains located at 140-200 km depth in the subcratonic lithospheric mantle. There, diamonds probably form during redox reactions in the presence of melt (likely for eclogitic and lherzolitic diamonds) or under subsolidus conditions in the presence of CHO fluids (likely for harzburgitic diamonds). Co-variations of δ13C and the nitrogen content of diamonds suggest that two modes of formation may have been operational in peridotitic sources: (1) reduction of carbonates, that during closed system fractionation drives diamond compositions to higher δ13C values and lower nitrogen concentrations and (2) oxidation of methane, that in a closed system leads to a trend of decreasing δ13C with decreasing nitrogen. The present day redox state of subcratonic lithospheric mantle is generally too reduced to allow for methane oxidation to be a widespread process. Therefore, reduction of carbonate dissolved in melts and fluids is likely the dominant mode of diamond formation for the Phanerozoic (545 Ma-present) and Proterozoic (2.5 Ga-545 Ma). Model calculations indicate, however, that for predominantly Paleoarchean (3.6-3.2 Ga) to Mesoarchean (3.2-2.8 Ga) harzburgitic diamonds, methane reduction is the principal mode of precipitation. This suggests that the reduced present day character (oxygen fugacity below carbonate stability) of peridotitic diamond sources may be a secondary feature, possibly acquired during reducing Archean (>2.5 Ga) metasomatism. Recycling of biogenic carbonates back into the mantle through subduction only became an important process in the Paleoproterozoic (2.5-1.6 Ga) and diamonds forming during carbonate reduction, therefore, may predominantly be post-Archean in age. For eclogitic diamonds, open system fractionation processes involving separation of a CO2 fluid appear to dominate, but in principal the same two modes of formation (methane oxidation