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Sample records for diamond-like carbon coating

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Polycarbonate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    moisture sensitive coatings provide good protection against laser induced damage. Proper adhesion between each coating layers needs to be estab- lished... coating that is being pursued is to increase the wear, abra- sion, and chemical resistance of the current ballistic/laser protective spectacles (BLPS...unique ion beam system. These diamond-like carbon coatings have considera’le potential as wear-resistant protective hardcoatings for transparent

  2. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  3. Microwave plasma deposition of diamond like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, D. S.; Ramachandran, K.; Venkataramani, N.; Pandey, M.; D'Cunha, R.

    2000-11-01

    he promising applications of the microwave plasmas have been appearing in the fields of chemical processes and semiconductor manufacturing. Applications include surface deposition of all types including diamond/diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings, etching of semiconductors, promotion of organic reactions, etching of polymers to improve bonding of the other materials etc. With a 2.45 GHz, 700 W, microwave induced plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system set up in our laboratory we have deposited diamond like carbon coatings. The microwave plasma generation was effected using a wave guide single mode applicator. We have deposited DLC coatings on the substrates like stainless steel, Cu--Be, Cu and Si. The deposited coatings have been characterized by FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometric techniques. The results show that we have achieved depositing ~ 95% sp3 bonded carbon in the films. The films are uniform with golden yellow color. The films are found to be excellent insulators. The ellipsometric measurements of optical constant on silicon substrates indicate that the films are transparent above 900 nm.

  4. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  5. Diamond/diamond-like carbon coated nanotube structures for efficient electron field emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimitrijevic, Steven (Inventor); Withers, James C. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a nanotube coated with diamond or diamond-like carbon, a field emitter cathode comprising same, and a field emitter comprising the cathode. It is also directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from a field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes by coating the nanotube with diamond or diamond-like carbon. In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from an electron field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes, which method comprises coating the nanotubes with diamond or diamond-like carbon.

  6. Diamond like carbon coatings: Categorization by atomic number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Dense diamond-like hydrocarbon films grown at the NASA Lewis Research Center by radio frequency self bias discharge and by direct ion beam deposition were studied. A new method for categorizing hydrocarbons based on their atomic number density and elemental composition was developed and applied to the diamond-like hydrocarbon films. It was shown that the diamond-like hydrocarbon films are an entirely new class of hydrocarbons with atomic number densities lying between those of single crystal diamond and adamantanes. In addition, a major review article on these new materials was completed in cooperation with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel.

  7. Compilation of diamond-like carbon properties for barriers and hard coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Outka, D.A.; Hsu, Wen L.; Boehme, D.R.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Ottesen, D.K.; Johnsen, H.A.; Clift, W.M.; Headley, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an amorphous form of carbon which resembles diamond in its hardness, lubricity, and interest for hardness, lubricity, and resistance to chemical attack. Such properties make DLC of use in barrier and hard coating technology. This report examines a variety of properties of DLC coatings which are relevant to its use as a protective coating. This includes examining substrates on which DLC coatings can be deposited; the resistance of DLC coatings to various chemical agents; adhesion of DLC coatings; and characterization of DLC coatings by electron microscopy, FTIR, sputter depth profiling, stress measurements, and nanoindentation.

  8. Load-Bearing Biomedical Applications of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings - Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Alakoski, Esa; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Soininen, Antti; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2008-01-01

    The current status of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for biomedical applications is reviewed with emphasis on load-bearing coatings. Although diamond-like carbon coating materials have been studied for decades, no indisputably successful commercial biomedical applications for high load situations exist today. High internal stress, leading to insufficient adhesion of thick coatings, is the evident reason behind this delay of the break-through of DLC coatings for applications. Excellent adhesion of thick DLC coatings is of utmost importance for load-bearing applications. According to this review superior candidate material for articulating implants is thick and adherent DLC on both sliding surfaces. With the filtered pulsed arc discharge method, all the necessary requirements for the deposition of thick and adherent DLC are fulfilled, provided that the substrate material is selected properly. PMID:19478929

  9. Compilation of diamond-like carbon properties for barriers and hard coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Outka, D.A.; Hsu, Wen L.; Phillips, K.; Boehme, D.R.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Ottesen, D.K.; Johnsen, H.A.; Clift, W.M.; Headley, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an amorphous form of carbon which resembles diamond in its hardness, lubricity, and resistance to chemical attack. Such properties make DLC of interest for use in barrier and hard coating technology. This report examines a variety of properties of DLC coatings. This includes examining substrates on which DLC coatings can be deposited; the resistance of DLC coatings to various chemical agents; adhension of DLC coatings; and characterization of DLC coatings by electron microscopy, FTIR, sputter depth profiling, stress measurements and nanoindentation.

  10. Adhesion, cytoskeletal architecture and activation status of primary human macrophages on a diamond-like carbon coated surface.

    PubMed

    Linder, Stefan; Pinkowski, Wolfhard; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2002-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon is a promising surface coating for biomedicinal implants like coronary stents or hip joints. Before widespread clinical use of this material, its biocompatibility has to be thoroughly assessed. Cells likely to encounter a diamond-like coated implant in the human body are cells of the monocytic lineage. Their interaction with the diamond-like carbon coated surface will probably critically influence the fate of the implant, as monocytes orchestrate inflammatory reactions and also affect osseointegration of implants. We therefore investigated adhesion, cytoarchitecture and activation status of primary human monocytes and their differentiated derivatives, macrophages, on diamond-like coated glass coverslips using immunofluorescence technique. We show that adhesion of primary monocytes to a diamond-like-coated coverslip is slightly, but not significantly, enhanced in comparison to uncoated coverslips, while the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons of mature macrophages show a normal development. The activation status of macrophages, as judged by polarization of the cell body, was not affected by growth on a diamond-like carbon surface. We conclude that diamond-like carbon shows good indications for biocompatibility to blood monocytes in vitro. It is therefore unlikely that contact with a diamond-like carbon coated surface in the human body will elicit inflammatory signals by these cells.

  11. Advances in multi-spectral Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keck, Jason; Karp, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the development and applications of a new approach to Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) coating that provides the durability of traditional DLC coatings, with the addition of significantly more transmission at visible wavelengths and greater transmission in the IR. We developed a deposition system design that incorporates multiple coating technologies, allowing for multiple material design approaches. This has enabled the manufacture of DLC coatings with improved extended spectral properties, suitable for applications in which the coating must withstand airborne particulate impacts, corrosive fluids, environmental extremes, and abrasive physical handling, while offering better than typical transmission in the visible or infrared wavelength regions, or both.

  12. Superlow friction behavior of diamond-like carbon coatings: Time and speed effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimberg, J. A.; Wahl, K. J.; Singer, I. L.; Erdemir, A.

    2001-04-01

    The friction behavior of a diamond-like carbon coating was studied in reciprocating sliding contact at speeds from 0.01 to 5 mm/s, in dry nitrogen. "Superlow" friction coefficients of 0.003-0.008 were obtained in continuous sliding at the higher speeds (>1 mm/s). However, friction coefficients rose to values typical of diamond-like carbon in dry and ambient air (0.01-0.1) at lower speeds (<0.5 mm/s) as well as in time-delayed, higher speed tests. The rise of the friction coefficients in both speed and time-delay tests was in good quantitative agreement with gas adsorption kinetics predicted by the Elovich equation for adsorption onto carbon. More generally, superlow friction could be sustained, suppressed, and recovered as a function of exposure time, demonstrating that duty cycle cannot be ignored when predicting performance of superlow friction coatings in devices.

  13. Room temperature diamond-like carbon coatings produced by low energy ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, A.; Mohr, B.; Leveneur, J.

    2014-07-01

    Nanometre-smooth diamond-like carbon coatings (DLC) were produced at room temperature with ion implantation using 6 kV C3Hy+ ion beams. Ion beam analysis measurements showed that the coatings contain no heavy Z impurities at the level of 100 ppm, have a homogeneous stoichiometry in depth and a hydrogen concentration of typically 25 at.%. High resolution TEM analysis showed high quality and atomically flat amorphous coatings on wafer silicon. Combined TEM and RBS analysis gave a coating density of 3.25 g cm-3. Raman spectroscopy was performed to probe for sp2/sp3 bonds in the coatings. The results indicate that low energy ion implantation with 6 kV produces hydrogenated amorphous carbon coatings with a sp3 content of about 20%. Results highlight the opportunity of developing room temperature DLC coatings with ion beam technology for industrial applications.

  14. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  15. Architectural design of diamond-like carbon coatings for long-lasting joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-07-01

    Surface engineering through the application of super-hard, low-friction coatings as a potential approach for increasing the durability of metal-on-metal replacements is attracting significant attention. In this study innovative design strategies are proposed for the development of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings against the damage caused by wear particles on the joint replacements. Finite element modeling is used to analyze stress distributions induced by wear particles of different sizes in the newly-designed coating in comparison to its conventional monolithic counterpart. The critical roles of architectural design in regulating stress concentrations and suppressing crack initiation within the coatings is elucidated. Notably, the introduction of multilayer structure with graded modulus is effective in modifying the stress field and reducing the magnitude and size of stress concentrations in the DLC diamond-like-carbon coatings. The new design is expected to greatly improve the load-carrying ability of surface coatings on prosthetic implants, in addition to the provision of damage tolerance through crack arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Corrosion behavior of titanium alloy Beta-21S coated with diamond like carbon in Hank's solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, L.; Anandan, C.; Grips, V. K. William

    2012-06-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings posses high hardness and low friction coefficient and also biocompatible, hence, they are of interest for enhancing the wear and corrosion resistance of bio-implant materials. Beta stabilized titanium alloys are attractive for biomedical applications because of their high specific strength and low modulus. In this work Beta-21S alloy (Ti-15Mo-3Nb-3Al-0.2Si) was implanted with carbon ions by plasma immersion ion implantation using methane and hydrogen gas mixture followed by DLC deposition by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The implanted layers enabled deposition of adherent diamond-like carbon coatings on the titanium alloy which was otherwise not possible. The corrosion behavior of the treated and untreated samples was investigated through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization studies in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution). XPS, micro Raman and EDAX investigation of the samples showed the formation of a thin oxide layer on the treated samples after corrosion experiments. Corrosion resistance of the DLC coated sample is comparable with that of the untreated samples. Electrochemical impedance data of the substrate and implanted samples were fitted with two time constant equivalent circuits and that of DLC coated samples with two-layer model.

  17. Fluorine doping into diamond-like carbon coatings inhibits protein adsorption and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Okazaki, Yuko; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    The first major event when a medical device comes in contact with blood is the adsorption of plasma proteins. Protein adsorption on the material surface leads to the activation of the blood coagulation cascade and the inflammatory process, which impair the lifetime of the material. Various efforts have been made to minimize protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Recently, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has received much attention because of their antithrombogenicity. We recently reported that coating silicon substrates with fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) drastically suppresses platelet adhesion and activation. Here, we evaluated the protein adsorption on the material surfaces and clarified the relationship between protein adsorption and platelet behaviors, using polycarbonate and DLC- or F-DLC-coated polycarbonate. The adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen were assessed using a colorimetric protein assay, and platelet adhesion and activation were examined using a differential interference contrast microscope. A higher ratio of albumin to fibrinogen adsorption was observed on F-DLC than on DLC and polycarbonate films, indicating that the F-DLC film should prevent thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion and activation on the F-DLC films were more strongly suppressed as the amount of fluorine doping was increased. These results show that the F-DLC coating may be useful for blood-contacting devices. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2007.

  18. Electrical conditioning of diamond-like carbon films for the formation of coated field emission cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenenko, M.; Okrepka, G.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2010-11-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on different substrates by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition were investigated. Bonding states and film quality were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The influence of the power of plasma and the deposition time on the sp2/sp3 ratio as well as the concentration of CHn bonds was studied. The influence of sp2/sp3 ratio on the formation process of conducting channels in diamond-like carbon films as a result of electrical breakdown was determined. Reproducible increase of diamond-like carbon film conductivity, with initial sp2/sp3 ratio larger than 0.16, was observed after electrical breakdown.

  19. [The change of bacterial adhesion during deposition nitrogen-diamond like carbon coating on pure titanium].

    PubMed

    Yin, Lu; Xiao, Yun

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the change of bacterial adhesion on pure titanium coated with nitrogen-diamond like carbon (N-DLC) films and to guide the clinical application. N-DLC was deposited on titanium using ion plating machine, TiN film, anodic oxide film and non-deposition were used as control, then made specimens adhering on the surface of resin denture base for 6 months. The adhesion of Saccharomyces albicans on the titanium surface was observed using scanning electron microscope, and the roughness was tested by roughness detector. The number of Saccharomyces albicans adhering on diamond-like carbon film was significantly less than on the other groups (P < 0.05), and the growth of bacterial cell was inhibited and in a poor state. The largest number of adhesion and cell strains grew well on anodic oxide film group and non-deposition control group. The change of surface roughness of N-DLC film was less than other group (P < 0.05). Pure titanium coated with N-DLC film reduced the adhesion of Saccharomyces albicans after clinical application, thereby reduced the risk of denture stomatitis.

  20. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method to coat micropipettes with diamond-like carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuta, Naoto; Watanabe, Mayu; Yamada, Yukio; Okuyama, Naoki; Mabuchi, Kunihiko

    2005-07-15

    This article provides a simple method for coating glass micropipettes with diamond-like carbon (DLC) through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The apparatus uses a cathode that is a thin-metal-coated micropipette itself and an anode that is a meshed cylinder with its cylinder axis along the micropipette length. To produce a uniform plasma and prevent a temperature increase at the tip due to ion collision concentration, we investigated the effect of the height and diameter of the meshed cylindrical anode on the plasma. Intermittent deposition is also effective for inhibiting the temperature rise and producing high quality DLC films. Measured Raman spectra and electric resistivity indicate that a DLC film suitable for use as an insulating film can be produced on the micropipette. This coating method should also be useful for other extremely small probes.

  1. Enhanced Adhesion of Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on 316 Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Gao, J.

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been a candidate prosthetic coating due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, and biocompatibility. However, the adhesion to a number of prosthetic materials is still an issue. Different techniques have been used to improve the adhesion of DLC on various substrates. In this paper, we report the fabrication of an adherent DLC coating on commercial 316 stainless steel by using pulsed laser deposition and a composition-graded intermediate layer. Intermediate layers with graded composition from stainless steel to DLC were obtained by designing an inlaid target. Raman spectrum analysis indicated that the grown DLC films are rich in sp3 bonds. The adhesion of the coatings as well as other properties of the intermediate layers are also discussed.

  2. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh coated with deuterated diamond like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huran, J.; Balalykin, N. I.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Kleinová, A.; Sasinková, V.; Hrubčín, L.

    2014-07-01

    In this study we report on the dependence of electron emission properties on the transmission photocathodes DC gun based on stainless steel mesh coated with diamond like carbon films prepared at various technological conditions. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on the stainless steel mesh and silicon substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from gas mixtures CH4+D2+Ar, CH4+H2+Ar and reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixtures Ar+D2, Ar+H2. The concentration of elements in films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD) analytical methods simultaneously. Chemical compositions were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Raman spectroscopy at visible excitation wavelength was used for the intensity ratio determination of Gaussian fit D-peak and G-peak of Raman spectra. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. The quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode was increased with increasing intensity ratio of D-peak and G-peak, which was increased by adding deuterium to the gas mixture and using technology reactive magnetron sputtering.

  3. Fluorinated diamond-like carbon as antithrombogenic coating for blood-contacting devices.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Shimada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshiya; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Kimura, Kanako; Yoshimura, Hirokuni; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is being considered for widespread clinical use as a surface coating for cardiovascular devices. We synthesized fluorinated DLC (F-DLC) coatings in order to create a more hydrophobic surface with improved antithrombogenicity and flexibility when compared with conventional DLC coatings by combining the inertness of DLC films with the advantage of fluorination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility of the F-DLC coating for medical devices. The in vitro whole blood model confirmed that platelet loss was lower in the F-DLC group than in the noncoated group (SUS316L), which suggests the adhesion of a smaller number of platelets to F-DLC-coated materials. Furthermore, the biomarkers of mechanically induced platelet activation (beta-thromboglobulin) and activated coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin-three complex) were markedly reduced in the F-DLC-coated group. In vivo rat implant model studies revealed no excessive local and systemic inflammatory responses in the F-DLC group. The thickness of the fibrous tissue capsule surrounding the F-DLC-coated disk was almost equal to that of the noncoated SUS316L disk, which has the favorable biocompatibility for metallic implant materials. F-DLC coating thus appears to be a promising candidate for use as a coating material in blood-contacting devices. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  4. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; ...

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  5. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  6. Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Cr-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, S.; Mohan, L.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, V. Praveen; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anandan, C.

    2017-06-01

    A combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques has been employed to deposit chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel, silicon and glass substrates. The concentrations of Cr in the coatings are varied by changing the parameters of the bipolar pulsed power supply and the argon/acetylene gas composition. The coatings have been studied for composition, morphology, surface nature, nanohardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties. The changes in I D /I G ratio with Cr concentrations have been obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. Ratio decreases with an increase in Cr concentration, and it has been found to increase at higher Cr concentration, indicating the disorder in the coating. Carbide is formed in Cr-doped DLC coatings as observed from XPS studies. There is a decrease in sp 3/sp 2 ratios with an increase in Cr concentration, and it increases again at higher Cr concentration. Nanohardness studies show no clear dependence of hardness on Cr concentration. DLC coatings with lower Cr contents have demonstrated better corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move toward nobler (more positive) values. A low coefficient of friction (0.15) at different loads is observed from reciprocating wear studies. Lower wear volume is found at all loads on the Cr-doped DLC coatings. Wear mechanism changes from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear on the coating.

  7. Corrosion and Wear Behaviors of Cr-Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, S.; Mohan, L.; Bera, Parthasarathi; Kumar, V. Praveen; Barshilia, Harish C.; Anandan, C.

    2017-08-01

    A combination of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and magnetron sputtering techniques has been employed to deposit chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel, silicon and glass substrates. The concentrations of Cr in the coatings are varied by changing the parameters of the bipolar pulsed power supply and the argon/acetylene gas composition. The coatings have been studied for composition, morphology, surface nature, nanohardness, corrosion resistance and wear resistance properties. The changes in I D / I G ratio with Cr concentrations have been obtained from Raman spectroscopy studies. Ratio decreases with an increase in Cr concentration, and it has been found to increase at higher Cr concentration, indicating the disorder in the coating. Carbide is formed in Cr-doped DLC coatings as observed from XPS studies. There is a decrease in sp 3/ sp 2 ratios with an increase in Cr concentration, and it increases again at higher Cr concentration. Nanohardness studies show no clear dependence of hardness on Cr concentration. DLC coatings with lower Cr contents have demonstrated better corrosion resistance with better passive behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution, and corrosion potential is observed to move toward nobler (more positive) values. A low coefficient of friction (0.15) at different loads is observed from reciprocating wear studies. Lower wear volume is found at all loads on the Cr-doped DLC coatings. Wear mechanism changes from abrasive wear on the substrate to adhesive wear on the coating.

  8. Segment-Structured Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Polymer Catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Taku; Ohishi, Ryusuke; Ohtake, Naoto; Takai, Osamu; Tsutsui, Nobumasa; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Muraki, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Jyunpei

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has remarkable mechanical and tribological properties. Besides those mechanical properties, it has been clarified that DLC shows high biocompatibility in recent years. DLC coating can give high strength, abrasion resistance, and biocompatibility for surface of substrates. Hence DLC is a candidate for the coating material for medical devices such as artificial organ, joint, catheter, etc. The objective of this study is to develop safety protection films for implantable medical polymer devices utilizing segment-structured DLC (S-DLC) coatings. S-DLC and continuous-structured DLC were deposited on polyurethane and nylon sheet for balloon catheters. As a result, friction coefficient of DLC coated polyurethane sheet was approximately one-sixth of that of pristine polyurethane sheet, and S-DLC showed very low friction coefficient of μ=0.1-0.15. DLC coating can prevent polyurethane sheet from worn out. The puncture-resistance of nylon sheets increased 0.2MPa on average by DLC coatings regardless of the film structure. It was confirmed that DLC inhibits adsorption of blood coagulation factor. In conclusion, we succeed to verify that these DLC films can improve tribological property, abrasion-resistance, puncture-resistance, and anti-thrombogenicity of polymer catheters. Moreover, segment-structured DLC films exhibits high performance for protection of polymer material for polymer catheters.

  9. Velocity dependence of coefficient of friction of diamond like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Neha; Kumar, Niranjan; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2012-06-01

    The velocity dependence of coefficient of friction (CoF) of hydrogen-free and hydrogenated Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) coatings was studied on sliding. In low velocity regime, CoF of hydrogen-free DLC was found to increase which may be linked to a thermally activated pre-mature breaking of the surface asperities. However, CoF of hydrogenated DLC was found to decrease due to formation of graphite like lubricious layer and sustainability of cross-linked network of H-bonded atoms. In high velocity regime, CoF of hydrogen free DLC increases marginally due to an inefficient transfer of thermal energy while that of hydrogenated DLC increases due to rapid formation and rupture of atomic bonds.

  10. Surface properties and blood compatibility of commercially available diamond-like carbon coatings for cardiovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Fedel, Mariangela; Motta, Antonella; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between the surface properties and blood compatibility of in-use diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for cardiovascular components. Commercially available DLC films were characterized with respect to surface topography and wettability, protein adsorption from human plasma, and platelets adhesion/activation. Fibrinogen (Fng) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbed onto the sample surfaces were in particular quantified as two of the main proteins involved in blood compatibility. A low tendency of platelets to spread and form aggregates onto the DLC-coated surfaces has been described and related to a low Fng-to-HSA adsorption ratio. This study provides evidence that the rapid and tenacious binding of albumin molecules to DLC materials tends to passivate the surfaces and to inhibit Fng adsorption, thus imparting thromboresistance to the carbon coatings by rendering the surfaces less adhesive and activating for platelets. Albumin preferential adsorption was ascribed to high chemical heterogeneity of the DLC sample surfaces. The DLC films tested present a favorable behavior as regards blood compatibility with respect to platelet thrombus formation by reason of their surface properties. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fatigue Properties and Fracture Mechanism of Steel Coated with Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akebono, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Sugeta, Atsushi

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have attracted much attention in many industrial fields because of their excellent tribological properties, high hardness, chemical inertness and biocompatibility. In order to examine the fatigue properties and to clear the fracture mechanism of DLC coated materials, AISI4140 steel coated with DLC films by using unbalanced magnetron sputtering method was prepared and two types of fatigue test were carried out by using a tension and compression testing machine with stress ratio -1 and a bending testing machine with stress ratio -1 with a focused on the fatigue crack behavior in detail. The fracture origin changed from the slip deformation to micro defects at surface whose size didn't affect the fatigue crack initiation behavior in the case of Virgin series because the hard coating like DLC films make the defect sensitivity of coated material higher. However, DLC series indicated higher fatigue strengths in finite life region and fatigue limit compared with Virgin series. From the continuously observation by using a plastic replicas technique, it is clear that there are no noticeable differences on fatigue crack propagation rate between the Virgin and DLC series, however the fatigue crack initiation of DLC series was delayed significantly by existence of DLC films compared with Virgin series.

  12. Diamond-like carbon coatings for the protection of metallic artefacts: effect on the aesthetic appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraldi, Federica; Angelini, Emma; Caschera, Daniela; Mezzi, Alessio; Riccucci, Cristina; Caro, Tilde De

    2014-03-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is an environmentally friendly process used to deposit a variety of nano-structured coatings for the protection or the surface modification of metallic artefacts like the SiO2-like films that have been successfully tested on ancient silver, bronze and iron artefacts as barriers against aggressive agents. This paper deals with the preliminary results of a wider investigation aimed to the development of eco-sustainable coatings for the protection of Cu and Ag-based artefacts of archaeological and historic interest. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have been deposited by PECVD in different experimental conditions, in a capacitively coupled asymmetric plasma reactor, placing the substrates either on electrically powered electrode (cathodic mode) or grounded electrode (anodic mode) with and without hydrogen addition in the gas mixture. The final goal is to develop a coating with good protective effectiveness against aggressive atmospheres and contemporarily with negligible effects on the aesthetic appearance of the artefacts. The evaluation of possible colour changes of the surface patinas, due to coating process, was performed by optical microscopy and colorimetric measurements. Furthermore, to evaluate the reversibility of the thin DLC layer, an etching treatment in oxygen plasma has been successfully carried out and optimized. The chemical-physical characterization of the deposited DLC coatings was performed by means of the combined use of micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. The results show that the DLC films obtained in the anodic mode, may be proposed as a viable alternative to polymeric coatings for the protection of metallic ancient objects.

  13. Plasma post-processing of diamond-like carbon nano-coated long-period gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmietana, Mateusz; Krysiński, Adrian; Bock, Wojtek J.; Mikulic, Predrag

    2013-09-01

    This work presents an application of reactive ion etching (RIE) for effective tuning of spectral response and the refractive-index (RI) sensitivity of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-coated long-period gratings (LPGs). The technique allows for an efficient and well controlled etching of the DLC by means of O2 and CF4 plasma. The effect of DLC nanocoating etching on spectral properties of the LPGs is discussed. We correlated the decrease in DLC thickness with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength. The thinning of the overlay effectively changes the distribution of the cladding modes and thus it also has an impact on the device's RI sensitivity. The advantage of this approach is a capability for post-processing of the nano-coated structures with a good precision (etching rate from 4.6 to 8.1 nm/min for O2 plasma), cleaning the samples and their re-coating according to requested needs.

  14. Gas barrier properties of diamond-like carbon films coated on PTFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Nagashima, I.; Ohgoe, Y.; Hirakuri, K. K.; Mukaibayashi, H.; Masuzawa, T.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using radio frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD). Before the DLC coating, the PTFE substrate was modified with a N 2 plasma pre-treatment to enhance the adhesive strength of the DLC to the substrate. The influences of the N 2 plasma pre-treatment and process pressure on the gas permeation properties of these DLC-coated PTFE samples were investigated. In the Raman spectra, the G peak position shifted to a lower wave number with increasing process pressure. With scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a network of microcracks was observed on the surface of the DLC film without N 2 plasma pre-treatment. The density of these cracks decreased with increasing process pressure. In the film subjected to a N 2 plasma pre-treatment, no cracks were observed at any process pressure. In the gas barrier test, the gas permeation decreased drastically with increasing film thickness and saturated at a thickness of 0.2 μm. The DLC-coated PTFE with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment exhibited a greater reduction in gas permeation than did the samples without pre-treatment. For both sample types, gas permeation decreased with increasing process pressure.

  15. Frictional and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon-coated orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Muguruma, Takeshi; Iijima, Masahiro; Brantley, William A; Nakagaki, Susumu; Endo, Kazuhiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on frictional and mechanical properties of orthodontic brackets. DLC films were deposited on stainless steel brackets using the plasma-based ion implantation/deposition (PBIID) method under two different atmospheric conditions. As-received metal brackets served as the control. Two sizes of stainless steel archwires, 0.018 inch diameter and 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions, were used for measuring static and kinetic friction by drawing the archwires through the bracket slots, using a mechanical testing machine (n = 10). The DLC-coated brackets were observed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Values of hardness and elastic modulus were obtained by nanoindentation testing (n = 10). Friction forces were compared by one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffé test. The hardness and elastic modulus of the brackets were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. SEM photomicrographs showed DLC layers on the bracket surfaces with thickness of approximately 5-7 μm. DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 2 showed significantly less static frictional force for the stainless steel wire with 0.017 × 0.025 inch cross-section dimensions than as-received brackets and DLC-coated brackets deposited under condition 1, although both DLC-coated brackets showed significantly less kinetic frictional force than as-received brackets. The hardness of the DLC layers was much higher than that of the as-received bracket surfaces. In conclusion, the surfaces of metal brackets can be successfully modified by the PBIID method to create a DLC layer, and the DLC-coating process significantly reduces frictional forces.

  16. Argonne News Brief: Self-Healing Diamond-Like Carbon Coating Could Revolutionize Lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    Argonne scientists discovered a technique to create a layer of diamond-like carbon on the surfaces between moving parts. This could change the future of lubrication—potentially making engines more efficient, more reliable, and even greener (by reducing heavy metal additives needed in engine oils.)

  17. Wear and Friction Characteristics of AlN/Diamond-Like Carbon Hybrid Coatings on Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masashi; Kubota, Sadayuki; Suzuki, Hideto; Haraguchi, Tadao

    2015-10-01

    The use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings has the potential to greatly improve the wear resistance and friction of aluminum alloys, but practical application has so far been limited by poor adhesion due to large difference in hardness and elasticity between the two materials. This study investigates the deposition of DLC onto an Al-alloy using an intermediate AlN layer with a graded hardness to create a hybrid coating. By controlling the hardness of the AlN film, it was found that the wear life of the DLC film could be improved 80-fold compared to a DLC film deposited directly onto Al-alloy. Furthermore, it was demonstrated through finite element simulation that creating a hardness gradient in the AlN intermediate layer reduces the distribution of stress in the DLC film, while also increasing the force of adhesion between the DLC and AlN layers. Given that both the DLC and AlN films were deposited using the same unbalanced magnetron sputtering method, this process is considered to represent a simple and effective means of improving the wear resistance of Al-alloy components commonly used within the aerospace and automotive industries.

  18. Antithrombogenicity of Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Coated Nano Porous Polyethersulfone (PES) Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Prihandana, Gunawan S.; Sanada, Ippei; Ito, Hikaru; Noborisaka, Mayui; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    A nano porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane is widely used for aspects of nanofiltration, such as purification, fractionation and dialysis. However, the low-blood-compatibility characteristic of PES membrane causes platelets and blood cells to stick to the surface of the membrane and degrades ions diffusion through membrane, which further limits its application for dialysis systems. In this study, we deposited the fluorinated-diamond-like-carbon (F-DLC) onto the finger like structure layer of the PES membrane. By doing this, we have the F-DLC films coating the membrane surface without sacrificing the membrane permeability. In addition, we examined antithrombogenicity of the F-DLC/PES membranes using a microfluidic device, and experimentally found that F-DLC drastically reduced the amount of blood cells attached to the surface. We have also conducted long-term experiments for 24 days and the diffusion characteristics were found to be deteriorated due to fouling without any surface modification. On the other hand, the membranes coated by F-DLC film gave a consistent diffusion coefficient of ions transfer through a membrane porous. Therefore, F-DLC films can be a great candidate to improve the antithrombogenic characteristics of the membrane surfaces in hemodialysis systems. PMID:28788333

  19. Antithrombogenicity of Fluorinated Diamond-Like Carbon Films Coated Nano Porous Polyethersulfone (PES) Membrane.

    PubMed

    Prihandana, Gunawan S; Sanada, Ippei; Ito, Hikaru; Noborisaka, Mayui; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Miki, Norihisa

    2013-09-27

    A nano porous polyethersulfone (PES) membrane is widely used for aspects of nanofiltration, such as purification, fractionation and dialysis. However, the low-blood-compatibility characteristic of PES membrane causes platelets and blood cells to stick to the surface of the membrane and degrades ions diffusion through membrane, which further limits its application for dialysis systems. In this study, we deposited the fluorinated-diamond-like-carbon (F-DLC) onto the finger like structure layer of the PES membrane. By doing this, we have the F-DLC films coating the membrane surface without sacrificing the membrane permeability. In addition, we examined antithrombogenicity of the F-DLC/PES membranes using a microfluidic device, and experimentally found that F-DLC drastically reduced the amount of blood cells attached to the surface. We have also conducted long-term experiments for 24 days and the diffusion characteristics were found to be deteriorated due to fouling without any surface modification. On the other hand, the membranes coated by F-DLC film gave a consistent diffusion coefficient of ions transfer through a membrane porous. Therefore, F-DLC films can be a great candidate to improve the antithrombogenic characteristics of the membrane surfaces in hemodialysis systems.

  20. Diamond-like carbon coatings with zirconium-containing interlayers for orthopedic implants.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Lackner, Juergen; Fleming, Robert A; Goss, Josh; Chen, Jingyi; Zou, Min

    2017-04-01

    Six types of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with zirconium (Zr)-containing interlayers on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) were investigated for improving the biotribological performance of orthopedic implants. The coatings consist of three layers: above the substrate a layer stack of 32 alternating Zr and ZrN sublayers (Zr:ZrN), followed by a layer comprised of Zr and DLC (Zr:DLC), and finally a N-doped DLC layer. The Zr:ZrN layer is designed for increasing load carrying capacity and corrosion resistance; the Zr:DLC layer is for gradual transition of stress, thus enhancing layer adhesion; and the N-doped DLC layer is for decreasing friction, squeaking noises and wear. Biotribological experiments were performed in simulated body fluid employing a ball-on-disc contact with a Si3N4 ball and a rotational oscillating motion to mimic hip motion in terms of gait angle, dynamic contact pressures, speed and body temperature. The results showed that the Zr:DLC layer has a substantial influence on eliminating delamination of the DLC from the substrates. The DLC/Si3N4 pairs significantly reduced friction coefficient, squeaking noise and wear of both the Si3N4 balls and the discs compared to those of the Ti-6Al-4V/Si3N4 pair after testing for a duration that is equivalent to one year of hip motion in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dissolution effect and cytotoxicity of diamond-like carbon coatings on orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Ohgoe, Yasuharu; Ozeki, Kazuhide; Hirakuri, Kenji; Aoki, Hideki

    2007-12-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been used for implants in orthodontics due to the unique properties such as shape memory effect and superelasticity. However, NiTi alloys are eroded in the oral cavity because they are immersed by saliva with enzymolysis. Their reactions lead corrosion and nickel release into the body. The higher concentrations of Ni release may generate harmful reactions. Ni release causes allergenic, toxic and carcinogenic reactions. It is well known that diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have excellent properties, such as extreme hardness, low friction coefficients, high wear resistance. In addition, DLC film has many other superior properties as a protective coating for biomedical applications such as biocompatibility and chemical inertness. Therefore, DLC film has received enormous attention as a biocompatible coating. In this study, DLC film coated NiTi orthodontic archwires to protect Ni release into the oral cavity. Each wire was immersed in physiological saline at the temperature 37 degrees C for 6 months. The release concentration of Ni ions was detected using microwave induced plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) with the resolution of ppb level. The toxic effect of Ni release was studied the cell growth using squamous carcinoma cells. These cells were seeded in 24 well culture plates and materials were immersed in each well directly. The concentration of Ni ions in the solutions had been reduced one-sixth by DLC films when compared with non-coated wire. This study indicated that DLC films have the protective effect of the diffusion and the non-cytotoxicity in corrosive environment.

  2. Flexible camphor diamond-like carbon coating on polyurethane to prevent Candida albicans biofilm growth.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thaisa B; Vieira, Angela A; Paula, Luciana O; Santos, Everton D; Radi, Polyana A; Khouri, Sônia; Maciel, Homero S; Pessoa, Rodrigo S; Vieira, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    Camphor was incorporated in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films to prevent the Candida albicans yeasts fouling on polyurethane substrates, which is a material commonly used for catheter manufacturing. The camphor:DLC and DLC film for this investigation was produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), using an apparatus based on the flash evaporation of organic liquid (hexane) containing diluted camphor for camphor:DLC and hexane/methane, mixture for DLC films. The film was deposited at a low temperature of less than 25°C. We obtained very adherent camphor:DLC and DLC films that accompanied the substrate flexibility without delamination. The adherence of camphor:DLC and DLC films on polyurethane segments were evaluated by scratching test and bending polyurethane segments at 180°. The polyurethane samples, with and without camphor:DLC and DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical profilometry. Candida albicans biofilm formation on polyurethane, with and without camphor:DLC and DLC, was assessed. The camphor:DLC and DLC films reduced the biofilm growth by 99.0% and 91.0% of Candida albicans, respectively, compared to bare polyurethane. These results open the doors to studies of functionalized DLC coatings with biofilm inhibition properties used in the production of catheters or other biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings as Encapsulants for Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Panosyan, Zh.; Gippius, A. A.; Kontsevoy, J. A.; Touryan, K.; Voskanyan, S.; Yengibaryan, Y.

    2005-02-01

    High-quality single-layer and bilayer diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are fabricated by two technologies, namely, ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition (IAPED) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) deposition. Deposition on various substrates, such as sapphires and solar cells, has been performed at low substrate temperatures (50 {approx} 80 C). The two deposition technologies allow good control over the growth conditions to produce DLC films with desired optical properties, thickness, and energy bandgap. The bilayer-structured DLC can be fabricated by using IAPED for the bottom layer followed by ECR for the top layer, or just by IAPED for both layers with different compositions. The DLC films have shown good spatial uniformity, density, microhardness, and adhesion strength. They exhibit excellent stability against attack by strong acids, prolonged damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, mechanical scratch, ultrasonication, and irradiation by ultraviolet (UV), protons, and electrons. When deposited on crystalline Si and GaAs solar cells in single-layer and/or bilayer structure, the DLC films not only serve as antireflection coating and protective encapsulant, but also improve the cell efficiencies.

  4. Osteoblast adhesion to orthopaedic implant alloys: Effects of cell adhesion molecules and diamond-like carbon coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kornu, R.; Kelly, M.A.; Smith, R.L.; Maloney, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    In total joint arthroplasty, long-term outcomes depend in part on the biocompatibility of implant alloys. This study analyzed effects of surface finish and diamond-like carbon coating on osteoblast cell adhesion to polished titanium-aluminum-vanadium and polished or grit-blasted cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys. Osteoblast binding was tested in the presence and absence of the cell adhesion proteins fibronectin, laminin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin and was quantified by measurement of DNA content. Although adherence occurred in serum-free medium, maximal osteoblast binding required serum and was similar for titanium and cobalt alloys at 2 and 12 hours. With the grit-blasted cobalt alloy, cell binding was reduced 48% (p < 0.05) by 24 hours. Coating the alloys with diamond-like carbon did not alter osteoblast adhesion, whereas fibronectin pretreatment increased cell binding 2.6-fold (p < 0.05). In contrast, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and laminin did not enhance cell adhesion. These results support the hypothesis that cell adhesion proteins can modify cell binding to orthopaedic alloys. Although osteoblast binding was not affected by the presence of diamond-like carbon, this coating substance may influence other longer term processes, such as bone formation, and deserves further study. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Wear Resistance of Microextrusion Dies Coated by Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Naoto; Yang, Xudong; Kuroda, Toshihisa; Nakamura, Yukinori; Kondo, Yoshimasa

    In order to improve the wear resistance of stainless steel extrusion dies, the mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on SUS630 (17-4PH) substrates have been investigated. It was clearly shown that wear resistance of the dies was significantly improved when high-voltage pulse pretreatment was applied before DLC deposition by DC plasma CVD. The DLC film showed good wear resistance against cordierite clay in an extrusion experiment. Furthermore, in order to strengthen the adhesion between the DLC film and the substrate which were deposited, TiCN films was fabricated as a buffer layer between DLC and SUS630 substrates. It was found that DLC film with high adhesion strength was prepared at relatively low CH4 gas pressure of 6Pa.

  6. Coating NiTi archwires with diamond-like carbon films: reducing fluoride-induced corrosion and improving frictional properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, S Y; Huang, J J; Kang, T; Diao, D F; Duan, Y Z

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to coat diamond-like carbon (DLC) films onto nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires. The film protects against fluoride-induced corrosion and will improve orthodontic friction. 'Mirror-confinement-type electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering' was utilized to deposit DLC films onto NiTi archwires. The influence of a fluoride-containing environment on the surface topography and the friction force between the brackets and archwires were investigated. The results confirmed the superior nature of the DLC coating, with less surface roughness variation for DLC-coated archwires after immersion in a high fluoride ion environment. Friction tests also showed that applying a DLC coating significantly decreased the fretting wear and the coefficient of friction, both in ambient air and artificial saliva. Thus, DLC coatings are recommended to reduce fluoride-induced corrosion and improve orthodontic friction.

  7. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  8. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction.

  9. Diamond-like-Carbon Coated Copper Guides for use in the UCNA Experiment: Production Techniques and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammei, R. R.; Pazuchanics, F. E.; Richardson, D. L.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Pitt, M. L.; Young, A. R.

    2008-10-01

    The UCNA experiment at Los Alamos National Lab employs ultracold neutrons (UCN) to measure the beta-asymmetry in polarized neutron decay. Our current beam line makes use of polished stainless steel and copper guides to transport and bottle the UCN. Due to their high Fermi potential and low depolarization per bounce, utilizing Diamond-like-Carbon (DLC) coated copper guides to preserve polarization and transport UCN after they have been polarized has the potential of increasing the observed decay rate in our trap and reducing the size of polarization-related systematic errors. However there have been challenges in obtaining a well-adhered DLC coating on the copper substrate. In order to overcome this difficulty a variety of guide preparation and production processes have been developed to obtain an acceptable coating. A review of the methods and analysis of the resulting coatings will be discussed along with beta-decay rate results from installing these guides in our experiment.

  10. Optimum Me-DLC coatings and hard coatings for tribological performance[Diamond-Like Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.L.; Kao, W.H.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, hard coatings (TiN, TiCN, CrN, and CrCN) and Me-DLC coatings (Ti{sub x%}-C:H and Cr{sub x%}-C:H) were deposited on tungsten carbide (WC) substrate by multiarc physical vapor deposition (MAPVD) and unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering, respectively. Counterbodies of the AISI 1045 steel cylinder and the AA7075T65l aluminum cylinder were used in the cylinder-on-disk, line-contact wear mode under dry condition; a counterbody of the AISI 51200 steel ball was used in the ball-on-disk, point-contact wear mode, under both dry and lubricated conditions. All wear tests were conducted with a reciprocating machine. After the tests, the most suitable coating for various counterbodies and test environments was selected. For the coating/1045 steel cylinder, the Ti{sub 10%}-C:H coating possesses excellent tribological characteristics. For the coating/7075T651 aluminum cylinder, hard coatings display excellent wear resistance. For the coating/steel ball, CrCN and CrN coatings display very little wear under both dry and lubricated conditions. On TiN and TiCN coatings, special wear mechanisms of material transfer, adhesion wear, and fatigue fracture occurred during initial tests under kerosene lubrication.

  11. Further improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings by N codoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Changwei; Xie, Wei; Tang, Xiaoshan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen codoping on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite coatings were investigated in detail. Compared with undoped DLC coatings, the Cr-DLC and N/Cr-DLC coatings showed higher root-mean-square (RMS) roughness values. However, from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman results, the fraction of sp2 carbon bonds of N/Cr-DLC coatings increased with increasing N content, which indicated the graphitization of the coatings. The hardness and elastic modulus of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 1.8 at. % N were about 26.8 and 218 GPa, respectively. The observed hardness increase with N codoping was attributed to the incorporation of N in the C network along with the formation of CrC(N) nanoparticles, as confirmed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The internal stress markedly decreased from 0.93 to 0.32 GPa as the N content increased from 0 to 10.3 at. %. Furthermore, N doping significantly improved the high-temperature dry friction behavior of DLC coatings. The friction coefficient of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 8.0 and 10.3 at. % N was kept at about 0.2 during the overall sliding test at 500 °C. These results showed that appropriate N doping could promote the mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-DLC nanocomposite coatings.

  12. Influence of load on the dry frictional performance of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Martínez, D.; Nohava, Jiri; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the influence of applied load on the frictional behavior of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films is studied at dry conditions. The performance of two coatings with very different microstructure (patched vs. continuous film) is compared with the uncoated substrate. A wide range of applied loads is explored, from 1 mN to 1 N, which is achieved by using a specific tribometer. The variation of 3 orders of magnitude in the applied load leads to a strong variation of the observed frictional phenomena. The different behavior of both samples at various loads is explained using a model that considers two contributions to the friction coefficient, namely, an adhesive and a rubber hysteresis part. The constraints and applicability of such model are critically evaluated.

  13. Adhesion of slime producing Staphylococcus epidermidis strains to PVC and diamond-like carbon/silver/fluorinated coatings.

    PubMed

    Katsikogianni, M; Spiliopoulou, I; Dowling, D P; Missirlis, Y F

    2006-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as a pathogen associated with infections of implanted medical devices. Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step in infection on biomaterial surfaces. To quantitatively determine the relationship between poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surface properties and bacterial adhesion, we have compared attachment of slime-producing S. epidermidis strains on PVC and various coatings under flow conditions. Bacterial adhesion and colonization was quantified by counting the viable organisms on the adherent surface as well as by scanning electron microscopy, epifluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Fluorination of the PVC surface encourages S. epidermidis adhesion whereas; diamond-like carbon (DLC) and especially silver (Ag) coatings seem to inhibit its adhesion. In most materials, the number of adherent bacteria decreased with the increase of shear rate. These results indicate that bacterial adhesion is influenced by the chemical properties of the polymeric surfaces, the surface roughness and the associated flow conditions.

  14. Ultra hydrophobic/superhydrophilic modified cotton textiles through functionalized diamond-like carbon coatings for self-cleaning applications.

    PubMed

    Caschera, Daniela; Cortese, Barbara; Mezzi, Alessio; Brucale, Marco; Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Gigli, Giuseppe; Padeletti, Giuseppina

    2013-02-26

    A stable and improved control of the wettability of textiles was obtained by using a coating of diamond like carbon (DLC) films on cotton by PECVD. By controlling different plasma pretreatments of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen on the cotton fibers' surface, we have shown that the pretreatments had a significant impact on wettability behavior resulting from an induced nanoscale roughness combined with an incorporation of selected functional groups. Upon subsequent deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) films, the cotton fibers yield to a highly controlled chemical stability and hydrophobic state and could be used for self-cleaning applications. By controlling the nature of the plasma pretreatment we have shown that the oxygen plasma pretreatment was more effective than the argon and hydrogen for the superhydrophilic/ultra hydrophobic properties. The chemical and morphological changes of the cotton fibers under different treatments were characterized using X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, AFM, and water contact angle measurements. The mechanism underlying the water-repellent properties of the cotton fibers provides a new and innovative pathway into the development of a range of advanced self-cleaning textiles.

  15. Friction and fretting wear characteristics of different diamond-like carbon coatings against alumina in water-lubricated fretting conditions.

    PubMed

    Watabe, Tsukasa; Amanov, Auezhan; Tsuboi, Ryo; Sasaki, Shinya

    2013-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings typically show low friction and high wear resistance. In this study, the friction and fretting wear characteristics of PVD, CVD and CVD-Si DLC coatings were investigated against an alumina (Al2O3) ball under water-lubricated fretting conditions. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare the friction and fretting wear characteristics of those DLC coatings at various fretting frequencies. The test results showed that the PVD DLC coating led to a lower friction coefficient and a higher resistance to fretting wear compared to those of the CVD and CVD-Si DLC coatings. However, the CVD DLC coating showed that the fretting wear resistance decreases with increasing frequency, while no significant difference in fretting wear resistances of the PVD and CVD-Si DLC coatings was observed. Quantitative surface analyses of the specimens were performed using an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a laser scanning microscope (LSM), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Raman spectroscopy.

  16. The Improvement of Tribological and Fatigue Properties of Casting Magnesium Alloy AZ91 Performed Diamond Like Carbon Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akebono, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hideto

    In recent years, magnesium alloy has been widely used because of its low weight and ease of recycling. However, because magnesium alloys provide inferior wear resistance, it is necessary to improve this property to use magnesium alloy for more machine parts. For this study, we produced a diamond like carbon (DLC) coating that has high hardness, low friction, and excellent wear resistance. With DLC coated onto a soft material such as magnesium alloy, the adhesion strength between the substrate and the coating poses an important problem. Therefore, in this study, to acquire high adhesion strength, the DLC coating process was performed using unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS). A tungsten-doped inter-layer was formed on the substrate. Onto the inter-layer, nano-order DLC coatings of two kinds were laminated. Wear tests and fatigue tests were carried out. The DLC-coated magnesium alloy exhibited excellent wear friction. Furthermore, DLC coatings raised its fatigue reliability over that of the substrate alone.

  17. Friction and wear performance of bearing ball sliding against diamond-like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shenjiang; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Kar, Satyananda; Li, Dangjuan; Su, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the tribological properties of bearing steel ball (Japan standard, SUJ2) sliding against tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings and amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) coatings. The reciprocating sliding testes are performed with ball-on-plate friction tester in ambient air condition. Analysis of friction coefficient, wear volume and microstructure in wear scar are carried out using optical microscopy, atom force morphology (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results show the SUJ2 on ta-C coating has low friction coefficient (around 0.15) but high wear loss. In contrast, the low wear loss of SUJ2 on a-C:H coating with high (around 0.4) and unsteady friction coefficient. Some Fe2O3, FeO and graphitization have been found on the wear scar of SUJ2 sliding against ta-C coating. Nearly no oxide materials exist on the wear scar of SUJ2 against a-C:H coating. The mechanism and hypothesis of the wear behavior have been investigated according to the measurement results. This study will contribute to proper selection and understand the tribological performance of bearing steels against DLC coatings.

  18. Diamond-like carbon coatings for orthopedic applications: Tribological behaviors of vacuum arc diamond-like carbon-coated titanium alloy against medical-grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianzong

    An extensive and detailed investigation of tribological behaviors of vacuum arc carbon coated Ti6Al4V against medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene were conducted in this work in order to investigate the potential use of diamond-like carbon coatings for orthopedic applications. Further, the gas plasma sterilization and surface modification technique were evaluated as an alternative to the currently used gamma-radiation technique which has previously shown degradation effects on the mechanical properties of the UHMWPE. In addition, an emerging polymer surface modification technique using high-energy ion-implantation is explored to modify the surface of the UHMWPE for improved wear performance. The experiments were performed using a standard pin-on-disk wear tester under both dry and distilled water lubricated condition. The evolution of friction and wear processes are interpreted in the context of in situ recorded coefficient of friction and microscopic images of worn surfaces. Sliding wear tests demonstrated the existence of two distinct friction and wear regimes which comprise physically different dominant mechanisms: an adhesive and abrasive mechanism activated early in the run-in stage, followed by fatigue processes which developed later microscopically in the (quasi) steady-state sliding stage. The effects of surface roughness, distilled water lubricant, coating structure, polymer sterilization and surface modification on the tribological behaviors are presented and discussed in light of these results. Explanations based on theories of sliding contact stress fields, temperature profiles, as well as lubrication and coating fracture mechanics are presented to discuss and support the experimental results. It is revealed that, largely depending on material structures and surface roughness of both articulating components, significantly improved friction and wear performance can be achieved by optimal design of their process

  19. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo.

  20. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Bin Mamat, Azuddin; Masjuki, H H; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:27877803

  1. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon coatings used for reduction of pole tip recession in magnetic tape heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, William W.; Bhushan, Bharat; Lakshmikumaran, Anand V.

    2000-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited using a commercial direct ion beam deposition technique on thin-film Al2O3-TiC inductive write heads. The coating thicknesses used were 5, 10, and 20 nm. Accelerated wear tests were conducted with metal particle tapes in a linear tape drive. Atomic force microscopy was used to image the thin-film regions to measure pole tip recession (PTR), relative wear of the pole tip with respect to the air bearing surface. It is found that the coating wears off of the head substrate to a significant extent in the first 1000 km of sliding distance. The coating is worn off the substrate long before it wears off of the thin-film region. The existence of the coating on the thin-film region provides close enough wear characteristics between the substrate and thin film that the two wear at similar rates. This results in little growth in pole tip recession. Early in the wear test, the coated substrate wears at a slightly higher rate than the DLC coated thin-film region due to the difference in tape contact pressure between the two materials; decreasing PTR is the result. As the coating on the substrate wears significantly, PTR begins to increase with sliding distance. Failure does not actually occur until the coating has worn off of the thin-film region. Near failure, the coating delaminates locally. Results indicate that coatings of 20 nm thickness may provide protection against PTR in future tape drives.

  3. [Influence of deposition time on chromatics during nitrogen-doped diamond like carbon coating on pure titanium].

    PubMed

    Yin, Lu; Yao, Jiang-wu; Xu, De-wen

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to observed the influence of deposition time on chromatics during nitrogen-doped diamond like carbon coating (N-DLC) on pure titanium by multi impulse are plasma plating machine. Applying multi impulse are plasma plating machine to produce TiN coatings on pure titanium in nitrogen atmosphere, then filming with nitrogen-doped DLC on TiN in methane (10-80 min in every 5 min). The colors of N-DLC were evaluated in the CIE1976 L*a*b* uniform color scale and Mussell notation. The surface morphology of every specimen was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). When changing the time of N-DLC coating deposition, N-DLC surface showed different color. Golden yellow was presented when deposition time was 30 min. SEM showed that crystallization was found in N-DLC coatings, the structure changed from stable to clutter by varying the deposition time. The chromatics of N-DLC coatings on pure titanium could get golden yellow when deposition time was 30 min, then the crystallized structure was stable.

  4. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell interaction with phospholipid polymer nanofibers coated by micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices should possess the surface properties with the following two important characteristics: The first is the anti-thrombogenicity of the material surface and the second is the re-endothelialization over the device surface after long-term implantation, because endothelial cells have excellent anticoagulant properties in blood vessels. To develop highly hemocompatible materials that could promote surface endothelialization, we investigated biocompatible polymers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. In this research, we examined the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) fibers with DLC coatings, both of which were known to be anti-thrombogenic. DLC was synthesized on MPC by varying the ratio of covered area by patterned DLC. HUVECs were seeded on DLC-coated MPC for 6 days. The results indicated that the MPC surface with DLC did not disturb HUVEC proliferation in 6 days of culture. Additionally, we are currently making strong efforts to fabricate MPC fibers with bFGF which is an important growth factor involved in cell proliferation. MPC containing bFGF with DLC coatings could be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices.

  5. Tribological behaviors of diamond-like carbon coatings on plasma nitrided steel using three BN-containing lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zheng-feng; Wang, Peng; Xia, Yan-qiu; Zhang, Hao-bo; Pang, Xian-juan; Li, Bin

    2009-04-01

    In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were deposited on plasma nitrided AISI 1045 steel by magnetron sputtering. Three BN-containing additives and molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) were added to poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) as additives. The additive content (mass fraction) in PAO was fixed at 0.5 wt%. The friction and wear characters of DLC coatings on nitrided steel discs sliding against AISI 52100 steel balls were tested under the lubricated conditions. It was found that borate esters have a higher load carrying capacity and much better anti-wear and friction-reducing ability than that of MoDTC. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to explore the properties of the worn surface and the mechanism of friction and wear. According to the XPS analysis, the adsorbed organic N-containing compounds and BN are, possibly, the primary reason for the novel borate esters to possess a relatively constant coefficient of friction and lower wear rate. On the other hand, possibly, the MoDTC molecules break down during sliding and produce many Mo-oxides, and then the Mo-oxides destroy the DLC coating because of its sharp edge crystalline solid structure. After destroying the DLC coating, the MoDTC react with metals and form MoS 2 tribofilm, and decrease coefficient of friction of rubbing pairs.

  6. Fabrication of nano- and micro-scale UV imprint stamp using diamond-like carbon coating technology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eung-Sug; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Kim, Ki-Don; Sim, Young-Suk; Choi, Dae-Geun; Choi, Junhyuk; Park, Sang-Hu; Lim, Tae-Woo; Yang, Dong-Yol; Cha, Nam-Goo; Park, Jin-Goo; Lee, Wi-Ro

    2006-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) diamond-like carbon (DLC) stamps for ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography were fabricated with two methods: namely, a DLC coating process, followed by focused ion beam lithography; and two-photon polymerization patterning, followed by nanoscale-thick DLC coating. We used focused ion beam lithography to fabricate 70 nm deep lines with a width of 100 nm, as well as 70 nm deep lines with a width of 150 nm, on 100 nm thick DLC layers coated on quartz substrates. We also used two-photon polymerization patterning and a DLC coating process to successfully fabricate 200 nm wide lines, as well as 3-D rings with a diameter of 1.35 microm and a height of 1.97 microm, and a 3-D cone with a bottom diameter of 2.88 microm and a height of 1.97 microm. The wafers were successfully printed on an UV-NIL using the DLC stamps without an anti-adhesive layer. The correlation between the dimensions of the stamp's features and the corresponding imprinted features was excellent.

  7. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  8. Coating of diamond-like carbon nanofilm on alumina by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process.

    PubMed

    Rattanasatien, Chotiwan; Tonanon, Nattaporn; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat

    2012-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanofilms with thickness varied from under one hundred to a few hundred nanometers have been successfully deposited on alumina substrates by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MW-PECVD) process. To obtain dense continuous DLC nanofilm coating over the entire sample surface, alumina substrates were pre-treated to enhance the nucleation density. Raman spectra of DLC films on samples showed distinct diamond peak at around 1332 cm(-1), and the broad band of amorphous carbon phase at around 1550 cm(-1). Full width at half maximum height (FWHM) values indicated good formation of diamond phase in all films. The result of nano-indentation test show that the hardness of alumina samples increase from 7.3 +/- 2.0 GPa in uncoated samples to 15.8 +/- 4.5-52.2 +/- 2.1 GPa in samples coated with DLC depending on the process conditions. It is observed that the hardness values are still in good range although the thickness of the films is less than a hundred nanometer.

  9. Controlling the drug release rate from electrospun phospholipid polymer nanofibers with micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    An effective way of controlling drug release from polymer fibers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was introduced. It is highly expected that electrospinning will produce polymer fiber and useful for drug delivery systems. The drug release rate should be rather precisely controlled in order to prevent side effects due to the burst drug-release from polymers. Our previous research has already revealed that the micro-patterned DLC could control the drug release rate from biocompatible polymer films. In this study, the drug release profile of the polymer fibers with DLC was investigated. Hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was selected as a typical biocompatible polymer. It is well known that the MPC polymers show good hemocompatibility and that both MPC and DLC are excellent biocompatible materials with antithrombogenicity. The DLC/MPC composites could therefore be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices. The percentile covered area with patterned DLC on MPC fibers containing drug was varied from 0% (without DLC) to 100% (fully covered). It was found that the drug eluting profiles could be effectively controlled by changing the covered area of micro-patterned DLC coatings on MPC.

  10. On the performances and wear of WC-diamond like carbon coated tools in drilling of CFRP/Titanium stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccarusso, L.; Durante, M.; Impero, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece; Scherillo, F.; Squillace, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of hybrid structures made of CFRP and titanium alloys is growing more and more in the last years in the aerospace industry due to the high strength to weight ratio. Because of their very different characteristics, the mechanical fastening represent the most effective joining technique for these materials. As a consequence, drilling process plays a key role in the assembly. The one shot drilling, i.e. the contemporary drilling of the stack of the two materials, seems to be the best option both in terms of time saving and assembly accuracy. Nevertheless, due to the considerable different machinability of fiber reinforced plastics and metallic materials, the one shot drilling is a critical process both for the holes quality and for the tools wear. This research was carried out to study the effectiveness of new generation tools in the drilling of CFRP/Titanium stacks. The tools are made of sintered grains of tungsten carbide (WC) in a binder of cobalt and coated with Diamond like carbon (DLC), and are characterized by a patented geometry; they mainly differ in parent WC grain size and binder percentage. Both the cutting forces and the wear phenomena were accurately investigated and the results were analyzed as a function of number of holes and their quality. The results show a clear increase of the cutting forces with the number of holes for all the used drilling tools. Moreover, abrasive wear phenomena that affect initially the tools coating layer were observed.

  11. In vitro comparison of the hemocompatibility of diamond-like carbon and carbon nitride coatings with different atomic percentages of N.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Yiteng; Guo, Meixian; Deng, Xiangyun; Gu, Hanqing; Wan, Rongxin

    2012-04-01

    Carbon nitride (CN( x )) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Different partial pressures of N(2) were used to synthesize CN( x ) to evaluate the relationship between the atomic percentage of nitrogen and hemocompatibility. Auger electron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy indicated atomic percentages of N of 0.12 and 0.22 and that the CN( x ) coatings were smooth. An in vitro study of the hemocompatibility of the coatings revealed that both CN( x ) coatings had better anticoagulant properties and lower platelet adhesion than DLC. Compared with CN(0.12), the CN(0.22) coating showed longer dynamic clotting time (about 42 min), static clotting time (23.6 min) and recalcification time (45.6 s), as well as lower platelet adhesion (102 cells μm(-2)), aggregation, and activation. The presence of nitrogen in the CN( x ) coatings induced their enhanced hemocompatibility compared with DLC.

  12. Surface grafting of blood compatible zwitterionic poly(ethylene glycol) on diamond-like carbon-coated stent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Soo; Shin, Hong-Sub; Park, Kwideok; Han, Dong Keun

    2011-03-01

    Blood compatibility is the most important aspect for blood-contacting medical devices including cardiovascular stents. In this study, the surface of nickel-titanium (TiNi) stent was coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and then subsequently grafted by using zwitterion (N(+) and SO(3) (-))-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). We hypothesize that this coupling of zwitterion and PEG may significantly improve blood compatibility of DLC-coated TiNi stent. The surface modified TiNi stents, including PEG-grafted stent (DLC-PEG) and zwitterionic PEG-grafted one (DLC-PEG-N-S) were the main focus on the tests of surface characteristics and blood compatibility. The zwitterionic PEG derivatives were obtained from a series of chemical reactions at room temperature. The results exhibited that as compared to the DLC-PEG, the hydrophilicity was much better with DLC-PEG-N-S and significantly increased atomic percentage of oxygen and nitrogen proved the entity of zwitterions on the surface of DLC-PEG-N-S. Meanwhile, the adsorption of blood proteins such as, human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen was found considerably down-regulated in DLC-PEG-N-S, due mainly to the protein-repellent effect of PEG and zwitterion. Microscopic observation also revealed that as compared with the other substrates without zwitterion, the degree of platelet adhesion was the lowest with DLC-PEG-N-S. In addition, DLC-PEG-N-S retained an extended blood coagulation time as measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The present results suggested that surface grafting of zwitterionic PEG derivatives could substantially enhance the blood compatibility of TiNi-DLC stent. In conclusion, anti-fouling properties of PEG and zwitterions are expected to be very useful in advancing overall stent performance.

  13. Low Friction Property of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating Films and Oxygen Transmission Ratio of Amorphous Carbon Films Deposited by Advanced Coating Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Kano, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    The topics of the applied technology of amorphous carbon film to reduce friction using diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated by the vacuum arc ion plating process and to improve the gas barrier property using the amorphous carbon film by the atmospheric pressure plasma process are introduced with the basic experimental results. For reducing friction, the super low friction coefficient below 0.01 has been found when the tetrahedral amorphous carbon coating deposited by T-shape filtered arc deposition method [ta-C(T)] was evaluated the friction property under oleic acid lubrication at pure sliding condition. It was thought that the low share strength tribofilm composed of water and oleic acid mono-layer seemed to be formed on the sliding interface. For gas barrier performance, the amorphous carbon film deposited by the atmospheric pressure plasma chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate was improved the oxygen transmission ratio (OTR) around 30% compared with that of uncoated PET substrate. These advanced performance obtained by the optimum material combination of DLC with lubricant and the original atmospheric pressure plasma CVD technique are expected to be applied on the actual application for the different types of the industrial fields in near future.

  14. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  15. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification—Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, Peter P.; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min-1. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp3 bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  16. Adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells on chromium-doped diamond-like carbon coatings.

    PubMed

    Filova, Elena; Vandrovcova, Marta; Jelinek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Houdkova, Jana; Jan Remsa; Kocourek, Tomas; Stankova, Lubica; Bacakova, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are promising for use in coating orthopaedic, dental and cardiovascular implants. The problem of DLC layers lies in their weak layer adhesion to metal implants. Chromium is used as a dopant for improving the adhesion of DLC films. Cr-DLC layers were prepared by a hybrid technology, using a combination of pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from a graphite target and magnetron sputtering. Depending on the deposition conditions, the concentration of Cr in the DLC layers moved from zero to 10.0 at.%. The effect of DLC layers with 0.0, 0.9, 1.8, 7.3, 7.7 and 10.0 at.% Cr content on the adhesion and osteogenic differentiation of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells was assessed in vitro. The DLC samples that contained 7.7 and 10.0 at.% of Cr supported cell spreading on day 1 after seeding. On day three after seeding, the most apparent vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques were also found on samples with higher concentrations of chromium. On the other hand, the expression of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase at the mRNA and protein level was the highest on Cr-DLC samples with a lower concentration of Cr (0-1.8 at.%). We can conclude that higher concentrations of chromium supported cell adhesion; however DLC and DLC doped with a lower concentration of chromium supported osteogenic cell differentiation.

  17. Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor

    DOEpatents

    Devlin, David James; Coates, Don Mayo; Archuleta, Thomas Arthur; Barbero, Robert Steven

    2000-01-01

    A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

  18. Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Coates, D.M.; Archuleta, T.A.; Barbero, R.S.

    2000-03-14

    A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

  19. Fabrication of highly transparent diamond-like carbon anti-reflecting coating for Si solar cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amit Das, Debajyoti

    2014-04-24

    ARC grade highly transparent unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were produced, directly from a-C target, using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique, for optoelectronic applications. Optical band gap, transmittance, reflectance, sp{sup 3} fraction, I{sub D}/I{sub G}, density, and refractive index of the films have been estimated with the help of optical tools like Uv-vis spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and micro-Raman. Optimum ARC-qualities have been identified in low-temperature grown DLC films at an Ar pressure of 4 mTorr in the reactor, accomplishing its key requirements for use in silicon solar cells.

  20. In vitro evaluation of diamond-like carbon coatings with a Si/SiC x interlayer on surgical NiTi alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. L.; Chu, Paul K.; Yang, D. Z.

    2007-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced with a Si/SiCx interlayer by a hybrid plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition process to improve the adhesion between the carbon layer and surgical NiTi alloy substrate. The structure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the coatings were evaluated in vitro by Raman spectroscopy, pin-on-disk tests, potentiodynamic polarization tests and simulated fluid immersion tests. The DLC coatings with a Si/SiCx interlayer of a suitable thickness have better adhesion, lower friction coefficients and enhanced corrosion resistance. In the simulated body fluid tests, the coatings exhibit effective corrosion protection and good biocompatibility as indicated by PC12 cell cultures. DLC films fabricated on a Si/SiCx interlayer have high potential as protective coatings for biomedical NiTi materials.

  1. Wear-resistance of nanostructured coatings based on diamond-like carbon and compounds of titanium with carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikov, S. A.; Vladimirov, A. B.; Rinkevich, A. B.; Rubshtein, A. P.; Zhang, J.; Zavalishin, V. A.; Sokolkina, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    Multilayer coatings [(TiC x /Ti/a-C)+ta-C] n with different composition of composite (TiC x /Ti/a-C) layers are studied. The dependences of abrasive wear resistance and H 3/E 2 ratio (H - hardness, E - elastic modulus) of multilayer coatings on the carbon content in the composite layer are determined. The phase composition of the (TiC x /Ti/a-C) layer, the ratio of volume fractions of the phases and the volume fraction of interface component, interlayer adhesion and adhesion to the substrate of the multilayer coating have a synergistic effect on the wear resistance of the testing coatings.

  2. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  3. Tensile test of a silicon microstructure fully coated with submicrometer-thick diamond like carbon film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenlei; Uesugi, Akio; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the tensile properties of single-crystal silicon (SCS) microstructures fully coated with sub-micrometer thick diamond like carbon (DLC) film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). To minimize the deformations or damages caused by non-uniform coating of DLC, which has high compression residual stress, released SCS specimens with the dimensions of 120 µm long, 4 µm wide, and 5 µm thick were coated from the top and bottom side simultaneously. The thickness of DLC coating is around 150 nm and three different bias voltages were used for deposition. The tensile strength improved from 13.4 to 53.5% with the increasing of negative bias voltage. In addition, the deviation in strength also reduced significantly compared to bare SCS sample.

  4. Magnetism in diamond-like carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Tetsuji; Ozeki, Takeshi; Terashima, Keiichi

    2005-12-01

    We report the magnetization of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by the rf plasma-enhanced CVD method. The magnetization of DLC film was found to be diamagnetic when it was deposited on a silicon substrate. On the other hand, DLC film showed ferromagnetic behavior when deposited on a stainless steel substrate. Chemical analysis confirmed that the magnetization of the DLC film was not due to contamination from the substrate. Raman spectrometry studies revealed that the DLC film deposited on the stainless steel substrate has a higher ratio of disordered peak ( ID) to graphite-like peak ( IG) than that deposited on the silicon substrate.

  5. Apparatus for producing diamond-like carbon flakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A vacuum arc from a spot at the face of a graphite cathode to a graphite anode produces a beam of carbon ions and atoms. A carbon coating from this beam is deposited on an ion beam sputtered target to produce diamond-like carbon flakes. A graphite tube encloses the cathode, and electrical isolation is provided by an insulating sleeve. The tube forces the vacuum arc spot to be confined to the surface on the outermost end of the cathode. Without the tube the arc spot will wander to the side of the cathode. This spot movement results in low rates of carbon deposition, and the properties of the deposited flakes are more graphite-like than diamond-like.

  6. Wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene against damaged and undamaged stainless steel and diamond-like carbon-coated counterfaces.

    PubMed

    Firkins, P; Hailey, J L; Fisher, J; Lettington, A H; Butter, R

    1998-10-01

    The wear of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in artificial joints and the resulting wear debris-induced osteolysis remains a major clinical concern in the orthopaedic sector. Third-body damage of metallic femoral heads is often cited as a cause of accelerated polyethylene wear, and the use of ceramic femoral heads in the hip is gaining increasing favour. In the knee prostheses and for smaller diameter femoral heads, the application of hard surface coatings, such as diamond-like carbon, is receiving considerable attention. However, to date, there has been little or no investigation of the tribology of these coatings in simulated biological environments. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been compared to stainless steel in its undamaged form and following simulated third-body damage. The wear of UHMWPE was found to be similar when sliding against undamaged DLC and stainless steel counterfaces. DLC was found to be much more damage resistant than DLC. Under test conditions that simulate third-body damage to the femoral head, the wear of UHMWPE was seven times lower against DLC than against stainless steel (P < 0.05). The study shows DLC has considerable potential as a femoral bearing surface in artificial joints.

  7. Ti-doped hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating deposited by hybrid physical vapor deposition and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Na Rae; Sle Jun, Yee; Moon, Kyoung Il; Sunyong Lee, Caroline

    2017-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon films containing titanium and hydrogen (Ti-doped DLC:H) were synthesized using a hybrid technique based on physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The film was deposited under a mixture of argon (Ar) and acetylene gas (C2H2). The amount of Ti in the Ti-doped DLC:H film was controlled by varying the DC power of the Ti sputtering target ranging from 0 to 240 W. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and chemical properties of Ti-doped DLC:H films with varying Ti concentrations, were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nano indentation, a ball-on-disk tribometer, a four-point probe system and dynamic anodic testing. As a result, the optimum composition of Ti in Ti-doped DLC:H film using our hybrid method was found to be a Ti content of 18 at. %, having superior electrical conductivity and high corrosion resistance, suitable for bipolar plates. Its hardness value was measured to be 25.6 GPa with a low friction factor.

  8. Investigating the functionality of diamond-like carbon films on an artificial heart diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Ohgoe, Yasuharu; Takada, Satoshi; Hirakuri, Kenji K; Tsuchimoto, Katsuya; Homma, Akihiko; Miyamatsu, Toshinobu; Saitou, Tomoyuki; Friedbacher, Gernot; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the authors used diamond-like carbon film to coat the ellipsoidal diaphragm (polyurethane elastomer) of artificial hearts. The purpose of such coatings is to prevent the penetration of hydraulic silicone oil and blood through the diaphragm. To attach diamond-like carbon film uniformly on the diaphragm, the authors developed a special electrode. In estimating the uniformity of the diamond-like carbon film, the thickness was measured using a scanning electron microscope, and the characteristics of the diamond-like carbon film was investigated using infrared spectroscopy, Ar-laser Raman spectrophotometer, and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer. Also, to estimate the penetration of silicone oil through the diaphragm, in vitro testing was operated by alternating the pressure of silicone oil for 20 days. The authors were able to successfully attach uniform deposition of diamond-like carbon film on the ellipsoidal diaphragm. In this in vitro test, diamond-like carbon film was proven to have good stability. The amount of silicone oil penetration was improved by one-third using the diamond-like carbon film coating compared with an uncoated diaphragm. It is expected that through the use of the diamond-like carbon film, the dynamic compatibility of an artificial heart diaphragm will increase.

  9. Stretchable diamond-like carbon microstructures for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Ryan; Narayan, Roger J.; Aggarwal, Ravi; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2009-09-01

    Designing, fabricating, and evaluating stretchable electronics is a growing area of materials research. Electronic devices have traditionally been fabricated using rigid, inorganic substrates (e.g., silicon) with metallic components and interconnections. Conventional electronic devices may face limitations when placed in environments that are dominated by stretchable or three-dimensional structures, including those within the human body. This paper describes the use of pulsed laser deposition to create diamond-like carbon microstructures on polydimethylsiloxane. The viability of human epidermal keratinocyte cells on polydimethylsiloxane surfaces coated with arrays of diamond-like carbon islands was similar to that on unmodified polydimethylsiloxane surfaces, which are commonly used in medical devices. It is anticipated that stretchable electronic devices may be incorporated within novel medical devices and prostheses that interface with stretchable or three-dimensional structures in the human body.

  10. Adsorptive properties of albumin, fibrinogen, and gamma-globulin on fluorinated diamond-like carbon films coated on PTFE.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Nagashima, I; Hirakuri, K K; Masuzawa, T

    2010-05-01

    Fluorinated diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using radio frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) by changing the ratio of tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)) and methane (CH(4)). To enhance the adhesion strength of the F-DLC film to the PTFE substrate, the PTFE surface was modified with a N(2) plasma pre-treatment. XPS analysis of the films showed that the C-C bond decreased with increases in the CF(4) ratio, whereas the C-F bond increased with the CF(4) ratio. The F/C ratio of the film also increased with the CF(4) ratio. The pull-out test showed that the adhesion strengths of the films (CF(4)-0-60%) were improved with the plasma pre-treatment. In the film without the plasma pre-treatment, adhesion strength increased with the CF(4) ratio. In contrast, in the case with the plasma pre-treatment, the adhesion strength of the F-DLC film decreased with the increased CF(4) ratio. Regarding the adsorption of albumin, fibrinogen, and gamma-globulin, the amount of adsorbed albumin on the film decreased with an increasing CF(4) ratio, and the amount of adsorbed fibrinogen and gamma-globulin increased with the CF(4) ratio. The CF(4)-0% DLC film showed the most adsorbed albumin and the least adsorbed fibrinogen and gamma-globulin. This indicates that the CF(4)-0% DLC film has higher anti-thrombogenicity than the F-DLC film.

  11. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  12. Electronic devices from diamond-like carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, W. I.

    2003-03-01

    This paper reviews the work carried out over the past few years on the application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) materials to electronic devices. The use of such materials is still in its infancy due to their high defect state density and associated low mobilities. To date, the major effort in the electronic field has been in their attempted use as cold cathode field emitters where their low threshold field has attracted much attention. However, attempts have also been made to produce metal semiconductor metal structures, diodes, a-C/c-Si heterostructures and thin film transistors with varying degrees of success. A brief review of work carried out on the use of DLCs in solar cell manufacture will also be presented but it seems at this early stage in their development that the most promising area for future development will be in the field of microelectromechanical structures where their friction, stiction and wear properties make them prime candidates for use in moving mechanical assemblies.

  13. Diamond-like carbon coating under oleic acid lubrication: Evidence for graphene oxide formation in superlow friction

    PubMed Central

    De Barros Bouchet, Maria Isabel; Martin, Jean Michel; Avila, José; Kano, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tsuruda, Takeshi; Bai, Shandan; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji; Asensio, Maria C.

    2017-01-01

    The achievement of the superlubricity regime, with a friction coefficient below 0.01, is the Holy Grail of many tribological applications, with the potential to have a remarkable impact on economic and environmental issues. Based on a combined high-resolution photoemission and soft X-ray absorption study, we report that superlubricity can be realized for engineering applications in bearing steel coated with ultra-smooth tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) under oleic acid lubrication. The results show that tribochemical reactions promoted by the oil lubrication generate strong structural changes in the carbon hybridization of the ta-C hydrogen-free carbon, with initially high sp3 content. Interestingly, the macroscopic superlow friction regime of moving mechanical assemblies coated with ta-C can be attributed to a few partially oxidized graphene-like sheets, with a thickness of not more than 1 nm, formed at the surface inside the wear scar. The sp2 planar carbon and oxygen-derived species are the hallmark of these mesoscopic surface structures created on top of colliding asperities as a result of the tribochemical reactions induced by the oleic acid lubrication. Atomistic simulations elucidate the tribo-formation of such graphene-like structures, providing the link between the overall atomistic mechanism and the macroscopic experimental observations of green superlubricity in the investigated ta-C/oleic acid tribological systems. PMID:28401962

  14. Diamond-like carbon coating under oleic acid lubrication: Evidence for graphene oxide formation in superlow friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Bouchet, Maria Isabel; Martin, Jean Michel; Avila, José; Kano, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tsuruda, Takeshi; Bai, Shandan; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji; Asensio, Maria C.

    2017-04-01

    The achievement of the superlubricity regime, with a friction coefficient below 0.01, is the Holy Grail of many tribological applications, with the potential to have a remarkable impact on economic and environmental issues. Based on a combined high-resolution photoemission and soft X-ray absorption study, we report that superlubricity can be realized for engineering applications in bearing steel coated with ultra-smooth tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) under oleic acid lubrication. The results show that tribochemical reactions promoted by the oil lubrication generate strong structural changes in the carbon hybridization of the ta-C hydrogen-free carbon, with initially high sp3 content. Interestingly, the macroscopic superlow friction regime of moving mechanical assemblies coated with ta-C can be attributed to a few partially oxidized graphene-like sheets, with a thickness of not more than 1 nm, formed at the surface inside the wear scar. The sp2 planar carbon and oxygen-derived species are the hallmark of these mesoscopic surface structures created on top of colliding asperities as a result of the tribochemical reactions induced by the oleic acid lubrication. Atomistic simulations elucidate the tribo-formation of such graphene-like structures, providing the link between the overall atomistic mechanism and the macroscopic experimental observations of green superlubricity in the investigated ta-C/oleic acid tribological systems.

  15. Diamond-like carbon coating under oleic acid lubrication: Evidence for graphene oxide formation in superlow friction.

    PubMed

    De Barros Bouchet, Maria Isabel; Martin, Jean Michel; Avila, José; Kano, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tsuruda, Takeshi; Bai, Shandan; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Kubo, Momoji; Asensio, Maria C

    2017-04-12

    The achievement of the superlubricity regime, with a friction coefficient below 0.01, is the Holy Grail of many tribological applications, with the potential to have a remarkable impact on economic and environmental issues. Based on a combined high-resolution photoemission and soft X-ray absorption study, we report that superlubricity can be realized for engineering applications in bearing steel coated with ultra-smooth tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) under oleic acid lubrication. The results show that tribochemical reactions promoted by the oil lubrication generate strong structural changes in the carbon hybridization of the ta-C hydrogen-free carbon, with initially high sp(3) content. Interestingly, the macroscopic superlow friction regime of moving mechanical assemblies coated with ta-C can be attributed to a few partially oxidized graphene-like sheets, with a thickness of not more than 1 nm, formed at the surface inside the wear scar. The sp(2) planar carbon and oxygen-derived species are the hallmark of these mesoscopic surface structures created on top of colliding asperities as a result of the tribochemical reactions induced by the oleic acid lubrication. Atomistic simulations elucidate the tribo-formation of such graphene-like structures, providing the link between the overall atomistic mechanism and the macroscopic experimental observations of green superlubricity in the investigated ta-C/oleic acid tribological systems.

  16. Oxygen plasma pre-treatment improves the wear properties of a diamond-like carbon film coated on UHMWPE and PMMA for biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, K; Kobayashi, S; Hirakuri, K K; Aoki, H; Fukui, Y

    2007-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with oxygen plasma pre-treatment using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. A ball-on-disc test was carried out to evaluate the wear properties of the DLC-coated UHMWPE and PMMA. After testing, the surface of the polymers was observed using an atomic force microscope and an optical microscope. The adhesive strength of the DLC films deposited on the polymers was measured using a scratch test. After the ball-on-disc test, many cracks were observed in the films on the surface of both the DLC-coated UHMWPE and PMMA without the oxygen plasma pre-treatment, whereas the DLC-coated UHMWPE and PMMA with oxygen plasma pre-treatment showed no cracks and good wear resistance. In the scratch test, the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the PMMA substrate increased from 42.5 mN to 101.3 mN with oxygen plasma pre-treatment.

  17. Improving the high frequency response of a loudspeaker using hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon film coating at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, ChiiRuey; Liu, ShinHwa; Liou, WangJeng; Chang, ChienKuo

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films were deposited at low temperature (less than 100°C) by an RF magnetron sputtering facility. DLC films have the ability to change the sound velocity ( E/ρ) in loudspeakers for applications of hard coating. The hydrogen-free DLC films were coated onto PEI diaphragm substrates. The I D/ I G ratio and the surface roughness are 2.09 and less than 0.86 nm ( Ra) with a scanning area of 50 μm×50 μm, respectively. Frequency response analysis of the DLC films on the diaphragm shows that the high frequency response increases by 0.2 dB-5.1 dB (6 kHz-11.2 kHz), -0.4 dB-1.8 dB (11.8 kHz-20 kHz) on average. On the basis of the results of this study, we validated that it was feasible to sputter hydrogen-free DLC films on polymer substrates for mass production. These results also provided useful parameters for future applications of electro-acoustic devices.

  18. Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated nitinol stents with or without polyethylene glycol grafting and uncoated nitinol stents in a canine iliac artery model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J H; Shin, J H; Shin, D H; Moon, M-W; Park, K; Kim, T-H; Shin, K M; Won, Y H; Han, D K; Lee, K-R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility. Methods A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8). Results The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01). Conclusion Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent. PMID:21325363

  19. Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated nitinol stents with or without polyethylene glycol grafting and uncoated nitinol stents in a canine iliac artery model.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Shin, J H; Shin, D H; Moon, M-W; Park, K; Kim, T-H; Shin, K M; Won, Y H; Han, D K; Lee, K-R

    2011-03-01

    Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility. A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8). The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01). Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent.

  20. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation of conducting nanochannels in diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtukh, A.; Litovchenko, V.; Semenenko, M.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Mutamba, K.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2006-09-01

    A sharp increase of the emission current at high electric fields and a decrease of the threshold voltage after pre-breakdown conditioning of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been measured. This effect was observed for DLC-coated silicon tips and GaAs wedges. During electron field emission (EFE) at high electric fields the energy barriers caused by an sp3 phase between sp2 inclusions can be broken, resulting in the formation of conducting nanochannels between the semiconductor-DLC interface and the surface of the DLC film. At high current densities and the resulting local heating, the diamond-like sp3 phase transforms into a conducting graphite-like sp2 phase. As a result an electrical conducting nanostructured channel is formed in the DLC film. The diameter of the conducting nanochannel was estimated from the reduced threshold voltage after pre-breakdown conditioning to be in the range of 5-25 nm. The presence of this nanochannel in an insulating matrix leads to a local enhancement of the electric field and a reduced threshold voltage for EFE. Based on the observed features an efficient method of conducting nanochannel matrix formation in flat DLC films for improved EFE efficiency is proposed. It mainly uses a silicon tip array as an upper electrode in contact with the DLC film. The formation of nanochannels starts at the interface between the tips and the DLC film. This opens new possibilities of aligned and high-density conducting channel formation.

  2. Photochemically modified diamond-like carbon surfaces for neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hopper, A P; Dugan, J M; Gill, A A; Regan, E M; Haycock, J W; Kelly, S; May, P W; Claeyssens, F

    2016-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) was modified using a UV functionalization method to introduce surface-bound amine and aldehyde groups. The functionalization process rendered the DLC more hydrophilic and significantly increased the viability of neurons seeded to the surface. The amine functionalized DLC promoted adhesion of neurons and fostered neurite outgrowth to a degree indistinguishable from positive control substrates (glass coated with poly-L-lysine). The aldehyde-functionalized surfaces performed comparably to the amine functionalized surfaces and both additionally supported the adhesion and growth of primary rat Schwann cells. DLC has many properties that are desirable in biomaterials. With the UV functionalization method demonstrated here it may be possible to harness these properties for the development of implantable devices to interface with the nervous system.

  3. Prospective multi-center registry to evaluate efficacy and safety of the newly developed diamond-like carbon-coated cobalt-chromium coronary stent system.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kenji; Ishii, Katsuhisa; Tada, Eiji; Kataoka, Kazuaki; Hirohata, Atsushi; Goto, Kenji; Kobayashi, Katsuyuki; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Nakahama, Makoto; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Uchikawa, Shinichiroh; Kanda, Junji; Yasuda, Satoshi; Yajima, Junji; Kitabayashi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Shumpei; Nakanishi, Keita; Inoue, Naoto; Noike, Hirofumi; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Sato, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Masao; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this multi-center, non-randomized, and open-label clinical trial was to determine the non-inferiority of diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated cobalt-chromium coronary stent, the MOMO DLC coronary stent, relative to commercially available bare-metal stents (MULTI-LINK VISION(®)). Nineteen centers in Japan participated. The study cohort consisted of 99 patients from 19 Japanese centers with single or double native coronary vessel disease with de novo and restenosis lesions who met the study eligibility criteria. This cohort formed the safety analysis set. The efficacy analysis set consisted of 98 patients (one case was excluded for violating the eligibility criteria). The primary endpoint was target vessel failure (TVF) rate at 9 months after stent placement. Of the 98 efficacy analysis set patients, TVF occurred in 11 patients (11.2 %, 95 % confidence interval 5.7-19.2 %) at 9 months after the index stent implantation. The upper 95 % confidence interval for TVF of the study stent was lower than that previously reported for the commercially available MULTI-LINK VISION(®) (19.6 %), demonstrating non-inferiority of the study stent to MULTI-LINK VISION(®). All the TVF cases were related to target vascular revascularization. None of the cases developed in-stent thrombosis or myocardial infarction. The average in-stent late loss and binary restenosis rate at the 6-month follow-up angiography were 0.69 mm and 10.5 %, respectively, which are lower than the reported values for commercially available bare-metal stents. In conclusion, the current pivotal clinical study evaluating the new MOMO DLC-coated coronary stent suggested its low rates of TVF and angiographic binary restenosis, and small in-stent late loss, although the data were considered preliminary considering the small sample size and single arm study design.

  4. The effect of nitrogen and oxygen plasma on the wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on PTFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K. K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the PTFE substrates were modified with O 2 and N 2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. The effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the chemical composition and the surface energy of the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated PTFE. In the N 2 plasma pre-treatment, the XPS result indicated that defluorination and the nitrogen grafting occurred on the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface, and the water contact angle decreased with increasing the plasma pre-treatment time. In the O 2 plasma pre-treatment, no grafting of the oxygen occurred, and the water contact angle slightly increased with the treatment time. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the PTFE substrate was improved with the plasma pre-treatment to the PTFE substrate, and N 2 plasma pre-treatment was more effective than the O 2 plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC film with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with O 2 plasma pre-treatment.

  5. Effects of bias voltage on diamond like carbon coatings deposited using titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) and acetylene/argon mixtures onto various substrate materials.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ghumman, C A A; Teodoro, M N D; Ahmed, W; Abuazza, A; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    RF-PECVD was used to prepare amorphous of carbon (DLC) onto stainless steel 316 and glass substrates. The substrates were negatively biased at between 100 V to 400 V. Thin films of DLC have been deposited using C2H2 and titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT). Argon was used to generate the plasma in the PECVD system chamber. DEKTAK 8 surface stylus profilometer was used to measure the film thickness and the deposition rate was calculated. Micro Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical structure and bonding present in the films. Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) instrument. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the composition and chemical state of the films. The wettability of the films was examined using the optical contact angle meter (CAM200) system. Two types of liquids with different polarities were used to study changes in the surface energy. The as-grown films were in the thickness range of 200-400 nm. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the I(D)/I(G) ratio decreased when the bias voltage on the stainless steel substrates was increased. This indicates an increase in the graphitic nature of the film deposited. In contrast, on the glass substrates the I(D)/I(G) ratio increased when the bias voltage was increased indicates a greater degree of diamond like character. Chemical composition determined using XPS showed the presence of carbon and oxygen in both samples on glass and stainless steel substrates. Both coatings the contact angle of the films decreased except for 400 V which showed a slight increase. The oxygen is thought to play an important role on the polar component of a-C.

  6. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  7. Thermal stability studies of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, J.E.; Tallant, D.R.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-04-01

    Thin films of amorphous carbon/hydrogen, also known as diamond-like carbon or DLC, are of interest as an economical alternative to diamond in a variety of coatings applications. We have investigated the thermal stability of DLC films deposited onto tungsten and aluminum substrates via plasma CVD of methane. These films contain approximately 40 atom % hydrogen, and based on Auger spectra the carbon in the films is estimated to be 60% sp{sup 3} hybridized and 40% sp{sup 2} hybridized. Thermal desorption, Auger, and Raman measurements all indicate that the DLC films are stable to 250--300C. Between 300 and 500C, thermal evolution of hydrogen from the films is accompanied by the conversion of carbon from sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} hybridization, and Raman spectra indicate the conversion of the overall film structure from DLC to micro-crystalline graphite or so called ``glassy`` carbon. These results suggest that DLC of this type is potentially useful for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 250C.

  8. Electronic Power System Application of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Richard L. C.; Kosai, H.; Fries-Carr, S.; Weimer, J.; Freeman, M.; Schwarze, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype manufacturing technology for producing high volume efficiency and high energy density diamond-like carbon (DLC) capacitors has been developed. Unique dual ion-beam deposition and web-handling systems have been designed and constructed to deposit high quality DLC films simultaneously on both sides of capacitor grade aluminum foil and aluminum-coated polymer films. An optimized process, using inductively coupled RF ion sources, has been used to synthesize electrically robust DLC films. DLC films are amorphous and highly flexible, making them suitable for the production of wound capacitors. DLC capacitors are reliable and stable over a wide range of AC frequencies from 20 Hz to 1 MHz, and over a temperature range from .500 C to 3000 C. The compact DLC capacitors offer at least a 50% decrease in weight and volume and a greater than 50% increase in temperature handling capability over equal value capacitors built with existing technologies. The DLC capacitors will be suitable for high temperature, high voltage, pulsed power and filter applications.

  9. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of two new diamond-like stent coatings (Dylyn) in a porcine coronary stent model.

    PubMed

    De Scheerder, I; Szilard, M; Yanming, H; Ping, X B; Verbeken, E; Neerinck, D; Demeyere, E; Coppens, W; Van de Werf, F

    2000-08-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films (DLC, a-C:H), deposited using plasma-assisted or ion beam-assisted techniques, offer great potential as self-lubricating coatings in many tribological applications. Additionally, studies on biocompatibility have shown that DLC is an inert, impervious hydrocarbon with properties suitable for use in the biomedical field. One particular class of modified DLC coatings are diamond-like nanocomposite coatings (DLN or Dylyn , Bekaert, Kortrijk, Belgium), which offer promising solutions for many industrial applications. In this study, the biocompatibility of two diamond-like stent coatings are evaluated in a porcine coronary stent model. Either coated or non-coated stents were randomly implanted in two coronary arteries of 20 pigs so that each group contained 13 stented arteries. Pigs underwent a control angiogram at 6 weeks and were then sacrificed. Quantitative coronary analysis before, immediately after stent implantation, and at 6 weeks was performed using the semi-automated Polytron 1000 system (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Morphometry was performed using a computerized morphometric program. Angiographic analysis showed similar baseline selected arteries and post-stenting diameters. At 6-week follow-up, there was no significant difference in minimal stent diameter. Histopathology revealed a similar injury score in the 3 groups. Inflammation was significantly increased in the DLN-DLC coating group. Thrombus formation was significantly decreased in both coated stent groups. Neointimal hyperplasia was decreased in both coated stent groups; however, the difference with the non-coated stents was not statistically significant. Area stenosis was lower in the DLN-coated stent group than in the control group (41 +/- 17% vs. 54 +/- 15%; p = 0.06). The results indicate that the diamond-like nanocomposite stent coatings are compatible, resulting in decreased thrombogenicity and decreased neointimal hyperplasia. Covering this coating with

  10. Friction behavior of a multi-interface system and improved performance by AlMgB14–TiB2–C and diamond-like-carbon coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter J.; Higdon, Clifton; Cook, Bruce A.

    2016-03-29

    We investigated friction behavior of a bearing system with two interfaces involved: a roller component experiencing rolling–sliding interaction against twin cylinders under point contacts while simultaneously undergoing pure sliding interaction against a socket under a conformal contact. Lubrication modeling predicted a strong correlation between the roller's rolling condition and the system's friction behavior. Experimental observations first validated the analytical predictions using steel and iron components. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coating and AlMgB14–TiB2 coating with a carbon topcoat (BAMC) were then applied to the roller and twin cylinders, respectively. In conclusion, testing and analysis results suggest that the coatings effectively decreased the slip ratio for the roller–cylinder contact and the sliding friction at both bearing interfaces and, as a result, significantly reduced the system frictional torque.

  11. Friction behavior of a multi-interface system and improved performance by AlMgB14–TiB2–C and diamond-like-carbon coatings

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter J.; Higdon, Clifton; ...

    2016-03-29

    We investigated friction behavior of a bearing system with two interfaces involved: a roller component experiencing rolling–sliding interaction against twin cylinders under point contacts while simultaneously undergoing pure sliding interaction against a socket under a conformal contact. Lubrication modeling predicted a strong correlation between the roller's rolling condition and the system's friction behavior. Experimental observations first validated the analytical predictions using steel and iron components. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coating and AlMgB14–TiB2 coating with a carbon topcoat (BAMC) were then applied to the roller and twin cylinders, respectively. In conclusion, testing and analysis results suggest that the coatings effectively decreased the slipmore » ratio for the roller–cylinder contact and the sliding friction at both bearing interfaces and, as a result, significantly reduced the system frictional torque.« less

  12. Magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing diamond-like carbon tunnel barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadieu, F. J.; Chen, Li; Li, Biao

    2002-05-01

    We have devised a method whereby thin particulate-free diamond-like carbon films can be made with good adhesion onto even room-temperature substrates. The method employs a filtered ionized carbon beam created by the vacuum impact of a high-energy, approximately 1 J per pulse, 248 nm excimer laser onto a carbon target. The resultant deposition beam can be steered and deflected by magnetic and electric fields to paint a specific substrate area. An important aspect of this deposition method is that the resultant films are particulate free and formed only as the result of atomic species impact. The vast majority of magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing thin metallic magnetic films have employed a thin oxidized layer of aluminum to form the tunnel barrier. This has presented reproducibility problems because the indicated optimal barrier thickness is only approximately 13 Å thick. Magnetic tunnel junctions utilizing Co and permalloy films made by evaporation and sputtering have been fabricated with an intervening diamond-like carbon tunnel barrier. The diamond-like carbon thickness profile has been tapered so that seven junctions with different barrier thickness can be formed at once. Magnetoresistive (MR) measurements made between successive permalloy strip ends include contributions from two junctions and from the permalloy and Co strips that act as current leads to the junctions. Magnetic tunnel junctions with thicker carbon barriers exhibit MR effects that are dominated by that of the permalloy strips. Since these tunnel barriers are formed without the need for oxygen, complete tunnel junctions can be formed with all high-vacuum processing.

  13. Method and apparatus for making diamond-like carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Pern, Fu-Jann; Touryan, Kenell J.; Panosyan, Zhozef Retevos; Gippius, Aleksey Alekseyevich

    2008-12-02

    Ion-assisted plasma enhanced deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the surface of photovoltaic solar cells is accomplished with a method and apparatus for controlling ion energy. The quality of DLC layers is fine-tuned by a properly biased system of special electrodes and by exact control of the feed gas mixture compositions. Uniform (with degree of non-uniformity of optical parameters less than 5%) large area (more than 110 cm.sup.2) DLC films with optical parameters varied within the given range and with stability against harmful effects of the environment are achieved.

  14. Diamond-Like Carbon Nanorods and Fabrication Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Saxena, Puja (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Novel sp. (sup 3) rich diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanorod films were fabricated by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. The results are indicative of a bottom-up self-assembly synthesis process, which results in a hierarchical structure that consists of microscale papillae comprising numerous nanorods. The papillae have diameters ranging from 2 to 4 microns and the nanorods have diameters in the 35-45 nanometer range. A growth mechanism based on the vapor liquid-solid mechanism is proposed that accounts for the morphological aspects in the micro- and nano-scales.

  15. Nanoindentation measurements on modified diamond-like carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, we explored the effect of metallic interlayers (Cu and Ti) and indentation loads (5-20 mN) on the mechanical properties of plasma produced diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films. Also a comparison has been made for mechanical properties of these films with pure DLC and nitrogen incorporated DLC films. Introduction of N in DLC led to a drastic decrease in residual stress (S) from 1.8 to 0.7 GPa, but with expenses of hardness (H) and other mechanical properties. In contrast, addition of Cu and Ti interlayers between substrate Si and DLC, results in significant decrease in S with little enhancement of hardness and other mechanical properties. Among various DLC films, maximum hardness 30.8 GPa is observed in Ti-DLC film. Besides hardness and elastic modulus, various other mechanical parameters have also been estimated using load versus displacement curves.

  16. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  17. Diamond-like nanocomposite coatings for LIGA-fabricated nickel alloy parts.

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Scharf, Thomas W.

    2005-03-01

    A commercial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique with planetary substrate rotation was used to apply a thin (200-400 nm thick) conformal diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating (known as a diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN)) on LIGA fabricated Ni-Mn alloy parts. The PECVD technique is known to overcome the drawbacks associated with the line-of-sight nature of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and substrate heating inherent with traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The purpose of the present study is to characterize the coverage, adhesion, and tribological (friction and wear) behavior of DLN coatings applied to planar and sidewall surfaces of small featured LIGA Ni-Mn fabricated parts, e.g. 280 {micro}m thick sidewalls. Friction and wear tests were performed in dry nitrogen, dry air, and air with 50% RH at Hertzian contact pressures ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 GPa. The friction coefficient of bare Ni-Mn alloy was determined to be 0.9. In contrast, low friction coefficients ({approx}0.02 in dry nitrogen and {approx}0.2 in 50% RH air) and minimal amount of wear were exhibited for the DLN coated LIGA Ni-Mn alloy parts and test coupons. This behavior was due to the ability of the coating to transfer to the rubbing counterface providing low interfacial shear at the sliding contact; resultantly, coating one surface was adequate for low friction and wear. In addition, a 30 nm thick titanium bond layer was determined to be necessary for good adhesion of DLN coating to Ni-Mn alloy substrates. Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional SEM with energy dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that the DLN coatings deposited by the PECVD with planetary substrate rotation covered both the planar and sidewall surfaces of LIGA fabricated parts, as well as narrow holes of 300 {micro}m (0.012 inch) diameter.

  18. Morphological analysis and cell viability on diamond-like carbon films containing nanocrystalline diamond particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C. N.; Ramos, B. C.; Da-Silva, N. S.; Pacheco-Soares, C.; Trava-Airoldi, V. J.; Lobo, A. O.; Marciano, F. R.

    2013-06-01

    The coating of orthopedic prostheses with diamond like-carbon (DLC) has been actively studied in the past years, in order to improve mechanical, tribological properties and promote the material's biocompatibility. Recently, the incorporation of crystalline diamond nanoparticles into the DLC film has shown effective in combating electrochemical corrosion in acidic medias. This study examines the material's biocompatibility through testing by LDH release and MTT, on in vitro fibroblasts; using different concentrations of diamond nanoparticles incorporated into the DLC film. Propounding its potential use in orthopedics in order to increase the corrosion resistance of prostheses and improve their relationship with the biological environment.

  19. Low voltage electrodeposition of diamond like carbon (DLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreejith, K.; Nuwad, J.; Pillai, C. G. S.

    2005-10-01

    Attempt has been made to deposit diamond like carbon (DLC) films from ethanol through electrodeposition at low voltages (80-300 V) at 1 mm interelectrode separation. The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Auger electron Spectroscopy (AES). AFM investigations revealed the grain sizes are of tens of nanometers. The films were found to be continuous, smooth and close packed. Presence of peaks at 2958, 2929 and 2869 cm -1 in FTIR spectrum indicates the bonding states to be of predominantly sp 3 type (C-H). Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed two broad bands at ˜1350 and ˜1570 cm -1. The downshift of the G-band of graphite is indicative of presence of DLC. Analysis of the Raman spectra for the samples revealed an improvement in the film quality with increase in the voltage. Micro Raman investigations indicate the formation of diamond phase at the deposition potential of 80 V. The sp 2 contents the films calculated from Auger electron spectra were calculated and were found to be 31, 19 and 7.8% for the samples prepared at 80, 150 and 300 V, respectively. A tentative mechanism for the formation of DLC has been proposed. These results indicate the possibility of deposition of DLC at low voltage.

  20. Bacterial adhesion to diamond-like carbon as compared to stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Antti; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Konttinen, Yrjö T; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant K

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are suitable candidates for application on biomedical devices and implants, due to their high hardness, low friction, high wear and corrosion resistance, chemical inertness, smoothness, and tissue and blood compatibility. However, most studies have neglected the potential susceptibility of DLC coatings to bacterial adhesion, which is the first step in the development of implant-related infections. This study compares adhesion of seven bacterial strains, commonly implicated in implant-related infections, to tetrahedral amorphous carbon, with their adhesion to AISI 316L surgical steel. The results show that bacterial adhesion to DLC was similar to the adhesion to commonly used stainless steel. This suggests that DLC coating can be advantageously used on implants made of AISI 316L or other materials without increasing the risk to implant-related infections.

  1. Rain Erosion Damage Of Diamond-Like Coated Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deom, A. A.; Mackowski, J. M.; Balageas, D. L.; Robert, P.

    1986-05-01

    The rain erosion resistance of germanium may be improved by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) film coatings. a-C:H films are prepared by plasma deposition from hydrocarbons in RF diode glow discharge. The deposition parameters are adjusted to obtain controlled deposition rate and H/C ratio. The coatings are a quarter-wave thick at 10.6 μm. Their knoop micro-hardness is from 1800 to 2200 kgmm-2 for a 10-grams, 30-seconds load. The rain erosion is achieved with the Saab-Scania whirling-arm (Linkoping, Sweden). The impact velocity varies from 200 to 300 ms-l. The optical damage is characterized after each exposure, by modulation transfer function measurement. For 1.2 mm drop diameter the occurrence time of a given optical damage is increased by a factor of 6 to 7. For a 2 mm drop diameter, a factor of about 3 improvement is achieved. This last result is in good agreement with R.A.E. work. For 1.2 mm drop diameter the impingement angle effect is also reported and found in agreement with the sinus law.

  2. The local crystallization in nanoscale diamond-like carbon films during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpakov, A. Ya. Poplavsky, A. I.; Galkina, M. E.; Gerus, J. V.; Manokhin, S. S.

    2014-12-08

    The local crystallization during annealing at 600 °C in nanoscale diamond-like carbon coatings films grown by pulsed vacuum-arc deposition method was observed using modern techniques of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The crystallites formed by annealing have a face-centred cubic crystal structure and grow in the direction [01{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}] as a normal to the film surface. The number and size of the crystallites depend on the initial values of the intrinsic stresses before annealing, which in turn depend on the conditions of film growth. The sizes of crystallites are 10 nm for films with initial compressive stresses of 3 GPa and 17 nm for films with initial compressive stresses of 12 GPa. Areas of local crystallization arising during annealing have a structure different from the graphite. Additionally, the investigation results of the structure of nanoscale diamond-like carbon coatings films using Raman spectroscopy method are presented, which are consistent with the transmission electron microscopy research results.

  3. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  4. Silicon solar cell performance deposited by diamond like carbon thin film ;Atomic oxygen effects;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghaei, Abbas Ail; Eshaghi, Akbar; Karami, Esmaeil

    2017-09-01

    In this research, a diamond-like carbon thin film was deposited on p-type polycrystalline silicon solar cell via plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method by using methane and hydrogen gases. The effect of atomic oxygen on the functioning of silicon coated DLC thin film and silicon was investigated. Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the DLC thin film. Photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the silicon solar cell were carried out using a solar simulator. The results showed that atomic oxygen exposure induced the including oxidation, structural changes, cross-linking reactions and bond breaking of the DLC film; thus reducing the optical properties. The photocurrent-voltage characteristics showed that although the properties of the fabricated thin film were decreased after being exposed to destructive rays, when compared with solar cell without any coating, it could protect it in atomic oxygen condition enhancing solar cell efficiency up to 12%. Thus, it can be said that diamond-like carbon thin layer protect the solar cell against atomic oxygen exposure.

  5. Deposition And Characterization Of Ultra Thin Diamond Like Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomcik, B.

    2010-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated and/or nitrogenated carbon films, a-C:H/a-C:N, in overall thickness up to 2 nm are materials of choice as a mechanical and corrosion protection layer of the magnetic media in modern hard disk drive disks. In order to obtain high density and void-free films the sputtering technology has been replaced by different plasma and ion beam deposition techniques. Hydrocarbon gas precursors, like C2H2 or CH4 with H2 and N2 as reactive gases are commonly used in Kaufman DC ion and RF plasma beam sources. Optimum incident energy of carbon ions, C+, is up to 100 eV while the typical ion current densities during the film formation are in the mA/cm2 range. Other carbon deposition techniques, like filtered cathodic arc, still suffer from co-deposition of fine nanosized carbon clusters (nano dust) and their improvements are moving toward arc excitation in the kHz and MHz frequency range. Non-destructive film analysis like μ-Raman optical spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR and optical surface analysis are mainly used in the carbon film characterization. Due to extreme low film thicknesses the surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with pre-deposited layer of Au can reduce the signal collection time and minimize photon-induced damage during the spectra acquisition. Standard approach in the μ-Raman film evaluation is the measurement of the position (shift) and area of D and G-peaks under the deconvoluted overall carbon spectrum. Also, a slope of the carbon spectrum in the 1000-2000 cm-1 wavenumber range is used as a measure of the hydrogen intake within a film. Diamond like carbon (DLC) film should possess elasticity and self-healing properties during the occasional crash of the read-write head flying only couple of nanometers above the spinning film. Film corrosion protection capabilities are mostly evaluated by electrochemical tests, potentio-dynamic and linear polarization method and by business environmental method. Corrosion mechanism

  6. Wear and Tribological Properties of Silicon-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon (Si-DLC) Coatings Synthesized with Nitrogen, Argon Plus Nitrogen, and Argon Ion Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    polymers on our Si-DLC coatings, we may attribute the improvements in properties to a consequence of cross-linking of the precursor material caused by the... ENGEN THAYERHALL WEST POINT NY 10996-1786 1 DIRECTOR US ARMY RESEARCH LAB AMSRLCSALTP 2800 POWDER MILL RD ADELPHI MD 20783-1145 1

  7. Proceedings of the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) Workshop on Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings, held at Albuquerque, New Mexico on April 19-20, 1982,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    semiconductors and ionic materials () Extremely resistant to acids and bases, including concentrated HF, and sulfuric /nitric (f) Refractive indices...silicon may be useful in analyzing c rbon, but the smallness of the carbon atom and its many allotropes are Important differences to keep in mind. We...resistivities 7 :z .*..aXX % * #.. . . - (1010 -1012 a-cm), densities (1.9-2.8), and refractive indices (1.75- 2.30). The resistance to sulfuric + nitric acid

  8. Field emission from hybrid diamond-like carbon and carbon nanotube composite structures.

    PubMed

    Zanin, H; May, P W; Hamanaka, M H M O; Corat, E J

    2013-12-11

    A thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was deposited onto a densely packed "forest" of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the CNTs to clump together to form a microstructured surface. Field-emission tests of this new composite material show the typical low threshold voltages for carbon nanotube structures (2 V μm(-1)) but with greatly increased emission current, better stability, and longer lifetime.

  9. Fabrication of Semiordered Nanopatterned Diamond-like Carbon and Titania Films for Blood Contacting Applications.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Deepika; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Harris, Kenneth D; Ruys, Andrew J; Lord, Megan S

    2016-03-23

    Biomaterials with the ability to interface with, but not activate, blood components are essential for a multitude of medical devices. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titania (TiO2) have shown promise for these applications; however, both support platelet adhesion and activation. This study explored the fabrication of nanostructured DLC and TiO2 thin film coatings using a block copolymer deposition technique that produced semiordered nanopatterns with low surface roughness (5-8 nm Rrms). These surfaces supported fibrinogen and plasma protein adsorption that predominantly adsorbed between the nanofeatures and reduced the overall surface roughness. The conformation of the adsorbed fibrinogen was altered on the nanopatterned surfaces as compared with the planar surfaces to reveal higher levels of the platelet binding region. Planar DLC and TiO2 coatings supported less platelet adhesion than nanopatterned DLC and TiO2. However, platelets on the nanopatterned DLC coatings were less spread indicating a lower level of platelet activation on the nanostructured DLC coatings compared with the planar DLC coatings. These data indicated that nanostructured DLC coatings may find application in blood contacting medical devices in the future.

  10. Field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of variety of diamond-like carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Tripathi, R. K.; Malik, H. K.; Panwar, O. S.

    2011-11-01

    The effect of nitrogen incorporation and sandwich titanium and copper layers, on field emission, morphological and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films is explored. The introduction of foreign element (N2) and sandwich Cu and Ti layers changed the amorphous morphology to nanostructured, reduced the stress, enhanced the hardness (except N2 incorporated DLC film) and improved the field emission (except Ti/DLC bilayer) of modified DLC films. The associated versatile electrical and mechanical properties of modified DLC film made it a material of great utility in the development of field emission display panels and also lead to its application as a hard and protective coating on cutting tools, automobile parts etc. It is important to mention that DLC-based electronic materials may replace currently used soft electronic materials (such as Si) due to their enhanced stability under high energy radiation.

  11. Covalent immobilization of protein onto a functionalized hydrogenated diamond-like carbon substrate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Hari Shankar; Datta, Jagannath; Chowdhury, D P; Reddy, A V R; Ghosh, Uday Chand; Srivastava, Arvind Kumar; Ray, Nihar Ranjan

    2010-11-16

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (HDLC) has an atomically smooth surface that can be deposited on high-surface area substrata and functionalized with reactive chemical groups, providing an ideal substrate for protein immobilization. A synthetic sequence is described involving deposition and hydrogenation of DLC followed by chemical functionalization. These functional groups are reacted with amines on proteins causing covalent immobilization on contact. Raman measurements confirm the presence of these surface functional groups, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirms covalent protein immobilization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of immobilized proteins is reproducible because proteins do not move as a result of interactions with the AFM probe-tip, thus providing an advantage over mica substrata typically used in AFM studies of protein. HDLC offers many of the same technical advantages as oxidized graphene but also allows for coating large surface areas of biomaterials relevant to the fabrication of medical/biosensor devices.

  12. The microstructure, mechanical and friction properties of protective diamond like carbon films on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Y. S.; Wu, Y. F.; Yang, H.; Cang, K.; Song, G. H.; Li, Z. X.; Zhou, K.

    2011-12-01

    Protective hard coatings deposited on magnesium alloys are believed to be effective for overcoming their poor wear properties. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as hard protective films were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy by arc ion plating under negative pulse bias voltages ranging from 0 to -200 V. The microstructure, composition and mechanical properties of the DLC films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanoindentation. The tribological behavior of uncoated and coated AZ91 magnesium alloy was investigated using a ball-on-disk tribotester. The results show that the negative pulse bias voltage used for film deposition has a significant effect on the sp3 carbon content and mechanical properties of the deposited DLC films. A maximum sp3 content of 33.3% was obtained at -100 V, resulting in a high hardness of 28.6 GPa and elastic modulus of 300.0 GPa. The DLC films showed very good adhesion to the AZ91 magnesium alloy with no observable cracks and delamination even during friction testing. Compared with the uncoated AZ91 magnesium alloy, the magnesium alloy coated with DLC films exhibits a low friction coefficient and a narrow, shallow wear track. The wear resistance and surface hardness of AZ91 magnesium alloy can be significantly improved by coating a layer of DLC protective film due to its high hardness and low friction coefficient.

  13. Deposition of hard and adherent diamond-like carbon films inside steel tubes using a pulsed-DC discharge.

    PubMed

    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Capote, Gil; Bonetti, Luís Francisco; Fernandes, Jesum; Blando, Eduardo; Hübler, Roberto; Radi, Polyana Alves; Santos, Lúcia Vieira; Corat, Evaldo José

    2009-06-01

    A new, low cost, pulsed-DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system that uses a bipolar, pulsed power supply was designed and tested to evaluate its capacity to produce quality diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of steel tubes. The main focus of the study was to attain films with low friction coefficients, low total stress, a high degree of hardness, and very good adherence to the inner surface of long metallic tubes at a reasonable growth rate. In order to enhance the diamond-like carbon coating adhesion to metallic surfaces, four steps were used: (1) argon ion sputtering; (2) plasma nitriding; (3) a thin amorphous silicon interlayer deposition, using silane as the precursor gas; and (4) diamond-like carbon film deposition using methane atmosphere. This paper presents various test results as functions of the methane gas pressure and of the coaxial metal anode diameter, where the pulsed-DC voltage constant is kept constant. The influence of the coaxial metal anode diameter and of the methane gas pressure is also demonstrated. The results obtained showed the possibilities of using these DLC coatings for reduced friction and to harden inner surface of the steel tubes.

  14. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  15. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  16. Sticking non-stick: Surface and Structure control of Diamond-like Carbon in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. J.; Nelson, N.

    2016-10-01

    This short review article explores the practical use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). Using as an example issues relating to the DLC coating of a hand-held surgical device, we draw on previous works using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tensiometry and electron paramagnetic resonance. Utilising data from these techniques, we examine the surface structure, substrate-film interface and thin film microstructure, such as sp2/sp3 ratio (graphitic/diamond-like bonding ratio) and sp2 clustering. We explore the variations in parameters describing these characteristics, and relate these to the final device properties such as friction, wear resistance, and diffusion barrier integrity. The material and device characteristics are linked to the initial plasma and substrate conditions.

  17. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K. K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-04-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO2) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO2 films and DLC/TiO2/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO2-coated and the DLC/TiO2/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO2/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO2/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  18. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  19. Superlubricity mechanism of diamond-like carbon with glycerol. Coupling of experimental and simulation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBarros Bouchet, M. I.; Matta, C.; Le-Mogne, Th; Martin, J. Michel; Zhang, Q.; Goddard, W., III; Kano, M.; Mabuchi, Y.; Ye, J.

    2007-11-01

    We report a unique tribological system that produces superlubricity under boundary lubrication conditions with extremely little wear. This system is a thin coating of hydrogen-free amorphous Diamond-Like-Carbon (denoted as ta-C) at 353 K in a ta-C/ta-C friction pair lubricated with pure glycerol. To understand the mechanism of friction vanishing we performed ToF-SIMS experiments using deuterated glycerol and 13C glycerol. This was complemented by first-principles-based computer simulations using the ReaxFF reactive force field to create an atomistic model of ta-C. These simulations show that DLC with the experimental density of 3.24 g/cc leads to an atomistic structure consisting of a 3D percolating network of tetrahedral (sp3) carbons accounting for 71.5% of the total, in excellent agreement with the 70% deduced from our Auger spectroscopy and XANES experiments. The simulations show that the remaining carbons (with sp2 and sp1 character) attach in short chains of length 1 to 7. In sliding simulations including glycerol molecules, the surface atoms react readily to form a very smooth carbon surface containing OH-terminated groups. This agrees with our SIMS experiments. The simulations find that the OH atoms are mostly bound to surface sp1 atoms leading to very flexible elastic response to sliding. Both simulations and experiments suggest that the origin of the superlubricity arises from the formation of this OH-terminated surface.

  20. High rate PLD of diamond-like-carbon utilizing high repetition rate visible lasers

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, W. II; Fehring, E.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1994-09-15

    Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) has been shown to be an effective method for producing a wide variety of thin films of high-value-added materials. The high average powers and high pulse repetition frequencies of lasers under development at LLNL make it possible to scale-up PLD processes that have been demonstrated in small systems in a number of university, government, and private laboratories to industrially meaningful, economically feasible technologies. A copper vapor laser system at LLNL has been utilized to demonstrate high rate PLD of high quality diamond-like-carbon (DLC) from graphite targets. The deposition rates for PLD obtained with a 100 W laser were {approx} 2000 {mu}m{center_dot}cm{sup 2}/h, or roughly 100 times larger than those reported by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods. Good adhesion of thin (up to 2 pm) films has been achieved on a small number of substrates that include SiO{sub 2} and single crystal Si. Present results indicate that the best quality DLC films can be produced at optimum rates at power levels and wavelengths compatible with fiber optic delivery systems. If this is also true of other desirable coating systems, this PLD technology could become an extremely attractive industrial tool for high value added coatings.

  1. Protein arrangement on modified diamond-like carbon surfaces - An ARXPS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterbeek, Reece N.; Seal, Christopher K.; Hyland, Margaret M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the nature of the interface between a biomaterial implant and the biological fluid is an essential step towards creating improved implant materials. This study examined a diamond-like carbon coating biomaterial, the surface energy of which was modified by Ar+ ion sputtering and laser graphitisation. The arrangement of proteins was analysed by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the effects of the polar component of surface energy on this arrangement were observed. It was seen that polar groups (such as CN, CO) are more attracted to the coating surface due to the stronger polar interactions. This results in a segregation of these groups to the DLC-protein interface; at increasing takeoff angle (further from to DLC-protein interface) fewer of these polar groups are seen. Correspondingly, groups that interact mainly by dispersive forces (CC, CH) were found to increase in intensity as takeoff angle increased, indicating they are segregated away from the DLC-protein interface. The magnitude of the segregation was seen to increase with increasing polar surface energy, this was attributed to an increased net attraction between the solid surface and polar groups at higher polar surface energy (γSp).

  2. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  3. Argonne Discovery Yields Self-Healing Diamond-Like Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Greg; Jones, Katie Elyce

    2016-10-27

    We report that large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the US Department of Energy’s IBM Blue Gene/Q Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, along with experiments conducted by researchers in Argonne’s Energy Systems Division, enabled the design of a “self-healing” anti-wear coating that drastically reduces friction and related degradation in engines and moving machinery. Now, the computational work advanced for this purpose is being used to identify the friction-fighting potential of other catalysts.

  4. Argonne Discovery Yields Self-Healing Diamond-Like Carbon

    DOE PAGES

    Cunningham, Greg; Jones, Katie Elyce

    2016-10-27

    We report that large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the US Department of Energy’s IBM Blue Gene/Q Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, along with experiments conducted by researchers in Argonne’s Energy Systems Division, enabled the design of a “self-healing” anti-wear coating that drastically reduces friction and related degradation in engines and moving machinery. Now, the computational work advanced for this purpose is being used to identify the friction-fighting potential of other catalysts.

  5. Chemically modified diamond-like carbon (DLC) for protein enrichment and profiling by MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Najam-ul-Haq, M; Rainer, M; Huck, C W; Ashiq, M N; Bonn, G K

    2012-08-01

    The development of new high throughput methods based on different materials with chemical modifications for protein profiling of complex mixtures leads towards biomarkers; used particularly for early diagnosis of a disease. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) is developed and optimized for serum protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This study is carried out in connection with a material-based approach, termed as material-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. DLC is selected as carrier surface which provides large surface to volume ratio and offers high sensitivity. DLC has a dual role of working as MALDI target while acting as an interface for protein profiling by specifically binding peptides and proteins out of serum samples. Serum constituents are bound through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) functionality, created through glycidyl methacrylate polymerization under ultraviolet light followed by further derivatization with iminodiacetic acid and copper ion loading. Scanning electron microscopy highlights the morphological characteristics of DLC surface. It could be demonstrated that IMAC functionalized DLC coatings represent a powerful material in trapping biomolecules for their further analysis by MALDI-MS resulting in improved sensitivity, specificity and capacity in comparison to other protein-profiling methods.

  6. Electrical and magnetic properties of electrodeposited nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B.; Das, D.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-05-01

    Nanocomposite diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films have been synthesized by incorporating nickel (Ni) nanoparticles in DLC matrix with varying concentration of nickel. DLC and Ni-DLC thin films have been deposited on ITO coated glass substrates employing low voltage electrodeposition method. Electrical properties of the samples were studied by measuring current-voltage characteristics and dielectric properties. The current approaches toward an ohmic behavior with metal addition. This tendency of increasing ohmicity is enhanced with increase in dilution of the electrolyte. The conductivity increases with Ni addition and interestingly it continues to increase with dilution of Ni concentration in the electrolyte in the range of our study. Magnetic properties for DLC and Ni-DLC thin film samples were examined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) measurements. g-Value for DLC is 2.074, whereas it decreases to 2.055 with Ni addition in the electrolyte. This decrement arises from the increased sp2 content in DLC matrix. The magnetic moment vs. magnetic field (m-H) curves of Ni-DLC indicate superparamagnetic behavior which may be due to ferromagnetic contribution from the incorporated nickel nanoparticles in the DLC matrix. The ZFC curve of Ni-DLC after the blocking temperature shows a combined contribution of ferromagnetic, superparamagnetic and paramagnetic nature of the materials persisting up to 300 K.

  7. Hydrogen migration in diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainonen, E.; Likonen, J.; Ahlgren, T.; Haussalo, P.; Keinonen, J.; Wu, C. H.

    1997-10-01

    Properties of physical vapor deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) films and the migration of hydrogen in H+ and 4He+ ion implanted and hydrogen co-deposited DLC films have been studied. Measurements utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry showed that the films studied have an average mass density of 2.6±0.1 g/cm3. The bonding ratio sp3/sp2 is typically 70% measured with the electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis technique. Impurities and their depth distributions were deduced from the particle induced x-ray emission and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Distributions of implanted and co-deposited hydrogen were measured by the nuclear resonance reaction 1H(15N,αγ)12C and SIMS. It was found that annealing behavior of implanted H in DLC has a diffusion like character. The obtained diffusion coefficients resulted in the activation energy of 2.0±0.1 eV. It was observed that in H co-deposited DLC films the temperature of H release varied between 950 and 1070 °C depending on the H concentration.

  8. Plasma and ion beam enhanced chemical vapour deposition of diamond and diamond-like carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongji

    WC-Co cutting tools are widely used in the machining industry. The application of diamond coatings on the surfaces of the tools would prolong the cutting lifetime and improves the manufacturing efficiency. However, direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamond coatings on WC-Co suffer from severe premature adhesion failure due to interfacial graphitization induced by the binder phase Co. In this research, a combination of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrogen (H2) plasma pretreatments and a novel double interlayer of carbide forming element (CFE)/Al were developed to enhance diamond nucleation and adhesion. The results showed that both the pretreatments and interlayers were effective in forming continuous and adhesive nanocrystalline diamond coatings. The method is a promising replacement of the hazardous Murakami's regent currently used in WC-Co pretreatment with a more environmental friendly approach. Apart from coatings, diamond can be fabricated into other forms of nanostructures, such as nanotips. In this work, it was demonstrated that oriented diamond nanotip arrays can be fabricated by ion beam etching of as-grown CVD diamond. The orientation of diamond nanotips can be controlled by adjusting the direction of incident ion beam. This method overcomes the limits of other techniques in producing nanotip arrays on large areas with controlled orientation. Oriented diamond nano-tip arrays have been used to produce anisotropic frictional surface, which is successfully used in ultra-precision positioning systems. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has many properties comparable to diamond. In this thesis, the preparation of alpha-C:H thin films by end-Hall (EH) ion source and the effects of ion energy and nitrogen doping on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-deposited thin films were investigated. The results have demonstrated that smooth and uniform alpha-C:H and alpha-C:H:N films with large area and reasonably high hardness and Young's modulus can be

  9. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiwen; Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji

    2013-04-01

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ˜5 μg/cm2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ˜4 μg/cm2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ˜1 μg/cm2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4for the 197Au- (˜9 MeV, ˜1 μA) and 63Cu- (˜9 MeV, ˜1 μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (ID/IG) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is0.78.

  10. Diamond-like a-C:H coatings deposited in a non-self-sustained discharge with plasma cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, N. V.; Mamaev, A. S.; Kaĭigorodov, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) coatings have been obtained by means of acetylene decomposition in a non-self-sustained periodic pulse discharge (2A, 50 kHz, 10 μs) with hollow cathode. The discharge operation was maintained by plasma cathode emission with grid stabilization based on dc glow discharge. Using the proposed method, it is possible to control the deposition conditions (total pressure of the Ar + C2H2 mixture, partial pressure of C2H2, ion current density, carbon ion energy) within broad limits, to apply a-C:H coatings onto large-area articles, and to perform deposition in one technological cycle with ion etching and ion implantation treatments aimed at improving the adhesion of coatings to substrates (Ti, Al, stainless steel, VK8 hard alloy) at temperatures below 150°C. Results of determining the deposition rate (1-8 μm), the nanohardness of coatings (up to 70 GPa), and the fraction of sp 3 bonds (25-70%) in the diamond-like coating material are presented.

  11. Diamond-like carbon thin film for tuned high sensitivity etched fiber Bragg grating refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rente, Bruno; Barbosa, Carmem Lúcia; Serrão, Valdir Augusto; Franco, Marcos A. R.; Allil, Regina; Camargo, Sérgio S.; Werneck, Marcelo

    2015-09-01

    Deposition of thin diamond-like carbon films in etched fiber Bragg gratings as substrate was used to increase the sensitivity of a fiber Bragg grating refractometer. The nanometric film was also used for tuning the sensitivity to a maximum for a desired application of liquid refractive index measurement. Simulation and experiments were performed in order to understand the light propagation inside the modified optical fiber and its effects in the refractometry measurements.

  12. Characterisation of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) laser targets by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddock, D.; Parker, T.; Spindloe, C.; Tolley, M.

    2016-04-01

    The search for target materials suitable for High Power Laser Experiments at ultralow thicknesses (below ten nanometres) is ongoing. Diamond-Like Carbon is investigated as an answer for a low-Z material that can survive target chamber pump-down and laser prepulse. DLC was produced using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition, using with varying gas flow mixtures of argon and methane. The methane plasma deposits amorphous carbon onto the substrate and the argon plasma re-sputters the weakly bonded carbon leaving a high proportion of diamond-like bonding. Bonding natures were probed using Raman spectroscopy; analysis of the resulting spectrum showed that flow rates of 40sccm/60sccm methane to argon produced DLC films with a diamond-like (sp 3) content of ∼20%. Increasing the methane gas flow decreased this value to less than 5%. DLC foils were processed into laser targets by method of float off; using a sodium chloride release layer and lowering into water, this was then lifted onto an array of apertures allowing for laser irradiation of the material with no backing. DLC with 20% sp 3 content showed superior yield when compared to other materials such as metals and some plastics of the same thickness, with ∼70% of the target positions surviving the float off procedure at <10nm. As a result of this work DLC targets have been available for a number of experiments at the Central Laser Facility.

  13. Electrodeposition of diamond-like carbon films on titanium alloy using organic liquids: Corrosion and wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcade, Tiago; Shmitzhaus, Tobias Eduardo; dos Reis, Otávio Gomes; Vargas, André Luis Marin; Hübler, Roberto; Müller, Iduvirges Lourdes; de Fraga Malfatti, Célia

    2012-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied as coatings for corrosion protection and wear resistance because they have excellent chemical inertness in traditional corrosive environments, besides presenting a significant reduction in coefficient of friction. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films obtained by electrochemical deposition techniques have attracted a lot of interest, regarding their potential in relation to the vapor phase deposition techniques. The electrochemical deposition techniques are carried out at room temperature and do not need vacuum system, making easier this way the technological transfer. At high electric fields, the organic molecules polarize and react on the electrode surface, forming carbon films. The aim of this work was to obtain DLC films onto Ti6Al4V substrate using as electrolyte: acetonitrile (ACN) and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and wear tests. The results show that these films can improve, significantly, the corrosion resistance of titanium and its alloys and their wear resistance.

  14. [The possibilities for the application of the fluoroplast-based prostheses with a diamond-like carbon nanocoating in ear surgery (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, V P; Shil'ko, S V; Khusam, Él'-Refaĭ; Nadyrov, É A; Kazachenko, V P; Dzhaĭnakbaev, N T

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate general and local characteristics of the tissue reactions to the implantation of radiation-modified polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-based fluoroplast F-4PM20 with a diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocoating or with the diamond-like carbon coating containing the dispersed nano-sized silver particles to the experimental animals (rats). A total of 150 inbred white rats were included into the experiment; they were divided into 3 groups comprised of 50 animals each. The rats in group 1 were implanted with the 5 nm thick strips of fluoroplast F-4PM20 having the diamond-like carbon nanocoating. The animals of group 2 were implanted with the same material containing nanoparticles of chemically pure silver dispersed in the coating, those in group 3 (controls) were implanted with the fluoroplast F-4PM20 without a coating. The animals were sacrificed on days 7, 21, 30, and 60 days after the onset of the experiment. The tissues surrounding the implant as well as heart, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney tissues were taken for the histological study. The local reactions of different tissues were found to be uniform even though there was an apparent tendency toward the less pronounced granulation and scarification processes in the animals implanted with the diamond-like carbon coating containing the dispersed nano-sized silver particles. In none of the groups, the animals exhibited statistically significant lymphoid tissue hyperplasia in the spleen which suggested the activation of the immune system in response to implantation. It is concluded that the PTFE-based fluoroplast F-4PM20 implants with the 5 nm thick DLC coating and a similar coating containing the dispersed nano-sized silver particles can be applied for middle ear reconstructive surgery, being a histologically compatible material that does not cause an inflammatory degenerative response of the tissues.

  15. Characterization of diamond-like carbon thin film synthesized by RF atmospheric pressure plasma Ar/CH4 jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Safari, Reza; Etaati, G. Reza; Asadi, Eskandar; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi; Samadi, Omid; Bagheri, Hanieh

    2016-01-01

    The growth of diamond like carbon (DLC) on a Pyrex glass was investigated by a radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The plasma jet with capacitive configuration ran by a radio frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz. Alumina ceramic was used as dielectric barrier. Ar and CH4 were used in atmospheric pressure as carrier and precursor gases, respectively. Diamond like carbon thin films were deposited on Pyrex glass at substrate temperature and applied power of 130 °C and 250 Watts, respectively. Performing field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy analysis resulted in deposition rate and the ID/IG ratio of 21.31 nm/min and 0.47, respectively. The ID/IG ratio indicated that the coating possesses relative high sp3 content The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic was applied to diagnose plasma jet species. Estimating electron temperature and density of the RF-APPJ resulted in 1.36 eV and 2.75 × 1014 cm-3 at the jet exit, respectively.

  16. Surface characterization and orientation interaction between diamond- like carbon layer structure and dimeric liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naradikian, H.; Petrov, M.; Katranchev, B.; Milenov, T.; Tinchev, S.

    2017-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and amorphous carbon films are very promising type of semiconductor materials. Depending on the hybridization sp2/sp3 ratio, the material’s band gap varies between 0.8 and 3 eV. Moreover carbon films possess different interesting for practice properties: comparable to the Silicon, Diamond like structure has 22-time better thermal conductivity etc. Here we present one type of implementation of such type nanostructure. That is one attempt for orientation of dimeric LC by using of pre-deposited DLC layer with different ratio of sp2/sp3 hybridized carbon content. It could be expected a pronounced π1-π2interaction between s and p orbital levels on the surface and the dimeric ring of LC. We present comparison of surface anchoring strengths of both orientation inter-surfaces DLC/dimeric LC and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT)/dimeric LC. The mechanism of interaction of dimeric LC and activated surfaces with DLC or SWCNT will be discussed. In both cases we have π-π interaction, which in combination with hydrogen bonding, typical for the dimeric LCs, influence the LC alignment. The Raman spectroscopy data evidenced the presence of charge transfer between contacting hexagonal rings of DLC and the C = O groups of the LC molecules.

  17. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E.; Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A.; Bartelt, P.F.; Baughman, R.H.; Bhushan, B.; Cooper, C.V.; Dugger, M.T.; Freedman, A.; Larsen-Basse, J.; McGuire, N.R.; Messier, R.F.; Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H.; Sartwell, B.D.; Wei, R.

    1993-01-01

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  18. Pulse widths dependence of programming and erasing behaviors for diamond like carbon based resistive switching memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan; Zhang, Chenhui; Zhang, Xiaowen; Peng, Pinggang; Fu, Di; Qian, He; Ren, Tian-ling; Liu, Litian

    2014-10-01

    We report the influences of pulse widths on the programming and erasing characteristics of diamond-like carbon films based resistive random access memory. The device can be only programmed with pulses wider than 50 ns for SET operations when the pulse voltage is 1.2 V and erased with pulses narrower than 25 ns for RESET operations when the pulse voltage is 0.4 V. The formation, rupture, and re-growth of the conductive sp2-like graphitic filaments are proposed to be responsible for the resistive switching behaviors, based on which the pulse widths dependences on its programming and erasing properties can be further explained.

  19. Chromium-doped diamond-like carbon films deposited by dual-pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Písařík, P.; Jelínek, M.; Kocourek, T.; Zezulová, M.; Remsa, J.; Jurek, K.

    2014-10-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Cr-doped diamond-like carbon layers were studied. DLC and Cr-DLC were deposited on silicon and titanium substrates (Ti-6Al-4V) by dual-pulsed laser ablation using two KrF excimer lasers and two targets (graphite and chromium). The composition was analyzed using wavelength-dependent X-ray spectroscopy. The Cr content increased from 2.2 to 17.9 at%. The topology and surface properties as roughness of layers were studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. With the chromium concentration increased the roughness and the number of droplets. Carbon and chromium bonds were determined by Raman spectroscopy. With an increase in chromium content the I D/ I G ratio increased. Mechanical properties of DLC films with various chromium content were evaluated. Hardness (reduced Young's modulus) was determined by nanoindentation and reached of 51 GPa (309 GPa). Films adhesion was studied using scratch test and with concentration of chromium increased up to 20 N.

  20. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  1. A study on the preparation of diamond like carbon film and its electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen-jiang; Li, Dang-juan; Xu, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have attracted much attention because of their excellent performance; however, the low anti-laser damage ability of such films seriously restricts their applicability. To overcome this problem, applying the bias field to the DLC film could slow down the DLC film graphitization process and improve the LIDT of the DLC film. Results showed that the longitudinal electric field could decrease the sp3 hybridization to sp2 hybridization, prevent the formation of sp2 clusters. in this study, Unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) was used to deposit a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on Si substrates. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the DLC films were measured using elliptical polarization spectrometer. The transmittance and the surface roughness of DLC films were examined using optical microscopy, SEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy. Ti electrodes were deposited on DLC films directly, forming a transverse and longitudinal bias field on films' surfaces. The 3D electrodes morphology of the DLC film was observed. The electrode thickness was measured by a white-light interferometer, and the average thickness of the electrodes was 325.90 nm. The surface roughness of the electrodes was tested using the Talysurf CCI 2000 noncontact surface-measuring instrument, and the average roughness of the electrodes was 0.50 nm. The electrodes have good Ohmic contact and little thermal stress, and it can be used to form a parallel electric field.

  2. Dual-ion-beam deposition of carbon films with diamond-like properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamond like films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  3. Nanostructured titanium/diamond-like carbon multilayer films: deposition, characterization, and applications.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K

    2011-11-01

    Titanium/diamond-like carbon multilayer (TDML) films were deposited using a hybrid system combining radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques under a varied number of Ti/diamond-like carbon (DLC) bilayers from 1 to 4, at high base pressure of 1 × 10(-3) Torr. The multilayer approach was used to create unique structures such as nanospheres and nanorods in TDML films, which is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and explained by a hypothetical model. Surface composition was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), whereas energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (ToF-SIMS) measurements were performed to investigate the bulk composition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the phase and crystallinity of the deposited TDML films. Residual stress in these films was found to be significantly low. These TDML films were found to have excellent nanomechanical properties with maximum hardness of 41.2 GPa. In addition, various nanomechanical parameters were calculated and correlated with each other. Owing to metallic interfacial layer of Ti in multilayer films, the optical properties, electrical properties, and photoluminescence were improved significantly. Due to versatile nanomechanical properties and biocompatibility of DLC and DLC based films, these TDML films may also find applications in biomedical science.

  4. Engineering of the function of diamond-like carbon binding peptides through structural design.

    PubMed

    Gabryelczyk, Bartosz; Szilvay, Géza R; Singh, Vivek K; Mikkilä, Joona; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Koskinen, Jari; Linder, Markus B

    2015-02-09

    The use of phage display to select material-specific peptides provides a general route towards modification and functionalization of surfaces and interfaces. However, a rational structural engineering of the peptides for optimal affinity is typically not feasible because of insufficient structure-function understanding. Here, we investigate the influence of multivalency of diamond-like carbon (DLC) binding peptides on binding characteristics. We show that facile linking of peptides together using different lengths of spacers and multivalency leads to a tuning of affinity and kinetics. Notably, increased length of spacers in divalent systems led to significantly increased affinities. Making multimers influenced also kinetic aspects of surface competition. Additionally, the multivalent peptides were applied as surface functionalization components for a colloidal form of DLC. The work suggests the use of a set of linking systems to screen parameters for functional optimization of selected material-specific peptides.

  5. Cell viability and adhesion on diamond-like carbon films containing titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachesk, C. C.; Pires, C. A. F.; Ramos, B. C.; Trava-Airoldi, V. J.; Lobo, A. O.; Pacheco-Soares, C.; Marciano, F. R.; Da-Silva, N. S.

    2013-02-01

    The combination of low friction, wear resistance, high hardness, biocompatibility and chemical inertness makes diamond-like carbon (DLC) films suitable in a numerous applications in biomedical engineering. The cell viability and adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts was investigated using two different colorimetric assays: (i) 2-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-3,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and (ii) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The films were growth on 316L stainless steel substrates using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique from a dispersion of TiO2 nanopowder in hexane. The increasing concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles in DLC films enhanced the mitochondrial activity and decreases the LDH activity on these samples. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy corroborate the results. These experiments show the potential use of DLC and TiO2-DLC films in biomedical applications.

  6. Multilayers Diamond-Like Carbon Film with Germanium Buffer Layers by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Lu, Y. M.; Guo, Y. L.; Huang, G. J.; Wang, S. Y.; Tian, F. T.

    Multilayer diamond-like carbon film with germanium buffer layers, which was composed of several thick DLC layers and thin germanium island “layers” and named as Ge-DLC film, was prepared on the germanium substrate by ultraviolet laser. The Ge-DLC film had almost same surface roughness as the pure DLC film. Hardness of the Ge-DLC film was above 48.1GPa, which was almost the same as that of pure DLC film. Meanwhile, compared to the pure DLC film, the critical load of Ge-DLC film on the germanium substrate increased from 81.6mN to 143.8mN. Moreover, Ge-DLC film on germanium substrates had no change after fastness tests. The results showed that Ge-DLC film not only kept high hardness but also had higher critical load than that of pure DLC film. Therefore, it could be used as practical protective films.

  7. Characterization of diamond-like carbon films by SEM, XRD and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Hua; Wang, Xingquan; Zhang, Guling; Chen, Huan; Lv, Guohua; Yang, Size

    2010-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were deposited by electrolysis of a water-ethanol solution on Cu at low voltages (60-100 V) at 2 mm interelectrode separation. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The films were found to be continuous and compact with uniform grain distribution. Raman spectroscopy analysis revealed two broad bands at ˜1350 and ˜1580 cm -1. The downshift of the G band of graphite is indicative of the presence of DLC. For XRD analysis, the three strong peaks located at 2 θ values of 43.2°, 74.06° and 89.9° can be identified with reflections form (1 1 1), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) plane of diamond.

  8. Electron-beam induced diamond-like-carbon passivation of plasmonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Langley, Daniel; Lin, Jiao; Kou, Shan Shan; Abbey, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Engineered materials with feature sizes on the order of a few nanometres offer the potential for producing metamaterials with properties which may differ significantly from their bulk counterpart. Here we describe the production of plasmonic colour filters using periodic arrays of nanoscale cross shaped apertures fabricated in optically opaque silver films. Due to its relatively low loss in the visible and near infrared range, silver is a popular choice for plasmonic devices, however it is also unstable in wet or even ambient conditions. Here we show that ultra-thin layers of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) can be used to prevent degradation due to oxidative stress, ageing and corrosion. We demonstrate that DLC effectively protects the sub-micron features which make up the plasmonic colour filter under both atmospheric conditions and accelerated aging using iodine gas. Through a systematic study we confirm that the nanometre thick DLC layers have no effect on the device functionality or performance.

  9. Stress reduction of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films from ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Wang, Aiying

    2015-01-15

    Structure and properties of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films (DLC) were investigated using ab initio calculations. The effect of Cu concentrations (1.56∼7.81 at.%) on atomic bond structure was mainly analyzed to clarify the residual stress reduction mechanism. Results showed that with introducing Cu into DLC films, the residual compressive stress decreased firstly and then increased for each case with the obvious deterioration of mechanical properties, which was in agreement with the experimental results. Structural analysis revealed that the weak Cu-C bond and the relaxation of both the distorted bond angles and bond lengths accounted for the significant reduction of residual compressive stress, while at the higher Cu concentration the increase of residual stress attributed to the existence of distorted Cu-C structures and the increased fraction of distorted C-C bond lengths.

  10. Characterization of boron doped diamond-like carbon film by HRTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. J.; He, L. L.; Li, Y. S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2015-12-01

    Boron doped diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) film was synthesized on silicon (1 0 0) wafer by biased target ion beam deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is employed to investigate the microstructure of the B-DLC thin film in cross-sectional observation. Many crystalline nanoparticles randomly dispersed and embedded in the amorphous matrix film are observed. Through chemical compositional analysis of the B-DLC film, some amount of O element is confirmed to be contained. And also, some nanoparticles with near zone axes are indexed, which are accordance with B2O phase. Therefore, the contained O element causing the B element oxidized is proposed, resulting in the formation of the nanoparticles. Our work indicates that in the B-DLC film a significant amount of the doped B element exists as boron suboxide nanoparticles.

  11. High performance diamond-like carbon layers obtained by pulsed laser deposition for conductive electrode applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, F.; Antoni, F.; Le Normand, F.; Muller, D.; Abdesselam, M.; Boubiche, N.; Komissarov, I.

    2017-09-01

    For the future, one of the biggest challenge faced to the technologies of flat panel display and various optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices is to find an alternative to the use of transparent conducting oxides like ITO. In this new approach, the objective is to grow high conductive thin-layer graphene (TLG) on the top of diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers presenting high performance. DLC prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) have attracted special interest due to a unique combination of their properties, close to those of monocrystalline diamond, like its transparency, hardness and chemical inertia, very low roughness, hydrogen-free and thus high thermal stability up to 1000 K. In our future work, we plane to explore the synthesis of conductive TLG on top of insulating DLC thin films. The feasibility and obtained performances of the multi-layered structure will be explored in great details in the short future to develop an alternative to ITO with comparable performance (conductivity of transparency). To select the best DLC candidate for this purpose, we focus this work on the physicochemical properties of the DLC thin films deposited by PLD from a pure graphite target at two wavelengths (193 and 248 nm) at various laser fluences. A surface graphenization process, as well as the required efficiency of the complete structure (TLG/DLC) will clearly be related to the DLC properties, especially to the initial sp3/sp2 hybridization ratio. Thus, an exhaustive description of the physicochemical properties of the DLC layers is a fundamental step in the research of comparable performance to ITO.

  12. Theoretical Study of Diamond-Like Carbons and Nucleation of Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choon-Heung

    Different forms of amorphous carbon and hydrocarbons with varying elastic and optical properties, hardness, density and hydrogen content exist depending on the preparation technique. The structure can vary from graphitic to diamond -like, i.e., from mainly threefold coordinated to mainly four-fold coordinated. In order to study the properties of such materials, microscopic models must be developed. These studies include the modelling of crosslinked defective graphite, diamond nucleation along the graphite edges, and diamond-like carbons. Tamor's proposed structure for diamondlike carbon consists of crosslinked graphitic regions. We studied a concrete realization of this model in which the cross -links are produced by shortening the interplanar bond lengths. The model study was accomplished with a pure rhombohedral graphite cell. For this study we used a semi-empirical potential based on Tersoff's environment-dependent potential which contains angular terms. It is enhanced by a long-range potential which describes the interplanar interactions. We found a configuration corresponding to a local minimum. More general features such as the randomness of the distribution of cross-links are needed for a realistic model. A model study of diamond/graphite interfaces was motivated by recent observations by Li and Angus. They observed a significant enhancement of diamond nucleation on the graphite edge planes with the preferential orientation relationship: {0001} _{g} | {111 }_{d}, < 1120 >_{g} | < 101>_{d}. Two possible interface structures were studied using the Tersoff potential. We found that the models have comparable low interface energies even if they contain some dangling bonds. Moreover, lower interface energies were found when the dangling bonds of the non-bonded diamond layer were satisfied with hydrogen. We have proposed a growth mechanism based on this study. Finally, we constructed realistic models of dense amorphous carbon. The WWW (introduced earlier for a

  13. On interlayer stability and high-cycle simulator performance of diamond-like carbon layers for articulating joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

    2014-06-11

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and -3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic.

  14. On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic. PMID

  15. Effect of source gas chemistry on tribological performance of diamond-like carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Fenske, G. R.; Nilufer, I. B.

    1999-08-23

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various source gases (i. e., methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene and methane + hydrogen) on friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Specifically, we described the anomalous nature and fundamental friction and wear mechanisms of DLC films derived from gas discharge plasmas with very low to very high hydrogen content. The films were deposited on steel substrates by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at room temperature and the tribological tests were performed in dry nitrogen. The results of tribological tests revealed a close correlation between the friction and wear coefficients of the DLC films and the source gas chemistry. Specifically, films grown in source gases with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios had much lower friction coefficients and wear rates than the films derived from source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The lowest friction coefficient (0.002) was achieved with a film derived from 25% methane--75% hydrogen while the films derived from acetylene had a coefficient of 0.15. Similar correlations were observed on wear rates. Specifically, the films derived from hydrogen rich plasmas had the least wear while the films derived from pure acetylene suffered the highest wear. We used a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structural chemistry of the resultant DLC films.

  16. Electrochemical performance of porous diamond-like carbon electrodes for sensing hormones, neurotransmitters, and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tiago A; Zanin, Hudson; May, Paul W; Corat, Evaldo J; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-12-10

    Porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes have been prepared, and their electrochemical performance was explored. For electrode preparation, a thin DLC film was deposited onto a densely packed forest of highly porous, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the carbon nanotubes to clump together to form a microstructured surface with an enlarged surface area. DLC:VACNT electrodes show fast charge transfer, which is promising for several electrochemical applications, including electroanalysis. DLC:VACNT electrodes were applied to the determination of targeted molecules such as dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP), which are neurotransmitters/hormones, and acetaminophen (AC), an endocrine disruptor. Using simple and low-cost techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, analytical curves in the concentration range from 10 to 100 μmol L(-1) were obtained and excellent analytical parameters achieved, including high analytical sensitivity, good response stability, and low limits of detection of 2.9, 4.5, and 2.3 μmol L(-1) for DA, EP, and AC, respectively.

  17. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity evaluation of graphite nanoparticles for diamond-like carbon film application on artificial joints.

    PubMed

    Liao, T T; Deng, Q Y; Wu, B J; Li, S S; Li, X; Wu, J; Leng, Y X; Guo, Y B; Huang, N

    2017-01-24

    While a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated joint prosthesis represents the implant of choice for total hip replacement in patients, it also leads to concern due to the cytotoxicity of wear debris in the form of graphite nanoparticles (GNs), ultimately limiting its clinical use. In this study, the cytotoxicity of various GN doses was evaluated. Mouse macrophages and osteoblasts were incubated with GNs (<30 nm diameter), followed by evaluation of cytotoxicity by means of assessing inflammatory cytokines, results of alkaline phosphatase assays, and related signaling protein expression. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that cell viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner (10-100 μg ml(-1)), and steeply declined at GNs concentrations greater than 30 μg ml(-1). Noticeable cytotoxicity was observed as the GN dose exceeded this threshold due to upregulated receptor of activator of nuclear factor kB-ligand expression and downregulated osteoprotegerin expression. Meanwhile, activated macrophage morphology was observed as a result of the intense inflammatory response caused by the high doses of GNs (>30 μg ml(-1)), as observed by the increased release of TNF-α and IL-6. The results suggest that GNs had a significant dose-dependent cytotoxicity in vitro, with a lethal dose of 30 μg ml(-1) leading to dramatic increases in cytotoxicity. Our GN cytotoxicity evaluation indicates a safe level for wear debris-related arthropathy and could propel the clinical application of DLC-coated total hip prostheses.

  18. Superhard behaviour, low residual stress, and unique structure in diamond-like carbon films by simple bilayer approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-07-15

    Simple bilayer approach is proposed for synthesizing hard and superhard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with reduced residual stress. For this, M/DLC bilayer (M = Ti and Cu) structures are grown using hybrid system involving radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Ti/DLC bilayer deposited at negative self bias of 100 V shows superhard behaviour with hardness (H) as 49 GPa. Cu/DLC bilayer grown at self bias of 100 V exhibits hard behaviour with H as 22.8 GPa. The hardness of Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer gets changed from superhard (hard) to hard (moderate hard) regime, when the self bias is raised to 300 V. Residual stress in Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer is found to be significantly low that varies in the range of 1 GPa-1.65 GPa (0.8 GPa-1.6 GPa). The microstructure and morphology are studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM pictures reveal the creation of nanostructured features in the deposited bilayers. Raman, SEM, and AFM analyses are correlated with the nano-mechanical properties. Owing to excellent nano-mechanical properties, these bilayers can find their direct industrial applications as hard and protective coatings.

  19. Structural and electrical characterization of boron-containing diamond-like carbon films deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Berkesse, A.; Bourgeois, O.; Garden, J.-L.; Guerret-Piécourt, C.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.

    2009-10-01

    The present study investigates the influence of the incorporation of boron in Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films deposited by femtosecond laser ablation, on the structure and electrical properties of the coatings within the temperature range 70-300 K. Doping with boron has been performed by ablating alternatively graphite and boron targets. The film structure and composition have been highlighted by coupling Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with a field emission gun (SEM-FEG) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Boron dilution ranges between 2 and 8% and appears as nanometer size clusters embedded in the DLC matrix. Typical resistivity values are 100 W cm for pure a-C films, down to few W cm for a-C:B films at room temperature. The resistance decreases exponentially when the temperature increases in the range 70-300 K. The results are discussed considering the classical model of hopping conduction in thin films. Some coatings show temperature coefficients of resistance (TCR) as high as 3.85%. TCRs decrease when the doping increases. Such high values of TCR may have interests in the use of these films as thermometer elements in micro and nanodevices.

  20. Deposition of Fluorinated Diamond-Like-Carbon Films by Exposure of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Iida, Masayasu

    2011-08-01

    Thin amorphous carbon films are deposited on silicon substrates by exposure to pulsed plasmas where the feed gas is mainly generated from the ablation of an insulator. An electrothermal pulsed plasma thruster with a discharge room in an insulator rod is used as the pulsed plasma for the ablation of the insulator, and the material of the insulator rod is poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). The pulsed plasma, in which the estimated electron density is on the order of 1022-1023 m-3, is generated by the stored energy in the capacitor. The deposition rate, which depends on the stored energy, is lower than 1 nm per pulse in our experiment. The maximum hardness measured using a nanoindenter is about 7 GPa at a stored energy of about 2.7 J, beyond which the hardness of the films decreases with the increase in stored energy. Raman spectroscopy is also carried out to examine the formation of fluorinated diamond-like carbon films. In addition, the influence of dilution gas on the properties of the deposited films is also investigated.

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broitman, E.; Hellgren, N.; Czigány, Zs.; Twesten, R. D.; Luning, J.; Petrov, I.; Hultman, L.; Holloway, B. C.

    2003-07-01

    The microstructure, morphology, and mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering were investigated for microelectromechanical systems applications. Film properties were found to vary markedly with the ion energy (Eion) and ion-to-carbon flux ratio (Jion/JC). Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed an amorphous microstructure. However, the presence of nanometer-sized domains at Eion~85 eV was detected. Film stresses, σ, which were compressive in all cases, ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa and depended on the flux ratio as well as ion energy. The hardness (H), Young's moduli (ɛ), and elastic recovery (R) increased with Eion to maximum values of H=27 GPa, ɛ=250 GPa, and R=68% at Eion=85 eV and Jion/JC=4.4. However, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure and electron energy-loss spectrum analysis showed that the sp2/sp3 content of the films does not change with Eion or Jion/JC. The measured change in mechanical properties without a corresponding change in sp2/sp3 ratio is not consistent with any previously published models. We suggest that, in the ranges 5 eV <=Eion<=85 eV and 1.1 <=Jion/JC<=6.8, the presence of defective graphite formed by subplanted C and Ar atoms has the dominant influence on the mechanical properties of DLC films.

  2. Composition and properties of the so-called 'diamond-like' amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.; Stultz, J. E.; Shiller, P. J.; Macdonald, J. R.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of amorphous 'diamond-like' films made by direct low energy ion beam deposition, R.F. discharge and sputtering was determined by nuclear reaction analysis, IR spectroscopy and microcombustion chemical analysis. The nuclear reaction analysis showed very similar hydrogen depth profiles for all three types of samples. The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon was approximately 0.2 at the film surface and rose to approximately 1.0 at a depth of 500 A. The integrated intensity of the C-H stretching band at about 2900 per cm indicates that the amount of chemically bonded hydrogen is less than the total hydrogen content. Combustion analysis confirmed the overall atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The chemical state of the non-bonded hydrogen was not determined; however, the effective diffusion coefficient computed from the hydrogen depth profile was extremely low. This indicates either that the films are exceedingly impermeable or that the non-bonded hydrogen requires an additional activated step to leave the films, e.g., desorption or chemical reaction.

  3. Composition and properties of the so-called 'diamond-like' amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.; Stultz, J. E.; Shiller, P. J.; Macdonald, J. R.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of amorphous 'diamond-like' films made by direct low energy ion beam deposition, R.F. discharge and sputtering was determined by nuclear reaction analysis, IR spectroscopy and microcombustion chemical analysis. The nuclear reaction analysis showed very similar hydrogen depth profiles for all three types of samples. The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon was approximately 0.2 at the film surface and rose to approximately 1.0 at a depth of 500 A. The integrated intensity of the C-H stretching band at about 2900 per cm indicates that the amount of chemically bonded hydrogen is less than the total hydrogen content. Combustion analysis confirmed the overall atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The chemical state of the non-bonded hydrogen was not determined; however, the effective diffusion coefficient computed from the hydrogen depth profile was extremely low. This indicates either that the films are exceedingly impermeable or that the non-bonded hydrogen requires an additional activated step to leave the films, e.g., desorption or chemical reaction.

  4. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH4 dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Hendaoui, A.; de Matos, J.; Chaker, M.

    2016-06-01

    An Ar/CH4 atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (˜35 mJ m-2) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of freestanding ultrathin diamond-like carbon targets for high-intensity laser applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Timothy T.; Gupta, Manisha; Chowdhury, Fatema Rezwana; Chen, Zhijiang; Tsui, Ying Yin

    2013-12-01

    Here, we report the fabrication of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). PLD is a well-established technique for deposition of high-quality DLC thin films. Carbon tape target was ablated using a KrF (248 nm, 25 ns, 20 Hz) excimer laser to deposit DLC films on soap-coated substrates. A laser fluence between 8.5 and 14 J/cm2 and a target to substrate distance of 10 cm was used. These films were then released from substrates to obtain freestanding DLC thin foils. Foil thicknesses from 20 to 200 nm were deposited using this technique to obtain freestanding targets of up to 1-inch square area. Typically, 100-nm-thick freestanding DLC films were characterized using different techniques such as AFM, XPS, and nano-indentation. AFM was used to obtain the film surface roughness of 9 nm rms of the released film. XPS was utilized to obtain 74 % sp2, 23 % sp3, and 3 % C-O bond components. Nano-indentation was used to characterize the film hardness of 10 GPa and Young's modulus of 110 GPa. Damage threshold properties of the DLC foils were studied (1,064 nm, 6 ns) and found to be 7 × 1010 W/cm2 peak intensity for our best ultrathin DLC foils.

  6. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Wei Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai; Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2015-11-21

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp{sup 3} bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp{sup 3}-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40–70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  7. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp3 bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp3-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40-70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  8. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver.

    PubMed

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out.

  9. Collision cascades enhanced hydrogen redistribution in cobalt implanted hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Becker, H.-W.; Williams, G. V. M.; Hübner, R.; Heinig, K.-H.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-03-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films produced by C3H6 deposition at 5 kV and implanted at room temperature with 30 keV Co atoms to 12 at.% show not only a bimodal distribution of Co atoms but also a massive redistribution of hydrogen in the films. Resonant nuclear reaction analysis was used to measure the hydrogen depth profiles (15N-method). Depletion of hydrogen near the surface was measured to be as low as 7 at.% followed by hydrogen accumulation from 27 to 35 at.%. A model is proposed considering the thermal energy deposited by collision cascade for thermal insulators. In this model, sufficient energy is provided for dissociated hydrogen to diffuse out of the sample from the surface and diffuse into the sample towards the interface which is however limited by the range of the incoming Co ions. At a hydrogen concentration of ∼35 at.%, the concentration gradient of the mobile unbounded hydrogen atoms is neutralised effectively stopping diffusion towards the interface. The results point towards new routes of controlling the composition and distribution of elements at the nanoscale within a base matrix without using any heat treatment methods. Exploring these opportunities can lead to a new horizon of materials and device engineering needed for enabling advanced technologies and applications.

  10. Friction force microscopy study of annealed diamond-like carbon film

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Won Seok; Joung, Yeun-Ho; Heo, Jinhee; Hong, Byungyou

    2012-10-15

    In this paper we introduce mechanical and structural characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films which were prepared on silicon substrates by radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method using methane (CH{sub 4}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas. The films were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 300 to 900 °C in steps of 200 °C using rapid thermal processor (RTP) in nitrogen ambient. Tribological properties of the DLC films were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in friction force microscopy (FFM) mode. The structural properties of the films were obtained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wettability of the films was obtained using contact angle measurement. XPS analysis showed that the sp{sup 3} content is decreased from 75.2% to 24.1% while the sp{sup 2} content is increased from 24.8% to 75.9% when the temperature is changed from 300 to 900 °C. The contact angles of DLC films were higher than 70°. The FFM measurement results show that the highest friction coefficient value was achieved at 900 °C annealing temperature.

  11. Friction Durability of Extremely Thin Diamond-Like Carbon Films at High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Shojiro; Suzuki, Shota; Miyake, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    To clarify the friction durability, both during and after the high-temperature heating of nanometer-thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, deposited using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) and plasma chemical vapor deposition (P-CVD) methods, the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load and sliding cycles of the DLC films, were evaluated. Cluster-I consisted of a low friction area in which the DLC film was effective, while cluster-II consisted of a high friction area in which the lubricating effect of the DLC film was lost. The friction durability of the films was evaluated by statistical cluster analysis. Extremely thin FCVA-DLC films exhibited an excellent wear resistance at room temperature, but their friction durability was decreased at high temperatures. In contrast, the durability of the P-CVD-DLC films was increased at high temperatures when compared with that observed at room temperature. This inverse dependence on temperature corresponded to the nano-friction results obtained by atomic force microscopy. The decrease in the friction durability of the FCVA-DLC films at high temperatures, was caused by a complex effect of temperature and friction. The tribochemical reaction produced by the P-CVD-DLC films reduced their friction coefficient, increasing their durability at high temperatures. PMID:28772520

  12. Spectroscopic studies on diamond like carbon films synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R. Ravindran, T. R.; Das, Arindam; Mangamma, G.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-05-23

    Hydrogen free Diamond like Carbon (DLC) thin films enriched with C-C sp{sup 3} bonding were grown on Si (111) substrates at laser pulse energies varying from 100 to 400 mJ (DLC-100, DLC-200, DLC-300, DLC-400), by Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA) utilizing an Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength. Structural, optical and morphological evolutions as a function of laser pulse energy were studied by micro Raman, UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. Raman spectra analysis provided critical clues for the variation in sp{sup 3} content and optical energy gap. The sp{sup 3} content was estimated using the FWHM of the G peak and found to be in the range of 62-69%. The trend of evolution of sp{sup 3} content matches well with the evolution of I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio with pulse energy. UV-Vis absorption study of DLC films revealed the variation of optical energy gap with laser pulse energy (1.88 – 2.23 eV), which matches well with the evolution of G-Peak position of the Raman spectra. AFM study revealed that roughness, size and density of particulate in DLC films increase with laser pulse energy.

  13. Friction Durability of Extremely Thin Diamond-Like Carbon Films at High Temperature.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shojiro; Suzuki, Shota; Miyake, Masatoshi

    2017-02-10

    To clarify the friction durability, both during and after the high-temperature heating of nanometer-thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, deposited using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) and plasma chemical vapor deposition (P-CVD) methods, the dependence of the friction coefficient on the load and sliding cycles of the DLC films, were evaluated. Cluster-I consisted of a low friction area in which the DLC film was effective, while cluster-II consisted of a high friction area in which the lubricating effect of the DLC film was lost. The friction durability of the films was evaluated by statistical cluster analysis. Extremely thin FCVA-DLC films exhibited an excellent wear resistance at room temperature, but their friction durability was decreased at high temperatures. In contrast, the durability of the P-CVD-DLC films was increased at high temperatures when compared with that observed at room temperature. This inverse dependence on temperature corresponded to the nano-friction results obtained by atomic force microscopy. The decrease in the friction durability of the FCVA-DLC films at high temperatures, was caused by a complex effect of temperature and friction. The tribochemical reaction produced by the P-CVD-DLC films reduced their friction coefficient, increasing their durability at high temperatures.

  14. Understanding heterogeneity in Genesis diamond-like carbon film using SIMS analysis of implants

    DOE PAGES

    Jurewicz, Amy J. G.; Burnett, Don S.; Rieck, Karen D.; ...

    2017-07-05

    An amorphous diamond-like carbon film deposited on silicon made at Sandia National Laboratory by pulsed laser deposition was one of several solar wind (SW) collectors used by the Genesis Mission (NASA Discovery Class Mission #5). The film was ~1 μm thick, amorphous, anhydrous, and had a high ratio of sp3–sp2 bonds (>50%). For 27 months of exposure to space at the first We passively irradiated lagrange point, the collectors, with SW (H fluence ~2 × 1016 ions cm-2; He fluence ~8 × 1014 ions cm-2). The radiation damage caused by the implanted H ions peaked at 12–14 nm below themore » surface of the film and that of He about 20–23 nm. To enable quantitative measurement of the SW fluences by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, minor isotopes of Mg (25Mg and 26Mg) were commercially implanted into flight-spare collectors at 75 keV and a fluence of 1 × 1014 ions cm-2. Furthermore, the shapes of analytical depth profiles, the rate at which the profiles were sputtered by a given beam current, and the intensity of ion yields are used to characterize the structure of the material in small areas (~200 × 200 ± 50 μm). Data were consistent with the hypothesis that minor structural changes in the film were induced by SW exposure.« less

  15. Fast deposition of thick diamond-like carbon films by ion-beam technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bin; Yu, Jingjing; Wang, Yudong; Bian, Baoan; Jiang, Qili; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Xianying; Ying, Minju

    2017-08-01

    A diamond-like carbon film doped with TiC nanocrystallites (TiC-DLC) with a thickness of 35.8 μm was successfully prepared on a stainless steel substrate by employing a combination of metal vapor vacuum arc and filtered cathode vacuum arc techniques. A maximum deposition rate of 0.25 μm/min was achieved for TiC-DLC films. The structure and properties of the TiC-DLC films were systematically analyzed using different methods such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and friction and wear tests. The results indicated that typical a-C:H films containing nano-sized TiC grains were deposited which exhibit improved mechanical properties such as high cohesive strength, Vickers hardness, and capacity against high temperature. Parameter windows for C2H2 flow rate and solenoid current were also provided for the deposition of TiC-DLC films to meet the requirements for using the material for specific commercial applications.

  16. Spectroscopic studies on diamond like carbon films synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Das, Arindam; Mangamma, G.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen free Diamond like Carbon (DLC) thin films enriched with C-C sp3 bonding were grown on Si (111) substrates at laser pulse energies varying from 100 to 400 mJ (DLC-100, DLC-200, DLC-300, DLC-400), by Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA) utilizing an Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength. Structural, optical and morphological evolutions as a function of laser pulse energy were studied by micro Raman, UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. Raman spectra analysis provided critical clues for the variation in sp3 content and optical energy gap. The sp3 content was estimated using the FWHM of the G peak and found to be in the range of 62-69%. The trend of evolution of sp3 content matches well with the evolution of ID/IG ratio with pulse energy. UV-Vis absorption study of DLC films revealed the variation of optical energy gap with laser pulse energy (1.88 - 2.23 eV), which matches well with the evolution of G-Peak position of the Raman spectra. AFM study revealed that roughness, size and density of particulate in DLC films increase with laser pulse energy.

  17. Hemocompatibility of surface-modified, silicon-incorporated, diamond-like carbon films.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Choi, H W; Yi, J W; Moon, M-W; Lee, K-R; Han, D K; Shin, J H; Kamijo, A; Hasebe, T

    2009-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of plasma-treated, silicon-incorporated, diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) films was investigated. Si-DLC films with a Si concentration of 2at.% were prepared on Si (100) or Nitinol substrates using a capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method using a mixed gas of benzene (C(6)H(6)) and diluted silane (SiH(4):H(2)=10:90). The Si-DLC films were then treated with O(2), CF(4) or N(2) glow discharge for surface modification. The plasma treatment revealed an intimate relationship between the polar component of the surface energy and its hemocompatibility. All in vitro characterizations, i.e. protein absorption behavior, activated partial thromboplastin time measurement and platelet adhesion behavior, showed improved hemocompatibility of the N(2-)- or O(2)-plasma-treated surfaces where the polar component of the surface energy was significantly increased. Si-O or Si-N surface bonds played an important role in improving hemocompatibility, as observed in a model experiment. These results support the importance of a negatively charged polar component of the surface in inhibiting fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  18. Biological responses of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with different structures in biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Liao, T T; Zhang, T F; Li, S S; Deng, Q Y; Wu, B J; Zhang, Y Z; Zhou, Y J; Guo, Y B; Leng, Y X; Huang, N

    2016-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are potential candidates for artificial joint surface modification in biomedical applications, and the influence of the structural features of DLC surfaces on cell functions has attracted attention in recent decades. Here, the biocompatibility of DLC films with different structures was investigated using macrophages, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The results showed that DLC films with a low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3), which tend to have a structure similar to that of diamond, led to less inflammatory, excellent osteogenic and fibroblastic reactions, with higher cell viability, better morphology, lower release of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6), and higher release of IL-10 (interleukin-10). The results also demonstrated that the high-density diamond structure (low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3)) of DLC films is beneficial for cell adhesion and growth because of better protein adsorption without electrostatic repulsion. These findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying inhibition of an inflammatory response and the promotion of osteoblastogenesis and fibrous propagation, and effectively build a system for evaluating the biocompatibility of DLC films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of Third Particle on the Tribological Behaviors of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Kang, Guozheng; Zhou, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Tribological mechanisms of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films in a sand-dust environment are commonly unclear due to the complicated three-body abrasion caused by sand particles. This study investigates the three-body abrasion of the DLC film via molecular dynamics simulations. The influence factors such as the load, velocity, shape of the particle and its size are considered. It has been found that the friction and wear of the DLC film are determined by adhesion at a small load but dominated by both adhesion and plowing at a large load. A high velocity can increase the friction of the DLC film but decrease its wear, due to the response of its networks to a high strain rate indicated by such velocity. The shape of the particle highly affects its movement mode and thus changes the friction and wear of the DLC film. It is found that a small-sized particle can increase the friction and wear of the DLC film by enhancing plowing. These unique tribological mechanisms of the DLC film can help to promote its wide applications in a sand-dust environment.

  20. Influence of Third Particle on the Tribological Behaviors of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Lichun; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Kang, Guozheng; Zhou, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Tribological mechanisms of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films in a sand-dust environment are commonly unclear due to the complicated three-body abrasion caused by sand particles. This study investigates the three-body abrasion of the DLC film via molecular dynamics simulations. The influence factors such as the load, velocity, shape of the particle and its size are considered. It has been found that the friction and wear of the DLC film are determined by adhesion at a small load but dominated by both adhesion and plowing at a large load. A high velocity can increase the friction of the DLC film but decrease its wear, due to the response of its networks to a high strain rate indicated by such velocity. The shape of the particle highly affects its movement mode and thus changes the friction and wear of the DLC film. It is found that a small-sized particle can increase the friction and wear of the DLC film by enhancing plowing. These unique tribological mechanisms of the DLC film can help to promote its wide applications in a sand-dust environment. PMID:27917916

  1. Structural modifications of diamond like carbon films induced by MeV nitrogen ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, S.; Bhatta, U. M.; Islam, A. K. M. Maidul; Mukherjee, M.; Ray, N. R.; Dev, B. N.

    2009-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates using plasma deposition technique. The deposited films were irradiated using 2 MeV N + ions at fluences of 1×1014, 1×1015 and 5×1015 ions/cm 2. Samples have been characterized by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Analysis of Raman spectra shows a gradual shift of both D and G band peaks towards higher frequencies along with an increase of the intensity ratio, I(D)/ I(G), with increasing ion fluence in irradiation. These results are consistent with an increase of sp 2 bonding. XPS results also show a monotonic increase of sp 2/sp 3 hybridization ratio with increasing ion fluence. Plan view TEM images show the formation of clusters in the irradiated DLC films. HRTEM micrographs from the samples irradiated at a fluence of 5×1015 ions/cm 2 show the lattice image with an average interplanar spacing of 0.34 nm, revealing that the clusters are graphite clusters. The crystallographic planes in these clusters are somewhat distorted compared to the perfect graphite structure.

  2. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  3. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages.

    PubMed

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-05-13

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans' and animals' infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag⁺ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile.

  4. Antimicrobial Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon/Silver Nanocomposite Thin Films Deposited on Textiles: Towards Smart Bandages

    PubMed Central

    Juknius, Tadas; Ružauskas, Modestas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Šiugždinienė, Rita; Juknienė, Indrė; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Jurkevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-01-01

    In the current work, a new antibacterial bandage was proposed where diamond-like carbon with silver nanoparticle (DLC:Ag)-coated synthetic silk tissue was used as a building block. The DLC:Ag structure, the dimensions of nanoparticles, the silver concentration and the silver ion release were studied systematically employing scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively. Antimicrobial properties were investigated using microbiological tests (disk diffusion method and spread-plate technique). The DLC:Ag layer was stabilized on the surface of the bandage using a thin layer of medical grade gelatin and cellulose. Four different strains of Staphylococcus aureus extracted from humans’ and animals’ infected wounds were used. It is demonstrated that the efficiency of the Ag+ ion release to the aqueous media can be increased by further RF oxygen plasma etching of the nanocomposite. It was obtained that the best antibacterial properties were demonstrated by the plasma-processed DLC:Ag layer having a 3.12 at % Ag surface concentration with the dominating linear dimensions of nanoparticles being 23.7 nm. An extra protective layer made from cellulose and gelatin with agar contributed to the accumulation and efficient release of silver ions to the aqueous media, increasing bandage antimicrobial efficiency up to 50% as compared to the single DLC:Ag layer on textile. PMID:28773494

  5. A planar diamond-like carbon nanostructure for a low-voltage field emission cathode with a developed surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aban'shin, N. P.; Avetisyan, Yu. A.; Akchurin, G. G.; Loginov, A. P.; Morev, S. P.; Mosiyash, D. S.; Yakunin, A. N.

    2016-05-01

    Issues pertaining to the effective solution of problems related to the creation of durable low-voltage field emission cathodes with developed working surface and high density of emission current are considered. Results of practical implementation of the concept of multielectrode field emission planar nanostructures based on diamond-like carbon are presented. High average current density (0.1-0.3 A cm-2) is ensured by the formation of a controlled zone of electrostatic field localization at the planar-edge structure. The working life of cathode samples reaches 700-3000 h due to several positive factors, such as the stabilizing properties of a diamond-like carbon film, protection of the emitter from ion bombardment, use of a system of ballast resistors, and low-voltage operation of submicron interelectrode gaps.

  6. In vitro Cyto and Blood Compatibility of Titanium Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Hybrid Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasamy Navaneetha, Pandiyaraj; Jan, Heeg; Andreas, Lampka; Fabian, Junge; Torsten, Barfels; Marion, Wienecke; Young, Ha Rhee; Hyoung, Woo Kim

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, diamond-like carbon films (DLC) have been given more attention in research in the biomedical industry due to their potential application as surface coating on biomedical materials such as metals and polymer substrates. There are many ways to prepare metal containing DLC films deposited on polymeric film substrates, such as coatings from carbonaceous precursors and some means that incorporate other elements. In this study, we investigated both the surface and biocompatible properties of titanium containing DLC (Ti-DLC) films. The Ti-DLC films were prepared on the surface of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film as a function of the deposition power level using reactive sputtering technique. The films' hydrophilicity was studied by contact angle and surface energy tests. Their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their elemental chemical composition was analyzed using energy dispersive X-spectra (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Their blood and cell compatibility was studied by in vitro tests, including tests on platelet adhesion, thrombus formation, whole blood clotting time and osteoblast cell compatibility. Significant changes in the morphological and chemical composition of the Ti-DLC films were observed and found to be a function of the deposition level. These morphological and chemical changes reduced the interfacial tension between Ti-DLC and blood proteins as well as resisted the adhesion and activation of platelets on the surface of the Ti-DLC films. The cell compatibility results exhibited significant growth of osteoblast cells on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC film compared with that of DLC film surface.

  7. Improvement of radiation stability of semi-insulating gallium arsenide crystals by deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyui, N. I.; Lozinskii, V. B.; Liptuga, A. I.; Izotov, V. Yu.; Han, Wei; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-12-01

    We studied the properties of optical elements for the IR spectral range based on semi-insulating gallium arsenide (SI-GaAs) and antireflecting diamond-like carbon films (DLCF). Particular attention has been paid to the effect of penetrating γ-radiation on transmission of the developed optical elements. A Co60 source and step-by-step gaining of γ-irradiation dose were used for treatment of both an initial SI-GaAs crystal and DLCF/SI-GaAs structures. It was shown that DLCF deposition essentially increases degradation resistance of the SI-GaAs-based optical elements to γ-radiation. Particularly, the transmittance of the DLCF/SI-GaAs structure after γ-irradiation with a dose 9ṡ104 Gy even exceeds that of initial structures. The possible mechanism that explains the effect of γ-radiation on the SI-GaAs crystals and the DLCF/SI-GaAs structures at different irradiation doses was proposed. The effect of small doses is responsible for non-monotonic transmission changes in both SI-GaAs crystals and DLCF/SI-GaAs structures. At further increasing the γ-irradiation dose, the variation of properties of both DLCF and SI-GaAs crystal influences on the transmission of DLCF/SI-GaAs system. At high γ-irradiation dose 1.4ṡ105 Gy, passivation of radiation defects in the SI-GaAs bulk by hydrogen diffused from DLCF leads to increasing the degradation resistance of the SI-GaAs crystals coated with DLCF as compared with the crystals without DLCF.

  8. Effect of deposition condition and post growth irradiation treatment on the physical properties of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Semenovich, V.A.; Dub, S.N.; Klyui, N.I.

    1995-12-31

    Effect of the RF (13.56 MHz) amplitude (Usa) bias voltage on the physical properties of the films has been examined. Relation between the properties of the films and growth conditions were obtained. Bias voltage and gas composition have a marked influence on the properties of prepared films. Nitrogen implantation of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films improves essentially mechanical properties (increasing of the hardness and Young`s modulus more than two times), which correlates with changes of the optical properties, namely, decreasing of optical band gap and increasing of refractive index of the implanted layer.

  9. TiO2-NT electrodes modified with Ag and diamond like carbon (DLC) for hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Evrim; Baz, Zeynep; Esen, Ramazan; Yazici Devrim, Birgül

    2017-10-01

    In present work, the two-step anodization technique was applied for synthesis of TiO2 nanotube (NT). Silver and diamond like carbon (DLC) were coated on the surface of as prepared TiO2-NT using chemical reduction method and MW ECR plasma system. The morphology, composition and structure of the electrodes were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that Ag nanoparticles, having size in the range of 48-115 nm, are evenly distributed on the top, inside and outside surface of TiO2-NT and when DLC was coated on the surface of TiO2-NT and TiO2-NT-Ag, the top of nanotubes were partially open and the pore diameter of hexagonal structure decreased from 165 nm to of 38-80 nm. On the other hand, the microhardness test and contact angle measurements revealed that additions of Ag and diamond like carbon have a positive effect on the mechanical properties of TiO2-NT film. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) were investigated by the electrochemical measurements recorded in 1 M KOH solution. In addition, long-term durability of electrodes towards HER and the energy consumption of alkaline electrolysis were investigated. The energy requirement showed that while the deposition of silver provides approximately 14.95% savings of the energy consumption, the DLC coating causes increase in energy consumption.

  10. Correlation of sp 3 and sp 2 fraction of carbon with electrical, optical and nano-mechanical properties of argon-diluted diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, H. K.; Govind; Rauthan, C. M. S.; Panwar, O. S.

    2011-05-01

    In the present work the correlation of electrical, optical and nano-mechanical properties of argon-diluted diamond-like carbon (Ar-DLC) thin films with sp 3 and sp 2 fractions of carbon have been explored. These Ar-DLC thin films have been deposited, under varying C 2H 2 gas pressures from 25 to 75 mTorr, by radio frequency-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies are performed to estimate the sp 3 and sp 2 fractions of carbon by deconvoluting C 1s core level spectra. Various electrical, optical and nano-mechanical parameters such as conductivity, I- V characteristics, optical band gap, stress, hardness, elastic modulus, plastic resistance parameter, elastic recovery and plastic deformation energy have been estimated and then correlated with calculated sp 3 and sp 2 fractions of carbon and sp 3/sp 2 ratios. Observed tremendous electrical, optical and nano-mechanical properties in Ar-DLC films deposited under high base pressure conditions made it a cost effective material for not only hard and protective coating applications but also for electronic and optoelectronic applications.

  11. Mass Density as Basis Parameter on Mechanical Properties under Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared in Wide Range of Conditions Using Variety of Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Satoru; Horiuchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kentaro; Tanaka, Satomi; Kato, Chihiro; Kano, Makoto; Kumagai, Masao; Tanoue, Hideto; Kamiya, Masao; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on steel substrates by eleven suppliers using different types of equipment utilized in each company's own coating formation process. The deposition methods include sputtering, electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECR-CVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), arc ion plating (Arc), filtered arc deposition (FAD), and plasma-based ion implantation (PBII). Some correlation of mechanical properties seems to be valid in a narrow range of parameters produced by a particular deposition method. In order to investigate general correlations in a wide range of parameters, various DLC films were prepared by different suppliers on the same substrate, and were evaluated in exactly the same manner. Independent of deposition methods, there existed correlations of the hardness, elastic modulus and Raman shift with a wide range of mass density.

  12. Enhanced field electron emission from aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod arrays prepared by reactive ion beam etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Qin, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Chang, Sheng-Li; Li, Hui-Hui; Yuan, Ji-Ren

    2016-05-01

    Homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si supports by a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system. Using DLC films masked by Ni nanoparticles as precursors, highly aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod (DLCNR) arrays were fabricated by the etching of inductively coupled radio frequency oxygen plasma. The as-prepared DLCNR arrays exhibit excellent field emission properties with a low turn-on field of 2.005 V μm-1 and a threshold field of 4.312 V μm-1, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to determine the chemical bonding structural change of DLC films before and after etching. It is confirmed that DLC films have good connection with Si supports via the formation of the SiC phase, and larger conductive sp2 domains are formed in the as-etched DLC films, which play essential roles in the enhanced field emission properties for DLCNR arrays.

  13. Ultrathin diamond-like carbon films deposited by filtered carbon vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Fong, Walton; Kulkarni, Ashok; Ryan, Francis W.; Bhatia, C. Singh

    2001-07-13

    Ultrathin (< 5 nm) hard carbon films are of great interest to the magnetic storage industry as the areal density approaches 100 Gbit/in{sup 2}. These films are used as overcoats to protect the magnetic layers on disk media and the active elements of the read-write slider. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon films can be produced by filtered cathodic arc deposition, but the films will only be accepted by the storage industry only if the ''macroparticle'' issue has been solved. Better plasma filters have been developed over recent years. Emphasis is put on the promising twist filter system - a compact, open structure that operates with pulsed arcs and high magnetic field. Based on corrosion tests it is shown that the macroparticle reduction by the twist filter is satisfactory for this demanding application, while plasma throughput is very high. Ultrathin hard carbon films have been synthesized using S-filter and twist filter systems. Film properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, wear, and corrosion resistance have been tested.

  14. Tuning properties of long-period gratings by plasma post-processing of their diamond-like carbon nano-overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smietana, M.; Koba, M.; Mikulic, P.; Bock, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an application of reactive ion etching (RIE) for effective tuning of spectral response and the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-coated long-period gratings (LPGs). When oxygen plasma is applied the technique allows for an efficient and well controlled etching of hard and chemically resistant DLC films deposited on optical fibers. We show that optical properties of DLC, especially its refractive index, strongly depend on thickness of the film when it is thinner than 150 nm. The effect of DLC nano-coating deposition and etching on spectral properties of the LPGs is discussed. We have correlated the DLC properties with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and have found that both deposition and etching processes took place less effectively than on the electrode when the LPG sample was held above the electrode in the plasma reactor. An advantage of plasma-based etching is a capability for post-processing of the nano-coated structures with a good precision, as well as cleaning the samples and their re-coating according to requested needs. Moreover, the application of RIE allows for post-fabrication tuning of RI sensitivity of the DLC nano-coated LPGs.

  15. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  16. In situ observation of atomic hydrogen etching on diamond-like carbon films produced by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, C.-L.; Chia, C.-T.; Chiu, C.-C.; Wu, C.-C.; Cheng, H.-F.; Lin, I.-N.

    2001-04-01

    Atomic hydrogen etching on the pulsed laser deposited (PLD) diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were examined in situ by using Raman spectroscopy. Thermal annealing of the as-prepared DLC films was found to alter the D-band (˜1355 cm -1) and G-band (˜1582 cm -1) from unresolved features at room temperature to clearly separated bands at above 500°C, indicating graphitization of the films. The presence of atomic hydrogen retards graphitization at temperatures lower than 500°C, presumably because reactive atomic hydrogen formed sp 3-bonding carbons which prevented graphitization at below 500°C, while at above 500°C, the hydrogen etches away disordered structure of the DLC film as the intensity changes of the D-bands demonstrate.

  17. Biocompatibility and mechanical properties of diamond-like coatings on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum steel and titanium-aluminum-vanadium biomedical alloys.

    PubMed

    Hinüber, C; Kleemann, C; Friederichs, R J; Haubold, L; Scheibe, H J; Schuelke, T; Boehlert, C; Baumann, M J

    2010-11-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are favored for wear components because of diamond-like hardness, low friction, low wear, and high corrosion resistance (Schultz et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2004;35:924-928; Lappalainen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003;66B:410-413; Tiainen, Diam Relat Mater 2001;10:153-160). Several studies have demonstrated their inertness, nontoxicity, and the biocompatibility, which has led to interest among manufacturers of surgical implants (Allen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2001;58:319-328; Uzumaki et al., Diam Relat Mater 2006;15:982-988; Hauert, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:583-589; Grill, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:166-170). In this study, hydrogen-free amorphous, tetrahedrally bonded DLC films (ta-C) were deposited at low temperatures by physical vapor deposition on medical grade Co28Cr6Mo steel and the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Scheibe et al., Surf Coat Tech 1996;85:209-214). The mechanical performance of the ta-C was characterized by measuring its surface roughness, contact angle, adhesion, and wear behavior, whereas the biocompatibility was assessed by osteoblast (OB) attachment and cell viability via Live/Dead assay. There was no statistical difference found in the wettability as measured by contact angle measurements for the ta-C coated and the uncoated samples of either Co28Cr6Mo or Ti6Al4V. Rockwell C indentation and dynamic scratch testing on 2-10 μm thick ta-C films on Co28Cr6Mo substrates showed excellent adhesion with HF1 grade and up to 48 N for the critical load L(C2) during scratch testing. The ta-C coating reduced the wear from 3.5 × 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm for an uncoated control sample (uncoated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) to 1.1 × 10(-7) mm(3)/Nm (coated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) in reciprocating pin-on-disk testing. The lowest wear factor of 3.9 × 10(-10) mm(3)/Nm was measured using a ta-C coated steel ball running against a ta-C coated and polished Co28Cr6Mo disk

  18. Enhancement of diffraction efficiency of laminar-type diffraction gratings overcoated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in soft x-ray region

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, Masato Imazono, Takashi; Nagano, Tetsuya; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Oue, Yuki; Yonezawa, Zeno; Kuramoto, Satoshi; Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Notoya, Satoshi; Murano, Takanori

    2016-07-27

    Boron is the critical trace element in the production of high quality steel, creating a great demand for an efficient detection method of the B-K emission band at around 6.76 nm. To meet this demand we made a simulation study and obtained a practical method to improve the diffraction efficiency of metal-coated laminar-type gratings for a grazing incidence flat-field spectrograph by overcoating a sufficiently transparent high-density material. In the simulation the diffraction efficiency in a spectral region of 3.5-8.5 nm was computed for several combinations of overcoating materials and coating metals, with various thicknesses of the overcoating layer. The result obtained are: (1) the best overcoating material is high-density diamond-like carbon (DLC) having a density of 3.1 g/cm{sup 3}, (2) its optimum thickness is 24 nm at an angle of incidence of 87.0°, and (3) with this thickness the first-order diffraction efficiency is expected to reach 29.7 %, which well exceeds 15.6 % for Ni-coated (or 14.1 % for Au-coated) grating.

  19. Dynamic optical properties of amorphous diamond-like carbon nanocomposite films doped with Cu and Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulevičius, Tomas; Peckus, Domantas; Tamulevičiene, Asta; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Čiegis, Arvydas; Meškinis, Šarūnas; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2014-09-01

    The investigation of relaxation processes in noble metal nanoparticles upon ultrafast excitations by femtosecond laser pulses is useful to understand the origin and the enhancement mechanism of the nonlinear optical properties for metaldielectric nanocomposites. In the current work we analyze diamond like carbon (DLC) film based copper and silver nanocomposites with different metal content synthesized employing unbalanced magnetron sputtering of metal targets with argon ions in acetylene gas atmosphere. Surface morphology and nanoparticle sizes were analyzed employing scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Optical properties of the nanocomposite films were analyzed employing UV-VIS-NIR spectrometry. Transient absorption measurements were obtained employing Yb:KGW femtosecond laser spectroscopic system (HARPIA, Light Conversion Ltd.). Energy relaxation dynamics in Cu nanoparticles showed some significant differences from Ag nanoparticles. The increase of excitation intensity hasn't show additional nonlinear effects for the excited state relaxation dynamics for both kinds of samples.

  20. On the nature of the coefficient of friction of diamond-like carbon films deposited on rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; van der Pal, J. P.; Schenkel, M.; Shaha, K. P.; Pei, Y. T.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, the nature of the coefficient of friction (CoF) of diamond-like carbon (DLC)-protected rubbers is studied. The relative importance of the viscoelastic and adhesive contributions to the overall friction is evaluated experimentally by modifying the contact load and the adhesive strength between the surface and the counterpart. The results indicate that the increase of CoF during the tribotests under non-lubricated conditions is caused by the increase of the adhesive contribution to friction motivated by the growth of the contact area during the test. In the case of oil lubricating condition, the adhesive force is minimized and the CoF is observed to decrease during the tribotest. This is caused by the reduction of the viscoelastic contribution due to the variation of the shape of the contact area. The role of the microstructure of the DLC film on the efficiency of the oil lubrication is also discussed.

  1. Protection of Diamond-like Carbon Films from Energetic Atomic Oxygen Degradation Through Si-doping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masahito; Kitamura, Akira; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Fontaine, Julien; Belin, Michel

    2009-01-05

    The effect of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the surface properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) was investigated. Two types of DLC were tested that contain approximately 10 at% and 20 at% of Si atoms. Surface analytical results of high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy; SR-PES) as well as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) have been used for characterization of the AO-exposed Si-doped DLC. It was identified by SR-PES that a SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hyperthermal AO exposure at the Si-doped DLC surface. RBS data indicates that AO exposure leads to severe thickness loss on the undopedd DLC. In contrast, a SiO{sub 2} layer formed by the hyperthermal atomic oxygen reaction of Si-doped DLC protects the DLC underneath the SiO{sub 2} layer.

  2. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  3. Synthesis of Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Planar and Non-Planar Geometries by the Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noborisaka, Mayui; Hirako, Tomoaki; Shirakura, Akira; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Masashi; Seki, Masaki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized by the dielectric barrier discharge-based plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure and their hardness and gas barrier properties were measured. A decrease in size of grains and heating substrate temperature improved nano-hardness up to 3.3 GPa. The gas barrier properties of DLC-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheets were obtained by 3-5 times of non-coated PET with approximately 0.5 µm in film thickness. The high-gas-barrier DLC films deposited on PET sheets are expected to wrap elevated bridge of the super express and prevent them from neutralization of concrete. We also deposited DLC films inside PET bottles by the microwave surface-wave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at near-atmospheric pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the films were coated uniformly inside the PET bottles, but did not show high gas barrier properties. In this paper, we summarize recent progress of DLC films synthesized at atmospheric pressure with the aimed of food packaging and concrete pillar.

  4. Diagnostics of capacitively-coupled hydrocarbon plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films using quadrupole mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akinori; Fukai, Shun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, which contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon. The DLC films have been widely used for various applications, such as automotive, semiconductors, medical devices, since have excellent material properties in lower friction, higher chemical stability, higher hardness, higher wear resistance. Until now, numerous investigations on the DLC films using plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition have been done. For precise control of coating technique of DLC films, it is enormously important to clarify the fundamental properties in hydrocarbon plasmas, as a source of hydrocarbon ions and radicals. In this paper, the fundamental properties in a low pressure radio-frequency hydrocarbon (Ar/CH4 (1 %) gas mixture) plasmas have been diagnosed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., EQP-300) and Langmuir probe system (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., ESPion). This work was partly supported by KAKENHI (No.26420247), and a ``Grant for Advanced Industrial Technology Development (No.11B06004d)'' in 2011 from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  5. Ion beam deposition of amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, John C.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon films were deposited on silicon, quartz, and potassium bromide substrates from an ion beam. Growth rates were approximately 0.3 micron/hour. The films were featureless and amorphous and contained only carbon and hydrogen in significant amounts. The density and carbon/hydrogen ratio indicate the film is a hydrogen deficient polymer. One possible structure, consistent with the data, is a random network of methylene linkages and tetrahedrally coordinated carbon atoms.

  6. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-10-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors.

  7. Study of Fluorine Addition Influence in the Dielectric Constant of Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Film Deposited by Reactive Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, S. C.; Mansano, R. D.

    The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) or DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) films are well known for exhibiting high electrical resistivity, low dielectric constant, high mechanical hardness, low friction coefficient, low superficial roughness and also for being inert. In this paper, we produced fluorinated DLC films (a-C:F), and studied the effect of adding CF4 on the above-mentioned properties of DLC films. These films were produced by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system using a target of pure carbon in stable graphite allotrope. We performed measurements of electrical characteristic curves of capacitance as a function of applied tension (C-V) and current as a function of the applied tension (I-V). We showed the dielectric constant (k) and the resistivity (ρ) as functions of the CF4 concentration. On films with 65% CF4, we found that k = 2.7, and on films with 70% CF4, ρ = 12.3 × 1011 Ω cm. The value of the electrical breakdown field to films with 70% CF4 is 5.3 × 106 V/cm.

  8. Structural, mechanical and hydrophobic properties of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon films synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII?D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zh. Q.; Yang, P.; Huang, N.; Sun, H.; Wang, J.

    2004-05-01

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (a-C:F) films with different fluorine content were fabricated on Si wafer by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII-D). Film composition and structure were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman scattering spectroscopy. Surface morphology and roughness were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Hardness and scratch resistance were measured by nano-indentation and nano-scratch, respectively. Water contact angles were measured by sessile drop method. With the increase of the CF 4 flux, fluorine content was gradually increased to the film. Raman spectra indicates that these films have a diamond-like structure. The addition of fluorine to diamond-like carbon films had a critical influence on the film properties. The film surface becomes more smoother due to the etching behavior of F +. Hardness was significantly reduced, while the scratch resistance results show that these films have a fairly good adhesion to the substrate. Evident improvements of the hydrophobicity have been made to these films, with contact angles of double-stilled water approaching that of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Our study suggests that broad application regions of the fluorine-doped amorphous carbon films with diamond-like structure, synthesized by PIII-D, can be extended by combining the non-wetting properties and mechanical properties which are far superior to those of PTFE.

  9. Study of Diamond like Carbon as template for nanoimprint lithography and as a filler material for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Seetharaman

    Due to its tunable properties like hardness, optical gap, chemical inertness, electrical resistivity, biocompatibility etc., coatings of the material Diamond like Carbon (DLC) have been used as protective layers for various applications. In this research effort, we add to the growing list of its potential applications by proposing them as a template material for the emerging field of nanoimprint lithography. Using capacitive and inductive plasmas, we demonstrate the possibility of depositing DLC films of reasonable hardness (10-25 GPa) and wear resistance (2X that of Si and 3X that of Quartz). We have successfully used these films as a mold material to obtain feature sizes as small as 40 nm. In addition, to further the understanding of the effect of the gas phase chemistry on the film properties, the Methane discharge used for obtaining these films has been studied using techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The higher degree of dissociation (up to 70%) of the precursor in case of inductive plasmas leads to selected conditions under which hard DLC films are obtained. We also show that for the same deposition conditions, films deposited on the insulating Quartz substrates are softer and more polymeric than those deposited on Si substrates. Carbon nanotubes with their unique physical properties are seen as ideal candidates for applications like field effect transistors, supercapacitors, AFM tips and electronic devices. One of the chief challenges in using them for these applications is obtaining them in a form that is easier to handle, thus enabling them to withstand the various post-processing steps. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the possibility of obtaining a Carbon-Carbon composite structure by subjecting vertically aligned Carbon nanotube forests to a PECVD based process. The distance from the top of the CNT forest that is coated with the deposited film (termed as the depth of infusion) shows

  10. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH{sub 4} dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Rincón, R. E-mail: chaker@emt.inrs.ca; Matos, J. de; Chaker, M. E-mail: chaker@emt.inrs.ca; Hendaoui, A.

    2016-06-14

    An Ar/CH{sub 4} atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (∼35 mJ m{sup −2}) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  11. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes.

  12. Effect of an acetylene bond on hydrogen adsorption in diamond-like carbon allotropes: from first principles to atomic simulation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuanjun; Li, Lei; Fang, Tiange; Wang, YeTong; Cai, Weiquan; Xiang, Zhonghua

    2017-03-29

    By inserting an acetylene bond into the organic linkers of porous materials, hydrogen storage can be significantly enhanced; however, the mechanism of this enhancement remains elusive. Herein, we developed a new diamond-like carbon allotrope (referred as diamond-like diacetylene a.k.a. DDA) with medium pores constructed by inserting -C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C- ligands into the -C-C- bonds of diamond. The structural, mechanical, and electrical properties, as well as hydrogen storage capacities were investigated for this novel material using density functional theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The optimized geometry of DDA shows a high surface area and free pore volume of ca. 5498.76 m(2) g(-1) and 2.0486 m(3) g(-1), respectively. DDA also exhibits structural stability and special electronic properties. Interestingly, DDA exhibits exceptional gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity as well as volumetric one. The excess gravimetric and volumetric H2 uptakes at 77 K and 2.0 MPa hit a maximum of 14.12 wt% and 603.35 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3), respectively, which substantially exceeds those previously reported for MOF or PAF materials. Even at 243 K and 12 MPa, the total gravimetric H2 uptake of DDA reaches 5.38 wt%. To the best of our knowledge, DDA is one of porous materials with the maximum physical hydrogen uptake. It is also one of the few materials that can be close to meeting hydrogen storage target of the US department of energy at room temperature. Significantly, DDA shows the deliverable hydrogen storage capacity up to 5.28 wt% at room temperature. Through analyzing the effect of the acetylene position in the DLCAs on their hydrogen storage capacities, we found that the high hydrogen adsorption performance of DDA is mainly attributed to its high surface area, large number of adsorption sites, and appropriate binding energy. In summary, the newly developed DDA is a promising candidate for hydrogen storage and provides a new

  13. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium-Doped Diamond like Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, M. K.; Ueno, M.; Lian, G.; Dickey, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated metalorganic precursor deposition using a Microwave Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma for depositing metal-doped diamondlike carbon films. Specifically, the deposition of ruthenium doped diamondlike carbon films was investigated using the decomposition of a novel ruthenium precursor, Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)-ruthenium (Ru(C5H4C2H5)2). The ruthenium precursor was introduced close to the substrate stage. The substrate was independently biased using an applied RF power. Films were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Four Point Probe. The conductivity of the films deposited using ruthenium precursor showed strong dependency on the deposition parameters such as pressure. Ruthenium doped sample showed the presence of diamond crystallites with an average size of approx. 3 nm while un-doped diamondlike carbon sample showed the presence of diamond crystallites with an average size of 11 nm. TEM results showed that ruthenium was atomically dispersed within the amorphous carbon network in the films.

  14. Comparative surface and nano-tribological characteristics of nanocomposite diamond-like carbon thin films doped by silver

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han-Shen; Endrino, Jose L.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-10

    In this study we have deposited silver-containing hydrogenated and hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite thin films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition methods. The surface and nano-tribological characteristics were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-scratching experiments. The silver doping was found to have no measurable effect on sp2-sp3 hybridization of the hydrogenated DLC matrix and only a slight effect on the hydrogen-free DLC matrix. The surface topography was analyzed by surface imaging. High- and low-order roughness determined by AFM characterization was correlated to the DLC growth mechanism and revealed the smoothing effect of silver. The nano-tribological characteristics were explained in terms of friction mechanisms and mechanical properties in correlation to the surface characteristics. It was discovered that the adhesion friction was the dominant friction mechanism; the adhesion force between the scratching tip and DLC surface was decreased by hydrogenation and increased by silver doping.

  15. Diamond-like carbon layers modified by ion bombardment during growth and researched by Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Jelínek, Miroslav; Písařík, Petr; Remsa, Jan; Janovská, Michaela; Landa, Michal; Zemek, Josef; Havránek, Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    Biocompatible Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) films were prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition technique using the laser energy density of 10 J cm-2 on the graphite target. The surface of the grown film was modified during the deposition by bombardment with argon, xenon, nitrogen or oxygen ions. The ion energy (up to 150 eV) was changed by gun voltage and by ionic current. The films with high and low diamond/graphite content were prepared. Physical and mechanical properties of biocompatible DLC thin layers prepared by hybrid laser technology were studied. The composition of layers and the content trace elements were determined by the methods of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and Particle Induced X-ray Emission. The content of sp2 and sp3 bonds was measured using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. For different energy of argon and oxygen ions the maximum of sp3 bonds content was found (83.63% of sp3 bonds for argon ions). All films were smooth, which was confirmed by profilometry and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements. Maximum roughness Ra and RMS was did not exceed 1 nm. The Younǵs and shear moduli were studied by Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy. The Young's Modulus attained the value of 601 GPa and the shear Modulus attained the value of 253 GPa at the energy of 30 eV of Ar ions. The influence of ion bombardment on DLC film properties is discussed.

  16. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W

    2016-03-09

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently.

  17. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  18. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-03-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently.

  19. Self-assembly of magnetic nanoclusters in diamond-like carbon by diffusion processes enhanced by collision cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, P.; Williams, G. V. M.; Hübner, R.; Vajandar, S.; Osipowicz, T.; Heinig, K.-H.; Becker, H.-W.; Markwitz, A.

    2017-04-01

    Mono-energetic cobalt implantation into hydrogenated diamond-like carbon at room temperature results in a bimodal distribution of implanted atoms without any thermal treatment. The ˜100 nm thin films were synthesised by mass selective ion beam deposition. The films were implanted with cobalt at an energy of 30 keV and an ion current density of ˜5 μA cm-2. Simulations suggest the implantation profile to be single Gaussian with a projected range of ˜37 nm. High resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements reveal that a bimodal distribution evolves from a single near-Gaussian distribution as the fluence increases from 1.2 to 7 × 1016 cm-2. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy further reveals that the implanted atoms cluster into nanoparticles. At high implantation doses, the nanoparticles assemble primarily in two bands: one near the surface with nanoparticle diameters of up to 5 nm and the other beyond the projected range with ˜2 nm nanoparticles. The bimodal distribution along with the nanoparticle formation is explained with diffusion enhanced by energy deposited during collision cascades, relaxation of thermal spikes, and defects formed during ion implantation. This unique distribution of magnetic nanoparticles with the bimodal size and range is of significant interest to magnetic semiconductor and sensor applications.

  20. Surface Structure of Hydrogenated Diamond-like Carbon: Origin of Run-In Behavior Prior to Superlubricious Interfacial Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Azizi, Ala A; Eryilmaz, Osman; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H.

    2015-01-01

    The oxidized layers at the surface of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, and Raman spectroscopy. The structure of these layers was correlated with the friction and wear behavior observed on H-DLC. H-DLC is well-known for its ultralow friction in inert environments, but the steady superlubricious state is always preceded by a run-in period with a high friction. It was hypothesized that the run-in period is related to the surface oxide layer formed naturally upon exposure of the sample to air. To test this hypothesis, thermal oxide layers were grown, and their structures were analyzed and compared with the native oxide layer on a pristine sample. It was found that the Raman spectra of the surface oxide layers of H-DLC have higher D/G band ratio than the bulk, indicating a larger amount of aromatic clusters compared to the bulk film. Thick oxide layers grown at 300 °C showed a run-in friction behavior that resembled the friction of graphite. The run-in periods were found to become longer when the thickness of the oxide layers increased, indicating that the run-in behavior of H-DLC is attributed to the removal of the surface oxide layers.

  1. Preferential cell attachment to nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) for the measurement of quantal exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sen, Atanu; Barizuddin, Syed; Hossain, Maruf; Polo-Parada, Luis; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2009-03-01

    Electrochemical measurement of transmitter or hormone release from individual cells on microchips has applications both in basic science and drug screening. High-resolution measurement of quantal exocytosis requires the working electrode to be small (cell-sized) and located in immediate proximity to the cell. We examined the ability of candidate electrode materials to promote the attachment of two hormone-secreting cell types as a mechanism for targeting cells for to recording electrodes with high precision. We found that nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) promoted cell attachment relative to other materials tested in the rank order of DLC:N>In(2)O(3)/SnO(2) (ITO), Pt>Au. In addition, we found that treating candidate electrode materials with polylysine did not increase attachment of chromaffin cells to DLC:N, but promoted cell attachment to the other tested materials. We found that hormone-secreting cells did not attach readily to Teflon AF as a potential insulating material, and demonstrated that patterning of Teflon AF leads to selective cell targeting to DLC:N "docking sites". These results will guide the design of the next generation of biochips for automated and high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis.

  2. Photovoltaic Properties and Ultrafast Plasmon Relaxation Dynamics of Diamond-Like Carbon Nanocomposite Films with Embedded Ag Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Peckus, Domantas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Čiegis, Arvydas; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Tamulevičius, Tomas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2017-12-01

    Ultrafast relaxation dynamics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) and photovoltaic properties of heterojunctions consisting of DLC:Ag and crystalline silicon (DLC:Ag/Si) were investigated by means of transient absorption (TAS) spectroscopy and photovoltaic measurements. The heterojunctions using both p type and n type silicon were studied. It was found that TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films were dependent on the used excitation wavelength. At wavelengths where Ag nanoparticles absorbed light most intensively, only DLC signal was registered. This result is in good accordance with an increase of the DLC:Ag/Si heterojunction short circuit current and open circuit voltage with the excitation wavelength in the photovoltaic measurements. The dependence of the TAS spectra of DLC:Ag films and photovoltaic properties of DLC:Ag/Si heterostructures on the excitation wavelength was explained as a result of trapping of the photoexcited hot charge carriers in DLC matrix. The negative photovoltaic effect was observed for DLC:Ag/p-Si heterostructures and positive ("conventional") for DLC:Ag/n-Si ones. It was explained by the excitation of hot plasmonic holes in the Ag nanoparticles embedded into DLC matrix. Some decrease of DLC:Ag/Si heterostructures photovoltage as well as photocurrent with DLC:Ag film thickness was observed, indicating role of the interface in the charge transfer process of photocarriers excited in Ag nanoparticles.

  3. Study on Exploding Wire Compression for Evaluating Electrical Conductivity in Warm-Dense Diamond-Like-Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Kudo, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-01

    To improve a coupling efficiency for the fast ignition scheme of the inertial confinement fusion, fast electron behaviors as a function of an electrical conductivity are required. To evaluate the electrical conductivity for low-Z materials as a diamond-like-carbon (DLC), we have proposed a concept to investigate the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) by using pulsed-power discharges. The concept of the evaluation of DLC for WDM is a shock compression driven by an exploding wire discharge with confined by a rigid capillary. The qualitatively evaluation of the electrical conductivity for the WDM DLC requires a small electrical conductivity of the exploding wire. To analyze the electrical conductivity of exploding wire, we have demonstrated an exploding wire discharge in water for gold. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity of WDM gold for 5000 K of temperature has an insulator regime. It means that the shock compression driven by the exploding wire discharge with confined by the rigid capillary is applied for the evaluation of electrical conductivity for WDM DLC.

  4. Structural and optical properties of gold-incorporated diamond-like carbon thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Shahbaz; Siraj, K.; Naseem, S.; Khan, Muhammad F.; Irshad, M.; Faiz, H.; Mahmood, A.

    2017-07-01

    Pure and gold-doped diamond-like carbon (Au-DLC) thin films are deposited at room temperature by using RF magnetron sputtering in an argon gas-filled chamber with a constant flow rate of 100 sccm and sputtering time of 30 min for all DLC thin films. Single-crystal silicon (1 0 0) substrates are used for the deposition of pristine and Au-DLC thin films. Graphite (99.99%) and gold (99.99%) are used as co-sputtering targets in the sputtering chamber. The optical properties and structure of Au-DLC thin films are studied with the variation of gold concentration from 1%-5%. Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Vickers hardness measurement (VHM), and spectroscopic ellipsometry are used to analyze these thin films. Raman spectroscopy indicates increased graphitic behavior and reduction in the internal stresses of Au-DLC thin films as the function of increasing gold doping. AFM is used for surface topography, which shows that spherical-like particles are formed on the surface, which agglomerate and form larger clusters on the surface by increasing the gold content. Spectroscopy ellipsometry analysis elucidates that the refractive index and extinction coefficient are inversely related and the optical bandgap energy is decreased with increasing gold content. VHM shows that gold doping reduces the hardness of thin films, which is attributed to the increase in sp2-hybridization.

  5. Cell adhesion and growth on ultrananocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon films after different surface modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Voss, A.; Kozarova, R.; Kocourek, T.; Pisarik, P.; Ceccone, G.; Kulisch, W.; Jelinek, M.; Apostolova, M. D.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Popov, C.

    2014-04-01

    Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films possess a set of excellent physical and chemical properties which together with a high biocompatibility make them attractive candidates for a number of medical and biotechnological applications. In the current work thin ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and DLC films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell attachment and proliferation after different surface modifications. The UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the DLC films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were comprehensively characterized with respect to their basic properties, e.g. crystallinity, morphology, chemical bonding nature, etc. Afterwards the UNCD and DLC films were modified applying O2 or NH3/N2 plasmas and UV/O3 treatments to alter their surface termination. The surface composition of as-grown and modified samples was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore the films were characterized by contact angle measurements with water, formamide, 1-decanol and diiodomethane; from the results obtained the surface energy with its dispersive and polar components was calculated. The adhesion and proliferation of MG63 osteosarcoma cells on the different UNCD and DLC samples were assessed by measurement of the cell attachment efficiency and MTT assays. The determined cell densities were compared and correlated with the surface properties of as-deposited and modified UNCD and DLC films.

  6. Influence of Hydrogen Content on Optical and Mechanical Performances of Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Huang, Xing-Ye; Wang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The protective layer for cover glass of touch panel screen for electronic mobile devices is required to have good mechanical properties and decent optical transparency simultaneously. The hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on glass substrate by RF-PECVD in the negative stage potential mode (NP mode), as well as the ground stage potential mode (GP mode). The impact of hydrogen content, affected by stage potential and RF power, on optical and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that hydrogen content decreases with increasing RF power, due to the dehydrogenation effect. Higher hydrogen content in films results in lower refractive index, lower extinction coefficient, lower optical absorptions, larger optical band gap and higher transmittance, but lower hardness and wearing resistance. Therefore, although the GP mode DLC is optically favorable because of higher hydrogen content, the NP mode one is far more superior from mechanical standpoint. A compromise can be reached to deposit an ultrathin layer of DLC in NP mode, which offers a good combination of properties to meet the requirement for the protective layer of cover glass.

  7. The protective properties of ultra-thin diamond like carbon films for high density magnetic storage devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Min; Zhang, Chenhui; Luo, Jianbin; Lu, Xinchun

    2009-10-01

    With the increase of magnetic storage density, the thickness of the protective diamond like carbon (DLC) film on the surfaces of head and disk is required as thin as possible. In this paper, the structure, mechanical properties and corrosion and oxidation resistance of ultra-thin DLC films are investigated. The ultra-thin DLC films were deposited by using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The exact thickness of the ultra-thin DLC film was determined by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Raman analysis indicates that the ultra-thin DLC film presents ta-C structure with high sp 3 fraction. In the wear test, a diamond tip was used to simulate a single-asperity contact with the film surface and the wear marks were produced on the film surface. The wear depths decrease with film thickness increasing. If the film thickness was 1.4 nm or above, the wear depth was much lower than that of Si substrate. This indicates that the ultra-thin DLC film with thickness of 1.4 nm shows excellent wear resistance. Corrosion tests in water and oxidation tests in air were carried out to investigate the diffusion barrier effect of the ultra-thin DLC films. The results show that the DLC film with thickness of 1.4 nm provides adequate coverage on the substrate and has good corrosion and oxidation resistance.

  8. Surface structure of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon: origin of run-in behavior prior to superlubricious interfacial shear.

    PubMed

    Al-Azizi, Ala' A; Eryilmaz, Osman; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H

    2015-02-10

    The oxidized layers at the surface of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, and Raman spectroscopy. The structure of these layers was correlated with the friction and wear behavior observed on H-DLC. H-DLC is well-known for its ultralow friction in inert environments, but the steady superlubricious state is always preceded by a run-in period with a high friction. It was hypothesized that the run-in period is related to the surface oxide layer formed naturally upon exposure of the sample to air. To test this hypothesis, thermal oxide layers were grown, and their structures were analyzed and compared with the native oxide layer on a pristine sample. It was found that the Raman spectra of the surface oxide layers of H-DLC have higher D/G band ratio than the bulk, indicating a larger amount of aromatic clusters compared to the bulk film. Thick oxide layers grown at 300 °C showed a run-in friction behavior that resembled the friction of graphite. The run-in periods were found to become longer when the thickness of the oxide layers increased, indicating that the run-in behavior of H-DLC is attributed to the removal of the surface oxide layers.

  9. Mechanical and tribological characterization of tetrahedral diamond-like carbon deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition on pre-treated orthopaedic biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-07-01

    Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been performed using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser including an amplification stage (150 fs, 800 nm, 1 kHz) to deposit tetrahedral-amorphous carbon films (ta-C) on AISI 316L stainless steel and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, in perspective to extend the wear resistance of materials used in hip joints. Ta-C films have been elaborated in high vacuum conditions at room temperature. The diamond-like coated silicon substrates exhibit high wear resistance (in the 10 -8-10 -9 mm 3 (N m) -1 range) with moderate hardness (in the 20-30 GPa range), which may be favorable for the accommodation motion between contacting surfaces in a hip joint. In situ sputter cleaning of the orthopaedic substrates in argon plasma prior to carbon deposition has been investigated, leading to the enhancement of the adhesion of the films onto the stainless steel substrates. The adhesion properties of films deposited in various conditions on metallic substrates have been studied by tensile tests. The tribological behavior of the coatings deposited on cleaned substrates have been widely investigated in a pin-on-flat configuration in ambient air and Ringer solution. Finally, a DLC thin film with an homogeneous thickness has been deposited on hemispherical surface of 22.2 mm in diameter of a stainless steel femoral head of a hip prosthesis, whose wear behavior will be quantified using a hip joint simulator during one million of cycles (corresponding to the human activity during one year).

  10. The study on the effect of erbium on diamond-like carbon deposited by pulsed laser deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Y. M.; Hsieh, J.; Li, X.; Chua, D. H. C.

    2009-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films doped with a small fraction of erbium (0.5-2.0 at. %, at 0.5 at. % interval) were prepared by using a 248 nm KrF pulsed laser deposition technique. The effects of erbium on the surface morphology, microstructure, chemical binding states, tribological property, and the adhesion strength of DLC films were investigated. Atomic force microscopy showed that the surface roughness of the films increased with the increasing of erbium fraction, but generally the nanocomposite films were smooth with rms below 1 nm. Raman analysis showed broad peaks centered at 1550 cm-1 on all the samples. The deconvoluted Raman spectra on DLC doped with different fractions of erbium showed that the ID/IG ratio increased with increasing erbium content, and the comparative percent of sp3 is between 50% and 58% for erbium fraction between 0.5 and 2.0 at. %. High resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the C 1s peaks had slightly shifted away from 285.2 (diamond) to 284.5 eV (graphite). The deconvolution of the spectra further confirmed the influence of erbium to the sp3 contents and revealed the presence of SiC with the increasing of Er fraction. Microscratch tester results showed that the adhesion strength (critical load) of the films improved with the presence of SiC bonding at the interface. This hinted that the presence of the heavier erbium may force the impinging carbon ions to react more with the interface to form silicon carbide bonds, thus enhancing the adhesion strength. Although the presence of erbium increased the surface roughness of the films, the coefficients of friction of the erbium doped DLC films were still closely resembled to pure DLC, i.e., 0.11-0.12 compared to 0.10 for pure DLC.

  11. Development of program package for investigation and modeling of carbon nanostructures in diamond like carbon films with the help of Raman scattering and infrared absorption spectra line resolving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayrapetyan, David B.; Hovhannisyan, Levon; Mantashyan, Paytsar A.

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of complex spectra is an actual problem for modern science. The work is devoted to the creation of a software package, which analyzes spectrum in the different formats, possesses by dynamic knowledge database and self-study mechanism, performs automated analysis of the spectra compound based on knowledge database by application of certain algorithms. In the software package as searching systems, hyper-spherical random search algorithms, gradient algorithms and genetic searching algorithms were used. The analysis of Raman and IR spectrum of diamond-like carbon (DLC) samples were performed by elaborated program. After processing the data, the program immediately displays all the calculated parameters of DLC.

  12. Mechanical properties and platelet adhesion behavior of diamond-like carbon films synthesized by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Wan, G. J.; Huang, N.

    2003-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an attractive biomedical material due to its high inertness and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, DLC films were fabricated on Ti6Al4V and Si(1 0 0) substrates at room temperature by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition. By changing the argon flow from 0 to 13 sccm during deposition, the effects of argon flow on the characteristics of the DLC films were systematically examined to correlate to the blood compatibility. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analysis, a nano-indenter and pin-on-disk tribometer. The blood compatibility of the films was evaluated using in vitro platelet adhesion investigation, and the quantity and morphology of the adherent platelets was investigated employing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Raman spectroscopy results showed a decreasing sp 3 fraction (an increasing trend in ID/ IG ratio) with increasing argon flow from 0 to 13 sccm. The sp 3:sp 2 ratio of the films was evaluated from the deconvoluted XPS spectra. We found that the sp 3 fraction decreased as the argon flow was increased from 0 to 13 sccm, which is consistent with the results of the Raman spectra. The mechanical properties results confirmed the decreasing sp 3 content with increasing argon flow. The Raman D-band to G-band intensity ratio increased and the platelet adhesion behavior became better with higher flow. This implies that the blood compatibility of the DLC films is influenced by the sp 3:sp 2 ratio. DLC films deposited on titanium alloys have high wear resistance, low friction and good adhesion.

  13. Improvement in the degradation resistance of silicon nanostructures by the deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Klyui, N. I. Semenenko, M. A.; Khatsevich, I. M.; Makarov, A. V.; Kabaldin, A. N.; Fomovskii, F. V.; Han, Wei

    2015-08-15

    It is established that the deposition of a diamond-like film onto a structure with silicon nanoclusters in a silicon dioxide matrix yields an increase in the long-wavelength photoluminescence intensity of silicon nanoclusters due to the passivation of active-recombination centers with hydrogen and a shift of the photoluminescence peak to the region of higher photosensitivity of silicon-based solar cells. It is also shown that, due to the deposited diamond-like film, the resistance of such a structure to degradation upon exposure to γ radiation is improved, which is also defined by the effect of the passivation of radiation-induced activerecombination centers by hydrogen that is released from the films during treatment.

  14. Characteristics and mechanical properties of titanium-containing diamond like carbon films deposited by cathodic arc evaporation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pi-Chuen; Chiang, Jueh-Yu; Hwang, Yen-Fei

    2008-05-01

    Depositions of titanium-containing diamond-like carbon (Ti-DLC) films were conducted by mixing C+ and Ti+ plasma streams originated from cathodic arc plasma sources in argon (Ar). The deposition was processed at Ti target current ranging from 20 Amp to 70 Amp. Film characteristics were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Film microstructures were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FEGSEM), an atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Mechanical properties were investigated by using a nanoindentation tester and ball on disc wear test. Results shows that surface roughness (Ra) of the films ranged between 2.4 and 7.2 nm and roughness increased relative to the increase in Ti target current. The FESEM studies showed that the surface micrographs of Ti-DLC films revealed a cauliflower-like microstructure and the cross-sectional micrograph revealed a snake-skin like structure. HRTEM studies showed that the Ti-DLC films consisted of nano scale TiC particles which were comparable with low angle XRD and XPS results. XPS analysis established that the Ti2p spectrum is present when the Ti target current reaches 30 Amp or higher. Ti concentration increased as the Ti target current was increased. An extremely thin TiO2 layer exists on the top of the Ti-DLC films which was comparable with the AES results. The film thickness which could be deposited for Ti-DLC is much higher than that of conventional DLC films. Nanoindentation tests show that the nanohardness of the films ranging 15-22 GPa, with Er values ranging from 145 to 175 GPa. The wear test demonstrates the friction coefficient of the 420SS substrate, DLC and Ti-DLC films were about 0.8, 0.3 and 0.2, respectively. Obviously, the friction coefficients of the Ti-DLC films were lower than that of the DLC films.

  15. Low-dielectric-constant fluorinated diamond-like carbon thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Jeong Woo

    Fluorinated amorphous carbon (a-C:F) thin films are developed for a low dielectric constant interlayer dielectric material from hexafluorobenze (C 6F6) or 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (FCH2CF 4) as the source gas and argon as the diluent gas in an asymmetric capacitively coupled rf (radio frequency) plasma reactor and an inductively coupled plasma reactor. Effects of input rf power, fluorination, applied bias voltage and post annealing on the properties of a-C:F films are investigated. For depositing a-C:F films from highly diluted C6F6 (3%) and argon (97%) in the capacitively rf plasma reactor at 150 mTorr, the dielectric constant of the film increases from 2.0 to 2.8 as the rf power is increased from 10 W to 70 W, while the optical energy gap decreases from 2.6 eV to 1.9 eV and the transparency in a ultra-violet range is degraded. At input power of 100 W, the deposited film exhibits high residual stress of 40 MPa and easily peeled off by a Scotch tape test. This is due to high self-bias voltage (-230 V) developed at the substrate holder during deposition. When depositing amorphous carbon films from tetrafluoroethane (TFE) and methane in the capacitively coupled plasma reactor, the incorporation of fluorine in the film is increased with increasing TFE fraction in the feed gas mixture. The dielectric constant of the a-C:F film deposited from pure TFE is as low as 2.3, but the film exhibits poor thermal stability while a-C:H (diamond-like carbon) film deposited from pure methane has a dielectric constant of 3.8 and shows good thermal stability up to 400°C. As the TFE content in the feed is increased, the dielectric constant and the refractive index decrease while the transparency of the film is enhanced significantly. When depositing a-C:F films from C6F6 (4 sccm) and Ar (5 sccm) in the inductively coupled rf plasma reactor, the bias voltage (from a separate 100 KHz source) applied to the substrate holder affects the film properties significantly. As the negative bias

  16. Synergism between low-energy neutral particles and energetic ions in the pulsed glow discharge deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I. V.; Nastasi, M.

    2004-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were deposited using pulsed glow discharge deposition at 4kV. The duty factor was varied and all other parameters were kept constant. It was shown that the contribution of neutral particles to the total number of deposition atoms is much larger than that of energetic ions. At the same time, there is a relationship between the deposition of neutral particles and ion bombardment. The sticking coefficient of the neutral particles in proportional to the flux of energetic ions and does not exceed 5×10-4 for the deposition parameters used in our experiment.

  17. Bias in bonding behavior among boron, carbon, and nitrogen atoms in ion implanted a-BN, a-BC, and diamond like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Genisel, Mustafa Fatih; Uddin, Md. Nizam; Say, Zafer; Bengu, Erman; Kulakci, Mustafa; Turan, Rasit; Gulseren, Oguz

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we implanted N{sup +} and N{sub 2}{sup +} ions into sputter deposited amorphous boron carbide (a-BC) and diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films in an effort to understand the chemical bonding involved and investigate possible phase separation routes in boron carbon nitride (BCN) films. In addition, we investigated the effect of implanted C{sup +} ions in sputter deposited amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) films. Implanted ion energies for all ion species were set at 40 KeV. Implanted films were then analyzed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The changes in the chemical composition and bonding chemistry due to ion-implantation were examined at different depths of the films using sequential ion-beam etching and high resolution XPS analysis cycles. A comparative analysis has been made with the results from sputter deposited BCN films suggesting that implanted nitrogen and carbon atoms behaved very similar to nitrogen and carbon atoms in sputter deposited BCN films. We found that implanted nitrogen atoms would prefer bonding to carbon atoms in the films only if there is no boron atom in the vicinity or after all available boron atoms have been saturated with nitrogen. Implanted carbon atoms also preferred to either bond with available boron atoms or, more likely bonded with other implanted carbon atoms. These results were also supported by ab-initio density functional theory calculations which indicated that carbon-carbon bonds were energetically preferable to carbon-boron and carbon-nitrogen bonds.

  18. Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Sputtered Nanocarbon Film Electrode Compared with Diamond-Like Carbon and Glassy Carbon Electrodes as Regards Electrochemical Properties and Biomolecule Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Qiang; Kato, Dai; Kamata, Tomoyuki; Umemura, Shigeru; Hirono, Shigeru; Niwa, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    The electrochemical properties and biocompatible characteristics at an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-sputtered nanocarbon film electrode, a diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrode and a glassy carbon (GC) electrode have been studied. The three carbon electrodes show significant current reductions with increased peak separations as a result of protein fouling before oxygen plasma treatment, but the current reductions of the ECR-sputtered nanocarbon and DLC film electrodes are smaller than that of the GC electrode due to their superior surface flatness. The oxygen plasma pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film electrode exhibits a significant improvement in anti-fouling performance with an improved electron transfer. This is because the pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film enabled the surface to introduce surface oxygen functionalities that not only improve the interaction between the analytes and the electrode surface but also make the film surface more hydrophilic, which is important for the suppression of biomolecule adsorption. At the same time, the pretreated ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film also retained an ultraflat surface even after pretreatment as a result of the low background current. This excellent performance can only be achieved with our ECR-sputtered nanocarbon film, indicating that our film is promising for application to electrochemical detectors for various biomolecular analytes.

  19. Low reflection and high transmission by a layered structure containing diamond-like carbon, porous silicon, and left-handed material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeid, Muin F.; Shabat, Mohammed M.; Altanany, Sameh M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose and theoretically analyze a stratified waveguide structure comprised of diamond-like carbon (DLC), porous silicon (PS), and left-handed material (LHM) subjected to incident light in order to achieve low reflection and high transmission. The proposed waveguide structure is situated between two half free spaces and a TE polarized plane wave incident on it. The main parameters of each material are given and the required equations for the electromagnetic plane wave propagation are presented. Transfer matrix method is implemented to find out the characteristics of the reflected and transmitted powers. In the numerical results, the mentioned powers are computed and illustrated as a function of the incidence angle, the frequency, and the slab thickness to demonstrate the main parameters for low reflection and high transmission. These theoretical parameters could be useful to the researchers and designers working in the area of solar cells and optical sensors.

  20. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-07

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process.

  1. Performance evaluation of different diamond-like carbon samples as charge state conversion surfaces for neutral atom imaging detectors in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Allenbach, Marc; Föhn, Martina; Wurz, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The detection of energetic neutral atoms is a substantial requirement on every space mission mapping particle populations of a planetary magnetosphere or plasma of the interstellar medium. For imaging neutrals, these first have to be ionised. Regarding the constraints of weight, volume and power consumption, the technique of surface ionisation complies with all specifications of a space mission. Particularly low energy neutral atoms, which cannot be ionised by passing through a foil, are ionised by scattering on a charge state conversion surface [1]. Since more than 30 years intense research work is done to find and optimise suitable materials for use as charge state conversion surfaces for space application. Crucial parameters are the ionisation efficiency of the surface material and the scattering properties. Regarding these parameters, diamond-like carbon was proven advantageously: While efficiently ionising incoming neutral atoms, diamond stands out by its durability and chemical inertness [2]. In the IBEX-Lo sensor, a diamond-like carbon surface is used for ionisation of neutral atoms. Building on the successes of the IBEX mission [3], the follow up mission IMAP (InterstellarMApping Probe) will take up to further explore the boundaries of the heliosphere. The IMAP mission is planned to map neutral atoms in a larger energy range and with a distinct better angular resolution and sensitivity than IBEX [4]. The aspired performance of the IMAP sensors implies also for charge state conversion surfaces with improved characteristics. We investigated samples of diamond-like carbon, manufactured by the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method, regarding their ionisation efficiency, scattering and reflexion properties. Experiments were carried out at the ILENA facility at the University of Bern [5] with hydrogen and oxygen atoms, which are the species of main interest in magnetospheric research [1]. We compare the results of earlier investigations of a metallised CVD

  2. Investigation of diamond-like carbon samples as a charge state conversion surface for neutral atom imaging detectors in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Riedo, Andreas; Scheer, Jürgen; Wurz, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The detection of energetic neutral atoms is a substantial requirement on every space mission mapping particle populations of a planetary magnetosphere or plasma of the interstellar medium. For imaging neutrals, these first have to be ionized. Regarding the constraints of weight, volume and power consumption, the technique of surface ionization complies with all specifications of a space mission. Particularly low energy neutral atoms, which cannot be ionized by passing through a foil, are ionized by scattering on a charge state conversion surface. Since more than 30 years intense research work is done to find suitable materials for use as charge state conversion surfaces. Crucial parameters are the ionisation efficiency of the surface material and the scattering properties. Against all expectations, insulators showed very promising characteristics for serving as conversion surfaces. Particularly diamond-like carbon was proven advantageously: While efficiently ionising incoming neutral atoms, diamond stands out by its durability and chemical inertness. In the IBEX-Lo sensor, a diamond-like carbon surface is used for ionisation of neutral atoms. Energy resolved maps of neutral atoms from the IBEX mission revealed phenomena of the interaction between heliosphere and local interstellar medium (LISM) that demand for new theory and explanations [McComas et al., 2011]. Building on the successes of the IBEX mission, a follow up mission concept to further explore the boundaries of the heliosphere already exists. The Interstellar MApping Probe (IMAP) is planned to map neutral atoms in a larger energy range and with a distinct better angular resolution and sensitivity than IBEX [McComas et al.]. The aspired performance of the IMAP sensors implies also for charge state conversion surfaces with improved characteristics. We investigated samples of diamond-like carbon, manufactured by the chemical vapour and pulsed laser deposition method, regarding their ionisation efficiency

  3. Nano-hillock formation in diamond-like carbon induced by swift heavy projectiles in the electronic stopping regime: Experiments and atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwen, D.; Bringa, E.; Krauser, J.; Weidinger, A.; Trautmann, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2012-09-10

    The formation of surface hillocks in diamond-like carbon is studied experimentally and by means of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms combined with a thermal spike model. The irradiation experiments with swift heavy ions cover a large electronic stopping range between {approx}12 and 72 keV/nm. Both experiments and simulations show that beyond a stopping power threshold, the hillock height increases linearly with the electronic stopping, and agree extremely well assuming an efficiency of approximately 20% in the transfer of electronic energy to the lattice. The simulations also show a transition of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} bonding along the tracks with the hillocks containing almost no sp{sup 3} contribution.

  4. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A J; Tielens, A G G M; Ruth, A A

    2016-07-14

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles' spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp(3)/sp(2) hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ.

  5. Thickness Effects of TiC Interlayer on Tribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Lee, Jaehyeong; Park, Yong Seob

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared with TiC interlayer of various thicknesses as the adhesive layer. DLC and TiC thin films were prepared using unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering method using graphite and titanium as targets. TiC films as the interlayer were deposited under DLC films and various physical, tribological, and structural properties of the films fabricated with various TiC interlayer thicknesses were investigated. With various TiC interlayer thicknesses under DLC films, the tribological properties of films were improved with increasing thickness and the DLC/TiC layer fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering method are exhibited maximum high hardness over 27 GPa and high elastic modulus over 242 GPa, and a smooth surface below 0.09 nm.

  6. Microstructure and surface properties of chromium-doped diamond-like carbon thin films fabricated by high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongzhen; Tian, Xiubo; Gui, Gang; Gong, Chunzhi; Yang, Shiqin; Chu, Paul K.

    2013-07-01

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) has attracted much interest due to the large plasma density and high ionization rate of sputtered materials. It is expected to produce a highly ionized C flux from a graphite target but unfortunately, the ionization rate of carbon is still very small and the discharge on a solid carbon target is unstable as well. In this work, a stable discharged chromium target is used in the preparation of chromium-doped diamond-like carbon (Cr-DLC) films in HPPMS in reactive C2H2 gas, but the unstable graphite. The chromium concentration in the Cr-DLC films is limited by surface poisoning due to reactive gas. Less than 2% of Cr is incorporated into the DLC films at C2H2 flow rate of 5 sccm or higher. However, as a result of the high ionization rate of the reactive gas in HPPMS, intense ion bombardment of the substrate is realized. The films show a smooth surface and a dense structure with a large sp3 concentration. As the C2H2 flow increase, the sp3 fraction increase and the sp3 to sp2 ratio increase to 0.75 at a C2H2 flow rate of 10 sccm. Compared to the substrate, the Cr-DLC films have lower friction and exhibit excellent corrosion resistance.

  7. Incorporation of Si and SiO(x) into diamond-like carbon films: impact on surface properties and osteoblast adhesion.

    PubMed

    Randeniya, L K; Bendavid, A; Martin, P J; Amin, Md S; Preston, E W; Magdon Ismail, F S; Coe, S

    2009-06-01

    The interaction of human osteoblast cells with diamond-like carbon films incorporating silicon and silicon oxide (SiO(x), 1 < or = x < or = 1.5) and synthesized using the direct-current plasma-activated chemical vapour deposition method was investigated. Cell culture studies were performed for films with Si contents ranging from approximately 4 at.% to 15 at.%. Substantial differences between Si-incorporated and SiO(x)-incorporated films were found for the bonding environments of Si atoms and the hybridization of underlying carbon structures. However, osteoblast-attachment studies did not show statistically significant trends in properties of cell growth (count, area and morphology) that can be attributed either to the Si content of the films or to the chemical structure of the films. The surface energy decreased by 40% as the Si content of the SiO(x) incorporated DLC films increased to 13 at.%. The cell adhesion properties however did not change in response to lowering of the surface energy. The incorporation of both Si and SiO(x) leads to a beneficial reduction in the residual stress of the films. The average roughness of the films increases and the hardness decreases when Si and SiO(x) are added to DLC films. The impact of these changes for load-bearing biomedical applications can be determined only by carefully controlled experiments using anatomic simulators.

  8. Structural and electrical properties and current-voltage characteristics of nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films on Si substrates by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Masato; Murakami, Kazuki; Magara, Kohei; Nakamura, Kazuki; Ohashi, Haruka; Tokuda, Kengo; Takami, Takahiro; Ogasawara, Haruka; Enta, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Yushi; Ando, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    We have deposited nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using CH4, N2, and Ar, and investigated the effects of N doping on the structure and the electrical, mechanical, and optical properties of the N-DLC films. We fabricated undoped DLC/p-type Si and N-DLC/p-type Si heterojunctions and examined the current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunctions. When the N2 flow ratio was increased from 0 to 3.64%, the resistivity markedly decreased from the order of 105 Ω·cm to that of 10-2 Ω·cm and the internal stress also decreased. The resistivity gradually increased with increasing N2 flow ratio from 3.64 to 13.6%, and then it decreased at a N2 flow ratio of 13.6%. These behaviors can be explained in terms of the clustering of sp2 carbons and the formation of sp3C-N, sp2C=N, sp1C≡N, and C-H n bonds. The rectification ratio of the heterojunction using the N-DLC film prepared at 3.64% was 35.8 at ±0.5 V.

  9. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Franck Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp³ fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp² clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  10. Hemocompatibility of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon prepared by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sunny C H; Yang, Ping; Wang, Jin; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2004-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) has been shown to be a potential material in biomedical devices such as artificial heart valves, bone implants, and so on because of its chemical inertness, low coefficient of friction, high wear resistance, and good biocompatibility. However, the biomedical characteristics such as blood compatibility of doped hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) have not been investigated in details. We recently began to investigate the potential use of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free DLC in artificial heart valves. In our experiments, a series of hydrogen-free DLC films doped with nitrogen were synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition (PIII-D) utilizing a pulsed vacuum arc plasma source and different N to Ar (FN/FAr) gas mixtures in the plasma chamber. The structures and properties of the film were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To assess the blood compatibility of the films and the impact on the blood compatibility by the presence of nitrogen, platelet adhesion tests were conducted. Our results indicate that the blood compatibility of both hydrogen-free carbon films (a-C) and amorphous carbon nitride films are better than that of low-temperature isotropic pyrolytic carbon (LTIC). The experimental results are consistent with the relative theory of interfacial energy and surface tension including both dispersion and polar components. Our results also indicate that an optimal fraction of sp2 bonding is desirable, but an excessively high nitrogen concentration degrades the properties to an extent that the biocompatibility can be worse than that of LTIC. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Synthesis of boron/nitrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon films by pulsed laser deposition using nitrogen gas and a boron-containing graphite target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Hideki; Osozawa, Ryoichi; Mohnai, Yusuke; Nara, Yuki

    2017-10-01

    We have deposited boron/nitrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon (B–N-DLC) films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using N2 gas and a B-containing graphite target, and compared the mechanical, tribological, electrical, and surface properties of the B–N-DLC films with those of pure DLC, boron-incorporated DLC (B-DLC), and nitrogen-incorporated DLC (N-DLC) films prepared by PLD. The B-DLC film had a much higher critical load than the pure DLC. The critical load of the B–N-DLC films became maximum at an optimum N2 pressure, which was higher than those of the pure DLC, B-DLC, and N-DLC films. The friction property in air was degraded by the N incorporation, whereas the B incorporation did not have a significant effect on the friction coefficient. The B–N-DLC films deposited at higher N2 pressures exhibited superhydrophilic wetting properties. The B–N-DLC films prepared at moderate N2 pressures had resistivities much less than that of the pure DLC film.

  12. Influence of Cr contents and nanograin sizes on microstructure, mechanical and sliding tribological behaviors of hard Cr-diamond-like carbon films.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiang; Wang, Chengbiao; Hua, Meng; Liu, Yang; Yu, Deyang

    2010-08-01

    The influence of Cr content and nanograin size on the microstructure, the mechanical and sliding tribological behaviors of Cr-containing diamond-like carbon (Cr-DLC) films, deposited on (100) Si substrate by a mid-frequency dual-magnetron system, was explored. The Cr-containing nanoparticles (combining Cr with C) were dispersed in the amorphous DLC matrix while some nanoparticles were transformed into compounds of C/Cr. The incorporation of Cr into Cr-DLC films improved the crystallinity of the Cr-rich nanoparticles and partially converted the nanoparticles to Cr/C phase. The films with Cr content ranging between 5-10 at% and with Cr-containing nanograin sizes in range of 15-27 nm were found to possess higher hardness, lower intrinsic stress, lower coefficient of friction (COF) and wear rate than those of 16-28 at% Cr content and 46-74 nm nanograin sizes. The superhard Cr-DLC film with 8.3 at% Cr and 18.4 nm Cr-containing grain gave the favorable micro-tribological characteristics with COF at micro approximately 0.1 and wear rate at 3.6 x 10(-8) mm3/Nm.

  13. On The structure Of Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films Produced By Rf (13.56MHz)CH{sub 4} Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchabane, M.; Henda, K.; Kechouane, M.; Salah, H.; Touchrift, B.; Tabet, N.

    2008-09-23

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique is used to grow diamond-like carbon films using pure methane gas plasma. It is known that the structure of the deposited films is largely influenced by the self-bias voltage values and thereafter all the film properties are a function of the structure; this concerns hydrogen concentration and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridisation ratio in DLC films. Then monitoring DLC film properties requires the control of hydrogen concentration and hybridisation rates. This investigation is focused on the study of the structure changes upon the deposition conditions. The correlation between the structure and the deposition conditions was investigated by using various characterization techniques. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyse the absorption of optically active hydrogen in the DLC films. The deconvolution of 2900 cm{sup -1} absorption band allows the analysis of all different hybridisations and configurations forming the structure. The total quantity of hydrogen in the film is evaluated by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The quantification of sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} concentrations is done from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). XPS measurements show that DLC films with high quantity of sp{sup 3} hybridisation can be obtained. The discussion and interpretation of these results leads to a better understanding of the relationship between structure and deposition conditions, which, in return, helps us in synthesizing films of desired properties.

  14. Fate of methanol molecule sandwiched between hydrogen-terminated diamond-like carbon films by tribochemical reactions: tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Sato, Seiichiro; Bai, Shandan; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Shimazaki, Tomomi; Adachi, Koshi; Martin, Jean-Michel; Kubo, Momoji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to diamond-like carbon (DLC) as a solid-state lubricant, because it exhibits high resistance to wear, low friction and low abrasion. Experimentally it is reported that gas environments are very important for improving the tribological characteristics of DLC films. Recently one of the authors in the present paper, J.-M. Martin, experimentally observed that the low friction of DLC films is realized under alcohol environments. In the present paper, we aim to clarify the low-friction mechanism of the DLC films under methanol environments by using our tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method. We constructed the simulation model in which one methanol molecule is sandwiched between two hydrogen-terminated DLC films. Then, we performed sliding simulations of the DLC films. We observed the chemical reaction of the methanol molecule under sliding conditions. The methanol molecule decomposed and then OH-termination of the DLC was realized and the CH3 species was incorporated into the DLC film. We already reported that the OH-terminated DLC film is very effective to achieve good low-friction properties under high pressure conditions, compared to H-terminated DLC films. Here, we suggest that methanol environments are very effective to realize the OH-termination of DLC films which leads to the good low-friction properties.

  15. Self-enhanced plasma discharge effect in the deposition of diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of slender tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yi; Li, Liuhe; Luo, Sida; Lu, Qiuyuan; Gu, Jiabin; Lei, Ning; Huo, Chunqin

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced glow discharge plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (EGD-PIII&D) have been proved to be highly effective for depositing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the inner surface of the slender quartz tube with a deposition rate of 1.3 μm/min. Such a high-efficiency DLC films deposition was explained previously as the short electrons mean free path to cause large collision frequency between electrons and neutral particles. However, in this paper, we found that the inner surface material of the tube itself play a vital role on the films deposition. To disclose the mechanism of this phenomenon, the effect of different inner surface materials on plasma discharge was experimentally and theoretically investigated. Then a self-enhancing plasma discharge is discovered. It is found that secondary electrons emitted from the inner surface material, whatever it is the tube inner surface or deposited DLC films, can dramatically enhance the plasma discharge to improve the DLC films deposition rate.

  16. Patterning of diamond like carbon films for sensor applications using silicon containing thermoplastic resist (SiPol) as a hard mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virganavičius, D.; Cadarso, V. J.; Kirchner, R.; Stankevičius, L.; Tamulevičius, T.; Tamulevičius, S.; Schift, H.

    2016-11-01

    Patterning of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC:metal nanocomposites is of interest for an increasing number of applications. We demonstrate a nanoimprint lithography process based on silicon containing thermoplastic resist combined with plasma etching for straightforward patterning of such films. A variety of different structures with few hundred nanometer feature size and moderate aspect ratios were successfully realized. The quality of produced patterns was directly investigated by the means of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such structures were further assessed by employing them in the development of gratings for guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. Optical characterization of such leaky waveguide was compared with numerical simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis method with good agreement. The use of such structures as refractive index variation sensors is demonstrated with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU, achieving an improvement close to 450% in sensitivity compared to previously reported similar sensors. This pronounced GMR signal fully validates the employed DLC material, the technology to pattern it and the possibility to develop DLC based gratings as corrosion and wear resistant refractometry sensors that are able to operate under harsh conditions providing great value and versatility.

  17. Characteristics of diamond-like carbon film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J. H.; Chen, M. H.; Tsai, W. F.; Lee, S. C.; Ai, C. F.

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel by means of a hybrid process of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) maintained at 60 °C. The former and latter processes under investigation were carried out using methane (0-20 kV) and acetylene (1-2 kV, 0.13-0.40 Pa) plasmas, respectively. Glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), a nano-indentation probe (NIP) and a Rockwell-C hardness tester were employed to characterize, respectively, elemental depth profiles, sp3-to-sp2 ratio, surface morphology, hardness and adhesion strength of the DLC specimen. The results revealed that the mixing layer at the interface generated by plasma immersion ion implantation of methane at a higher voltage could enhance adhesive strength of the DLC film to the substrate. Furthermore, a higher sp3-to-sp2 ratio, a smoother surface, greater hardness, but weaker adhesion strength were obtained for the DLC film synthesized using plasma immersion ion deposition of acetylene at a lower bias voltage or higher gas pressure.

  18. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  19. Tribological properties and thermal stability of hydrogenated, silicon/nitrogen-coincorporated diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Hideki; Okuno, Saori; Magara, Kohei; Nakamura, Kazuki; Miura, Soushi; Enta, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    We have deposited hydrogenated, silicon/nitrogen-incorporated diamond-like carbon (Si-N-DLC) films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition using hexamethyldisilazane [((CH3)3Si)2NH; HMDS] as the Si and N source, and compared the tribological performance and thermal stability of the Si-N-DLC films with those of hydrogenated, Si-incorporated DLC (Si-DLC) films prepared using dimethylsilane [SiH2(CH3)2] as the Si source. The deposited films were annealed at 723-873 K in air atmosphere. The friction coefficients of hydrogenated DLC films after annealing significantly increased at the initial stages of friction tests. On the other hand, the friction coefficients of the Si-N-DLC films deposited at an HMDS flow ratio [HMDS/(HMDS+CH4)] of 2.27% remained low after the annealing even at 873 K. We found that the wear rate of the Si-N-DLC film deposited at 2.27% and -1000 V remained almost unchanged after the annealing at 873 K, whereas that of the Si-DLC film with a similar Si fraction deposited at -1000 V significantly increased after the annealing at 773 K.

  20. A Dynamic Pathway for Stone-Wales Bond Rotation on Carbon Nanotubes through Diamond-Like Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chen-Yu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeong-Jae; Menon, Madhu

    2003-01-01

    A new lower energy barrier with a two-step pathway of Stone-Wales (SW) ,ond rotation on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is found through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CNTs under tension. The first step involves going over to a stable sp3-like metastable configuration with half rotated and partially tilted C-C bond. The second step involves going over to the fully rotated C-C bond with the formation of a SW defect in the nanotube. The energy barrier for this two-step dynamic pathway is significantly lower than the previously known static barrier for in-plane rotation of the C-C bond on a tensile strained (> 4%) CNT.

  1. Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films with protein via polydopamine inspired coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Caihong; Yang, Shengrong; Zhang, Junyan; Wang, Jinqing

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we report a facile two-step approach to immobilize proteins onto DLC surfaces. The first step was a simple immersion of DLC in a solution of dopamine. Polydopamine was deposited on DLC as a stable anchor to present protein molecules. Then the protein ad-layer was deposited on it. The chemical components of the modified DLC surfaces were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biocompatibility of it was evaluated in vitro by the tetrazolium salt method. And it was indicated that the BSA modified surface had good haemocompatibility properties, and was cytocompatible to PC-12 cells.

  2. Track formation in two amorphous insulators, vitreous silica and diamond like carbon: Experimental observations and description by the inelastic thermal spike model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, C.; Pawlak, F.; Khalfaoui, N.; Dufour, C.; Perrière, J.; Laurent, A.; Stoquert, J. P.; Lebius, H.; Toulemonde, M.

    2012-02-01

    Vitreous silica thin film (a-SiO 2) and mixed deuterated and hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film (a-C:D,H), grown or deposited, respectively, on silicon, have been irradiated at GANIL in the MeV/u energy range with ions between C and U in order to reach electronic energy loss between 0.7 and 25 keV/nm. The evolution of Si-O bonds and C-D bonds contents was determined by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Complementary physico-chemical characterization was performed for a-C:D,H using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). For a-SiO 2, the band at 1076 cm -1 decreases with the appearance of a band at 1046 cm -1. In the case of the diamond like amorphous carbon, the main effects due to MeV/u ion irradiations are the decrease of sp 3 bonding content and of deuterium relative concentration (D/C atomic ratio) as a function of fluence with the appearance of the sp 1 bond. The cylinder radii in which these physical phenomena are confined can be deduced from a statistical analysis. Using the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS) these track radii can be described using the electron-phonon mean free path which takes values equal to 3 and 0.9 nm for a-SiO 2 and a-C:D, respectively. Extrapolation to low energy range (˜1 MeV in total or ˜0.02 MeV/u) will be made.

  3. Effects of electrical conductivity of substrate materials on microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, S.; Sonoda, T.

    2013-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared by a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation, and the structural differences between DLC films deposited on different electrical conductive substrates, i.e., conductive Si wafers and insulating glass plates are examined by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS). In the Raman measurements, graphite (G) and disorder (D) peaks are observed for both samples. However, the additional photo luminescence is overlapped on the spectra in the case of on-glass sample. To elucidate the structural difference, the intensity ratio of D to G peak (I(D)/I(G)), G peak position and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are obtained by curve fitting using Gaussian function and linear baseline. It is found that the I(D)/I(G) is lower, G peak position is higher and FWHM of G peak is narrower for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. According to Robertson [1], lower I(D)/I(G) seems more sp3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. In contrast, higher G peak position and narrower FWHM of G peak suggest less sp3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. The results of XPS analysis with C1s spectra reveal that sp3 ratio, i.e., the intensity ratio of sp3/(sp3+sp2) is smaller for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. The inconsistency of the trend between I(D)/I(G) and other parameters (G peak position and FWHM of G peak) might be caused by the overlap of photo luminescence signal on Raman spectrum as to on-glass sample. From these results, it is considered that sp3 C-C bonding is reduced in amount when using insulating substrate in comparison with conductive substrate.

  4. Nanoscale deformation and fracture mechanics of polycrystalline silicon and diamond-like carbon for MEMS by the AFM/DIC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Woo

    A method for nanoscale experimental mechanics was developed to address problems in deformation and fracture of micron-scale components in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). Specifically, the effective and local, elastic and fracture behavior of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) and tetrahedral amorphous diamond-like carbon (ta-C) were studied using freestanding thin films subject to uniaxial tension. In this method, direct measurements of local deformations were derived from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images in specimen areas varying between 1x2 mum2 and 15x15 mum2 using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) to extract displacements and strains with spatial resolution of 1-2 nm. The effective elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of polysilicon and ta-C from the Sandia National Laboratories (SUMMiT) were 155 +/- 6 GPa and 0.22 +/- 0.02, and 759 +/- 22 GPa and 0.17 +/- 0.03, respectively. Similarly, the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of polysilicon fabricated at MCNC via the Multi-User MEMS Processes (MUMPs) with <110> texture were 164 +/- 7 GPa and 0.22 +/- 0.02, respectively. A second problem studied using the AFM/DIC method was the fracture of polysilicon in the presence of atomically sharp cracks. The effective (macroscopic) Mode-I critical stress intensity factor for polysilicon from different MUMPs runs was 1.00 +/- 0.1 MPa√m, where 0.1 MPa√m was the standard deviation, attributed to local cleavage anisotropy and grain boundary toughening. The variation in the effective critical stress intensity factor and the subcritical crack growth of polysilicon that was spatially recorded and quantified for the first time were the result of the spatial variation of the 4 local stress intensity factor at the crack tip that controlled crack initiation and thus, the overall fracture process. The AFM/DIC method was also applied to determine the minimum size of a polysilicon domain whose effective mechanical behavior could be described by the isotropic elastic

  5. Deposition of diamond-like films by ECR microwave plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor); Pool, Frederick S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon, diamond-like films are deposited using an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma with a separate radio frequency power bias applied to a substrate stage. The electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma yields low deposition pressure and creates ion species otherwise unavailable. A magnetic mirror configuration extracts special ion species from a plasma chamber. Different levels of the radio frequency power bias accelerate the ion species of the ECR plasma impinging on a substrate to form different diamond-like films. During the deposition process, a sample stage is maintained at an ambient temperature of less than 100.degree. C. No external heating is applied to the sample stage. The deposition process enables diamond-like films to be deposited on heat-sensitive substrates.

  6. Diamond-like carbon film preparation using a high-repetition nanosecond pulsed glow discharge plasma at gas pressure of 1 kPa generated by a SiC-MOSFET inverter power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Ogura, Masataka; Maegawa, Takuya; Otsubo, Akira; Nishimura, Yoshimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu

    2017-10-01

    A high-repetition nanosecond pulsed glow discharge plasma at a gas pressure of 1 kPa was generated using a SiC-MOSFET inverter power supply for diamond-like carbon (DLC) film preparation. At a high repetition frequency above 50 kHz, the period of the nanosecond voltage pulse became shorter than the decay time of the afterglow plasma, and many ions and radicals remained in the gap space. The deposition rate was 0.1 µm/min, which was 5 times higher than that of a conventional plasma CVD process. An increase in hardness to 13 GPa and a decrease in hydrogen content in the DLC film were confirmed by increasing the repetition frequency to 200 kHz.

  7. Self-Lubricating-Diamond Like Coatings Deposition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    wear parameter, K, can be derived for the ball following Archard : (40) K - 3H(A V)/Ns where H, A V, N and s are respectively the hardness of the ball...Stonybrook (EELS); David Smith, Chomerics (IR). The work presented here has been supported by the following Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR...1986 (North Holland), 31. 24. Doolittle, L.R.: Nucl. Inst. Meth., 1985, R29, 344. 25. Amsel, G.; Nadai, T.P.; D’Artemare, E.; David , D.; Girard, E.; and

  8. Nanostructured Carbon Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    coatings having a low- friction coefficient for a variety of applications, from heavy-load bearings to nanocoatings for MEMS; protective coating for...tribological coatings having a low-friction coefficient for a variety of applications, from heavy- load bearings to nanocoatings for MEMS. Carbon

  9. The Role of Ambient Gas and Pressure on the Structuring of Hard Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Andrei C.; Stan, George E.; Duta, Liviu; Nita, Cristina; Popescu, Camelia; Surdu, Vasile-Adrian; Husanu, Marius-Adrian; Bita, Bogdan; Ghisleni, Rudy; Himcinschi, Cameliu; Craciun, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Hard carbon thin films were synthesized on Si (100) and quartz substrates by the Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique in vacuum or methane ambient to study their suitability for applications requiring high mechanical resistance. The deposited films’ surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, crystalline status by X-ray diffraction, packing and density by X-ray reflectivity, chemical bonding by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, adherence by “pull-out” measurements and mechanical properties by nanoindentation tests. Films synthesized in vacuum were a-C DLC type, while films synthesized in methane were categorized as a-C:H. The majority of PLD films consisted of two layers: one low density layer towards the surface and a higher density layer in contact with the substrate. The deposition gas pressure played a crucial role on films thickness, component layers thickness ratio, structure and mechanical properties. The films were smooth, amorphous and composed of a mixture of sp3-sp2 carbon, with sp3 content ranging between 50% and 90%. The thickness and density of the two constituent layers of a film directly determined its mechanical properties.

  10. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  11. Microstructure and property of diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr co-doping deposited using a hybrid beams system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Liu, Jingmao; Geng, Dongsen; Guo, Peng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Qimin

    2016-12-01

    DLC films with weak carbide former Al and carbide former Cr co-doping (Al:Cr-DLC) were deposited by a hybrid beams system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source (LIS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C2H2 and Ar as the precursor. The doped Al and Cr contents were controlled via adjusting the C2H2 fraction in the gas mixture. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of the Al:Cr-DLC films were researched carefully using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate tribometer as function of the C2H2 fraction. The results show that the Al and Cr contents in the films increased continuously as the C2H2 fraction decreased. The doped Cr atoms preferred to bond with the carbon while the Al atoms mainly existed in metallic state. Structure modulation with alternate multilayer consisted of Al-poor DLC layer and Al-rich DLC layer was found in the films. Those periodic Al-rich DLC layers can effectively release the residual stress of the films. On the other hand, the formation of the carbide component due to Cr incorporation can help to increase the film hardness. Accordingly, the residual stress of the DLC films can be reduced without sacrificing the film hardness though co-doping Al and Cr atoms. Furthermore, it was found that the periodic Al-rich layer can greatly improve the elastic resilience of the DLC films and thus decreases the film friction coefficient and wear rate significantly. However, the existence of the carbide component would cause abrasive wear and thus deteriorate the wear performance of the films.

  12. Process for the formation of wear- and scuff-resistant carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    Malaczynski, Gerard W.; Qiu, Xiaohong; Mantese, Joseph V.; Elmoursi, Alaa A.; Hamdi, Aboud H.; Wood, Blake P.; Walter, Kevin C.; Nastasi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming an adherent diamond-like carbon coating on a workpiece of suitable material such as an aluminum alloy is disclosed. The workpiece is successively immersed in different plasma atmospheres and subjected to short duration, high voltage, negative electrical potential pulses or constant negative electrical potentials or the like so as to clean the surface of oxygen atoms, implant carbon atoms into the surface of the alloy to form carbide compounds while codepositing a carbonaceous layer on the surface, bombard and remove the carbonaceous layer, and to thereafter deposit a generally amorphous hydrogen-containing carbon layer on the surface of the article.

  13. Structure, properties, and possible mechanisms of formation of diamond-like phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belenkov, E. A.; Greshnyakov, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    An analysis was performed for relations between the structural parameters and the properties of 36 carbon diamond-like phases consisting of atoms occupying crystallographically equivalent positions. It was found that the crystal lattices of these phases were in stressed states with respect to the cubic diamond lattice. The density of diamond-like phases, their sublimation energies, bulk moduli, hardnesses, and band gaps depend on the deformation parameters Def and Str. The most stable phases must be phases with minimal parameters Def and Str and also with ring parameter Rng that is most close to the corresponding parameter of cubic diamond. The structures and energy characteristics of fullerites, nanotube bundles, and graphene layers of which diamond-like phases can be obtained as a result of polymerization at high pressures have been calculated.

  14. Properties of Diamond and Diamond-Like Clusters in Nanometric Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, Timur; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Variations in materials properties of small clusters of nanometric dimensions were investigated. Investigations were carried out for diamond and diamond-like particles in spherical shapes. Calculations were performed for clusters containing over 1000 carbon atoms. Results indicate that as the cluster size diminishes, (i) the average cohesive energy becomes weaker, (ii) the excess surface energy increases, and (iii) the value for stiffness decreases.

  15. Finite Element Analysis of Multilayered and Functionally Gradient Tribological Coatings With Measured Material Properties (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were assumed as a series of perfectly bonded layers with...resistance and low friction. Ti1-xCx (0≤ x ≤1) gradient coatings with diamond like carbon (DLC) coating on 440C stainless steel substrate were...indenter tip was used for the FEA model. Each coating sample consists of 1 μm thick coating and 440C stainless steel substrate. The area function for

  16. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  17. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Gantt, B. W.

    1989-01-01

    A process is being developed which evenly coats individual carbon fibers with thermoplastic polymers. In this novel, continuous coating process, the fiber tow bundle is first spread cover a series of convex rollers and then evenly coated with a fine powder of thermoplastic matrix polymer. Next, the fiber is heated internally by passing direct current through the powder coated fiber. The direct current is controlled to allow the carbon fiber temperature to slightly exceed the flow temperature of the matrix polymer. Analysis of the thermoplastic coated carbon fiber tows produced using this continuous process indicates that 30 to 70 vol pct fiber prepregs can be obtained.

  18. Synthesis of diamond-like phase from graphite by ultrafast laser driven dynamical compression

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Francisco C. B.; Samad, Ricardo E.; Bettini, Jefferson; Freitas, Raul O.; Vieira Junior, Nilson D.; Souza-Neto, Narcizo M.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid variations of the environmental energy caused by ultrashort laser pulses have induced phase transitions in carbon allotropes, therefore bringing the promise of revealing new carbon phases. Here, by exposing polycrystalline graphite to 25 fs laser pulses at 4 J/cm2 fluence under standard air atmosphere, we demonstrated the synthesis of translucent micrometer-sized structures carrying diamond-like and onion-like carbon phases. Texturized domains of the diamond phase were also identified. Concerning different synthesized carbon forms, pulse superposition and singularities of the thermodynamical process, we pinpoint the synthesis mechanism by the laser-induced subsequent products energetically evolving to attain the diamond-like phase. PMID:26149413

  19. Status and Applications of Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials: An Emerging Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-30

    solar -blind detectors. * Modulated structures incorporating layers of BN and diamond, for example, to develop materials that are harder and/or tougher...hundredfold increase in power capability over silicon transistors. e Solar -blind detectors, which take advantage of the large energy gap (greater than...Some success has already been achieved, for example, in applying diamond-like coatings to ZnS and ZnSe windows using a Ge-C intermediate layer . " Anti

  20. Fatigue resistant carbon coatings for rolling/sliding contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harpal; Ramirez, Giovanni; Eryilmaz, Osman; Greco, Aaron; Doll, Gary; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The growing demands for renewable energy production have recently resulted in a significant increase in wind plant installation. Field data from these plants show that wind turbines suffer from costly repair, maintenance and high failure rates. Often times the reliability issues are linked with tribological components used in wind turbine drivetrains. The primary failure modes in bearings and gears are associated with micropitting, wear, brinelling, scuffing, smearing and macropitting all of which occur at or near the surface. Accordingly, a variety of surface engineering approaches are currently being considered to alter the near surface properties of such bearings and gears to prevent these tribological failures. In the present work, we have evaluated the tribological performance of compliant highly hydrogenated diamond like carbon coating developed at Argonne National Laboratory, under mixed rolling/sliding contact conditions for wind turbine drivetrain components. The coating was deposited on AISI 52100 steel specimens using a magnetron sputter deposition system. The experiments were performed on a PCS Micro-Pitting-Rig (MPR) with four material pairs at 1.79 GPa contact stress, 40% slide to roll ratio and in polyalphaolefin (PAO4) basestock oil (to ensure extreme boundary conditions). The post-test analysis was performed using optical microscopy, surface profilometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained show a potential for these coatings in sliding/rolling contact applications as no failures were observed with coated specimens even after 100 million cycles compared to uncoated pair in which they failed after 32 million cycles, under the given test conditions.

  1. Application of amorphous carbon based materials as antireflective coatings on crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, D. S.; Côrtes, A. D. S.; Oliveira, M. H.; Motta, E. F.; Viana, G. A.; Mei, P. R.; Marques, F. C.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the investigation of the potential application of different forms of amorphous carbon (a-C and a-C:H) as an antireflective coating for crystalline silicon solar cells. Polymeric-like carbon (PLC) and hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films were deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) was deposited by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique. Those three different amorphous carbon structures were individually applied as single antireflective coatings on conventional (polished and texturized) p-n junction crystalline silicon solar cells. Due to their optical properties, good results were also obtained for double-layer antireflective coatings based on PLC or ta-C films combined with different materials. The results are compared with a conventional tin dioxide (SnO2) single-layer antireflective coating and zinc sulfide/magnesium fluoride (ZnS/MgF2) double-layer antireflective coatings. An increase of 23.7% in the short-circuit current density, Jsc, was obtained using PLC as an antireflective coating and 31.7% was achieved using a double-layer of PLC with a layer of magnesium fluoride (MgF2). An additional increase of 10.8% was obtained in texturized silicon, representing a total increase (texturization + double-layer) of about 40% in the short-circuit current density. The potential use of these materials are critically addressed considering their refractive index, optical bandgap, absorption coefficient, hardness, chemical inertness, and mechanical stability.

  2. Tribological performance of hard carbon coatings on 440C bearing steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kustas, Frank N.; Misra, Mohan S.; Shepard, Donald F.; Froechtenigt, Joseph F.

    1990-12-01

    Hard carbon coating such as diamond and diamond-like c :bon (also referred to as amorphous carbon) have received considerable attention for tribological applications due to their high hardness high modulus and desirable surface properties. Unfortunately most of the deposition techniques induce high substrate temperatures that temper traditional bearing steels and reduce the substrate load-carrying capability. Therefore to effectively use these desirable coatings a lower temperature deposition technique is required. Ion beam deposition offers essentially ambient temperature conditions accurate control ofprocess parameters and good coating-substrate adhesion. To use these attributes a test program was initiated to deposit mass analyzed high purity carbon and methane ions onto molybdenum and 440C bearing steel for subsequent characterization by Raman spectroscopy and friction-wear tests. Preliminary results for a coating deposited from a CO source showed an amorphous carbon/microcrystalline graphite structure which exhibited very high microhardness and a 3-fold reduction in coefficient of friction for unlubricated tests compared to untreated 440C steel. In addition incrementally increasing the applied load up to a factor of 5 resulted in progressively lower coefficients of friction only a minor increase (about 11) in the wear scar depth and no dramatic coating delamination or damage. Therefore an amorphous carbon/graphite coating applied to 440C steel at ambient temperature exhibits solid lubricating film characteristics with extremely high load-carrying capability. *Work performed under Martin Marietta Independent Research and Development Project D-8 1R Materials Technology. 116

  3. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous powder coating system was developed for coating carbon fiber with LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center-Thermoplastic Polyimide), a high-temperature thermoplastic polymide invented by NASA-Langley. The coating line developed used a pneumatic fiber spreader to separate the individual fibers. The polymer was applied within a recirculating powder coating chamber then melted using a combination of direct electrical resistance and convective heating to make it adhere to the fiber tow. The tension and speed of the line were controlled with a dancer arm and an electrically driven fiber wind-up and wind-off. The effects of heating during the coating process on the flexibility of the prepreg produced were investigated. The uniformity with which the fiber tow could be coated with polymer also was examined. Composite specimens were fabricated from the prepreg and tested to determine optimum process conditions. The study showed that a very uniform and flexible prepeg with up to 50 percent by volume polymer could be produced with this powder coating system. The coating line minimized powder loss and produced prepeg in lengths of up to 300 m. The fiber spreading was found to have a major effect on the coating uniformity and flexibility. Though test results showed low composite tensile strengths, analysis of fracture surfaces under scanning electron microscope indicated that fiber/matrix adhesion was adequate.

  4. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  5. Carbon film coating of abutment surfaces: effect on the abutment screw removal torque.

    PubMed

    Corazza, Pedro Henrique; de Moura Silva, Alecsandro; Cavalcanti Queiroz, José Renato; Salazar Marocho, Susana María; Bottino, Marco Antonia; Massi, Marcos; de Assunção e Souza, Rodrigo Othávio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating of prefabricated implant abutment on screw removal torque (RT) before and after mechanical cycling (MC). Fifty-four abutments for external-hex implants were divided among 6 groups (n = 9): S, straight abutment (control); SC, straight coated abutment; SCy, straight abutment and MC; SCCy, straight coated abutment and MC; ACy, angled abutment and MC; and ACCy, angled coated abutment and MC. The abutments were attached to the implants by a titanium screw. RT values were measured and registered. Data (in Newton centimeter) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Dunnet test (α = 0.05). RT values were significantly affected by MC (P = 0.001) and the interaction between DLC coating and MC (P = 0.038). SCy and ACy showed the lowest RT values, statistically different from the control. The abutment coated groups had no statistical difference compared with the control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed DLC film with a thickness of 3 μm uniformly coating the hexagonal abutment. DLC film deposited on the abutment can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce abutment screw loosening.

  6. Diamond-like nanoparticles influence on flavonoids transport: molecular modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastun, Inna L.; Agandeeva, Ksenia E.; Bokarev, Andrey N.; Zenkin, Nikita S.

    2017-03-01

    Intermolecular interaction of diamond-like nanoparticles and flavonoids is investigated by numerical simulation. Using molecular modelling by the density functional theory method, we analyze hydrogen bonds formation and their influence on IR - spectra and structure of molecular complex which is formed due to interaction between flavonoids and nanodiamonds surrounded with carboxylic groups. Enriched adamantane (1,3,5,7 - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid) is used as an example of diamond-like nanoparticles. Intermolecular forces and structure of hydrogen bonds are investigated. IR - spectra and structure parameters of quercetin - adamantanetetracarboxylic acid molecular complex are obtained by numerical simulation using the Gaussian software complex. Received data coincide well with experimental results. Intermolecular interactions and hydrogen bonding structure in the obtained molecular complex are examined. Possibilities of flavonoids interaction with DNA at the molecular level are also considered.

  7. Bacterial adherence on fluorinated carbon based coatings deposited on polyethylene surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terriza, A.; Del Prado, G.; Ortiz Pérez, A.; Martínez, M. J.; Puértolas, J. A.; Molina Manso, D.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Yubero, F.; Gómez Barrena, E.; Esteban, J.

    2010-11-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopaedic surgery. In this work we present a thorough study of several plasma based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond like carbon (DLC), fluorine doped DLC (F-DLC) and a high fluorine content carbon-fluor polymer (CFX). The study correlates the surface chemistry and hydrophobicity of the coating surfaces with their antibacterial performance. The coatings were deposited by RF-plasma assisted deposition at room temperature on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples. Fluorine content and relative amount of C-C and C-F bond types was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity by water contact angle measurements. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to non-coated and coated UHMWPE samples was evaluated. Comparisons of the adherence performance were evaluated using a paired t test (two materials) and a Kruskall Wallis test (all the materials). S. aureus was statistically significant (p< 0.001) less adherent to DLC and F -DLC surfaces than S. epidermidis. Both bacteria showed reduction of adherence on DLC/UHMWPE. For S. aureus, reduction of bacterial adherence on F-DLC/UHMWPE was statistically significant respect to all other materials.

  8. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  9. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian [Newton, MA; Chen, Jinghua [Chestnut Hill, MA; Huang, Zhongping [Belmont, MA; Wang, Dezhi [Wellesley, MA

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  10. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul A.; Pochan, Paul D.; Siegal, Michael P.; Dominguez, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors.

  11. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    DOEpatents

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  12. Method of depositing a carbon film on a substrate and products obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, G.; Nir, D.

    1984-12-04

    There is disclosed a method for depositing a diamond or diamond-like carbon film on at least one substrate employing a hydrocarbon gas and at least one gas which preferentially removes by chemical sputtering other forms of carbon, especially graphite from said film to thereby obtain useful carbon film coated products.

  13. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  14. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  15. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  16. Synthesis of Diamond-Like Fiber and Modeling of Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Ho.

    Plasma processing has emerged as an important technology for the deposition of thin solid films--in particular, diamond or diamond-like carbon films. Novel forms of carbon produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are the focus of rigorous research efforts because of their potential applications. The main thrust of this research is to develop a process by which diamond-like fiber (DLF) can be successfully grown. DLF is the newest addition in the fast growing realm of carbon based products. DLF is a unique material that has the shape of a fiber but has properties similar to diamond. DLF could replace carbon fiber in composite materials. DLF can find numerous applications in recreational, industrial, and transportation markets. In my work, DLF was successfully synthesized using a negative point-to-plane DC corona discharge. Experimental investigation of DLF synthesis has been performed by studying the effect of variation of several synthesis parameters such as gas pressure, the applied voltage, the composition of methane-hydrogen mixtures, and cathode material. The morphology of DLF has been examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The diamond character of DLF has been conformed by Raman spectroscopy. A theoretical investigation of the negative point -to-plane DC corona discharge has been performed. A two -dimensional axisymmetric model has been developed and successfully analyzed. The discharge properties such as ion density, electron density, electron energy, electric potential, electric field, ionization rate, and excitation rate which have effects on the formation of DLF are presented. Good agreement has been obtained between this developed theory for electric current in the discharge and experiment.

  17. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  18. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  19. Wetting and spreading of long-chain ZDOL polymer nanodroplet on graphene-coated amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorkin, V.; Zhang, Y. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wetting transparency/translucency/opacity of graphene recently has attracted great interest. The underlying mechanisms and physics for simple liquid droplets containing small molecules on graphene coated crystalline substrates have been studied extensively. However, the behavior of more complicated polymeric droplets on graphene coated amorphous substrates has not been explored. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to examine the wetting of long-chain ZDOL polymeric droplet on graphene coated amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon or DLCH. We find that at room temperature, the droplet adopts a nearly spherical cap shape with no protruding foot on bare DLCH, and a complex multi-layered structure is formed at the droplet-substrate interface. With addition of graphene layers, externally, the height of the droplet decreases and the protruding foot at the droplet edge appears and grows in size; while internally, the complex multi-layered structure near the droplet-substrate interface remains, but the density distribution for the formed layers becomes increasingly non-uniform. A steady state of the droplet is attained when the number of graphene layers reaches three. These changes can be explained by the interactions between the droplet and substrate across the number of graphene layers. Therefore, it is concluded that the graphene monolayer and bilayer are translucent, while trilayer and above are opaque from the wetting point of view.

  20. Superhydrophobic conductive carbon nanotube coatings for steel.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2009-04-21

    We report the synthesis of superhydrophobic coatings for steel using carbon nanotube (CNT)-mesh structures. The CNT coating maintains its structural integrity and superhydrophobicity even after exposure to extreme thermal stresses and has excellent thermal and electrical properties. The coating can also be reinforced by optimally impregnating the CNT-mesh structure with cross-linked polymers without significantly compromising on superhydrophobicity and electrical conductivity. These superhydrophobic conductive coatings on steel, which is an important structural material, open up possibilities for many new applications in the areas of heat transfer, solar panels, transport of fluids, nonwetting and nonfouling surfaces, temperature resilient coatings, composites, water-walking robots, and naval applications.

  1. Pyrolytic carbon-coated nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Lindemer, Terrence B.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Beatty, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    An improved nuclear fuel kernel having at least one pyrolytic carbon coating and a silicon carbon layer is provided in which extensive interaction of fission product lanthanides with the silicon carbon layer is avoided by providing sufficient UO.sub.2 to maintain the lanthanides as oxides during in-reactor use of said fuel.

  2. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications - Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-11-01

    The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal properties. What is more, considering very good mechanical parameters of these Ag including gradient a-C:H/Ti coatings, they constitute an excellent material for biomedical application in e.g. orthopedics or dentistry.

  3. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Sease, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes.

  4. Tests Of Protective Coats For Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes laboratory and field tests of candidate paints (primers, tie coats, and topcoats) for use in protecting carbon-steel structures against corrosion in seaside environment at Kennedy Space Center. Coating materials selected because of utility in preventing corrosion, also on basis of legal requirements, imposed in several urban areas, for reduction of volatile organic contents.

  5. Tests Of Protective Coats For Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes laboratory and field tests of candidate paints (primers, tie coats, and topcoats) for use in protecting carbon-steel structures against corrosion in seaside environment at Kennedy Space Center. Coating materials selected because of utility in preventing corrosion, also on basis of legal requirements, imposed in several urban areas, for reduction of volatile organic contents.

  6. [Hydroxyapatite bioactive coating on carbon/carbon composites].

    PubMed

    Sui, Jinling; Li, Musen; Lü, Yupeng; Bai, Yunqiang

    2005-04-01

    A simple plasma spraying method was employed in coating hydroxyapaptite (HA) on to carbon/carbon composites (C/C composites). The morphology of the coating was examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phase constitutions of the HA coating were determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The shear strength of the HA coating-C/C composite substrates was detected. A hydroxyapatite coating with rough surface was observed. A considerable amount of amorphous phase appeared as a result from the coating process, which could be transformed into the morphous phase crystalline HA after subsequent heat treatment. The shear strength between the HA coating and C/C composite substrates was 7.15 MPa.

  7. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    DOEpatents

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  8. MicroTribological Performance of Au-MoS2 and Ti-MoS2 Coatings with Varying Contact Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-15

    York, NY (2005) 16. Kuster, R.L.A., Schiffmann, K.I.: Nano-scratch testing on thin diamond - like carbon coatings for microactuators: friction, wear...Growth, structure, and tribological behavior of atomic layer- deposited tungsten disulphide solid lubricant coatings with applications to MEMS. Acta...friction behavior of self - lubricating boric acid films. Surf. Coat . Technol. 49(1-3). 435-^38 (1991) 44 4? £) Springer PHYSICAL SCIENCES LABORATORIES

  9. High-Melt Carbon-Carbon Coating for Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT), has developed a high-melt coating for use in nozzle extensions in next-generation spacecraft. The coating is composed primarily of carbon-carbon, a carbon-fiber and carbon-matrix composite material that has gained a spaceworthy reputation due to its ability to withstand ultrahigh temperatures. C-CAT's high-melt coating embeds hafnium carbide (HfC) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) within the outer layers of a carbon-carbon structure. The coating demonstrated enhanced high-temperature durability and suffered no erosion during a test in NASA's Arc Jet Complex. (Test parameters: stagnation heat flux=198 BTD/sq ft-sec; pressure=.265 atm; temperature=3,100 F; four cycles totaling 28 minutes) In Phase I of the project, C-CAT successfully demonstrated large-scale manufacturability with a 40-inch cylinder representing the end of a nozzle extension and a 16-inch flanged cylinder representing the attach flange of a nozzle extension. These demonstrators were manufactured without spalling or delaminations. In Phase II, C-CAT worked with engine designers to develop a nozzle extension stub skirt interfaced with an Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10 engine. All objectives for Phase II were successfully met. Additional nonengine applications for the coating include thermal protection systems (TPS) for next-generation spacecraft and hypersonic aircraft.

  10. Properties of carbon fibers with various coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegel, V.; Mcmahon, P.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that all high modulus carbon fibers are durable with respect to thermal oxidation in air. Among the more widely used and economical materials with low modulus, Celion displays particularly good oxidative durability at high temperatures. This contrast to other materials is due to the low content of Natrium and Kalium in Celion carbon fibers. It is also noted that improved characteristics are attained in Celion carbon fiber/polyimide systems when fibers are used with high temperature resistant polyimide coatings.

  11. Coating for gasifiable carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, Jan (Inventor); Dowler, Warren L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thin, uniform, firmly adherent coating of metal gasification catalyst is applied to a carbon-graphite fiber by first coating the fiber with a film-forming polymer containing functional moieties capable of reaction with the catalytic metal ions. Multivalent metal cations such as calcium cross-link the polymer such as a polyacrylic acid to insolubilize the film by forming catalytic metal macro-salt links between adjacent polymer chains. The coated fibers are used as reinforcement for resin composites and will gasify upon combustion without evolving conductive airborne fragments.

  12. Gradient titanium and silver based carbon coatings deposited on AISI316L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batory, Damian; Reczulska, Malgorzata Czerniak-; Kolodziejczyk, Lukasz; Szymanski, Witold

    2013-06-01

    The constantly growing market for medical implants and devices caused mainly due to a lack of proper attention attached to the physical condition as well as extreme sports and increased elderly population creates the need of new biocompatible biomaterials with controlled bioactivity and certain useful properties. According to many literature reports, regarding the modifications of variety of different biomaterials using the surface engineering techniques and their biological and physicochemical examination results, the most promising material for great spectra of medical applications seem to be carbon layers. Another issue is the interaction between the implant material and surrounding tissue. In particular cases this interface area is directly exposed to air. Abovementioned concern occurs mainly in case of the external fixations, thus they are more vulnerable to infection. Therefore a crucial role has the inhibition of bacterial adhesion that may prevent implant-associated infections, occurrence of other numerous complications and in particular cases rejection of the implant. For this reason additional features of carbon coatings like antibacterial properties seem to be desired and justified. Silver doped diamond-like carbon coatings with different Ag concentrations were prepared by hybrid RF PACVD/MS (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition/Magnetron Sputtering) deposition technique. Physicochemical parameters like chemical composition, morphology and surface topography, hardness and adhesion were determined. Examined layers showed a uniform distribution of silver in the amorphous DLC matrix, high value of H/E ratio, good adhesion and beneficial topography which make them a perfect material for medical applications e.g. modification of implants for the external fixations.

  13. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.; Thomas, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    Now that quantities of prepreg were made on the thermoplastic coating line, they are being formed into both textile preform structures and directly into composite samples. The textile preforms include both woven and knitted structures which will be thermoformed into a finished part. In order to determine if the matrix resin is properly adhering to the fibers or if voids are being formed in the coating process, the tensile strength and modulus of these samples will be tested. The matrix uniformity of matrix distribution in these samples is also being determined using an image analyzer.

  14. Oxidative Attack of Carbon/Carbon Substrates through Coating Pinholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Leonhardt, Todd; Curry, Donald; Rapp, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    A critical issue with oxidation protected carbon/carbon composites used for spacecraft thermal protection is the formation of coating pinholes. In laboratory experiments, artificial pinholes were drilled through SiC-coatings on a carbon/carbon material and the material was oxidized at 600, 1000, and 1400 C at reduced pressures of air. The attack of the carbon/carbon was quantified by both weight loss and a novel cross-sectioning technique. A two-zone, one dimensional diffusion control model was adapted to analyze this problem. Agreement of the model with experiment was reasonable at 1000 and 1400 C; however results at lower temperatures show clear deviations from the theory suggesting that surface reaction control plays a role.

  15. Innovative Superhard Materials and Sustainable Coatings for Advanced Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jay; Novikov, Nikolay

    The book contains the results of the latest achievements of leading researchers from 9 countries in the field of diamond and diamond-like carbon, cubic boron nitride and other superhard materials; high-density engineering ceramics; high pressure-high temperature technique; computer-aided modeling; diamond, cubic boron nitride, ceramic and cemented carbide tools; development, production and applications of nanostructured materials; films and wear-resistant coating; methods for quality control of tool materials and tools.

  16. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Using a continuous powder coating process, more than 1500 meters of T 300/LaRC-TPI prepreg were produced. Two different types of heating sections in the coating line, namely electrical resistance and convection heating, were utilized. These prepregs were used to fabricate unidirectional composites. During composite fabrication the cure time of the consolidation was varied, and composites samples were produced with and without vacuum. Under these specimens, the effects of the different heating sections and of the variation of the consolidation parameters on mechanical properties and void content were investigated. The void fractions of the various composites were determined from density measurements, and the mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing, short beam shear testing and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  17. Superconductor-coated carbon fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Statek, L.C.; Bennett, W.F.; Schulz, D.A.

    1990-12-04

    This patent describes superconducting composites made from ceramic-type superconductors coated onto a low resistivity carbon fiber selected from those high strength fibers which have an ultrahigh modulus and high thermal conductivity. Flexible conductors of several different structures made from such composites are described as well as other useful forms of the composites.

  18. Antioxidative protective coatings for carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kravetskii, G.A.; Kostikov, V.I.; Demin, A.V.; Rodionova, V.V.

    1995-12-01

    A widespread use of carbon-carbon and carbon-ceramic materials (CCM) in the aerospace industry, metallurgy (crucibles for melting metals) and electrical engineering is limited because of the need for protecting CCM parts against oxidation at service temperatures above 500 to 700{degrees}C. At temperatures up to 1300-1400{degrees}C, the problem can be solved by volume siliconizing CCM parts, impregnating C-C substrates with organosilicon compounds or gas-phase depositing (CVD process) silicon-containing compounds (SiC or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}). For CCM parts to be used at temperatures above 1500{degrees}C in oxidative environments (space structures; aircraft gas-turbine engine components in contact with a hot gas; crucibles for melting metals), the following techniques are being devised to apply protective coatings, as evident from a patent literature analysis: (1) Application of SiC coatings onto the surface of graphite or C-C parts by the CVD or CVR methods; such coatings can be quite efficient for parts operating short time at temperatures up to 2000{degrees}C, for example in rocket engines; (2) SiC coatings applied onto the surface of large-sized or intricately-shaped parts frequently experience cracking; this necessitates the application of multilayered or multicomponent coatings (by subsequent impregnation with various silicate compositions, covering with glass or glass-like compositions to {open_quotes}heal{close_quotes} cracks; applying surface oxide or silicate coatings); (3) Application on the surface of CCM parts of refractory, self-healing-in use coatings containing refractory borides and silicides; to this end the CVD method and plasma spraying in controlled atmospheres are employed. Given below are results of the investigations conducted at NIIGRA-FIT in the above-mentioned directions with the use of the slip-casting technology.

  19. Functional Carbon Nanocomposite, Optoelectronic, and Catalytic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu Teng

    Over the past couple decades, fundamental research into carbon nanomaterials has produced a steady stream of groundbreaking physical science. Their record setting mechanical strength, chemical stability, and optoelectronic performance have fueled many optimistic claims regarding the breadth and pace of carbon nanotube and graphene integration. However, present synthetic, processing, and economic constraints have precluded these materials from many practical device applications. To overcome these limitations, novel synthetic techniques, processing methodologies, device geometries, and mechanistic insight were developed in this dissertation. The resulting advancements in material production and composite device performance have brought carbon nanomaterials ever closer to commercial implementation. For improved materials processing, vacuum co-deposition was first demonstrated as viable technique for forming carbon nanocomposite films without property distorting covalent modifications. Co-deposited nanoparticle, carbon nanotube, and graphene composite films enabled rapid device prototyping and compositional optimization. Cellulosic polymer stabilizers were then shown to be highly effective carbon nanomaterial dispersants, improving graphene production yields by two orders of magnitude in common organic solvents. By exploiting polarity interactions, iterative solvent exchange was used to further increase carbon nanomaterial dispersion concentrations by an additional order of magnitude, yielding concentrated inks. On top of their low causticity, these cellulosic nanomaterial inks have highly tunable viscosities, excellent film forming capacity, and outstanding thermal stability. These processing characteristics enable the efficient scaling of carbon nanomaterial coatings and device production using existing roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Utilizing these process improvements, high-performance gas sensing, energy storage, transparent conductor, and photocatalytic

  20. Carbon coatings on polymers and their biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.; Khalili, R.; Slepičková-Kasálková, N.; Švorčík, V.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we modified the surface properties of polymer foils (polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) by flash evaporation of carbon layers (C-layers). Adhesion and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) on carbon coated PTFE and PET were studied in vitro. Chemical composition of deposited C-layers was determined by Raman spectroscopy, surface contact angle was measured by goniometry. Surface morphology of carbon coated samples was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical properties of deposited C-layers were determined by measuring its sheet resistance. It was found that the carbon deposition leads to a decrease of surface roughness of PTFE and PET and to a significant increase of sample wettability. Electrical resistance and wettability of deposited C-layers depends significantly on both the thickness of C-layer and the type of polymeric substrate used. It was found that maximal stimulation of the VSMC (adhesion and proliferation) on carbon coated polymers depends on the surface roughness and contact angle of cell carriers used.

  1. Identification of the diamond-like B-C phase by confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zinin, P V; Kudryashov, I; Konishi, N; Ming, L C; Solozhenko, V L; Sharma, S K

    2005-08-01

    The new diamond-like B-C phase was obtained from the graphite-like BC phase in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at high temperature 2230+/-140 K and high pressure 45 GPa. Raman spectra of the new phase measured at ambient conditions revealed a peak at 1315 cm(-1), which was attributed to longitudinal-optical (LO) mode. The X-Y Raman mapping was used to investigate spatial distribution of the diamond-like phases and was shown to be a powerful tool in studying the sp(2)-to-sp(3) phase transformations occurring in the diamond cell under high temperature and high pressure.

  2. Carbon Coating Of Copper By Arc-Discharge Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Jopek, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Adherent, abrasion-resistant coat deposited with existing equipment. Carbon formed and deposited as coating on copper substrate by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electrical-arc discharges. Technique for producing carbon deposits on copper accomplished with electrical-discharge-machining equipment used for cutting metals. Applications for new coating technique include the following: solar-energy-collecting devices, coating of metals other than copper with carbon, and carburization of metal surfaces.

  3. Superconductive niobium films coating carbon nanotube fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvato, M.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I.; Cirillo, M.; Behabtu, N.; Young, C. C.; Pasquali, M.; Vecchione, A.; Fittipaldi, R.; Corato, V.

    2014-11-01

    Superconducting niobium (Nb) has been successfully obtained by sputter deposition on carbon nanotube fibers. The transport properties of the niobium coating the fibers are compared to those of niobium thin films deposited on oxidized Si substrates during the same deposition run. For niobium films with thicknesses above 300 nm, the niobium coating the fibers and the thin films show similar normal state and superconducting properties with critical current density, measured at T = 4.2 K, of the order of 105 A cm-2. Thinner niobium layers coating the fibers also show the onset of the superconducting transition in the resistivity versus temperature dependence, but zero resistance is not observed down to T = 1 K. We evidence by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and current-voltage measurements that the granular structure of the samples is the main reason for the lack of true global superconductivity for thicknesses below 300 nm.

  4. Solid nanocrystalline fullerite-containing carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskomov, K. V.; Sochugov, N. S.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2009-10-01

    Solid carbon coatings with a high content of nanocrystalline fullerite have been obtained using unbalanced magnetron sputtering of graphite under conditions of pulsed high-voltage ion bombardment of the film growing on a substrate. It is established that samples possessing the maximum hardness (18.8 GPa) are characterized by maximum values of the volume fraction of fullerite in the coating (50%), coherent scattering domain size (53 nm), degree of preferred grain orientation (85%), relative deformation of the lattice (1.02%), and internal compressive stresses (2.91 GPa). The observed behavior is consistent with the mechanism of strengthening that accounts for the phenomenon of superhardness in nanocrystalline and nanocomposite materials. This assumption is confirmed by the results of investigation of the morphology of growing coatings.

  5. Binder for Carbon-Fiber Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.; Ramohalli, K. N.; Yen, S. P. S.; Mueller, W. A.; Harper, J.

    1984-01-01

    Insoluble, even coating formed by soaking in polyacrylic acid. Carbon fiber material prepared by soaking in solution of 20 percent polyacrylic acid in water. Material blotted and dried at 120 degrees C for at least 2 hours. Dried material reacted with boiling aqueous solution of calcium acetate. Treated material removed from boiling solution, blotted, dried at 120 degrees C, washed with distilled water, and dried again.

  6. Preparation of Chameleon Coatings for Space and Ambient Environments (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    YSZ), gold, diamond like carbon ( DLC ) and MoS2 were synthesized using magnetron assisted pulsed laser deposition (MSPLD). The coatings were...synthesized in four-component and three-component combinations that included YSZ/Au/ DLC /MoS2, YSZ/Au/MoS2, and YSZ/Au/ DLC . A range of coating compositions... DLC /MoS2 coatings, the optimal compositions for friction adaptation between dry nitrogen and humid air included relatively high concentrations of the

  7. Fluorinating hexagonal boron nitride into diamond-like nanofilms with tunable band gap and ferromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuhua; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Guo, Wanlin

    2011-09-21

    Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) possesses a number of extreme properties rivaling or surpassing those of diamond. Especially, owing to the high chemical stability, c-BN is desired for fabricating electronic devices that can stand up to harsh environments. However, realization of c-BN-based functional devices is still a challenging task due largely to the subtlety in the preparation of high-quality c-BN films with uniform thickness and controllable properties. Here, we present a simple synthetic strategy by surface fluorination of few-layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets to produce thermodynamically favorable F-terminated c-BN nanofilms with an embedded N-N bond layer and strong inbuilt electric polarization. Due to these specific features, the fluorinated c-BN nanofilms have controllable band gap by thickness or inbuilt and applied electric fields. Especially, the produced nanofilms can be tuned into substantial ferromagnetism through electron doping within a reasonable level. The electron-doping-induced deformation ratio of the c-BN nanofilms is found to be 1 order of magnitude higher than those of carbon nanotubes and graphene. At sufficient high doping levels, the nanofilm can be cleaved peculiarly along the N-N bond layer into diamond-like BN films. As the proposed synthesis strategy of the fluorinated c-BN nanofilms is well within the reach of current technologies, our results represent an extremely cost-effective approach for producing high-quality c-BN nanofilms with tunable electronic, magnetic, and electromechanical properties for versatile applications.

  8. Phonon-mediated high-T c superconductivity in hole-doped diamond-like crystalline hydrocarbon.

    PubMed

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Tao; Duan, Wenhui; Chen, Changfeng

    2017-05-03

    We here predict by ab initio calculations phonon-mediated high-T c superconductivity in hole-doped diamond-like cubic crystalline hydrocarbon K 4-CH (space group I21/3). This material possesses three key properties: (i) an all-sp (3) covalent carbon framework that produces high-frequency phonon modes, (ii) a steep-rising electronic density of states near the top of the valence band, and (iii) a Fermi level that lies in the σ-band, allowing for a strong coupling with the C-C bond-stretching modes. The simultaneous presence of these properties generates remarkably high superconducting transition temperatures above 80 K at an experimentally accessible hole doping level of only a few percent. These results identify a new extraordinary electron-phonon superconductor and pave the way for further exploration of this novel superconducting covalent metal.

  9. Phonon-mediated high-T c superconductivity in hole-doped diamond-like crystalline hydrocarbon

    DOE PAGES

    Lian, Chao-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Tao; Duan, Wenhui; ...

    2017-05-03

    We here predict by ab initio calculations phonon-mediated high-T c superconductivity in hole-doped diamond-like cubic crystalline hydrocarbon K4-CH (space group I21/3). This material possesses three key properties: (i) an all-sp3 covalent carbon framework that produces high-frequency phonon modes, (ii) a steep-rising electronic density of states near the top of the valence band, and (iii) a Fermi level that lies in the σ-band, allowing for a strong coupling with the C-C bond-stretching modes. The simultaneous presence of these properties generates remarkably high superconducting transition temperatures above 80 K at an experimentally accessible hole doping level of only a few percent. Thesemore » results identify a new extraordinary electron-phonon superconductor and pave the way for further exploration of this novel superconducting covalent metal.« less

  10. Thin Coatings of Polymeric Carbon and Carbon Nanotubes for Corrosion Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Carbon Nanotube Functionalization /Doping Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) A) p-Doping C) Polymer Wrapping Model B) n-Doping Polyethyleneimine ( PEI ) SWCNT Paint...fluorine-containing) groups functions as the barrier layer Multilayer Smart Carbon Nanotube Coating Insoluble polymer layer top coating -PMMA Substrate...Thin Coatings of Polymeric Carbon and Carbon Nanotubes for Corrosion Protection Zafar Iqbal Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science New

  11. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Browall, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  12. Electron cyclotron resonance deposition of diamond-like films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Pool, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma CVD has been developed at low pressures (0.0001 - 0.01 torr) and at ambient and high substrate temperatures (up to 750 C), to achieve large-area (greater than 4 in. diameter) depositions of diamondlike amorphous carbon (a - C:H) films. The application of a RF bias to the substrate stage, which induces a negative self-bias voltage, is found to play a critical role in determining carbon bonding configurations and in modifying the film morphology. There are two distinct types of ECR-deposited diamondlike films. One type of diamondlike film exhibits a Raman spectrum consisting of broad and overlapping, graphitic D (1360/cm, line width = 280/cm) and G (1590/cm, line width 140/cm) lines, and the other type has a broad Raman peak centered at appoximately 1500/cm. Examination of plasma species by optical emission spectroscopy shows no correlation between the CH-asterisk emission intensity and the deposition rate of diamondklike films.

  13. Oxidation of Carbon/Carbon through Coating Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Roth, d. J.; Rauser, R. W.; Cawley, J. D.; Curry, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) is used to protect the wing leading edge and nose cap of the Space Shuttle Orbiter on re-entry. It is composed of a lay-up of carbon/carbon fabric protected by a SiC conversion coating. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch of the carbon/carbon and the SiC, the SiC cracks on cool-down from the processing temperature. The cracks act as pathways for oxidation of the carbon/carbon. A model for the diffusion controlled oxidation of carbon/carbon through machined slots and cracks is developed and compared to laboratory experiments. A symmetric cylindrical oxidation cavity develops under the slots, confirming diffusion control. Comparison of cross sectional dimensions as a function of oxidation time shows good agreement with the model. A second set of oxidation experiments was done with samples with only the natural craze cracks, using weight loss as an index of oxidation. The agreement of these rates with the model is quite reasonab

  14. Carbon-Coated Silica and Silica-Coated Carbon for Elastomer Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohls, D. J.; Beaucage, G.; Pratsinis, S. E.; Kammler, H.

    2000-03-01

    Recently several silica producers have introduced dual-phase grades of silica/carbon powders intended for use in elastomer reinforcement. These mass-produced, nano-structured materials have carbon content in excess of 75carbon aggregates, the intent being to enhance the strength of filler-filler networking in a nano-composite. We have recently developed pyrolytic, nano-scale silica aggregates with interfacial carbon (typically less than 3the aim of enhancing elastomer-filler interaction in green tires. Our carbon-coated silicas display improved processability in typical tire compounds and enhanced dynamic mechanical performance. We also have developed facilities to produce organically functionalized silicas using a novel, room-temperature, aerosol, chemical reactor (ASG reactor). This talk will present our results on dynamic mechanical properties of elastomer compounds with our carbon-coated silica; commercial dual-phase, silica-coated carbon; ASG-organically-modified silicas; conventional carbon black; conventional precipated and fumed silica; as well as blends of the conventional materials. The mass-fractal structure as determined by SAXS and SALS, as well as gas and DBP absorption measurements and microscopy will be presented.

  15. a Simple Method of Applying Carbon Foam Coating for Carbon/carbon Composites to Modulate Cell Compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Hejun; Lu, Jinhua; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Xueni; Cao, Sheng; He, Zibo; Zeng, Xierong

    2013-01-01

    A simple slurry method was used to prepare carbon foam coatings on biomedical carbon/carbon composites to modulate the cell compatibility. The surface morphology and microstructure of the coatings were characterized and the effect of applying carbon foam coatings on cell morphology and cell proliferation was investigated. The results showed that the carbon foam coatings, consisting of carbon microspheres, resin carbon matrices and pores, covered the carbon/carbon composites entirely and uniformly with amorphous structures. There were large numbers of pores with a size ranging from submicron to tens of micrometers being found for the coatings. The cell culture experiments exhibited that both the cell spreading and the cell proliferation were improved after the preparation of the carbon foam coatings. It could be demonstrated that applying carbon foam coatings by a simple slurry method was an effective way to improve the cell compatibility of carbon/carbon composites.

  16. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos O; Mcdonough, John; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  17. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos R.; McDonough, John K.; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  18. Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Advances in materials technology have demonstrated that it is possible to get the advantages of diamond in a number of applications without the cost penalty, by coating and chemically bonding an inexpensive substrate with a thin film of diamond-like carbon (DLC). Diamond films offer tremendous technical and economic potential in such advances as chemically inert protective coatings; machine tools and parts capable of resisting wear 10 times longer; ball bearings and metal cutting tools; a broad variety of optical instruments and systems; and consumer products. Among the American companies engaged in DLC commercialization is Diamonex, Inc., a diamond coating spinoff of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. Along with its own proprietary technology for both polycrystalline diamond and DLC coatings, Diamonex is using, under an exclusive license, NASA technology for depositing DLC on a substrate. Diamonex is developing, and offering commercially, under the trade name Diamond Aegis, a line of polycrystalline diamond-coated products that can be custom tailored for optical, electronic and engineering applications. Diamonex's initial focus is on optical products and the first commercial product is expected in late 1990. Other target applications include electronic heat sink substrates, x-ray lithography masks, metal cutting tools and bearings.

  19. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors.

  20. Thermoplastic coated carbon fibers for textile preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. E.; Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A continuous process for producing prepreg from carbon fiber and thermoplastic matrix is described. After the tow has been spread using a pneumatic device, the process utilizes a fluidized bed to apply thermoplastic powder to the bundle. Finally, direct electrical heating of the coated fiber tow melts the polymer on the individual fibers, creating a uniform and extremely flexible prepreg. The efficiency of the process was evaluated during initial trials in which a thermoplastic polyimide, LaRC-TPI, was applied to T-300, 3K (3000 filament) carbon fiber tow. The physical properties of unidirectional composite specimens fabricated from this prepreg were measured, and the matrix uniformity and void content of the samples was determined. The results of these evaluations are detailed and discussed.

  1. Diamondlike carbon protective coatings for optical windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited on infrared transmitting optical windows and were evaluated as protective coatings for these windows exposed to particle and rain erosion. The DLC films were deposited on zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by three different ion beam methods: (1) sputter deposition from a carbon target using an 8-cm argon ion source; (2) direct deposition by a 30-cm hollow cathode ion source with hydrocarbon gas in argon; and (3) dual beam direct deposition by the 30-cm hollow cathode ion source and an 8-cm argon ion source. In an attempt to improve the adherence of the DLC films on ZnSc and ZnS, ion beam cleaning, ion implantation with helium and neon ions, or sputter deposition of a thin, ion beam intermediate coating was employed prior to deposition of the DLC film. The protection that the DLC films afforded the windows from particle and rain erosion was evaluated, along with the hydrogen content, adherence, intrinsic stress, and infrared transmittance of the films. Because of the elevated stress levels in the ion beam sputtered DLC films and in those ion beam deposited with butane, films thicker than 0.1 micron and with good adherence on ZnS and ZnSe could not be generated. An intermediate coating of germanium successfully allowed the DLC films to remain adherent to the optical windows and caused only negligible reduction in the specular transmittance of the ZnS and ZnSe at 10 microns.

  2. Capacitive Measurement Of Coating Thickness On Carbon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eftekhari, Abe; Chapman, John J.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for gauging coating thickness during prepreg processing of carbon fibers developed. Technique based on measurement of capacitance of cylindrical condenser through which bundle of prepregged fibers passed axially. Empirical results indicate capacitance linearly related to thickness of polymer coat on fibers in bundle. Capacitive transducer used successfully to measure thickness of polymer coats on several test bundles of fibers under static conditions.

  3. Elastic properties, sp³ fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung; Liu, Yongsheng; Ciston, Jim; Hong, Shiming

    2014-10-07

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon sp²versus sp³ content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp³ fraction, the shear modulus μ of dl-BC₄, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, and dl-B₃C₂, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, were found to be μ = 19.3 GPa and μ = 170 GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp³ bonds during the deposition processes.

  4. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T.; Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P.; Cook, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  5. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  6. Polymer coatings to functionalize carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Rich, S.; Yedji, M.; Amadou, J.; Terwagne, G.; Felten, A.; Avril, L.; Pireaux, J.-J.

    2012-03-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by plasma polymerization with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and allylamine (AA) as monomers. Conditions of the MMA and AA plasma polymerization processes in a specially designed reactor and the plasma-polymerized MMA and AA coatings were studied. The chemical composition of the surface was analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS); the polymer deposited on the CNTs surface was visualized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), while Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed checking for the chemical structure of deposited plasma polymers (PP). In this work, we show that plasma functionalization creates C=O and C-O-C functional groups, or C-NH2 at the MWCNT surface, as a result of polymer deposited during the MMA or AA plasma treatments, respectively.

  7. Lubrication by Diamond and Diamondlike Carbon Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1997-01-01

    Regardless of environment (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, dry nitrogen, or water), ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) and nitrogen-ion-implanted, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films had low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6)cu mm/N(dot)m). These films can be used as effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings regardless of environment. On the other hand, as-deposited, fine-grain CVD diamond films; polished, coarse-grain CVD diamond films; and polished and then fluorinated, coarse-grain CVD diamond films can be used as effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings in humid air, in dry nitrogen, and in water, but they had a high coefficient of friction and a high wear rate in ultrahigh vacuum. The polished, coarse-grain CVD diamond film revealed an extremely low wear rate, far less than 10(exp 10) cu mm/N(dot)m, in water.

  8. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X. S.; Wang, H. J.; Feng, L.; Shao, L. X.; Zou, C. W.

    2014-08-01

    Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent.

  9. Low reflectance DLC coatings on various IR substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilo, Mordechai; Azran, Amnon

    2012-06-01

    Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) or Hard Carbon (HC) single layer coatings on optical substrates are commonly used. As a single layer, the resulting average reflectance in different spectral ranges (about 2.5% in the 3-5 μm region) needs improvements. We propose multilayer coatings having a DLC upper layer applied on Si, Ge and other materials. These coatings result in an average reflection of less than 0.5% in either the 3.4-5 μm or the 8-11.5 μm regions. The average transmittance in these regions is more than 97%. The durability is comparable to single layer DLC coatings. These coatings are suitable to front surface FLIR lens assemblies. The effect on the performance of a zoom lens assembly and the reduction of the Narcissus effect is shown.

  10. DLC coating of textile blood vessels using PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomas; Jelinek, Miroslav; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Zemek, Josef; Janča, Tomáš; Žížková, Věra; Podlaha, Jiří; Popov, Cyril

    2008-11-01

    Textile blood vessels with a length of 30 cm were coated with amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers with thicknesses up to 200 nm. The layers were created by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum or argon ambient. The percentage of sp3 carbon was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Depending on the deposition conditions the sp3 content varied from ˜40% to 60%. The adhesion of the DLC layers to the textile vessels was checked. The preliminary biocompatibility results from in vivo tests with sheep are also given.

  11. The oxidation behavior of carbon-carbon composites and their coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oxidation of carbon-carbon composites and coatings in oxygen at temperatures between 300 and 1400 C was investigated. State-of-the-art systems were characterized prior to the oxidation studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy. It was determined that uncoated carbon-carbon composites cannot be used at temperatures above about 400 C for extended periods of time because of oxidation. Oxidation does occur at temperatures below 400 C but at very low rates. Boron was found to be an ineffective inhibitor for carbon-carbon oxidation. Coatings were useful in protecting carbon-carbon composites from oxidation under isothermal test conditions but these coatings failed under cyclic conditions. The factors leading to the failure of coatings on carbon-carbon composites are described.

  12. Optimization and characterization of adhesion properties of DLC coatings on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, B.; Alam, S.; Irfan, M.; Shahid, M.; Soomro, B. D.; Hashim, S.; Iqbal, R.

    2014-06-01

    The Diamond Like Carbon coatings (DLC) are gaining prime importance in the field of surface engineering especially cutting tools technology. The self lubricating property of these coatings makes them unique among other coatings like TiN, TiAlN, CrN etc. Unlike other coatings, DLC coatings give better surface finish and their self lubrication reduces the wear of a part to large extent. In present work, different substrates were selected to study the wear and adhesion behavior of DLC coatings. The coating was produced by physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) technique and the adhesive properties of DLC coatings were analyzed under ambient conditions using nano Scratch testing. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the scratches and their mechanisms.

  13. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  14. On the origin of a band gap in compounds of diamond-like structures.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Jürgen; Deng, Shuiquan; Lee, Changhoon; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan

    2007-03-19

    Electronic structure calculations were performed to examine the origin of a band gap present in most 18-electron half-Heusler compounds and its absence in NaTl. In these compounds of diamond-like structures, the presence or absence of a band gap is controlled by the sigma antibonding between the valence s orbitals, and the bonding characteristics of the late-main-group elements depend on the extent of their ns/np hybridization. Implications of these observations on the formal oxidation state and the covalent bonding of the transition-metal atoms in 18-electron half-Heusler and related compounds were discussed.

  15. Laser-induced deposition of diamond-like amorphous films and their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasenko, S. N.

    1990-10-01

    A method is proposed for producing diamond-like amorphous films using a pulsed TEA CO2 laser. The quality of the films is largely determined by the distance from the target to the substrate, energy composition of the plasma particles, and overlap of the plasma near the target by the plasma beam incident at 45 degrees and providing the additional heating of the plasma jet. The density of the films and their optical characteristics affect their stability to irradiation; the films have a stability threshold of 10 to the 7th W/sq cm for a laser wavelength of 1.06 micron.

  16. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  17. Composite protective coating for carbon-carbon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, J.W.; Forcht, B.A.; Moss, R.W.

    1985-02-19

    Composite protective coatings for protecting carbonaceous substrates from degrading in oxygen containing environments are provided. The composite protective coatings include a first coating layer applied to the surface of the substrate. The first coating layer is a silicon carbide type coating. The second coating layer is applied to the surface of a first coating layer and is a sputter deposited phase stabilized zirconium oxide having a columnar microstructure. Carbonaceous substrates having the composite protective coatings are able to withstand temperatures of about 4100/sup 0/ F. in oxygen containing environments.

  18. Superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges for separation and absorption.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hanxue; Li, An; Zhu, Zhaoqi; Liang, Weidong; Zhao, Xinhong; La, Peiqing; Deng, Weiqiao

    2013-06-01

    Highly porous activated carbon with a large surface area and pore volume was synthesized by KOH activation using commercially available activated carbon as a precursor. By modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), highly porous activated carbon showed superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 163.6°. The changes in wettability of PDMS- treated highly porous activated carbon were attributed to the deposition of a low-surface-energy silicon coating onto activated carbon (confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), which had microporous characteristics (confirmed by XRD, SEM, and TEM analyses). Using an easy dip-coating method, superhydrophobic activated carbon-coated sponges were also fabricated; those exhibited excellent absorption selectivity for the removal of a wide range of organics and oils from water, and also recyclability, thus showing great potential as efficient absorbents for the large-scale removal of organic contaminants or oil spills from water.

  19. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guilei; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Qiquan; Yan, Honghao

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  20. Method for applying pyrolytic carbon coatings to small particles

    DOEpatents

    Beatty, Ronald L.; Kiplinger, Dale V.; Chilcoat, Bill R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for coating small diameter, low density particles with pyrolytic carbon is provided by fluidizing a bed of particles wherein at least 50 per cent of the particles have a density and diameter of at least two times the remainder of the particles and thereafter recovering the small diameter and coated particles.

  1. Tungsten disulphide coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNs), coated with ordered WS 2 mono- or multi-layers, are generated by pyrolysing H 2S/N 2 over MWCNs thinly coated with WO 3. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals the presence of hexagonal WS 2 arrays in the tube surface, consistent with the WS 2 simulated structure.

  2. On the nature of interface of carbon nanotube coated carbon fibers with different polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Bedi, Harpreet; Padhee, Srikant S.; Agnihotri, Prabhat K.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental investigations are carried out to analyse the wetting behaviour of carbon nanotube (CNT) coated carbon fiber to determine their suitability to process carbon nanotube coated carbon fiber/polymer multiscale composites for structural applications. To overcome the problem of agglomeration, CNTs are grown directly on the surface of carbon fibers as well as fabric using thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The term multiscale is used because different reinforcement mechanisms operate at the scale of long fibers and CNTs which are of few micrometers in length. The load carrying capacity of these multiscale composites critically depends on the efficiency and extent of load transfer from low strength matrix to high strength fiber which in turn depends on the interfacial strength between CNT coated carbon fiber and polymer matrix. A systematic analysis of wetting behaviour of CNT coated carbon fiber with epoxy and polyester matrix is carried out in this study. It is shown that CNT coated carbon fibers as well as fabric show better wettability with epoxy matrix as compared to polyester matrix. This results in stronger interface of CNT coated carbon fiber with epoxy as compared to polyester in multiscale composite system. A similar observation is made in nanoindentation testing of single fiber multiscale composites processed with epoxy and polyester matrix. In addition, it is observed that wettability, interfacial strength and average properties of CNT coated carbon fiber/polymer composites are a function of CNT density on the surface of carbon fibers.

  3. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600/sup 0/C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles (<2mm) and newly developed screw-agitated coaters for larger particles (>2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000/sup 0/C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500/sup 0/C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO)/sub 4/ as the catalyst, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ as the carbon source gas, and H/sub 2/ as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530/sup 0/C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 ..mu..m/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters.

  4. Formation mechanism of a silicon carbide coating for a reinforced carbon-carbon composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Shuford, D. M.; Mueller, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for a study to determine the mechanisms involved in a high-temperature pack cementation process which provides a silicon carbide coating on a carbon-carbon composite. The process and materials used are physically and chemically analyzed. Possible reactions are evaluated using the results of these analytical data. The coating is believed to develop in two stages. The first is a liquid controlled phase process in which silicon carbide is formed due to reactions between molten silicon metal and the carbon. The second stage is a vapor transport controlled reaction in which silicon vapors react with the carbon. There is very little volume change associated with the coating process. The original thickness changes by less than 0.7%. This indicates that the coating process is one of reactive penetration. The coating thickness can be increased or decreased by varying the furnace cycle process time and/or temperature to provide a wide range of coating thicknesses.

  5. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  6. Influence of carbon nanomaterials on the properties of paint coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanok, S. A.; Krauklis, A. V.; Borisevich, K. O.; Prokopchuk, N. P.; Nikolaichik, A. V.; Stanovoi, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    The conditions for obtaining carbon nanomaterials with the use of a low-temperature plasma are described. The product obtained was analyzed using the electron microscopy and a laser diffraction particle-size analyzer. The influence of the carbon nanomaterials on the physicochemical properties of paint coatings, their adhesion, impact and bending strengths, hardness, and protection characteristics was investigated.

  7. Multilayered Polymer Coated Carbon Nanotubes to Deliver Dasatinib

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Thomas L.; Grimes, Stuart W.; Lewis, Robert L.; Alexis, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered, multifunctional polymer coatings were grafted onto carbon nanotubes (CNT) using a one-pot, ring-opening polymerization in order to control the release kinetic and therapeutic efficacy of dasatinib. Biocompatible, biodegradable multilayered coatings composed of poly(glycolide) (PGA), and poly(lactide) (PLA) were polymerized directly onto hydroxyl-functionalized CNT surfaces. Sequential addition of monomers into the reaction vessel enabled multilayered coatings of PLA-PGA, or PGA-PLA. Poly(ethylene glycol) capped the polymer chain ends, resulting in a multifunctional amphiphilic coating. Multilayer polymer coatings on CNTs enabled control of anticancer dasatinib’s release kinetics and enhanced the in vitro therapeutic efficacy against U-87 glioblastoma compared to monolayer polymer coatings. PMID:24294824

  8. FTIR Spectroscopy for Carbon Family Study.

    PubMed

    Ţucureanu, Vasilica; Matei, Alina; Avram, Andrei Marius

    2016-11-01

    Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a versatile technique for the characterization of materials belonging to the carbon family. Based on the interaction of the IR radiation with matter this technique may be used for the identification and characterization of chemical structures. Most important features of this method are: non-destructive, real-time measurement and relatively easy to use. Carbon basis for all living systems has found numerous industrial applications from carbon coatings (i.e. amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon films: diamond-like carbon (DLC) films) to nanostructured materials (fullerenes, nanotubes, graphene) and carbon materials at nanoscale or carbon dots (CDots). In this paper, we present the FTIR vibrational spectroscopy for the characterization of diamond, amorphous carbon, graphite, graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerene and carbon quantum dots (CQDs), without claiming to cover entire field.

  9. Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) oxidation resistant material samples - Baseline coated, and baseline coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantz, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Reinforced carbon-carbon material specimens were machined from 19 and 33 ply flat panels which were fabricated and processed in accordance with the specifications and procedures accepted for the fabrication and processing of the leading edge structural subsystem (LESS) elements for the space shuttle orbiter. The specimens were then baseline coated and tetraethyl orthosilicate impregnated, as applicable, in accordance with the procedures and requirements of the appropriate LESS production specifications. Three heater bars were ATJ graphite silicon carbide coated with the Vought 'pack cementation' coating process, and three were stackpole grade 2020 graphite silicon carbide coated with the chemical vapor deposition process utilized by Vought in coating the LESS shell development program entry heater elements. Nondestructive test results are reported.

  10. Field emission properties of carbon nanotubes coated with boron nitride.

    PubMed

    Park, Noejung; Han, Seungwu; Ihm, Jisoon

    2003-01-01

    Field emission properties of carbon nanotubes coated with a single layer of boron nitride are calculated using the first-principles pseudopotential method. At lower bias voltage, the emission current of the coated nanotube is comparable to that of the bare carbon nanotube and is dominated by the contribution from localized states at the tip of the tube. At higher voltage, newly generated hybridized states between the carbon nanotube tip and the even-membered boron nitride rings contribute significantly to the emission current because they experience a low tunneling barrier compared with the bare carbon nanotube case. Our results suggest that the insulator coating can, besides protecting the nanotube tip from the attack of gas molecules, substantially enhance the field emission current.

  11. Mechanical Properties and Atomic Explanation of Plastic Deformation for Diamond-Like BC2

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Baobing; Zhang, Meiguang; Chang, Shaomei

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a recently predicted structure of diamond-like BC2 with a high claimed hardness of 56 GPa (J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 22688–22690), we focus on whether this tetragonal BC2 (t-BC2) is superhard or not in spite of such an ultrahigh theoretical hardness. The mechanical properties of t-BC2 were thus further extended by using the first principles in the framework of density functional theory. Our results suggest that the Young’s and shear moduli of t-BC2 exhibit a high degree of anisotropy. For the weakest shear direction, t-BC2 undergoes an electronic instability and structural collapse upon a shear strain of about 0.11, with its theoretically ideal strength of only 36.2 GPa. Specifically, the plastic deformation under shear strain along the (110)[001] direction can be attributed to the breaking of d1 B–C bonds. PMID:28773636

  12. On axisymmetric/diamond-like mode transitions in axially compressed core-shell cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Potier-Ferry, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Recent interests in curvature- and stress-induced pattern formation and pattern selection motivate the present study. Surface morphological wrinkling of a cylindrical shell supported by a soft core subjected to axial compression is investigated based on a nonlinear 3D finite element model. The post-buckling behavior of core-shell cylinders beyond the first bifurcation often leads to complicated responses with surface mode transitions. The proposed finite element framework allows predicting and tracing these bifurcation portraits from a quantitative standpoint. The occurrence and evolution of 3D instability modes including sinusoidally deformed axisymmetric patterns and non-axisymmetric diamond-like modes will be highlighted according to critical dimensionless parameters. Besides, the phase diagram obtained from dimensional analyses and numerical results could be used to guide the design of core-shell cylindrical systems to achieve the desired instability patterns.

  13. Hard Carbon Films Deposited under Various Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, M.-K.; Chen, S.-C.; Wu, T. C.; Lee, Sanboh

    1998-03-01

    Using a carbon target ablated with an XeCl-excimer laser under various gas atmospheres at different pressures, hard carbon was deposited on silicon, iron and tungsten carbide substrates. The hardness, friction coefficient, and wear rate of the film against steel are better than pure substrate material, respectively, so that it has potential to be used as a protective coating for micromechanical elements. The influences of gas pressure, gas atmosphere, and power density of laser irradiation on the thermal stability of film were analyzed by means of Raman-spectroscope, time-of-flight method, and optical emission spectrum. It was found that the film deposited under higher pressure has less diamond-like character. The film deposited under rest gas or argon atmosphere was very unstable and looked like a little graphite-like character. The film deposited at high vacuum (10-5 mbar rest gas) was the most stable and looked like the most diamond-like character. The film deposited at higher power density was more diamond-like than that at lower power density.

  14. Functionalization, coordination, and coating of carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Christopher Eric

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were covalently end-functionalized with various donor ligands in order to facilitate the coordination of metal catalyst nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to optimize catalyst complexation to SWNT ends, allowing growth from preformed seeds (SWNT-cats). The "SWNT amplification" method is envisioned as a route to bulk single-chirality nanotube samples. Study by 31P MAS NMR was undertaken in order to characterize SWNT phosphine derivatives. The synthesis of new N-aryl dipyridylamines (dpas) and related compounds is reported. The products, chelating N-donor ligands, will be used to prepare copper complexes. Copper dpa complexes are able to discriminate between olefin isomers in simple mixtures. Similar triarylamines have been similarly prepared and characterized; these have been tested for their ability to separate SWNTs of particular diameters (or chiral angles) by selective pi-pi stacking interactions. This method is a possible route to single or few-chirality samples, which could then be subjected to SWNT amplification. A novel method for production of high-yield dispersions of single and few layer graphene is presented. o-Dichlorobenzene suspensions of graphene provide twice the yield of previous methods. Moreover, ODCB graphene dispersions form a convenient platform from which to pursue covalent derivatization of graphene in a nonpolar medium. ODCB dispersions have been used to covalently functionalize graphene with perfluoroalkyl groups by a free radical method. Initiation of radical reactions was achieved by both UV photolysis and thermal decomposition of peroxides. Perfluoroalkylated graphene is highly exfoliated and shows great promise for use in polymer composites, lubricants and coatings. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of II-VI semiconductor materials on SWNT substrates is demonstrated. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices have been prepared from these SWNT-semiconductor composites. The CBD process of depositing

  15. Carbon-coated nanoparticle superlattices for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yiliguma, Affa; Wang, Yifei; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) superlattices represent a unique material architecture for energy conversion and storage. Recent reports on carbon-coated NP superlattices have shown exciting electrochemical properties attributed to their rationally designed compositions and structures, fast electron transport, short diffusion length, and abundant reactive sites via enhanced coupling between close-packed NPs, which are distinctive from their isolated or disordered NP or bulk counterparts. In this minireview, we summarize the recent developments of highly-ordered and interconnected carbon-coated NP superlattices featuring high surface area, tailorable and uniform doping, high conductivity, and structure stability. We then introduce the precisely-engineered NP superlattices by tuning/studying specific aspects, including intermetallic structures, long-range ordering control, and carbon coating methods. In addition, these carbon-coated NP superlattices exhibit promising characteristics in energy-oriented applications, in particular, in the fields of lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, and electrocatalysis. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed to further explore the carbon-coated NP superlattices for optimized electrochemical performances.

  16. Novel Corrosion Control Coating Utilizing Carbon Nanotechnology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Hawkins Tesla NanoCoatings Limited Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...Phone: 217-373-6767 E-mail: susan.a.drozdz@us.army.mil Todd Hawkins Tesla NanoCoatings Limited P.O. Box 270 Massillon, Ohio 44646 Phone: 330-880-5229 E-mail: todd@teslanano.com TESLAN™

  17. Performance of CVD and CVR coated carbon-carbon in high temperature hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. W.; Barletta, R. E.; Svandrlik, J.; Vanier, P. E.

    As a part of the component development process for the particle bed reactor (PBR), it is necessary to develop coatings which will be time and temperature stable at extremely high temperatures in flowing hydrogen. These coatings must protect the underlying carbon structure from attack by the hydrogen coolant. Degradation which causes small changes in the reactor component, e.g. hole diameter in the hot frit, can have a profound effect on operation. The ability of a component to withstand repeated temperature cycles is also a coating development issue. Coatings which crack or spall under these conditions would be unacceptable. While refractory carbides appear to be the coating material of choice for carbon substrates being used in PBR components, the method of applying these coatings can have a large effect on their performance. Two deposition processes for these refractory carbides, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and chemical vapor reaction (CVR), have been evaluated. Screening tests for these coatings consisted of testing of coated 2-D and 3-D weave carbon-carbon in flowing hot hydrogen at one atmosphere. Carbon loss from these samples was measured as a function of time. Exposure temperatures up to 3,000 K were used, and samples were exposed in a cyclical fashion cooling to room temperature between exposures. The results of these measurements are presented along with an evaluation of the relative merits of CVR and CVD coatings for this application.

  18. Tensile Properties of Polyimide Composites Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes-Grafted and Polyimide-Coated Carbon Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Kimiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    The tensile properties and fracture behavior of polyimide composite bundles incorporating carbon nanotubes-grafted (CNT-grafted) and polyimide-coated (PI-coated) high-tensile-strength polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based (T1000GB), and high-modulus pitch-based (K13D) carbon fibers were investigated. The CNT were grown on the surface of the carbon fibers by chemical vapor deposition. The pyromellitic dianhydride/4,4'-oxydianiline PI nanolayer coating was deposited on the surface of the carbon fiber by high-temperature vapor deposition polymerization. The results clearly demonstrate that CNT grafting and PI coating were effective for improving the Weibull modulus of T1000GB PAN-based and K13D pitch-based carbon fiber bundle composites. In addition, the average tensile strength of the PI-coated T1000GB carbon fiber bundle composites was also higher than that of the as-received carbon fiber bundle composites, while the average tensile strength of the CNT-grafted T1000GB, K13D, and the PI-coated K13D carbon fiber bundle composites was similar to that of the as-received carbon fiber bundle composites.

  19. Rolling-contact and wear resistance of hard coatings on bearing-steel substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1992-02-01

    Ever-increasing needs for high-performance ball- and roller-bearing components that can endure extreme applications have led to a growing interest in hard coatings for improved fatigue life and wear resistance. In particular, hard TiN and TiC coatings and, quite recently, diamond like carbon films have attracted much attention from manufacturers that produce bearing systems for both rolling- and sliding-contact applications. This paper presents an overview that highlights recent incremental progress in achieving improved fatigue and wear resistance in bearing steels through the use of hard coatings. Effects of coating adhesion, thickness, and morphology on fatigue and wear resistance of hard coatings are discussed in detail. Specific references are made to a few mechanistic models that correlate coating thickness and adhesion to improved fatigue life and wear resistance.

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOEpatents

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  1. Diamond-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Field Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimitrijevic, Stevan; Withers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Field-emission cathodes containing arrays of carbon nanotubes coated with diamond or diamondlike carbon (DLC) are undergoing development. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been shown to perform well as electron field emitters. The idea underlying the present development is that by coating carbon nanotubes with wideband- gap materials like diamond or DLC, one could reduce effective work functions, thereby reducing threshold electric-field levels for field emission of electrons and, hence, improving cathode performance. To demonstrate feasibility, experimental cathodes were fabricated by (1) covering metal bases with carbon nanotubes bound to the bases by an electrically conductive binder and (2) coating the nanotubes, variously, with diamond or DLC by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In tests, the threshold electric-field levels for emission of electrons were reduced by as much as 40 percent, relative to those of uncoated- nanotube cathodes. Coating with diamond or DLC could also make field emission-cathodes operate more stably by helping to prevent evaporation of carbon from nanotubes in the event of overheating of the cathodes. Cathodes of this type are expected to be useful principally as electron sources for cathode-ray tubes and flat-panel displays.

  2. Processing and characterization of Ultrathin carbon coatings on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Rajagopalan, R.; Robinson, J.; Pantano, C.G.

    2009-04-15

    Ultrathin carbon layers, on the order of 3-6 nm in thickness, were formed on glass substrates by spin coating and pyrolysis of polymer precursors. The organic precursors used were poly(furfuryl alcohol), coal tar pitch, and a photoresist. The carbon coatings were characterized by ellipsometry, optical profilometry, water contact angle, confocal Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We also report the transparency, hydrophobicity, friction, weathering resistance, and electrical conductivity of the carbon-coated glass. The results reveal that up to 97% transparent, ultrathin carbon films could be formed on glass substrates with a root-mean-square roughness of less than about to 0.3 nm. This carbon layer modified the otherwise hydrophilic surface of the glass to yield a water contact angle of 85{sup o}. The coatings were also found to provide a water barrier against weathering under hot and humid conditions. A 4.5-nm-thick carbon film on glass had a sheet resistance of 55.6 k {Omega} m and a conductivity of 40 S/cm.

  3. An investigation of material properties and tribological performance of magnetron sputtered thin film coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harpal

    This dissertation is divided into two categories based upon lubrication functionality and its application. The categories are: Dry film lubrication and Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings. Thin film coatings examined in this work were deposited using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering and RF-DC coupled magnetron sputtering systems. In Dry/Solid film lubrication, the mechanical, structural and tribological properties of two Molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) based coatings are examined and evaluated. Among the two coatings, one coating is doped with Ti (Ti-MoS2) and the other is a combination of metal, lubricant and oxide (Sb2O3/Au - MoS2). These coatings are known to provide low friction in vacuum environments. The goal of this work was to evaluate friction and wear performance of MoS2 doped coatings in unidirectional and reciprocating sliding contact under different environmental conditions. Sliding contact results showed friction and wear dependence on temperature and humidity. The formation and removal of transfer films and the recrystallization and reorientation of basal layers on the steel counterface was observed as the mechanism for low friction. Structural analysis revealed a relationship between the microstructural properties and tribological performance. It was also observed that the addition of dopants (Ti, Au, Sb 2O3) improved the mechanical properties as compared to pure MoS2 coatings. Further, the rolling contact performance of the coatings was measured on a five ball on rod tribometer and a Thrust bearing tribometer under vacuum and air environments. The rolling contact experiments indicated that life of the rolling components depend on the amount of material present between the contacts. Fluid film lubrication with thin film coatings investigates the possibilities to improve the performance and durability of tribological components when oils and thin films are synergistically coupled. In this work, the ability of a Diamond Like Carbon

  4. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (<0.5 mm thickness) with lower pressures by promoting wall slip. The second application consists of a new approach to provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of

  5. A new carbon structure in annealed film coatings of the carbon-lead system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. N.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.; Tsai, K. V.; Rofman, O. V.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-lead solid solutions coexisting with amorphous carbon have been obtained for the first time in a film coating deposited by ion-plasma sputtering. During subsequent vacuum annealing of carbon-lead films containing more than 68.5 at % Pb, this element almost completely evaporates to leave an amorphous carbon coating on a substrate. During annealing at 1100°C, this amorphous carbon crystallizes into a new hexagonal lattice with unit cell parameters a = 0.7603 nm and c = 0.8168 nm. Characteristic X-ray diffraction data for the identification of this phase are determined.

  6. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, U. A.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Nespoli, F.

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  7. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, U A; Duval, B P; Labit, B; Nespoli, F

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  8. New solar selective coating based on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abendroth, Thomas; Leupolt, Beate; Mäder, Gerrit; Härtel, Paul; Grählert, Wulf; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be applied to assemble a new type of solar selective coating system for solar thermal applications. In this work the predominant absorption processes occurring by interaction with π-plasmon and Van Hove singularities (VHS) were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Not only optical properties for as deposited SWCNT thin films itself, but also the potential for systematic tailoring will be presented. Besides low cost technologies required, the adjustability of optical properties, as well as their thermal stability render CNT based solar selective coatings as promising alternative to commercially available coating systems.

  9. Laser-surface-alloyed carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yao; Gan Cuihua; Zhang Tainua; Yu Gang; Bai Pucun; Kaplan, Alexander

    2005-06-20

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT)-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings have been fabricated by laser surface alloying. Microstructural observation using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that a large amount of CNTs remained with their original tubular morphology, even though some CNTs reacted with titanium element in the substrate during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the elastic modulus and hardness of the composite coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of CNTs in the starting precursor materials. Therefore, CNT-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite is a promising coating material for high-load-bearing metal implants.

  10. Laser-surface-alloyed carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yao; Gan, Cuihua; Zhang, Tainua; Yu, Gang; Bai, Pucun; Kaplan, Alexander

    2005-06-01

    Carbon-nanotube (CNT)-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings have been fabricated by laser surface alloying. Microstructural observation using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed that a large amount of CNTs remained with their original tubular morphology, even though some CNTs reacted with titanium element in the substrate during laser irradiation. Additionally, measurements on the elastic modulus and hardness of the composite coatings indicated that the mechanical properties were affected by the amount of CNTs in the starting precursor materials. Therefore, CNT-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite is a promising coating material for high-load-bearing metal implants.

  11. Adhesion of preceramic inorganic polymer coatings to carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhry, T.M.; Drzal, L.T.; Ho, H.; Laine, R.

    1996-12-31

    To determine whether the preceramic inorganic polymer coating can provide not only the thermal oxidative protection during both processing and use in metal matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites but also the appropriate composite properties, it is desirable to know how and at what point in the thermal processing cycle the coating-carbon fiber interface undergoes changes that affect the interfacial adhesion and failure mode. Also, it is important to identify the locus of interfacial failure i.e. between fiber and coating or between coating and matrix. This work is directed at determining the interfacial changes and the locus of failure in order to optimize both the coating chemistry and the conversion process. The characteristics of the benchmark interface coating material, silicon oxycarbide, SiO{sub x}C{sub y} or black glass have been studied. SiO{sub x}C{sub y} was chosen because (1) SiO{sub x}C{sub y} is amorphous, (2) it is possible to prepare very well-defined materials, where the chemistry and the evolution of the material with time and temperature are known in detail, and (3) SiO{sub x}C{sub y} is a matrix material used in commercial composites. It has been shown that these coatings are effective in increasing the oxidation resistance of the carbon fibers themselves.

  12. Hollow carbon spheres in microwaves: Bio inspired absorbing coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D.; Li, S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, A.; Gorokhov, G.; Kuzhir, P.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Pasc, A.; Ballweg, T.; Mandel, K.; Szczurek, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of a heterostructure based on a monolayer of hollow glassy carbon spheres packed in 2D was experimentally surveyed with respect to its response to microwaves, namely, the Ka-band (26-37 GHz) frequency range. Such an ordered monolayer of spheres mimics the well-known "moth-eye"-like coating structures, which are widely used for designing anti-reflective surfaces, and was modelled with the long-wave approximation. Based on the experimental and modelling results, we demonstrate that carbon hollow spheres may be used for building an extremely lightweight, almost perfectly absorbing, coating for Ka-band applications.

  13. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  14. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE PAGES

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; ...

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  15. Investigation of non-hydrogenated DLC:Si prepared by cathodic arc[Diamond-Like Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

    2002-03-18

    Non-hydrogenated DLC films (also referred as ta-C) have been extensively studied and are used for a variety of wear related applications. Alloying DLC with refractory metals and other elements have been shown to be promising techniques to overcome some of the problems associated with pure DLC, such as excessive level of intrinsic stresses and high-temperature stability. The microstructure of DLC:Me in general consists of crystalline metal carbides dispersed in a DLC matrix. In contrary, DLC:Si has an amorphous structure. We have used filtered cathodic arc to prepare DLC:Si up to 6 percent Si, and have characterized their structure and bonding using microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy (XPS, NEXAFS). The effect of Si in changing the bonding configuration of the C network is discussed. The microstructure is then correlated to hardness and friction measured by nano-indentation and micro-wear.

  16. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaoying; Zheng, Y. J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y. X.; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp2-rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp3-rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  17. Nano-coatings on carbon structures for interfacial modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulikollu, Rajasekhar V.

    Surface modification of materials is a rapidly growing field as structures become smaller, more integrated and complex. It opens up the possibility of combining the optimum bulk properties of a material with optimized surface properties such as enhanced bonding, corrosion resistance, reactivity, stress transfer, and thermal, optical or electrical behavior. Therefore, surface functionalization or modification can be an enabling step in a wide variety of modern applications. In this dissertation several surface modification approaches on carbon foam and carbon nano-fibers will be discussed. These are recently developed sp2 graphitic carbon based structures that have significant potential in aerospace, automotive and thermal applications. Influence of surface modification on composite formation and properties have also been investigated. Two types of property changes have been investigated: one for enhancing the surface reactivity and another for surface inertness. Characterization techniques such as X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Contact Angle Measurement, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and mechanical testing are used in this study to find out the influence of these coatings on surface composition, chemistry and morphology. Mechanical testing has been performed on composites and stand alone foam to study the influence of surface modification on physical and mechanical properties of the composite materials. The effectiveness of these coatings on metallic/graphite interface has also been investigated for metal-matrix composite related applications. Additionally, the influence of plasma coatings on nucleation and growth of nanotubes on larger carbon structures (to produce multiscale, multifunctional materials) have also been studied. It is seen that the liquid phase activation treatment introduces oxygen functional groups on the surface, but may cause severe enough degradation that

  18. Biocompatible Silver-containing a-C:H and a-C coatings: AComparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Allen, Matthew; Escobar Galindo, Ramon; Zhang, Hanshen; Anders, Andre; Albella, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings are known to be biocompatible and have good chemical inertness. For this reason, both of these materials are strong candidates to be used as a matrix that embeds metallic elements with antimicrobial effect. In this comparative study, we have incorporated silver into diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings by plasma based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) using methane (CH4) plasma and simultaneously depositing Ag from a pulsed cathodic arc source. In addition, we have grown amorphous carbon - silver composite coatings using a dual-cathode pulsed filtered cathodic-arc (FCA) source. The silver atomic content of the deposited samples was analyzed using glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOES). In both cases, the arc pulse frequency of the silver cathode was adjusted in order to obtain samples with approximately 5 at.% of Ag. Surface hardness of the deposited films was analyzed using the nanoindentation technique. Cell viability for both a-C:H/Ag and a-C:/Ag samples deposited on 24-well tissue culture plates has been evaluated.

  19. Carbon coating may expedite the fracture of carbon-coated silicon core-shell nanoparticles during lithiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiqun; Cao, Ke; Wang, Hongtao; Liu, Jiabin; Zhou, Limin; Yao, Haimin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on silicon (Si) indicate that lithiation-induced fracture of crystalline Si nanoparticles can be greatly inhibited if their diameter is reduced to below a critical scale of around 150 nm. In this paper, in situ lithiation of individual carbon-coated Si nanoparticles (Si@C NPs) is conducted which shows that Si@C NPs will fracture during lithiation even though their diameter is much smaller than 150 nm, implying a deleterious effect of the carbon coating on the integrity of the Si@C NPs during lithiation. To shed light on this effect, finite element analysis is carried out which reveals that the carbon coating, if fractured during lithiation, will induce cracks terminating at the C/Si interface. Such cracks, upon further lithiation, can immediately propagate into the Si core due to the elevated driving force caused by material inhomogeneity between the coating and core. To prevent the fracture of the carbon coating so as to protect the Si core, a design guideline is proposed by controlling the ratio between the diameter of Si core and the thickness of carbon coating. The results in this paper should be of practical value to the design and application of Si-based core-shell structured anode materials for lithium ion batteries.Previous studies on silicon (Si) indicate that lithiation-induced fracture of crystalline Si nanoparticles can be greatly inhibited if their diameter is reduced to below a critical scale of around 150 nm. In this paper, in situ lithiation of individual carbon-coated Si nanoparticles (Si@C NPs) is conducted which shows that Si@C NPs will fracture during lithiation even though their diameter is much smaller than 150 nm, implying a deleterious effect of the carbon coating on the integrity of the Si@C NPs during lithiation. To shed light on this effect, finite element analysis is carried out which reveals that the carbon coating, if fractured during lithiation, will induce cracks terminating at the C/Si interface. Such cracks, upon

  20. Mutations in signal recognition particle SRP54 cause syndromic neutropenia with Shwachman-Diamond-like features.

    PubMed

    Carapito, Raphael; Konantz, Martina; Paillard, Catherine; Miao, Zhichao; Pichot, Angélique; Leduc, Magalie S; Yang, Yaping; Bergstrom, Katie L; Mahoney, Donald H; Shardy, Deborah L; Alsaleh, Ghada; Naegely, Lydie; Kolmer, Aline; Paul, Nicodème; Hanauer, Antoine; Rolli, Véronique; Müller, Joëlle S; Alghisi, Elisa; Sauteur, Loïc; Macquin, Cécile; Morlon, Aurore; Sancho, Consuelo Sebastia; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Procaccio, Vincent; Mosca-Boidron, Anne-Laure; Marle, Nathalie; Osmani, Naël; Lefebvre, Olivier; Goetz, Jacky G; Unal, Sule; Akarsu, Nurten A; Radosavljevic, Mirjana; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Rialland, Fanny; Grain, Audrey; Béné, Marie-Christine; Eveillard, Marion; Vincent, Marie; Guy, Julien; Faivre, Laurence; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Thevenon, Julien; Myers, Kasiani; Fleming, Mark D; Shimamura, Akiko; Bottollier-Lemallaz, Elodie; Westhof, Eric; Lengerke, Claudia; Isidor, Bertrand; Bahram, Seiamak

    2017-10-03

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) (OMIM #260400) is a rare inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) that is primarily characterized by neutropenia and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Seventy-five to ninety percent of patients have compound heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (sbds) gene. Using trio whole-exome sequencing (WES) in an sbds-negative SDS family and candidate gene sequencing in additional SBDS-negative SDS cases or molecularly undiagnosed IBMFS cases, we identified 3 independent patients, each of whom carried a de novo missense variant in srp54 (encoding signal recognition particle 54 kDa). These 3 patients shared congenital neutropenia linked with various other SDS phenotypes. 3D protein modeling revealed that the 3 variants affect highly conserved amino acids within the GTPase domain of the protein that are critical for GTP and receptor binding. Indeed, we observed that the GTPase activity of the mutated proteins was impaired. The level of SRP54 mRNA in the bone marrow was 3.6-fold lower in patients with SRP54-mutations than in healthy controls. Profound reductions in neutrophil counts and chemotaxis as well as a diminished exocrine pancreas size in a SRP54-knockdown zebrafish model faithfully recapitulated the human phenotype. In conclusion, autosomal dominant mutations in SRP54, a key member of the cotranslation protein-targeting pathway, lead to syndromic neutropenia with a Shwachman-Diamond-like phenotype.

  1. Effects of UV laser micropatterning on frictional performance of diamond-like nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavedeev, Evgeny V.; Zilova, Olga S.; Shupegin, Mikhail L.; Barinov, Alexej D.; Arutyunyan, Natalia R.; Roch, Teja; Pimenov, Sergei M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on UV laser modification and micropatterning of diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) films (a-C:H,Si:O) with nanosecond pulses and effects of laser surface microstructuring on the frictional performance of DLN films on the nano- and macroscale. A technique of direct laser interference patterning was applied to produce arrays of periodic linear microstructures on the DLN films. The UV laser irradiation was performed at low fluences corresponding to the regime of surface graphitization and incipient ablation. At the initial stage of the thin film modification, the laser-induced spallation and graphitization in the surface layers were found to strongly influence the nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the DLN surface. Frictional properties of the laser-patterned DLN films were studied using (1) atomic force microscopy in lateral force mode and (2) a ball-on-flat tribometer under linear reciprocating sliding against a 100Cr6 steel ball. The lateral force microscopy measurements revealed that the laser-irradiated regions were characterized by increased friction forces due to microspallation effects and enhanced surface roughness, correlating with tribotests at the initial stage of sliding. During prolonged sliding in ambient air, both the original and laser-patterned DLN surfaces exhibited low-friction performance at the friction coefficient of 0.07-0.08.

  2. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-06-01

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of CC, CH, SiC, and SiH bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio ID/IG. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  3. Physical Properties of Superhard Diamond-Like BC5 from a First-Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alp, Irem O.; Ciftci, Yasemin O.

    2017-09-01

    The first-principles calculations are carried out to investigate the structural, elastic, electronic, optical, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of superhard diamond-like BC5 (d-BC5). The structural stability of BC5 is examined for previously proposed and several probable phases including F-43m, P6/mmm, Cmcm, Pnma, P-1, P3m1, Imm2, I-4m2 and Pmma. The most energetically stable phase is predicted to be Pmma. Computed bulk modulus B, shear modulus G, elastic constant C 44 and theoretical Vickers hardness H confirm that BC5 is an ultra-incompressible and superhard material. The electronic character analysis reveals the metallicity of BC5, indicating that a strong covalent bond network through sp 3 hybridization is the origin of its excellent mechanical properties. However, P-1 is found to be dynamically stable, contrary to the other study. Therefore, the phonon, thermodynamic and electronic properties of P-1 which are not available in the literature are discussed. The calculated physical parameters are in good agreement with the theoretical and experimental results. This work is expected to provide a useful guide for designing novel boride materials having superior mechanical performance.

  4. Laser deposition of diamond-like films from liquid aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakin, A. V.; Shafeev, G. A.; Loubnin, E. N.

    2000-02-01

    Diamond-like films are deposited on transparent substrates upon exposure of its interface with liquid hydrocarbons (toluene C 6H 5CH 3, benzene C 6H 6, and cumene C 6H 5CH(CH 3) 2) to pulsed visible laser radiation of a copper vapor laser ( λ=510.6 nm). The X-ray Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES), Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), profilometry, and ellipsometry are employed to characterize the deposited films. The sp 3 fraction in the films amounts to 60%-70% and depends on the precursor. The addition of diamond nanoparticles to the liquid precursor results in their incorporation into the film. The average film thickness on a glass substrate increases with the number of laser shots and then saturates at about 100 nm. The films show excellent adherence and have microhardness of 50-70 GPa, as measured by nanoindentor. The effect of auto-regulation of the film thickness is discussed as the result of competition between ablation and deposition of the film.

  5. Fiber optic ultrasound transducers with carbon/PDMS composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosse, Charles A.; Colchester, Richard J.; Bhachu, Davinder S.; Zhang, Edward Z.; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Novel ultrasound transducers were created with a composite of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that was dip coated onto the end faces of optical fibers. The CNTs were functionalized with oleylamine to allow for their dissolution in xylene, a solvent of PDMS. Ultrasound pulses were generated by illuminating the composite coating with pulsed laser light. At distances of 2 to 16 mm from the end faces, ultrasound pressures ranged from 0.81 to 0.07 MPa and from 0.27 to 0.03 MPa with 105 and 200 μm core fibers, respectively. Using an optical fiber hydrophone positioned adjacent to the coated 200 µm core optical fiber, ultrasound reflectance measurements were obtained from the outer surface of a sheep heart ventricle. The results of this study suggest that ultrasound transducers that comprise optical fibers with CNT-PDMS composite coatings may be suitable for miniature medical imaging probes.

  6. Calcium phosphorus bio-coating on carbon/carbon composites: Preparation, shear strength and bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yangyang; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Leilei; Liu, Shoujie; Yuan, Ye; He, Song

    2017-10-01

    Microwave hydrothermal (MH) combining supersonic atmospheric plasma sprayed (SAPS) calcium phosphorus (Ca-P) bio-coatings on carbon/carbon (C/C) composite has been widely used due to their osteoconductivity and osteoproductivity. However, the erratic shear strength between coatings prepared only by SAPS (outer coating) and C/C substrates has attached more attention over the implant failure. Adding a coating prepared by MH (inner coating) before SAPS can possess superior shear strength to conventional outer coating. The inner coating with fine Ca-P particles was prepared through a unique MH method under different concentrations (10, 500 and 1000 mmol/L). The influence of concentration on microstructure, phase composition, roughness and shear strength are investigated in this paper. In particularly, the roughness of inner coatings on C/C substrates was found to related to the morphologies and particle size. Results showed that inner coatings have higher roughness which was beneficial for the promotion of shear strength between the obtained Ca-P bio-coating and the C/C substrates. Subsequently, the specimens were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) to investigate the bioactivity.

  7. Deformation response of conformally coated carbon nanotube forest.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Parisa Pour Shahid Saeed; Maschmann, Matthew R; Baur, Jeffery W; Graham, Samuel; Cola, Baratunde A

    2013-11-29

    The deformation mechanism and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) forests conformally coated with alumina using atomic layer deposition (ALD) are investigated using in situ and ex situ micro-indentation. While micro-indentation of a CNT forest coated with a thin discontinuous layer using 20 ALD cycles results in a deformation response similar to the response of uncoated CNT forests, a similar test on a CNT forest coated with a sufficiently thick and continuous layer using 100 ALD cycles causes fracture of both the alumina coatings and the core CNTs. With a 10 nm coating, 4-fold and 14-fold stiffness increases are measured using a flat punch and a Berkovich tip, respectively. Indentation testing with the Berkovich tip also reveals increased recoverability at relatively low strains. The results show that ALD coated CNT forests could be useful for applications that require higher stiffness or recoverability. Also, fracturing of the nanotubes shows that upper limits exist in the loading of conformally coated CNT forests.

  8. Fully carbon metasurface: Absorbing coating in microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D.; Li, S.; Gorokhov, G.; Piasotski, K.; Meisak, D.; Kuzhir, P.; Burgess, E. A.; Gallagher, C. P.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Hibbins, A. P.; Pasc, A.; Sanchez-Sanchez, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.

    2017-04-01

    The microwave-absorbing properties of a heterostructure consisting of an ordered monolayer of porous glassy carbon spheres were experimentally and theoretically investigated in the Ka-band (26-37 GHz) frequency range. The electromagnetic response of such a "moth-eye"-like all-carbon metasurface at a normal incidence angle was modelled on the basis of long-wave approximation. Modelling parameters in the Ka-band were used to estimate and predict the absorption properties of monolayers in free space in the range 1-40 GHz. Experimental and theoretical results demonstrate that a metasurface based on porous glassy carbon spheres is an inert, lightweight, compact, and perfectly absorbing material for designing new effective microwave absorbers in various practically used frequency ranges.

  9. Optimizing electron backscatter diffraction of carbonate biominerals-resin type and carbon coating.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Cusack, Maggie

    2009-06-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is becoming a widely used technique to determine crystallographic orientation in biogenic carbonates. Despite this use, there is little information available on preparation for the analysis of biogenic carbonates. EBSD data are compared for biogenic aragonite and calcite in the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, using different types of resin and thicknesses of carbon coating. Results indicate that carbonate biomineral samples provide better EBSD results if they are embedded in resin, particularly epoxy resin. A uniform layer of carbon of 2.5 nm thickness provides sufficient conductivity for EBSD analyses of such insulators to avoid charging without masking the diffracted signal. Diffraction intensity decreases with carbon coating thickness of 5 nm or more. This study demonstrates the importance of optimizing sample preparation for EBSD analyses of insulators such as carbonate biominerals.

  10. Diamondlike carbon protective coatings for IR materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nir, D.; Swec, D. M.; Banks, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films have the potential to protect optical windows in applications where it is important to maintain the integrity of the specular transmittance of these films on ZnS and ZnSe infrared transmitting windows. The films must be adherent and durable such that they protect the windows from rain and particle erosion as well as chemical attack. In order to optimize the performance of these films, 0.1 micro m thick diamondlike carbon films were deposited on fused silica and silicon wafers, using three different methods of ion beam deposition. One method was sputter deposition from a carbon target using an 8 cm ion source. The merits of hydrogen addition were experimentally evaluated in conjunction with this method. The second method used a 30 cm hollow cathode ion source with hydrocarbon/Argon gases to deposit diamondlike carbon films from the primary beam at 90 to 250 eV. The third method used a dual beam system employing a hydrocarbon/Argon 30 cm ion source and an 8 cm ion source. Films were evaluated for adherence, intrinsic stress, infrared transmittance between 2.5 and 50 micro m, and protection from particle erosion. An erosion test using a sandblaster was used to give quantitative values of the protection afforded to the fused silica by the diamondlike carbon films. The fused silica surfaces protected by diamondlike carbon films were exposed to 100 micro m diameter SiO particles at 60 mi/hr (26.8/sec) in the sandblaster.

  11. Electrochemically assisted co-deposition of calcium phosphate/collagen coatings on carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueni; Hu, Tao; Li, Hejun; Chen, Mengdi; Cao, Sheng; Zhang, Leilei; Hou, Xianghui

    2011-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP)/collagen coatings were prepared on the surface of carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by electrochemically assisted co-deposition technique. The effects of collagen concentration in the electrolyte on morphology, structure and composition of the coatings were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesive strength of the coatings was also evaluated by scratch tests and tensile bond tests. It was demonstrated that the coatings of three-dimensional collagen network structure was formed on the C/C composites from the electrolyte containing collagen. The surface of the collagen network was covered by uniform CaP aggregates. The coatings were actually composites of CaP and collagen. Hydroxyapatite (HA) was a favorable composition in the coatings with the increase of the collagen concentration in the electrolyte. The formed collagen network increased the cohesive and adhesive strength of the coatings. The adhesive strength between the coatings and substrates increased as the collagen concentration in the electrolyte increased. The coatings prepared at the collagen concentration of 500 mg/L in the electrolyte were not scraped off until the applied load reached 32.0 ± 2.2 N and the average tensile adhesive strength of the coatings was 4.83 ± 0.71 MPa. After C/C coated with composite coatings (500 mg/L) being immersed in a 10-3 M Ca (OH)2 solution at 30-33 °C for 96 h, nano-structured HA/collagen coatings similar to the natural human bone were obtained on the C/C.

  12. Controlled Distribution and Clustering of Silver in Ag-DLC Nanocomposite Coatings Using a Hybrid Plasma Approach.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, M; Turgeon, S; Busby, Y; Tatoulian, M; Pireaux, J-J; Mantovani, D

    2016-08-17

    Incorporation of selected metallic elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as an innovative approach to add unique functional properties to DLC coatings, thus opening up a range of new potential applications in fields as diverse as sensors, tribology, and biomaterials. However, deposition by plasma techniques of metal-containing DLC coatings with well-defined structural properties and metal distribution is currently hindered by the limited understanding of their growth mechanisms. We report here a silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon coating (Ag-DLC) prepared in a hybrid plasma reactor which allowed independent control of the metal content and the carbon film structure and morphology. Morphological and chemical analyses of Ag-DLC films were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical distribution of silver from the surface toward the coating bulk was found to be highly inhomogeneous due to top surface segregation and clustering of silver nanoparticles. Two plasma parameters, the sputtered Ag flux and ion energy, were shown to influence the spatial distribution of silver particles. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for Ag-DLC growth by plasma was proposed.

  13. Microstructure characterization of erosion resistant coatings on carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites.

    PubMed

    Moskalewicz, T; Smeacetto, F; Salvo, M; Boccaccini, A R; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, A

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure of as received and surface treated carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites has been examined by light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure of the as received material consists of a bonded together layered carbon fiber network, identified as graphitic carbon (hexagonal close packed). To improve the erosion resistance of the carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites composite, the SiC and silicate glass-ceramic coatings from the system SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-Y(2)O(3) were produced on carbon-bonded carbon fibre composites composites by a low-cost slurry technique. Transmission electron microscopy investigations of cross-section thin foils allowed for detailed analysis of the coatings microstructure. It was found that the SiC coating was consisting mainly of a nanocrystalline SiC (fcc). The multilayered glass-ceramic coating showed a complex microstructure consisting of an external SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-Y(2)O(3) layer and an intermediate nanocrystalline SiC layer. The SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)-Y(2)O(3) layer was composed of SiO(2) (fcc), Y(2)Si(2)O(7) (op) and Al(4.644)Si(1.357)O(9.68) (op).

  14. Delithiation kinetics study of carbon coated and carbon free LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, D.; Sobh, F.; Kuss, C.; Liang, G.; Schougaard, S. B.

    2014-06-01

    A chemical oxidation method was employed to measure the kinetics of lithium release from LiFePO4 during oxidation. Similar to potential step measurements, the chemical method simplifies quantification compared to the common electrochemical techniques (PITT, GITT etc.). It was found that the overall release of lithium fits one dimensional diffusion kinetics, however, it is also shown that the mechanism must be more complex as the derived activation energy led to an unusually low attack rate of ∼108 Hz. A comparison of carbon coated/carbon free LiFePO4 samples indicated that the carbon coating has only a marginal effect on the delithiation kinetics.

  15. Pyrolytic Carbon Coatings on Aligned Carbon Nanotube Assemblies and Fabrication of Advanced Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Shaghayegh

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a technique used to create a pyrolytic carbon (PyC) matrix around fibrous preforms in carbon/carbon (C/C) composites. Due to difficulties in producing three-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies, use of nanotubes in CVD fabricated CNT/C composites is limited. This dissertation describes efforts to: 1) Study the microstructure of PyC deposited on CNTs in order to understand the effect of microstructure and morphology of carbon coatings on graphitization behavior of CNT/PyC composites. This understanding helped to suggest a new approach for controlled radial growth of CNTs. 2) Evaluate the properties of CNT/PyC structures as a novel form of CNT assemblies with resilient, anisotropic and tunable properties. PyC was deposited on aligned sheets of nanotubes, drawn from spinnable CNT arras, using CVD of acetylene gas. At longer deposition times, the microstructure of PyC changed from laminar turbostratic carbon to a disordered carbon. For samples with short PyC deposition times (up to 30 minutes), deposited carbon layer rearranged during graphitization treatment and resulted in a crystalline structure where the coating and original tube walls could not be easily differentiated. In contrast, in samples with longer carbon deposition durations, carbon layers close to the surface of the coating remained disordered even after graphitization thermal treatment. Understanding the effect of PyC microstructure transition on graphitization behavior of CNT/PyC composites was used to develop a new method for controlled radial growth of CNTs. Carbon coated aligned CNT sheets were graphitized after each short (20 minutes) carbon deposition cycle. This prevented development of disorder carbon during subsequent PyC deposition cycles. Using cyclic-graphitization method, thick PyC coating layers were successfully graphitized into a crystalline structure that could not be differentiated from the original nanotube walls. This resulted into radial

  16. Durable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmeryan, K. D.; Radeva, E. I.; Avramov, I. D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of durable superhydrophobic (SH) carbon soot coatings used in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based gas or liquid sensors is reported. The method uses modification of the carbon soot through polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by means of glow discharge RF plasma. The surface characterization shows a fractal-like network of carbon nanoparticles with diameter of ~50 nm. These particles form islands and cavities in the nanometer range, between which the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) embeds and binds to the carbon chains and QCM surface. Such modified surface structure retains the hydrophobic nature of the soot and enhances its robustness upon water droplet interactions. Moreover, it significantly reduces the insertion loss and dynamic resistance of the QCM compared to the commonly used carbon soot/epoxy resin approach. Furthermore, the PPHMDSO/carbon soot coating demonstrates durability and no aging after more than 40 probing cycles in water based liquid environments. In addition, the surface layer keeps its superhydrophobicity even upon thermal annealing up to 540 °C. These experiments reveal an opportunity for the development of soot based SH QCMs with improved electrical characteristics, as required for high-resolution gas or liquid measurements.

  17. Coating carbon nanotubes with polymer in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawei; Khlobystov, Andrei N; Wang, Wenxin; Howdle, Steven M; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2006-04-21

    A facile and efficient method has been developed for coating MWNTs with solvent resistant polymer in scCO2, which permits the selective deposition of high molecular weight fluorinated graft poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) polymer onto MWNTs in scCO2 under 100-170 bar at 40 degrees C and forms quasi one-dimensional nanostructures with conducting cores and insulating surfaces.

  18. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOEpatents

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  19. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  20. Single Wall Carbon Nano Tube Films and Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, T. V.; Kumar, Satish; Ericson, Lars M.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2002-03-01

    Purified single wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) produced from the high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPCO) process have been dissolved /dispersed in oleum. These solutions /dispersions were optically homogeneous and have been used to form stand-alone SWNT films. The washed, dried, and heat-treated films are isotropic. The scanning electron micrographs of the film surface shows that the nanotube ropes (or fibrils) of about 20 nm diameters are arranged just like macroscopic fibers in a non-woven fabric. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of the SWNT film confirms the isotropic nature of these films. The films are being characterized for their thermal, mechanical as well electrical properties. Thin nano tube coatings, including optically transparent coatings, have also been made on a variety of substrates such as glass, polyethylene, polystyrene, polypropylene, silicon wafer, as well as stainless steel.

  1. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  2. Carbon--silicon coating alloys for improved irradiation stability

    DOEpatents

    Bokros, J.C.

    1973-10-01

    For ceramic nuclear fuel particles, a fission product-retaining carbon-- silicon alloy coating is described that exhibits low shrinkage after exposure to fast neutron fluences of 1.4 to 4.8 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E = 0.18 MeV) at irradiation temperatures from 950 to 1250 deg C. Isotropic pyrolytic carbon containing from 18 to 34 wt% silicon is co-deposited from a gaseous mixiure of propane, helium, and silane at a temperature of 1350 to 1450 deg C. (Official Gazette)

  3. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  4. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  5. Preparation and properties of in-situ growth of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite coating for carbon/carbon composites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shoujie; Li, Hejun; Su, Yangyang; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Leilei

    2017-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess excellent mechanical properties for their role playing in reinforcement as imparting strength to brittle hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic coating. However, there are few reports relating to the in-situ grown carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite (CNTs-HA) coating. Here we demonstrate the potential application in reinforcing biomaterials by an attempt to use in-situ grown of CNTs strengthen HA coating, using a combined method composited of injection chemical vapor deposition (ICVD) and pulsed electrodeposition. The microstructure, phases and chemical compositions of CNTs-HA coatings were characterized by various advanced methods. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that CNTs-HA coatings avoided the inhomogeneous dispersion of CNTs inside HA coating. The result show that the interfacial shear strength between CNTs-HA coating and the C/C composite matrix reaches to 12.86±1.43MPa. Potenitodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies show that the content of CNTs affects the corrosion resistance of CNTs-HA coating. Cell culturing and simulated body fluid test elicit the biocompatibility with living cells and bioactivity of CNTs-HA coatings, respectively.

  6. Oxidation behavior and kinetics of SiC/alumina-borosilicate coating for carbon-carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Luo, Ruiying; Chen, Yaping; Xiang, Qiao; Lin, Chen; Ding, Peng; An, Na; Cheng, Jiwei

    2008-12-01

    A SiC/alumina-borosilicate double-layer coating was prepared by a two-step slurry technique for the protection of carbon-carbon composites from oxidation. SEM, XRD and EDX analysis showed that the inner layer coating obtained from the first step consisted of β-SiC, Si and SiO 2. The outer layer consisted of B 4C, Al, amorphous SiO 2 and quartz. The oxidation behavior and kinetics of the SiC/alumina-borosilicate coating were investigated. It was found that the as-prepared coating could effectively protect carbon-carbon composites from oxidation at 1300 °C for 100 h. The isothermally oxidation kinetics could be described by Microflaws Model and Diffusion Model. During short-time oxidation, the overall oxidation kinetics was determined by the transport processes through microflaws, which resulted in a linear growth law. While during oxidation of longer time, the weight loss rate was controlled by the diffusion processes in the coating with growing oxide layer, which led to a parabolic growth law.

  7. A Mathematical Model for Determining Carbon Coating Thickness and Its Application in Electron Probe Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Yang, Shui-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In electron probe microanalysis where materials are coated with a thin conductive carbon coat before analysis, the X-ray intensity detected from a specimen may be affected to various degrees by the thickness of the carbon coating. Differences in the carbon film thickness between specimens and standards may lead to errors in analytical results, particular for lower energy X-rays. In this study, we demonstrate that the location and the distance of the specimen relative to the carbon tip in the coating chamber can affect the thickness of the carbon film produced on the specimen surface during carbon coating. The closer the specimen is to the carbon tip contacting point, the thicker is the carbon film deposited. A mathematical model to calculate the carbon film thickness at different locations on the coater plate is established, based on the assumption that carbon atoms evaporate from the carbon tip equally in all directions during the coating process. In order to reduce the differences in the carbon coating thickness, we suggest moving the carbon rod to a higher position, moving the thinner samples to the center and thicker samples to the edge of the coater plate, and using a rotating circular coater plate during coating.

  8. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Noe T.; Ochmann, Timothy; Kienzle, Nicholas; Ruff, Brad; Haase, Mark R.; Hopkins, Tracy; Pixley, Sarah; Mast, David; Schulz, Mark J.; Shanov, Vesselin

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter—which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell—is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core. PMID:28344254

  9. Liquid Imbibition in Ceramic-Coated Carbon Nanotube Films.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hangbo; Jacob, Christine; Stone, Howard A; Hart, A John

    2016-12-06

    Understanding of the liquid imbibition dynamics in nanoporous materials is important to advances in chemical separations, phase change heat transfer, electrochemical energy storage, and diagnostic assays. We study the liquid imbibition behavior in films of ceramic-coated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The nanoscale porosity of the films is tuned by conformal ceramic coating via atomic layer deposition (ALD), enabling stable liquid imbibition and precise measurement of the imbibition dynamics without capillary densification of the CNTs. We show that the imbibition rate decreases as the ceramic coating thickness increases, which effectively changes the CNT-CNT spacing and therefore decreases the permeability. We derive a model, based on Darcy's law, that incorporates an expression for the permeability of nanoscale post arrays, and we show that the model fits the experimental results with high accuracy. The tailorable porosity, along with controllable surface wettability and mechanical stability of coated CNTs, suggest their suitability for application-guided engineering, and for further investigation of imbibition behavior at finer length scales.

  10. Polymer Coating of Carbon Nanotube Fibers for Electric Microcables.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Noe T; Ochmann, Timothy; Kienzle, Nicholas; Ruff, Brad; Haase, Mark R; Hopkins, Tracy; Pixley, Sarah; Mast, David; Schulz, Mark J; Shanov, Vesselin

    2014-11-04

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are considered the most promising candidates to replace Cu and Al in a large number of electrical, mechanical and thermal applications. Although most CNT industrial applications require macro and micro size CNT fiber assemblies, several techniques to make conducting CNT fibers, threads, yarns and ropes have been reported to this day, and improvement of their electrical and mechanical conductivity continues. Some electrical applications of these CNT conducting fibers require an insulating layer for electrical insulation and protection against mechanical tearing. Ideally, a flexible insulator such as hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) on the CNT fiber can allow fabrication of CNT coils that can be assembled into lightweight, corrosion resistant electrical motors and transformers. HNBR is a largely used commercial polymer that unlike other cable-coating polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), it provides unique continuous and uniform coating on the CNT fibers. The polymer coated/insulated CNT fibers have a 26.54 μm average diameter-which is approximately four times the diameter of a red blood cell-is produced by a simple dip-coating process. Our results confirm that HNBR in solution creates a few microns uniform insulation and mechanical protection over a CNT fiber that is used as the electrically conducting core.

  11. Effect of Surface Modification on Corrosion Resistance of Uncoated and DLC Coated Stainless Steel Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scendo, Mieczyslaw; Staszewska-Samson, Katarzyna

    2017-08-01

    Corrosion resistance of 4H13 stainless steel (EN-X46Cr13) surface uncoated and coated with an amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) film [diamond-like carbon (DLC)] in acidic chloride solution was investigated. The DLC films were deposited on steel surface by a plasma deposition, direct current discharge (PDCD) method. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was used to determine the chemical groups existing on DLC films. The surface of the specimens was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The tribological properties of the both materials were examined using a ball-on disk tribometer. The microhardness (HV) of diamond-like carbon film increased over five times in relation to the 4H13 stainless steel without of DLC coating. Oxidation kinetic parameters were determined by gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The high value of polarization resistance indicates that the DLC film on substrate was characterized by low electrical conductivity. The corrosion rate of 4H13 stainless steel with of DLC film decreased about eight times in relation to uncoated surface of 4H13 stainless steel.

  12. Targeting breast cancer with sugar-coated carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, Cale D; Hadimani, Mallinath; King, S Bruce; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the use of glucosamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (glyco-MWCNTs) for breast cancer targeting. Materials & methods Two types of glucosamine functionalized MWCNTs were developed (covalently linked glucosamine and non-covalently phospholipid-glucosamine coated) and evaluated for their potential to bind and target breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Results & conclusion Binding of glyco-MWCNTs in breast cancer cells is mediated by specific interaction with glucose transporters. Glyco-MWCNTs prepared by non-covalent coating with phospholipid-glucosamine displayed an extended blood circulation time, delayed urinary clearance, low tissue retention and increased breast cancer tumor accumulation in vivo. These studies lay the foundation for development of a cancer diagnostic agent based upon glyco-MWCNTs with the potential for superior accuracy over current radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:26296098

  13. Targeting breast cancer with sugar-coated carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fahrenholtz, Cale D; Hadimani, Mallinath; King, S Bruce; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the use of glucosamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (glyco-MWCNTs) for breast cancer targeting. Two types of glucosamine functionalized MWCNTs were developed (covalently linked glucosamine and non-covalently phospholipid-glucosamine coated) and evaluated for their potential to bind and target breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Binding of glyco-MWCNTs in breast cancer cells is mediated by specific interaction with glucose transporters. Glyco-MWCNTs prepared by non-covalent coating with phospholipid-glucosamine displayed an extended blood circulation time, delayed urinary clearance, low tissue retention and increased breast cancer tumor accumulation in vivo. These studies lay the foundation for development of a cancer diagnostic agent based upon glyco-MWCNTs with the potential for superior accuracy over current radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the application of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in paper coating.

    PubMed

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Rahier, Hubert; Abou-Zaied, Ragab Esmail; Rehan, Mohamed; Dufour, Thierry; Hill, Gavin; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-02-26

    Modification of calcium carbonate particles with surfactant significantly improves the properties of the calcium carbonate coating on paper. In this study, unmodified and CTAB (hexadecyltetramethylammonium bromide)- and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles were prepared using the wet carbonation technique for paper coating. CTAB (cationic surfactant) and sodium oleate (anionic surfactant) were used to modify the size, morphology, and surface properties of the precipitated nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coating colors were formulated from the prepared unmodified and modified calcium carbonates and examined by creating a thin coating layer on reference paper. The effect of calcium carbonate particle size and surface modification on paper properties, such as coating thickness, coating weight, surface roughness, air permeability, brightness, whiteness, opacity, and hydrophobicity, were investigated and compared with commercial ground (GCC) calcium carbonate-coated papers. The results show that the obtained calcium carbonate nanoparticles are in the calcite phase. The morphology of the prepared calcium carbonate nanoparticles is rhombohedral, and the average particle diameter is less than 100 nm. Compared to commercial GCC, the use of unmodified and CTAB- and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles in paper coating improves the properties of paper. The highest measured paper properties were observed for paper coated with oleate-modifed nanoparticles, where an increase in smoothness (decrease in paper roughness) (+23%), brightness (+1.3%), whiteness (+2.8%), and opacity (+2.3%) and a decrease in air permeability (-26%) was obtained with 25% less coat weight. The water contact angle at a drop age time of 10 min was about 112° for the paper

  15. Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2008-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop inexpensive, low-power electronic sensors, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), for measuring part-per-million and part-per-billion of selected gases (small molecules) at room temperature. Chemically unmodified SWCNTs are mostly unresponsive to typical gases that one might wish to detect. However, the electrical resistances of SWCNTs can be made to vary with concentrations of gases of interest by coating or doping the SWCNTs with suitable materials. Accordingly, the basic idea of the present development efforts is to incorporate thus-treated SWCNTs into electronic devices that measure their electrical resistances.

  16. Ground States of Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnets with Frustration on a Diamond-Like-Decorated Square Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Yuhei; Oguchi, Akihide; Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    We study the ground-state phase diagram of a Heisenberg model with spin S = 1/2 on a diamond-like-decorated square lattice. A diamond unit has two types of antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, and the ratio λ of the length of the diagonal bond to that of the other four edges determines the strength of frustration. It has been pointed out [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 85, 033705 (2016)] that the so-called tetramer-dimer states, which are expected to be stabilized in an intermediate region of λc < λ < 2, are identical to the square-lattice dimer-covering states, which ignited renewed interest in high-dimensional diamond-like-decorated lattices. In order to determine the phase boundary λc, we employ the modified spin wave method to estimate the energy of the ferrimagnetic state and obtain λc = 0.974. Furthermore, our numerical diagonalization study suggests that other cluster states do not appear in the ground-state phase diagram.

  17. TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes: A redshift enhanced photocatalysis at visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Sheng-Yi; Tang, Chiung-Wen; Lin, Yu-Hsien; Kuo, Hsin-Fu; Lai, Yao-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Ouyang, Hao; Hsu, Wen-Kuang

    2010-06-01

    Annealing of carbon nanotubes coated with thin and uniform TiO2 results in carbon diffusion into oxygen lattices and doping induced redshift is evident by an efficient photocatalysis at visible light. The underlying mechanism is discussed.

  18. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A. Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-15

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ∼0.3%.

  19. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A.; Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ~0.3%.

  20. Interaction of carbon nanotubes coatings with titanium substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, Aneta; Wedel-Grzenda, Alicja; Benko, Aleksandra; Grzonka, Justyna; Mizera, Jaroslaw

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) after chemical surface functionalization on the interaction with a titanium surface. Two kinds of MWCNTs differing in terms of concentration of functional groups were deposited on the Ti surface using the electrophoretic deposition method (EPD). The study has shown the detailed analysis of the physicochemical properties of this form of carbon nanomaterial and received on their base coatings using various techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The adhesion of the MWCNTs coatings to the Ti surface was determined using the shear test method, according to standard ASTM F-1044-05. These results indicated that one type of MWCNTs characterized by a higher concentration of functional groups has better adhesion to the metal surface than the second type. Analysis of the MWCNT-metal interface using Raman spectroscopy and SEM and STEM indicates the presence of phase built of MWCNT and TiO2. This phase could be a type of nanocomposite that affects the improvement of the adhesion of MWCNT to the Ti surface.

  1. Deposition of DLC Film on Stainless Steel Substrates Coated by Nickel Using PECVD Method.

    PubMed

    Khalaj, Zahra; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Vaghri, Elnaz; Saghaleini, Amir; Diudea, Mircea V

    2012-06-01

    Research on diamond-like carbon (DLC) films has been devoted to find both optimized conditions and characteristics of the deposited films on various substrates. In the present work, we investigate the quality of the DLC films grown on stainless steel substrates using different thickness of the nickel nanoparticle layers on the surface. Nickel nanoparticles were sputtered on the stainless steel substrates at 200 °C by a DC-sputtering system to make a good adherence between DLC coating and steel substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to characterize the surface roughness and distribution function of the nickel nanoparticles on the substrate surface. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on stainless steel substrates coated by nickel using pure acetylene and C2H2/H2 with 15% flow ratio by DC-Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) systems. Microstructural analysis by Raman spectroscopy showed a low intensity ratio ID/IG for DLC films by increasing the Ni layer thickness on the stainless steel substrates. Fourier Transforms Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) evidenced the peaks attributed to C-H bending and stretching vibration modes in the range of 1300-1700 cm-1 and 2700-3100 cm-1, respectively, in good agreement with the Raman spectroscopy and confirmed the DLC growth in all samples.

  2. Pyrolytic-carbon coating in carbon nanotube foams for better performance in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Nanfei; Yildiz, Ozkan; Pan, Qin; Zhu, Jiadeng; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D.; Gao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the wide-spread adoption of supercapacitors has been hindered by their inferior energy density to that of batteries. Here we report the use of our pyrolytic-carbon-coated carbon nanotube foams as lightweight, compressible, porous, and highly conductive current collectors in supercapacitors, which are infiltrated with chemically-reduced graphene oxide and later compressed via mechanical and capillary forces to generate the active electrodes. The pyrolytic carbon coatings, introduced by chemical vapor infiltration, wrap around the CNT junctions and increase the surface roughness. When active materials are infiltrated, the pyrolytic-carbon coatings help prevent the π-stacking, enlarge the accessible surface area, and increase the electrical conductivity of the scaffold. Our best-performing device offers 48% and 57% higher gravimetric energy and power density, 14% and 23% higher volumetric energy and power density, respectively, and two times higher knee frequency, than the device with commercial current collectors, while the "true-performance metrics" are strictly followed in our measurements. We have further clarified the solution resistance, charge transfer resistance/capacitance, double-layer capacitance, and Warburg resistance in our system via comprehensive impedance analysis, which will shed light on the design and optimization of similar systems.

  3. Strontium and magnesium substituted dicalcium phosphate dehydrate coating for carbon/carbon composites prepared by pulsed electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shou-jie; Li, He-jun; Zhang, Lei-lei; Feng, Lei; Yao, Pei

    2015-12-01

    Trace elements substituted apatite coatings have received a lot of interest recently as they have many benefits. In this work, strontium and magnesium substituted DCPD (SM-DCPD) coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon (C/C) composites by pulsed electrodeposition method. The morphology, microstructure, corrosion resistance and in vitro bioactivity of the SM-DCPD coatings are analyzed. The results show that the SM-DCPD coatings exhibit a flake-like morphology with dense and uniform structure. The SM-DCPD coatings could induce the formation of apatite layers on their surface in simulated body fluid. The electrochemical test indicates that the SM-DCPD coatings can evidently decrease the corrosion rate of the C/C composites in simulated body fluid. The SM-DCPD has potential application as the bioactive coatings.

  4. The thermal conductivity of carbon coated silicon carbide fibers embedded in a silicon carbide matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, S.C.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    The room temperature thermal conductivity has been measured for a series of composite materials composed of carbon coated silicon carbide (SiC) fibers embedded in a SiC matrix. The composite samples consisted of 0/30{degree} bi-directional plain weave Nicalon fibers coated with varying thicknesses of pyrolitic carbon and infiltrated with SiC by the forced flow chemical vapor infiltration process to form the matrix. The fiber volume fraction was held constant at 0.423 {plus_minus} 0.012 and the from 0.03 {mu}m to 0.983 {mu}m, with the fibers of one sample left uncoated. Results transverse to fiber direction show significant differences with the introduction and subsequent increase in the carbon coating thickness. The thermal conductivity decreased for all the coated samples compared to the uncoated sample coating thickness compared to the sample with the thinnest carbon coating.

  5. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOEpatents

    Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

    1993-11-16

    A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

  6. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  7. Hemocompatible, pulsed laser deposited coatings on polymers.

    PubMed

    Lackner, Juergen M; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Roman; Major, Boguslaw; Bruckert, Franz

    2010-02-01

    State-of-the-art non-thrombogenic blood contacting surfaces are based on heparin and struggle with the problem of bleeding. However, appropriate blood flow characteristics are essential for clinical application. Thus, there is increasing demand to develop new coating materials for improved human body acceptance. Materials deposited by vacuum coating techniques would be an excellent alternative if the coating temperatures can be kept low because of the applied substrate materials of low temperature resistance (polymers). Most of the recently used plasma-based deposition techniques cannot fulfill this demand. However, adequate film structure and high adhesion can be reached by the pulsed laser deposition at room temperature, which was developed to an industrial-scaled process at Laser Center Leoben. Here, this process is described in detail and the resulting structural film properties are shown for titanium, titanium nitride, titanium carbonitride, and diamond-like carbon on polyurethane, titanium and silicon substrates. Additionally, we present the biological response of blood cells and the kinetic mechanism of eukaryote cell attachment. In conclusion, high biological acceptance and distinct differences for the critical delamination shear stress were found for the coatings, indicating higher adhesion at higher carbon contents.

  8. Inspection on SiC coated carbon-carbon composite with subsurface defects using pulsed thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingju, Tang; Junyan, Liu; Wang, Yang; Litao, Qi; Lei, Qin

    2013-09-01

    An investigation on SiC coated carbon-carbon (C/C) composite plates has been undertaken by pulsed thermography. The heat transfer model has been built and the finite element method (FEM) is applied to solve the thermal model. The simulation results show that defects with DA/DP smaller than one can hardly be detected by an infrared camera with the sensitivity of 0.02 °C. Certificated experiments were performed on the built pulsed thermography system. The thermal wave signals have been processed by subtracting background image method (SBIM), pulsed phase thermography (PPT), and temperature-time logarithm fitting method (TtLFM). The limit DA/DP of defects in SiC coated C/C composite plates with the thickness of 6 mm that can be detected by pulsed thermography with the presented signal analysis algorithms has been obtained.

  9. Ni-W Electrodeposited Coatings on Low Carbon Steel Substrate: Fatigue Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, K. P.; Bigos, A.; Kucharski, S.; Dolinski, K.; Bełtowska-Lehman, E.

    2014-10-01

    The fatigue response of electrodeposited Ni-W on low carbon steel substrate was studied. The considered Ni-W coatings are a promising substitute for toxic hard chromium coatings which, according to EU directives (2000/53/WE, 2011/37/UE), must be eliminated. Specimens of pure substrate and those covered by coating were compared. Coated specimens exhibited lower fatigue resistance under higher stress amplitudes than their non-coated counterparts in stress-controlled fatigue experiments. However, at lower stress amplitudes, the fatigue strength of both specimen types was similar. The cyclic softening of the coatings was demonstrated using indentation techniques.

  10. The fabrication of carbon nanotubes reinforced copper coating by a kinetic spray process.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yuming; Kang, Kicheol; Yoon, Sanghoon; Lee, Changhee

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) reinforced copper coating was deposited on copper sheet through kinetic spraying process. Effect of heat treatment on microstructure, conductivity, and hardness of the coating was investigated. The incompact MWCNTs reinforced copper coating exhibits a comparable hardness, but higher electrical resistivity than pure copper coating. After heat treatment at 600 degrees C for 2 h, the hardness of copper coatings significantly decreased due to the substantial grain growth. MWCNTs reinforced copper coating showed stable hardness and electrical conductivity against heat treatment owing to the inhibition of CNTs to grain growth and the intimate contact between CNTs and copper matrix.

  11. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  12. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested.

  13. Plasma polymerized thin coating as a protective layer of carbon nanotubes grafted on carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einig, A.; Rumeau, P.; Desrousseaux, S.; Magga, Y.; Bai, J. B.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles addition is widely studied to improve properties of carbon fiber reinforced composites. Here, hybrid carbon fiber results from grafting of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on the carbon fiber for mechanical reinforcement and conductive properties. Both tows and woven fabrics made of the hybrid fibers are added to the matrix for composite processing. However handling hybrid fibers may induce unwilling health risk due to eventual CNT release and a protective layer is required. A thin coating layer is deposited homogeneously by low pressure plasma polymerization of an organic monomer without modifying the morphology and the organization of grafted CNTs. The polymeric layer effect on the electrical behavior of hybrid fiber is assessed by conductivity measurements. Its influence on the mechanical properties is also studied regarding the interface adhesion between fiber and matrix. The protective role of layer is demonstrated by means of friction constraints applied to the hybrid fiber.

  14. Robust diamond-like Fe-Si network in the zero-strain NaxFeSiO4 cathode

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Zhuo; Zhao, Xin; Li, Shouding; ...

    2016-07-14

    Sodium orthosilicates Na2MSiO4 (M denotes transition metals) have attracted much attention due to the possibility of exchanging two electrons per formula unit. In this work, we report a group of sodium iron orthosilicates Na2FeSiO4. Their crystal structures are characterized by a diamond-like Fe-Si network. The Fe-Si network is quite robust against the charge/discharge process, which explains the high structural stability observed in experiment. Furthermore, using the density functional theory within the GGA + U framework and X-ray diffraction studies, the crystal structures and structural stabilities during the sodium extraction/re-insertion process are systematically investigated.

  15. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Laser deposition of amorphous diamond-like films from liquid aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalin, A. A.; Simakin, Aleksandr V.; Bobyrev, V. A.; Lubnin, Evgenii N.; Shafeev, Georgii A.

    1999-04-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the deposition of amorphous diamond-like films on transparent substrates by laser irradiation of the interfaces between such substrates and liquid hydrocarbons [toluene C6H5CH3, benzene C6H6, cumene C6H5CH(CH3)2]. A copper vapour laser (wavelength 510.6 nm, pulse duration 20 ns) was used. The films were studied with x-ray Auger spectroscopy, high-energy electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. The sp3 fraction in the deposited films reached 50% — 70%, depending on the choice of hydrocarbon. The average film thickness was 100 — 200 nm and the microhardness reached 50 — 70 GPa.

  16. Theoretical investigation of superconductivity in ternary silicide NaAlSi with layered diamond-like structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tütüncü, H. M.; Karaca, Ertuǧrul; Srivastava, G. P.

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure, phonon modes and electron-phonon coupling to understand superconductivity in the ternary silicide NaAlSi with a layered diamond-like structure. Our electronic results, using the density functional theory within a generalized gradient approximation, indicate that the density of states at the Fermi level is mainly governed by Si p states. The largest contributions to the electron-phonon coupling parameter involve Si-related vibrations both in the x-y plane as well as along the z-axis in the x-z plane. Our results indicate that this material is an s-p electron superconductor with a medium level electron-phonon coupling parameter of 0.68. Using the Allen-Dynes modification of the McMillan formula we obtain the superconducting critical temperature of 6.98 K, in excellent agreement with experimentally determined value of 7 K.

  17. Parametrically Optimized Carbon Nanotube-Coated Cold Cathode Spindt Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuesong; Cole, Matthew T.; Zhang, Yu; Wu, Jianqiang; Milne, William I.; Yan, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Here, we investigate, through parametrically optimized macroscale simulations, the field electron emission from arrays of carbon nanotube (CNT)-coated Spindts towards the development of an emerging class of novel vacuum electron devices. The present study builds on empirical data gleaned from our recent experimental findings on the room temperature electron emission from large area CNT electron sources. We determine the field emission current of the present microstructures directly using particle in cell (PIC) software and present a new CNT cold cathode array variant which has been geometrically optimized to provide maximal emission current density, with current densities of up to 11.5 A/cm2 at low operational electric fields of 5.0 V/μm. PMID:28336845

  18. Parylene coated carbon nanotube actuators for tactile stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubak, Grzegorz; Ansaldo, Alberto; Gendron, David; Brayda, Luca; Ceseracciu, Luca; Ricci, Davide

    2015-04-01

    Ionic liquid/carbon nanotube based actuators have been constantly improved in recent years owing to their suitability for applications related to human-machine interaction and robotics thanks to their light-weight and low voltage operation. However, while great attention has been paid to the development of better electrodes and electrolytes, no adequate efforts were made to develop actuators to be used in direct contact with the human skin. Herein, we present our approach, based on the use of parylene-C coating. Indeed, owning to its physicochemical properties such as high dielectric strength, resistance to solvents, biological and chemical inactivity/inertness, parylene fulfils the requirements for use in biocompatible actuator fabrication. In this paper, we study the influence of the parylene coating on the actuator performance. To do so, we analyzed its mechanical and electrochemical properties. We looked into the role of parylene as a protection layer that can prevent alteration of the actuator performance likely caused by external conditions. In order to complete our study, we designed a haptic device and investigated the generated force, displacement and energy usage.

  19. Zinc Oxide Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Energy Harvesting Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohney, Austin; Stollberg, David

    2012-02-01

    Small scale electrical devices depend on bulky batteries that require recharging or replacement. In biomedical monitoring, where sensors could be implanted inside the body, maintenance of batteries presents a problem. It would be beneficial if small scale devices could generate their own power and alleviate their dependence on batteries. Piezoelectric nanogenerators have proven themselves as a viable means for ambient energy harvesting. Piezoelectric materials, such as zinc oxide (ZnO), produce a voltage difference when subjected to mechanical strain. Manipulation of this voltage can allow for the storage of energy to power small scale devices. The objective of this research is to manufacture a piezo-generator that can transduce mechanical vibrations into electrical energy. Carbon nanotubes, selected for their strong, flexible, and conductive properties, are used as a structural backbone for a ZnO piezoelectric coating and a Ag electrode coating. A Schottky diode interface is used to rectify the current output of the device. The devices yielded an average current output of .79 microAmps. SEM imagining was used to characterize the fabrication process. A Keithley 2700 digital multimeter was used to characterize the current output of the devices.

  20. Chemical sensors using coated or doped carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  1. Biomimetic apatite coatings--carbonate substitution and preferred growth orientation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lenka; Conforto, Egle; Caillard, Daniel; Müller, Frank A

    2007-11-01

    Biomimetic apatite coatings were obtained by soaking chemically treated titanium in SBF with different HCO(3)(-) concentration. XRD, FTIR and Raman analyses were used to characterize phase composition and degree of carbonate substitution. The microstructure, elemental composition and preferred alignment of biomimetically precipitated crystallites were characterized by cross-sectional TEM analyses. According to XRD, the phase composition of precipitated coatings on chemically pre-treated titanium after exposure to SBF was identified as hydroxy carbonated apatite (HCA). A preferred c-axis orientation of the deposited crystals can be supposed due to the high relative peak intensities of the (002) diffraction line at 2theta=26 degrees compared to the 100% intensity peak of the (211) plane at 2theta=32 degrees . The crystallite size in direction of the c-axis of HCA decreased from 26 nm in SBF5 with a HCO(3)(-) concentration of 5 mmol/l to 19 nm in SBF27 with a HCO(3)(-) concentration of 27 mmol/l. Cross-sectional TEM analyses revealed that all distances correspond exactly to the hexagonal structure of hydroxyapatite. The HCO(3)(-) content in SBF also influences the composition of precipitated calcium phosphates. Biomimetic apatites were shown to have a general formula of Ca(10-x-y)Mg(y)(HPO(4))(x-z)(CO(3))(z)(PO(4))(6-x)(OH)(2-x-w)(CO(3))(w/2). According to FTIR and Raman analyses, it can be supposed that as long as the HCO(3)(-) concentration in the testing solutions is below 20 mmol/l, only B-type HCA (0

  2. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanobelts and nanoparticles by single catalytic step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, Neftali L. V.; Nunes, Michael R.; Garcia, Irene T. S.; Orlandi, Marcelo O.; Fajardo, Humberto V.; Longo, Elson

    2009-05-01

    Several types of carbon nanostructures (amorphous and graphitic), for the coating of SnO2 nanobelts and nanoparticles were obtained by a single catalytic process, during methane, natural gas, and methanol decomposition using the reactivity of surface-modified SnO2 nanostructure as a nanotemplate. The nanostructured catalyst templates were based on transition metal nanoparticles supported on SnO2 nanobelts previously prepared by a carbothermal reduction process. Carbon-coated SnO2 nanopowders were also successfully synthesized for the fabrication of carbon spheres. The carbon coating process and yield, along with the nature of the nanostructured carbon, are strongly influenced by the chemically modified surface of the SnO2 nanostructure template and the chemical reaction gas composition. The preliminary catalytic activity and gas-sensing properties of these novel materials based on metal nanoparticles and carbon-coated SnO2 were determined.

  3. METHOD FOR FORMING A COATING OF MOLYBDENUM CARBIDE ON A CARBON BODY

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1962-04-01

    A method is described for coating a carbon bodywith molybdenum carbide in such a manner that the carbon body is rendered less permeable to the flow of gases and has increased resistance to corrosion and erosion. The method includes coating a carbon body with molybdenum trioxide by contacting it at a temperature below the condensation temperature with molybdenum trioxide vapors and thereafter carburizing the molybdenum trioxide in situ in an inert atmosphere on the carhon body. (AEC)

  4. Processing of fused silicide coatings for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The processing and oxidation resistance of fused Al-Si and Ni-Si slurry coatings on ATJ graphite was studied. Ni-Si coatings in the 70 to 90 percent Si range were successfully processed to melt, wet, and bond to the graphite. The molten coatings also infiltrated the porosity in graphite and reacted with it to form SiC in the coating. Cyclic oxidation at 1200 C showed that these coatings were not totally protective because of local attack of the substrate, due to the extreme thinness of the coatings in combination with coating cracks.

  5. Investigation of interfacial interaction between uncoated and coated carbon fibres and the magnesium alloy AZ91.

    PubMed

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Nishida, Y; Klemm, V; Nestler, K; Marx, G; Müller, E

    2002-10-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced metal-matrix composites with a fibre volume content between 63 and 68% were processed by squeeze casting using T800 H carbon fibres and the magnesium alloy AZ91. The surface of the fibres was prepared by thermal desizing of the fibres or by deposition of a pyrolytic carbon (pyC) coating. Different interfacial conditions could be identified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the single-fibre push-in test. TEM confirmed the formation of needle-like phases at the fibre surface or, for coated fibres, within the pyrolytic carbon coating. During loading by the Vickers type indenter an intense response was observed for composites of coated fibres and the magnesium alloy. This could by caused by stick-slip effects within the pyrolytic carbon coating.

  6. Room-temperature aqueous plasma electrolyzing Al2O3 nano-coating on carbon fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuping; Meng, Yang; Shen, Yonghua; Chen, Weiwei; Cheng, Huanwu; Wang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    A novel room-temperature aqueous plasma electrolysis technique has been developed in order to prepared Al2O3 nano-coating on each fiber within a carbon fiber bundle. The microstructure and formation mechanism of the Al2O3 nano-coating were systematically investigated. The oxidation resistance and tensile strength of the Al2O3-coated carbon fiber was measured at elevated temperatures. It showed that the dense Al2O3 nano-coating was relatively uniformly deposited with 80-120 nm in thickness. The Al2O3 nano-coating effectively protected the carbon fiber, evidenced by the slower oxidation rate and significant increase of the burn-out temperature from 800 °C to 950 °C. Although the bare carbon fiber remained ∼25 wt.% after oxidation at 700 °C for 20 min, a full destruction was observed, evidenced by the ∼0 GPa of the tensile strength, compared to ∼1.3 GPa of the Al2O3-coated carbon fiber due to the effective protection from the Al2O3 nano-coating. The formation mechanism of the Al2O3 nano-coating on carbon fiber was schematically established mainly based on the physic-chemical effect in the cathodic plasma arc zone.

  7. Fe3O4/carbon coated silicon ternary hybrid composite as supercapacitor electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Myeongjin; Kim, Jooheon

    2015-02-01

    In this study, Fe3O4/carbon-coated Si ternary hybrid composites were fabricated. A carbon layer was directly formed on the surface of Si by the thermal vapor deposition. The carbon-coating layer not only prevented the contact between Si and reactive electrolyte but also provided anchoring sites for the deposition of Fe3O4. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of carbon-coated Si by the hydrazine reducing method. The morphology and structure of Fe3O4 and carbon layer were characterized via X-ray diffractometry, field emission scanning electron microscopy, field emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyses. These characterizations indicate that a carbon layer was fully coated on the Si particles, and Fe3O4 particles were homogeneously deposited on the carbon-coated Si particles. The Fe3O4/carbon-coated Si electrode exhibited enhanced electrochemical performance, attributed to the high conductivity and stability of carbon layer and pseudocapacitive reaction of Fe3O4. The proposed ternary-hybrid composites may be potentially useful for the fabrication of high-performance electrodes.

  8. CARBON COATED (CARBONOUS) CATALYST IN EBULLATED BED REACTOR FOR PRODUCTION OF OXYGENATED CHEMICALS FROM SYNGAS/CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Peizheng Zhou

    2002-12-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under DOE's Support of Advanced Fuel Research program, Contract No. DE-FG26-99FT40681. The contract period was October 2000 through September 2002. This R&D program investigated the modification of the mechanical strength of catalyst extrudates using Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. (HTI) carbon-coated catalyst technology so that the ebullated bed technology can be utilized to produce valuable oxygenated chemicals from syngas/CO{sub 2} efficiently and economically. Exothermic chemical reactions benefit from the temperature control and freedom from catalyst fouling provided by the ebullated bed reactor technology. The carbon-coated extrudates prepared using these procedures had sufficient attrition resistance and surface area for use in ebullated bed operation. The low cost of carbon coating makes the carbon-coated catalysts highly competitive in the market of catalyst extrudates.

  9. Mixed polyvalent-monovalent metal coating for carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, J.; Tervet, F. W.; Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved coating of gasification catalyst for carbon-graphite fibers is provided comprising a mixture of a polyvalent metal such as calcium and a monovalent metal such as lithium. The addition of lithium provides a lighter coating and a more flexible coating when applied to a coating of a carboxyl containing resin such as polyacrylic acid since it reduces the crosslink density. Furthermore, the presence of lithium provides a glass-like substance during combustion which holds the fiber together resulting in slow, even combustion with much reduced evolution of conductive fragments. The coated fibers are utilized as fiber reinforcement for composites.

  10. Dielectric properties of WS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes studied by energy-loss spectroscopic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolojan, Vlad; Silva, S. R. P.; Goringe, Michael J.; Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, Wang K.; Walton, D. R. M.; Kroto, Harold W.

    2005-02-01

    We investigate experimentally the electronic properties of the coating for multiwalled carbon nanotubes covered in tungsten disulfide (WS2) of various thicknesses. Coatings of thicknesses between 2 and 8 monolayers (ML) are analyzed using energy-loss spectroscopic profiling (ELSP), by studying the variations in the plasmon excitations across the coated nanotube, as a function of the coating thickness. We find a change in the ELSP for coatings above 5 ML thickness, which we interpret in terms of a change in its dielectric properties.

  11. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  12. Optical properties of black carbon aggregates with non-absorptive coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Ji; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Feng, Qian

    2017-01-01

    This study develops an idealized model to account for the effects of non-absorptive coating on the optical properties of black carbon (BC) aggregates. The classic fractal aggregate is applied to represent realistic BC particles, and the coating is assumed to be spherical. To accelerate the single-scattering simulation, BC monomers that were overlapped with coating sphere (not those completely inside the coating) are slightly moved to avoid overlapping. The multiple-sphere T-matrix method (MSTM) becomes applicable to calculate the optical properties of inhomogeneous particles with any coating amount, and is generally two orders of magnitude faster than the discrete-dipole approximation for particles we considered. Furthermore, the simple spherical coating is found to have similar effects on the optical properties to those based on more complicated coating structure. With the simple particle model and the efficient MSTM, it becomes possible to consider the influence of coating with much more details. The non-absorptive coating of BC aggregates can significantly enhance BC extinction and absorption, which is consistent with previous studies. The absorption of coated aggregates can be over two times stronger than that of BC particles without coating. Besides the coating volume, the relative position between the mass centers of BC aggregate and coating also plays an important role on the optical properties, and should obviously be considered in further studies.

  13. Effects of Coatings on Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Black Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelsen, H. A.; Dansson, M. A.; Schrader, P. E.; Metcalf, A. R.; Lopez-Yglesias, X.; Bambha, R.

    2012-12-01

    In exhaust plumes and the ambient atmosphere, refractory black carbon particles are often coated with unburned fuel, sulfuric acid, water, ash, and other combustion by-products and atmospheric constituents. These coatings can have an effect on particle optical and physical properties and can thus have an influence on optical diagnostics applied to coated particles. The effects of particle coatings therefore need to be fully understood in order to apply optical diagnostics under a wide range of conditions. We have investigated the effects of coatings on time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII) measurements of combustion-generated black carbon particles. Particles were generated in a coflow diffusion flame, extracted, cooled, and coated with oleic acid. A thermodenuder was used to remove the coating. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to monitor aggregate sizes, a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) was used to measure coating mass fractions, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize particle morphologies. The results demonstrate striking differences in LII temporal evolution and dependence on laser fluence between coated and uncoated particles. The LII signal appears to be sensitive to coating-induced particle morphology and optical changes. These results can be understood in the context of energy and mass balance during laser heating and conductive and evaporative cooling and are consistent with predictions based on an LII model that includes a heavy organic coating.

  14. Wetting of polymer melts on coated and uncoated steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Julie; Contraires, Elise; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Larochette, Mathieu; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    A comparative study of the wetting of three different commercial polymer melts on various coated and uncoated steel surfaces is described in this report. The wettability of steel and coatings (three different titanium nitride coatings, TiN, TiNOx, TiNOy, a chromium coating, CrN, and a diamond-like carbon coating, DLC) used for mold in polymer processing is determined at different temperatures between 25 °C and 120 °C. Contact angle measurements of melted polypropylene (PP), Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) and Polycarbonate (PC) on steel and on the different coatings were performed to investigate the wetting behavior under closer-to-processing conditions. Recommendations for good measurement conditions were proposed. Moreover, the surface free energy of each melt polymer was determined. The works of adhesion between all polymers and all substrates were established. Among all tested polymers, the lowest value of the works of adhesion is calculated for ABS and for PC thereafter, and the highest value is calculated for PP. These results will be particularly important for such applications as determining the extent to which these polymers can contribute to the replication quality in injection molding.

  15. Investigation of electronic structure and thermodynamic properties of quaternary Li-containing chalcogenide diamond-like semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berarma, K.; Charifi, Z.; Soyalp, F.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, G.; Uğur, Ş.

    2016-12-01

    Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of Li2CdGeS4 and Li2CdSnS4 compounds are investigated. We confirmed that both Li2CdGeS4 and Li2CdSnS4 are diamond-like semiconductors of the wurtz-stannite structure type based on that of diamond in terms of tetrahedra volume. All the tetrahedra are almost regular with major distortion from the ideal occurring in the LiS4 tetrahedron, with values for S-Li-S ranging from 105.69° to 112.84° in the Li2CdGeS4 compound. Furthermore, the Cd-S bond possesses a stronger covalent bonding strength than the Li/Ge-S bonds. In addition, the inter-distances in Li2CdSnS4 show a larger spread than the distances in the Li2CdGeS4 compound. The electronic structures have been calculated to understand the bonding mechanism in quaternary Li-containing chalcogenide diamond-like semiconductors. Our results show that Li2CdGeS4 and Li2CdSnS4 are semiconductors with a direct band gap of 2.79 and 2.42 eV and exhibit mixed ionic-covalent bonding. It is also noted that replacing Ge by Sn leads to a decrease in the band gap; this behavior is explained in terms of bond lengths and electronegativity differences between atoms. Optical properties, including the dielectric function, reflectivity, and absorption coefficient, each as a function of photon energy are calculated and show an optical anisotropy for Li2CdGeS4 and Li2CdSnS4. The static dielectric constant {\\varepsilon }1(0) and static refractive index n(0) decrease when Ge is replaced by Sn. The influence of pressures and temperatures on the thermodynamic properties like the specific heat at constant volume {C}v, and at constant pressure {C}p, the Debye temperature {{{\\Theta }}}{{D}}, the entropy S and the Grüneisen parameter γ have been predicted at enlarged pressure and temperature ranges. The principal aspect from the obtained results is the close similarity of both compounds.

  16. Electromagnetic Wave Shieding Effectiveness of Carbon Fiber Sheet Coated Ferrite Film by Microwave-Hydrothermal Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Ri Ichi; Yamamoto, Hidetoshi; Kim, Chan Kong; Yim, Cheol Mun; Kim, Yun Hae

    The developments of electromagnetic wave shielding materials are strongly required because the malfunction of electronic equipment, mobile phone and wireless LAN avoids. In this study, it was investigated that the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of carbon fiber sheets were enhanced by the ferrite which was coated by the microwave hydrothermal process. For coated carbon fiber sheet, the effects of ferrite and lamination of carbon fiber textile on the electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness were discussed. In the range of frequency (100 1 GHz), the electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness was measured by using TEM-Cell. The electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness was greater for the coated carbon fiber sheets than for the uncoated carbon fiber sheets. When the insulation film was located between two carbon fiber sheets, the electromagnetic wave shielding effectiveness increased.

  17. Functionalized, biocompatible, and impermeable nanoscale coatings for PEEK.

    PubMed

    Awaja, Firas; Cools, Pieter; Lohberger, Birgit; Nikiforov, Anton Yu; Speranza, Giorgio; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    Biologically compatible coatings that provide hermetic seal could resolve a major technological hurdle in the attempt to replace metals with polymers for biochips and active medical implants. The use of amorphous carbon/diamond like carbon (a-C:H) coatings to hermetically seal and biologically enhance polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) for biomedical device integration in the human body was investigated. The PEEK coating functionality (sp3/sp2 ratio), hardness and thickness (70-200nm) were controlled, by varying H2 and N2 concentration during the plasma operation with CH4. a-C:H coatings having the highest indentation modulus of 13.5GPa, originate out of a CH4 (90%) rich composition. Even in a mixture of 70/30 H2/CH4 the hardness is 4.76GPa, corresponding to hard and dense coatings. In all tested conditions of deposition coatings hardens was sufficient for the purpose of PEEK implants modification. The synthesized (a-C:H) nanoscale coatings were not water permeable as measured by the hydrolysis test, resolving the traditional challenge of swelling in wet environment. The hardness of the coatings showed strong correlations with the thickness, surprisingly however, with no correlations with the sp3/sp2 ratio. Selected non water permeable nanoscale coating on PEEK showed strong bioactivity by being viable for human osteoblast (hFOB) and human fibroblast (hGF) cells without toxicity issues. No correlation was observed between the coatings sp3/sp2 ratio and biological performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Coated Carbon Nanotubes: Interlayer Polarization Improved Field Emission.

    PubMed

    Chang, Han-Chen; Tsai, Hsin-Jung; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chu, Yung-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Kuang

    2015-07-08

    Coating of h-BN onto carbon nanotubes induces polarization at interfaces, and charges become localized at N and C atoms. Field emission of coated tubes is found to be highly stable, and current density fluctuates within 4%. Study further reveals that the electric field established between coatings and tubes facilitates charge transfer across interfaces and electrons are emitted through occupied and unoccupied bands of N and B atoms.

  19. Protection of nuclear graphite toward liquid fluoride salt by isotropic pyrolytic carbon coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiujie; Song, Jinliang; Xu, Li; Tan, Jie; Xia, Huihao; Zhang, Baoliang; He, Zhoutong; Gao, Lina; Zhou, Xingtai; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhu, Zhiyong; Bai, Shuo

    2013-11-01

    Infiltration studies were performed on uncoated nuclear graphite and isotropic pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coated graphite in molten FLiNaK salt at 650 °C under argon atmosphere at 1, 3 and 5 atm. Uncoated graphite shows weight gain more obviously than that of PyC coated graphite. Nuclear graphite with PyC coating exhibits excellent infiltration resistance in molten salt due to the small open porosity as conformed from scanning electron microscopy and mercury injection experiments.

  20. The fabrication of carbon-nanotube-coated electrodes and a field-emission-based luminescent device.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjay; Yamini Sarada, B; Kar, Kamal K

    2010-02-10

    Tungsten substrates were coated with an Ni or Ni-Co catalyst by the electroless dip coating technique. Various carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method under different growth conditions. It was observed that Ni-and Ni-Co-coated tungsten substrates give very good growth of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in terms of yield, uniformity and alignment at a growth temperature of 600 degrees C. We fabricated a field-emission-based luminescent light bulb where a tungsten wire coated with carbon nanotubes served as a cathode. Results show lower threshold voltage, better emission stability and higher luminescence for CNT cathodes in comparison with uncoated tungsten cathodes. We found that aligned-coiled carbon nanotubes are superior to straight CNTs in terms of field emission characteristics and luminescence properties.