Science.gov

Sample records for diamond-like carbon coating

  1. Durability of diamond-like carbon coated polycarbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, A.J.; Pergantis, C.G.

    1993-12-31

    Chemical exposure, accelerated weathering and mechanical tests have been carried out on diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated polycarbonates. DLC coatings are deposited at near room temperature via an ion beam system. Results show that DLC coatings have provided polycarbonate with significant improvement in the resistance to abrasion and attack of many organic liquids. The effects of simulated weathering exposure, including solar radiation, heat and humidity on DLC coated polycarbonates, are evaluated following the military standard MIL-STD-810E conditions. Preliminary results showed that both uncoated and coated polycarbonates yellowed; however, all the coated polycarbonates still remained optically clear. For the specimens coated with 0.5{mu} DLC, the originally brownish looking films seemed faded and became water clear. Comparison of the test results with other coatings, including a polysiloxane and and SiO{sub 2}, will be presented and discussed.

  2. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  3. Atmospheric Plasma Deposition of Diamond-like Carbon Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Ladwig, Angela

    2008-01-23

    There is great demand for thin functional coatings in the semiconductor, optics, electronics, medical, automotive and aerospace industries [1-13]. As fabricated components become smaller and more complex, the properties of the materials’ surface take on greater importance. Thin coatings play a key role in tailoring surfaces to give them the desired hardness, wear resistance, chemical inertness, and electrical characteristics. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings possess an array of desirable properties, including outstanding abrasion and wear resistance, chemical inertness, hardness, a low coefficient of friction and exceptionally high dielectric strength [14-22]. Diamond-like carbon is considered to be an amorphous material, containing a mixture of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbon. Based on the percentage of sp3 carbon and the hydrogen content, four different types of DLC coatings have been identified: tetrahedral carbon (ta-C), hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) hard, a-C:H soft, and hydrogenated tetrahedral carbon (ta-C:H) [20,24,25]. Possessing the highest hardness of 80 GPa, ta-C possesses an sp3 carbon content of 80 to 88u%, and no appreciable hydrogen content whereas a-C:H soft possesses a hardness of less than 10 GPa, contains an sp3 carbon content of 60% and a hydrogen content between 30 to 50%. Methods used to deposit DLC coatings include ion beam deposition, cathodic arc spray, pulsed laser ablation, argon ion sputtering, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition [73-83]. Researchers contend that several advantages exist when depositing DLC coatings in a low-pressure environment. For example, ion beam processes are widely utilized since the ion bombardment is thought to promote denser sp3-bonded carbon networks. Other processes, such as sputtering, are better suited for coating large parts [29,30,44]. However, the deposition of DLC in a vacuum system has several disadvantages, including high equipment cost and restrictions on the size and shape of

  4. Diamond/diamond-like carbon coated nanotube structures for efficient electron field emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimitrijevic, Steven (Inventor); Withers, James C. (Inventor); Loutfy, Raouf O. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a nanotube coated with diamond or diamond-like carbon, a field emitter cathode comprising same, and a field emitter comprising the cathode. It is also directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from a field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes by coating the nanotube with diamond or diamond-like carbon. In another aspect, the present invention is directed to a method of preventing the evaporation of carbon from an electron field emitter comprising a cathode comprised of nanotubes, which method comprises coating the nanotubes with diamond or diamond-like carbon.

  5. Diamond like carbon coatings: Categorization by atomic number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Dense diamond-like hydrocarbon films grown at the NASA Lewis Research Center by radio frequency self bias discharge and by direct ion beam deposition were studied. A new method for categorizing hydrocarbons based on their atomic number density and elemental composition was developed and applied to the diamond-like hydrocarbon films. It was shown that the diamond-like hydrocarbon films are an entirely new class of hydrocarbons with atomic number densities lying between those of single crystal diamond and adamantanes. In addition, a major review article on these new materials was completed in cooperation with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel.

  6. Compilation of diamond-like carbon properties for barriers and hard coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Outka, D.A.; Hsu, Wen L.; Boehme, D.R.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Ottesen, D.K.; Johnsen, H.A.; Clift, W.M.; Headley, T.J.

    1994-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an amorphous form of carbon which resembles diamond in its hardness, lubricity, and interest for hardness, lubricity, and resistance to chemical attack. Such properties make DLC of use in barrier and hard coating technology. This report examines a variety of properties of DLC coatings which are relevant to its use as a protective coating. This includes examining substrates on which DLC coatings can be deposited; the resistance of DLC coatings to various chemical agents; adhesion of DLC coatings; and characterization of DLC coatings by electron microscopy, FTIR, sputter depth profiling, stress measurements, and nanoindentation.

  7. Diamond-like carbon protective coatings for optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Two of the materials most often used as optical windows due to their high transmittance at infrared wavelengths are zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS). However, these materials are soft and often degrade when subjected to a particle-impacting environment. Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films have the potential to protect optical windows, such as ZnSe and ZnS, from rain and particle erosion as well as chemical attack. Diamondlike carbon films were deposited on ZnSe and ZnS, and have been evaluated as protective coatings for the optical windows exposed to particle and rain erosion. The DLC films were deposited on the windows using three different ion beam methods. One method was sputter deposition, while the other two methods used a 30 cm hollow cathode ion source with hydrocarbon/argon gas to directly deposit the DLC films. In an attempt to improve the adherence of the DLC films on ZnSe and ZnS, techniques such as ion beam cleaning, ion implantation using helium and neon ions, and thin ion beam sputter deposited intermediate coatings were employed prior to deposition of the film and were also evaluated. The protection the DLC films afforded the windows was quantitatively determined by exposing the surfaces to 27-μm-diam A1203 particles in a microsandblaster. A Perkin-Elmer IR spectrophotometer was then utilized to indicated the change in specular transmittance between 2.5 and 50 μm as a result of the erosion. The DLC coated windows were also subjected to water droplets at 400 mph for exposure times up to 15 minutes. These samples were qualitatively evaluated by optically viewing the surfaces. The DLC films were also evaluated for adherence, intrinsic stress, and infrared transmittance.

  8. Compilation of diamond-like carbon properties for barriers and hard coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Outka, D.A.; Hsu, Wen L.; Phillips, K.; Boehme, D.R.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Ottesen, D.K.; Johnsen, H.A.; Clift, W.M.; Headley, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an amorphous form of carbon which resembles diamond in its hardness, lubricity, and resistance to chemical attack. Such properties make DLC of interest for use in barrier and hard coating technology. This report examines a variety of properties of DLC coatings. This includes examining substrates on which DLC coatings can be deposited; the resistance of DLC coatings to various chemical agents; adhension of DLC coatings; and characterization of DLC coatings by electron microscopy, FTIR, sputter depth profiling, stress measurements and nanoindentation.

  9. Adhesion, cytoskeletal architecture and activation status of primary human macrophages on a diamond-like carbon coated surface.

    PubMed

    Linder, Stefan; Pinkowski, Wolfhard; Aepfelbacher, Martin

    2002-02-01

    Diamond-like carbon is a promising surface coating for biomedicinal implants like coronary stents or hip joints. Before widespread clinical use of this material, its biocompatibility has to be thoroughly assessed. Cells likely to encounter a diamond-like coated implant in the human body are cells of the monocytic lineage. Their interaction with the diamond-like carbon coated surface will probably critically influence the fate of the implant, as monocytes orchestrate inflammatory reactions and also affect osseointegration of implants. We therefore investigated adhesion, cytoarchitecture and activation status of primary human monocytes and their differentiated derivatives, macrophages, on diamond-like coated glass coverslips using immunofluorescence technique. We show that adhesion of primary monocytes to a diamond-like-coated coverslip is slightly, but not significantly, enhanced in comparison to uncoated coverslips, while the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons of mature macrophages show a normal development. The activation status of macrophages, as judged by polarization of the cell body, was not affected by growth on a diamond-like carbon surface. We conclude that diamond-like carbon shows good indications for biocompatibility to blood monocytes in vitro. It is therefore unlikely that contact with a diamond-like carbon coated surface in the human body will elicit inflammatory signals by these cells.

  10. Adherent diamond like carbon coatings on metals via plasma source ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.; Munson, C.P.

    1996-12-01

    Various techniques are currently used to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on various materials. Many of these techniques use metallic interlayers, such as Ti or Si, to improve the adhesion of a DLC coating to a ferrous substrate. An alternative processing route would be to use plasma source ion implantation (PSII) to create a carbon composition gradient in the surface of the ferrous material to serve as the interface for a DLC coating. The need for interlayer deposition is eliminated by using a such a graded interfaces PSII approach has been used to form adherent DLC coatings on magnesium, aluminum, silicon, titanium, chromium, brass, nickel, and tungsten. A PSII process tailored to create a graded interface allows deposition of adherent DLC coatings even on metals that exhibit a positive heat of formation with carbon, such as magnesium, iron, brass and nickel.

  11. Architectural design of diamond-like carbon coatings for long-lasting joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujing; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Habibi, Daryoush; Xie, Zonghan

    2013-07-01

    Surface engineering through the application of super-hard, low-friction coatings as a potential approach for increasing the durability of metal-on-metal replacements is attracting significant attention. In this study innovative design strategies are proposed for the development of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coatings against the damage caused by wear particles on the joint replacements. Finite element modeling is used to analyze stress distributions induced by wear particles of different sizes in the newly-designed coating in comparison to its conventional monolithic counterpart. The critical roles of architectural design in regulating stress concentrations and suppressing crack initiation within the coatings is elucidated. Notably, the introduction of multilayer structure with graded modulus is effective in modifying the stress field and reducing the magnitude and size of stress concentrations in the DLC diamond-like-carbon coatings. The new design is expected to greatly improve the load-carrying ability of surface coatings on prosthetic implants, in addition to the provision of damage tolerance through crack arrest.

  12. Fluorine doping into diamond-like carbon coatings inhibits protein adsorption and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Okazaki, Yuko; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2007-12-15

    The first major event when a medical device comes in contact with blood is the adsorption of plasma proteins. Protein adsorption on the material surface leads to the activation of the blood coagulation cascade and the inflammatory process, which impair the lifetime of the material. Various efforts have been made to minimize protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. Recently, diamond-like carbon (DLC) has received much attention because of their antithrombogenicity. We recently reported that coating silicon substrates with fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) drastically suppresses platelet adhesion and activation. Here, we evaluated the protein adsorption on the material surfaces and clarified the relationship between protein adsorption and platelet behaviors, using polycarbonate and DLC- or F-DLC-coated polycarbonate. The adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen were assessed using a colorimetric protein assay, and platelet adhesion and activation were examined using a differential interference contrast microscope. A higher ratio of albumin to fibrinogen adsorption was observed on F-DLC than on DLC and polycarbonate films, indicating that the F-DLC film should prevent thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion and activation on the F-DLC films were more strongly suppressed as the amount of fluorine doping was increased. These results show that the F-DLC coating may be useful for blood-contacting devices.

  13. Transmission photocathodes based on stainless steel mesh coated with deuterated diamond like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huran, J.; Balalykin, N. I.; Feshchenko, A. A.; Kobzev, A. P.; Kleinová, A.; Sasinková, V.; Hrubčín, L.

    2014-07-01

    In this study we report on the dependence of electron emission properties on the transmission photocathodes DC gun based on stainless steel mesh coated with diamond like carbon films prepared at various technological conditions. Diamond like carbon films were deposited on the stainless steel mesh and silicon substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from gas mixtures CH4+D2+Ar, CH4+H2+Ar and reactive magnetron sputtering using a carbon target and gas mixtures Ar+D2, Ar+H2. The concentration of elements in films was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection (ERD) analytical methods simultaneously. Chemical compositions were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Raman spectroscopy at visible excitation wavelength was used for the intensity ratio determination of Gaussian fit D-peak and G-peak of Raman spectra. The quantum efficiency was calculated from the measured laser energy and the measured cathode charge. The quantum efficiency of a prepared transmission photocathode was increased with increasing intensity ratio of D-peak and G-peak, which was increased by adding deuterium to the gas mixture and using technology reactive magnetron sputtering.

  14. Fluorinated diamond-like carbon as antithrombogenic coating for blood-contacting devices.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Terumitsu; Shimada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Matsuoka, Yoshiaki; Saito, Toshiya; Yohena, Satoshi; Kamijo, Aki; Shiraga, Nobuyuki; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Kimura, Kanako; Yoshimura, Hirokuni; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2006-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is being considered for widespread clinical use as a surface coating for cardiovascular devices. We synthesized fluorinated DLC (F-DLC) coatings in order to create a more hydrophobic surface with improved antithrombogenicity and flexibility when compared with conventional DLC coatings by combining the inertness of DLC films with the advantage of fluorination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro hemocompatibility and in vivo biocompatibility of the F-DLC coating for medical devices. The in vitro whole blood model confirmed that platelet loss was lower in the F-DLC group than in the noncoated group (SUS316L), which suggests the adhesion of a smaller number of platelets to F-DLC-coated materials. Furthermore, the biomarkers of mechanically induced platelet activation (beta-thromboglobulin) and activated coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin-three complex) were markedly reduced in the F-DLC-coated group. In vivo rat implant model studies revealed no excessive local and systemic inflammatory responses in the F-DLC group. The thickness of the fibrous tissue capsule surrounding the F-DLC-coated disk was almost equal to that of the noncoated SUS316L disk, which has the favorable biocompatibility for metallic implant materials. F-DLC coating thus appears to be a promising candidate for use as a coating material in blood-contacting devices.

  15. Advances in PSII Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings for Use as a Barrier to Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Baker, N.P.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-10-01

    Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is a non line of sight process for implanting complex shaped targets without the need for complex fixturing. The breakdown initiation of materials coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) produced by PSII occurs at defects in the DLC which expose the underlying material. To summarize these findings, a galvanic couple is established between the coating and exposed material at the base of the defect. Pitting and oxidation of the base and metal leads to the development of mechanical stress in the coating and eventually spallation of the coating. This paper presents our current progress in attempting to mitigate the breakdown of these coatings by implanting the parent material prior to coating with DLC. Ideally one would like to implant the parent material with chromium or molybdenum which are known to improve corrosion resistance, however, the necessary organometallics needed to implant these materials with PSII are not yet available. Here we report on the effects of carbon, nitrogen, and boron implantation on the susceptibility of PSII-DLC coated mild steel to breakdown.

  16. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  17. Segment-Structured Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Polymer Catheter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Taku; Ohishi, Ryusuke; Ohtake, Naoto; Takai, Osamu; Tsutsui, Nobumasa; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Muraki, Yasuhiro; Ogura, Jyunpei

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has remarkable mechanical and tribological properties. Besides those mechanical properties, it has been clarified that DLC shows high biocompatibility in recent years. DLC coating can give high strength, abrasion resistance, and biocompatibility for surface of substrates. Hence DLC is a candidate for the coating material for medical devices such as artificial organ, joint, catheter, etc. The objective of this study is to develop safety protection films for implantable medical polymer devices utilizing segment-structured DLC (S-DLC) coatings. S-DLC and continuous-structured DLC were deposited on polyurethane and nylon sheet for balloon catheters. As a result, friction coefficient of DLC coated polyurethane sheet was approximately one-sixth of that of pristine polyurethane sheet, and S-DLC showed very low friction coefficient of μ=0.1-0.15. DLC coating can prevent polyurethane sheet from worn out. The puncture-resistance of nylon sheets increased 0.2MPa on average by DLC coatings regardless of the film structure. It was confirmed that DLC inhibits adsorption of blood coagulation factor. In conclusion, we succeed to verify that these DLC films can improve tribological property, abrasion-resistance, puncture-resistance, and anti-thrombogenicity of polymer catheters. Moreover, segment-structured DLC films exhibits high performance for protection of polymer material for polymer catheters.

  18. Cavitation erosion resistance of diamond-like carbon coating on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feng; Jiang, Shuyun

    2014-02-01

    Two diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are prepared on stainless steel 304 by cathodic arc plasma deposition technology at different substrate bias voltages and arc currents (-200 V/80 A, labeled DLC-1, and -100 V/60 A, labeled DLC-2). Cavitation tests are performed by using a rotating-disk test rig to explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the DLC coating. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the specimens after cavitation tests are examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the DLC-2 coatings can elongate the incubation period of stainless steel, leading to an excellent cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated stainless steel specimens. After duration of 100 h cavitation test, serious damaged surfaces and plenty of scratches can be observed on the surfaces of the stainless steel specimens, while only a few grooves and tiny pits are observed on the DLC-2 coatings. It is concluded that, decreasing micro defects and increasing adhesion can reduce the delamination of DLC coating, and the erosion continues in the stainless steel substrate after DLC coating failure, and the eroded surface of the substrate is subjected to the combined action from cavitation erosion and slurry erosion.

  19. Study of RF PACVD diamond like carbon coatings deposited at low bias for vacuum applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercammen, K.; Meneve, J.; Dekempeneer, E.; Roberts, E. W.; Eiden, M. J.

    2001-09-01

    Currently, sputtered molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is an established coating for space applications. However, when operated in air, molybdenum disulphide loses much of its lubricating power, thus preventing in-air ground testing. In this work, the tribological properties in vacuum, dry N2 and air of a-C:H films produced by radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (RF PACVD) were studied in order to assess their potential for applications in space. We demonstrated that diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited at low bias voltage show lubricating capacity under vacuum conditions. However, the shorter lifetime of the DLC films as compared to MoS2 under vacuum is considered as an important limiting factor.

  20. [Coating with plasma-deposited functionalized diamond-like carbon to decrease encrustations on urological implants].

    PubMed

    Laube, N; Kleinen, L; Böde, U; Fisang, C; Meissner, A; Bradenahl, J; Syring, I; Busch, H; Pinkowski, W; Müller, S C

    2007-09-01

    The double-J stents used today for palliative artificial urinary diversion very often show extreme formation of encrustations, even a short time after implantation. Despite increased scientific material development, the complication rate has not really been strongly influenced. Grant-aided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, we chose a new interdisciplinary and translational approach by coating standard stent materials with plasma-deposited amorphous diamond-like carbon. These stents show clearly reduced rates of encrustation in vitro. Ongoing clinical trials demonstrate a further enhancement of this effect in vivo. The underlying mechanisms are being investigated by extending the established in vitro model, thereby pushing research in this field to a new level.

  1. Surface properties and blood compatibility of commercially available diamond-like carbon coatings for cardiovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Fedel, Mariangela; Motta, Antonella; Maniglio, Devid; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between the surface properties and blood compatibility of in-use diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings for cardiovascular components. Commercially available DLC films were characterized with respect to surface topography and wettability, protein adsorption from human plasma, and platelets adhesion/activation. Fibrinogen (Fng) and human serum albumin (HSA) adsorbed onto the sample surfaces were in particular quantified as two of the main proteins involved in blood compatibility. A low tendency of platelets to spread and form aggregates onto the DLC-coated surfaces has been described and related to a low Fng-to-HSA adsorption ratio. This study provides evidence that the rapid and tenacious binding of albumin molecules to DLC materials tends to passivate the surfaces and to inhibit Fng adsorption, thus imparting thromboresistance to the carbon coatings by rendering the surfaces less adhesive and activating for platelets. Albumin preferential adsorption was ascribed to high chemical heterogeneity of the DLC sample surfaces. The DLC films tested present a favorable behavior as regards blood compatibility with respect to platelet thrombus formation by reason of their surface properties.

  2. Porous Silicon Coated with Ultrathin Diamond-Like Carbon Film Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Evtukh, A A; Litovchenko, V G; Litvin, Y M; Fedin, D V; Rassamakin, Y V; Sarikov, A V; Chakhovskoi, A G; Felter, T E

    2001-04-01

    The main requirements to electron field emission cathodes are their efficiency, stability and uniformity. In this work we combined the properties of porous silicon layers and diamond-like carbon (DLC) film to obtain emission cathodes with improved parameters. The layered structures of porous silicon and DLC film were formed both on flat n-Si surface and silicon tips created by chemical etching. The conditions of the anodic and stain etching of silicon in HF containing solution under the illumination have been widely changed. The influence of thin ({le} 10nm) DLC film coating of the porous silicon layer on electron emission has been investigated. The parameters of emission efficiency such as field enhancement coefficient, effective emission areas and threshold voltages have been estimated from current-voltage dependencies to compare and characterize different layered structures. The improvement of the emission efficiency of silicon tip arrays with porous layers coated with thin DLC film has been observed. These silicon-based structures are promising for flat panel display applications.

  3. Dissolution effect and cytotoxicity of diamond-like carbon coatings on orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Ohgoe, Yasuharu; Ozeki, Kazuhide; Hirakuri, Kenji; Aoki, Hideki

    2007-12-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been used for implants in orthodontics due to the unique properties such as shape memory effect and superelasticity. However, NiTi alloys are eroded in the oral cavity because they are immersed by saliva with enzymolysis. Their reactions lead corrosion and nickel release into the body. The higher concentrations of Ni release may generate harmful reactions. Ni release causes allergenic, toxic and carcinogenic reactions. It is well known that diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have excellent properties, such as extreme hardness, low friction coefficients, high wear resistance. In addition, DLC film has many other superior properties as a protective coating for biomedical applications such as biocompatibility and chemical inertness. Therefore, DLC film has received enormous attention as a biocompatible coating. In this study, DLC film coated NiTi orthodontic archwires to protect Ni release into the oral cavity. Each wire was immersed in physiological saline at the temperature 37 degrees C for 6 months. The release concentration of Ni ions was detected using microwave induced plasma mass spectrometry (MIP-MS) with the resolution of ppb level. The toxic effect of Ni release was studied the cell growth using squamous carcinoma cells. These cells were seeded in 24 well culture plates and materials were immersed in each well directly. The concentration of Ni ions in the solutions had been reduced one-sixth by DLC films when compared with non-coated wire. This study indicated that DLC films have the protective effect of the diffusion and the non-cytotoxicity in corrosive environment.

  4. Ion beam assisted deposition of Si-diamond-like carbon coatings on large area substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fountzoulas, C.G.

    1996-12-31

    Hard, low-friction silicon-containing diamond-like carbon coatings (Si-DLC), were formed by Ar{sup +} ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD), on 5 in. diameter silicon wafers. The diffusion pump oil precursor (tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane: (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 4}(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Si{sub 3}O{sub 2}) was evaporated through seven, 3 mm diameter, closely packed apertures (multinozzle/multi-aperture container) arranged in a hexagonal pattern, approximately 5 mm apart according to mathematical model developed at ARL describing the spatial distribution of film deposition from nozzles and apertures onto inclined substrates. The ion energy was kept at 40 keV whereas the ion current density and the oil evaporation temperature were varied to produce hard, lubricious and adherent films. The multinozzle array allowed the relatively uniform ({+-} 20%) coverage of the entire 5 in. substrate. The thickness and the microhardness of the films were measured along the rectilinear surface coordinates of the substrate area. Depending on the deposition parameters the standard deviation of the coating thicknesses and Knoop microhardness varied from 14 to 30% respectively over the substrate. This is a significant improvement from the previously used single nozzle set up where the standard deviation of the coating thickness was 50 to 100% for 2 in. diameter substrates. The Knoop microhardness and the sliding friction coefficient of these coatings ranged from 10,000 to 20,000 MPa and 0.04 and 0.2 respectively. These values are in agreement with the previously reported single nozzle results.

  5. Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings as Encapsulants for Photovoltaic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pern, F. J.; Panosyan, Zh.; Gippius, A. A.; Kontsevoy, J. A.; Touryan, K.; Voskanyan, S.; Yengibaryan, Y.

    2005-02-01

    High-quality single-layer and bilayer diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are fabricated by two technologies, namely, ion-assisted plasma-enhanced deposition (IAPED) and electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) deposition. Deposition on various substrates, such as sapphires and solar cells, has been performed at low substrate temperatures (50 {approx} 80 C). The two deposition technologies allow good control over the growth conditions to produce DLC films with desired optical properties, thickness, and energy bandgap. The bilayer-structured DLC can be fabricated by using IAPED for the bottom layer followed by ECR for the top layer, or just by IAPED for both layers with different compositions. The DLC films have shown good spatial uniformity, density, microhardness, and adhesion strength. They exhibit excellent stability against attack by strong acids, prolonged damp-heat exposure at 85 C and 85% relative humidity, mechanical scratch, ultrasonication, and irradiation by ultraviolet (UV), protons, and electrons. When deposited on crystalline Si and GaAs solar cells in single-layer and/or bilayer structure, the DLC films not only serve as antireflection coating and protective encapsulant, but also improve the cell efficiencies.

  6. Osteoblast adhesion to orthopaedic implant alloys: Effects of cell adhesion molecules and diamond-like carbon coating

    SciTech Connect

    Kornu, R.; Kelly, M.A.; Smith, R.L.; Maloney, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    In total joint arthroplasty, long-term outcomes depend in part on the biocompatibility of implant alloys. This study analyzed effects of surface finish and diamond-like carbon coating on osteoblast cell adhesion to polished titanium-aluminum-vanadium and polished or grit-blasted cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys. Osteoblast binding was tested in the presence and absence of the cell adhesion proteins fibronectin, laminin, fibrinogen, and vitronectin and was quantified by measurement of DNA content. Although adherence occurred in serum-free medium, maximal osteoblast binding required serum and was similar for titanium and cobalt alloys at 2 and 12 hours. With the grit-blasted cobalt alloy, cell binding was reduced 48% (p < 0.05) by 24 hours. Coating the alloys with diamond-like carbon did not alter osteoblast adhesion, whereas fibronectin pretreatment increased cell binding 2.6-fold (p < 0.05). In contrast, fibrinogen, vitronectin, and laminin did not enhance cell adhesion. These results support the hypothesis that cell adhesion proteins can modify cell binding to orthopaedic alloys. Although osteoblast binding was not affected by the presence of diamond-like carbon, this coating substance may influence other longer term processes, such as bone formation, and deserves further study. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Development of a radio frequency atmospheric pressure plasma jet for diamond-like carbon coatings on stainless steel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Samadi, O.; Siadati, S. N.; Etaati, G. R.; Asadi, E.; Safari, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet with capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge was developed for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on stainless steel substrates. The plasma jet was generated by argon-methane mixture and its physical parameters were investigated. Relation between the plasma jet length and width of the powered electrode was discussed. Optical and electrical characteristics were studied by optical emission spectroscopy, voltage and current probes, respectively. The evolutions of various species like ArI, C2 and CH along the jet axis were investigated. Electron temperature and density were estimated by Boltzmann plot method and Saha-Boltzmann equation, respectively. Finally, a diamond-like carbon coating was deposited on stainless steel-304 substrates by the atmospheric pressure radio frequency plasma jet in ambient air. Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and Vickers hardness test were used to study the deposited films. The length of the jet was increased by increasing the width of the powered electrode. The estimated electron temperature and density were 1.43 eV and 1.39 × 1015 cm-3, respectively. Averaged Vicker's hardness of the coated sample was three times greater than that of the substrate. The SEM images of the deposited thin films revealed a 4.5 μm DLC coated for 20 min.

  8. Reduction in static friction by deposition of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Shun; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kobayashi, Daishiro; Aono, Yuko; Hirata, Atsushi; Hiratsuka, Masanori; Nakamura, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontics, a reduction in static friction between the brackets and wire is important to enable easy tooth movement. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the whole surfaces of slots in stainless steel orthodontic brackets on reducing the static friction between the brackets and the wire. The DLC coating was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, surface roughness and contact angle measurements, and SEM observations. Rectangular stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum alloy wires with two different sizes were employed, and the static friction between the brackets and wire was measured under dry and wet conditions. The DLC coating had a thickness of approximately 1.0 μm and an amorphous structure was identified. The results indicated that the DLC coating always led to a reduction in static friction. PMID:26632239

  9. Optimum Me-DLC coatings and hard coatings for tribological performance[Diamond-Like Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.L.; Kao, W.H.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, hard coatings (TiN, TiCN, CrN, and CrCN) and Me-DLC coatings (Ti{sub x%}-C:H and Cr{sub x%}-C:H) were deposited on tungsten carbide (WC) substrate by multiarc physical vapor deposition (MAPVD) and unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering, respectively. Counterbodies of the AISI 1045 steel cylinder and the AA7075T65l aluminum cylinder were used in the cylinder-on-disk, line-contact wear mode under dry condition; a counterbody of the AISI 51200 steel ball was used in the ball-on-disk, point-contact wear mode, under both dry and lubricated conditions. All wear tests were conducted with a reciprocating machine. After the tests, the most suitable coating for various counterbodies and test environments was selected. For the coating/1045 steel cylinder, the Ti{sub 10%}-C:H coating possesses excellent tribological characteristics. For the coating/7075T651 aluminum cylinder, hard coatings display excellent wear resistance. For the coating/steel ball, CrCN and CrN coatings display very little wear under both dry and lubricated conditions. On TiN and TiCN coatings, special wear mechanisms of material transfer, adhesion wear, and fatigue fracture occurred during initial tests under kerosene lubrication.

  10. Adhesion and material transfer between aluminum and surfaces coated with diamond-like carbon and other coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konca, Erkan

    Adhesion and transfer of aluminum to the surfaces of tool coatings that are potential candidates for dry machining of Al-Si alloys were investigated. First, 319 Al alloy pins were tested against various industrial coatings (CrN, TiB2, TiAlN, TiN, and TiCN) using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The analyzed Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of the wear tracks were used to rank the coatings according to the amount of Al transferred on their surfaces. In general, the TiB2 and TiCN coatings exhibited the least amount of Al transfer on their surfaces compared to the other coatings. Second, the tribological behaviour of the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings against Al was investigated since aluminum has much lower tendency to adhere to DLC in ambient air compared to other hard coatings tested. Magnetron sputtered non hydrogenated DLC coatings were tested against 319 Al, tungsten carbide (WC) and sapphire (Al20O3) at 120, 300 and 400°C and under various test atmospheres including air (0-85% RH), vacuum, inert gases (Ar, He and N2) and 40% H2-60% He. Although much softer than WC and Al2O3, 319 Al alloy inflicted the most severe wear of non-hydrogenated DLC especially at elevated temperatures. Non-hydrogenated DLC coatings showed high coefficient of friction, (COF), (0.45-0.75) and high wear rates in inert gases and vacuum compared to ambient air (COF= 0.09-0.16). Very low COF values (0.01-0.02) were observed in 40% H2-60% He mixture. The low COF values in ambient air and in 40% H2-60% He mixture were associated with formation of carbonaceous transfer layers on counterfaces. Formation of easy-to-shear transfer layer together with adsorption and dissociation of the atmospheric water on the sliding surfaces were suggested as the possible mechanisms that minimize COF in ambient air. To elucidate the effect of material properties on adhesion, 1100 Al, Cu, and Ti were tested against CrN, non-hydrogenated DLC, and TiB2 coatings in ambient air and argon. Cu exhibited the least

  11. Further improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon nanocomposite coatings by N codoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Changwei; Xie, Wei; Tang, Xiaoshan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effects of nitrogen codoping on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite coatings were investigated in detail. Compared with undoped DLC coatings, the Cr-DLC and N/Cr-DLC coatings showed higher root-mean-square (RMS) roughness values. However, from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman results, the fraction of sp2 carbon bonds of N/Cr-DLC coatings increased with increasing N content, which indicated the graphitization of the coatings. The hardness and elastic modulus of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 1.8 at. % N were about 26.8 and 218 GPa, respectively. The observed hardness increase with N codoping was attributed to the incorporation of N in the C network along with the formation of CrC(N) nanoparticles, as confirmed from the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. The internal stress markedly decreased from 0.93 to 0.32 GPa as the N content increased from 0 to 10.3 at. %. Furthermore, N doping significantly improved the high-temperature dry friction behavior of DLC coatings. The friction coefficient of N/Cr-DLC coatings with 8.0 and 10.3 at. % N was kept at about 0.2 during the overall sliding test at 500 °C. These results showed that appropriate N doping could promote the mechanical and tribological properties of Cr-DLC nanocomposite coatings.

  12. Influence of load on the dry frictional performance of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Martínez, D.; Nohava, Jiri; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the influence of applied load on the frictional behavior of alkyl acrylate copolymer elastomers coated with diamond-like carbon films is studied at dry conditions. The performance of two coatings with very different microstructure (patched vs. continuous film) is compared with the uncoated substrate. A wide range of applied loads is explored, from 1 mN to 1 N, which is achieved by using a specific tribometer. The variation of 3 orders of magnitude in the applied load leads to a strong variation of the observed frictional phenomena. The different behavior of both samples at various loads is explained using a model that considers two contributions to the friction coefficient, namely, an adhesive and a rubber hysteresis part. The constraints and applicability of such model are critically evaluated.

  13. Nanopatterning on silicon surface using atomic force microscopy with diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated Si probe

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) equipped with diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated Si probe has been used for scratch nanolithography on Si surfaces. The effect of scratch direction, applied tip force, scratch speed, and number of scratches on the size of the scratched geometry has been investigated. The size of the groove differs with scratch direction, which increases with the applied tip force and number of scratches but decreases slightly with scratch speed. Complex nanostructures of arrays of parallel lines and square arrays are further fabricated uniformly and precisely on Si substrates at relatively high scratch speed. DLC-coated Si probe has the potential to be an alternative in AFM-based scratch nanofabrication on hard surfaces. PMID:21888633

  14. Ultra hydrophobic/superhydrophilic modified cotton textiles through functionalized diamond-like carbon coatings for self-cleaning applications.

    PubMed

    Caschera, Daniela; Cortese, Barbara; Mezzi, Alessio; Brucale, Marco; Ingo, Gabriel Maria; Gigli, Giuseppe; Padeletti, Giuseppina

    2013-02-26

    A stable and improved control of the wettability of textiles was obtained by using a coating of diamond like carbon (DLC) films on cotton by PECVD. By controlling different plasma pretreatments of argon, oxygen, and hydrogen on the cotton fibers' surface, we have shown that the pretreatments had a significant impact on wettability behavior resulting from an induced nanoscale roughness combined with an incorporation of selected functional groups. Upon subsequent deposition of diamond like carbon (DLC) films, the cotton fibers yield to a highly controlled chemical stability and hydrophobic state and could be used for self-cleaning applications. By controlling the nature of the plasma pretreatment we have shown that the oxygen plasma pretreatment was more effective than the argon and hydrogen for the superhydrophilic/ultra hydrophobic properties. The chemical and morphological changes of the cotton fibers under different treatments were characterized using X-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, AFM, and water contact angle measurements. The mechanism underlying the water-repellent properties of the cotton fibers provides a new and innovative pathway into the development of a range of advanced self-cleaning textiles.

  15. Diamond-like carbon coatings for orthopedic applications: Tribological behaviors of vacuum arc diamond-like carbon-coated titanium alloy against medical-grade ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianzong

    An extensive and detailed investigation of tribological behaviors of vacuum arc carbon coated Ti6Al4V against medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene were conducted in this work in order to investigate the potential use of diamond-like carbon coatings for orthopedic applications. Further, the gas plasma sterilization and surface modification technique were evaluated as an alternative to the currently used gamma-radiation technique which has previously shown degradation effects on the mechanical properties of the UHMWPE. In addition, an emerging polymer surface modification technique using high-energy ion-implantation is explored to modify the surface of the UHMWPE for improved wear performance. The experiments were performed using a standard pin-on-disk wear tester under both dry and distilled water lubricated condition. The evolution of friction and wear processes are interpreted in the context of in situ recorded coefficient of friction and microscopic images of worn surfaces. Sliding wear tests demonstrated the existence of two distinct friction and wear regimes which comprise physically different dominant mechanisms: an adhesive and abrasive mechanism activated early in the run-in stage, followed by fatigue processes which developed later microscopically in the (quasi) steady-state sliding stage. The effects of surface roughness, distilled water lubricant, coating structure, polymer sterilization and surface modification on the tribological behaviors are presented and discussed in light of these results. Explanations based on theories of sliding contact stress fields, temperature profiles, as well as lubrication and coating fracture mechanics are presented to discuss and support the experimental results. It is revealed that, largely depending on material structures and surface roughness of both articulating components, significantly improved friction and wear performance can be achieved by optimal design of their process

  16. Tribological investigation of diamond-like carbon coated micro-dimpled surface under bovine serum and osteoarthritis oriented synovial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subir; Choudhury, Dipankar; Roy, Taposh; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Masjuki, H. H.; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda

    2015-06-01

    Osteoarthritis-oriented synovial fluid (OASF), i.e., that typical of a patient with osteoarthritis, has different physical and biological characteristics than bovine serum (BS), a lubricant widely used in biotribological investigations. Micro-dimpled and diamond-like carbon- (DLC) coated surfaces are key emerging interfaces for orthopedic implants. In this study, tribological performances of dimpled surfaces, with and without DLC coating, have been investigated under both BS and OASF. The friction tests were performed utilizing a pin on a disk tribometer, whereas contact pressure, speed, and temperature were simulated to a ‘medium walking gait’ of hip joint conditions. The mechanical properties of the specimen and the physical properties of the lubricant were characterized before the friction test. Raman analysis was conducted to identify the coating condition both before and after the test. The DLC-coated dimpled surface showed maximum hardness and residual stress. A DLC-coated dimpled surface under an OASF lubricated condition yielded a lower friction coefficient and wear compared to those of plain and dimpled specimens. The higher graphitization of coated materials with increasing load was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Diamond-like carbon coatings enhance the hardness and resilience of bearing surfaces for use in joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Roy, M E; Whiteside, L A; Xu, J; Katerberg, B J

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating to enhance the hardness and resilience of a bearing surface in joint replacement. The greater hardness of a magnesium-stabilized zirconium (Mg-PSZ) substrate was expected to provide a harder coating-substrate composite microhardness than the cobalt-chromium alloy (CoCr) also used in arthroplasty. Three femoral heads of each type (CoCr, Mg-PSZ, DLC-CoCr and DLC-Mg-PSZ) were examined. Baseline (non-coated) and composite coating/substrate hardness was measured by Vickers microhardness tests, while nanoindentation tests measured the hardness and elastic modulus of the DLC coating independent of the Mg-PSZ and CoCr substrates. Non-coated Mg-PSZ heads were considerably harder than non-coated CoCr heads, while DLC coating greatly increased the microhardness of the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates. On the nanoscale the non-coated heads were much harder than on the microscale, with CoCr exhibiting twice as much plastic deformation as Mg-PSZ. The mechanical properties of the DLC coatings were not significantly different for both the CoCr and Mg-PSZ substrates, producing similar moduli of resilience and plastic resistance ratios. DLC coatings greatly increased hardness on both the micro and nano levels and significantly improved resilience and resistance to plastic deformation compared with non-coated heads. Because Mg-PSZ allows less plastic deformation than CoCr and provides a greater composite microhardness, DLC-Mg-PSZ will likely be more durable for use as a bearing surface in vivo.

  18. Improved wear resistance of functional diamond like carbon coated Ti-6Al-4V alloys in an edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Lackner, Jürgen M; Major, Lukasz; Morita, Takehiro; Sawae, Yoshinori; Bin Mamat, Azuddin; Stavness, Ian; Roy, Chanchal K; Krupka, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the durability of functional diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) under edge loading conditions for application in artificial hip joints. The multilayered (ML) functional DLC coatings consist of three key layers, each of these layers were designed for specific functions such as increasing fracture strength, adapting stress generation and enhancing wear resistance. A 'ball-on-disk' multi-directional wear tester was used in the durability test. Prior to the wear testing, surface hardness, modulus elasticity and Raman intensity were measured. The results revealed a significant wear reduction to the DLC coated Ti-6Al-4V disks compared to that of non-coated Ti-6Al-4V disks. Remarkably, the counterpart Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) balls also yielded lowered specific wear rate while rubbed against the coated disks. Hence, the pairing of a functional multilayered DLC and Si3N4 could be a potential candidate to orthopedics implants, which would perform a longer life-cycle against wear caused by edge loading. PMID:27085502

  19. Local Adhesion of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Coated on Substrates in a Trench-shaped Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, Masami; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Osawa, Hodaka; Minaki, Kazushi; Kitajima, Koichi; Yokota, Katsuhiro

    A negative potential is applied to an object in plasma consisting of methane or acetylene in order to coat a thin solid film, such as DLC (Diamond-like Carbon), on a material surface. The method is called Plasma-based Ion Implantation (PBII). Since mechanical objects commonly possess complex shapes, it may be difficult to coat DLC on them in a uniform manner. This non-uniformity in thickness has been studied in many papers, and it has been reported that it is improved by applying a pulse potential repeatedly to the coated material. A scratch test defined the local adhesion of DLC coated by PBII attached at several places to SUS304 thin plates in a trench-shaped cathode. It has been found that the adhesion increases in strength in the following order: the sides of the plates, the bottom of the groove in a trench, and the top of a trench. In order to interpret these results, the hardness of films is measured by a nano-indenter, and the Raman spectra are examined.

  20. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell interaction with phospholipid polymer nanofibers coated by micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices should possess the surface properties with the following two important characteristics: The first is the anti-thrombogenicity of the material surface and the second is the re-endothelialization over the device surface after long-term implantation, because endothelial cells have excellent anticoagulant properties in blood vessels. To develop highly hemocompatible materials that could promote surface endothelialization, we investigated biocompatible polymers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. In this research, we examined the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) fibers with DLC coatings, both of which were known to be anti-thrombogenic. DLC was synthesized on MPC by varying the ratio of covered area by patterned DLC. HUVECs were seeded on DLC-coated MPC for 6 days. The results indicated that the MPC surface with DLC did not disturb HUVEC proliferation in 6 days of culture. Additionally, we are currently making strong efforts to fabricate MPC fibers with bFGF which is an important growth factor involved in cell proliferation. MPC containing bFGF with DLC coatings could be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices.

  1. Wear resistance of thick diamond like carbon coatings against polymeric materials used in single screw plasticizing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitzenbacher, G.; Liu, K.; Forsich, C.; Heim, D.

    2015-05-01

    Wear on the screw and barrel surface accompany polymer single screw plasticizing technology from the beginning. In general, wear on screws can be reduced by using nitrided steel surfaces, fused armour alloys on the screw flights and coatings. However, DLC-coatings (Diamond Like Carbon) comprise a number of interesting properties such as a high hardness, a low coefficient of friction and an excellent corrosion resistance due to their amorphous structure. The wear resistance of about 50 µm thick DLC-coatings against polyamide 6.6, polybutylene terephthalate and polypropylene is investigated in this paper. The tribology in the solids conveying zone of a single screw extruder until the beginning of melting is evaluated using a pin on disc tribometer and a so called screw tribometer. The polymeric pins are pressed against coated metal samples using the pin on disc tribometer and the tests are carried out at a defined normal force and sliding velocity. The screw tribometer is used to perform tribological experiments between polymer pellets and rotating coated metal shafts simulating the extruder screw. Long term experiments were performed to evaluate the wear resistance of the DLC-coating. A reduction of the coefficient of friction can be observed after a frictional distance of about 20 kilometers using glass fibre reinforced polymeric materials. This reduction is independent on the polymer and accompanied by a black layer on the wear surface of the polymeric pins. The DLC-coated metal samples show an up to 16 µm deep wear track after the 100 kilometer test period against the glass fiber filled materials only.

  2. Controlling the drug release rate from electrospun phospholipid polymer nanofibers with micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    An effective way of controlling drug release from polymer fibers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film was introduced. It is highly expected that electrospinning will produce polymer fiber and useful for drug delivery systems. The drug release rate should be rather precisely controlled in order to prevent side effects due to the burst drug-release from polymers. Our previous research has already revealed that the micro-patterned DLC could control the drug release rate from biocompatible polymer films. In this study, the drug release profile of the polymer fibers with DLC was investigated. Hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was selected as a typical biocompatible polymer. It is well known that the MPC polymers show good hemocompatibility and that both MPC and DLC are excellent biocompatible materials with antithrombogenicity. The DLC/MPC composites could therefore be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices. The percentile covered area with patterned DLC on MPC fibers containing drug was varied from 0% (without DLC) to 100% (fully covered). It was found that the drug eluting profiles could be effectively controlled by changing the covered area of micro-patterned DLC coatings on MPC.

  3. In vitro comparison of the hemocompatibility of diamond-like carbon and carbon nitride coatings with different atomic percentages of N.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengli; Li, Dejun; Zhang, Yiteng; Guo, Meixian; Deng, Xiangyun; Gu, Hanqing; Wan, Rongxin

    2012-04-01

    Carbon nitride (CN( x )) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Different partial pressures of N(2) were used to synthesize CN( x ) to evaluate the relationship between the atomic percentage of nitrogen and hemocompatibility. Auger electron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy indicated atomic percentages of N of 0.12 and 0.22 and that the CN( x ) coatings were smooth. An in vitro study of the hemocompatibility of the coatings revealed that both CN( x ) coatings had better anticoagulant properties and lower platelet adhesion than DLC. Compared with CN(0.12), the CN(0.22) coating showed longer dynamic clotting time (about 42 min), static clotting time (23.6 min) and recalcification time (45.6 s), as well as lower platelet adhesion (102 cells μm(-2)), aggregation, and activation. The presence of nitrogen in the CN( x ) coatings induced their enhanced hemocompatibility compared with DLC.

  4. Surface grafting of blood compatible zwitterionic poly(ethylene glycol) on diamond-like carbon-coated stent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Soo; Shin, Hong-Sub; Park, Kwideok; Han, Dong Keun

    2011-03-01

    Blood compatibility is the most important aspect for blood-contacting medical devices including cardiovascular stents. In this study, the surface of nickel-titanium (TiNi) stent was coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and then subsequently grafted by using zwitterion (N(+) and SO(3) (-))-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). We hypothesize that this coupling of zwitterion and PEG may significantly improve blood compatibility of DLC-coated TiNi stent. The surface modified TiNi stents, including PEG-grafted stent (DLC-PEG) and zwitterionic PEG-grafted one (DLC-PEG-N-S) were the main focus on the tests of surface characteristics and blood compatibility. The zwitterionic PEG derivatives were obtained from a series of chemical reactions at room temperature. The results exhibited that as compared to the DLC-PEG, the hydrophilicity was much better with DLC-PEG-N-S and significantly increased atomic percentage of oxygen and nitrogen proved the entity of zwitterions on the surface of DLC-PEG-N-S. Meanwhile, the adsorption of blood proteins such as, human serum albumin (HSA) and fibrinogen was found considerably down-regulated in DLC-PEG-N-S, due mainly to the protein-repellent effect of PEG and zwitterion. Microscopic observation also revealed that as compared with the other substrates without zwitterion, the degree of platelet adhesion was the lowest with DLC-PEG-N-S. In addition, DLC-PEG-N-S retained an extended blood coagulation time as measured by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The present results suggested that surface grafting of zwitterionic PEG derivatives could substantially enhance the blood compatibility of TiNi-DLC stent. In conclusion, anti-fouling properties of PEG and zwitterions are expected to be very useful in advancing overall stent performance.

  5. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification—Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmu, Peter P.; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min-1. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp3 bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  6. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    PubMed

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time. PMID:25173323

  7. Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor

    DOEpatents

    Devlin, David James; Coates, Don Mayo; Archuleta, Thomas Arthur; Barbero, Robert Steven

    2000-01-01

    A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

  8. Fabrication of highly transparent diamond-like carbon anti-reflecting coating for Si solar cell application

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amit Das, Debajyoti

    2014-04-24

    ARC grade highly transparent unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were produced, directly from a-C target, using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique, for optoelectronic applications. Optical band gap, transmittance, reflectance, sp{sup 3} fraction, I{sub D}/I{sub G}, density, and refractive index of the films have been estimated with the help of optical tools like Uv-vis spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and micro-Raman. Optimum ARC-qualities have been identified in low-temperature grown DLC films at an Ar pressure of 4 mTorr in the reactor, accomplishing its key requirements for use in silicon solar cells.

  9. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  10. Apparatus for producing diamond-like carbon flakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A vacuum arc from a spot at the face of a graphite cathode to a graphite anode produces a beam of carbon ions and atoms. A carbon coating from this beam is deposited on an ion beam sputtered target to produce diamond-like carbon flakes. A graphite tube encloses the cathode, and electrical isolation is provided by an insulating sleeve. The tube forces the vacuum arc spot to be confined to the surface on the outermost end of the cathode. Without the tube the arc spot will wander to the side of the cathode. This spot movement results in low rates of carbon deposition, and the properties of the deposited flakes are more graphite-like than diamond-like.

  11. Buckled diamond-like carbon nanomechanical resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomi, Matti; Isacsson, Andreas; Oksanen, Mika; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Kaikkonen, Jukka-Pekka; Tervakangas, Sanna; Kolehmainen, Jukka; Hakonen, Pertti J.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed capacitively-transduced nanomechanical resonators using sp2-rich diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films as conducting membranes. The electrically conducting DLC films were grown by physical vapor deposition at a temperature of 500 °C. Characterizing the resonant response, we find a larger than expected frequency tuning that we attribute to the membrane being buckled upwards, away from the bottom electrode. The possibility of using buckled resonators to increase frequency tuning can be of advantage in rf applications such as tunable GHz filters and voltage-controlled oscillators.We have developed capacitively-transduced nanomechanical resonators using sp2-rich diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films as conducting membranes. The electrically conducting DLC films were grown by physical vapor deposition at a temperature of 500 °C. Characterizing the resonant response, we find a larger than expected frequency tuning that we attribute to the membrane being buckled upwards, away from the bottom electrode. The possibility of using buckled resonators to increase frequency tuning can be of advantage in rf applications such as tunable GHz filters and voltage-controlled oscillators. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed transmission measurements, discussion about mechanical contacts and surface roughness, derivation of the equations describing the eigenspectrum of a buckled beam under electrostatic load. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02820e

  12. Investigating the functionality of diamond-like carbon films on an artificial heart diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Ohgoe, Yasuharu; Takada, Satoshi; Hirakuri, Kenji K; Tsuchimoto, Katsuya; Homma, Akihiko; Miyamatsu, Toshinobu; Saitou, Tomoyuki; Friedbacher, Gernot; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki; Fukui, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the authors used diamond-like carbon film to coat the ellipsoidal diaphragm (polyurethane elastomer) of artificial hearts. The purpose of such coatings is to prevent the penetration of hydraulic silicone oil and blood through the diaphragm. To attach diamond-like carbon film uniformly on the diaphragm, the authors developed a special electrode. In estimating the uniformity of the diamond-like carbon film, the thickness was measured using a scanning electron microscope, and the characteristics of the diamond-like carbon film was investigated using infrared spectroscopy, Ar-laser Raman spectrophotometer, and x-ray photoelectron spectrometer. Also, to estimate the penetration of silicone oil through the diaphragm, in vitro testing was operated by alternating the pressure of silicone oil for 20 days. The authors were able to successfully attach uniform deposition of diamond-like carbon film on the ellipsoidal diaphragm. In this in vitro test, diamond-like carbon film was proven to have good stability. The amount of silicone oil penetration was improved by one-third using the diamond-like carbon film coating compared with an uncoated diaphragm. It is expected that through the use of the diamond-like carbon film, the dynamic compatibility of an artificial heart diaphragm will increase.

  13. Stretchable diamond-like carbon microstructures for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Ryan; Narayan, Roger J.; Aggarwal, Ravi; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2009-09-01

    Designing, fabricating, and evaluating stretchable electronics is a growing area of materials research. Electronic devices have traditionally been fabricated using rigid, inorganic substrates (e.g., silicon) with metallic components and interconnections. Conventional electronic devices may face limitations when placed in environments that are dominated by stretchable or three-dimensional structures, including those within the human body. This paper describes the use of pulsed laser deposition to create diamond-like carbon microstructures on polydimethylsiloxane. The viability of human epidermal keratinocyte cells on polydimethylsiloxane surfaces coated with arrays of diamond-like carbon islands was similar to that on unmodified polydimethylsiloxane surfaces, which are commonly used in medical devices. It is anticipated that stretchable electronic devices may be incorporated within novel medical devices and prostheses that interface with stretchable or three-dimensional structures in the human body.

  14. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  15. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-01

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ˜25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  16. Improving the high frequency response of a loudspeaker using hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon film coating at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, ChiiRuey; Liu, ShinHwa; Liou, WangJeng; Chang, ChienKuo

    2012-03-01

    Hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films were deposited at low temperature (less than 100°C) by an RF magnetron sputtering facility. DLC films have the ability to change the sound velocity ( E/ρ) in loudspeakers for applications of hard coating. The hydrogen-free DLC films were coated onto PEI diaphragm substrates. The I D/ I G ratio and the surface roughness are 2.09 and less than 0.86 nm ( Ra) with a scanning area of 50 μm×50 μm, respectively. Frequency response analysis of the DLC films on the diaphragm shows that the high frequency response increases by 0.2 dB-5.1 dB (6 kHz-11.2 kHz), -0.4 dB-1.8 dB (11.8 kHz-20 kHz) on average. On the basis of the results of this study, we validated that it was feasible to sputter hydrogen-free DLC films on polymer substrates for mass production. These results also provided useful parameters for future applications of electro-acoustic devices.

  17. Comparison of diamond-like carbon-coated nitinol stents with or without polyethylene glycol grafting and uncoated nitinol stents in a canine iliac artery model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J H; Shin, J H; Shin, D H; Moon, M-W; Park, K; Kim, T-H; Shin, K M; Won, Y H; Han, D K; Lee, K-R

    2011-01-01

    Objective Neointimal hyperplasia is a major complication of endovascular stent placement with consequent in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Improvements in the biocompatibility of stent designs could reduce stent-associated thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. We hypothesised that the use of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated nitinol stent or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-DLC-coated nitinol stent could reduce the formation of neointimal hyperplasia, thereby improving stent patency with improved biocompatibility. Methods A total of 24 stents were implanted, under general anaesthesia, into the iliac arteries of six dogs (four stents in each dog) using the carotid artery approach. The experimental study dogs were divided into three groups: the uncoated nitinol stent group (n = 8), the DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8) and the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (n = 8). Results The mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly less in the DLC-nitinol stent group (26.7±7.6%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.021). However, the mean percentage of neointimal hyperplasia was significantly greater in the PEG-DLC-nitinol stent group (58.7±24.7%) than in the nitinol stent group (40.0±20.3%) (p = 0.01). Conclusion Our findings indicate that DLC-coated nitinol stents might induce less neointimal hyperplasia than conventional nitinol stents following implantation in a canine iliac artery model; however, the DLC-coated nitinol stent surface when reformed with PEG induces more neointimal hyperplasia than either a conventional or DLC-coated nitinol stent. PMID:21325363

  18. Allergen diagnosis microarray with high-density immobilization capacity using diamond-like carbon-coated chips for profiling allergen-specific IgE and other immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koichi; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Tada, Hitomi; Bando, Miwa; Ichioka, Takao; Kamemura, Norio; Kido, Hiroshi

    2011-11-14

    The diagnosis of antibody-mediated allergic disorders is based on clinical findings, skin prick tests and detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum. Here, we present a new microarray technique of high-density antigen immobilization using carboxylated arms on the surface of a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated chip. High immobilization capacity of antigen on DLC chip at (0.94-7.82)×10(9) molecules mm(-2) allowed the analysis of allergen-specific immunoglobulins against not only purified proteins but also natural allergen extracts with wide assay dynamic range. The higher sensitivity of the allergen-specific IgE detection on DLC chip was observed for comparison with the UniCAP system: the DLC chip allowed lowering the limit of dilution rate in UniCAP system to further dilution at 4-8-fold. High correlations (ρ>0.9-0.85) of allergen-specific IgE values determined by the DLC chip and UniCAP were found in most of 20 different allergens tested. The DLC chip was useful to determine allergen-induced antibodies of IgA, IgG, IgG1, and IgG4 in sera, apart from IgE, as well as secretory IgA in saliva against the same series of allergens on the chip in a minimal amount (1-2 μL) of sample.

  19. Photochemically modified diamond-like carbon surfaces for neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hopper, A P; Dugan, J M; Gill, A A; Regan, E M; Haycock, J W; Kelly, S; May, P W; Claeyssens, F

    2016-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) was modified using a UV functionalization method to introduce surface-bound amine and aldehyde groups. The functionalization process rendered the DLC more hydrophilic and significantly increased the viability of neurons seeded to the surface. The amine functionalized DLC promoted adhesion of neurons and fostered neurite outgrowth to a degree indistinguishable from positive control substrates (glass coated with poly-L-lysine). The aldehyde-functionalized surfaces performed comparably to the amine functionalized surfaces and both additionally supported the adhesion and growth of primary rat Schwann cells. DLC has many properties that are desirable in biomaterials. With the UV functionalization method demonstrated here it may be possible to harness these properties for the development of implantable devices to interface with the nervous system.

  20. Photochemically modified diamond-like carbon surfaces for neural interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hopper, A P; Dugan, J M; Gill, A A; Regan, E M; Haycock, J W; Kelly, S; May, P W; Claeyssens, F

    2016-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) was modified using a UV functionalization method to introduce surface-bound amine and aldehyde groups. The functionalization process rendered the DLC more hydrophilic and significantly increased the viability of neurons seeded to the surface. The amine functionalized DLC promoted adhesion of neurons and fostered neurite outgrowth to a degree indistinguishable from positive control substrates (glass coated with poly-L-lysine). The aldehyde-functionalized surfaces performed comparably to the amine functionalized surfaces and both additionally supported the adhesion and growth of primary rat Schwann cells. DLC has many properties that are desirable in biomaterials. With the UV functionalization method demonstrated here it may be possible to harness these properties for the development of implantable devices to interface with the nervous system. PMID:26478422

  1. Effects of bias voltage on diamond like carbon coatings deposited using titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT) and acetylene/argon mixtures onto various substrate materials.

    PubMed

    Said, R; Ghumman, C A A; Teodoro, M N D; Ahmed, W; Abuazza, A; Gracio, J

    2010-04-01

    RF-PECVD was used to prepare amorphous of carbon (DLC) onto stainless steel 316 and glass substrates. The substrates were negatively biased at between 100 V to 400 V. Thin films of DLC have been deposited using C2H2 and titanium isopropoxide (TIPOT). Argon was used to generate the plasma in the PECVD system chamber. DEKTAK 8 surface stylus profilometer was used to measure the film thickness and the deposition rate was calculated. Micro Raman spectroscopy was employed to determine the chemical structure and bonding present in the films. Composition analysis of the samples was carried out using VGTOF SIMS (IX23LS) instrument. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the composition and chemical state of the films. The wettability of the films was examined using the optical contact angle meter (CAM200) system. Two types of liquids with different polarities were used to study changes in the surface energy. The as-grown films were in the thickness range of 200-400 nm. Raman spectroscopy results showed that the I(D)/I(G) ratio decreased when the bias voltage on the stainless steel substrates was increased. This indicates an increase in the graphitic nature of the film deposited. In contrast, on the glass substrates the I(D)/I(G) ratio increased when the bias voltage was increased indicates a greater degree of diamond like character. Chemical composition determined using XPS showed the presence of carbon and oxygen in both samples on glass and stainless steel substrates. Both coatings the contact angle of the films decreased except for 400 V which showed a slight increase. The oxygen is thought to play an important role on the polar component of a-C. PMID:20355461

  2. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  3. Electronic Power System Application of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Richard L. C.; Kosai, H.; Fries-Carr, S.; Weimer, J.; Freeman, M.; Schwarze, G. E.

    2003-01-01

    A prototype manufacturing technology for producing high volume efficiency and high energy density diamond-like carbon (DLC) capacitors has been developed. Unique dual ion-beam deposition and web-handling systems have been designed and constructed to deposit high quality DLC films simultaneously on both sides of capacitor grade aluminum foil and aluminum-coated polymer films. An optimized process, using inductively coupled RF ion sources, has been used to synthesize electrically robust DLC films. DLC films are amorphous and highly flexible, making them suitable for the production of wound capacitors. DLC capacitors are reliable and stable over a wide range of AC frequencies from 20 Hz to 1 MHz, and over a temperature range from .500 C to 3000 C. The compact DLC capacitors offer at least a 50% decrease in weight and volume and a greater than 50% increase in temperature handling capability over equal value capacitors built with existing technologies. The DLC capacitors will be suitable for high temperature, high voltage, pulsed power and filter applications.

  4. Characteristics of deuterated diamond-like carbon as neutron mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Y.; Hino, M.; Horie, T.; Tasaki, S.; Yoshida, K.; Kanno, I.; Nakayama, M.

    2004-08-01

    The characteristics of deuterated diamond-like carbon (D-DLC) as a neutron mirror was evaluated by ERDA, RBS and neutron reflectivity measurements. The number density of hydrogen in unit area is 1.4-3.2×10 16 H/cm 2 in D-DLC. This is same with the typical numbers of normal neutron mirrors. It has a good neutron reflectivity with high quality mirror surface and high optical potential.

  5. Friction behavior of a multi-interface system and improved performance by AlMgB14–TiB2–C and diamond-like-carbon coatings

    DOE PAGES

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter J.; Higdon, Clifton; Cook, Bruce A.

    2016-03-29

    We investigated friction behavior of a bearing system with two interfaces involved: a roller component experiencing rolling–sliding interaction against twin cylinders under point contacts while simultaneously undergoing pure sliding interaction against a socket under a conformal contact. Lubrication modeling predicted a strong correlation between the roller's rolling condition and the system's friction behavior. Experimental observations first validated the analytical predictions using steel and iron components. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) coating and AlMgB14–TiB2 coating with a carbon topcoat (BAMC) were then applied to the roller and twin cylinders, respectively. In conclusion, testing and analysis results suggest that the coatings effectively decreased the slipmore » ratio for the roller–cylinder contact and the sliding friction at both bearing interfaces and, as a result, significantly reduced the system frictional torque.« less

  6. Method and apparatus for making diamond-like carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Pern, Fu-Jann; Touryan, Kenell J.; Panosyan, Zhozef Retevos; Gippius, Aleksey Alekseyevich

    2008-12-02

    Ion-assisted plasma enhanced deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the surface of photovoltaic solar cells is accomplished with a method and apparatus for controlling ion energy. The quality of DLC layers is fine-tuned by a properly biased system of special electrodes and by exact control of the feed gas mixture compositions. Uniform (with degree of non-uniformity of optical parameters less than 5%) large area (more than 110 cm.sup.2) DLC films with optical parameters varied within the given range and with stability against harmful effects of the environment are achieved.

  7. Tribological properties of amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) diamond-like carbon coatings under jatropha biodegradable lubricating oil at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobarak, H. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mohamad, E. Niza; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Habibullah, M.

    2014-10-01

    The application of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on automotive components is emerging as a favorable strategy to address the recent challenges in the industry. DLC coatings can effectively lower the coefficient of friction (CoF) and wear rate of engine components, thereby improving their fuel efficiency and durability. The lubrication of ferrous materials can be enhanced by a large amount of unsaturated and polar components of oils. Therefore, the interaction between nonferrous coatings (e.g., DLC) and vegetable oil should be investigated. A ball-on-plate tribotester was used to run the experiments. Stainless steel plates coated with amorphous hydrogenated (a-C:H) DLC and hydrogen-free tetrahedral (ta-C) DLC that slide against 440C stainless steel ball were used to create a ball-on-plate tribotester. The wear track was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies were used to analyze the tribofilm inside the wear track. Raman analysis was performed to investigate the structural changes in the coatings. At high temperatures, the CoF in both coatings decreased. The wear rate, however, increased in the a-C:H but decreased in the ta-C DLC-coated plates. The CoF and the wear rate (coated layer and counter surface) were primarily influenced by the graphitization of the coating. Tribochemical films, such as polyphosphate glass, were formed in ta-C and acted as protective layers. Therefore, the wear rate of the ta-C DLC was lower than that of the-C:H DLC.

  8. Diamond-like nanocomposite coatings for LIGA-fabricated nickel alloy parts.

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Somuri V.; Scharf, Thomas W.

    2005-03-01

    A commercial plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique with planetary substrate rotation was used to apply a thin (200-400 nm thick) conformal diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating (known as a diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN)) on LIGA fabricated Ni-Mn alloy parts. The PECVD technique is known to overcome the drawbacks associated with the line-of-sight nature of physical vapor deposition (PVD) and substrate heating inherent with traditional chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The purpose of the present study is to characterize the coverage, adhesion, and tribological (friction and wear) behavior of DLN coatings applied to planar and sidewall surfaces of small featured LIGA Ni-Mn fabricated parts, e.g. 280 {micro}m thick sidewalls. Friction and wear tests were performed in dry nitrogen, dry air, and air with 50% RH at Hertzian contact pressures ranging from 0.3 to 0.6 GPa. The friction coefficient of bare Ni-Mn alloy was determined to be 0.9. In contrast, low friction coefficients ({approx}0.02 in dry nitrogen and {approx}0.2 in 50% RH air) and minimal amount of wear were exhibited for the DLN coated LIGA Ni-Mn alloy parts and test coupons. This behavior was due to the ability of the coating to transfer to the rubbing counterface providing low interfacial shear at the sliding contact; resultantly, coating one surface was adequate for low friction and wear. In addition, a 30 nm thick titanium bond layer was determined to be necessary for good adhesion of DLN coating to Ni-Mn alloy substrates. Raman spectroscopy and cross-sectional SEM with energy dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that the DLN coatings deposited by the PECVD with planetary substrate rotation covered both the planar and sidewall surfaces of LIGA fabricated parts, as well as narrow holes of 300 {micro}m (0.012 inch) diameter.

  9. The Development, Application And Testing Of Diamond-Like Coatings For Infra-Red Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lettington, A. H.

    1986-05-01

    The lack of durability of the outermost coated lens or window of thermal imaging systems had been a problem for many years. It was overcome in the mid-seventies by the development within RSRE of the infra-red transparent diamond-like carbon coating. This material was chemically durable, abrasion resistant and a near perfect match to germanium as a single layer anti-reflection coating. Originally the coatings had reasonable infra-red transmission but their hardness and adhesion were variable. Using our own processes we obtained consistently good coatings with optimised transmission. The application and excellent performance of these coatings on germanium components is described. Another application is the protection of diamond flycut aluminium surfaces where the off-normal reflectivity in the infra-red using conventional coatings can be poor. Having developed these coatings it was then necessary to develop specifications before they could be used in service. The development of coatings test procedures and specifications is also described.

  10. Morphological analysis and cell viability on diamond-like carbon films containing nanocrystalline diamond particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, C. N.; Ramos, B. C.; Da-Silva, N. S.; Pacheco-Soares, C.; Trava-Airoldi, V. J.; Lobo, A. O.; Marciano, F. R.

    2013-06-01

    The coating of orthopedic prostheses with diamond like-carbon (DLC) has been actively studied in the past years, in order to improve mechanical, tribological properties and promote the material's biocompatibility. Recently, the incorporation of crystalline diamond nanoparticles into the DLC film has shown effective in combating electrochemical corrosion in acidic medias. This study examines the material's biocompatibility through testing by LDH release and MTT, on in vitro fibroblasts; using different concentrations of diamond nanoparticles incorporated into the DLC film. Propounding its potential use in orthopedics in order to increase the corrosion resistance of prostheses and improve their relationship with the biological environment.

  11. Bacterial adhesion to diamond-like carbon as compared to stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Antti; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Konttinen, Yrjö T; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J; Sharma, Prashant K

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are suitable candidates for application on biomedical devices and implants, due to their high hardness, low friction, high wear and corrosion resistance, chemical inertness, smoothness, and tissue and blood compatibility. However, most studies have neglected the potential susceptibility of DLC coatings to bacterial adhesion, which is the first step in the development of implant-related infections. This study compares adhesion of seven bacterial strains, commonly implicated in implant-related infections, to tetrahedral amorphous carbon, with their adhesion to AISI 316L surgical steel. The results show that bacterial adhesion to DLC was similar to the adhesion to commonly used stainless steel. This suggests that DLC coating can be advantageously used on implants made of AISI 316L or other materials without increasing the risk to implant-related infections.

  12. Nickel concentration dependent structural and optical properties of electrodeposited diamond like carbon thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Beauty; Mukherjee, Jonaki; Das, Bidyut; Kar, Asit K.

    2014-04-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) and composite nickel incorporated diamond-like carbon (Ni-DLC) films have been synthesized on ITO coated glass substrates using low voltage electrodeposition method. Modifications of structural and optical properties of thin films have been investigated with varying Ni concentration. Average grain size of Ni-DLC granules is found to decrease with increasing molarity of Ni in electrolytic solution. XRD pattern depicts multi-phase nature of Ni-DLC film. Incorporation of Ni nanoparticles in DLC matrix has been confirmed by TEM. Interestingly optical bandgap energy decreases from 2.31 to 1.58 eV with decrease in nickel content in the electrolytic bath. Simultaneously Urbach energy exhibits an increasing trend from 1.972 to 2.374 eV. Presence of sp2 and sp3 bonded carbons has been indicated by FTIR spectra. The number of sp2 bonding in carbon matrix is enhanced with dilution of electrolyte. The peaks in the range of ~600-750 cm-1 in Ni-DLC films have been attributed to metal incorporation into DLC matrix. Study reveals that the bandgap and the particle size of carbon nanocomposite films can be tailored by controlling the amount of nickel in the electrolyte.

  13. The local crystallization in nanoscale diamond-like carbon films during annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kolpakov, A. Ya. Poplavsky, A. I.; Galkina, M. E.; Gerus, J. V.; Manokhin, S. S.

    2014-12-08

    The local crystallization during annealing at 600 °C in nanoscale diamond-like carbon coatings films grown by pulsed vacuum-arc deposition method was observed using modern techniques of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The crystallites formed by annealing have a face-centred cubic crystal structure and grow in the direction [01{sup ¯}1{sup ¯}] as a normal to the film surface. The number and size of the crystallites depend on the initial values of the intrinsic stresses before annealing, which in turn depend on the conditions of film growth. The sizes of crystallites are 10 nm for films with initial compressive stresses of 3 GPa and 17 nm for films with initial compressive stresses of 12 GPa. Areas of local crystallization arising during annealing have a structure different from the graphite. Additionally, the investigation results of the structure of nanoscale diamond-like carbon coatings films using Raman spectroscopy method are presented, which are consistent with the transmission electron microscopy research results.

  14. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  15. Fluctuation microscopy studies of medium-range ordering in amorphous diamond-like carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Sullivan, J. P.; Friedmann, T. A.; Gibson, J. M.; Cedarville Univ.; SNL

    2004-04-12

    In this letter, we report fluctuation microscopy studies of medium-range ordering in amorphous diamond-like carbon films and the effect of annealing on this ordering. Annealed and unannealed diamond-like carbon films have almost identical short-range order. Our fluctuation microscopy results, however, indicate the presence of medium range order or clustering in the films on a lateral length scale that exceeds 1 nm. Within the clustered regions, the dominant local ordering appears to be diamond-like, and graphite-like ordering is not observed. Thermal annealing up to 600 {sup o}C leads to an increase in diamond-like clustering with no onset of graphite-like clustering. However, after high temperature annealing up to 1000 {sup o}C, graphite-like clustering becomes apparent as a result of the conversion of diamond-like carbon to graphite-like carbon. The results on the as-deposited films and films annealed up to 600 {sup o}C suggest that a spontaneous medium range ordering process occurs in diamond-like carbon films during and subsequent to film growth, and this may play an important role in stress relaxation.

  16. Treating orthopedic prosthesis with diamond-like carbon: minimizing debris in Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciane Y S; Kuromoto, Neide K; Siqueira, Carlos J M

    2014-10-01

    Prostheses are subject to various forms of failing mechanisms, including wear from ordinary patient motion. Superficial treatments can improve tribological properties of the contact pair, minimizing wear and increasing prostheses lifetime. One possibility is the diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating, where Carbon is deposited with variable ratio of sp(2)/sp(3) structures, leading to an increase in surface hardness. So in this research Ti6Al4V samples were coated with DLC using sputtering process to evaluate the debris release. The Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V plus DLC coating surfaces were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and instrumented indentation (hardness). The wear behavior was tested using a reciprocating linear tribometer. The wear rate was smaller in the coated samples, producing less debris than the untreated Ti6Al4V alloy. Debris morphology was also evaluated, using scanning electronic microscopy, and it was observed that debris size from the coated samples were bigger than those observed from the uncoated Ti6Al4V alloy, above the size that generally triggers biological response from the host. PMID:24948374

  17. Diamond-like carbon films for polyethylene femoral parts: Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy before and after incubation in simulated body liquid.

    PubMed

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Gärtner, G; Reisel, G; Irmer, G

    2008-03-01

    In artificial prosthetics for knee, hip, finger or shoulder joints, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) is a significant material. Several attempts to reduce the wear rate of UHMW-PE, i.e. the application of suitable coatings, are in progress. A surface modification of polyethylene with wear-resistant hydrogenated diamond-like carbon is favourable, owing to the chemical similarity of polyethylene (-C-H(2)-)(n) and C:H or amorphous C:H (a-C:H) coatings with diamond-like properties. In the present study, the microstructure of a-C:H coatings on UHMW-PE substrates was investigated by Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectroscopy shows very broad absorption lines, which point to the disorder and diversity of different symmetric, asymmetric aromatic, olefin sp(2)-hybridized or sp(3)-hybridized C-H groups in the amorphous diamond-like carbon coating. Following a long incubation of 12 months in a simulated body liquid, the structural investigations were repeated. Furthermore, fractured cross-sections and the wetting behaviour with polar liquids were examined. After incubation in simulated body liquid, Raman spectroscopy pointed to a reduction of the C-H bonds in the diamond-like carbon coatings. On the basis of these findings, one can conclude that hydrogenated diamond-like carbon is able to interact with salt solutions by substituting the hydrogen with appropriate ions. PMID:18157668

  18. Fabrication of Semiordered Nanopatterned Diamond-like Carbon and Titania Films for Blood Contacting Applications.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Deepika; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Harris, Kenneth D; Ruys, Andrew J; Lord, Megan S

    2016-03-23

    Biomaterials with the ability to interface with, but not activate, blood components are essential for a multitude of medical devices. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titania (TiO2) have shown promise for these applications; however, both support platelet adhesion and activation. This study explored the fabrication of nanostructured DLC and TiO2 thin film coatings using a block copolymer deposition technique that produced semiordered nanopatterns with low surface roughness (5-8 nm Rrms). These surfaces supported fibrinogen and plasma protein adsorption that predominantly adsorbed between the nanofeatures and reduced the overall surface roughness. The conformation of the adsorbed fibrinogen was altered on the nanopatterned surfaces as compared with the planar surfaces to reveal higher levels of the platelet binding region. Planar DLC and TiO2 coatings supported less platelet adhesion than nanopatterned DLC and TiO2. However, platelets on the nanopatterned DLC coatings were less spread indicating a lower level of platelet activation on the nanostructured DLC coatings compared with the planar DLC coatings. These data indicated that nanostructured DLC coatings may find application in blood contacting medical devices in the future. PMID:26928086

  19. Fabrication of Semiordered Nanopatterned Diamond-like Carbon and Titania Films for Blood Contacting Applications.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, Deepika; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, Philip J; Harris, Kenneth D; Ruys, Andrew J; Lord, Megan S

    2016-03-23

    Biomaterials with the ability to interface with, but not activate, blood components are essential for a multitude of medical devices. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titania (TiO2) have shown promise for these applications; however, both support platelet adhesion and activation. This study explored the fabrication of nanostructured DLC and TiO2 thin film coatings using a block copolymer deposition technique that produced semiordered nanopatterns with low surface roughness (5-8 nm Rrms). These surfaces supported fibrinogen and plasma protein adsorption that predominantly adsorbed between the nanofeatures and reduced the overall surface roughness. The conformation of the adsorbed fibrinogen was altered on the nanopatterned surfaces as compared with the planar surfaces to reveal higher levels of the platelet binding region. Planar DLC and TiO2 coatings supported less platelet adhesion than nanopatterned DLC and TiO2. However, platelets on the nanopatterned DLC coatings were less spread indicating a lower level of platelet activation on the nanostructured DLC coatings compared with the planar DLC coatings. These data indicated that nanostructured DLC coatings may find application in blood contacting medical devices in the future.

  20. Synthesis and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon films by electrochemical anode deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, GuiFeng; Hou, XiaoDuo; Deng, DeWei

    2012-06-01

    Diamond-like carbon films (DLC) are deposited on Ti substrate by electrochemical anodic deposition at room temperature in pure methanol solution using a pulsed DC voltage at a range from 200 V to 2000 V. Raman spectroscopy analysis of the films reveals two broaden characteristic absorption peaks centred at ˜1350 cm-1 and 1580 cm-1, relating to D- and G-band of typical DLC films, respectively. A broad peak centred at 1325-1330 cm-1 is observed when an applied potential is 1200 V, which can confirm that the deposited films contained diamond structure phase. Tribological properties of the coated Ti substrates have been measured by means of a ball-on-plate wear test machine. A related growth mechanism of DLC films by the anodic deposition mode has also been discussed.

  1. Patterned growth of neuronal cells on modified diamond-like carbon substrates.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Stephen; Regan, Edward M; Uney, James B; Dick, Andrew D; McGeehan, Joseph P; Mayer, Eric J; Claeyssens, Frederik

    2008-06-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) has been explored as a biomaterial with potential use for coating implantable devices and surgical instruments. In this study the interaction of DLC with mammalian neuronal cells has been studied along with its modifications to improve its function as a biomaterial. We describe the use of DLC, oxidised DLC and phosphorus-doped DLC to support the growth and survival of primary central nervous system neurones and neuroblastoma cells. None of these substrates were cytotoxic and primary neurones adhered better to phosphorus-doped DLC than unmodified DLC. This property was used to culture cortical neurones in a predetermined micropattern. This raises the potential of DLC as a biomaterial for central nervous system (CNS) implantation. Furthermore, patterned DLC and phosphorus-doped DLC can direct neuronal growth, generating a powerful tool to study neuronal networks in a spatially distinct way. This study reports the generation of nerve cell patterns via patterned deposition of DLC.

  2. Optical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon films synthesized by plasma immersion ion processing

    SciTech Connect

    He, X-M.; Walter, K.C.; Bardeau, J-F.; Nastasi, M.; Lee, S-T.; Sun, X.S.

    1999-04-12

    Hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been prepared on PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate), glass, and Si(100) substrates using C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-Ar plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP). The composition, structure, and properties of the films were investigated with regard to variation of the deposition parameters. It was found that the modulation of reactive gas composition during PIIP could enhance the formation of DLC films with an increased sp{sup 3} bonding structure, improved surface smoothness, high density and high hardness. An optimal combination of good optical properties and high hardness was highly dependent on the control of hydrogen content in the DLC films. Tribological tests showed that DLC-coated glass and PMMA samples exhibited a reduced friction coefficient and enhanced wear resistance relative to uncoated glass and PMMA materials. The effects of ion energy and gas composition during PIIP deposition on the formation of optically transparent and wear resistant DLC films are discussed.

  3. Deposition of hard and adherent diamond-like carbon films inside steel tubes using a pulsed-DC discharge.

    PubMed

    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Capote, Gil; Bonetti, Luís Francisco; Fernandes, Jesum; Blando, Eduardo; Hübler, Roberto; Radi, Polyana Alves; Santos, Lúcia Vieira; Corat, Evaldo José

    2009-06-01

    A new, low cost, pulsed-DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system that uses a bipolar, pulsed power supply was designed and tested to evaluate its capacity to produce quality diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of steel tubes. The main focus of the study was to attain films with low friction coefficients, low total stress, a high degree of hardness, and very good adherence to the inner surface of long metallic tubes at a reasonable growth rate. In order to enhance the diamond-like carbon coating adhesion to metallic surfaces, four steps were used: (1) argon ion sputtering; (2) plasma nitriding; (3) a thin amorphous silicon interlayer deposition, using silane as the precursor gas; and (4) diamond-like carbon film deposition using methane atmosphere. This paper presents various test results as functions of the methane gas pressure and of the coaxial metal anode diameter, where the pulsed-DC voltage constant is kept constant. The influence of the coaxial metal anode diameter and of the methane gas pressure is also demonstrated. The results obtained showed the possibilities of using these DLC coatings for reduced friction and to harden inner surface of the steel tubes. PMID:19504937

  4. Deposition of hard and adherent diamond-like carbon films inside steel tubes using a pulsed-DC discharge.

    PubMed

    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Capote, Gil; Bonetti, Luís Francisco; Fernandes, Jesum; Blando, Eduardo; Hübler, Roberto; Radi, Polyana Alves; Santos, Lúcia Vieira; Corat, Evaldo José

    2009-06-01

    A new, low cost, pulsed-DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system that uses a bipolar, pulsed power supply was designed and tested to evaluate its capacity to produce quality diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of steel tubes. The main focus of the study was to attain films with low friction coefficients, low total stress, a high degree of hardness, and very good adherence to the inner surface of long metallic tubes at a reasonable growth rate. In order to enhance the diamond-like carbon coating adhesion to metallic surfaces, four steps were used: (1) argon ion sputtering; (2) plasma nitriding; (3) a thin amorphous silicon interlayer deposition, using silane as the precursor gas; and (4) diamond-like carbon film deposition using methane atmosphere. This paper presents various test results as functions of the methane gas pressure and of the coaxial metal anode diameter, where the pulsed-DC voltage constant is kept constant. The influence of the coaxial metal anode diameter and of the methane gas pressure is also demonstrated. The results obtained showed the possibilities of using these DLC coatings for reduced friction and to harden inner surface of the steel tubes.

  5. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  6. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  7. Characteristics of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Deposited on Polymer Dental Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Naoto; Uchi, Tomio; Yasuhara, Toshiyuki; Takashima, Mai

    2012-09-01

    Characterizations of diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposited on a polymer artificial tooth were performed. DLC films were deposited on dental parts made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) resin by dc-pulse plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from methane. Wear resistance test results revealed that a DLC-coated resin tooth has a very high wear resistance against tooth brushing, and endures 24 h brushing without a marked weight decrease. Cell cultivation test results show that DLC plays an important role in preventing cell death. Moreover, a biocompatibility test using a rabbit revealed that a connective tissue in the vicinity of DLC-coated PMMA is significantly thinner than that of noncoated PMMA. The numbers of inflammatory cells in the vicinity of DLC-coated and noncoated surfaces are 0 and 508 cells/mm2, respectively. These results led us to conclude that DLC films are an excellent material for use as the coating of a polymer artificial tooth in terms of not only high wear resistance but also biocompatibility.

  8. Deodorisation effect of diamond-like carbon/titanium dioxide multilayer thin films deposited onto polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K. K.; Masuzawa, T.

    2011-04-01

    Many types of plastic containers have been used for the storage of food. In the present study, diamond-like carbon (DLC)/titanium oxide (TiO2) multilayer thin films were deposited on polypropylene (PP) to prevent flavour retention and to remove flavour in plastic containers. For the flavour removal test, two types of multilayer films were prepared, DLC/TiO2 films and DLC/TiO2/DLC films. The residual gas concentration of acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric compounds in bottle including the DLC/TiO2-coated and the DLC/TiO2/DLC-coated PP plates were measured after UV radiation, and the amount of adsorbed compounds to the plates was determined. The percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene, and turmeric with the DLC/TiO2 coated plates were 0.8%, 65.2% and 75.0% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. For the DLC/TiO2/DLC film, the percentages of residual gas for acetaldehyde, ethylene and turmeric decreased to 34.9%, 76.0% and 85.3% after 40 h of UV radiation, respectively. The DLC/TiO2/DLC film had a photocatalytic effect even though the TiO2 film was covered with the DLC film.

  9. Near-surface hydrogen depletion of diamond-like carbon films produced by direct ion deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwitz, Andreas; Gupta, Prasanth; Mohr, Berit; Hübner, René; Leveneur, Jerome; Zondervan, Albert; Becker, Hans-Werner

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous atomically flat diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were produced by direct ion deposition using a system based on a Penning ion source, butane precursor gas and post acceleration. Hydrogen depth profiles of the DLC coatings were measured with the 15N R-NRA method using the resonant nuclear reaction 1H(15N, αγ)12C (Eres = 6.385 MeV). The films produced at 3.0-10.5 kV acceleration voltage show two main effects. First, compared to average elemental composition of the film, the near-surface region is hydrogen depleted. The increase of the hydrogen concentration by 3% from the near-surface region towards the bulk is attributed to a growth model which favours the formation of sp2 hybridised carbon rich films in the film formation zone. Secondly, the depth at which the maximum hydrogen concentration is measured increases with acceleration voltage and is proportional to the penetration depth of protons produced by the ion source from the precursor gas. The observed effects are explained by a deposition process that takes into account the contributions of ion species, hydrogen effusion and preferential displacement of atoms during direct ion deposition.

  10. Surface characterization of diamond-like carbon for ultracold neutron storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, F.; Bergmaier, A.; Daum, M.; Döbeli, M.; Dollinger, G.; Fierlinger, P.; Foelske, A.; Henneck, R.; Heule, S.; Kasprzak, M.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Kuźniak, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Schelldorfer, R.; Zsigmond, G.

    2008-03-01

    We report the characterization of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces to be used for the storage of ultracold neutrons (UCN). The samples investigated were 100-300-nm-thick tetragonal amorphous carbon (ta-C) coatings produced by vacuum-arc technology on thin foils (0.1-0.2 mm aluminum, stainless steel, PET). The diamond sp 3 fraction was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to be in the range 45-65%. Secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) yielded consistent results for the hydrogen contribution (about 1×10 16 cm -2 within the top 20 nm), strongly concentrated within a surface layer of 1 nm thickness. The boron contamination was found to be around 50 at. ppm. The fractional hole area of the coatings is on a level of about 1×10 -4. Temperature cycling of mechanically pre-stressed samples between 77 and 380 K revealed no detrimental effect.

  11. In vitro adhesion of staphylococci to diamond-like carbon polymer hybrids under dynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Antti; Levon, Jaakko; Katsikogianni, Maria; Myllymaa, Katja; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Kinnari, Teemu J; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Missirlis, Yannis

    2011-03-01

    This study compares the ability of selected materials to inhibit adhesion of two bacterial strains commonly implicated in implant-related infections. These two strains are Staphylococcus aureus (S-15981) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984). In experiments we tested six different materials, three conventional implant metals: titanium, tantalum and chromium, and three diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings: DLC, DLC-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) and DLC-polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) coatings. DLC coating represents extremely hard material whereas DLC hybrids represent novel nanocomposite coatings. The two DLC polymer hybrid films were chosen for testing due to their hardness, corrosion resistance and extremely good non-stick (hydrophobic and oleophobic) properties. Bacterial adhesion assay tests were performed under dynamic flow conditions by using parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC). The results show that adhesion of S. aureus to DLC-PTFE-h and to tantalum was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than to DLC-PDMS-h (0.671 ± 0.001 × 10(7)/cm(2) and 0.751 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2) vs. 1.055 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2), respectively). No significant differences were detected between other tested materials. Hence DLC-PTFE-h coating showed as low susceptibility to S. aureus adhesion as all the tested conventional implant metals. The adherence of S. epidermidis to biomaterials was not significantly (P < 0.05) different between the materials tested. This suggests that DLC-PTFE-h films could be used as a biomaterial coating without increasing the risk of implant-related infections. PMID:21243516

  12. In vitro adhesion of staphylococci to diamond-like carbon polymer hybrids under dynamic flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Antti; Levon, Jaakko; Katsikogianni, Maria; Myllymaa, Katja; Lappalainen, Reijo; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Kinnari, Teemu J; Tiainen, Veli-Matti; Missirlis, Yannis

    2011-03-01

    This study compares the ability of selected materials to inhibit adhesion of two bacterial strains commonly implicated in implant-related infections. These two strains are Staphylococcus aureus (S-15981) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 35984). In experiments we tested six different materials, three conventional implant metals: titanium, tantalum and chromium, and three diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings: DLC, DLC-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) and DLC-polytetrafluoroethylene hybrid (DLC-PTFE-h) coatings. DLC coating represents extremely hard material whereas DLC hybrids represent novel nanocomposite coatings. The two DLC polymer hybrid films were chosen for testing due to their hardness, corrosion resistance and extremely good non-stick (hydrophobic and oleophobic) properties. Bacterial adhesion assay tests were performed under dynamic flow conditions by using parallel plate flow chambers (PPFC). The results show that adhesion of S. aureus to DLC-PTFE-h and to tantalum was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than to DLC-PDMS-h (0.671 ± 0.001 × 10(7)/cm(2) and 0.751 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2) vs. 1.055 ± 0.002 × 10(7)/cm(2), respectively). No significant differences were detected between other tested materials. Hence DLC-PTFE-h coating showed as low susceptibility to S. aureus adhesion as all the tested conventional implant metals. The adherence of S. epidermidis to biomaterials was not significantly (P < 0.05) different between the materials tested. This suggests that DLC-PTFE-h films could be used as a biomaterial coating without increasing the risk of implant-related infections.

  13. Method of synthesizing metal doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Mayumi (Inventor); Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of synthesizing metal doped carbon films by placing a substrate in a chamber with a selected amount of a metalorganic compound. An electron cyclotron resonance is applied to the chamber in order to vaporize the metalorganic compound. The resonance is applied to the chamber until a metal doped carbon film is formed. The metalorganic compound is preferably selected from the group consisting of an organic salt of ruthenium, palladium, gold or platinum.

  14. Mo-containing diamond-like carbon films with blue emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T.; Wu, X. L.; Fu, Ricky K. Y.; Fan, J. Y.; Yang, L. W.; Chu, Paul K.; Siu, G. G.

    2005-08-01

    Molybdenum-containing diamond-like carbon (Mo-DLC) thin films were synthesized on silicon substrate using metal cathodic arc and acetylene dual plasma deposition. Microstructural observations show that fine γ-MoC nanocrystallites with sizes of 1-2 nm are embedded in amorphous carbon cross-linked structures. The Mo-DLC films were found to have a photoluminescence (PL) band in blue. Due to obvious PL spectral asymmetry, we Gaussian divided the PL peak into two bands with the peak positions at about 405 and 455 nm. Spectral analyses suggest that the two blue PL bands arise from sp 2 hybridized carbon clusters with different sizes and γ-MoC nanocrystallites. Our experimental results provide the understanding of the blue-emitting properties of metal-containing diamond-like carbon films.

  15. Diamond and diamond-like carbon films for advanced electronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Siegal, M.P.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    Aim of this laboratory-directed research and development (LDRD) project was to develop diamond and/or diamond-like carbon (DLC) films for electronic applications. Quality of diamond and DLC films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is not adequate for electronic applications. Nucleation of diamond grains during growth typically results in coarse films that must be very thick in order to be physically continuous. DLC films grown by CVD are heavily hydrogenated and are stable to temperatures {le} 400{degrees}C. However, diamond and DLC`s exceptional electronic properties make them candidates for integration into a variety of microelectronic structures. This work studied new techniques for the growth of both materials. Template layers have been developed for the growth of CVD diamond films resulting in a significantly higher nucleation density on unscratched or unprepared Si surfaces. Hydrogen-free DLC with temperature stability {le} 800{degrees}C has been developed using energetic growth methods such as high-energy pulsed-laser deposition. Applications with the largest system impact include electron-emitting materials for flat-panel displays, dielectrics for interconnects, diffusion barriers, encapsulants, and nonvolatile memories, and tribological coatings that reduce wear and friction in integrated micro-electro-mechanical devices.

  16. Chemically modified diamond-like carbon (DLC) for protein enrichment and profiling by MALDI-MS.

    PubMed

    Najam-ul-Haq, M; Rainer, M; Huck, C W; Ashiq, M N; Bonn, G K

    2012-08-01

    The development of new high throughput methods based on different materials with chemical modifications for protein profiling of complex mixtures leads towards biomarkers; used particularly for early diagnosis of a disease. In this work, diamond-like carbon (DLC) is developed and optimized for serum protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser/desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). This study is carried out in connection with a material-based approach, termed as material-enhanced laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. DLC is selected as carrier surface which provides large surface to volume ratio and offers high sensitivity. DLC has a dual role of working as MALDI target while acting as an interface for protein profiling by specifically binding peptides and proteins out of serum samples. Serum constituents are bound through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) functionality, created through glycidyl methacrylate polymerization under ultraviolet light followed by further derivatization with iminodiacetic acid and copper ion loading. Scanning electron microscopy highlights the morphological characteristics of DLC surface. It could be demonstrated that IMAC functionalized DLC coatings represent a powerful material in trapping biomolecules for their further analysis by MALDI-MS resulting in improved sensitivity, specificity and capacity in comparison to other protein-profiling methods.

  17. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon stripper foils by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiwen; Du, Yinghui; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Guoji

    2013-04-01

    Thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) stripper foils ˜5 μg/cm2 in thickness were produced and evaluated as heavy-ion strippers for the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator. The DLC layers ˜4 μg/cm2 in thickness were produced by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology onto glass slides coated with betaine-saccharose as releasing agent, which were previously covered with evaporated carbon layers ˜1 μg/cm2 in thickness by the controlled ac arc-discharge method. Irradiation lifetimes of the DLC stripper foils were tested using the heavy-ion beams at the terminal of the Beijing HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, and compared with those of the standard carbon stripper foils made by the combined dc and ac arc-discharge method. The measurements indicate that the DLC stripper foils outlast the standard combined dc and ac arc-discharge carbon stripper foils by a factor of at least 13 and 4for the 197Au- (˜9 MeV, ˜1 μA) and 63Cu- (˜9 MeV, ˜1 μA) ion beams, respectively. The structure and properties of the DLC foils deposited onto silicon substrates by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology were also evaluated and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The scanning electron microscopy images show that the DLC foils contain hardly droplets through the double 90° filters. The X-ray photoelectron spectrum indicates that sp3 bonds of the DLC foils exceed 70%. The integral intensity ratio of the D peak to the G peak (ID/IG) measured by the Raman spectroscopy is0.78.

  18. Evaluation of bacterial adhesion on Si-doped diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Q.; Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Wang, S.

    2007-06-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as biomaterial for medical devices have been attracting great interest due to their excellent properties such as hardness, low friction and chemical inertness. It has been demonstrated that the properties of DLC films can be further improved by the addition of silicon into DLC films, such as thermal stability, compressive stress, etc. However no research work on anti-bacterial properties of silicon-doped diamond-like carbon films has been reported. In this paper the surface physical and chemical properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon films with various Si contents on 316 stainless steel substrate prepared by a magnetron sputtering technique were investigated, including surface topography, surface chemistry, the sp 3/sp 2 ratio, contact angle, surface free energy, etc. Bacterial adhesion to Si-doped DLC films was evaluated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus which frequently cause medical device-associated infections. The experimental results showed that bacterial adhesion decreased with increasing the silicon content in the films. All the Si-doped DLC films performed much better than stainless steel 316L on reducing bacterial attachment.

  19. Characterisation of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) laser targets by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddock, D.; Parker, T.; Spindloe, C.; Tolley, M.

    2016-04-01

    The search for target materials suitable for High Power Laser Experiments at ultralow thicknesses (below ten nanometres) is ongoing. Diamond-Like Carbon is investigated as an answer for a low-Z material that can survive target chamber pump-down and laser prepulse. DLC was produced using Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition, using with varying gas flow mixtures of argon and methane. The methane plasma deposits amorphous carbon onto the substrate and the argon plasma re-sputters the weakly bonded carbon leaving a high proportion of diamond-like bonding. Bonding natures were probed using Raman spectroscopy; analysis of the resulting spectrum showed that flow rates of 40sccm/60sccm methane to argon produced DLC films with a diamond-like (sp 3) content of ∼20%. Increasing the methane gas flow decreased this value to less than 5%. DLC foils were processed into laser targets by method of float off; using a sodium chloride release layer and lowering into water, this was then lifted onto an array of apertures allowing for laser irradiation of the material with no backing. DLC with 20% sp 3 content showed superior yield when compared to other materials such as metals and some plastics of the same thickness, with ∼70% of the target positions surviving the float off procedure at <10nm. As a result of this work DLC targets have been available for a number of experiments at the Central Laser Facility.

  20. Effect of nickel incorporation on microstructural and optical properties of electrodeposited diamond like carbon (DLC) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, B.; Pal, P. P.; Bera, S.; Ray, S. K.; Kar, A. K.

    2012-11-01

    A simple electrodeposition technique was used to synthesize diamond like carbon (DLC) and nickel incorporated diamond like carbon (Ni-DLC) thin films on ITO coated glass substrates. Initial concentration of nickel in the electrolyte was kept fixed at 4.76 × 10-4 M for all depositions of Ni-DLC films. Growth process of the films was studied by synthesizing films with variation of deposition time. With nickel addition to DLC the band gap and the Urbach energy varied from 2.67 eV to 2.48 eV and 1.0803 eV to 1.452 eV, respectively as estimated from UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry of DLC and Ni-DLC. Results indicated that the metal incorporation effectively increased the graphitization of DLC films. Microstructural studies by SEM and AFM revealed that the particles in the Ni-DLC films were evenly distributed and the packing density of particles increased with increased time of deposition. XRD pattern exhibited the presence of Ni crystallites in an amorphous carbon network along with the phases of diamond and graphite in the Ni-DLC film. The FTIR spectrum showed peaks accountable for both CH3 and CH2 bonding. It was also apparent that nickel incorporation significantly modulated the FTIR spectrum of DLC film, as several new peaks appeared only in the case of Ni-DLC film at ˜776 cm-1, 745 cm-1 and 668 cm-1.

  1. Antimicrobial properties of diamond-like carbon-silver-platinum nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, R. J.; Abernathy, H.; Riester, L.; Berry, C. J.; Brigmon, R.

    2005-08-01

    Silver and platinum were incorporated within diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films using a multicomponent target pulsed laser deposition process. Transmission electron microscopy of the DLC-silver and DLC-platinum composite films reveals that these films self-assemble into particulate nanocomposite structures that possess a high fraction of sp 3-hybridized carbon atoms. Nanoindentation testing of DLC-silver nanocomposite films demonstrates that these films possess hardness and Young’s modulus values of approximately 35 and 350 GPa, respectively. DLC-silver-platinum films demonstrated exceptional antimicrobial properties against Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria.

  2. Characterization of diamond-like carbon thin film synthesized by RF atmospheric pressure plasma Ar/CH4 jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohbatzadeh, Farshad; Safari, Reza; Etaati, G. Reza; Asadi, Eskandar; Mirzanejhad, Saeed; Hosseinnejad, Mohammad Taghi; Samadi, Omid; Bagheri, Hanieh

    2016-01-01

    The growth of diamond like carbon (DLC) on a Pyrex glass was investigated by a radio frequency (RF) atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ). The plasma jet with capacitive configuration ran by a radio frequency power supply at 13.56 MHz. Alumina ceramic was used as dielectric barrier. Ar and CH4 were used in atmospheric pressure as carrier and precursor gases, respectively. Diamond like carbon thin films were deposited on Pyrex glass at substrate temperature and applied power of 130 °C and 250 Watts, respectively. Performing field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and laser Raman spectroscopy analysis resulted in deposition rate and the ID/IG ratio of 21.31 nm/min and 0.47, respectively. The ID/IG ratio indicated that the coating possesses relative high sp3 content The optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostic was applied to diagnose plasma jet species. Estimating electron temperature and density of the RF-APPJ resulted in 1.36 eV and 2.75 × 1014 cm-3 at the jet exit, respectively.

  3. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping.

  4. Characteristics of Nitrogen Doped Diamond-Like Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering for Electronic Devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Choi, Byung Hui; Yun, Jung-Hyun; Park, Yong Seob

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a carbon-based material used mainly in cutting tool coatings and as an abrasive material. The market for DLC has expanded into electronics, optics, and acoustics because of its distinct electrical and optical properties. In this work, n-doped DLC (N:DLC) films were deposited on p-type silicon substrates using an unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) method. We investigated the effect of the working pressure on the microstructure and electrical properties of n-doped DLC films. The structural properties of N:DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDX, and the electrical properties of films were investigated by observing the changes in the resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The N:DLC films prepared by UBMS in this study demonstrated good conducting and physical properties with n-doping. PMID:27483841

  5. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E.; Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A.; Bartelt, P.F.; Baughman, R.H.; Bhushan, B.; Cooper, C.V.; Dugger, M.T.; Freedman, A.; Larsen-Basse, J.; McGuire, N.R.; Messier, R.F.; Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H.; Sartwell, B.D.; Wei, R.

    1993-01-01

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  6. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  7. The Oxidation Behaviour of Diamond Like Carbon for Phase-Change Probe Memory Application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Cihui; Wen, Jing; Yang, Guowei

    2015-06-01

    Phase-change probe memory, as a promising candidate for next-generation storage device, usually requires a capping layer to protect phase-change media from wear and corrosion. Diamond-like carbon film has been commonly used for capping layer due to its high mechanical hardness and easiness for tailoring physical properties. However, the possibility for such carbon thin film to react to surrounding oxygen when subjected to Joule heating during the recording process of phase-change probe memory is rarely investigated before from both experimental and simulation point of view. Therefore, a novel carbon oxidation model was developed to mimic the chemical reaction of carbon film to the surrounding oxygen in terms of the degradation of layer thickness. Results obtained from this model are in a good agreement with the experimental counterpart, indicating the physical reality of this proposed model.

  8. Dual-ion-beam deposition of carbon films with diamond-like properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamond like films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  9. A study on the preparation of diamond like carbon film and its electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shen-jiang; Li, Dang-juan; Xu, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have attracted much attention because of their excellent performance; however, the low anti-laser damage ability of such films seriously restricts their applicability. To overcome this problem, applying the bias field to the DLC film could slow down the DLC film graphitization process and improve the LIDT of the DLC film. Results showed that the longitudinal electric field could decrease the sp3 hybridization to sp2 hybridization, prevent the formation of sp2 clusters. in this study, Unbalanced magnetron sputtering (UBMS) was used to deposit a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on Si substrates. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of the DLC films were measured using elliptical polarization spectrometer. The transmittance and the surface roughness of DLC films were examined using optical microscopy, SEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy. Ti electrodes were deposited on DLC films directly, forming a transverse and longitudinal bias field on films' surfaces. The 3D electrodes morphology of the DLC film was observed. The electrode thickness was measured by a white-light interferometer, and the average thickness of the electrodes was 325.90 nm. The surface roughness of the electrodes was tested using the Talysurf CCI 2000 noncontact surface-measuring instrument, and the average roughness of the electrodes was 0.50 nm. The electrodes have good Ohmic contact and little thermal stress, and it can be used to form a parallel electric field.

  10. Preparation of wide range refractive index diamond-like carbon films by means of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

    PubMed

    Gharibyan, A; Hayrapetyan, D; Panosyan, Zh; Yengibaryan, Ye

    2011-11-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology has been elaborated for obtaining diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings of a wide range of properties. Alternative and direct bias voltages have been applied on the substrate, and refractive index dependencies upon various deposition technological parameters have been investigated. The frequency of the bias voltage has been varied in the region of 150-450 kHz. The maximum refractive index range that has been achieved is 1.46-3.2. Thin DLC films have been prepared on crystalline silicon substrates. Because of the wide range of physical, optical, and mechanical properties of the obtained films, they can successfully be applied in different fields of nano-optics. PMID:22086050

  11. Controlling the work function of a diamond-like carbon surface by fluorination with XeF{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Tarditi, Ana; Kondratyuk, Petro; Wong, Pak Kin; Gellman, Andrew J.

    2010-09-15

    Thin diamond-like carbon films were subjected to fluorination with gaseous XeF{sub 2} under ultrahigh vacuum conditions in order to increase the work function of the diamond-like carbon surface. Changes in the work function and surface composition were monitored with UV photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, respectively. Successive XeF{sub 2} exposures raised the work function by as much as 1.55 eV. Surprisingly, approximately half of the increase in the work function occurred while the coverage of fluorine remained below 0.02 monolayers (ML). This suggests that initial doses of XeF{sub 2} remove extrinsic adsorbates from the diamond-like carbon film and that fluorine desorbs with the reaction products. Increasing the exposure of the diamond-like carbon to XeF{sub 2} leads to the expected covalent fluorination of the surface, which saturates at fluorine coverages of 6 F atoms/nm{sup 2} ({approx}0.3 ML). Annealing of the diamond-like carbon to temperatures above 850 K was required to reduce the surface fluorine concentration to undetectable levels. This did not, however, cause the work function to return to its original, prefluorination value.

  12. Nanoindentation Fracture Behaviors of Diamond-Like Carbon Film on Aluminum Alloy with Different Interface Toughnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Kenji; Sasaki, Yuto; Kamiko, Masao; Mitsuda, Yoshitaka

    2012-09-01

    Fracture behaviors of a diamond-like carbon (DLC) film on an aluminum alloy (AA2017) were analyzed by a nanoindentation test under conditions of deep and full penetrations of an indenter tip through the DLC film. The interface structure between the DLC and AA2017 was modified by using the substrate sputtering and redeposition (SSRD) method. The films deposited with a shorter (30 min) SSRD duration showed weak adhesion to the substrate and often resulted in wide delamination from the impressions. At the same time, films deposited with a longer (120 min) SSRD duration showed no such delamination. Obvious brittle fractures were detected in the load-displacement curves mainly in the film with the short SSRD duration. These results suggest that a long SSRD inhibited the delamination of the DLC film from AA2017 under local and strong stress conditions because of the improved interface toughness.

  13. The structural basis for function in diamond-like carbon binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Gabryelczyk, Bartosz; Szilvay, Géza R; Linder, Markus B

    2014-07-29

    The molecular structural basis for the function of specific peptides that bind to diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces was investigated. For this, a competition assay that provided a robust way of comparing relative affinities of peptide variants was set up. Point mutations of specific residues resulted in significant effects, but it was shown that the chemical composition of the peptide was not sufficient to explain peptide affinity. More significantly, rearrangements in the sequence indicated that the binding is a complex recognition event that is dependent on the overall structure of the peptide. The work demonstrates the unique properties of peptides for creating functionality at interfaces via noncovalent binding for potential applications in, for example, nanomaterials, biomedical materials, and sensors. PMID:25007096

  14. Engineering of the function of diamond-like carbon binding peptides through structural design.

    PubMed

    Gabryelczyk, Bartosz; Szilvay, Géza R; Singh, Vivek K; Mikkilä, Joona; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Koskinen, Jari; Linder, Markus B

    2015-02-01

    The use of phage display to select material-specific peptides provides a general route towards modification and functionalization of surfaces and interfaces. However, a rational structural engineering of the peptides for optimal affinity is typically not feasible because of insufficient structure-function understanding. Here, we investigate the influence of multivalency of diamond-like carbon (DLC) binding peptides on binding characteristics. We show that facile linking of peptides together using different lengths of spacers and multivalency leads to a tuning of affinity and kinetics. Notably, increased length of spacers in divalent systems led to significantly increased affinities. Making multimers influenced also kinetic aspects of surface competition. Additionally, the multivalent peptides were applied as surface functionalization components for a colloidal form of DLC. The work suggests the use of a set of linking systems to screen parameters for functional optimization of selected material-specific peptides.

  15. Electron-beam induced diamond-like-carbon passivation of plasmonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Sadatnajafi, Catherine; Langley, Daniel; Lin, Jiao; Kou, Shan Shan; Abbey, Brian

    2015-12-01

    Engineered materials with feature sizes on the order of a few nanometres offer the potential for producing metamaterials with properties which may differ significantly from their bulk counterpart. Here we describe the production of plasmonic colour filters using periodic arrays of nanoscale cross shaped apertures fabricated in optically opaque silver films. Due to its relatively low loss in the visible and near infrared range, silver is a popular choice for plasmonic devices, however it is also unstable in wet or even ambient conditions. Here we show that ultra-thin layers of Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) can be used to prevent degradation due to oxidative stress, ageing and corrosion. We demonstrate that DLC effectively protects the sub-micron features which make up the plasmonic colour filter under both atmospheric conditions and accelerated aging using iodine gas. Through a systematic study we confirm that the nanometre thick DLC layers have no effect on the device functionality or performance.

  16. Dielectric performance of diamond-like carbon nanofilms deposited by electron-beam-induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaur, Eugeniu; Peele, Andrew G.

    2008-12-01

    The effect of electron beam dose and low accelerating voltage on diamond-like-carbon (DLC) deposition rate and the resulting current-voltage characteristics in thin metal/DLC/semiconductor junctions was studied. We show that thicker DLC films can be obtained using lower accelerating voltages (2 kV) than when using higher accelerating voltage (20 kV). However, under the conditions used the insulating performance of the thicker films is worse than the thinner films. We attribute this effect to the variation of tunnelling barrier height in DLC deposited using different accelerating voltages. DLC films with a tunnelling barrier height of up to 3.12 eV were obtained using a 20 kV electron-beam, while only 0.73 eV was achieved for 2 kV DLC films.

  17. Method of making a Josephson junction with a diamond-like carbon insulating barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hed, A.Z.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a method of making a Josephson junction. It comprises depositing upon a substrate a first layer of high-temperature superconductive oxide having a critical temperature above 23 K.; depositing on the first layer to a thickness in excess of 200 angstroms an insulating layer of diamond-like carbon resistant to cation diffusion therethrough and incapable of interdiffusing with superconductive oxides of the junction; plasma etching the insulating layer to leave the insulating layer with a thickness of 20 to 100 angstroms on the first layer; to leave a continuous film thereof on the first layer of a thickness of 20 to 100 angstroms; and depositing on the insulating layer a second layer of high-temperature superconductive oxide having a critical temperature above 23 K. and forming with the first layer and the insulating layer a Josephson junction at a temperature at least equal to one of the critical temperatures.

  18. Stress reduction of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films from ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaowei; Ke, Peiling; Wang, Aiying

    2015-01-15

    Structure and properties of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films (DLC) were investigated using ab initio calculations. The effect of Cu concentrations (1.56∼7.81 at.%) on atomic bond structure was mainly analyzed to clarify the residual stress reduction mechanism. Results showed that with introducing Cu into DLC films, the residual compressive stress decreased firstly and then increased for each case with the obvious deterioration of mechanical properties, which was in agreement with the experimental results. Structural analysis revealed that the weak Cu-C bond and the relaxation of both the distorted bond angles and bond lengths accounted for the significant reduction of residual compressive stress, while at the higher Cu concentration the increase of residual stress attributed to the existence of distorted Cu-C structures and the increased fraction of distorted C-C bond lengths.

  19. Characterization of boron doped diamond-like carbon film by HRTEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. J.; He, L. L.; Li, Y. S.; Yang, Q.; Hirose, A.

    2015-12-01

    Boron doped diamond-like carbon (B-DLC) film was synthesized on silicon (1 0 0) wafer by biased target ion beam deposition. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is employed to investigate the microstructure of the B-DLC thin film in cross-sectional observation. Many crystalline nanoparticles randomly dispersed and embedded in the amorphous matrix film are observed. Through chemical compositional analysis of the B-DLC film, some amount of O element is confirmed to be contained. And also, some nanoparticles with near zone axes are indexed, which are accordance with B2O phase. Therefore, the contained O element causing the B element oxidized is proposed, resulting in the formation of the nanoparticles. Our work indicates that in the B-DLC film a significant amount of the doped B element exists as boron suboxide nanoparticles.

  20. Diamond-like carbon as biological compatible material for cell culture and medical application.

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Jones, M W; Wu, R L

    1993-01-01

    Ion beam assisted diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been used for growing the human hematopoietic myeloblastic ML-1 cells and human embryo kidney 293 cells in the control environment. DLC films were directly deposited onto the P-35 plastic dishes by impacting the high kinetic energy (1000 eV) of methane ions at room temperature. The present results showed that both ML-1 and HEK 293 cells continuously grow with and without DLC films. It has demonstrated that human cells proliferated on DLC film with very high viability and DLC material had no toxicity to cultured human ML-1 and HEK 293 cells. We conclude that DLC film is a biological compatible material for potential cell culture matrix and bio-medical applications.

  1. A quantitative in vitro method to predict the adhesion lifetime of diamond-like carbon thin films on biomedical implants.

    PubMed

    Falub, Claudiu Valentin; Thorwarth, Götz; Affolter, Christian; Müller, Ulrich; Voisard, Cyril; Hauert, Roland

    2009-10-01

    A quantitative method using Rockwell C indentation was developed to study the adhesion of diamond-like carbon (DLC) protective coatings to the CoCrMo biomedical implant alloy when immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution at 37 degrees C. Two kinds of coatings with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 up to 16 microns were investigated, namely DLC and DLC/Si-DLC, where Si-DLC denotes a 90 nm thick DLC interlayer containing Si. The time-dependent delamination of the coating around the indentation was quantified by means of optical investigations of the advancing crack front and calculations of the induced stress using the finite element method (FEM). The cause of delamination for both types of coatings was revealed to be stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of the interface material. For the DLC coating a typical SCC behavior was observed, including a threshold region (60J m(-2)) and a "stage 1" crack propagation with a crack-growth exponent of 3.0, comparable to that found for ductile metals. The DLC/Si-DLC coating exhibits an SCC process with a crack-growth exponent of 3.3 and a threshold region at 470 Jm(-2), indicating an adhesion in PBS at 37 degrees C that is about eight times better than that of the DLC coating. The SCC curves were fitted to the reaction controlled model typically used to explain the crack propagation in bulk soda lime glass. As this model falls short of accurately describing all the SCC curves, limitations of its application to the interface between a brittle coating and a ductile substrate are discussed.

  2. Aqueous electro-oxidative probe-based patterning of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühl, Thomas; Myhra, Sverre

    2007-04-01

    The production of gaseous H2 and CO/CO2 by aqueous electro-oxidation of solid carbon is a well-established process. It can be used as a method for masked and maskless local probe-induced lithography of conducting ion-beam assisted CVD deposited diamond-like carbon films. The masking route constitutes a parallel rapid processing technology, while the local probe method is a serial technology with a higher spatial resolution. The reaction cell is either a reservoir of bulk fluid or a thin adsorbed film. In the latter case the cell will be attached to the probe tip by the meniscus effect; the tip becomes a travelling electrode while the spatial extent of the cell defines the lateral spatial resolution of the pattern down to about 10 nm. The process is constrained kinetically in the early stages by limitations on charge transport through the surface barrier at the fluid-to-solid interface, and subsequently by the availability of oxidants and by their arrival at the reactive sites. The results may have implications for new technologies exploiting the properties of carbon-based materials, but may also add to our present understanding of the electrochemistry of carbon solids.

  3. On interlayer stability and high-cycle simulator performance of diamond-like carbon layers for articulating joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

    2014-06-11

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and -3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic.

  4. On Interlayer Stability and High-Cycle Simulator Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Layers for Articulating Joint Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Thorwarth, Kerstin; Thorwarth, Götz; Figi, Renato; Weisse, Bernhard; Stiefel, Michael; Hauert, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings have been proven to be an excellent choice for wear reduction in many technical applications. However, for successful adaption to the orthopaedic field, layer performance, stability and adhesion in physiologically relevant setups are crucial and not consistently investigated. In vitro wear testing as well as adequate corrosion tests of interfaces and interlayers are of great importance to verify the long term stability of DLC coated load bearing implants in the human body. DLC coatings were deposited on articulating lumbar spinal disks made of CoCr28Mo6 biomedical implant alloy using a plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) process. As an adhesion promoting interlayer, tantalum films were deposited by magnetron sputtering. Wear tests of coated and uncoated implants were performed in physiological solution up to a maximum of 101 million articulation cycles with an amplitude of ±2° and −3/+6° in successive intervals at a preload of 1200 N. The implants were characterized by gravimetry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and cross section scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. It is shown that DLC coated surfaces with uncontaminated tantalum interlayers perform very well and no corrosive or mechanical failure could be observed. This also holds true in tests featuring overload and third-body wear by cortical bone chips present in the bearing pairs. Regarding the interlayer tolerance towards interlayer contamination (oxygen), limits for initiation of potential failure modes were established. It was found that mechanical failure is the most critical aspect and this mode is hypothetically linked to the α-β tantalum phase switch induced by increasing oxygen levels as observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It is concluded that DLC coatings are a feasible candidate for near zero wear articulations on implants, potentially even surpassing the performance of ceramic vs. ceramic. PMID

  5. Preparation and investigation of diamond-like carbon nanocomposite thin films for nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panosyan, Zh.; Gharibyan, A.; Sargsyan, A.; Panosyan, H.; Hayrapetyan, D.; Yengibaryan, Y.

    2010-08-01

    Flexible Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technology of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC) thin film preparation on the surface of Si and organic glasses has been elaborated. Modification of PECVD equipment has been implemented by integrating ion and magnetron sources. In this paper toluene (C7H8) has been used as a nanocmposite film forming hydrocarbon which decomposition yields to the multi component plasma in vacuum chamber. Nitrogen has been used as a dopand. Investigation of plasma composition influence to the optical and mechanical properties of DLC films has been observed. The presence of sp3 and sp2 hybridization states have been proven by Raman spectroscopy and their ratios have been estimated with the help of ID, IG characteristic lines for different technological conditions. High precision refractive index and thickness measurements of DLC films have been implemented by means of laser ellipsometer. Refractive indices of prepared films have been varied in the region 1.5-3.1 and thicknesses have been varied in the region 50-250 nm. Extraordinary change in refractive index has been explained with the help of formation of differently sized sp2 carbon based clusters in the sp3 matrix. Different types of carbon and hydrogen bonds have been observed in the obtained structures by means of FTIR. Obvious prospectives of DLC nanocomposite film as a promissing nanophotonic material has been discussed.

  6. Electrochemical performance of porous diamond-like carbon electrodes for sensing hormones, neurotransmitters, and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tiago A; Zanin, Hudson; May, Paul W; Corat, Evaldo J; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-12-10

    Porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes have been prepared, and their electrochemical performance was explored. For electrode preparation, a thin DLC film was deposited onto a densely packed forest of highly porous, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the carbon nanotubes to clump together to form a microstructured surface with an enlarged surface area. DLC:VACNT electrodes show fast charge transfer, which is promising for several electrochemical applications, including electroanalysis. DLC:VACNT electrodes were applied to the determination of targeted molecules such as dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP), which are neurotransmitters/hormones, and acetaminophen (AC), an endocrine disruptor. Using simple and low-cost techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, analytical curves in the concentration range from 10 to 100 μmol L(-1) were obtained and excellent analytical parameters achieved, including high analytical sensitivity, good response stability, and low limits of detection of 2.9, 4.5, and 2.3 μmol L(-1) for DA, EP, and AC, respectively.

  7. Effect of source gas chemistry on tribological performance of diamond-like carbon films.

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Fenske, G. R.; Nilufer, I. B.

    1999-08-23

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various source gases (i. e., methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene and methane + hydrogen) on friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. Specifically, we described the anomalous nature and fundamental friction and wear mechanisms of DLC films derived from gas discharge plasmas with very low to very high hydrogen content. The films were deposited on steel substrates by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at room temperature and the tribological tests were performed in dry nitrogen. The results of tribological tests revealed a close correlation between the friction and wear coefficients of the DLC films and the source gas chemistry. Specifically, films grown in source gases with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios had much lower friction coefficients and wear rates than the films derived from source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon ratios. The lowest friction coefficient (0.002) was achieved with a film derived from 25% methane--75% hydrogen while the films derived from acetylene had a coefficient of 0.15. Similar correlations were observed on wear rates. Specifically, the films derived from hydrogen rich plasmas had the least wear while the films derived from pure acetylene suffered the highest wear. We used a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy to characterize the structural chemistry of the resultant DLC films.

  8. Superhard behaviour, low residual stress, and unique structure in diamond-like carbon films by simple bilayer approach

    SciTech Connect

    Dwivedi, Neeraj; Kumar, Sushil; Malik, Hitendra K.

    2012-07-15

    Simple bilayer approach is proposed for synthesizing hard and superhard diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings with reduced residual stress. For this, M/DLC bilayer (M = Ti and Cu) structures are grown using hybrid system involving radio frequency (RF)-sputtering and RF-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Ti/DLC bilayer deposited at negative self bias of 100 V shows superhard behaviour with hardness (H) as 49 GPa. Cu/DLC bilayer grown at self bias of 100 V exhibits hard behaviour with H as 22.8 GPa. The hardness of Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer gets changed from superhard (hard) to hard (moderate hard) regime, when the self bias is raised to 300 V. Residual stress in Ti/DLC (Cu/DLC) bilayer is found to be significantly low that varies in the range of 1 GPa-1.65 GPa (0.8 GPa-1.6 GPa). The microstructure and morphology are studied by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM and AFM pictures reveal the creation of nanostructured features in the deposited bilayers. Raman, SEM, and AFM analyses are correlated with the nano-mechanical properties. Owing to excellent nano-mechanical properties, these bilayers can find their direct industrial applications as hard and protective coatings.

  9. Synthesis of flat sticky hydrophobic carbon diamond-like films using atmospheric pressure Ar/CH4 dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincón, R.; Hendaoui, A.; de Matos, J.; Chaker, M.

    2016-06-01

    An Ar/CH4 atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (AP-DBD) was used to synthesize sticky hydrophobic diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on glass surface. The film is formed with plasma treatment duration shorter than 30 s, and water contact angles larger than 90° together with contact angle hysteresis larger than 10° can be achieved. According to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analysis, hydrocarbon functional groups are created on the glass substrate, producing coatings with low surface energy (˜35 mJ m-2) with no modification of the surface roughness. To infer the plasma processes leading to the formation of low energy DLC surfaces, optical emission spectroscopy was used. From the results, a direct relationship between the CH species present in the plasma and the carbon concentration in the hydrophobic layer was found, which suggests that the CH species are the precursors of DLC film growth. Additionally, the plasma gas temperature was measured to be below 350 K which highlights the suitability of using AP-DBD to treat thermo-sensitive surfaces.

  10. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Wei Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai; Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.

    2015-11-21

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp{sup 3} bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp{sup 3}-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40–70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  11. Conditions for forming composite carbon nanotube-diamond like carbon material that retain the good properties of both materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Wei; Iyer, Ajai; Koskinen, Jari; Kaskela, Antti; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Avchaciov, Konstantin; Nordlund, Kai

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes are of wide interest due to their excellent properties such as tensile strength and electrical and thermal conductivity, but are not, when placed alone on a substrate, well resistant to mechanical wear. Diamond-like carbon (DLC), on the other hand, is widely used in applications due to its very good wear resistance. Combining the two materials could provide a very durable pure carbon nanomaterial enabling to benefit from the best properties of both carbon allotropes. However, the synthesis of high-quality diamond-like carbon uses energetic plasmas, which can damage the nanotubes. From previous works it is neither clear whether the quality of the tubes remains good after DLC deposition, nor whether the DLC above the tubes retains the high sp3 bonding fraction. In this work, we use experiments and classical molecular dynamics simulations to study the mechanisms of DLC formation on various carbon nanotube compositions. The results show that high-sp3-content DLC can be formed provided the deposition conditions allow for sidewards pressure to form from a substrate close beneath the tubes. Under optimal DLC formation energies of around 40-70 eV, the top two nanotube atom layers are fully destroyed by the plasma deposition, but layers below this can retain their structural integrity.

  12. Biological responses of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with different structures in biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Liao, T T; Zhang, T F; Li, S S; Deng, Q Y; Wu, B J; Zhang, Y Z; Zhou, Y J; Guo, Y B; Leng, Y X; Huang, N

    2016-12-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are potential candidates for artificial joint surface modification in biomedical applications, and the influence of the structural features of DLC surfaces on cell functions has attracted attention in recent decades. Here, the biocompatibility of DLC films with different structures was investigated using macrophages, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. The results showed that DLC films with a low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3), which tend to have a structure similar to that of diamond, led to less inflammatory, excellent osteogenic and fibroblastic reactions, with higher cell viability, better morphology, lower release of TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α) and IL-6 (interleukin-6), and higher release of IL-10 (interleukin-10). The results also demonstrated that the high-density diamond structure (low ratio of sp(2)/sp(3)) of DLC films is beneficial for cell adhesion and growth because of better protein adsorption without electrostatic repulsion. These findings provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying inhibition of an inflammatory response and the promotion of osteoblastogenesis and fibrous propagation, and effectively build a system for evaluating the biocompatibility of DLC films. PMID:27612769

  13. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver.

    PubMed

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out. PMID:26979724

  14. Formation of Diamond-like Carbon Thin Films by Ion Beam Assisted Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Isao; Takano, Ichiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Takashika, Masaru; Kasiwagi, Tomohumi; Sawada, Yohio

    The mechanical properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films on SUS304 substrate have been studied. DLC thin films were prepared by the ion beam assisted deposition method. In this method, He+ ion irradiation was carried out in a C2H4 gas atmosphere. He+ ions were accelerated at an energy of 15 keV, and the ion beam current densities were changed from 10 to 100 μA/cm2. Atomic concentration and structure of the films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The mechanical properties of hardness and friction coefficient were determined using the Knoop hardness tester and the pin-on-disk tribometer. The DLC thin films had amorphous structure that composed chiefly of graphite and disorder of graphite states. The Knoop hardness of the films increased with increasing He+ ion current density, and the film prepared at a current density of 80 μA/cm2 showed the maximum Knoop hardness value of 890 kgf/cm2. The friction coefficient of the film prepared at a current density of 60 μA/cm2 indicated lower value than that of the other current densities. From these results, it was cleared that the mechanical properties and structure of DLC thin films were greatly affected by the He+ ion beam current density.

  15. Spectroscopic studies on diamond like carbon films synthesized by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Madhusmita; Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Das, Arindam; Mangamma, G.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen free Diamond like Carbon (DLC) thin films enriched with C-C sp3 bonding were grown on Si (111) substrates at laser pulse energies varying from 100 to 400 mJ (DLC-100, DLC-200, DLC-300, DLC-400), by Pulsed Laser Ablation (PLA) utilizing an Nd:YAG laser operating at fundamental wavelength. Structural, optical and morphological evolutions as a function of laser pulse energy were studied by micro Raman, UV-Vis spectroscopic studies and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), respectively. Raman spectra analysis provided critical clues for the variation in sp3 content and optical energy gap. The sp3 content was estimated using the FWHM of the G peak and found to be in the range of 62-69%. The trend of evolution of sp3 content matches well with the evolution of ID/IG ratio with pulse energy. UV-Vis absorption study of DLC films revealed the variation of optical energy gap with laser pulse energy (1.88 - 2.23 eV), which matches well with the evolution of G-Peak position of the Raman spectra. AFM study revealed that roughness, size and density of particulate in DLC films increase with laser pulse energy.

  16. Annealing Effects on Structure and Optical Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Containing Silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meškinis, Šarūnas; Čiegis, Arvydas; Vasiliauskas, Andrius; Šlapikas, Kęstutis; Gudaitis, Rimantas; Yaremchuk, Iryna; Fitio, Volodymyr; Bobitski, Yaroslav; Tamulevičius, Sigitas

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, diamond-like carbon films with embedded Ag nanoparticles (DLC:Ag) were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Structure of the films was investigated by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy was used to define thickness of DLC:Ag films as well as to study the surface morphology and size distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Optical absorbance and reflectance spectra of the films were studied in the 180-1100-nm range. Air annealing effects on structure and optical properties of the DLC:Ag were investigated. Annealing temperatures were varied in the 180-400 °C range. Changes of size and shape of the Ag nanoclusters took place due to agglomeration. It was found that air annealing of DLC:Ag films can result in graphitization following destruction of the DLC matrix. Additional activation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect in DLC:Ag films can be achieved by properly selecting annealing conditions. Annealing resulted in blueshift as well as significant narrowing of the plasmonic absorbance and reflectance peaks. Moreover, quadrupole surface plasmon resonance peaks appeared. Modeling of absorption spectra of the nanoclusters depending on the shape and surrounding media has been carried out.

  17. Ferromagnetic order in diamond-like carbon films by Co implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Prasanth; Williams, Grant; Markwitz, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    We report the observation of ferromagnetic order in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films made by mass selective ion beam deposition and after low energy implantation with Co ions. Different Co fluences were studied with a peak concentration of up to 25% at an average Co implantation depth of 30 nm. The saturation moment per Co atom (0.2-0.3 μ B) was found to be strongly dependent on temperature and it was significantly lower than that reported in bulk cobalt or cobalt nanoparticles (1.67 μ B per Co atom). The observed magnetic moment cannot be attributed to ferromagnetic nanoparticles as no evidence for superparamagnetism was detected. The magnetic order observed may be due to Co bonding in DLC possibly leading to dilute ferromagnetic semiconductor behaviour with an inhomogeneous distribution of cobalt atoms. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed that Co implantation resulted in an increase in the sp2 clustering with increasing Co fluence. Thus, our results show that Co implantation into DLC films increases the graphitic properties of the film and leads to magnetic order at room temperature.

  18. Correlations between microstructure and hydrophobicity properties of pulsed laser deposited diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modabber Asl, A.; Kameli, P.; Ranjbar, M.; Salamati, H.; Jannesari, M.

    2015-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on Si-(1 0 0) substrates in the substrate temperature range of room temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The structural, hydrophobicity, mechanical, and morphological properties of the DLC films were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation, water contact angle (CA) measurement, atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the DLC films deposited at RT were purely amorphous in structure with high sp3 bonding and had very smooth surfaces. Raman and XPS results indicated a structural transition from amorphous to nano-crystalline graphitic nature, structural ordering of DLC films, and decrease of the sp3 content with increasing substrate temperature. Degradation of the surface morphology and enhancement of the surface roughness with the substrate temperature were observed by AFM. It was also found that the mechanical properties such as nanohardness, elastic modulus, plastic index parameter, and elastic recovery decreased with the increasing substrate temperature. The CA measurements indicated that the hydrophobicity of DLC films increased with the substrate temperature and was sensitive not only to sp2/sp3 ratio, but also to the ordering of sp2 clusters. The observed hydrophobicity, mechanical and morphological properties were attributed to structural changes during deposition based on the sub-plantation model and stress induced mechanism.

  19. Hemocompatibility of surface-modified, silicon-incorporated, diamond-like carbon films.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Choi, H W; Yi, J W; Moon, M-W; Lee, K-R; Han, D K; Shin, J H; Kamijo, A; Hasebe, T

    2009-01-01

    The hemocompatibility of plasma-treated, silicon-incorporated, diamond-like carbon (Si-DLC) films was investigated. Si-DLC films with a Si concentration of 2at.% were prepared on Si (100) or Nitinol substrates using a capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method using a mixed gas of benzene (C(6)H(6)) and diluted silane (SiH(4):H(2)=10:90). The Si-DLC films were then treated with O(2), CF(4) or N(2) glow discharge for surface modification. The plasma treatment revealed an intimate relationship between the polar component of the surface energy and its hemocompatibility. All in vitro characterizations, i.e. protein absorption behavior, activated partial thromboplastin time measurement and platelet adhesion behavior, showed improved hemocompatibility of the N(2-)- or O(2)-plasma-treated surfaces where the polar component of the surface energy was significantly increased. Si-O or Si-N surface bonds played an important role in improving hemocompatibility, as observed in a model experiment. These results support the importance of a negatively charged polar component of the surface in inhibiting fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion. PMID:18753025

  20. Characterization of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) films deposited by RF ICP PECVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleszkiewicz, Waldemar; Kijaszek, Wojciech; Gryglewicz, Jacek; Zakrzewski, Adrian; Gajewski, Krzysztof; Kopiec, Daniel; Kamyczek, Paulina; Popko, Ewa; Tłaczała, Marek

    2013-07-01

    The work presents the results of a research carried out with Plasmalab Plus 100 system, manufactured by Oxford Instruments Company. The system was configured for deposition of diamond-like carbon films by ICP PECVD method. The deposition processes were carried out in CH4 or CH4/H2 atmosphere and the state of the plasma was investigated by the OES method. The RF plasma was capacitively coupled by 13.56 MHz generator with supporting ICP generator (13.56 Mhz). The deposition processes were conducted in constant value of RF generator's power and resultant value of the DC Bias. The power values of RF generator was set at 70 W and the power values of ICP generator was set at 300 W. In this work we focus on the influence of DLC film's thickness on optical, electrical and structural properties of the deposited DLC films. The quality of deposited DLC layers was examined by the Raman spectroscopy, AFM microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. In the investigated DLC films the calculated sp3 content was ranging from 60 % to 70 %. The films were characterized by the refractive index ranging from 2.03 to 2.1 and extinction coefficient ranging from 0.09 to 0.12.

  1. Tribology of diamond-like carbon films from generic fabrication routes investigated by lateral force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, Alison; Johnston, Colin; Watson, Gregory S.; Myhra, Sverre

    1998-08-01

    The tribological characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been studied by lateral force microscopy (LFM). Specimens from two fabrication routes, ion-beam assisted deposition and chemical vapour deposition, have been investigated. Thick (micrometres) and thin (a few nanometres) films from both routes have been considered, as have the service environments of ambient air and vacuum. Lateral force data were calculated from `friction loops', obtained as functions of load, surface topography, scan speed and service environment. An identical methodology and LFM probe were used throughout the series of measurements in order to ensure internal consistency, and the validity of the methodology was checked against measurements on epitaxially grown Si. A linear dependence was observed between lateral force and force loading up to ca 0022-3727/31/16/003/img8, in accord with a multi-asperity model, thus allowing determination of coefficients of friction that ranged from 0.05 to 0.15. The results showed that adhesive interactions contributed up to 0022-3727/31/16/003/img9 to the overall dynamic load. Meniscus interaction played a minor role in comparison to that from tribo-generated electrostatic forces. The experiments show that LFM methodologies have value and relevance to the science and technology of tribology, especially when the required spatial resolution cannot be obtained with the traditional macroscopic techniques.

  2. Modification of diamond-like carbon films by nitrogen incorporation via plasma immersion ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flege, S.; Hatada, R.; Hoefling, M.; Hanauer, A.; Abel, A.; Baba, K.; Ensinger, W.

    2015-12-01

    The addition of nitrogen to diamond-like carbon films affects properties such as the inner stress of the film, the conductivity, biocompatibility and wettability. The nitrogen content is limited, though, and the maximum concentration depends on the preparation method. Here, plasma immersion ion implantation was used for the deposition of the films, without the use of a separate plasma source, i.e. the plasma was generated by a high voltage applied to the samples. The plasma gas consisted of a mixture of C2H4 and N2, the substrates were silicon and glass. By changing the experimental parameters (high voltage, pulse length and repetition rate and gas flow ratio) layers with different N content were prepared. Additionally, some samples were prepared using a DC voltage. The nitrogen content and bonding was investigated with SIMS, AES, XPS, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Their influence on the electrical resistivity of the films was investigated. Depending on the preparation conditions different nitrogen contents were realized with maximum contents around 11 at.%. Those values were compared with the nitrogen concentration that can be achieved by implantation of nitrogen into a DLC film.

  3. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Takabayashi, Susumu Otsuji, Taiichi; Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ješko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2014-09-07

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the “sp{sup 2} cluster model” for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-κ DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-κ DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-κ DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-κ film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  4. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  5. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Preparation and Thermal Characterization of Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Su-Yuan; Tang, Zhen-An; Huang, Zheng-Xing; Yu, Jun; Wang, Jing; Liu, Gui-Chang

    2009-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared on silicon substrates by microwave electron cyclotron resonance plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the films have an amorphous structure and typical characteristics. The topographies of the films are presented by AFM images. Effective thermal conductivities of the films are measured using a nanosecond pulsed photothermal reflectance method. The results show that thermal conductivity is dominated by the microstructure of the films.

  6. In vitro Cyto and Blood Compatibility of Titanium Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Hybrid Sputtering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasamy Navaneetha, Pandiyaraj; Jan, Heeg; Andreas, Lampka; Fabian, Junge; Torsten, Barfels; Marion, Wienecke; Young, Ha Rhee; Hyoung, Woo Kim

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, diamond-like carbon films (DLC) have been given more attention in research in the biomedical industry due to their potential application as surface coating on biomedical materials such as metals and polymer substrates. There are many ways to prepare metal containing DLC films deposited on polymeric film substrates, such as coatings from carbonaceous precursors and some means that incorporate other elements. In this study, we investigated both the surface and biocompatible properties of titanium containing DLC (Ti-DLC) films. The Ti-DLC films were prepared on the surface of poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film as a function of the deposition power level using reactive sputtering technique. The films' hydrophilicity was studied by contact angle and surface energy tests. Their surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their elemental chemical composition was analyzed using energy dispersive X-spectra (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Their blood and cell compatibility was studied by in vitro tests, including tests on platelet adhesion, thrombus formation, whole blood clotting time and osteoblast cell compatibility. Significant changes in the morphological and chemical composition of the Ti-DLC films were observed and found to be a function of the deposition level. These morphological and chemical changes reduced the interfacial tension between Ti-DLC and blood proteins as well as resisted the adhesion and activation of platelets on the surface of the Ti-DLC films. The cell compatibility results exhibited significant growth of osteoblast cells on the surface of Ti incorporated DLC film compared with that of DLC film surface.

  7. Diamond-Like-Carbon LC-Alignment Layers for Application in LCOS Microdisplays

    SciTech Connect

    Bol,A.; Dvorak, J.; Arena, D.

    2005-01-01

    To improve the lifetime and yield of LCOS microdisplays, non-contact LC alignment techniques using inorganic materials are under investigation. This report focuses on oblique ion-beam treatment of diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers, and in particular on the influence of the ion dose on the LC alignment on DLC, keeping the ion-beam angle (40 degrees) and ion-beam energy (170 eV) the same. LC alignment on ion-milled DLC layers is uniform if the ion dose is between 3.8 x 10{sup -4} C/cm{sup 2} and 5.5x10{sup -3} C/cm{sup 2}. Above and below this ion dose range, non-uniform alignment is observed. NEXAFS experiments show that this is caused by lack of molecular anisotropy on the surface of the ion-milled DLC layers. By varying the ion dose between 3.8 x 10{sup -4} C/cm{sup 2} and 5.5 x 10{sup -3} C/cm{sup 2}, LC molecules have an average pre-tilt between 3 and 5 degrees, which is within the desired range for application in LCOS microdisplays. The lifetime of the LCOS microdisplays with ion-milled DLC for projection-TV application is, however, shorter than the lifetime of microdisplays with PI layers. Ion milling probably creates a reactive surface that is unstable under the high light fluxes used in projection TVs. A solution for this problem could be chemical passivation of the ion-milled alignment layers. Initial experiments with passivation of ion-milled PI resulted in an increase in lifetime, but the lifetime after passivation was still lower than the lifetime of rubbed PI layers (factor 0.7). Nevertheless, ion-milling of DLC or PI can be a good alternative LC alignment technique in other LCD applications. LC-alignment layers based on inorganic layers such as obliquely deposited SiO{sub 2} films would be a better option for application in LCOS microdisplays due to their higher light stability.

  8. Surface structure of tetrahedral-coordinated amorphous diamond-like carbon films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, T.W.; DiNardo, N.J. |; Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Fang, F.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-12-31

    The structure and composition of tetrahedral-coordinated amorphous diamond-like carbon films (a-tC) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of graphite has been studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanometer-scale surface structure has been studied as a function of growth parameters (e.g., laser energy density and film thickness) using contact-mode and tapping-mode AFM. Although the surfaces were found to be generally smooth, they exhibited reproducible structural features on several size scales which correlate with the variation of laser energy and th excited ion etching.

  9. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes on diamond-like carbon by the hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Chang; Park, Yong Seob; Hong, Byungyou

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted considerable attention as possible routes to device miniaturization due to their excellent mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties. These properties show great potential for devices such as field emission displays, transistors, and sensors. The growth of CNTs can be explained by interaction between small carbon patches and the metal catalyst. The metals such as nickel, cobalt, gold, iron, platinum, and palladium are used as the catalysts for the CNT growth. In this study, diamond-like carbon (DLC) was used for CNT growth as a nonmetallic catalyst layer. DLC films were deposited by a radio frequency (RF) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) method with a mixture of methane and hydrogen gases. CNTs were synthesized by a hot filament plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (HF-PECVD) method with ammonia (NH3) as a pretreatment gas and acetylene (C2H2) as a carbon source gas. The grown CNTs and the pretreated DLC films were observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) measurement, and the structure of the grown CNTs was analyzed by high resolution transmission scanning electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Also, using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) measurement, we confirmed that only the carbon component remained on the substrate. PMID:19318258

  10. Enhanced field electron emission from aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod arrays prepared by reactive ion beam etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong; Qin, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Chang, Sheng-Li; Li, Hui-Hui; Yuan, Ji-Ren

    2016-05-01

    Homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si supports by a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system. Using DLC films masked by Ni nanoparticles as precursors, highly aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod (DLCNR) arrays were fabricated by the etching of inductively coupled radio frequency oxygen plasma. The as-prepared DLCNR arrays exhibit excellent field emission properties with a low turn-on field of 2.005 V μm‑1 and a threshold field of 4.312 V μm‑1, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to determine the chemical bonding structural change of DLC films before and after etching. It is confirmed that DLC films have good connection with Si supports via the formation of the SiC phase, and larger conductive sp2 domains are formed in the as-etched DLC films, which play essential roles in the enhanced field emission properties for DLCNR arrays.

  11. Tuning properties of long-period gratings by plasma post-processing of their diamond-like carbon nano-overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smietana, M.; Koba, M.; Mikulic, P.; Bock, W. J.

    2014-11-01

    This work presents an application of reactive ion etching (RIE) for effective tuning of spectral response and the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of diamond-like carbon (DLC) nano-coated long-period gratings (LPGs). When oxygen plasma is applied the technique allows for an efficient and well controlled etching of hard and chemically resistant DLC films deposited on optical fibers. We show that optical properties of DLC, especially its refractive index, strongly depend on thickness of the film when it is thinner than 150 nm. The effect of DLC nano-coating deposition and etching on spectral properties of the LPGs is discussed. We have correlated the DLC properties with the shift of the LPG resonance wavelength and have found that both deposition and etching processes took place less effectively than on the electrode when the LPG sample was held above the electrode in the plasma reactor. An advantage of plasma-based etching is a capability for post-processing of the nano-coated structures with a good precision, as well as cleaning the samples and their re-coating according to requested needs. Moreover, the application of RIE allows for post-fabrication tuning of RI sensitivity of the DLC nano-coated LPGs.

  12. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  13. Biocompatibility and mechanical properties of diamond-like coatings on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum steel and titanium-aluminum-vanadium biomedical alloys.

    PubMed

    Hinüber, C; Kleemann, C; Friederichs, R J; Haubold, L; Scheibe, H J; Schuelke, T; Boehlert, C; Baumann, M J

    2010-11-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are favored for wear components because of diamond-like hardness, low friction, low wear, and high corrosion resistance (Schultz et al., Mat-wiss u Werkstofftech 2004;35:924-928; Lappalainen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2003;66B:410-413; Tiainen, Diam Relat Mater 2001;10:153-160). Several studies have demonstrated their inertness, nontoxicity, and the biocompatibility, which has led to interest among manufacturers of surgical implants (Allen et al., J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2001;58:319-328; Uzumaki et al., Diam Relat Mater 2006;15:982-988; Hauert, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:583-589; Grill, Diam Relat Mater 2003;12:166-170). In this study, hydrogen-free amorphous, tetrahedrally bonded DLC films (ta-C) were deposited at low temperatures by physical vapor deposition on medical grade Co28Cr6Mo steel and the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V (Scheibe et al., Surf Coat Tech 1996;85:209-214). The mechanical performance of the ta-C was characterized by measuring its surface roughness, contact angle, adhesion, and wear behavior, whereas the biocompatibility was assessed by osteoblast (OB) attachment and cell viability via Live/Dead assay. There was no statistical difference found in the wettability as measured by contact angle measurements for the ta-C coated and the uncoated samples of either Co28Cr6Mo or Ti6Al4V. Rockwell C indentation and dynamic scratch testing on 2-10 μm thick ta-C films on Co28Cr6Mo substrates showed excellent adhesion with HF1 grade and up to 48 N for the critical load L(C2) during scratch testing. The ta-C coating reduced the wear from 3.5 × 10(-5) mm(3)/Nm for an uncoated control sample (uncoated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) to 1.1 × 10(-7) mm(3)/Nm (coated Co28Cr6Mo against uncoated stainless steel) in reciprocating pin-on-disk testing. The lowest wear factor of 3.9 × 10(-10) mm(3)/Nm was measured using a ta-C coated steel ball running against a ta-C coated and polished Co28Cr6Mo disk

  14. Numerical investigation on fundamental properties in capacitively-coupled methane plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akinori; Kousaka, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-01

    Capacitively-coupled methane (CH4) plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films have been simulated using a self-consistent one-dimensional fluid model, incorporating the mass balance equations for electrons, ions, radicals and non-radicals, the electron energy balance equation, coupled with the Poisson equation. Despite of low-pressure CH4 gas condition, many positive-ion species, such as C2H4^+, CH4^+, C2H2^+, CH5^+ etc., have been found in the plasmas. The non-radical neutrals, such as C2H4, C3H8, C2H2 and C2H6, have also found with higher densities comparable to the source gas density. This result indicates that this complexity of background gas in CH4 plasmas is strongly affected to the electron energy distribution function, which is important for the determination of plasmas properties.

  15. Hydrophobic and high transparent honeycomb diamond-like carbon thin film fabricated by facile self-assembled nanosphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kai-Yu; Wei, Da-Hua; Lin, Chii-Ruey; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Yao, Yeong-Der; Lin, Hong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we take advantage of a facile fabrication technique called self-assembled nanosphere lithography (SANSL) combining with proper two-step reactive ion etching (RIE) method and radio frequency (RF) sputtering deposition process for manufacturing honeycomb diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film structures with hydrophobic and high transparent properties. It is found that the DLC thin films deposited on clean glass substrates at the RF power of 100 W with the surface roughness (Ra) of 2.08 nm and the ID/IG ratio of 1.96 are realized. With a fill-factor of 0.691, the honeycomb DLC patterned thin film shows the best transmittance performance of 87% in the wavelength of visible light, and the optimized contact angle measurement is ˜108°. Compared with the pure DLC thin film and original glass substrate, the hydrophobic property of the patterned DLC films is significantly improved by 80 and 160%, respectively.

  16. Electron and laser beam-induced current measurements of diamond-like carbon films modified by scanning probe method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Shigehiro; Han, Younggun; Choi, Woon; Tomokage, Hajime

    2013-03-01

    A nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) film deposited on n-type silicon is modified by applying an electric field in a vacuum between a tungsten tip and the DLC film surface using a scanning probe field emission current method. The resistance decreases and a Schottky barrier is formed between the modified DLC and the silicon surface, while micro-Raman measurements show a slight nano-crystalline graphitization. The electron beam induced current from the modified area is measured without any metal contact deposition. An infrared laser beam with a wavelength of 1400 nm is scanned across the backside of the silicon, and the induced current from the DLC modified area is measured. It is shown that both infrared laser and electron beam induced current measurements were possible for the modified DLC film on silicon structures.

  17. Protection of Diamond-like Carbon Films from Energetic Atomic Oxygen Degradation Through Si-doping Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Kumiko; Tagawa, Masahito; Kitamura, Akira; Matsumoto, Koji; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden; Fontaine, Julien; Belin, Michel

    2009-01-05

    The effect of hyperthermal atomic oxygen (AO) exposure on the surface properties of Si-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) was investigated. Two types of DLC were tested that contain approximately 10 at% and 20 at% of Si atoms. Surface analytical results of high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy; SR-PES) as well as Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) have been used for characterization of the AO-exposed Si-doped DLC. It was identified by SR-PES that a SiO{sub 2} layer was formed by the hyperthermal AO exposure at the Si-doped DLC surface. RBS data indicates that AO exposure leads to severe thickness loss on the undopedd DLC. In contrast, a SiO{sub 2} layer formed by the hyperthermal atomic oxygen reaction of Si-doped DLC protects the DLC underneath the SiO{sub 2} layer.

  18. Characterization of Nano-Crystalline Diamond like Carbon (DLC) Films with Substrate Temperature Using Dense Plasma Focusing Method

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Vikram S; Dhubkarya, D. C.; Singh, Yashpal; Sahu, Devendra K; Singh, Manveer; Kumar, Kuldeep

    2010-06-17

    Nano-crystalline Diamond like Carbon (DLC) film has been grown by Dense Plasma Focusing Method (DPF) using pure graphite Plasma, on different substrate (glass/silica) at different substrate temperature. The films were grown at substrate temperature 100 deg. C, 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C by the high dense plasma of energy 1.3 k Joule on glass and silica. Raman spectra confirmed that sp{sup 3} content is grown in the films under various conditions. The Raman spectra of these films show a broad asymmetric peak which narrow with sp{sup 2} decreasing contents. We believe that our data presented here may be used as reference of DLC characterization.

  19. Optical properties of ZnO thin films grown on diamond-like carbon by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shao-lan; Zhang, Li-chun; Dong, Yan-feng; Zhao, Feng-zhou

    2012-11-01

    ZnO/diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films are deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and the room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) is investigated. Using a fluorescence spectrophotometer, we obtain the PL spectra of DLC/Si and ZnO/Si thin films deposited at different substrate temperatures. The ZnO/DLC thin films show a broadband emission almost containing the entire visible spectrum. The Gaussian fitting curves of PL spectra reveal that the visible emission of ZnO/DLC thin films consists of three peaks centered at 381 nm, 526 nm and 682 nm, which are attributed to the radiative recombination of ZnO and DLC, respectively. The Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) 1931 ( x, y) chromaticity space of ZnO/DLC thin films indicates that the visible PL spectrum is very close to the standard white-light region.

  20. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  1. Synthesis of Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Planar and Non-Planar Geometries by the Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noborisaka, Mayui; Hirako, Tomoaki; Shirakura, Akira; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Morikawa, Masashi; Seki, Masaki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were synthesized by the dielectric barrier discharge-based plasma deposition at atmospheric pressure and their hardness and gas barrier properties were measured. A decrease in size of grains and heating substrate temperature improved nano-hardness up to 3.3 GPa. The gas barrier properties of DLC-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) sheets were obtained by 3-5 times of non-coated PET with approximately 0.5 µm in film thickness. The high-gas-barrier DLC films deposited on PET sheets are expected to wrap elevated bridge of the super express and prevent them from neutralization of concrete. We also deposited DLC films inside PET bottles by the microwave surface-wave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at near-atmospheric pressure. Under atmospheric pressure, the films were coated uniformly inside the PET bottles, but did not show high gas barrier properties. In this paper, we summarize recent progress of DLC films synthesized at atmospheric pressure with the aimed of food packaging and concrete pillar.

  2. Diagnostics of capacitively-coupled hydrocarbon plasmas for deposition of diamond-like carbon films using quadrupole mass spectrometry and Langmuir probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Akinori; Fukai, Shun; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ohta, Takayuki

    2015-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are the hydrogenated amorphous carbon films, which contains a mixture of sp2- and sp3-bonded carbon. The DLC films have been widely used for various applications, such as automotive, semiconductors, medical devices, since have excellent material properties in lower friction, higher chemical stability, higher hardness, higher wear resistance. Until now, numerous investigations on the DLC films using plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition have been done. For precise control of coating technique of DLC films, it is enormously important to clarify the fundamental properties in hydrocarbon plasmas, as a source of hydrocarbon ions and radicals. In this paper, the fundamental properties in a low pressure radio-frequency hydrocarbon (Ar/CH4 (1 %) gas mixture) plasmas have been diagnosed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., EQP-300) and Langmuir probe system (HIDEN ANARYTICAL Ltd., ESPion). This work was partly supported by KAKENHI (No.26420247), and a ``Grant for Advanced Industrial Technology Development (No.11B06004d)'' in 2011 from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.

  3. Study of Fluorine Addition Influence in the Dielectric Constant of Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Film Deposited by Reactive Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippe, S. C.; Mansano, R. D.

    The hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) or DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) films are well known for exhibiting high electrical resistivity, low dielectric constant, high mechanical hardness, low friction coefficient, low superficial roughness and also for being inert. In this paper, we produced fluorinated DLC films (a-C:F), and studied the effect of adding CF4 on the above-mentioned properties of DLC films. These films were produced by a reactive RF magnetron sputtering system using a target of pure carbon in stable graphite allotrope. We performed measurements of electrical characteristic curves of capacitance as a function of applied tension (C-V) and current as a function of the applied tension (I-V). We showed the dielectric constant (k) and the resistivity (ρ) as functions of the CF4 concentration. On films with 65% CF4, we found that k = 2.7, and on films with 70% CF4, ρ = 12.3 × 1011 Ω cm. The value of the electrical breakdown field to films with 70% CF4 is 5.3 × 106 V/cm.

  4. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-10-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors.

  5. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-10-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors. PMID:18493856

  6. Study of Diamond like Carbon as template for nanoimprint lithography and as a filler material for vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Seetharaman

    Due to its tunable properties like hardness, optical gap, chemical inertness, electrical resistivity, biocompatibility etc., coatings of the material Diamond like Carbon (DLC) have been used as protective layers for various applications. In this research effort, we add to the growing list of its potential applications by proposing them as a template material for the emerging field of nanoimprint lithography. Using capacitive and inductive plasmas, we demonstrate the possibility of depositing DLC films of reasonable hardness (10-25 GPa) and wear resistance (2X that of Si and 3X that of Quartz). We have successfully used these films as a mold material to obtain feature sizes as small as 40 nm. In addition, to further the understanding of the effect of the gas phase chemistry on the film properties, the Methane discharge used for obtaining these films has been studied using techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Optical Emission Spectroscopy. The higher degree of dissociation (up to 70%) of the precursor in case of inductive plasmas leads to selected conditions under which hard DLC films are obtained. We also show that for the same deposition conditions, films deposited on the insulating Quartz substrates are softer and more polymeric than those deposited on Si substrates. Carbon nanotubes with their unique physical properties are seen as ideal candidates for applications like field effect transistors, supercapacitors, AFM tips and electronic devices. One of the chief challenges in using them for these applications is obtaining them in a form that is easier to handle, thus enabling them to withstand the various post-processing steps. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the possibility of obtaining a Carbon-Carbon composite structure by subjecting vertically aligned Carbon nanotube forests to a PECVD based process. The distance from the top of the CNT forest that is coated with the deposited film (termed as the depth of infusion) shows

  7. Diamond-like carbon produced by plasma source ion implantation as a corrosion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Taylor, T.N.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    There currently exists a broad range of applications for which the ability to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications include engine components, orthopedic devices, textile manufacturing components, hard disk media, optical coatings, and cutting and machining tools (e.g., punches, taps, scoring dies, and extrusion dies). Ion beam processing can play an important role in all of these technologies. Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional ion implantation by: (1) reducing the time and expense for implanting onto complex shapes and large areas and (2) extending the thickness of the modification zone through ion beam enhanced plasma growth of surface coatings. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma source and then pulse biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for complex-shaped targets without complex fixturing. If the pulse bias is a relatively high negative potential (20 to 100 kV) ion implantation will result. If however, a low voltage (50--1,200 eV) high duty cycle pulse bias is applied, film deposition from the chamber gas will result, thereby increasing the extent of the surface modification into the 1--10 micron regime. To evaluate the potential for DLC to be used as a corrosion barrier, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and traditional electrochemistry techniques were used to investigate the breakdown mechanism in chloride and nonchloride containing environments. The effect of surface preparation on coating breakdown was also evaluated.

  8. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes.

  9. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes. PMID:27058762

  10. Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium-Doped Diamond like Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunkara, M. K.; Ueno, M.; Lian, G.; Dickey, E. C.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated metalorganic precursor deposition using a Microwave Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) plasma for depositing metal-doped diamondlike carbon films. Specifically, the deposition of ruthenium doped diamondlike carbon films was investigated using the decomposition of a novel ruthenium precursor, Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)-ruthenium (Ru(C5H4C2H5)2). The ruthenium precursor was introduced close to the substrate stage. The substrate was independently biased using an applied RF power. Films were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Four Point Probe. The conductivity of the films deposited using ruthenium precursor showed strong dependency on the deposition parameters such as pressure. Ruthenium doped sample showed the presence of diamond crystallites with an average size of approx. 3 nm while un-doped diamondlike carbon sample showed the presence of diamond crystallites with an average size of 11 nm. TEM results showed that ruthenium was atomically dispersed within the amorphous carbon network in the films.

  11. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    PubMed Central

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-01-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently. PMID:26955791

  12. Influence of Hydrogen Content on Optical and Mechanical Performances of Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yao; Huang, Xing-Ye; Wang, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The protective layer for cover glass of touch panel screen for electronic mobile devices is required to have good mechanical properties and decent optical transparency simultaneously. The hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (a-C:H) films were deposited on glass substrate by RF-PECVD in the negative stage potential mode (NP mode), as well as the ground stage potential mode (GP mode). The impact of hydrogen content, affected by stage potential and RF power, on optical and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that hydrogen content decreases with increasing RF power, due to the dehydrogenation effect. Higher hydrogen content in films results in lower refractive index, lower extinction coefficient, lower optical absorptions, larger optical band gap and higher transmittance, but lower hardness and wearing resistance. Therefore, although the GP mode DLC is optically favorable because of higher hydrogen content, the NP mode one is far more superior from mechanical standpoint. A compromise can be reached to deposit an ultrathin layer of DLC in NP mode, which offers a good combination of properties to meet the requirement for the protective layer of cover glass.

  13. Silver nanoparticle-enriched diamond-like carbon implant modification as a mammalian cell compatible surface with antimicrobial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorzelanny, Christian; Kmeth, Ralf; Obermeier, Andreas; Bauer, Alexander T.; Halter, Natalia; Kümpel, Katharina; Schneider, Matthias F.; Wixforth, Achim; Gollwitzer, Hans; Burgkart, Rainer; Stritzker, Bernd; Schneider, Stefan W.

    2016-03-01

    The implant-bone interface is the scene of competition between microorganisms and distinct types of tissue cells. In the past, various strategies have been followed to support bony integration and to prevent bacterial implant-associated infections. In the present study we investigated the biological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) surfaces containing silver nanoparticles. DLC is a promising material for the modification of medical implants providing high mechanical and chemical stability and a high degree of biocompatibility. DLC surface modifications with varying silver concentrations were generated on medical-grade titanium discs, using plasma immersion ion implantation-induced densification of silver nanoparticle-containing polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer solutions. Immersion of implants in aqueous liquids resulted in a rapid silver release reducing the growth of surface-bound and planktonic Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Due to the fast and transient release of silver ions from the modified implants, the surfaces became biocompatible, ensuring growth of mammalian cells. Human endothelial cells retained their cellular differentiation as indicated by the intracellular formation of Weibel-Palade bodies and a high responsiveness towards histamine. Our findings indicate that the integration of silver nanoparticles into DLC prevents bacterial colonization due to a fast initial release of silver ions, facilitating the growth of silver susceptible mammalian cells subsequently.

  14. Cell adhesion and growth on ultrananocrystalline diamond and diamond-like carbon films after different surface modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksovsky, J.; Voss, A.; Kozarova, R.; Kocourek, T.; Pisarik, P.; Ceccone, G.; Kulisch, W.; Jelinek, M.; Apostolova, M. D.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Popov, C.

    2014-04-01

    Diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films possess a set of excellent physical and chemical properties which together with a high biocompatibility make them attractive candidates for a number of medical and biotechnological applications. In the current work thin ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) and DLC films were comparatively investigated with respect to cell attachment and proliferation after different surface modifications. The UNCD films were prepared by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the DLC films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films were comprehensively characterized with respect to their basic properties, e.g. crystallinity, morphology, chemical bonding nature, etc. Afterwards the UNCD and DLC films were modified applying O2 or NH3/N2 plasmas and UV/O3 treatments to alter their surface termination. The surface composition of as-grown and modified samples was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore the films were characterized by contact angle measurements with water, formamide, 1-decanol and diiodomethane; from the results obtained the surface energy with its dispersive and polar components was calculated. The adhesion and proliferation of MG63 osteosarcoma cells on the different UNCD and DLC samples were assessed by measurement of the cell attachment efficiency and MTT assays. The determined cell densities were compared and correlated with the surface properties of as-deposited and modified UNCD and DLC films.

  15. Study on Exploding Wire Compression for Evaluating Electrical Conductivity in Warm-Dense Diamond-Like-Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Toru; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Kudo, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Takashi; Aso, Tsukasa; Harada, Nob.; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-03-01

    To improve a coupling efficiency for the fast ignition scheme of the inertial confinement fusion, fast electron behaviors as a function of an electrical conductivity are required. To evaluate the electrical conductivity for low-Z materials as a diamond-like-carbon (DLC), we have proposed a concept to investigate the properties of warm dense matter (WDM) by using pulsed-power discharges. The concept of the evaluation of DLC for WDM is a shock compression driven by an exploding wire discharge with confined by a rigid capillary. The qualitatively evaluation of the electrical conductivity for the WDM DLC requires a small electrical conductivity of the exploding wire. To analyze the electrical conductivity of exploding wire, we have demonstrated an exploding wire discharge in water for gold. The results indicated that the electrical conductivity of WDM gold for 5000 K of temperature has an insulator regime. It means that the shock compression driven by the exploding wire discharge with confined by the rigid capillary is applied for the evaluation of electrical conductivity for WDM DLC.

  16. Surface Structure of Hydrogenated Diamond-like Carbon: Origin of Run-In Behavior Prior to Superlubricious Interfacial Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Azizi, Ala A; Eryilmaz, Osman; Erdemir, Ali; Kim, Seong H.

    2015-01-01

    The oxidized layers at the surface of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (H-DLC) were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, and Raman spectroscopy. The structure of these layers was correlated with the friction and wear behavior observed on H-DLC. H-DLC is well-known for its ultralow friction in inert environments, but the steady superlubricious state is always preceded by a run-in period with a high friction. It was hypothesized that the run-in period is related to the surface oxide layer formed naturally upon exposure of the sample to air. To test this hypothesis, thermal oxide layers were grown, and their structures were analyzed and compared with the native oxide layer on a pristine sample. It was found that the Raman spectra of the surface oxide layers of H-DLC have higher D/G band ratio than the bulk, indicating a larger amount of aromatic clusters compared to the bulk film. Thick oxide layers grown at 300 °C showed a run-in friction behavior that resembled the friction of graphite. The run-in periods were found to become longer when the thickness of the oxide layers increased, indicating that the run-in behavior of H-DLC is attributed to the removal of the surface oxide layers.

  17. Preferential cell attachment to nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) for the measurement of quantal exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Atanu; Barizuddin, Syed; Hossain, Maruf; Polo-Parada, Luis; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical measurement of transmitter or hormone release from individual cells on microchips has applications both in basic science and drug screening. High-resolution measurement of quantal exocytosis requires the working electrode to be small (cell-sized) and located in immediate proximity to the cell. We examined the ability of candidate electrode materials to promote the attachment of two hormone-secreting cell types as a mechanism for targeting cells for to recording electrodes with high precision. We found that nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) promoted cell attachment relative to other materials tested in the rank order of DLC:N > In2O3/SnO2 (ITO), Pt > Au. In addition, we found that treating candidate electrode materials with polylysine did not increase attachment of chromaffin cells to DLC:N, but promoted cell attachment to the other tested materials. We found that hormone-secreting cells did not attach readily to Teflon AF as a potential insulating material, and demonstrated that patterning of Teflon AF leads to selective cell targeting to DLC:N “docking sites”. These results will guide the design of the next generation of biochips for automated and high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis. PMID:19124153

  18. Comparative surface and nano-tribological characteristics of nanocomposite diamond-like carbon thin films doped by silver

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han-Shen; Endrino, Jose L.; Anders, Andre

    2008-07-10

    In this study we have deposited silver-containing hydrogenated and hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite thin films by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition methods. The surface and nano-tribological characteristics were studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nano-scratching experiments. The silver doping was found to have no measurable effect on sp2-sp3 hybridization of the hydrogenated DLC matrix and only a slight effect on the hydrogen-free DLC matrix. The surface topography was analyzed by surface imaging. High- and low-order roughness determined by AFM characterization was correlated to the DLC growth mechanism and revealed the smoothing effect of silver. The nano-tribological characteristics were explained in terms of friction mechanisms and mechanical properties in correlation to the surface characteristics. It was discovered that the adhesion friction was the dominant friction mechanism; the adhesion force between the scratching tip and DLC surface was decreased by hydrogenation and increased by silver doping.

  19. Mechanical and tribological characterization of tetrahedral diamond-like carbon deposited by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition on pre-treated orthopaedic biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loir, A.-S.; Garrelie, F.; Donnet, C.; Subtil, J.-L.; Belin, M.; Forest, B.; Rogemond, F.; Laporte, P.

    2005-07-01

    Femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (PLD) has been performed using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser including an amplification stage (150 fs, 800 nm, 1 kHz) to deposit tetrahedral-amorphous carbon films (ta-C) on AISI 316L stainless steel and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, in perspective to extend the wear resistance of materials used in hip joints. Ta-C films have been elaborated in high vacuum conditions at room temperature. The diamond-like coated silicon substrates exhibit high wear resistance (in the 10 -8-10 -9 mm 3 (N m) -1 range) with moderate hardness (in the 20-30 GPa range), which may be favorable for the accommodation motion between contacting surfaces in a hip joint. In situ sputter cleaning of the orthopaedic substrates in argon plasma prior to carbon deposition has been investigated, leading to the enhancement of the adhesion of the films onto the stainless steel substrates. The adhesion properties of films deposited in various conditions on metallic substrates have been studied by tensile tests. The tribological behavior of the coatings deposited on cleaned substrates have been widely investigated in a pin-on-flat configuration in ambient air and Ringer solution. Finally, a DLC thin film with an homogeneous thickness has been deposited on hemispherical surface of 22.2 mm in diameter of a stainless steel femoral head of a hip prosthesis, whose wear behavior will be quantified using a hip joint simulator during one million of cycles (corresponding to the human activity during one year).

  20. Mechanical properties and platelet adhesion behavior of diamond-like carbon films synthesized by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. X.; Chen, J. Y.; Yang, P.; Sun, H.; Wan, G. J.; Huang, N.

    2003-05-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is an attractive biomedical material due to its high inertness and excellent mechanical properties. In this study, DLC films were fabricated on Ti6Al4V and Si(1 0 0) substrates at room temperature by pulsed vacuum arc plasma deposition. By changing the argon flow from 0 to 13 sccm during deposition, the effects of argon flow on the characteristics of the DLC films were systematically examined to correlate to the blood compatibility. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the films were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analysis, a nano-indenter and pin-on-disk tribometer. The blood compatibility of the films was evaluated using in vitro platelet adhesion investigation, and the quantity and morphology of the adherent platelets was investigated employing optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The Raman spectroscopy results showed a decreasing sp 3 fraction (an increasing trend in ID/ IG ratio) with increasing argon flow from 0 to 13 sccm. The sp 3:sp 2 ratio of the films was evaluated from the deconvoluted XPS spectra. We found that the sp 3 fraction decreased as the argon flow was increased from 0 to 13 sccm, which is consistent with the results of the Raman spectra. The mechanical properties results confirmed the decreasing sp 3 content with increasing argon flow. The Raman D-band to G-band intensity ratio increased and the platelet adhesion behavior became better with higher flow. This implies that the blood compatibility of the DLC films is influenced by the sp 3:sp 2 ratio. DLC films deposited on titanium alloys have high wear resistance, low friction and good adhesion.

  1. Improvement in the degradation resistance of silicon nanostructures by the deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect

    Klyui, N. I. Semenenko, M. A.; Khatsevich, I. M.; Makarov, A. V.; Kabaldin, A. N.; Fomovskii, F. V.; Han, Wei

    2015-08-15

    It is established that the deposition of a diamond-like film onto a structure with silicon nanoclusters in a silicon dioxide matrix yields an increase in the long-wavelength photoluminescence intensity of silicon nanoclusters due to the passivation of active-recombination centers with hydrogen and a shift of the photoluminescence peak to the region of higher photosensitivity of silicon-based solar cells. It is also shown that, due to the deposited diamond-like film, the resistance of such a structure to degradation upon exposure to γ radiation is improved, which is also defined by the effect of the passivation of radiation-induced activerecombination centers by hydrogen that is released from the films during treatment.

  2. Synergism between low-energy neutral particles and energetic ions in the pulsed glow discharge deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev-Charkin, I. V.; Nastasi, M.

    2004-08-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were deposited using pulsed glow discharge deposition at 4kV. The duty factor was varied and all other parameters were kept constant. It was shown that the contribution of neutral particles to the total number of deposition atoms is much larger than that of energetic ions. At the same time, there is a relationship between the deposition of neutral particles and ion bombardment. The sticking coefficient of the neutral particles in proportional to the flux of energetic ions and does not exceed 5×10-4 for the deposition parameters used in our experiment.

  3. Structures of diamond-like phases

    SciTech Connect

    Greshnyakov, V. A.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2011-07-15

    The diamond-like phases containing carbon atoms with the same degree of hybridization, which is close to sp{sup 3}, are classified. It is found that twenty such phases can exist, and ten of them are described for the first time. Molecular mechanics and semi-empirical quantum-mechanical methods are used to calculate the geometrically optimized structures of diamond-like phase clusters and to determine their structural parameters and properties, such as the density, the bulk modulus, and the sublimation energy. The difference between the properties of the diamond-like phases and those of diamond is found to be determined by the difference between the structures of these phases and diamond.

  4. Gold nanoparticle formation in diamond-like carbon using two different methods: Gold ion implantation and co-deposition of gold and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Cattani, M.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2012-10-01

    We describe work in which gold nanoparticles were formed in diamond-like carbon (DLC), thereby generating a Au-DLC nanocomposite. A high-quality, hydrogen-free DLC thin film was formed by filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition, into which gold nanoparticles were introduced using two different methods. The first method was gold ion implantation into the DLC film at a number of decreasing ion energies, distributing the gold over a controllable depth range within the DLC. The second method was co-deposition of gold and carbon, using two separate vacuum arc plasma guns with suitably interleaved repetitive pulsing. Transmission electron microscope images show that the size of the gold nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation is 3-5 nm. For the Au-DLC composite obtained by co-deposition, there were two different nanoparticle sizes, most about 2 nm with some 6-7 nm. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the implanted sample contains a smaller fraction of sp{sup 3} bonding for the DLC, demonstrating that some sp{sup 3} bonds are destroyed by the gold implantation.

  5. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process. PMID:25691097

  6. SERS activity of Ag decorated nanodiamond and nano-β-SiC, diamond-like-carbon and thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kuntumalla, Mohan Kumar; Srikanth, Vadali Venkata Satya Siva; Ravulapalli, Satyavathi; Gangadharini, Upender; Ojha, Harish; Desai, Narayana Rao; Bansal, Chandrahas

    2015-09-01

    In the recent past surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based bio-sensing has gained prominence owing to the simplicity and efficiency of the SERS technique. Dedicated and continuous research efforts have been made to develop SERS substrates that are not only stable, durable and reproducible but also facilitate real-time bio-sensing. In this context diamond, β-SiC and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) and other related thin films have been promoted as excellent candidates for bio-technological applications including real time bio-sensing. In this work, SERS activities of nanodiamond, nano-β-SiC, DLC, thermally annealed diamond thin film surfaces were examined. DLC and thermally annealed diamond thin films were found to show SERS activity without any metal nanostructures on their surfaces. The observed SERS activities of the considered surfaces are explained in terms of the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism and charge transfer resonance process.

  7. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A J; Tielens, A G G M; Ruth, A A

    2016-07-14

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles' spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp(3)/sp(2) hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ. PMID:27421401

  8. Thickness Effects of TiC Interlayer on Tribological Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering Method.

    PubMed

    Park, Chulmin; Lee, Jaehyeong; Park, Yong Seob

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared with TiC interlayer of various thicknesses as the adhesive layer. DLC and TiC thin films were prepared using unbalanced magnetron (UBM) sputtering method using graphite and titanium as targets. TiC films as the interlayer were deposited under DLC films and various physical, tribological, and structural properties of the films fabricated with various TiC interlayer thicknesses were investigated. With various TiC interlayer thicknesses under DLC films, the tribological properties of films were improved with increasing thickness and the DLC/TiC layer fabricated by unbalanced magnetron sputtering method are exhibited maximum high hardness over 27 GPa and high elastic modulus over 242 GPa, and a smooth surface below 0.09 nm.

  9. Diamond-like-carbon nanoparticle production and agglomeration following UV multi-photon excitation of static naphthalene/helium gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, A. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ruth, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We report the formation of nanoparticles with significant diamond character after UV multi-photon laser excitation of gaseous naphthalene, buffered in static helium gas, at room temperature. The nanoparticles are identified in situ by their absorption and scattering spectra between 400 and 850 nm, which are modeled using Mie theory. Comparisons of the particles' spectroscopic and optical properties with those of carbonaceous materials indicate a sp3/sp2 hybridization ratio of 8:1 of the particles formed. The particle extinction in the closed static (unstirred) gas-phase system exhibits a complex and quasi-oscillatory time dependence for the duration of up to several hours with periods ranging from seconds to many minutes. The extinction dynamics of the system is based on a combination of transport features and particle interaction, predominantly agglomeration. The relatively long period of agglomeration allows for a unique analysis of the agglomeration process of diamond-like carbon nanoparticles in situ.

  10. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Franck; Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-09-01

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 °C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp3 fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp2 clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  11. Hemocompatibility of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon prepared by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sunny C H; Yang, Ping; Wang, Jin; Liu, Xuanyong; Chu, Paul K

    2004-07-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) has been shown to be a potential material in biomedical devices such as artificial heart valves, bone implants, and so on because of its chemical inertness, low coefficient of friction, high wear resistance, and good biocompatibility. However, the biomedical characteristics such as blood compatibility of doped hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) have not been investigated in details. We recently began to investigate the potential use of nitrogen-doped, hydrogen-free DLC in artificial heart valves. In our experiments, a series of hydrogen-free DLC films doped with nitrogen were synthesized by plasma immersion ion implantation-deposition (PIII-D) utilizing a pulsed vacuum arc plasma source and different N to Ar (FN/FAr) gas mixtures in the plasma chamber. The structures and properties of the film were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). To assess the blood compatibility of the films and the impact on the blood compatibility by the presence of nitrogen, platelet adhesion tests were conducted. Our results indicate that the blood compatibility of both hydrogen-free carbon films (a-C) and amorphous carbon nitride films are better than that of low-temperature isotropic pyrolytic carbon (LTIC). The experimental results are consistent with the relative theory of interfacial energy and surface tension including both dispersion and polar components. Our results also indicate that an optimal fraction of sp2 bonding is desirable, but an excessively high nitrogen concentration degrades the properties to an extent that the biocompatibility can be worse than that of LTIC.

  12. Characteristics of diamond-like carbon film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J. H.; Chen, M. H.; Tsai, W. F.; Lee, S. C.; Ai, C. F.

    2007-04-01

    This study examines the characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film synthesized on AISI 304 austenite stainless steel by means of a hybrid process of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) maintained at 60 °C. The former and latter processes under investigation were carried out using methane (0-20 kV) and acetylene (1-2 kV, 0.13-0.40 Pa) plasmas, respectively. Glow discharge spectrometry (GDS), Raman scattering spectroscopy (RSS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), a nano-indentation probe (NIP) and a Rockwell-C hardness tester were employed to characterize, respectively, elemental depth profiles, sp3-to-sp2 ratio, surface morphology, hardness and adhesion strength of the DLC specimen. The results revealed that the mixing layer at the interface generated by plasma immersion ion implantation of methane at a higher voltage could enhance adhesive strength of the DLC film to the substrate. Furthermore, a higher sp3-to-sp2 ratio, a smoother surface, greater hardness, but weaker adhesion strength were obtained for the DLC film synthesized using plasma immersion ion deposition of acetylene at a lower bias voltage or higher gas pressure.

  13. 13.56 MHz radio frequency plasma properties on hemispheric electrodes and diamond-like carbon films deposition on three-dimensional polyurethane diaphragms

    SciTech Connect

    Ohgoe, Yasuharu; Hirakuri, Kenji K.

    2004-09-01

    The characteristics of the radio frequency (rf) plasma that could hold an entire hemispheric polyurethane diaphragm generated using the hemispheric-type electrode were investigated. The plasma states were measured using Langmuir probe. Although the common rf plasma chemical vapor deposition technique using planar electrodes makes it difficult to apply uniform plasma to three-dimensional structures, the hemispheric-type electrode process could uniformly hold a hemispheric polyurethane diaphragm at self-bias voltage. As a result, this process could uniformly keep the ion sheath on the diaphragm. In case of using this process for diamond-like carbon (DLC) film deposition, the DLC film was deposited uniformly on the diaphragm at approximately 300 nm. Besides electron temperatures and electron number of densities were similar to the behavior of common rf plasma. This means that the characteristics of plasma are kept in the same states even if the plasma form is controlled using such a hemispheric-type electrode. Based on these results, this hemispheric-type electrode process was observed to be quite applicable to three-dimensional insulator structures.

  14. Patterning of diamond like carbon films for sensor applications using silicon containing thermoplastic resist (SiPol) as a hard mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virganavičius, D.; Cadarso, V. J.; Kirchner, R.; Stankevičius, L.; Tamulevičius, T.; Tamulevičius, S.; Schift, H.

    2016-11-01

    Patterning of diamond-like carbon (DLC) and DLC:metal nanocomposites is of interest for an increasing number of applications. We demonstrate a nanoimprint lithography process based on silicon containing thermoplastic resist combined with plasma etching for straightforward patterning of such films. A variety of different structures with few hundred nanometer feature size and moderate aspect ratios were successfully realized. The quality of produced patterns was directly investigated by the means of optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Such structures were further assessed by employing them in the development of gratings for guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. Optical characterization of such leaky waveguide was compared with numerical simulations based on rigorous coupled wave analysis method with good agreement. The use of such structures as refractive index variation sensors is demonstrated with sensitivity up to 319 nm/RIU, achieving an improvement close to 450% in sensitivity compared to previously reported similar sensors. This pronounced GMR signal fully validates the employed DLC material, the technology to pattern it and the possibility to develop DLC based gratings as corrosion and wear resistant refractometry sensors that are able to operate under harsh conditions providing great value and versatility.

  15. Fate of methanol molecule sandwiched between hydrogen-terminated diamond-like carbon films by tribochemical reactions: tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kentaro; Sato, Seiichiro; Bai, Shandan; Higuchi, Yuji; Ozawa, Nobuki; Shimazaki, Tomomi; Adachi, Koshi; Martin, Jean-Michel; Kubo, Momoji

    2012-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to diamond-like carbon (DLC) as a solid-state lubricant, because it exhibits high resistance to wear, low friction and low abrasion. Experimentally it is reported that gas environments are very important for improving the tribological characteristics of DLC films. Recently one of the authors in the present paper, J.-M. Martin, experimentally observed that the low friction of DLC films is realized under alcohol environments. In the present paper, we aim to clarify the low-friction mechanism of the DLC films under methanol environments by using our tight-binding quantum chemical molecular dynamics method. We constructed the simulation model in which one methanol molecule is sandwiched between two hydrogen-terminated DLC films. Then, we performed sliding simulations of the DLC films. We observed the chemical reaction of the methanol molecule under sliding conditions. The methanol molecule decomposed and then OH-termination of the DLC was realized and the CH3 species was incorporated into the DLC film. We already reported that the OH-terminated DLC film is very effective to achieve good low-friction properties under high pressure conditions, compared to H-terminated DLC films. Here, we suggest that methanol environments are very effective to realize the OH-termination of DLC films which leads to the good low-friction properties. PMID:23285626

  16. Surface treatment of diamond-like carbon films by reactive Ar/CF4 high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Nishimura, Ryotaro; Azuma, Kingo; Nakao, Setsuo; Sonoda, Tsutomu; Kusumori, Takeshi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2015-12-01

    Surface modification of diamond-like carbon films deposited by a high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) of Ar was carried out by a HPPMS of Ar/CF4 mixture, changing a CF4 fraction from 2.5% to 20%. The hardness of the modified films markedly decreased from about 13 to about 3.5 GPa with increasing CF4 fraction, whereas the water contact angle of the modified films increased from 68° to 109° owing to the increase in the CFx content on the film surface. C 1s spectra in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that a graphitic structure of modified films was formed at CF4 fractions less than 5%, above which the modified films possessed a polymer-like structure. Influence of treatment time on the properties of the modified films was also investigated in the range of treatment time from 5 to 30 min. The properties of the modified films did not depend on the treatment time in the range of treatment time longer than 10 min, whereas the water contact angle was not sensitive to the treatment time at any treatment time.

  17. Preparation of diamond-like carbon films using reactive Ar/CH4 high power impulse magnetron sputtering system with negative pulse voltage source for substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Kamata, Hikaru

    2016-04-01

    Diamond-like carbon films were prepared using a reactive Ar/CH4 high-power impulse magnetron sputtering system with a negative pulse voltage source for the substrate, changing the CH4 fraction up to 15% in the total pressure range from 0.3 to 2 Pa. The magnitude of the negative pulse voltage for the substrate was also varied up to about 500 V. The hardness of films monotonically increased with increasing magnitude of the negative pulse voltage. The films with hardnesses between 16.5 and 23 GPa were prepared at total pressures less than 0.5 Pa and CH4 fractions less than 10% by applying an appropriate negative pulse voltage of 300-400 V. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the area ratio C-C sp3/(C-C sp2 + C-C sp3) in the C 1s core level was higher than 30% at pressures less than 0.5 Pa and CH4 fractions less than 15%. On the other hand, the films with hardnesses between 5 and 10 GPa were prepared with a relatively high growth rate at the partial pressures of CH4 higher than 0.1 Pa. However, the observation of the photoluminescence background in Raman spectroscopy indicated a relatively high hydrogen content.

  18. On The structure Of Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films Produced By Rf (13.56MHz)CH{sub 4} Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ouchabane, M.; Henda, K.; Kechouane, M.; Salah, H.; Touchrift, B.; Tabet, N.

    2008-09-23

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique is used to grow diamond-like carbon films using pure methane gas plasma. It is known that the structure of the deposited films is largely influenced by the self-bias voltage values and thereafter all the film properties are a function of the structure; this concerns hydrogen concentration and sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} hybridisation ratio in DLC films. Then monitoring DLC film properties requires the control of hydrogen concentration and hybridisation rates. This investigation is focused on the study of the structure changes upon the deposition conditions. The correlation between the structure and the deposition conditions was investigated by using various characterization techniques. Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyse the absorption of optically active hydrogen in the DLC films. The deconvolution of 2900 cm{sup -1} absorption band allows the analysis of all different hybridisations and configurations forming the structure. The total quantity of hydrogen in the film is evaluated by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). The quantification of sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} concentrations is done from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). XPS measurements show that DLC films with high quantity of sp{sup 3} hybridisation can be obtained. The discussion and interpretation of these results leads to a better understanding of the relationship between structure and deposition conditions, which, in return, helps us in synthesizing films of desired properties.

  19. On the possible role of triboplasma in friction and wear of diamond-like carbon films in hydrogen-containing environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Matta, C.; Eryilmaz, O.; Bouchet, M. I. D,; Erdemir, A.; Martin, J. M.; Nakayama, K.; Energy Systems; Lab. of Tribology and System Dynamics; Ciba Inst. of Tech.; National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology

    2009-04-07

    Hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (both amorphous (a-C) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C)) suffer high friction and severe wear losses when tested in inert and/or high vacuum environments. However, they provide anomalous superlow friction and wear coefficients in the presence of hydrogen gas, water vapor and alcohol molecules in the test environment. In this paper, we used such films in a systematic study to further confirm that hydrogen indeed plays an important role in their friction and wear behaviors. To study the effect of hydrogen, we conducted sliding tests in a hydrogen-containing test chamber and analyzed the chemistry of their sliding contact surfaces using a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer. Clearly, the sliding contact regions of the carbon films became very rich in hydrogen after tribological tests in the hydrogen-containing chamber. In an attempt to understand the fundamental tribochemical mechanisms involved, we performed additional tests on these DLC films using a highly instrumented tribometer that permitted us the visualization of triboplasmas generating at or in the vicinity of the sliding surfaces. In this test system, we confirmed the formation of a triboplasma inside the contact area of the DLC films as evidenced by the characteristic UV radiation. Based on these observations, we believe that the formation of such triboplasmas within the contact zones of these DLC films may have triggered unique tribochemical reactions between hydrogen and carbon atoms on their sliding surfaces and thus resulted in very low friction and wear during tests in hydrogen-containing environments.

  20. A Dynamic Pathway for Stone-Wales Bond Rotation on Carbon Nanotubes through Diamond-Like Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chen-Yu; Srivastava, Deepak; Cho, Kyeong-Jae; Menon, Madhu

    2003-01-01

    A new lower energy barrier with a two-step pathway of Stone-Wales (SW) ,ond rotation on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is found through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of CNTs under tension. The first step involves going over to a stable sp3-like metastable configuration with half rotated and partially tilted C-C bond. The second step involves going over to the fully rotated C-C bond with the formation of a SW defect in the nanotube. The energy barrier for this two-step dynamic pathway is significantly lower than the previously known static barrier for in-plane rotation of the C-C bond on a tensile strained (> 4%) CNT.

  1. Track formation in two amorphous insulators, vitreous silica and diamond like carbon: Experimental observations and description by the inelastic thermal spike model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, C.; Pawlak, F.; Khalfaoui, N.; Dufour, C.; Perrière, J.; Laurent, A.; Stoquert, J. P.; Lebius, H.; Toulemonde, M.

    2012-02-01

    Vitreous silica thin film (a-SiO 2) and mixed deuterated and hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin film (a-C:D,H), grown or deposited, respectively, on silicon, have been irradiated at GANIL in the MeV/u energy range with ions between C and U in order to reach electronic energy loss between 0.7 and 25 keV/nm. The evolution of Si-O bonds and C-D bonds contents was determined by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Complementary physico-chemical characterization was performed for a-C:D,H using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). For a-SiO 2, the band at 1076 cm -1 decreases with the appearance of a band at 1046 cm -1. In the case of the diamond like amorphous carbon, the main effects due to MeV/u ion irradiations are the decrease of sp 3 bonding content and of deuterium relative concentration (D/C atomic ratio) as a function of fluence with the appearance of the sp 1 bond. The cylinder radii in which these physical phenomena are confined can be deduced from a statistical analysis. Using the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS) these track radii can be described using the electron-phonon mean free path which takes values equal to 3 and 0.9 nm for a-SiO 2 and a-C:D, respectively. Extrapolation to low energy range (˜1 MeV in total or ˜0.02 MeV/u) will be made.

  2. Effects of electrical conductivity of substrate materials on microstructure of diamond-like carbon films prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, S.; Sonoda, T.

    2013-03-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films are prepared by a bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation, and the structural differences between DLC films deposited on different electrical conductive substrates, i.e., conductive Si wafers and insulating glass plates are examined by Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photo emission spectroscopy (XPS). In the Raman measurements, graphite (G) and disorder (D) peaks are observed for both samples. However, the additional photo luminescence is overlapped on the spectra in the case of on-glass sample. To elucidate the structural difference, the intensity ratio of D to G peak (I(D)/I(G)), G peak position and full width at half maximum (FWHM) are obtained by curve fitting using Gaussian function and linear baseline. It is found that the I(D)/I(G) is lower, G peak position is higher and FWHM of G peak is narrower for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. According to Robertson [1], lower I(D)/I(G) seems more sp3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. In contrast, higher G peak position and narrower FWHM of G peak suggest less sp3 C-C bonding in amount for on-glass sample. The results of XPS analysis with C1s spectra reveal that sp3 ratio, i.e., the intensity ratio of sp3/(sp3+sp2) is smaller for on-glass sample than for on-Si sample. The inconsistency of the trend between I(D)/I(G) and other parameters (G peak position and FWHM of G peak) might be caused by the overlap of photo luminescence signal on Raman spectrum as to on-glass sample. From these results, it is considered that sp3 C-C bonding is reduced in amount when using insulating substrate in comparison with conductive substrate.

  3. Deposition of diamond-like films by ECR microwave plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor); Pool, Frederick S. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon, diamond-like films are deposited using an electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma with a separate radio frequency power bias applied to a substrate stage. The electron cyclotron resonance microwave plasma yields low deposition pressure and creates ion species otherwise unavailable. A magnetic mirror configuration extracts special ion species from a plasma chamber. Different levels of the radio frequency power bias accelerate the ion species of the ECR plasma impinging on a substrate to form different diamond-like films. During the deposition process, a sample stage is maintained at an ambient temperature of less than 100.degree. C. No external heating is applied to the sample stage. The deposition process enables diamond-like films to be deposited on heat-sensitive substrates.

  4. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  5. Synthesis of diamond-like phase from graphite by ultrafast laser driven dynamical compression.

    PubMed

    Maia, Francisco C B; Samad, Ricardo E; Bettini, Jefferson; Freitas, Raul O; Vieira Junior, Nilson D; Souza-Neto, Narcizo M

    2015-07-07

    Rapid variations of the environmental energy caused by ultrashort laser pulses have induced phase transitions in carbon allotropes, therefore bringing the promise of revealing new carbon phases. Here, by exposing polycrystalline graphite to 25 fs laser pulses at 4 J/cm(2) fluence under standard air atmosphere, we demonstrated the synthesis of translucent micrometer-sized structures carrying diamond-like and onion-like carbon phases. Texturized domains of the diamond phase were also identified. Concerning different synthesized carbon forms, pulse superposition and singularities of the thermodynamical process, we pinpoint the synthesis mechanism by the laser-induced subsequent products energetically evolving to attain the diamond-like phase.

  6. Microstructure and property of diamond-like carbon films with Al and Cr co-doping deposited using a hybrid beams system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei; Liu, Jingmao; Geng, Dongsen; Guo, Peng; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Qimin

    2016-12-01

    DLC films with weak carbide former Al and carbide former Cr co-doping (Al:Cr-DLC) were deposited by a hybrid beams system comprising an anode-layer linear ion beam source (LIS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering using a gas mixture of C2H2 and Ar as the precursor. The doped Al and Cr contents were controlled via adjusting the C2H2 fraction in the gas mixture. The composition, microstructure, compressive stress, mechanical properties and tribological behaviors of the Al:Cr-DLC films were researched carefully using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-plate tribometer as function of the C2H2 fraction. The results show that the Al and Cr contents in the films increased continuously as the C2H2 fraction decreased. The doped Cr atoms preferred to bond with the carbon while the Al atoms mainly existed in metallic state. Structure modulation with alternate multilayer consisted of Al-poor DLC layer and Al-rich DLC layer was found in the films. Those periodic Al-rich DLC layers can effectively release the residual stress of the films. On the other hand, the formation of the carbide component due to Cr incorporation can help to increase the film hardness. Accordingly, the residual stress of the DLC films can be reduced without sacrificing the film hardness though co-doping Al and Cr atoms. Furthermore, it was found that the periodic Al-rich layer can greatly improve the elastic resilience of the DLC films and thus decreases the film friction coefficient and wear rate significantly. However, the existence of the carbide component would cause abrasive wear and thus deteriorate the wear performance of the films.

  7. Preparation of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films using high-density pulsed plasmas of Ar/C2H2 and Ne/C2H2 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Kamata, Hikaru

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films are prepared using reactive high-density pulsed plasmas of Ar/C2H2 and Ne/C2H2 mixture in the total pressure range from 0.5 to 2 Pa. The plasmas are produced using a reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) system. A negative pulse voltage of -500 V is applied to the substrate for a period of 15 µs in the afterglow mode. The growth rate does not strongly depend on the type of ambient gas but it markedly increases to about 2.7 µm/h at a C2H2 fraction of 10% and a total pressure of 2 Pa with increasing C2H2 fraction. The marked increase in the growth rate means that the HiPIMS system can be regarded as a plasma source for the chemical vapor deposition process. The hardness of the films prepared by Ne/C2H2 plasmas is somewhat higher than that of the films prepared by Ar/C2H2 plasmas under the same operating conditions, and the difference becomes larger as the pressure increases. The hardness of the films prepared by Ne/C2H2 plasmas ranges between 11 and 18 GPa. In the Raman spectra, two very broad overlapping bands are assigned as the G (graphite) and D (disorder) bands. The peak position of the G band is roughly independent of the total pressure, whereas the FWHM of the G peak decreases with increasing total pressure as a whole.

  8. Preparation of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films using high-density pulsed plasmas of Ar/C2H2 and Ne/C2H2 mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Kamata, Hikaru

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films are prepared using reactive high-density pulsed plasmas of Ar/C2H2 and Ne/C2H2 mixture in the total pressure range from 0.5 to 2 Pa. The plasmas are produced using a reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) system. A negative pulse voltage of ‑500 V is applied to the substrate for a period of 15 µs in the afterglow mode. The growth rate does not strongly depend on the type of ambient gas but it markedly increases to about 2.7 µm/h at a C2H2 fraction of 10% and a total pressure of 2 Pa with increasing C2H2 fraction. The marked increase in the growth rate means that the HiPIMS system can be regarded as a plasma source for the chemical vapor deposition process. The hardness of the films prepared by Ne/C2H2 plasmas is somewhat higher than that of the films prepared by Ar/C2H2 plasmas under the same operating conditions, and the difference becomes larger as the pressure increases. The hardness of the films prepared by Ne/C2H2 plasmas ranges between 11 and 18 GPa. In the Raman spectra, two very broad overlapping bands are assigned as the G (graphite) and D (disorder) bands. The peak position of the G band is roughly independent of the total pressure, whereas the FWHM of the G peak decreases with increasing total pressure as a whole.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of carbon-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhshi, Hamed; Shokuhfar, Ali; Vahdati, Nima

    2016-09-01

    Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CFNPs) were prepared via a reverse micelle method. The CFNPs were subsequently coated with carbon shells by means of thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD). In this process, acetylene gas (C2H2) was used as a carbon source and the coating was carried out for 1, 2, or 3 h at 750°C. The Ar/C2H2 ratio was 10:1. Heating during the TCVD process resulted in a NP core size that approached 30 nm; the thickness of the shell was less than 10 nm. The composition, structure, and morphology of the fabricated composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, simultaneous thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and selected-area diffraction. A vibrating sample magnetometer was used to survey the samples' magnetic properties. The deposited carbon shell substantially affected the growth and magnetic properties of the CFNPs. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to study the carbon coating and revealed that the deposited carbon comprised graphite, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and diamond- like carbon. With an increase in coating time, the intensity ratio between the amorphous and ordered peaks in the Raman spectra decreased, which indicated an increase in crystallite size.

  10. Process for the formation of wear- and scuff-resistant carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    Malaczynski, Gerard W.; Qiu, Xiaohong; Mantese, Joseph V.; Elmoursi, Alaa A.; Hamdi, Aboud H.; Wood, Blake P.; Walter, Kevin C.; Nastasi, Michael A.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming an adherent diamond-like carbon coating on a workpiece of suitable material such as an aluminum alloy is disclosed. The workpiece is successively immersed in different plasma atmospheres and subjected to short duration, high voltage, negative electrical potential pulses or constant negative electrical potentials or the like so as to clean the surface of oxygen atoms, implant carbon atoms into the surface of the alloy to form carbide compounds while codepositing a carbonaceous layer on the surface, bombard and remove the carbonaceous layer, and to thereafter deposit a generally amorphous hydrogen-containing carbon layer on the surface of the article.

  11. Synthesis of diamond-like phase from graphite by ultrafast laser driven dynamical compression

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Francisco C. B.; Samad, Ricardo E.; Bettini, Jefferson; Freitas, Raul O.; Vieira Junior, Nilson D.; Souza-Neto, Narcizo M.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid variations of the environmental energy caused by ultrashort laser pulses have induced phase transitions in carbon allotropes, therefore bringing the promise of revealing new carbon phases. Here, by exposing polycrystalline graphite to 25 fs laser pulses at 4 J/cm2 fluence under standard air atmosphere, we demonstrated the synthesis of translucent micrometer-sized structures carrying diamond-like and onion-like carbon phases. Texturized domains of the diamond phase were also identified. Concerning different synthesized carbon forms, pulse superposition and singularities of the thermodynamical process, we pinpoint the synthesis mechanism by the laser-induced subsequent products energetically evolving to attain the diamond-like phase. PMID:26149413

  12. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  13. Ion beam sputter deposited diamond like films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A.; Rutledge, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    A single argon ion beam source was used to sputter deposit carbon films on fused silica, copper, and tantalum substrates under conditions of sputter deposition alone and sputter deposition combined with simultaneous argon ion bombardment. Simultaneously deposited and ion bombarded carbon films were prepared under conditions of carbon atom removal to arrival ratios of 0, 0.036, and 0.71. Deposition and etch rates were measured for films on fused silica substrates. Resulting characteristics of the deposited films are: electrical resistivity of densities of 2.1 gm/cu cm for sputter deposited films and 2.2 gm/cu cm for simultaneously sputter deposited and Ar ion bombarded films. For films approximately 1700 A thick deposited by either process and at 5550 A wavelength light the reflectance was 0.2, the absorptance was 0.7, the absorption coefficient was 67,000 cm to the -1 and the transmittance was 0.1.

  14. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    A continuous powder coating system was developed for coating carbon fiber with LaRC-TPI (Langley Research Center-Thermoplastic Polyimide), a high-temperature thermoplastic polymide invented by NASA-Langley. The coating line developed used a pneumatic fiber spreader to separate the individual fibers. The polymer was applied within a recirculating powder coating chamber then melted using a combination of direct electrical resistance and convective heating to make it adhere to the fiber tow. The tension and speed of the line were controlled with a dancer arm and an electrically driven fiber wind-up and wind-off. The effects of heating during the coating process on the flexibility of the prepreg produced were investigated. The uniformity with which the fiber tow could be coated with polymer also was examined. Composite specimens were fabricated from the prepreg and tested to determine optimum process conditions. The study showed that a very uniform and flexible prepeg with up to 50 percent by volume polymer could be produced with this powder coating system. The coating line minimized powder loss and produced prepeg in lengths of up to 300 m. The fiber spreading was found to have a major effect on the coating uniformity and flexibility. Though test results showed low composite tensile strengths, analysis of fracture surfaces under scanning electron microscope indicated that fiber/matrix adhesion was adequate.

  15. Coating Carbon Fibers With Platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Duncan, Peter; Coupland, Duncan; Rigali, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    A process for coating carbon fibers with platinum has been developed. The process may also be adaptable to coating carbon fibers with other noble and refractory metals, including rhenium and iridium. The coated carbon fibers would be used as ingredients of matrix/fiber composite materials that would resist oxidation at high temperatures. The metal coats would contribute to oxidation resistance by keeping atmospheric oxygen away from fibers when cracks form in the matrices. Other processes that have been used to coat carbon fibers with metals have significant disadvantages: Metal-vapor deposition processes yield coats that are nonuniform along both the lengths and the circumferences of the fibers. The electrical resistivities of carbon fibers are too high to be compatible with electrolytic processes. Metal/organic vapor deposition entails the use of expensive starting materials, it may be necessary to use a furnace, and the starting materials and/or materials generated in the process may be hazardous. The present process does not have these disadvantages. It yields uniform, nonporous coats and is relatively inexpensive. The process can be summarized as one of pretreatment followed by electroless deposition. The process consists of the following steps: The surfaces of the fiber are activated by deposition of palladium crystallites from a solution. The surface-activated fibers are immersed in a solution that contains platinum. A reducing agent is used to supply electrons to effect a chemical reduction in situ. The chemical reduction displaces the platinum from the solution. The displaced platinum becomes deposited on the fibers. Each platinum atom that has been deposited acts as a catalytic site for the deposition of another platinum atom. Hence, the deposition process can also be characterized as autocatalytic. The thickness of the deposited metal can be tailored via the duration of immersion and the chemical activity of the solution.

  16. Bacterial adherence on fluorinated carbon based coatings deposited on polyethylene surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terriza, A.; Del Prado, G.; Ortiz Pérez, A.; Martínez, M. J.; Puértolas, J. A.; Molina Manso, D.; González-Elipe, A. R.; Yubero, F.; Gómez Barrena, E.; Esteban, J.

    2010-11-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopaedic surgery. In this work we present a thorough study of several plasma based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond like carbon (DLC), fluorine doped DLC (F-DLC) and a high fluorine content carbon-fluor polymer (CFX). The study correlates the surface chemistry and hydrophobicity of the coating surfaces with their antibacterial performance. The coatings were deposited by RF-plasma assisted deposition at room temperature on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples. Fluorine content and relative amount of C-C and C-F bond types was monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and hydrophobicity by water contact angle measurements. Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis to non-coated and coated UHMWPE samples was evaluated. Comparisons of the adherence performance were evaluated using a paired t test (two materials) and a Kruskall Wallis test (all the materials). S. aureus was statistically significant (p< 0.001) less adherent to DLC and F -DLC surfaces than S. epidermidis. Both bacteria showed reduction of adherence on DLC/UHMWPE. For S. aureus, reduction of bacterial adherence on F-DLC/UHMWPE was statistically significant respect to all other materials.

  17. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Paul A.; Pochan, Paul D.; Siegal, Michael P.; Dominguez, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatuses for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors.

  18. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    DOEpatents

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  19. Analytical phonon dispersion relations for diamond-like structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T. T.; Kok, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of diamond-like crystal structures are studied by using a Born-von Karman model with interatomic interactions up to and including second neighbours. Analytical expressions for dispersion relations in the principal symmetry directions are derived. The force constants of grey tin are determined by an optimization procedure using the dispersion data in the [00k], [kk0] and [kkk] directions. The dispersion curves calculated with a two-neighbour six-parameter Born-von Karman model give a reasonable fit to the dispersion data in the principal symmetry directions.

  20. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  1. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2006-12-12

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  2. Two-site diamond-like point defects as new single-photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodrog, Zoltán; Gali, Adam

    2014-09-01

    In this small review, we recall two promising candidates for biomarker nanosystems, in which a two-site defect embedded in a diamond-like lattice makes a single-photon source. The two candidates are the silicon-vacancy defect in diamond, and the carbon antisite-vacancy pair in 4H silicon carbide. These defects, which by symmetry resemble to the famous nitrogen-vacancy defect in diamond, bear an exact or nearly exact C3v symmetry, giving them selection rules which lead their important magnetooptical properties. The embedding diamond-like crystal lattice not only determines the symmetry of two-site defects, but also ensure a nontoxic vehicle on which they reside; a definitive requirement against biomarker nanosystems. In the silicon-vacancy case, the size of the biomarker system is also an important feature. Nanoparticles of the embedding crystal do not exceed the size of molecular clusters, in order to be able to aid measuring all types of relevant biomolecular processes.

  3. Highly wear-resistant and biocompatible carbon nanocomposite coatings for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Pukha, Vladimir E; Starikova, Svetlana L; Khadem, Mahdi; Starikov, Vadym V; Maleev, Maxim V; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon coatings are increasingly used as wear-protective coatings for dental implants, artificial joints, etc. Despite their advantages, they may have several weak points such as high internal stress, poor adhesive properties or high sensitivity to ambient conditions. These weak points could be overcome in the case of a new carbon nanocomposite coating (CNC) deposited by using a C60 ion beam on a Co/Cr alloy. The structure of the coatings was investigated by Raman and XPS spectroscopy. The wear resistance was assessed by using a reciprocating tribotester under the loads up to 0.4 N in both dry and wet sliding conditions. Biocompatibility of the dental implants was tested in vivo on rabbits. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical durability of the CNC deposited on a Co/Cr alloy were investigated and compared with those of bulk Co/Cr and Ti alloys. The wear resistance of the CNC was found to be 250-650 fold higher compared to the Co/Cr and Ti alloys. Also, the CNC demonstrated much better biological properties with respect to formation of new tissues and absence of negative morphological parameters such as necrosis and demineralization. Development of the CNC is expected to aid in significant improvement of lifetime and quality of implants for dental applications.

  4. Highly wear-resistant and biocompatible carbon nanocomposite coatings for dental implants.

    PubMed

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Pukha, Vladimir E; Starikova, Svetlana L; Khadem, Mahdi; Starikov, Vadym V; Maleev, Maxim V; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-09-01

    Diamond-like carbon coatings are increasingly used as wear-protective coatings for dental implants, artificial joints, etc. Despite their advantages, they may have several weak points such as high internal stress, poor adhesive properties or high sensitivity to ambient conditions. These weak points could be overcome in the case of a new carbon nanocomposite coating (CNC) deposited by using a C60 ion beam on a Co/Cr alloy. The structure of the coatings was investigated by Raman and XPS spectroscopy. The wear resistance was assessed by using a reciprocating tribotester under the loads up to 0.4 N in both dry and wet sliding conditions. Biocompatibility of the dental implants was tested in vivo on rabbits. Biocompatibility, bioactivity and mechanical durability of the CNC deposited on a Co/Cr alloy were investigated and compared with those of bulk Co/Cr and Ti alloys. The wear resistance of the CNC was found to be 250-650 fold higher compared to the Co/Cr and Ti alloys. Also, the CNC demonstrated much better biological properties with respect to formation of new tissues and absence of negative morphological parameters such as necrosis and demineralization. Development of the CNC is expected to aid in significant improvement of lifetime and quality of implants for dental applications. PMID:27336185

  5. Field emission properties of porous diamond-like films produced by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammana, V. P.; Santos, T. E. A.; Mammana, A. P.; Baranauskas, V.; Ceragioli, Helder J.; Peterlevitz, A. C.

    2002-10-01

    The field emission properties of "porous diamond-like" carbon structures have been characterized. A hot filament chemical vapor deposition system fed with ethyl alcohol vapor diluted in helium was used to deposit the samples. Morphological analysis by field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that they had a highly porous structure, which was attributed to the modification of the kinetics of the carbon deposition process due to the presence of helium as a buffer gas. Micro-Raman spectroscopy showed two peaks in the graphene and microcrystalline graphite frequencies and a new peak at 1620 cm-1. Low threshold fields (Et) and hysteresis in the current versus voltage characteristic have been observed, and a model to explain the hysteresis is proposed.

  6. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  7. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  8. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  9. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-05-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm.

  10. Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali; Stenberg, Petri; Karvonen, Lasse; Ali, Rizwan; Honkanen, Seppo; Lipsanen, Harri; Peyghambarian, N.; Kuittinen, Markku; Svirko, Yuri; Kaplas, Tommi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon is the most well-known black material in the history of man. Throughout the centuries, carbon has been used as a black material for paintings, camouflage, and optics. Although, the techniques to make other black surfaces have evolved and become more sophisticated with time, carbon still remains one of the best black materials. Another well-known black surface is black silicon, reflecting less than 0.5% of incident light in visible spectral range but becomes a highly reflecting surface in wavelengths above 1000 nm. On the other hand, carbon absorbs at those and longer wavelengths. Thus, it is possible to combine black silicon with carbon to create an artificial material with very low reflectivity over a wide spectral range. Here we report our results on coating conformally black silicon substrate with amorphous pyrolytic carbon. We present a superior black surface with reflectance of light less than 0.5% in the spectral range of 350 nm to 2000 nm. PMID:27174890

  11. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  12. Carbon nanotube coatings as chemical absorbers

    DOEpatents

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Andresen, Brian D.; Alcaraz, Armando

    2004-06-15

    Airborne or aqueous organic compound collection using carbon nanotubes. Exposure of carbon nanotube-coated disks to controlled atmospheres of chemical warefare (CW)-related compounds provide superior extraction and retention efficiencies compared to commercially available airborne organic compound collectors. For example, the carbon nanotube-coated collectors were four (4) times more efficient toward concentrating dimethylmethyl-phosphonate (DMMP), a CW surrogate, than Carboxen, the optimized carbonized polymer for CW-related vapor collections. In addition to DMMP, the carbon nanotube-coated material possesses high collection efficiencies for the CW-related compounds diisopropylaminoethanol (DIEA), and diisopropylmethylphosphonate (DIMP).

  13. Wetting and spreading of long-chain ZDOL polymer nanodroplet on graphene-coated amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorkin, V.; Zhang, Y. W.

    2014-12-01

    Wetting transparency/translucency/opacity of graphene recently has attracted great interest. The underlying mechanisms and physics for simple liquid droplets containing small molecules on graphene coated crystalline substrates have been studied extensively. However, the behavior of more complicated polymeric droplets on graphene coated amorphous substrates has not been explored. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to examine the wetting of long-chain ZDOL polymeric droplet on graphene coated amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon or DLCH. We find that at room temperature, the droplet adopts a nearly spherical cap shape with no protruding foot on bare DLCH, and a complex multi-layered structure is formed at the droplet-substrate interface. With addition of graphene layers, externally, the height of the droplet decreases and the protruding foot at the droplet edge appears and grows in size; while internally, the complex multi-layered structure near the droplet-substrate interface remains, but the density distribution for the formed layers becomes increasingly non-uniform. A steady state of the droplet is attained when the number of graphene layers reaches three. These changes can be explained by the interactions between the droplet and substrate across the number of graphene layers. Therefore, it is concluded that the graphene monolayer and bilayer are translucent, while trilayer and above are opaque from the wetting point of view.

  14. Silver-doped nanocomposite carbon coatings (Ag-DLC) for biomedical applications - Physiochemical and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociaga, Dorota; Komorowski, Piotr; Batory, Damian; Szymanski, Witold; Olejnik, Anna; Jastrzebski, Krzysztof; Jakubowski, Witold

    2015-11-01

    The formation of bacteria biofilm on the surface of medical products is a major clinical issue nowadays. Highly adaptive ability of bacteria to colonize the surface of biomaterials causes a lot of infections. This study evaluates samples of the AISI 316 LVM with special nanocomposite silver-doped (by means of ion implantation) diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating prepared by hybrid RF/MS PACVD (radio frequency/magnetron sputtering plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition) deposition technique in order to improve the physicochemical and biological properties of biomaterials and add new features such as antibacterial properties. The aim of the following work was to evaluate antimicrobial efficacy and biocompatibility of gradient a-C:H/Ti + Ag coatings in relation to the physiochemical properties of the surface and chemical composition of coating. For this purpose, samples were tested in live/dead test using two cell strains: human endothelial cells (Ea.hy926) and osteoblasts-like cells (Saos-2). For testing bactericidal activity of the coatings, an exponential growth phase of Escherichia coli strain DH5α was used as a model microorganism. Surface condition and its physicochemical properties were investigated using SEM, AFM and XPS. Examined coatings showed a uniformity of silver ions distribution in the amorphous DLC matrix, good biocompatibility in contact with mammalian cells and an increased level of bactericidal properties. What is more, considering very good mechanical parameters of these Ag including gradient a-C:H/Ti coatings, they constitute an excellent material for biomedical application in e.g. orthopedics or dentistry.

  15. Superhydrophobic conductive carbon nanotube coatings for steel.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Sunny; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2009-04-21

    We report the synthesis of superhydrophobic coatings for steel using carbon nanotube (CNT)-mesh structures. The CNT coating maintains its structural integrity and superhydrophobicity even after exposure to extreme thermal stresses and has excellent thermal and electrical properties. The coating can also be reinforced by optimally impregnating the CNT-mesh structure with cross-linked polymers without significantly compromising on superhydrophobicity and electrical conductivity. These superhydrophobic conductive coatings on steel, which is an important structural material, open up possibilities for many new applications in the areas of heat transfer, solar panels, transport of fluids, nonwetting and nonfouling surfaces, temperature resilient coatings, composites, water-walking robots, and naval applications. PMID:19281157

  16. Pyrolytic carbon-coated nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Lindemer, Terrence B.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Beatty, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    An improved nuclear fuel kernel having at least one pyrolytic carbon coating and a silicon carbon layer is provided in which extensive interaction of fission product lanthanides with the silicon carbon layer is avoided by providing sufficient UO.sub.2 to maintain the lanthanides as oxides during in-reactor use of said fuel.

  17. Development of improved coating for advanced carbon-carbon components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaki, Y. R.; Brown, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction sintered silicon nitride (RSSN) was studied as a substitute coating material on the carbon-carbon material (RCC) presently used as a heat shield on the space shuttle, and on advanced carbon-carbon (ACC), a later development. On RCC, RSSN showed potential in a 538 C (1000 F) screening test in which silicon carbide coated material exhibits its highest oxidation rate; RSSN afforded less protection to ACC because of a larger thermal expansion mismatch. Organosilicon densification and metallic silicon sealing methods were studied as means of further increasing the oxidation resistance of the coating, and some improvement was noted when these methods were employed.

  18. Process to minimize cracking of pyrolytic carbon coatings

    DOEpatents

    Lackey, Jr., Walter J.; Sease, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Carbon-coated microspheroids useful as fuels in nuclear reactors are produced with a low percentage of cracked coatings and are imparted increased strength and mechanical stability characteristics by annealing immediately after the carbon coating processes.

  19. Tests Of Protective Coats For Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes laboratory and field tests of candidate paints (primers, tie coats, and topcoats) for use in protecting carbon-steel structures against corrosion in seaside environment at Kennedy Space Center. Coating materials selected because of utility in preventing corrosion, also on basis of legal requirements, imposed in several urban areas, for reduction of volatile organic contents.

  20. 3D Copper Tetrathiafulvalene Redox-Active Network with 8-Fold Interpenetrating Diamond-like Topology.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhong-Nan; Li, Yan-Hong; Sun, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ting; Xu, Jing; Zhu, Qin-Yu; Dai, Jie

    2016-09-19

    A tetrathiafulvalene derivative has been incorporated into a diamond-like structure for the first time. The coordination network shows highly unusual 8-fold interpenetration with redox-active and photoelectric properties. PMID:27603504

  1. Apparatus for producing carbon-coated nanoparticles and carbon nanospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C.; Phillips, Jonathan

    2015-10-20

    An apparatus for producing carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising a container for entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing an inlet for carbon-containing gas, providing an inlet for plasma gas, a proximate torch for mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and providing a collection device for gathering the resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles. Also disclosed is a method and apparatus for making hollow carbon nano- or micro-scale spheres.

  2. Ultra-high vacuum cryotribology of diamond and diamond-like films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggleton, Matthew; Taborek, P.

    2008-03-01

    We have used a sliding block tribometer (described in J.C. Burton, P. Taborek, and J.E. Rutledge, TRIBOLOGY LETTERS 23, 131, 2006) to measure the temperature dependence of the kinetic friction coefficient of single crystal diamond on various types of CVD diamond films including microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, and diamond-like carbon. We have also studied various other solid and fluid lubricants. These measurements have been performed in ultra-high vacuum and at temperatures ranging from 6 to 300 Kelvin. Although microcrystalline diamond has a low friction coefficient in air; in vacuum, the friction coefficient rises to approximately 0.7 and is independent of temperature. Nanocrystalline diamond is a much better tribological material in vacuum, particularly for T>240K. Near 240K there is a reversible transition to a higher friction state. We will discuss the correlation between the tribological properties and the material properties such as sp2/sp3 ratio, hydrogen content, and grain size. This work is supported by Extreme Friction: MURI AFOSR # FA9550-04-1-0381

  3. High-Melt Carbon-Carbon Coating for Nozzle Extensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, James

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies, Inc. (C-CAT), has developed a high-melt coating for use in nozzle extensions in next-generation spacecraft. The coating is composed primarily of carbon-carbon, a carbon-fiber and carbon-matrix composite material that has gained a spaceworthy reputation due to its ability to withstand ultrahigh temperatures. C-CAT's high-melt coating embeds hafnium carbide (HfC) and zirconium diboride (ZrB2) within the outer layers of a carbon-carbon structure. The coating demonstrated enhanced high-temperature durability and suffered no erosion during a test in NASA's Arc Jet Complex. (Test parameters: stagnation heat flux=198 BTD/sq ft-sec; pressure=.265 atm; temperature=3,100 F; four cycles totaling 28 minutes) In Phase I of the project, C-CAT successfully demonstrated large-scale manufacturability with a 40-inch cylinder representing the end of a nozzle extension and a 16-inch flanged cylinder representing the attach flange of a nozzle extension. These demonstrators were manufactured without spalling or delaminations. In Phase II, C-CAT worked with engine designers to develop a nozzle extension stub skirt interfaced with an Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10 engine. All objectives for Phase II were successfully met. Additional nonengine applications for the coating include thermal protection systems (TPS) for next-generation spacecraft and hypersonic aircraft.

  4. Gradient titanium and silver based carbon coatings deposited on AISI316L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batory, Damian; Reczulska, Malgorzata Czerniak-; Kolodziejczyk, Lukasz; Szymanski, Witold

    2013-06-01

    The constantly growing market for medical implants and devices caused mainly due to a lack of proper attention attached to the physical condition as well as extreme sports and increased elderly population creates the need of new biocompatible biomaterials with controlled bioactivity and certain useful properties. According to many literature reports, regarding the modifications of variety of different biomaterials using the surface engineering techniques and their biological and physicochemical examination results, the most promising material for great spectra of medical applications seem to be carbon layers. Another issue is the interaction between the implant material and surrounding tissue. In particular cases this interface area is directly exposed to air. Abovementioned concern occurs mainly in case of the external fixations, thus they are more vulnerable to infection. Therefore a crucial role has the inhibition of bacterial adhesion that may prevent implant-associated infections, occurrence of other numerous complications and in particular cases rejection of the implant. For this reason additional features of carbon coatings like antibacterial properties seem to be desired and justified. Silver doped diamond-like carbon coatings with different Ag concentrations were prepared by hybrid RF PACVD/MS (Radio Frequency Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition/Magnetron Sputtering) deposition technique. Physicochemical parameters like chemical composition, morphology and surface topography, hardness and adhesion were determined. Examined layers showed a uniform distribution of silver in the amorphous DLC matrix, high value of H/E ratio, good adhesion and beneficial topography which make them a perfect material for medical applications e.g. modification of implants for the external fixations.

  5. Abstract for Guide coating and evaluation techniques for Ultracold Neutron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xinjian; UCNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    UCN are produced by cold neutron flux down-scattering in a solid deuterium source in Area B of Los Alamos National Laboratory and then transported to the experimental decay volume of the UCNA experiment and to other UCN experiments through a sequence of guide tubes. These tubes are coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) films to maintain UCN polarization and maximize material potential. We will briefly review the UCNA guide system, the requirements for UCNA guides, and the pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) process we use to produce diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. There will be a discussion of some new analysis techniques for both in situ PLD coating and surface structure of the DLC film that are utilized in the UCN experiments. We will present both present and future research and development in UCN guide coating techniques and materials. UCNA Collaboration group.

  6. Test Of Protective Coatings On Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Report describes results of tests in which carbon-steel panels coated with one-or two-component solvent-based inorganic zinc primers and top-coated with inorganic topcoat or any of various organic topcoats, placed on outdoor racks at beach at Kennedy Space Center for 5 years. From time to time, slurry of Al(2)O(3) in 10-percent HCI solution applied to some of panels to simulate corrosive effect of effluent from solid-fuel rocket booster engines. Panels coated with inorganic topcoat performed much better than organic-topcoated panels.

  7. Coating for gasifiable carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, Jan (Inventor); Dowler, Warren L. (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A thin, uniform, firmly adherent coating of metal gasification catalyst is applied to a carbon-graphite fiber by first coating the fiber with a film-forming polymer containing functional moieties capable of reaction with the catalytic metal ions. Multivalent metal cations such as calcium cross-link the polymer such as a polyacrylic acid to insolubilize the film by forming catalytic metal macro-salt links between adjacent polymer chains. The coated fibers are used as reinforcement for resin composites and will gasify upon combustion without evolving conductive airborne fragments.

  8. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Drews, M. J.; Ellison, M. S.; Allen, L. E.; Mccollum, J. R.; Thomas, H. L.

    1988-01-01

    Now that quantities of prepreg were made on the thermoplastic coating line, they are being formed into both textile preform structures and directly into composite samples. The textile preforms include both woven and knitted structures which will be thermoformed into a finished part. In order to determine if the matrix resin is properly adhering to the fibers or if voids are being formed in the coating process, the tensile strength and modulus of these samples will be tested. The matrix uniformity of matrix distribution in these samples is also being determined using an image analyzer.

  9. Conductive Carbon Coatings for Electrode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M.; Kostecki, Robert; Wilcox, James; Lau, Grace

    2007-07-13

    A simple method for optimizing the carbon coatings on non-conductive battery cathode material powders has been developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The enhancement of the electronic conductivity of carbon coating enables minimization of the amount of carbon in the composites, allowing improvements in battery rate capability without compromising energy density. The invention is applicable to LiFePO{sub 4} and other cathode materials used in lithium ion or lithium metal batteries for high power applications such as power tools and hybrid or plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The market for lithium ion batteries in consumer applications is currently $5 billion/year. Additionally, lithium ion battery sales for vehicular applications are projected to capture 5% of the hybrid and electric vehicle market by 2010, and 36% by 2015 (http://www.greencarcongress.com). LiFePO{sub 4} suffers from low intrinsic rate capability, which has been ascribed to the low electronic conductivity (10{sup -9} S cm{sup -1}). One of the most promising approaches to overcome this problem is the addition of conductive carbon. Co-synthesis methods are generally the most practical route for carbon coating particles. At the relatively low temperatures (<800 C) required to make LiFePO{sub 4}, however, only poorly conductive disordered carbons are produced from organic precursors. Thus, the carbon content has to be high to produce the desired enhancement in rate capability, which decreases the cathode energy density.

  10. Oxidative Attack of Carbon/Carbon Substrates through Coating Pinholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Leonhardt, Todd; Curry, Donald; Rapp, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    A critical issue with oxidation protected carbon/carbon composites used for spacecraft thermal protection is the formation of coating pinholes. In laboratory experiments, artificial pinholes were drilled through SiC-coatings on a carbon/carbon material and the material was oxidized at 600, 1000, and 1400 C at reduced pressures of air. The attack of the carbon/carbon was quantified by both weight loss and a novel cross-sectioning technique. A two-zone, one dimensional diffusion control model was adapted to analyze this problem. Agreement of the model with experiment was reasonable at 1000 and 1400 C; however results at lower temperatures show clear deviations from the theory suggesting that surface reaction control plays a role.

  11. Thermoplastic coating of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    Using a continuous powder coating process, more than 1500 meters of T 300/LaRC-TPI prepreg were produced. Two different types of heating sections in the coating line, namely electrical resistance and convection heating, were utilized. These prepregs were used to fabricate unidirectional composites. During composite fabrication the cure time of the consolidation was varied, and composites samples were produced with and without vacuum. Under these specimens, the effects of the different heating sections and of the variation of the consolidation parameters on mechanical properties and void content were investigated. The void fractions of the various composites were determined from density measurements, and the mechanical properties were measured by tensile testing, short beam shear testing and dynamic mechanical analysis.

  12. Identification of the diamond-like B-C phase by confocal Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zinin, P V; Kudryashov, I; Konishi, N; Ming, L C; Solozhenko, V L; Sharma, S K

    2005-08-01

    The new diamond-like B-C phase was obtained from the graphite-like BC phase in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at high temperature 2230+/-140 K and high pressure 45 GPa. Raman spectra of the new phase measured at ambient conditions revealed a peak at 1315 cm(-1), which was attributed to longitudinal-optical (LO) mode. The X-Y Raman mapping was used to investigate spatial distribution of the diamond-like phases and was shown to be a powerful tool in studying the sp(2)-to-sp(3) phase transformations occurring in the diamond cell under high temperature and high pressure.

  13. Functional Carbon Nanocomposite, Optoelectronic, and Catalytic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yu Teng

    Over the past couple decades, fundamental research into carbon nanomaterials has produced a steady stream of groundbreaking physical science. Their record setting mechanical strength, chemical stability, and optoelectronic performance have fueled many optimistic claims regarding the breadth and pace of carbon nanotube and graphene integration. However, present synthetic, processing, and economic constraints have precluded these materials from many practical device applications. To overcome these limitations, novel synthetic techniques, processing methodologies, device geometries, and mechanistic insight were developed in this dissertation. The resulting advancements in material production and composite device performance have brought carbon nanomaterials ever closer to commercial implementation. For improved materials processing, vacuum co-deposition was first demonstrated as viable technique for forming carbon nanocomposite films without property distorting covalent modifications. Co-deposited nanoparticle, carbon nanotube, and graphene composite films enabled rapid device prototyping and compositional optimization. Cellulosic polymer stabilizers were then shown to be highly effective carbon nanomaterial dispersants, improving graphene production yields by two orders of magnitude in common organic solvents. By exploiting polarity interactions, iterative solvent exchange was used to further increase carbon nanomaterial dispersion concentrations by an additional order of magnitude, yielding concentrated inks. On top of their low causticity, these cellulosic nanomaterial inks have highly tunable viscosities, excellent film forming capacity, and outstanding thermal stability. These processing characteristics enable the efficient scaling of carbon nanomaterial coatings and device production using existing roll-to-roll fabrication techniques. Utilizing these process improvements, high-performance gas sensing, energy storage, transparent conductor, and photocatalytic

  14. Carbon coatings on polymers and their biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubáček, T.; Siegel, J.; Khalili, R.; Slepičková-Kasálková, N.; Švorčík, V.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we modified the surface properties of polymer foils (polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) by flash evaporation of carbon layers (C-layers). Adhesion and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) on carbon coated PTFE and PET were studied in vitro. Chemical composition of deposited C-layers was determined by Raman spectroscopy, surface contact angle was measured by goniometry. Surface morphology of carbon coated samples was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical properties of deposited C-layers were determined by measuring its sheet resistance. It was found that the carbon deposition leads to a decrease of surface roughness of PTFE and PET and to a significant increase of sample wettability. Electrical resistance and wettability of deposited C-layers depends significantly on both the thickness of C-layer and the type of polymeric substrate used. It was found that maximal stimulation of the VSMC (adhesion and proliferation) on carbon coated polymers depends on the surface roughness and contact angle of cell carriers used.

  15. Electron cyclotron resonance deposition of diamond-like films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shing, Y. H.; Pool, F. S.

    1990-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) microwave plasma CVD has been developed at low pressures (0.0001 - 0.01 torr) and at ambient and high substrate temperatures (up to 750 C), to achieve large-area (greater than 4 in. diameter) depositions of diamondlike amorphous carbon (a - C:H) films. The application of a RF bias to the substrate stage, which induces a negative self-bias voltage, is found to play a critical role in determining carbon bonding configurations and in modifying the film morphology. There are two distinct types of ECR-deposited diamondlike films. One type of diamondlike film exhibits a Raman spectrum consisting of broad and overlapping, graphitic D (1360/cm, line width = 280/cm) and G (1590/cm, line width 140/cm) lines, and the other type has a broad Raman peak centered at appoximately 1500/cm. Examination of plasma species by optical emission spectroscopy shows no correlation between the CH-asterisk emission intensity and the deposition rate of diamondklike films.

  16. [Calcium-oxygen modified amorphous and nanocrystalline carbon layers as biomaterials].

    PubMed

    Dorner-Reisel, A; Schürer, C; Nischan, C; Klemm, V; Irmer, G; Müller, E

    2002-01-01

    Undoped and Ca-O-modified diamond-like carbon coatings were deposited by a direct current discharge. Hardness and Young's modulus of Ca-O-modified DLCs were reduced in comparison with the undoped DLC, but the adherence of the Ca-O-modified films is improved. Ca-O-modified DLCs have a higher fraction of nano-crystalline regions with carbon in sp2 hybridisation. In addition, an increased oxygen content and CaCO3 was identified in Ca-O-modified DLCs. While mouse fibroblasts of the type L929 attach and grow on unmodified diamond-like carbon coatings synthesized by the decomposition of hydrocarbon, the addition of CaO-H2O into the precursor gas improves the coatings biological acceptance by the cells. PMID:12451874

  17. Carbon nanotube based functional superhydrophobic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Sunny

    The main objective of this dissertation is synthesis of carbon nanotube (CNT) based superhydrophobic materials. The materials were designed such that electrical and mechanical properties of CNTs could be combined with superhydrophobicity to create materials with unique properties, such as self-cleaning adhesives, miniature flotation devices, ice-repellant coatings, and coatings for heat transfer furnaces. The coatings were divided into two broad categories based on CNT structure: Vertically aligned CNT arrays (VA coatings) and mesh-like (non-aligned) carbon nanotube arrays (NA coatings). VA coatings were used to create self-cleaning adhesives and flexible field emission devices. Coatings with self cleaning property along with high adhesiveness were inspired from structure found on gecko foot. Gecko foot is covered with thousands of microscopic hairs called setae; these setae are further divided into hundreds of nanometer sized hairs called spatulas. When gecko presses its foot against any surface, these hairs bend and conform to the topology of the surface resulting into very large area of contact. Such large area of intimate contact allows geckos to adhere to surfaces using van der Waals (vdW) interactions alone. VA-CNTs adhere to a variety of surfaces using a similar mechanism. CNTs of suitable diameter could withstand four times higher adhesion force than gecko foot. We found that upon soiling these CNT based adhesives (gecko tape) could be cleaned using a water droplet (lotus effect) or by applying vibrations. These materials could be used for applications requiring reversible adhesion. VA coatings were also used for developing field emission devices. A single CNT can emit electrons at very low threshold voltages. Achieving efficient electron emission on large scale has a lot of challenges such as screening effect, pull-off and lower current efficiency. We have explored the use of polymer-CNT composite structures to overcome these challenges in this work. NA

  18. Carbon Coating Of Copper By Arc-Discharge Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, Ben T.; Jopek, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    Adherent, abrasion-resistant coat deposited with existing equipment. Carbon formed and deposited as coating on copper substrate by pyrolysis of hydrocarbon oil in electrical-arc discharges. Technique for producing carbon deposits on copper accomplished with electrical-discharge-machining equipment used for cutting metals. Applications for new coating technique include the following: solar-energy-collecting devices, coating of metals other than copper with carbon, and carburization of metal surfaces.

  19. Coated powder for electrolyte matrix for carbonate fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Iacovangelo, Charles D.; Browall, Kenneth W.

    1985-01-01

    A plurality of electrolyte carbonate-coated ceramic particle which does not differ significantly in size from that of the ceramic particle and wherein no significant portion of the ceramic particle is exposed is fabricated into a porous tape comprised of said coated-ceramic particles bonded together by the coating for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  20. Oxidation of Carbon/Carbon through Coating Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Roth, d. J.; Rauser, R. W.; Cawley, J. D.; Curry, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    Reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) is used to protect the wing leading edge and nose cap of the Space Shuttle Orbiter on re-entry. It is composed of a lay-up of carbon/carbon fabric protected by a SiC conversion coating. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch of the carbon/carbon and the SiC, the SiC cracks on cool-down from the processing temperature. The cracks act as pathways for oxidation of the carbon/carbon. A model for the diffusion controlled oxidation of carbon/carbon through machined slots and cracks is developed and compared to laboratory experiments. A symmetric cylindrical oxidation cavity develops under the slots, confirming diffusion control. Comparison of cross sectional dimensions as a function of oxidation time shows good agreement with the model. A second set of oxidation experiments was done with samples with only the natural craze cracks, using weight loss as an index of oxidation. The agreement of these rates with the model is quite reasonab

  1. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos O; Mcdonough, John; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at 0.25 A$g1 achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F$g1 on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to 0.43 F$cm2.

  2. Carbon coated textiles for flexible energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Kristy; Perez, Carlos R.; McDonough, John K.; Presser, Volker; Heon, Min; Dion, Genevieve; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-10-20

    This paper describes a flexible and lightweight fabric supercapacitor electrode as a possible energy source in smart garments. We examined the electrochemical behavior of porous carbon materials impregnated into woven cotton and polyester fabrics using a traditional printmaking technique (screen printing). The porous structure of such fabrics makes them attractive for supercapacitor applications that need porous films for ion transfer between electrodes. We used cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the capacitive behaviour of carbon materials using nontoxic aqueous electrolytes including sodium sulfate and lithium sulfate. Electrodes coated with activated carbon (YP17) and tested at ~0.25 A·g⁻¹ achieved a high gravimetric and areal capacitance, an average of 85 F·g⁻¹ on cotton lawn and polyester microfiber, both corresponding to ~0.43 F·cm⁻².

  3. Elastic properties, sp³ fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung; Liu, Yongsheng; Ciston, Jim; Hong, Shiming

    2014-10-07

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon sp²versus sp³ content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp³ fraction, the shear modulus μ of dl-BC₄, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, and dl-B₃C₂, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, were found to be μ = 19.3 GPa and μ = 170 GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp³ bonds during the deposition processes.

  4. Thermoplastic coated carbon fibers for textile preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. E.; Edie, D. D.; Lickfield, G. C.; Mccollum, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A continuous process for producing prepreg from carbon fiber and thermoplastic matrix is described. After the tow has been spread using a pneumatic device, the process utilizes a fluidized bed to apply thermoplastic powder to the bundle. Finally, direct electrical heating of the coated fiber tow melts the polymer on the individual fibers, creating a uniform and extremely flexible prepreg. The efficiency of the process was evaluated during initial trials in which a thermoplastic polyimide, LaRC-TPI, was applied to T-300, 3K (3000 filament) carbon fiber tow. The physical properties of unidirectional composite specimens fabricated from this prepreg were measured, and the matrix uniformity and void content of the samples was determined. The results of these evaluations are detailed and discussed.

  5. Carbon nanotube and graphene nanoribbon-coated conductive Kevlar fibers.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Changsheng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Zhengzong; Yan, Zheng; Hwang, Chi-Chau; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Conductive carbon material-coated Kevlar fibers were fabricated through layer-by-layer spray coating. Polyurethane was used as the interlayer between the Kevlar fiber and carbon materials to bind the carbon materials to the Kevlar fiber. Strongly adhering single-walled carbon nanotube coatings yielded a durable conductivity of 65 S/cm without significant mechanical degradation. In addition, the properties remained stable after bending or water washing cycles. The coated fibers were analyzed using scanning electron microcopy and a knot test. The as-produced fiber had a knot efficiency of 23%, which is more than four times higher than that of carbon fibers. The spray-coating of graphene nanoribbons onto Kevlar fibers was also investigated. These flexible coated-Kevlar fibers have the potential to be used for conductive wires in wearable electronics and battery-heated armors.

  6. Diamondlike carbon protective coatings for optical windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swec, Diane M.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films were deposited on infrared transmitting optical windows and were evaluated as protective coatings for these windows exposed to particle and rain erosion. The DLC films were deposited on zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) by three different ion beam methods: (1) sputter deposition from a carbon target using an 8-cm argon ion source; (2) direct deposition by a 30-cm hollow cathode ion source with hydrocarbon gas in argon; and (3) dual beam direct deposition by the 30-cm hollow cathode ion source and an 8-cm argon ion source. In an attempt to improve the adherence of the DLC films on ZnSc and ZnS, ion beam cleaning, ion implantation with helium and neon ions, or sputter deposition of a thin, ion beam intermediate coating was employed prior to deposition of the DLC film. The protection that the DLC films afforded the windows from particle and rain erosion was evaluated, along with the hydrogen content, adherence, intrinsic stress, and infrared transmittance of the films. Because of the elevated stress levels in the ion beam sputtered DLC films and in those ion beam deposited with butane, films thicker than 0.1 micron and with good adherence on ZnS and ZnSe could not be generated. An intermediate coating of germanium successfully allowed the DLC films to remain adherent to the optical windows and caused only negligible reduction in the specular transmittance of the ZnS and ZnSe at 10 microns.

  7. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T.; Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P.; Cook, S.D.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  8. Mo doped DLC nanocomposite coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X. S.; Wang, H. J.; Feng, L.; Shao, L. X.; Zou, C. W.

    2014-08-01

    Mo (molybdenum) doped diamond like carbon (Mo-DLC) coatings with improved mechanical and blood compatibility properties were deposited by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The undoped and Mo-doped DLC coatings were analyzed by various characterization techniques such as Raman spectra, Atomic force microscopy, and temperature-dependent frictional wear testing. The results showed that the Mo-DLC coating with low Mo concentration was a effective protective coating with reduced residual stress and increased cohesive strength, and kept good wear resistance at the ambient temperature of 500 °C. The blood compatibility of Mo-DLC coatings was investigated by platelet adhesion. The results showed that the amount of thrombus on the Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings was much less than that of thrombus on pyrolytic carbon films. The Mo-DLC nanocomposite coatings would be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascula stent.

  9. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  10. Lubrication by Diamond and Diamondlike Carbon Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1997-01-01

    Regardless of environment (ultrahigh vacuum, humid air, dry nitrogen, or water), ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) and nitrogen-ion-implanted, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films had low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6)cu mm/N(dot)m). These films can be used as effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings regardless of environment. On the other hand, as-deposited, fine-grain CVD diamond films; polished, coarse-grain CVD diamond films; and polished and then fluorinated, coarse-grain CVD diamond films can be used as effective wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings in humid air, in dry nitrogen, and in water, but they had a high coefficient of friction and a high wear rate in ultrahigh vacuum. The polished, coarse-grain CVD diamond film revealed an extremely low wear rate, far less than 10(exp 10) cu mm/N(dot)m, in water.

  11. DLC coating of textile blood vessels using PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomas; Jelinek, Miroslav; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Zemek, Josef; Janča, Tomáš; Žížková, Věra; Podlaha, Jiří; Popov, Cyril

    2008-11-01

    Textile blood vessels with a length of 30 cm were coated with amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers with thicknesses up to 200 nm. The layers were created by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum or argon ambient. The percentage of sp3 carbon was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Depending on the deposition conditions the sp3 content varied from ˜40% to 60%. The adhesion of the DLC layers to the textile vessels was checked. The preliminary biocompatibility results from in vivo tests with sheep are also given.

  12. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  13. A study of cooling time reduction of interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors using a high-emissivity coating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakakibara, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Chen, D.; Tokoku, C.; Uchiyama, T.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Kimura, N.; Suzuki, T.; Koike, S.

    2014-01-29

    In interferometric cryogenic gravitational wave detectors, there are plans to cool mirrors and their suspension systems (payloads) in order to reduce thermal noise, that is, one of the fundamental noise sources. Because of the large payload masses (several hundred kg in total) and their thermal isolation, a cooling time of several months is required. Our calculation shows that a high-emissivity coating (e.g. a diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating) can reduce the cooling time effectively by enhancing radiation heat transfer. Here, we have experimentally verified the effect of the DLC coating on the reduction of the cooling time.

  14. Peculiarities of both light and beta-particles scattering by ultrathin diamond-like semiconductor film.

    PubMed

    Rumyantsev, Vladimir V; Shtaerman, Esfir Y

    2008-02-01

    Peculiarities of scattering of TM-polarized light wave by a diamond-like crystalline nano-layer are studied. They are due to specific dispersion of n-phonon polaritons localized in the layer. The IR polaritons discussed here (relating to diamond and Si crystals which are nonpolar materials) will only appear if some of the vibration modes become polar, e.g., due to the presence of the surface. As a result of mixing of g- and u-modes of ion oscillations along the (111)-direction in the near-surface layer, it is possible to observe additional (with respect to bulk) scattering of coherent electromagnetic waves of the Stokes and anti-Stokes frequencies. beta-particles can be utilized as an independent tool of study of new semiconductors, in particular thin diamond films. The effect associated with response of a quasi-two-dimensional diamond-like layer to the moving electron field is considered. beta-particle field induces phonon excitation modes to arise in the material. Coupled with the beta-particle electromagnetic modes they generate polaritons. Spectral density of the radiation intensity of the flashed phonon polaritons has been estimated as a function of the layer thickness as well as of the scattering angle and the beta-particle velocity.

  15. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Guilei; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Qiquan; Yan, Honghao

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  16. Method for applying pyrolytic carbon coatings to small particles

    DOEpatents

    Beatty, Ronald L.; Kiplinger, Dale V.; Chilcoat, Bill R.

    1977-01-01

    A method for coating small diameter, low density particles with pyrolytic carbon is provided by fluidizing a bed of particles wherein at least 50 per cent of the particles have a density and diameter of at least two times the remainder of the particles and thereafter recovering the small diameter and coated particles.

  17. Alternative waste form development - low-temperature pyrolytic carbon coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Oma, K.H.; Rusin, J.M.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Although several chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - coated waste forms have been successfully produced, some major disadvantages associated with the high-temperature fluidized-bed CVD coating process exist. To overcome these disadvantages, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has initiated the development of a pyrolytic carbon CVD coating system to coat large waste-form particles at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500/degree/C. This relatively simple system has been used to coat kilogram quantities of simulated waste-glass marbles. Further development of this system could result in a viable process to coat bulk quantities of both glass and ceramic waste forms. This paper discusses various aspects of the development work, including coating techniques, parametric study, and coater equipment. 10 refs.

  18. On axisymmetric/diamond-like mode transitions in axially compressed core-shell cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Potier-Ferry, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Recent interests in curvature- and stress-induced pattern formation and pattern selection motivate the present study. Surface morphological wrinkling of a cylindrical shell supported by a soft core subjected to axial compression is investigated based on a nonlinear 3D finite element model. The post-buckling behavior of core-shell cylinders beyond the first bifurcation often leads to complicated responses with surface mode transitions. The proposed finite element framework allows predicting and tracing these bifurcation portraits from a quantitative standpoint. The occurrence and evolution of 3D instability modes including sinusoidally deformed axisymmetric patterns and non-axisymmetric diamond-like modes will be highlighted according to critical dimensionless parameters. Besides, the phase diagram obtained from dimensional analyses and numerical results could be used to guide the design of core-shell cylindrical systems to achieve the desired instability patterns.

  19. Geometry dependence of persistent currents in diamond-like graphene rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, M. M.; Ding, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    The electronic structures and the persistent currents of diamond-like graphene rings (DGRs) are investigated within the tight-binding formalism. The calculations show that an armchair DGR is a metallic ring only at selected ring width N=3m-1 ( m is an integer), while a zigzag one appears to be metallic regardless of its geometry. The persistent currents in DGRs are calculated, depending strongly on their geometries. It is found that the persistent current in a metallic armchair DGR is near an order of magnitude larger than that in a metallic zigzag hexagonal graphene ring (HGR) of equivalent size [M.M. Ma, J.W. Ding, N. Xu, Nanoscale 1 (2009) 387]. In the metallic zigzag DGRs, the persistent currents are declined generally by two orders of magnitude compared with the sizable metallic armchair DGRs.

  20. On the nature of interface of carbon nanotube coated carbon fibers with different polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Bedi, Harpreet; Padhee, Srikant S.; Agnihotri, Prabhat K.

    2016-07-01

    Experimental investigations are carried out to analyse the wetting behaviour of carbon nanotube (CNT) coated carbon fiber to determine their suitability to process carbon nanotube coated carbon fiber/polymer multiscale composites for structural applications. To overcome the problem of agglomeration, CNTs are grown directly on the surface of carbon fibers as well as fabric using thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. The term multiscale is used because different reinforcement mechanisms operate at the scale of long fibers and CNTs which are of few micrometers in length. The load carrying capacity of these multiscale composites critically depends on the efficiency and extent of load transfer from low strength matrix to high strength fiber which in turn depends on the interfacial strength between CNT coated carbon fiber and polymer matrix. A systematic analysis of wetting behaviour of CNT coated carbon fiber with epoxy and polyester matrix is carried out in this study. It is shown that CNT coated carbon fibers as well as fabric show better wettability with epoxy matrix as compared to polyester matrix. This results in stronger interface of CNT coated carbon fiber with epoxy as compared to polyester in multiscale composite system. A similar observation is made in nanoindentation testing of single fiber multiscale composites processed with epoxy and polyester matrix. In addition, it is observed that wettability, interfacial strength and average properties of CNT coated carbon fiber/polymer composites are a function of CNT density on the surface of carbon fibers.

  1. Carbon coating of simulated nuclear-waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Blocher, J.M. Jr.; Browning, M.F.; Kidd, R.W.

    1982-03-01

    The development of low-temperature pyrolytic carbon (LT-PyC) coatings as described in this report was initiated to reduce the release of volatile waste form components and to permit the coating of larger glass marbles that have low temperature softening points (550 to 600/sup 0/C). Fluidized bed coaters for smaller particles (<2mm) and newly developed screw-agitated coaters for larger particles (>2mm) were used. Coating temperatures were reduced from >1000/sup 0/C for conventional CVD high temperature PyC to approx. 500/sup 0/C by using a catalyst. The coating gas combination that produced the highest quality coatings was found to be Ni(CO)/sub 4/ as the catalyst, C/sub 2/H/sub 2/ as the carbon source gas, and H/sub 2/ as a diluent. Carbon deposition was found to be temperature dependent with a maximum rate observed at 530/sup 0/C. Coating rates were typically 6 to 7 ..mu..m/hour. The screw-agitated coater approach to coating large-diameter particles was demonstrated to be feasible. Clearances are important between the auger walls and coater to eliminate binding and attrition. Coatings prepared in fluidized bed coaters using similar parameters are better in quality and are deposited at two to three times the rate as in screw-agitated coaters.

  2. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  3. Formation mechanism of a silicon carbide coating for a reinforced carbon-carbon composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Shuford, D. M.; Mueller, J. I.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented for a study to determine the mechanisms involved in a high-temperature pack cementation process which provides a silicon carbide coating on a carbon-carbon composite. The process and materials used are physically and chemically analyzed. Possible reactions are evaluated using the results of these analytical data. The coating is believed to develop in two stages. The first is a liquid controlled phase process in which silicon carbide is formed due to reactions between molten silicon metal and the carbon. The second stage is a vapor transport controlled reaction in which silicon vapors react with the carbon. There is very little volume change associated with the coating process. The original thickness changes by less than 0.7%. This indicates that the coating process is one of reactive penetration. The coating thickness can be increased or decreased by varying the furnace cycle process time and/or temperature to provide a wide range of coating thicknesses.

  4. Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) oxidation resistant material samples - Baseline coated, and baseline coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantz, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    Reinforced carbon-carbon material specimens were machined from 19 and 33 ply flat panels which were fabricated and processed in accordance with the specifications and procedures accepted for the fabrication and processing of the leading edge structural subsystem (LESS) elements for the space shuttle orbiter. The specimens were then baseline coated and tetraethyl orthosilicate impregnated, as applicable, in accordance with the procedures and requirements of the appropriate LESS production specifications. Three heater bars were ATJ graphite silicon carbide coated with the Vought 'pack cementation' coating process, and three were stackpole grade 2020 graphite silicon carbide coated with the chemical vapor deposition process utilized by Vought in coating the LESS shell development program entry heater elements. Nondestructive test results are reported.

  5. Rolling-contact and wear resistance of hard coatings on bearing-steel substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, A.

    1992-02-01

    Ever-increasing needs for high-performance ball- and roller-bearing components that can endure extreme applications have led to a growing interest in hard coatings for improved fatigue life and wear resistance. In particular, hard TiN and TiC coatings and, quite recently, diamond like carbon films have attracted much attention from manufacturers that produce bearing systems for both rolling- and sliding-contact applications. This paper presents an overview that highlights recent incremental progress in achieving improved fatigue and wear resistance in bearing steels through the use of hard coatings. Effects of coating adhesion, thickness, and morphology on fatigue and wear resistance of hard coatings are discussed in detail. Specific references are made to a few mechanistic models that correlate coating thickness and adhesion to improved fatigue life and wear resistance.

  6. Carbon coating may expedite the fracture of carbon-coated silicon core-shell nanoparticles during lithiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqun; Cao, Ke; Wang, Hongtao; Liu, Jiabin; Zhou, Limin; Yao, Haimin

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies on silicon (Si) indicate that lithiation-induced fracture of crystalline Si nanoparticles can be greatly inhibited if their diameter is reduced to below a critical scale of around 150 nm. In this paper, in situ lithiation of individual carbon-coated Si nanoparticles (Si@C NPs) is conducted which shows that Si@C NPs will fracture during lithiation even though their diameter is much smaller than 150 nm, implying a deleterious effect of the carbon coating on the integrity of the Si@C NPs during lithiation. To shed light on this effect, finite element analysis is carried out which reveals that the carbon coating, if fractured during lithiation, will induce cracks terminating at the C/Si interface. Such cracks, upon further lithiation, can immediately propagate into the Si core due to the elevated driving force caused by material inhomogeneity between the coating and core. To prevent the fracture of the carbon coating so as to protect the Si core, a design guideline is proposed by controlling the ratio between the diameter of Si core and the thickness of carbon coating. The results in this paper should be of practical value to the design and application of Si-based core-shell structured anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  7. Carbon-coated nanoparticle superlattices for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Yiliguma, Affa; Wang, Yifei; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-07-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) superlattices represent a unique material architecture for energy conversion and storage. Recent reports on carbon-coated NP superlattices have shown exciting electrochemical properties attributed to their rationally designed compositions and structures, fast electron transport, short diffusion length, and abundant reactive sites via enhanced coupling between close-packed NPs, which are distinctive from their isolated or disordered NP or bulk counterparts. In this minireview, we summarize the recent developments of highly-ordered and interconnected carbon-coated NP superlattices featuring high surface area, tailorable and uniform doping, high conductivity, and structure stability. We then introduce the precisely-engineered NP superlattices by tuning/studying specific aspects, including intermetallic structures, long-range ordering control, and carbon coating methods. In addition, these carbon-coated NP superlattices exhibit promising characteristics in energy-oriented applications, in particular, in the fields of lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, and electrocatalysis. Finally, the challenges and perspectives are discussed to further explore the carbon-coated NP superlattices for optimized electrochemical performances.

  8. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y

    2008-06-02

    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  9. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhaoying; Zheng, Y. J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y. X.; Sun, Hong; Huang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp2-rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp3-rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  10. Electronic structure and photoluminescence study of silicon doped diamond like carbon (Si:DLC) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, S.C. . E-mail: raysekhar@rediffmail.com; Okpalugo, T.I.T.; Pao, C.W.; Tsai, H.M.; Chiou, J.W.; Jan, J.C.; Pong, W.F.; Papakonstantinou, P.; McLaughlin, J.A.; Wang, W.J.

    2005-10-06

    We have investigated the electronic and bonding structure using Fourier-transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectra and studied photoluminescence (PL) from micro-Raman spectra analysis of a-C:H:Si (Si:DLC) thin films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) method. Tetramethylsilane [Si(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}, TMS] vapour was used as Silicon precursor and a bias voltage of 400 V was applied during deposition. It is observed from FT-IR spectra that with increasing TMS flow rate, the intensity of Si-H {sub n} and C-H {sub n} modes is increased significantly. PL study indicates that the PL is increased and that the PL peak position is shifted towards lower energy when the TMS flow rate increases gradually during deposition.

  11. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE PAGES

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  12. Interactions between the glass fiber coating and oxidized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku-Herrera, J. J.; Avilés, F.; Nistal, A.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J. V.; Rubio, F.; Rubio, J.; Bartolo-Pérez, P.

    2015-03-01

    Chemically oxidized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were deposited onto commercial E-glass fibers using a dipping procedure assisted by ultrasonic dispersion. In order to investigate the role of the fiber coating (known as "sizing"), MWCNTs were deposited on the surface of as-received E-glass fibers preserving the proprietary coating as well as onto glass fibers which had the coating deliberately removed. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to assess the distribution of MWCNTs onto the fibers. A rather homogeneous coverage with high density of MWCNTs onto the glass fibers is achieved when the fiber coating is maintained. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of the chemical composition of the glass fiber coating suggest that such coating is a complex mixture with multiple oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl and epoxy. FTIR and XPS of MWCNTs over the glass fibers and of a mixture of MWCNTs and fiber coating provided evidence that the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups of the oxidized MWCNTs react with the oxygen-containing functional groups of the glass fiber coating, forming hydrogen bonding and through epoxy ring opening. Hydrogen bonding and ester formation between the functional groups of the MWCNTs and the silane contained in the coating are also possible.

  13. Tensile Properties of Polyimide Composites Incorporating Carbon Nanotubes-Grafted and Polyimide-Coated Carbon Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Kimiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    The tensile properties and fracture behavior of polyimide composite bundles incorporating carbon nanotubes-grafted (CNT-grafted) and polyimide-coated (PI-coated) high-tensile-strength polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based (T1000GB), and high-modulus pitch-based (K13D) carbon fibers were investigated. The CNT were grown on the surface of the carbon fibers by chemical vapor deposition. The pyromellitic dianhydride/4,4'-oxydianiline PI nanolayer coating was deposited on the surface of the carbon fiber by high-temperature vapor deposition polymerization. The results clearly demonstrate that CNT grafting and PI coating were effective for improving the Weibull modulus of T1000GB PAN-based and K13D pitch-based carbon fiber bundle composites. In addition, the average tensile strength of the PI-coated T1000GB carbon fiber bundle composites was also higher than that of the as-received carbon fiber bundle composites, while the average tensile strength of the CNT-grafted T1000GB, K13D, and the PI-coated K13D carbon fiber bundle composites was similar to that of the as-received carbon fiber bundle composites.

  14. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H.; Bhattacharyya, T. K.; Patel, P.; Barik, T. K.

    2010-06-15

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOEpatents

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  16. Designing transparent superamphiphobic coatings directed by carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaotao; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Ren, Guina; Men, Xuehu; Ge, Bo; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2014-05-01

    Creating surfaces with superamphiphobic property and optical transparency simultaneously would have fundamental and practical significance but has been proven extremely challenging. Herein, we develop a transparent superamphiphobic coating using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the template by a facile approach. CNTs enwrapped with SiO2 coating was produced by a sol-gel method and then sprayed onto the glass slides to form coatings. Subsequent thermal treatment and surface fluoration allowed the sprayed coating to exhibit enhanced transparency across a broad spectrum of ultraviolet and visible wavelengths and also display superrepellency toward water and a number of organic liquids, such as dodecane. The obtained transparent coating can sustain its superamphiphobicity even after thermal treatment at 400 °C. Separate experiment demonstrated that the CNTs-directed geometrical structure played a key role in establishing superamphiphobicity.

  17. Morphological control of polypyrrole coatings electropolymerized onto carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, G.A.; Iroh, J.O.

    1995-12-31

    Polypyrrole coatings have been electropolymerized onto carbon fiber bundles. Several process parameters were varied, and their effect on the morphology and composition of the coatings was studied. The parameters that were varied included the choice of supporting electrolyte, the concentration of electrolyte, the concentration of pyrrole monomer, the applied constant voltage, and time. SEM micrographs of the coated samples revealed at least four distinct morphologies. EDAX analysis, elemental analysis, and infrared spectroscopy all confirmed that part of the supporting electrolyte was present in the coatings. In addition, the parametric variation showed that the type and concentration of the supporting electrolyte had the greatest influence on the resulting morphologies of the coatings. Later, mechanical properties will be examined.

  18. Processing and characterization of Ultrathin carbon coatings on glass

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Rajagopalan, R.; Robinson, J.; Pantano, C.G.

    2009-04-15

    Ultrathin carbon layers, on the order of 3-6 nm in thickness, were formed on glass substrates by spin coating and pyrolysis of polymer precursors. The organic precursors used were poly(furfuryl alcohol), coal tar pitch, and a photoresist. The carbon coatings were characterized by ellipsometry, optical profilometry, water contact angle, confocal Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We also report the transparency, hydrophobicity, friction, weathering resistance, and electrical conductivity of the carbon-coated glass. The results reveal that up to 97% transparent, ultrathin carbon films could be formed on glass substrates with a root-mean-square roughness of less than about to 0.3 nm. This carbon layer modified the otherwise hydrophilic surface of the glass to yield a water contact angle of 85{sup o}. The coatings were also found to provide a water barrier against weathering under hot and humid conditions. A 4.5-nm-thick carbon film on glass had a sheet resistance of 55.6 k {Omega} m and a conductivity of 40 S/cm.

  19. Diamond-Coated Carbon Nanotubes for Efficient Field Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimitrijevic, Stevan; Withers, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Field-emission cathodes containing arrays of carbon nanotubes coated with diamond or diamondlike carbon (DLC) are undergoing development. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been shown to perform well as electron field emitters. The idea underlying the present development is that by coating carbon nanotubes with wideband- gap materials like diamond or DLC, one could reduce effective work functions, thereby reducing threshold electric-field levels for field emission of electrons and, hence, improving cathode performance. To demonstrate feasibility, experimental cathodes were fabricated by (1) covering metal bases with carbon nanotubes bound to the bases by an electrically conductive binder and (2) coating the nanotubes, variously, with diamond or DLC by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. In tests, the threshold electric-field levels for emission of electrons were reduced by as much as 40 percent, relative to those of uncoated- nanotube cathodes. Coating with diamond or DLC could also make field emission-cathodes operate more stably by helping to prevent evaporation of carbon from nanotubes in the event of overheating of the cathodes. Cathodes of this type are expected to be useful principally as electron sources for cathode-ray tubes and flat-panel displays.

  20. Applications of thin carbon coatings and films in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Eusebio Duarte

    In this research, the technical feasibility of two novel applications of thin carbon coatings is demonstrated. The first application consists of using thin carbon coatings on molds for molding ultra-thin plastic parts (<0.5 mm thickness) with lower pressures by promoting wall slip. The second application consists of a new approach to provide electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding for plastic parts using in mold coated nanoparticle thin films or nanopapers to create a conductive top layer. During this research, the technical feasibility of a new approach was proven which provides injection molding of ultra-thin parts at lower pressures, without the need of fast heating/fast cooling or other expensive mold modification. An in-house developed procedure by other members of our group, was employed for coating the mold surface using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) resulting in a graphene coating with carbide bonding to the mold surface. The coating resulted in a significant decrease of surface friction and consequently easiness of flow when compared to their uncoated counterparts. Thermoplastic polymers and their composites are a very attractive alternative but are hindered by the non-conductive nature of polymers. There are two general approaches used to date to achieve EMI shielding for plastic products. One is to spray a conductive metal coating onto the plastic surface forming a layer that must maintain its shielding effectiveness (SE), and its adhesion to the plastic throughout the expected life of the product. However, metal coatings add undesirable weight and tend to corrode over time. Furthermore, scratching the coating may create shielding failure; therefore, a protective topcoat may be required. The other approach is to use polymer composites filled with conductive fillers such as carbon black (CB), carbon nanofiber (CNF), and carbon nanotube (CNT). While conductive fillers may increase the electrical conductivity of polymer composites, the loading of

  1. A novel carbon coating technique for foil bolometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, U. A.; Duval, B. P.; Labit, B.; Nespoli, F.

    2016-11-01

    Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma. Preliminary results showed 13%-15% more incident power was measured by the coated bolometers and this is expected to be much higher in future TCV detached divertor experiments.

  2. New solar selective coating based on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abendroth, Thomas; Leupolt, Beate; Mäder, Gerrit; Härtel, Paul; Grählert, Wulf; Althues, Holger; Kaskel, Stefan; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be applied to assemble a new type of solar selective coating system for solar thermal applications. In this work the predominant absorption processes occurring by interaction with π-plasmon and Van Hove singularities (VHS) were investigated by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Not only optical properties for as deposited SWCNT thin films itself, but also the potential for systematic tailoring will be presented. Besides low cost technologies required, the adjustability of optical properties, as well as their thermal stability render CNT based solar selective coatings as promising alternative to commercially available coating systems.

  3. Adhesion of preceramic inorganic polymer coatings to carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhry, T.M.; Drzal, L.T.; Ho, H.; Laine, R.

    1996-12-31

    To determine whether the preceramic inorganic polymer coating can provide not only the thermal oxidative protection during both processing and use in metal matrix composites or ceramic matrix composites but also the appropriate composite properties, it is desirable to know how and at what point in the thermal processing cycle the coating-carbon fiber interface undergoes changes that affect the interfacial adhesion and failure mode. Also, it is important to identify the locus of interfacial failure i.e. between fiber and coating or between coating and matrix. This work is directed at determining the interfacial changes and the locus of failure in order to optimize both the coating chemistry and the conversion process. The characteristics of the benchmark interface coating material, silicon oxycarbide, SiO{sub x}C{sub y} or black glass have been studied. SiO{sub x}C{sub y} was chosen because (1) SiO{sub x}C{sub y} is amorphous, (2) it is possible to prepare very well-defined materials, where the chemistry and the evolution of the material with time and temperature are known in detail, and (3) SiO{sub x}C{sub y} is a matrix material used in commercial composites. It has been shown that these coatings are effective in increasing the oxidation resistance of the carbon fibers themselves.

  4. Biocompatible Silver-containing a-C:H and a-C coatings: AComparative Study

    SciTech Connect

    Endrino, Jose Luis; Allen, Matthew; Escobar Galindo, Ramon; Zhang, Hanshen; Anders, Andre; Albella, Jose Maria

    2007-04-01

    Hydrogenated diamond-like-carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogen-free amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings are known to be biocompatible and have good chemical inertness. For this reason, both of these materials are strong candidates to be used as a matrix that embeds metallic elements with antimicrobial effect. In this comparative study, we have incorporated silver into diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings by plasma based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) using methane (CH4) plasma and simultaneously depositing Ag from a pulsed cathodic arc source. In addition, we have grown amorphous carbon - silver composite coatings using a dual-cathode pulsed filtered cathodic-arc (FCA) source. The silver atomic content of the deposited samples was analyzed using glow discharge optical spectroscopy (GDOES). In both cases, the arc pulse frequency of the silver cathode was adjusted in order to obtain samples with approximately 5 at.% of Ag. Surface hardness of the deposited films was analyzed using the nanoindentation technique. Cell viability for both a-C:H/Ag and a-C:/Ag samples deposited on 24-well tissue culture plates has been evaluated.

  5. Hollow carbon spheres in microwaves: Bio inspired absorbing coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychanok, D.; Li, S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, A.; Gorokhov, G.; Kuzhir, P.; Ogrin, F. Y.; Pasc, A.; Ballweg, T.; Mandel, K.; Szczurek, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of a heterostructure based on a monolayer of hollow glassy carbon spheres packed in 2D was experimentally surveyed with respect to its response to microwaves, namely, the Ka-band (26-37 GHz) frequency range. Such an ordered monolayer of spheres mimics the well-known "moth-eye"-like coating structures, which are widely used for designing anti-reflective surfaces, and was modelled with the long-wave approximation. Based on the experimental and modelling results, we demonstrate that carbon hollow spheres may be used for building an extremely lightweight, almost perfectly absorbing, coating for Ka-band applications.

  6. Hard carbon coatings deposited by pulsed high current magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskomov, K. V.; Solov'ev, A. A.; Rabotkin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    Hard (up to 17 GPa) carbon coatings are deposited onto face SiC bearings used in liquid pumps by pulsed high-current magnetron sputtering of graphite. As a result, the friction coefficient is decreased from 0.43 to 0.11 and the wear rate is decreased from 26 to 0.307 μm3 N-1 m-1, which increases the service life of the bearings by approximately three times. The deposited carbon coatings have a high hardness and wear resistance due to the generation of high-density (up to 1013 cm-3) plasma.

  7. Carbon nanotubes coated fiber optic ammonia gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, S.; Shobin, L. R.; Saranya, A. M.; Renganathan, B.; Sastikumar, D.; Park, Kyu Chang

    2011-01-01

    We report, intrinsic fiber optic carbon nanotubes coated sensor for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. Multimode step index polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) optical fiber passive cladding is partly replaced by an active coating of single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes following the dip coating technique and the reaction with ammonia is studied by measuring the change in output intensity from the optical fiber under various ammonia gas concentrations in the range 0-500 ppm in step of 50 ppm. The sensitivity is calculated for different wavelengths in the range 200-1100 nm both for single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes coated fiber. Higher sensitivities are obtained as 0.26 counts/ppm and 0.31 counts/ppm for single-walled (average diameter 1.3 nm, 30 wt.% purity) and multi-walled (average diameter 10-15 nm, 95 wt.% purity) carbon nanotubes respectively. The role of diameter and purity of carbon nanotubes towards the ammonia sensing is studied and the results are discussed.

  8. Na-doped hydroxyapatite coating on carbon/carbon composites: Preparation, in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hejun; Zhao, Xueni; Cao, Sheng; Li, Kezhi; Chen, Mengdi; Xu, Zhanwei; Lu, Jinhua; Zhang, Leilei

    2012-12-01

    Na-doped hydroxyapatite (Na-HA) coating was directly prepared onto carbon/carbon (C/C) composites using electrochemical deposition (ECD) and the mean thickness of the coating is approximately 10 ± 2 μm. The formed Na-HA crystals which are Ca-deficient, are rod-like with a hexagonal cross section. The Na/P molar ratios of the coating formed on C/C substrate is 0.097. During the deposition, the Na-HA crystals grow in both radial and longitudinal directions, and faster along the longitudinal direction. The pattern formation of crystal growth leads to dense coating which would help to increase the bonding strength of the coating. The average shear bonding strength of Na-HA coating on C/C is 5.55 ± 0.77 MPa. The in vitro bioactivity of the Na-HA coated C/C composites were investigated by soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days. The results indicate that the Na-HA coated C/C composites can rapidly induce bone-like apatite nucleation and growth on its surface in SBF. The in vitro cellular biocompatibility tests reveal that the Na-HA coating was better to improve the in vitro biocompatibility of C/C composites compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) coating. It was suggested that the Na-HA coating might be an effective method to improve the surface bioactivity and biocompatibility of C/C composites.

  9. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a methane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, E.; Richardson, J. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    A report on the deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unheated, unetched, n-type Si(100) substrates is made. The report contains values of methane flow rate for selected hydrogen flow rate and Rf power that yield a diamond/diamond-like index of refraction. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) was the technique used to grow the films in this work. A Leybold-Heraeus vacuum pump was used to evacuate the chamber to a pressure of 5.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}2} Torr before admitting a hydrogen-methane gas mixture. The total chamber pressure was measured with a Baratron pressure gauge. A 30 kHz Rf plasma was excited between the two chamber electrodes by applying 440V to the upper electrode and grounding the lower electrode. The system was continuously pumped throughout all experiments.

  10. DLC coatings on inner walls of PET bottles by a simplified PBII technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeyama, M.; Miyagawa, S.; Nakao, S.; Choi, J.; Miyajima, T.

    2007-04-01

    We have proposed a simple way to coat diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the inner walls of bottles using modified plasma based ion implantation (PBII) technique. Using this way, we have succeeded in DLC coating on inner walls of poly-(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles. We have also succeeded in printing some characters, as "AIST". Meyer hardness and Young's modulus of the DLC-coated PET films were estimated from penetration depth-load relationship obtained by a depth sensing indenter with a diamond spherical-conical indenter (0.83 μm in radius and 90° in angle). It was revealed that Meyer hardness and Young's modulus increased with the DLC coatings. For the 5-min coated PET film, the Meyer hardness and Young's modulus were about 8 and 4 times larger than those of the uncoated PET film, respectively. The results of the indentation tests agreed well with the results of micro-scratch tests.

  11. CCN activation of pure and coated carbon black particles.

    PubMed

    Dusek, U; Reischl, G P; Hitzenberger, R

    2006-02-15

    The CCN (cloud condensation nucleus) activation of pure and coated carbon black particles was investigated using the University of Vienna cloud condensation nuclei counter (Giebl, H.; Berner, A.; Reischl, G.; Puxbaum, H.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Hitzenberger, R. J. Aerosol Sci. 2002, 33, 1623-1634). The particles were produced by nebulizing an aqueous suspension of carbon black in a Collison atomizer. The activation of pure carbon black particles was found to require higher supersaturations than predicted by calculations representing the particles as insoluble, wettable spheres with mobility equivalent diameter. To test whether this effect is an artifact due to heating of the light-absorbing carbon black particles in the laser beam, experiments at different laser powers were conducted. No systematic dependence of the activation of pure carbon black particles on laser power was observed. The observations could be modeled using spherical particles and an effective contact angle of 4-6 degrees of water at their surface. The addition of a small amount of NaCl to the carbon black particles (by adding 5% by mass NaCl to the carbon black suspension) greatly enhanced their CCN efficiency. The measured CCN efficiencies were consistent with Kohler theory for particles consisting of insoluble and hygroscopic material. However, coating the carbon black particles with hexadecanol (a typical film-forming compound with one hydrophobic and one hydrophilic end) efficiently suppressed the CCN activation of the carbon black particles.

  12. Copper-based diamond-like ternary semiconductors for thermoelectric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoug, Eric John

    Heightened global concern over greenhouse gas emissions has led to an increased demand for clean energy conversion technologies. Thermoelectric materials convert directly between thermal and electrical energy and can increase the efficiency of existing processes via waste heat recovery and solid-state climate control applications. The conversion efficiency of available thermoelectric materials and the devices comprised of them is unfortunately quite low, and thus new materials must be developed in order for thermoelectrics to keep pace with competing technologies. One approach to increasing the conversion efficiency of a given material is to decrease its lattice thermal conductivity, which has traditionally been accomplished by introducing phonon scattering centers into the material. These scattering centers also tend to degrade electronic transport in the material, thereby minimizing the overall effect on the thermoelectric performance. The purpose of this work is to develop materials with inherently low lattice thermal conductivity such that no extrinsic modifications are required. A novel approach in which complex ternary semiconductors are derived from well-known binary or elemental semiconductors is employed to identify candidate materials. Ternary diamond-like compounds, namely Cu2SnSe 3 and Cu3SbSe4, are synthesized, characterized, and optimized for thermoelectric applications. It is found that sample-to-sample variations in hole concentration limits the plausibility of Cu2SnSe3 as a thermoelectric material. Cu3SbSe 4 is found to be a promising material that can achieve thermoelectric performance comparable to state-of-the-art materials when optimized. This work uncovers anomalous thermal conductivity in several Cu-Sb-Se ternary compounds, which is used to develop a set of guidelines relating crystal structure to inherently low lattice thermal conductivity.

  13. Carbon coating may expedite the fracture of carbon-coated silicon core-shell nanoparticles during lithiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiqun; Cao, Ke; Wang, Hongtao; Liu, Jiabin; Zhou, Limin; Yao, Haimin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on silicon (Si) indicate that lithiation-induced fracture of crystalline Si nanoparticles can be greatly inhibited if their diameter is reduced to below a critical scale of around 150 nm. In this paper, in situ lithiation of individual carbon-coated Si nanoparticles (Si@C NPs) is conducted which shows that Si@C NPs will fracture during lithiation even though their diameter is much smaller than 150 nm, implying a deleterious effect of the carbon coating on the integrity of the Si@C NPs during lithiation. To shed light on this effect, finite element analysis is carried out which reveals that the carbon coating, if fractured during lithiation, will induce cracks terminating at the C/Si interface. Such cracks, upon further lithiation, can immediately propagate into the Si core due to the elevated driving force caused by material inhomogeneity between the coating and core. To prevent the fracture of the carbon coating so as to protect the Si core, a design guideline is proposed by controlling the ratio between the diameter of Si core and the thickness of carbon coating. The results in this paper should be of practical value to the design and application of Si-based core-shell structured anode materials for lithium ion batteries.Previous studies on silicon (Si) indicate that lithiation-induced fracture of crystalline Si nanoparticles can be greatly inhibited if their diameter is reduced to below a critical scale of around 150 nm. In this paper, in situ lithiation of individual carbon-coated Si nanoparticles (Si@C NPs) is conducted which shows that Si@C NPs will fracture during lithiation even though their diameter is much smaller than 150 nm, implying a deleterious effect of the carbon coating on the integrity of the Si@C NPs during lithiation. To shed light on this effect, finite element analysis is carried out which reveals that the carbon coating, if fractured during lithiation, will induce cracks terminating at the C/Si interface. Such cracks, upon

  14. Controlled Distribution and Clustering of Silver in Ag-DLC Nanocomposite Coatings Using a Hybrid Plasma Approach.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, M; Turgeon, S; Busby, Y; Tatoulian, M; Pireaux, J-J; Mantovani, D

    2016-08-17

    Incorporation of selected metallic elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) has emerged as an innovative approach to add unique functional properties to DLC coatings, thus opening up a range of new potential applications in fields as diverse as sensors, tribology, and biomaterials. However, deposition by plasma techniques of metal-containing DLC coatings with well-defined structural properties and metal distribution is currently hindered by the limited understanding of their growth mechanisms. We report here a silver-incorporated diamond-like carbon coating (Ag-DLC) prepared in a hybrid plasma reactor which allowed independent control of the metal content and the carbon film structure and morphology. Morphological and chemical analyses of Ag-DLC films were performed by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The vertical distribution of silver from the surface toward the coating bulk was found to be highly inhomogeneous due to top surface segregation and clustering of silver nanoparticles. Two plasma parameters, the sputtered Ag flux and ion energy, were shown to influence the spatial distribution of silver particles. On the basis of these findings, a mechanism for Ag-DLC growth by plasma was proposed. PMID:27454833

  15. Lipid/Polyelectrolyte coatings to control carbon nanotubes intracellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Romero, G; Estrela-Lopis, I; Rojas, E; Llarena, I; Donath, E; Moya, S E

    2012-06-01

    Carbon Nanotubes have been functionalized with a layer of poly (sulfopropyl methacrylate) synthesized from silane initiators attached to the walls of the Carbon nanotubes. On top of the poly sulfo propyl methacrylate, lipid vesicles composed of 75% 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine and 25% 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-[Phospho-L-Serine] were assembled. The surface modification of the Carbon Nanotubes and lipid assembly were followed by TEM. Confocal Raman Microscopy was used to study the uptake and localization of the surface modified Carbon Nanotubes in the HepG2 cell line. The localization of the Carbon Nanotubes in the cells was affected by the surface coating. It was found that poly (sulfopropyl methacrylate) and lipid modified Carbon Nanotubes were present in the region of the lipid bodies in the cytoplasm.

  16. Diamondlike carbon protective coatings for IR materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nir, D.; Swec, D. M.; Banks, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) films have the potential to protect optical windows in applications where it is important to maintain the integrity of the specular transmittance of these films on ZnS and ZnSe infrared transmitting windows. The films must be adherent and durable such that they protect the windows from rain and particle erosion as well as chemical attack. In order to optimize the performance of these films, 0.1 micro m thick diamondlike carbon films were deposited on fused silica and silicon wafers, using three different methods of ion beam deposition. One method was sputter deposition from a carbon target using an 8 cm ion source. The merits of hydrogen addition were experimentally evaluated in conjunction with this method. The second method used a 30 cm hollow cathode ion source with hydrocarbon/Argon gases to deposit diamondlike carbon films from the primary beam at 90 to 250 eV. The third method used a dual beam system employing a hydrocarbon/Argon 30 cm ion source and an 8 cm ion source. Films were evaluated for adherence, intrinsic stress, infrared transmittance between 2.5 and 50 micro m, and protection from particle erosion. An erosion test using a sandblaster was used to give quantitative values of the protection afforded to the fused silica by the diamondlike carbon films. The fused silica surfaces protected by diamondlike carbon films were exposed to 100 micro m diameter SiO particles at 60 mi/hr (26.8/sec) in the sandblaster.

  17. Novel Carbon Nanomaterial Coating for Dispersibility, Delivery and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena

    Carbon nanomaterials have been cited to provide great potential in biomedical applications such as in vivo imaging, drug delivery, and biomarker detection. Yet poor dispersibility in physiological conditions greatly limits their biomedical promise. As with most nanoparticles, the surface interaction with biological systems is the driving force towards effective activity in vivo, namely exhibiting dispersion, low cytotoxicity, and molecular targetability. Therefore, by surface engineering carbon nanomaterials with a distinct biocompatible coating, their applications in imaging, drug delivery, biomarker detection, and therapy can be empowered. We render carbon nanomaterials useful for such in vivo biomedical applications by providing dispersibility, delivery and sensing capabilities with a facile surface coating method. A single, yet multifunctional, hyaluronic acid-based biosurfactant was strategically chosen to meet the design criteria. The amphiphilic material, hyaluronic acid-5beta-cholanic acid (HACA), is an efficient dispersing agent for carbon nanomaterials, including single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), in physiological conditions for a sustained period of time. Furthermore, the biological activity and cancer cell targeting of HACA wrapped SWCNTs (HACA-SWCNTs) were evaluated in vitro and in vivo utilizing imaging techniques intrinsic to SWCNTs, HACA, and HACA-SWCNTs. Fluorescent dye-labeled HACA-SWCNTs were designed to activate fluorescence signals intracelluarly, not only serving as an approach to image cellular uptake but also to determine the coating efficacy of HACA onto SWCNTs. SWCNT localization within cells was also confirmed by tracking the intrinsic Raman signals of carbon nanomaterials. In vivo photoacoustic, fluorescence, and positron emission tomography imaging display high tumor targeting capability of HACA-SWCNTs in a murine tumor model. Once targeted, HACA-SWCNTs have potential to serve as photothermal tumor ablation agents after laser

  18. Magnetic alignment of nickel-coated carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Chuncheng; Li, Xiaojiao; Wang, Guizhen

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon nanofibers were subjected to a two-step pretreatment, sensitization and activation. Carbon nanofibers were encapsulated by a uniform layer of nickel nanoparticles. The prepared composites are ferromagnetic and with a small value of coercivity. Upon such functionalization, the carbon nanofibers can be aligned in a relatively small external magnetic field. Highlights: {center_dot} A simple microwave-assisted procedure for the magnetic composite. {center_dot} Dense layer of nickel on pretreated carbon nanofibers. {center_dot} Ferromagnetic properties and low coercivity. {center_dot} A long-chain aligned structure under magnetic field. -- Abstract: Magnetic composites of nickel-coated carbon nanofibers have been successfully fabricated by employing a simple microwave-assisted procedure. The scanning electron microscopy images show that a complete and uniform nickel coating with mean size of 25 nm could be deposited on carbon fibers. Magnetization curves demonstrate that the prepared composites are ferromagnetic and that the coercivity is 96 Oe. The magnetic carbon nanofibers can be aligned as a long-chain structure in an external magnetic field.

  19. Optimizing electron backscatter diffraction of carbonate biominerals-resin type and carbon coating.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Cusack, Maggie

    2009-06-01

    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is becoming a widely used technique to determine crystallographic orientation in biogenic carbonates. Despite this use, there is little information available on preparation for the analysis of biogenic carbonates. EBSD data are compared for biogenic aragonite and calcite in the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, using different types of resin and thicknesses of carbon coating. Results indicate that carbonate biomineral samples provide better EBSD results if they are embedded in resin, particularly epoxy resin. A uniform layer of carbon of 2.5 nm thickness provides sufficient conductivity for EBSD analyses of such insulators to avoid charging without masking the diffracted signal. Diffraction intensity decreases with carbon coating thickness of 5 nm or more. This study demonstrates the importance of optimizing sample preparation for EBSD analyses of insulators such as carbonate biominerals.

  20. Fabrication of barium/strontium carbonate coated amorphous carbon nanotubes as an improved field emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, S.; Jha, A.; Das, N. S.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (aCNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature ˜250 ∘C in an air furnace. As-synthesized aCNTs were coated with the barium/strontium carbonate through a simple chemical process. The coating of barium/strontium carbonate was confirmed by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Morphology of the as-prepared samples was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs are more stable than the pristine aCNTs. As-prepared barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs showed significantly improved field emission properties with a turn-on field as low as 2.5 V/μm. The variation of field emission characteristics of the barium/strontium carbonate coated aCNTs with interelectrode distances was also studied.

  1. Durable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmeryan, K. D.; Radeva, E. I.; Avramov, I. D.

    2016-01-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of durable superhydrophobic (SH) carbon soot coatings used in quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) based gas or liquid sensors is reported. The method uses modification of the carbon soot through polymerization of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) by means of glow discharge RF plasma. The surface characterization shows a fractal-like network of carbon nanoparticles with diameter of ~50 nm. These particles form islands and cavities in the nanometer range, between which the plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (PPHMDSO) embeds and binds to the carbon chains and QCM surface. Such modified surface structure retains the hydrophobic nature of the soot and enhances its robustness upon water droplet interactions. Moreover, it significantly reduces the insertion loss and dynamic resistance of the QCM compared to the commonly used carbon soot/epoxy resin approach. Furthermore, the PPHMDSO/carbon soot coating demonstrates durability and no aging after more than 40 probing cycles in water based liquid environments. In addition, the surface layer keeps its superhydrophobicity even upon thermal annealing up to 540 °C. These experiments reveal an opportunity for the development of soot based SH QCMs with improved electrical characteristics, as required for high-resolution gas or liquid measurements.

  2. Poly(4-vinylpyridine)-coated glassy carbon flow detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Golden, T.; Tuzhi, P.

    1987-03-01

    The performance of a thin-layer flow detector with a glassy carbon electrode coated with a film of protonated poly(4-vinylpyridine) is described. Substantial improvement in the selectivity of amperometric detection for liquid chromatography and flow injection systems is observed as a result of excluding cationic species from the surface. The detector response was evaluated with respect to flow rate, solute concentration, coating scheme, film-to-film reproducibility, and other variables. Despite the increase in diffusional resistance, low detection limits of ca. 0.04 and 0.10 ng of ascorbic acid and uric acid, respectively, are maintained. Protection from organic surfactants can be coupled to the charge exclusion effect by using a bilayer coating, with a cellulose acetate film atop the poly(4-vinylpyridine) layer. Applicability to urine sample is demonstrated.

  3. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    DOEpatents

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  4. Substrate/layer interface of amorphous-carbon hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, O.; Cebollada, A.; Yang, S.; Teer, D. G.; Albella, J. M.; Román, E.

    2000-08-01

    A combined study of the crystalline structure, the chemical interaction, and diffusion processes of the substrate/layer interface of amorphous-carbon hard coatings is presented. The structure of the coatings and their gradient layer interface to a chromium buffer layer has been investigated on two substrates [Si(100) and tool steel] using x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical interaction and diffusion processes at the interfaces and within the layers were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiles. The chromium buffer layer revealed similar textured structure on both substrates. The subsequent gradient layer was determined (within XRD limits) to be amorphous and composed of an amorphous-carbon and chromium-carbide composite. The chromium carbide maintains the same stoichiometry (Cr3C2), regardless of the gradually changing chromium content. No large-scale interdiffusion was measured, either between or within the layers.

  5. Effect of carbon coating on scuffing performance in diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M. F.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    2000-06-29

    Low-sulfur and low-aromatic diesel fuels are being introduced in order to reduce various types of emissions in diesel engines to levels in compliance with current and impending US federal regulations. The low lubricity of these fuels, however, poses major reliability and durability problems for fuel injection components that depend on diesel fuel for their lubrication. In the present study, the authors evaluated the scuff resistance of surfaces in regular diesel fuel containing 500 ppm sulfur and in Fischer-Tropsch synthetic diesel fuel containing no sulfur or aromatics. Tests were conducted with the high frequency reciprocating test rig (HFRR) using 52100 steel balls and H-13 tool-steel flats with and without Argonne's special carbon coatings. Test results showed that the sulfur-containing fuels provide about 20% higher scuffing resistance than does fuel without sulfur. Use of the carbon coating on the flat increased scuffing resistance in both regular and synthetic fuels by about ten times, as measured by the contact severity index at scuffing. Scuffing failure in tests conducted with coated surfaces did not occur until the coating had been removed by the two distinct mechanisms of spalling and wear.

  6. Development of a novel test-setup for identifying the frictional characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites at high surface pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Prateek; Schinzel, Marie; Andrich, Manuela; Modler, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites are extensively used in industrial applications. They are light in weight and have excellent load bearing properties. To understand this material's behaviour when carrying loads at high pressure, a tensile-friction test device was developed that can apply a contact surface pressure between composite and counterpart of 50–300 MPa. A tribological investigation of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was carried out, in which the influence of the surface morphology was investigated by using grinding and sandblasting techniques. The friction coefficient of the polymer composite was measured at 100 MPa surface pressure against uncoated and Diamond-Like Carbon coated stainless steel counterparts.

  7. Carbon--silicon coating alloys for improved irradiation stability

    DOEpatents

    Bokros, J.C.

    1973-10-01

    For ceramic nuclear fuel particles, a fission product-retaining carbon-- silicon alloy coating is described that exhibits low shrinkage after exposure to fast neutron fluences of 1.4 to 4.8 x 10/sup 21/ n/cm/sup 2/ (E = 0.18 MeV) at irradiation temperatures from 950 to 1250 deg C. Isotropic pyrolytic carbon containing from 18 to 34 wt% silicon is co-deposited from a gaseous mixiure of propane, helium, and silane at a temperature of 1350 to 1450 deg C. (Official Gazette)

  8. Carbon-Based Wear Coatings: Properties and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2003-01-01

    The technical function of numerous engineering systems - such as vehicles, machines, and instruments - depends on the processes of motion and on the surface systems. Many processes in nature and technology depend on the motion and dynamic behavior of solids, liquids, and gases. Smart surface systems are essential because of the recent technological push toward higher speeds, loads, and operating temperatures; longer life; lighter weight and smaller size (including nanotechnology); and harsh environments in mechanical, mechatronic, and biomechanical systems. If proper attention is not given to surface systems, then vehicles, machines, instruments, and other technical systems could have short lives, consume excessive energy, experience breakdowns, result in liabilities, and fail to accomplish their missions. Surface systems strongly affect our national economy and our lifestyles. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we believe that proper attention to surface systems, especially in education, research, and application, could lead to economic savings of between 1.3 and 1.6 percent of the gross domestic product. Wear coatings and surface systems continue to experience rapid growth as new coating and surface engineering technologies are discovered, more cost-effective coating and surface engineering solutions are developed, and marketers aggressively pursue, uncover, and exploit new applications for engineered surface systems in cutting tools and wear components. Wear coatings and smart surface systems have been used widely in industrial, consumer, automotive, aerospace, and biomedical applications. This presentation expresses the author's views of and insights into smart surface systems in wear coatings. A revolution is taking place in carbon science and technology. Diamond, an allotrope of carbon, joins graphite, fullerenes, and nanotubes as its major pure carbon structures. It has a unique combination of extreme properties: hardness and abrasion resistance; adhesion

  9. Exact Realization of a Quantum-Dimer Model in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets on a Diamond-Like Decorated Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, Yuhei; Oguchi, Akihide; Fukumoto, Yoshiyuki

    2016-09-01

    We study Heisenberg antiferromagnets on a diamond-like decorated square lattice perturbed by further neighbor couplings. The second-order effective Hamiltonian is calculated and the resultant Hamiltonian is found to be a square-lattice quantum-dimer model with a finite hopping amplitude and no repulsion, which suggests the stabilization of the plaquette phase. Our recipe for constructing quantum-dimer models can be adopted for other lattices and provides a route for the experimental realization of quantum-dimer models.

  10. Targeting breast cancer with sugar-coated carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, Cale D; Hadimani, Mallinath; King, S Bruce; Torti, Suzy V; Singh, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the use of glucosamine functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (glyco-MWCNTs) for breast cancer targeting. Materials & methods Two types of glucosamine functionalized MWCNTs were developed (covalently linked glucosamine and non-covalently phospholipid-glucosamine coated) and evaluated for their potential to bind and target breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Results & conclusion Binding of glyco-MWCNTs in breast cancer cells is mediated by specific interaction with glucose transporters. Glyco-MWCNTs prepared by non-covalent coating with phospholipid-glucosamine displayed an extended blood circulation time, delayed urinary clearance, low tissue retention and increased breast cancer tumor accumulation in vivo. These studies lay the foundation for development of a cancer diagnostic agent based upon glyco-MWCNTs with the potential for superior accuracy over current radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:26296098

  11. Microstructure and properties of SiC-coated carbon fibers prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yong; Huang, Xiaozhong; Du, Zuojuan; Xiao, Jianrong; Zhou, Shan; Wei, Yongshan

    2016-04-01

    SiC-coated carbon fibers are prepared at room temperature with different radio-frequency magnetron sputtering powers. Results show that the coated carbon fibers have uniform, continuous, and flawless surfaces. The mean strengths of the coated carbon fibers with different sputtering powers are not influenced by other factors. Filament strength of SiC-coated carbon fibers increases by approximately 2% compared with that of uncoated carbon fibers at a sputtering power of <200 W. The filament strengths of the coated fibers increase by 9.3% and 12% at sputtering powers of 250 and 300 W, respectively. However, the mean strength of the SiC-coated carbon fibers decreased by 8% at a sputtering power of 400 W.

  12. Gas Sensors Based on Coated and Doped Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2008-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop inexpensive, low-power electronic sensors, based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), for measuring part-per-million and part-per-billion of selected gases (small molecules) at room temperature. Chemically unmodified SWCNTs are mostly unresponsive to typical gases that one might wish to detect. However, the electrical resistances of SWCNTs can be made to vary with concentrations of gases of interest by coating or doping the SWCNTs with suitable materials. Accordingly, the basic idea of the present development efforts is to incorporate thus-treated SWCNTs into electronic devices that measure their electrical resistances.

  13. Effect of cationic and anionic surfactants on the application of calcium carbonate nanoparticles in paper coating.

    PubMed

    Barhoum, Ahmed; Rahier, Hubert; Abou-Zaied, Ragab Esmail; Rehan, Mohamed; Dufour, Thierry; Hill, Gavin; Dufresne, Alain

    2014-02-26

    Modification of calcium carbonate particles with surfactant significantly improves the properties of the calcium carbonate coating on paper. In this study, unmodified and CTAB (hexadecyltetramethylammonium bromide)- and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles were prepared using the wet carbonation technique for paper coating. CTAB (cationic surfactant) and sodium oleate (anionic surfactant) were used to modify the size, morphology, and surface properties of the precipitated nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Coating colors were formulated from the prepared unmodified and modified calcium carbonates and examined by creating a thin coating layer on reference paper. The effect of calcium carbonate particle size and surface modification on paper properties, such as coating thickness, coating weight, surface roughness, air permeability, brightness, whiteness, opacity, and hydrophobicity, were investigated and compared with commercial ground (GCC) calcium carbonate-coated papers. The results show that the obtained calcium carbonate nanoparticles are in the calcite phase. The morphology of the prepared calcium carbonate nanoparticles is rhombohedral, and the average particle diameter is less than 100 nm. Compared to commercial GCC, the use of unmodified and CTAB- and oleate-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles in paper coating improves the properties of paper. The highest measured paper properties were observed for paper coated with oleate-modifed nanoparticles, where an increase in smoothness (decrease in paper roughness) (+23%), brightness (+1.3%), whiteness (+2.8%), and opacity (+2.3%) and a decrease in air permeability (-26%) was obtained with 25% less coat weight. The water contact angle at a drop age time of 10 min was about 112° for the paper

  14. Friction and Adhesion in Dry Warm Forging of Magnesium Alloy with Coated Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Kawashima, Hiroaki; Osakada, Kozo

    In order to develop forging process of magnesium alloys without lubrication, frictional behavior of magnesium alloy AZ31B (Mg-3%Al-1%Zn) is evaluated by a tapered plug penetration test under dry condition. The cemented tungsten carbide (WC) plugs polished to be a mirror-like surface are coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and TiAlN by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The cylindrical hollow billets of AZ31B are penetrated by the tapered plugs at a temperature of 200°C. The surface roughness of the hole of the billet, the adhesion length of AZ31B on the plug surface and the penetration load are measured. Compared with WC and TiAlN coating, it is found that DLC coating is effective in preventing AZ31B from adhering to the tool surface and reducing the penetration load.

  15. A novel zinc(ii) metal-organic framework with a diamond-like structure: synthesis, study of thermal robustness and gas adsorption properties.

    PubMed

    Almáši, Miroslav; Zeleňák, Vladimír; Zukal, Arnošt; Kuchár, Juraj; Čejka, Jiří

    2016-01-21

    A solvothermal reaction of Zn(ii) salt with methanetetrabenzoic acid (H4MTB) and 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam, CYC) created a new microporous metal-organic framework {[Zn2(μ4-MTB)(κ(4)-CYC)2]·2DMF·7H2O}n (DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide). Single crystal X-ray diffraction showed that the complex exhibits a four-fold interpenetrated diamond-like structure topology with 1D jar-like channels with sizes about 14.1 × 14.1 and 2.4 × 2.4 Å(2). The stability of the framework and activation conditions of the compound have been studied by high-energy powder X-ray diffraction during in situ heating, thermogravimetric analysis coupled with mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy performed at different temperatures. The gas adsorption behaviour of {[Zn2(μ4-MTB)(κ(4)-CYC)2]·2DMF·7H2O}n was studied by adsorption of Ar, N2, CO2 and H2. Nitrogen and argon adsorption showed that the activated sample exhibits Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) specific surface areas of 644 m(2) g(-1) (N2) and 562 m(2) g(-1) (Ar). The complex adsorbs carbon dioxide with a maximum storage capacity of 10.5 wt% at 273 K and 101 kPa. The observed hydrogen uptake was 1.27 wt% at 77 K and 800 Torr, which is the highest value reported for the compounds containing a MTB(4-) linker. The adsorption heats of carbon dioxide and hydrogen, calculated according to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, were in the range 22.8-22.4 kJ mol(-1) for CO2 and 8.9-3.2 kJ mol(-1) for H2, indicating weak interactions of the gases with the framework.

  16. Robust diamond-like Fe-Si network in the zero-strain NaxFeSiO4 cathode

    DOE PAGES

    Ye, Zhuo; Zhao, Xin; Li, Shouding; Wu, Shunqing; Wu, Ping; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Guo, Jianghuai; Mi, Jinxiao; Gong, Zhengliang; Zhu, Zi -Zhong; et al

    2016-07-14

    Sodium orthosilicates Na2MSiO4 (M denotes transition metals) have attracted much attention due to the possibility of exchanging two electrons per formula unit. In this work, we report a group of sodium iron orthosilicates Na2FeSiO4. Their crystal structures are characterized by a diamond-like Fe-Si network. The Fe-Si network is quite robust against the charge/discharge process, which explains the high structural stability observed in experiment. Furthermore, using the density functional theory within the GGA + U framework and X-ray diffraction studies, the crystal structures and structural stabilities during the sodium extraction/re-insertion process are systematically investigated.

  17. Anisotropy measurement of pyrolytic carbon layers of coated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Vesyolkin, Ju. A. Ivanov, A. S.; Trushkina, T. V.

    2015-12-15

    Equipment at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute intended for the anisotropy determination of pyrolytic carbon layers in coated particles (CPs) of the GT-MGR reactor is tested and calibrated. The dependence of the anisotropy coefficient on the size of the measurement region is investigated. The results of measuring the optical anisotropy factor (OPTAF) for an aluminum mirror, rutile crystal, and available CP samples with the known characteristics measured previously using ORNL equipment (United States) are presented. In addition, measurements of CP samples prepared at VNIINM are performed. A strong dependence of the data on the preparation quality of metallographic sections is found. Our investigations allow us to make the conclusion on the working capacity of the existing equipment for measuring the anisotropy of pyrolytic carbon CP coatings using the equipment at the Kurchatov Institute with the relative error of about 1%. It is shown that the elimination of the errors caused by the stochastic fluctuations in a measuring path by mathematical processing of the signal allows us to decrease the relative error of OPTAF measurements to ∼0.3%.

  18. TiO{sub 2}-coated carbon nanotubes: A redshift enhanced photocatalysis at visible light

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.-Y.; Tang, C.-W.; Lin, Y.-H.; Kuo, H.-F.; Lai, Y.-C.; Ouyang Hao; Hsu, W.-K.; Tsai, M.-Y.

    2010-06-07

    Annealing of carbon nanotubes coated with thin and uniform TiO{sub 2} results in carbon diffusion into oxygen lattices and doping induced redshift is evident by an efficient photocatalysis at visible light. The underlying mechanism is discussed.

  19. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  20. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOEpatents

    Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

    1993-11-16

    A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

  1. Arc spraying of nano-structured wire on carbon steel: examination of coating microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Al Askandarani, A.; Hashmi, M. S. J.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2011-01-17

    Arc spraying of nano-structured wire (TAFA 95MX) onto carbon steel is carried out. The workpieces coated were heat treated at temperature similar to the operating temperature of the hot-path components of power gas turbines. The morphological and microstructural changes in the coating are examined using optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The surface roughness and microhardness of the resulting coatings are measured. It is found that the formation of dimples like structure at surface increased the surface roughness of the coating. The microhardness of the resulting coating is significantly higher than the base material hardness. Heat treatment does not alter the microstructure and microhardness of the coating.

  2. Comparing graphene, carbon nanotubes, and superfine powdered activated carbon as adsorptive coating materials for microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Ellerie, Jaclyn R; Apul, Onur G; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2013-10-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nano-graphene platelets (NGPs), and superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) were comparatively evaluated for their applicability as adsorptive coatings on microfiltration membranes. The objective was to determine which materials were capable of contaminant removal while causing minimal flux reduction. Methylene blue and atrazine were the model contaminants. When applied as membrane coatings, MWCNTs had minimal retention capabilities for the model contaminants, and S-PAC had the fastest removal. The membrane coating approach was also compared with a stirred vessel configuration, in which the adsorbent was added to a stirred flask preceding the membrane cell. Direct application of the adsorbent to the membrane constituted a greater initial reduction in permeate concentrations of the model contaminants than with the stirred flask setup. All adsorbents except S-PAC showed flux reductions less than 5% after application as thin-layer membrane coatings, and flux recovery after membrane backwashing was greater than 90% for all materials and masses tested. PMID:23911830

  3. Repair of oxidation protection coatings on carbon-carbon using preceramic polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwab, Stuart T.; Graef, Renee C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a field-applicable technique for the repair of damage to SiC protective coatings on carbon/carbon composites, using commercial preceramic polymers, such as perhydropolysilazane developed by the Southwest Research Institute and several commercial polymers (NICALON, PS110, PS116, PS117, NCP-200, and PHPS were tested). After being applied on the damaged panel and oxidized at 1400 C, these polymers form either SiC or Si3N4 (or a mixture of both). It was found that impact damaged carbon/carbon specimens repaired with perhydropolysilazane exhibit substantial oxidation resistance. Many of the other tested preceramic polymer were found to be unsuitable for the purpose of repair due to either low ceramic yield, foaming, or intumescence.

  4. Chemical sensors using coated or doped carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods for using modified single wall carbon nanotubes ("SWCNTs") to detect presence and/or concentration of a gas component, such as a halogen (e.g., Cl.sub.2), hydrogen halides (e.g., HCl), a hydrocarbon (e.g., C.sub.nH.sub.2n+2), an alcohol, an aldehyde or a ketone, to which an unmodified SWCNT is substantially non-reactive. In a first embodiment, a connected network of SWCNTs is coated with a selected polymer, such as chlorosulfonated polyethylene, hydroxypropyl cellulose, polystyrene and/or polyvinylalcohol, and change in an electrical parameter or response value (e.g., conductance, current, voltage difference or resistance) of the coated versus uncoated SWCNT networks is analyzed. In a second embodiment, the network is doped with a transition element, such as Pd, Pt, Rh, Ir, Ru, Os and/or Au, and change in an electrical parameter value is again analyzed. The parameter change value depends monotonically, not necessarily linearly, upon concentration of the gas component. Two general algorithms are presented for estimating concentration value(s), or upper or lower concentration bounds on such values, from measured differences of response values.

  5. Parylene coated carbon nanotube actuators for tactile stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubak, Grzegorz; Ansaldo, Alberto; Gendron, David; Brayda, Luca; Ceseracciu, Luca; Ricci, Davide

    2015-04-01

    Ionic liquid/carbon nanotube based actuators have been constantly improved in recent years owing to their suitability for applications related to human-machine interaction and robotics thanks to their light-weight and low voltage operation. However, while great attention has been paid to the development of better electrodes and electrolytes, no adequate efforts were made to develop actuators to be used in direct contact with the human skin. Herein, we present our approach, based on the use of parylene-C coating. Indeed, owning to its physicochemical properties such as high dielectric strength, resistance to solvents, biological and chemical inactivity/inertness, parylene fulfils the requirements for use in biocompatible actuator fabrication. In this paper, we study the influence of the parylene coating on the actuator performance. To do so, we analyzed its mechanical and electrochemical properties. We looked into the role of parylene as a protection layer that can prevent alteration of the actuator performance likely caused by external conditions. In order to complete our study, we designed a haptic device and investigated the generated force, displacement and energy usage.

  6. Carbon-coated anatase titania as a high rate anode for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Yu, Chan-Yeop; Kim, Sun-Jae; Sun, Yang-Kook; Myung, Seung-Taek

    2015-05-01

    Anatase titania nanorods/nanowires, and TiO2(B) are synthesized via a hydrothermal reaction of commercial TiO2 (P-25) in strong alkaline environment. Surfaces of these products are modified by carbon to improve the electrical conductivity through carbonization of pitch as the carbon source at 700 °C for 2 h in an Ar atmosphere. Even after carbon coating, the resultants exhibit the same crystal structure and morphology as confirmed by Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction data and transmission electron microscopic observation that the images display thin carbon coating layers on the surfaces of anatase nanorods and nanowires. Although the bare and carbon-coated anatase TiO2 nanorods exhibit stable cycling performance, the high rate performance is highly dependent on the presence of carbon because of high electrical conductivity, ∼10-1 S cm-1, enabling Li+ ion storage even at 30 °C (9.9 A g-1) approximately 100 mAh (g-TiO2)-1 for the carbon-coated anatase TiO2 nanorods. Besides, the bare and carbon-coated anatase TiO2 nanowires show poor electrode performances due to their large particle size and high crystallinity causing Li+ insertion into the host structure difficult. It is believed that the conducting carbon coating layers greatly improves the electrochemical property through the improved electrical conductivity and shortened diffusion path.

  7. Coating of meso-porous metallic membranes with oriented channel-likefine pores by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherji, D.; Lackner, J.; Wanderka, N.; Kardjilov, N.; Näth, O.; Jäger, S.; Schmitz, F.; Rösler, J.

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing demand to functionalize meso- and nanoporous materials by coating and make the porous substrate biocompatible or environmentally friendly. However, coating on a meso-porous substrate poses great challenges, especially if the pore aspect ratio is high. We adopted the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method to coat Ni3Al-based meso-porous membranes, which were fabricated from a single-crystal Ni-based superalloy by a unique selective phase dissolution technique. These membranes were about 250 µm thick and had channel-like pores (~200 nm wide) with very high aspect ratio. Two different coating materials, i.e. diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium, were used to coat these membranes. High energy C or Ti ions, produced in the plasma plume by the PLD process, penetrated the channel-like pores and deposited coatings on the pore walls deep inside the membrane. The thickness and the quality of coatings on the pore walls were examined using the dual-beam system. The coating thickness, of the order of 50 nm, was adherent to the pore walls and was quite uniform at different depths. The carbon and the Ti deposition behaved quite similarly. The preliminary experiments showed that the PLD is an adequate method for coating fine open cavities of complex geometry. Simulations based on stopping and the range of ions in matter (SRIM) calculations helped in understanding the deposition processes on pore walls at great depths.

  8. Processing of fused silicide coatings for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    The processing and oxidation resistance of fused Al-Si and Ni-Si slurry coatings on ATJ graphite was studied. Ni-Si coatings in the 70 to 90 percent Si range were successfully processed to melt, wet, and bond to the graphite. The molten coatings also infiltrated the porosity in graphite and reacted with it to form SiC in the coating. Cyclic oxidation at 1200 C showed that these coatings were not totally protective because of local attack of the substrate, due to the extreme thinness of the coatings in combination with coating cracks.

  9. Processing of fused silicide coatings for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    The processing and oxidation resistance of fused Al-Si and Ni-Si slurry coatings on ATJ graphite was studied. Ni-Si coatings in the 70 to 90 percent Si range were successfully processed to melt, wet, and bond to the graphite. The molten coatings also infiltrated the porosity in graphite and reacted with it to form SiC in the coating. Cyclic oxidation at 1200 C showed that these coatings were not totally protective because of local attack of the substrate, due to the extreme thinness of the coatings in combination with coating cracks. Previously announced in STAR as N83-27019

  10. METHOD FOR FORMING A COATING OF MOLYBDENUM CARBIDE ON A CARBON BODY

    DOEpatents

    Simnad, M.T.

    1962-04-01

    A method is described for coating a carbon bodywith molybdenum carbide in such a manner that the carbon body is rendered less permeable to the flow of gases and has increased resistance to corrosion and erosion. The method includes coating a carbon body with molybdenum trioxide by contacting it at a temperature below the condensation temperature with molybdenum trioxide vapors and thereafter carburizing the molybdenum trioxide in situ in an inert atmosphere on the carhon body. (AEC)

  11. MG63 Osteoblast-Like Cells Response of SiC Coating for Carbon/carbon Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei-Lei; Li, He-Jun; Li, Ke-Zhi; Lu, Jin-Hua; Shen, Xue-Tao; Lan, Feng-Tao

    A SiC coating for carbon/carbon (C/C) composites was produced by pack cementation to use as a bonding and buffer layer between C/C composites and bioactive ceramic for application in orthopaedic implants. The microstructure and MG63 osteoblast-like cell responses of the coating were investigated. The results confirmed that the SiC coating displayed a dense and uniform microstructure. MG63 cells attached and spread favorably on SiC coating, and cell proliferation was better on SiC coating than on uncoated C/C composites surface. The SiC coated C/C composites have the potential to be used in artificial implants.

  12. An investigation of thin-film coating/substrate systems by nanoindentation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Thostenson, E.T.; Chou, T.W.; Riester, L.

    1998-04-01

    The indentation load-displacement behavior of three material systems tested with a Berkovich indenter has been examined. The materials studied were the substrate materials--silicon and polycarbonate, and the coating/substrate systems--diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on silicon, and DLC coating on polycarbonate. They represent three material systems, namely, bulk, soft-coating/hard-substrate, and hard-coating on soft-substrate. Delaminations in the soft-coating/hard-substrate (DLC/Si) system and cracking in the hard-coating/soft-substrate system (DLC/Polycarbonate) were observed. Parallel to the experimental work, an elastic analytical effort has been made to examine the influence of the film thickness and the properties of the coating/substrate systems. Comparisons between the experimental data and analytical solutions of the load-displacement curves during unloading show good agreement. The analytical solution also suggests that the Young`s modulus and hardness of the thin film can not be measured accurately using Sneddon`s solution for bulk materials when the thickness of the film is comparable to the loading contact radius of the indenter. The elastic stress field analysis provides a basis for understanding the experimentally observed delaminations and cracking of the coating/substrate systems.

  13. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  14. Mixed polyvalent-monovalent metal coating for carbon-graphite fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper-Tervet, J.; Tervet, F. W.; Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved coating of gasification catalyst for carbon-graphite fibers is provided comprising a mixture of a polyvalent metal such as calcium and a monovalent metal such as lithium. The addition of lithium provides a lighter coating and a more flexible coating when applied to a coating of a carboxyl containing resin such as polyacrylic acid since it reduces the crosslink density. Furthermore, the presence of lithium provides a glass-like substance during combustion which holds the fiber together resulting in slow, even combustion with much reduced evolution of conductive fragments. The coated fibers are utilized as fiber reinforcement for composites.

  15. Metallic conductivity transition of carbon nanotube yarns coated with silver particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daohong; Zhang, Yunhe; Miao, Menghe

    2014-07-01

    Dry spun carbon nanotube yarns made from vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube forests possess high mechanical strength and behave like semiconductors with electrical conductivity of the order of 4 × 104 S m-1. Coating a submicron-thick film of silver particle-filled polymer on the surface increased the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotube yarn by 60-fold without significantly sacrificing its mechanical strength. The transitional characteristics of the silver-coated carbon nanotube yarn were investigated by varying the take-up ratio of the silver coating. A step change in conductivity was observed when the silver content in the coated yarn was between 7 and 10 wt% as a result of the formation of connected silver particle networks on the carbon nanotube yarn surface.

  16. Transparent Si-DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeyama, Masami; Sonoda, Tsutomu

    2013-07-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si-DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si-DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si-DLC coating's thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si-DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si-DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si-DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si-DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.

  17. Carbon fiber CVD coating by carbon nanostructured for space materials protection against atomic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastore, Roberto; Bueno Morles, Ramon; Micheli, Davide

    2016-07-01

    adhesion and durability in the environment. Though these coatings are efficient in protecting polymer composites, their application imposes severe constraints. Their thermal expansion coefficients may differ markedly from those of polymer composite substrates: as a result, cracks develop in the coatings on thermal cycling and AO can penetrate through them to the substrate. In addition to the technicalities of forming an effective barrier, such factors as cost, convenience of application and ease of repair are important considerations in the selection of a coating for a particular application. The latter issues drive the aerospace research toward the development of novel light composite materials, like the so called polymer nanocomposites, which are materials with a polymer matrix and a filler with at least one dimension less than 100 nanometers. Current interest in nanocomposites has been generated and maintained because nanoparticle-filled polymers exhibit unique combinations of properties not achievable with traditional composites. These combinations of properties can be achieved because of the small size of the fillers, the large surface area the fillers provide, and in many cases the unique properties of the fillers themselves. In particular, the carbon fiber-based polymeric composite materials are the basic point of interest: the aim of the present study is to find new solution to produce carbon fiber-based composites with even more upgraded performances. One intriguing strategy to tackle such an issue has been picked out in the coupling between the carbon fibers and the carbon nanostructures. That for two main reasons: first, carbon nanostructures have shown fancy potentialities for any kind of technological applications since their discovery, second, the chemical affinity between fiber and nanostructure (made of the same element) should be a likely route to approach the typical problems due to thermo-mechanical compatibility. This work is joined in such framework

  18. Mass loss of a TEOS-coated, reinforced carbon-carbon composite subjected to a simulted shuttle entry environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, C. W.; Rummler, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Coated, reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edges of the space shuttle. The mass loss characteristics of RCC specimens coated with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were determine for conditions which simulated the environment expected at the lug attachment area of the leading edge. Mission simulation included simultaneous application of load, temperature, and oxygen partial pressure. Maximum specimen temperature was 900 K (1160 F). Specimens were exposed for up to 80 simulated missions. Stress levels up to 6.8 MPa (980 psi) did not significantly affect the mass loss characteristics of the TEOS-coated RCC material. Mass loss was correlated with the bulk density of the specimens.

  19. Toward uniform and ultrathin carbon layer coating on lithium iron phosphate using liquid carbon dioxide for enhanced electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seung-Ah; Kim, Dong Hyun; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Chang, Wonyoung; Yoo, Jibeom; Kim, Jaehoon

    2014-09-01

    In this communication, uniform and ultrathin carbon coating on LiFePO4 (LFP) particles are performed using liquid carbon dioxide (l-CO2)-based free-meniscus coating. The uniform and conformal coverage of the carbon layer on LFP with a thickness of 3.3 nm, and a uniform distribution of carbon on the entire surface of the LFP particle are confirmed. The carbon-coated LFP (C-LFP) with a carbon content of 1.9 wt.% obtained using l-CO2-based coating exhibits a discharge capacity of 169 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 71 mAh g-1 at 30 C, while much lower discharge capacity of 146 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 17 mAh g-1 at 30 C is observed when C-LFP with an optimized carbon content of 6.0 wt.% is prepared using conventional aqueous-based coating.

  20. Protection of nuclear graphite toward liquid fluoride salt by isotropic pyrolytic carbon coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiujie; Song, Jinliang; Xu, Li; Tan, Jie; Xia, Huihao; Zhang, Baoliang; He, Zhoutong; Gao, Lina; Zhou, Xingtai; Zhao, Mingwen; Zhu, Zhiyong; Bai, Shuo

    2013-11-01

    Infiltration studies were performed on uncoated nuclear graphite and isotropic pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coated graphite in molten FLiNaK salt at 650 °C under argon atmosphere at 1, 3 and 5 atm. Uncoated graphite shows weight gain more obviously than that of PyC coated graphite. Nuclear graphite with PyC coating exhibits excellent infiltration resistance in molten salt due to the small open porosity as conformed from scanning electron microscopy and mercury injection experiments.

  1. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  2. Voltage assisted asymmetric nanoscale wear on ultra-smooth diamond like carbon thin films at high sliding speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajauria, Sukumar; Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The understanding of tribo- and electro-chemical phenomenons on the molecular level at a sliding interface is a field of growing interest. Fundamental chemical and physical insights of sliding surfaces are crucial for understanding wear at an interface, particularly for nano or micro scale devices operating at high sliding speeds. A complete investigation of the electrochemical effects on high sliding speed interfaces requires a precise monitoring of both the associated wear and surface chemical reactions at the interface. Here, we demonstrate that head-disk interface inside a commercial magnetic storage hard disk drive provides a unique system for such studies. The results obtained shows that the voltage assisted electrochemical wear lead to asymmetric wear on either side of sliding interface.

  3. Low-frequency Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy from graphite, diamond and diamond-like carbons, fullerenes and nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Beghi, M G; Bottani, C E

    2004-11-15

    Inelastic light scattering by acoustic phonons (Brillouin scattering) is a useful tool for probing material properties at the submicrometre scale. In media which are statistically homogeneous at this scale, it gives access to the acoustic properties and the elastic moduli. In nanostructures it probes the vibrational properties at the mesoscopic scale. Applications to carbonaceous materials are reviewed.

  4. Voltage assisted asymmetric nanoscale wear on ultra-smooth diamond like carbon thin films at high sliding speeds

    PubMed Central

    Rajauria, Sukumar; Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tribo- and electro-chemical phenomenons on the molecular level at a sliding interface is a field of growing interest. Fundamental chemical and physical insights of sliding surfaces are crucial for understanding wear at an interface, particularly for nano or micro scale devices operating at high sliding speeds. A complete investigation of the electrochemical effects on high sliding speed interfaces requires a precise monitoring of both the associated wear and surface chemical reactions at the interface. Here, we demonstrate that head-disk interface inside a commercial magnetic storage hard disk drive provides a unique system for such studies. The results obtained shows that the voltage assisted electrochemical wear lead to asymmetric wear on either side of sliding interface. PMID:27150446

  5. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.

  6. Voltage assisted asymmetric nanoscale wear on ultra-smooth diamond like carbon thin films at high sliding speeds.

    PubMed

    Rajauria, Sukumar; Schreck, Erhard; Marchon, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tribo- and electro-chemical phenomenons on the molecular level at a sliding interface is a field of growing interest. Fundamental chemical and physical insights of sliding surfaces are crucial for understanding wear at an interface, particularly for nano or micro scale devices operating at high sliding speeds. A complete investigation of the electrochemical effects on high sliding speed interfaces requires a precise monitoring of both the associated wear and surface chemical reactions at the interface. Here, we demonstrate that head-disk interface inside a commercial magnetic storage hard disk drive provides a unique system for such studies. The results obtained shows that the voltage assisted electrochemical wear lead to asymmetric wear on either side of sliding interface. PMID:27150446

  7. Carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules synthesized by arc-discharge in methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, G. M.; Zhang, J. H.; Dong, Y.; Li, D.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2009-07-01

    Carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules were prepared by arc-discharging bulk yttrium in methane. The core/shell structure was obtained, where a polyhedral crystalline YC 2 core was coated by defective graphite shell with size of 1-3 nm. The hydrolyzing of the zero-dimensional superconductors YC 2 was controlled by the shell. The magnetic properties of the carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules show that the dimensional effect has a very small influence on its superconducting transition temperature. The Raman spectrum of the carbon-coated YC 2 nanocapsules shows that the shell is defective graphite and also suggests that the aberrance structure of the carbon shell is related to the zone-edge vibration of the YC 2 core.

  8. Pulsed Plasma Synthesis of Iron and Nickel Nanoparticles Coated by Carbon for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullaeva, Zhypargul; Omurzak, Emil; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Ihara, Hirotaka; Subban Ganapathy, Hullathy; Sulaimankulova, Saadat; Koinuma, Michio; Mashimo, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Fe and Ni magnetic nanoparticles coated by carbon were synthesized between the Fe-Fe and Ni-Ni metal electrodes, submerged in ethanol using pulsed plasma in a liquid method. Iron coated carbon (Fe@C) nanoparticles have an average size of 32 nm, and Ni@C nanoparticles are 40 nm. Obtained samples exhibit a well-defined crystalline structure of the inner Fe and Ni cores, encapsulated in the graphitic carbon coatings. Cytotoxicity studies performed on the MCF-7 (breast cancer) cell line showed small toxicity about 88-74% at 50 µg/mL of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles, which can be significant criteria for use them in medical cancer treatment. In addition, appropriate sizes, good magnetic properties and well-organized graphitic carbon coatings are highlight merits of Fe@C and Ni@C nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed plasma.

  9. Evaluation of a pyroelectric detector with a carbon multiwalled nanotube black coating in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theocharous, E.; Deshpande, R.; Dillon, A. C.; Lehman, J.

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a pyroelectric detector with a carbon multiwalled nanotube coating was evaluated in the 0.9-14 µm wavelength range. The relative spectral responsivity of this detector was shown to be flat over most of the wavelength range examined, and the spectral flatness was shown to be comparable to the best infrared black coatings currently available. This finding is promising because black coatings with spectrally flat absorbance profiles are usually associated with the highest absorbance values. The performance of the detector (in terms of noise equivalent power and specific detectivity) was limited by the very thick (250 µm thick) LiNbO3 pyroelectric crystal onto which the coating was deposited. The responsivity of this detector was shown to be linear in the 0.06-2.8 mW radiant power range, and its spatial uniformity was comparable to that of other pyroelectric detectors that use different types of black coating. The carbon nanotube coatings were reported to be much more durable than other infrared black coatings, such as metal blacks, that are commonly used to coat thermal detectors in the infrared. This, in combination with their excellent spectral flatness, suggests that carbon nanotube coatings appear extremely promising for thermal detection applications in the infrared.

  10. COATED CARBON ELEMENT FOR USE IN NUCLEAR REACTORS AND THE PROCESS OF MAKING THE ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pyle, R.J.; Allen, G.L.

    1963-01-15

    S>This patent relates to a carbide-nitride-carbide coating for carbon bodies that are to be subjected to a high temperature nuclear reactor atmosphere, and a method of applying the same. This coating is a highly efficient diffusion barrier and protects the C body from corrosion and erosion by the reactor atmosphere. Preferably, the innermost coating is Zr carbide, the middle coatlng is Zr nitride, and the outermost coating is a mixture of Zr and Nb carbide. The nitride coating acts as a diffusion barrier, while the innermost carbide bonds the nitride to the C body and prevents deleterious reaction between the nitride and C body. The outermost carbide coating protects the nitride coating from the reactor atmosphere. (AEC)

  11. A process for the production of a scale-proof and corrosion-resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A process for the production of a corrosion resistant coating on graphite and carbon bodies is described. The carbon or graphite body is coated or impregnated with titanium silicide under the addition of a metal containing wetting agent in a nitrogen free atmosphere, so that a tight coating is formed.

  12. On the interest of carbon-coated plasma reactor for advanced gate stack etching processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ramos, R.; Cunge, G.; Joubert, O.

    2007-03-15

    In integrated circuit fabrication the most wide spread strategy to achieve acceptable wafer-to-wafer reproducibility of the gate stack etching process is to dry-clean the plasma reactor walls between each wafer processed. However, inherent exposure of the reactor walls to fluorine-based plasma leads to formation and accumulation of nonvolatile fluoride residues (such as AlF{sub x}) on reactor wall surfaces, which in turn leads to process drifts and metallic contamination of wafers. To prevent this while keeping an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reactor wall material, a coating strategy must be used, in which the reactor is coated by a protective layer between wafers. It was shown recently that deposition of carbon-rich coating on the reactor walls allows improvements of process reproducibility and reactor wall protection. The authors show that this strategy results in a higher ion-to-neutral flux ratio to the wafer when compared to other strategies (clean or SiOCl{sub x}-coated reactors) because the carbon walls load reactive radical densities while keeping the same ion current. As a result, the etching rates are generally smaller in a carbon-coated reactor, but a highly anisotropic etching profile can be achieved in silicon and metal gates, whose etching is strongly ion assisted. Furthermore, thanks to the low density of Cl atoms in the carbon-coated reactor, silicon etching can be achieved almost without sidewall passivation layers, allowing fine critical dimension control to be achieved. In addition, it is shown that although the O atom density is also smaller in the carbon-coated reactor, the selectivity toward ultrathin gate oxides is not reduced dramatically. Furthermore, during metal gate etching over high-k dielectric, the low level of parasitic oxygen in the carbon-coated reactor also allows one to minimize bulk silicon reoxidation through HfO{sub 2} high-k gate dielectric. It is then shown that the BCl{sub 3} etching process of the HfO{sub 2} high-k material is highly

  13. Fatigue Properties of DLC-Coated Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Tatsuro; Tomita, Kouta; Kagaya, Chuji; Kumakiri, Tadashi; Ikenaga, Masaru

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of DLC (diamond-like carbon) coating on fatigue properties of austenitic stainless steel SUS304. For the DLC coating, UBMS (unbalanced magnetron sputtering) equipment was used. The generated surface layer of about 2 μm thickness was composed of both the DLC layer possessing high hardness and a very thin intermediate layer to improve adhesion force between the DLC layer and the substrate. DLC coating, which was carried out at a relatively low temperature, had no influence on the microstructure so that the mechanical properties of the stainless steel were unchanged by the coating. The results of the plane-bending fatigue test showed that the DLC coating improved fatigue strength by 18%. From the results of detailed observation conducted on the fatigue fracture surface, it was suggested that the improvement in fatigue strength resulted from the suppression of fatigue crack initiation due to the surface layer, which had high adhesion force and strength.

  14. Vacuum arc deposited DLC based coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteiro, Othon R.; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

    2002-05-01

    The great interest in the use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films as a coating material is justified by the superior wear resistance and hardness, chemical inertness, and very low friction coefficients of these coatings. Vacuum arc deposition is well suited to prepare superhard films with high sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} ratios. However, the high level of internal stresses originating during growth prevents the deposition of thick films, and their hardness makes it difficult for DLC layers to comply with substrate deformations. In order to overcome these limitations, different approaches are possible. Multilayer structures are one means to maintain the surface mechanical properties of the DLC while relieving the internal stresses. Another possibility is to dope the DLC films in order to reduce the internal stress and to stabilize the desirable sp{sup 3} bonds to higher temperatures. At higher doses of dopants, the formation of nanocrystals is possible and the properties of the coatings change drastically. All these approaches were investigated on films prepared by cathodic arc and a synthesis of the results is presented here.

  15. Carbon matter in kimberlite-like rocks of the Charteskii Complex (Subpolar Urals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaenko, S. I.; Shumilova, T. G.; Shevchuk, S. S.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of carbon material (CM) discovered in kimberlite-like rocks of the Charteskii Complex (Subpolar Urals) are considered. It is shown that CM is represented by partially oxidized graphite and optically transparent amorphous CM (presumably diamond-like carbon). The data obtained are important for estimation of the diamond potential of this object, as well as for understanding of the new mechanism of the formation of diamond-like carbon and diamond.

  16. Studies on non-oxide coating on carbon fibers using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. H.; Sharma, S.; Prajapati, K. K.; Vyas, M. M.; Batra, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    A new way of improving the oxidative behavior of carbon fibers coated with SiC through Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition technique. The complete study includes coating of SiC on glass slab and Stainless steel specimen as a starting test subjects but the major focus was to increase the oxidation temperature of carbon fibers by PECVD technique. This method uses relatively lower substrate temperature and guarantees better stoichiometry than other coating methods and hence the substrate shows higher resistance towards mechanical and thermal stresses along with increase in oxidation temperature.

  17. Microwave absorption properties of carbon nanocoils coated with highly controlled magnetic materials by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhen; Gao, Zhe; Tang, Shiwei; Chen, Chaoqiu; Duan, Feifei; Zhao, Shichao; Lin, Shiwei; Feng, Yuhong; Zhou, Lei; Qin, Yong

    2012-12-21

    In this work, atomic layer deposition is applied to coat carbon nanocoils with magnetic Fe(3)O(4) or Ni. The coatings have a uniform and highly controlled thickness. The coated nanocoils with coaxial multilayer nanostructures exhibit remarkably improved microwave absorption properties compared to the pristine carbon nanocoils. The enhanced absorption ability arises from the efficient complementarity between complex permittivity and permeability, chiral morphology, and multilayer structure of the products. This method can be extended to exploit other composite materials benefiting from its convenient control of the impedance matching and combination of dielectric-magnetic multiple loss mechanisms for microwave absorption applications.

  18. Recent Progress In The Development Of Boron Phosphide As A Robust Coating Material For Infra-Red Transparencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith L.; Kelly, Chris J.; Monachan, Brian C.

    1989-09-01

    Boron Phosphide satisfies many of the material requirements for a coating suitable for use on high velocity IR windows. Such coatings have to be robust, resistant to abrasion and to rain erosion, and also capable of surviving thermal shock. Films of BP of several tens of microns in thickness have been produced by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition on a variety of feedstocks. Growth has been achieved on a wide range of substrate materials, with no apparent limitation in film thickness, suggesting low levels of stress. The degree of optical transparency is high, covering 0.8 μm to 12 μm and beyond, with absorption levels being an order of magnitude lower than found for typical diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. The ability to survive severe erosive conditions is also significantly improved compared with DLC in wiper tests, water jet impact experiments are in whirling arm rain erosion tests.

  19. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  20. Carbon-coated LiFePO4-porous carbon composites as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ni, Haifang; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Li-Zhen

    2013-03-01

    This work introduces a facile strategy for the synthesis of carbon-coated LiFePO(4)-porous carbon (C-LiFePO(4)-PC) composites as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. The LiFePO(4) particles obtained are about 200 nm in size and homogeneously dispersed in porous carbon matrix. These particles are further coated with the carbon layers pyrolyzed from sucrose. The C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites display a high initial discharge capacity of 152.3 mA h g(-1) at 0.1 C, good cycling stability, as well as excellent rate capability (112 mA h g(-1) at 5 C). The likely contributing factors to the excellent electrochemical performance of the C-LiFePO(4)-PC composites could be related to the combined effects of enhancement of conductivity by the porous carbon matrix and the carbon coating layers. It is believed that further carbon coating is a facile and effective way to improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO(4)-PC.

  1. Influence of carbon nanotubes coatings onto carbon fiber by oxidative treatments combined with electrophoretic deposition on interfacial properties of carbon fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chao; Jiang, Jianjun; Liu, Fa; Fang, Liangchao; Wang, Junbiao; Li, Dejia; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-12-01

    To improve the interfacial performance of carbon fiber (CF) and epoxy resin, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coatings were utilized to achieve this purpose through coating onto CF by the treatment with hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid combined with electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. The influence of electrophoretically deposited CNTs coatings on the surface properties of CFs were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic contact angle analysis. The results indicated that the deposition of carbon nanotubes introduced some polar groups to carbon fiber surfaces, enhanced surface roughness and changed surface morphologies of carbon fibers. Surface wettability of carbon fibers may be significantly improved by increasing surface free energy of the fibers due to the deposition of CNTs. The thickness and density of the coatings increases with the introduction of pretreatment of the CF during the EPD process. Short beam shear test was performed to examine the effect of carbon fiber functionalization on mechanical properties of the carbon fiber/epoxy resin composites. The interfacial adhesion of CNTs/CF reinforced epoxy composites showed obvious enhancement of interlaminar shear strength by 60.2% and scanning electron microscope photographs showed that the failure mode of composites was changed after the carbon fibers were coated with CNTs.

  2. Investigation on anti-corrosion property of nano-TiO2 fluoro-carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yu-hong; Zhang, Zhan-ping; Wang, Li-li; Du, Xue-peng

    2009-07-01

    To meet the need of long-term anticorrosive protection of steel, a heavy-duty anticorrosive coating systems was developed with Fluorocarbon top paint which was modified by nano-TiO2. The corrosive characteristics of low carbon steel coated with the system were investigated in seawater by the exposition tests and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the protective system with fluorocarbon top coating modified by nano-TiO2 has much better endurance than the reference system with fluorocarbon top coating not modified by nano-TiO2. There isn't any rusting and blistering on the surface of former coating, the coating system remains in "GOOD" condition. But some rusting and blistering were found on the surface of reference coating. EIS results indicated that the impedance of the nano-coating system decreases much less than that of the reference one. The nano-coating system is hopeful to meet the need of new coatings standard and to provide a target useful coating life of 15 years for ship's ballast.

  3. Carbon coatings with olive oil, soybean oil and butter on nano-LiFePO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ketack; Jeong, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ick-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    Kitchen oils (olive, soybean and butter) are selected for carbon coatings on LiFePO 4. The surface properties of LiFePO 4 are unknown or vary depending on synthetic methods. The multi-functional groups of fatty acids in the oils can orient properly to cope with the variable surface properties of LiFePO 4, which can lead to dense carbon coatings. The low price and low toxicity of kitchen oils are other advantages of the coating process. LiFePO 4 (D 50 = 121 nm)combined with the carbon coating enhances the rate capability. Capacities at the 2 C rate reach 150 mAh g -1 or higher. The charge retention values of 2.0 C/0.2 C are between 94.4 and 98.9%.

  4. Carbon-coated iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hongsub; Ahmad, Tanveer; Rhee, Ilsu; Chang, Yongmin; Jin, Seong-Uk; Hong, Sungwook

    2012-01-01

    Coprecipitated ferrite nanoparticles were coated with carbon using a hydrothermal method. From transmission electron microscope pictures, we could see that the coated iron oxide nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average diameter of 90 nm. The strong bonding of carbon on the nanoparticle surfaces was checked by noting the C = O and C = C vibrations in Fourier transform infrared spectra. The spin-lattice relaxation process [T1] and spin-spin relaxation process [T2] relaxivities of hydrogen protons in the aqueous solution of coated nanoparticles were determined to be 1.139 (mM·s)-1 and 1.115 (mM·s)-1, respectively. These results showed that the carbon-coated iron oxide nanoparticles are applicable as both T1 and T2 contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging.PACS: 81.05.y; 76.60.Es; 61.46; 75.50.k; 87.61.

  5. Porous carbon-coated graphite electrodes for energy production from salinity gradient using reverse electrodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Yoon; Jeong, Ye-Jin; Chae, So-Ryong; Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Lee, Yunkyu; Kim, Chan-Soo; Jeong, Nam-Jo; Park, Jin-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Performance of graphite foil electrodes coated by porous carbon black (i.e., Vulcan) was investigated in comparison with metal electrodes for reverse electrodialysis (RED) application. The electrode slurry that was used for fabrication of the porous carbon-coated graphite foil is composed of 7.2 wt% of carbon black (Vulcan X-72), 0.8 wt% of a polymer binder (polyvinylidene fluoride, PVdF), and 92.0 wt% of a mixing solvent (dimethylacetamide, DMAc). Cyclic voltammograms of both the porous carbon (i.e., Vulcan)-coated graphite foil electrode and the graphite foil electrode without Vulcan showed good reversibility in the hexacyanoferrate(III) (i.e., Fe(CN)63-) and hexacyanoferrate(II) (i.e., Fe(CN)64-) redox couple and 1 M Na2SO4 at room temperature. However, anodic and cathodic current of the Vulcan-coated graphite foil electrode was much higher than those of the graphite foil electrode. Using a bench-scale RED stack, the current-voltage polarization curve of the Vulcan-coated graphite electrode was compared to that of metal electrodes such as iridium (Ir) and platinum (Pt). From the results, it was confirmed that resistance of four different electrodes increased with the following order: the Vulcan-coated graphite foilcoated titanium (Ti) meshcoated Ti platecoated graphite foil showed 5-10% higher power density than the metal mesh electrodes. From the polarization curve of the Vulcan-coated graphite foil electrode, it was found that total resistance decreased as thickness and geometric surface area of the electrode increased.

  6. Oxidation-Resistant Slurry Coating for Carbon-Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    New process uses paint sprayer and vacuum furnace to produce silicon carbide outer layer. In cross section of silicon and silicon carbide reaction zone, top layer of silicon adheres to silicon carbide layer. Crystals prominent on melted top surface of slurry coating. Process especially useful in coating repair.

  7. Coherent coexistence of nanodiamonds and carbon onions in icosahedral core-shell particles

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Vladimir Ya. Madison, Alexey E.; Mackay, Alan L.

    2007-03-01

    In icosahedral carbon nanoparticles, the diamond-like core can undergo a reversible topological transition into and coexist coherently with the onion shells. The general approach for describing and designing complex hierarchical icosahedral structures is discussed. Structural models of icosahedral carbon nanoparticles in which the local arrangement of atoms is virtually identical to that in diamond are derived. It is shown that icosahedral diamond-like particles can be transformed into onion-like shell structures (and vice versa) by the consecutive smoothing (puckering) of atomic networks without disturbance of their topological integrity. The possibility of coherent coexistence of icosahedral diamond-like core with onion shells is shown.

  8. Surface modification of polyester fabric with plasma pretreatment and carbon nanotube coating for antistatic property improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. X.; Lv, J. C.; Ren, Y.; Zhi, T.; Chen, J. Y.; Zhou, Q. Q.; Lu, Z. Q.; Gao, D. W.; Jin, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study introduced a green method to prepare antistatic polyester (PET) fabrics by plasma pretreatment and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coating. The influences of plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters on antistatic property of PET fabrics were investigated. PET fabrics were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases, and then SWCNT coating on the plasma treated PET fabrics was carried out by coating-dry-cure using various coating parameters including different SWCNT concentrations, curing times and curing temperatures. PET fabrics were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and volume resistivity. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated PET fabrics revealed the increase in surface roughness and oxygen/nitrogen containing groups on the PET fiber surface. SEM and XPS analysis of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics indicated the SWCNT coating on PET fiber surface. The plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics exhibited a good antistatic property, which increased and then decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time and output power. The antistatic property of the O2 plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric was better and worse than that of N2 or Ar plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabric in the shorter treatment time and the longer treatment time, respectively. In addition, the antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics also increased with the increasing SWCNT concentration, curing time and curing temperature in the range studied. Plasma conditions and SWCNT coating parameters had signally influence on the antistatic property of plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics. Therefore, adequate parameters should be carefully selected for the optimum antistatic property of the plasma treated and SWCNT coated PET fabrics.

  9. Semiquantitative Performance and Mechanism Evaluation of Carbon Nanomaterials as Cathode Coatings for Microbial Fouling Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiaoying; Nghiem, Joanne; Silverberg, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine bacterial attachment and survival on a titanium (Ti) cathode coated with various carbon nanomaterials (CNM): pristine carbon nanotubes (CNT), oxidized carbon nanotubes (O-CNT), oxidized-annealed carbon nanotubes (OA-CNT), carbon black (CB), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The carbon nanomaterials were dispersed in an isopropyl alcohol-Nafion solution and were then used to dip-coat a Ti substrate. Pseudomonas fluorescens was selected as the representative bacterium for environmental biofouling. Experiments in the absence of an electric potential indicate that increased nanoscale surface roughness and decreased hydrophobicity of the CNM coating decreased bacterial adhesion. The loss of bacterial viability on the noncharged CNM coatings ranged from 22% for CB to 67% for OA-CNT and was dependent on the CNM dimensions and surface chemistry. For electrochemical experiments, the total density and percentage of inactivation of the adherent bacteria were analyzed semiquantitatively as functions of electrode potential, current density, and hydrogen peroxide generation. Electrode potential and hydrogen peroxide generation were the dominant factors with regard to short-term (3-h) bacterial attachment and inactivation, respectively. Extended-time electrochemical experiments (12 h) indicated that in all cases, the density of total deposited bacteria increased almost linearly with time and that the rate of bacterial adhesion was decreased 8- to 10-fold when an electric potential was applied. In summary, this study provides a fundamental rationale for the selection of CNM as cathode coatings and electric potential to reduce microbial fouling. PMID:25956770

  10. Field emission property improvement of ZnO nanowires coated with amorphous carbon and carbon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Li, J. C.; Wang, D. F.; Liu, C.; Liu, C. S.; Fu, Q.; Fan, L. X.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we report an approach to prepare a new type of field emitter made up of ZnO nanowires coated with an amorphous carbon (a-C) or carbon nitride film (a-CNx). The coated ZnO nanowires form coaxial nanocables. The best field emission properties, which showed a very low turn-on electric field of 1.5 V µm-1 and an emission current density of 1 mA cm-2 (enough to produce a luminance of 300 cd m-2 from a VGA FED with a typical high-voltage phosphor screen efficacy of 9 lm W-1) under the field of only 2.5 V µm-1, have been obtained from the a-CNx coated ZnO nanowire field emitter among three kinds of emitters: a-C coated ZnO nanowires, a-CNx coated ZnO nanowires and uncoated ZnO nanowires. Microstructures and crystal configuration were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Band edge transition without any significant photoluminescence peak relating to intrinsic defects has been observed by photoluminescence measurement. The superior properties of the field emission are attributed to the low work function of the coated carbon nitride film and good electron transport property of the ZnO nanowires with an extremely sharp tip.

  11. TEM Studies of Carbon Coated LiFePO4 after Charge DischargeCycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gabrisch, H.; Wilcox, J.; Doeff, M.

    2006-11-30

    Carbon coating has proven to be a successful approach toimprove the rate capability of LiFePO4 used in rechargeable Li-ionbatteries. Investigations of the microstructure of carbon coated LiFePO4after charge discharge cycling shows that the carbon surface layerremains intact over 100 cycles. We find micro cracks in the cycledmaterial that extend parallel to low indexed lattice planes. Ourobservations differ from observations made by other authors. However thedifferences between the orientations of crack surfaces in both studiescan be reconciled considering the location of weak bonds in the unit celland specimen geometry as well as elastic stress fields ofdislocation.

  12. Tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnetron sputtered titanium-amorphous carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhandapani, Vishnu Shankar; Subbiah, Ramesh; Thangavel, Elangovan; Arumugam, Madhankumar; Park, Kwideok; Gasem, Zuhair M.; Veeraragavan, Veeravazhuthi; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous carbon incorporated with titanium (a-C:Ti) was coated on 316L stainless steel (SS) by magnetron sputtering technique to attain superior tribological properties, corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The morphology, topography and functional groups of the nanostructured a-C:Ti coatings in various concentrations were analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Raman and XPS analyses confirmed the increase in sp2 bonds with increasing titanium content in the a-C matrix. TEM analysis confirmed the composite nature of the coating and the presence of nanostructured TiC for Ti content of 2.33 at.%. This coating showed superior tribological properties compared to the other a-C:Ti coatings. Furthermore, electrochemical corrosion studies were performed against stimulated body fluid medium in which all the a-C:Ti coatings showed improved corrosion resistance than the pure a-C coating. Preosteoblasts proliferation and viability on the specimens were tested and the results showed that a-C:Ti coatings with relatively high Ti (3.77 at.%) content had better biocompatibility. Based on the results of this work, highly durable coatings with good biocompatibility could be achieved by incorporation of optimum amount of Ti in a-C coatings deposited on SS by magnetron sputtering technique.

  13. Carbon-coated Fe3O4 microspheres with a porous multideck-cage structure for highly reversible lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanrong; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yali; Zhong, Yijun; Hu, Yong; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2015-04-25

    A novel H3PO4 etching strategy together with subsequent carbon coating has been developed for the synthesis of carbon-coated Fe3O4 microspheres with a porous multideck-cage structure. These carbon-coated Fe3O4 microspheres manifest high specific capacity (∼1100 m h g(-1) at 200 mA g(-1)) and excellent cycling stability for lithium storage.

  14. Preparation of cribriform sheet-like carbon-coated zinc oxide with improved electrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianhang; Yang, Zhanhong; Xie, Xiaoe; Feng, Zhaobin; Zhang, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Cribriform sheet-like carbon-coated ZnO are prepared using pyrrole as the carbon source. It is found that a sheet-like precursor will form when polymerizing pyrrole in the presence of ZnO particles. After the carbonization of precursor, cribriform sheet-like carbon-coated ZnO can be obtained. Morphology and structure analysis of as-prepared carbon-coated ZnO is conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The carbon overlayer not only present a barrier layer on the surface of the ZnO particles, which keeps relative high discharge capacity by inhibiting the active materials in electrode from dissolving into electrolyte, but also modify the surface status of ZnO particles so as to obtain more uniform current distribution and improved conductivity. As a result, when evaluated as an anode material for Zn/Ni cell, carbon-coated ZnO exhibit a more stable cycle performance than bare ZnO electrode.

  15. Mechanical characterization of copper coated carbon nanotubes reinforced aluminum matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Maqbool, Adnan; Hussain, M. Asif; Khalid, F. Ahmad; Bakhsh, Nabi; Hussain, Ali; Kim, Myong Ho

    2013-12-15

    In this investigation, carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced aluminum composites were prepared by the molecular-level mixing process using copper coated CNTs. The mixing of CNTs was accomplished by ultrasonic mixing and ball milling. Electroless Cu-coated CNTs were used to enhance the interfacial bonding between CNTs and aluminum. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the homogenous dispersion of Cu-coated CNTs in the composite samples compared with the uncoated CNTs. The samples were pressureless sintered under vacuum followed by hot rolling to promote the uniform microstructure and dispersion of CNTs. In 1.0 wt.% uncoated and Cu-coated CNT/Al composites, compared to pure Al, the microhardness increased by 44% and 103%, respectively. As compared to the pure Al, for 1.0 wt.% uncoated CNT/Al composite, increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was estimated about 58% and 62%, respectively. However, in case of 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength were increased significantly about 121% and 107%, respectively. - Graphical Abstract: Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. Optimizing the plating bath to (1:1) by wt CNTs with Cu, thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm. Cu-coated CNTs developed the stronger interfacial bonding with the Al matrix which resulted in the efficient transfer of load. Highlights: • Copper coated CNTs were synthesized by the electroless plating process. • Thickness of Cu-coated CNTs has been reduced to 100 nm by optimized plating bath. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, microhardness increased by 103%. • Cu-coated CNTs transfer load efficiently with stronger interfacial bonding. • In 1.0 wt.% Cu-coated CNT/Al composite, Y.S and UTS increased by 126% and 105%.

  16. DLC coatings for UHMWPE: relationship between bacterial adherence and surface properties.

    PubMed

    Del Prado, G; Terriza, A; Ortiz-Pérez, A; Molina-Manso, D; Mahillo, I; Yubero, F; Puértolas, J A; Manrubia-Cobo, M; Gómez Barrena, E; Esteban, J

    2012-10-01

    Development of intrinsically antibacterial surfaces is of key importance in the context of prostheses used in orthopedic surgery. This work presents a thorough study of several plasma-based coatings that may be used with this functionality: diamond-like carbon (DLC), fluorine-doped DLC (F-DLC), and a high-fluorine-content-carbon-fluor polymer (CF(X)). The coatings were obtained by a radio-frequency plasma-assisted deposition on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) samples and physicochemical properties of the coated surfaces were correlated with their antibacterial performance against collection and clinical Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. The fluorine content and the relative amount of C-C and C-F bonds were controlled by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and hydrophobicity and surface tension by contact angle measurements. Surface roughness was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. Additional nanoidentation studies were performed for DLC and F-DLC coatings. Unpaired t test and regression linear models evaluated the adherence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis on raw and coated UHMWPE samples. Comparing with UHMWPE, DLC/UHMWPE was the least adherent surface with independence of the bacterial species, finding significant reductions (p ≤ 0.001) for nine staphylococci strains. Bacterial adherence was also significantly reduced in F-DLC/ UHMWPE and CFx/UHMWPE for six strains.

  17. The Influence of Calcium Carbonate Grain Coatings on Contaminant Reactivity in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Chambers, Scott; Brown Jr., Gordon E.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2001-06-01

    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely distributed through the Hanford vadose zone as a minor phase. As a result of current and past geochemical processes, CaCO3 exists as grain coatings, intergrain fill, and distinct caliche layers in select locations. Calcium carbonate may also precipitate when high-level wastes react with naturally Ca- and Mg-saturated Hanford sediments. Calcium carbonate is a very reactive mineral phase. Sorption reactions on its surface may slow the migration of certain contaminants (Co, Sr), but its surface coatings on other mineral phases may diminish contaminant retardation (for example, Cr) by blocking surface reaction sites of the substrate. This project explores the behavior of calcium carbonate grain coatings, including how they form and dissolve, their reactivity toward key Hanford contaminants, their impact (as surface coatings) on the reactivity of other mineral substrates, and on their in-ground composition and minor element enrichment. The importance of CaCO3 as a contaminant sorbent will be defined in all of its different manifestations in Hanford sediments: dispersed minor lithic fragments, pedogenic carbonate coatings on gravel and stringers in silt, and nodules in clay and paleosols. Mass action models will be developed that allow understanding and prediction of the geochemical effects of CaCO3 on contaminant retardation in Hanford sediments.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of DLC coated microdimples on hip prosthesis heads.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Dipankar; Ay Ching, Hee; Mamat, Azuddin Bin; Cizek, Jan; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Vrbka, Martin; Hartl, Martin; Krupka, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) is applied as a thin film onto substrates to obtain desired surface properties such as increased hardness and corrosion resistance, and decreased friction and wear rate. Microdimple is an advanced surface modification technique enhancing the tribological performance. In this study, DLC coated microdimples were fabricated on hip prosthesis heads and their mechanical, material and surface properties were characterized. An Electro discharge machining (EDM) oriented microdrilling was utilized to fabricate a defined microdimple array (diameter of 300 µm, depth of 70 µm, and pitch of 900 µm) on stainless steel (SS) hip prosthesis heads. The dimpled surfaces were then coated by hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Ta-C) layers by using a magnetron sputtering technology. A preliminary tribology test was conducted on these fabricated surfaces against a ceramic ball in simulated hip joint conditions. It was found that the fabricated dimples were perpendicular to the spherical surfaces and no cutting-tools wear debris was detected inside the individual dimples. The a-C:H and Ta-C coatings increased the hardness at both the dimple edges and the nondimpled region. The tribology test showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient for coated surfaces regardless of microdimple arrays: the lowest friction coefficient was found for the a-C:H samples (µ = 0.084), followed by Ta-C (µ = 0.119), as compared to the SS surface (µ = 0.248).

  19. Performance characteristics of zinc-rich coatings applied to carbon steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paton, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to evaluate the performance of topcoated and untopcoated zinc-rich coatings. Sacrificial coatings of this type are required for protecting carbon steel structures from the aggressive KSC sea coast environment. A total of 59 commercially available zinc-rich coatings and 47 topcoated materials were exposed for an 18-month period. Test panels were placed in special racks placed approximately 30.5 m (100 feet) above the high tide line at the KSC Corrosion Test Site. Laboratory tests to determine the temperature resistance, abrasion resistance, and adhesion of the untopcoated zinc-rich coatings were also performed. It has been concluded that: (1) The inorganic types of zinc-rich coatings are far superior to the organic types in the KSC environment. (2) Organic zinc-rich coatings applied at 0.1 - 0.15 mm (4-6 mils) film thickness provide better corrosion protection than when applied at the manufacturers' recommended nominal film thickness of .08 mm (3 mils). (3) Topcoats are not necessary, or even desirable, when used in conjunction with zinc-rich coatings in the KSC environment. (4) Some types of inorganic zinc-rich coatings require an extended outdoor weathering period in order to obtain adequate mechanical properties. and (5) A properly formulated inorganic zinc-rich coating is not affected by a 24-hour thermal exposure to 400 C (752 F).

  20. Sealing of hard CrN and DLC coatings with atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Härkönen, Emma; Kolev, Ivan; Díaz, Belén; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; Fenker, Martin; Toth, Lajos; Radnoczi, György; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-02-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that is based on alternating and saturating surface reactions of two or more gaseous precursors. The excellent conformality of ALD thin films can be exploited for sealing defects in coatings made by other techniques. Here the corrosion protection properties of hard CrN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on low alloy steel were improved by ALD sealing with 50 nm thick layers consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 nanolaminates or mixtures. In cross sectional images the ALD layers were found to follow the surface morphology of the CrN coatings uniformly. Furthermore, ALD growth into the pinholes of the CrN coating was verified. In electrochemical measurements the ALD sealing was found to decrease the current density of the CrN coated steel by over 2 orders of magnitude. The neutral salt spray (NSS) durability was also improved: on the best samples the appearance of corrosion spots was delayed from 2 to 168 h. On DLC coatings the adhesion of the ALD sealing layers was weaker, but still clear improvement in NSS durability was achieved indicating sealing of the pinholes.

  1. Pyrolytic deposition of nanostructured titanium carbide coatings on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremlev, K. V.; Ob"edkov, A. M.; Ketkov, S. Yu.; Kaverin, B. S.; Semenov, N. M.; Gusev, S. A.; Tatarskii, D. A.; Yunin, P. A.

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured titanium carbide coatings have been deposited on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by the MOCVD method with bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium dichloride precursor. The obtained TiC/MWCNT hybrid materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is established that a TiC coating deposits onto the MWCNT surface with the formation of a core-shell (MWSNT-TiC) type structure.

  2. Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces enhanced with sprayed on nanoscale polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    Taphouse, John H; Bougher, Thomas L; Singh, Virendra; Abadi, Parisa Pour Shahid Saeed; Graham, Samuel; Cola, Baratunde A

    2013-03-15

    Vertical carbon nanotube (CNT) forests bonded at room temperature with sprayed on nanoscale polymer coatings are found by measurement to produce thermal resistances that are on a par with those of conventional metallic solders. These results are achieved by reducing the high contact resistance at CNT tips, which has hindered the development of high performance thermal interface materials based on CNTs. A spray coating process is developed for depositing nanoscale coatings of polystyrene and poly-3-hexylthiophene onto CNT forests, as a bonding agent that mitigates thermal resistance by enhancing the area available for heat transfer at CNT contacts. Resistances as low as 4.9 ± 0.3 mm(2) K W(-1) are achieved for the entire polymer coated CNT interface structure. The suitability of the spray coating process for large-scale implementation and the role of polymer and CNT forest thickness in determining the thermal resistance are also examined.

  3. Characteristics of copper meshes coated with carbon nanotubes via electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bu-Jong; Park, Jong-Seol; Hwang, Young-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2016-09-01

    This study demonstrates the characteristics of a hybrid-type transparent electrode for touch screen panels, which was fabricated by coating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on copper (Cu)-meshes. The surface morphologies, visible-range transmittance and reflectance, and chromatic properties, such as yellowness and redness, of the fabricated CNTs-coated Cu mesh electrodes were characterized as functions of their dimensions (line-to-line spacing, line width, and electrode thickness) and compared with those of the Cu-mesh electrodes without coating of CNTs. The experimental results showed that the coating of CNTs substantially reduced the reflectance of the Cu-mesh electrodes and also improved their chromatic properties with their transmittance and sheet resistance only slightly changed, subsequently indicating that the CNTs-coated Cu-mesh electrodes possessed desirable characteristics for touch screen panels.

  4. Diamond Composite Films for Protective Coatings on Metals and Method of Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, Tiong P. (Inventor); Shing, Yuh-Han (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Composite films consisting of diamond crystallites and hard amorphous films such as diamond-like carbon, titanium nitride, and titanium oxide are provided as protective coatings for metal substrates against extremely harsh environments. A composite layer having diamond crystallites and a hard amorphous film is affixed to a metal substrate via an interlayer including a bottom metal silicide film and a top silicon carbide film. The interlayer is formed either by depositing metal silicide and silicon carbide directly onto the metal substrate, or by first depositing an amorphous silicon film, then allowing top and bottom portions of the amorphous silicon to react during deposition of the diamond crystallites, to yield the desired interlayer structure.

  5. Cr-Al coatings on low carbon steel prepared by a mechanical alloying technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hia, A. I. J.; Sudiro, T.; Aryanto, D.; Sebayang, K.

    2016-08-01

    Four different compositions of Cr and Al coatings as Cr10o, Cr87.5Al12.5, Cr5oAl5o, and Al100 have been prepared on the surface of low carbon steel by a mechanical alloying technique. The composition of each powder was milled for 2 hour in a stainless steel crucible with a ball to powder ratio of 10:1. Hereafter, the Cr-Al powder and substrate were mechanical alloyed in air for 1 hour. Heat treatment of coated sample were carried out at 800°C in a vacuum furnace. In order to characterize the phase composition and microstructure of the coating before and after heat treatment, XRD and SEM-EDX were used. The results show that Cr, Cr-Al or Al coatings were formed on the surface of low carbon steel. After heat treatment, new phases and interdiffusion zone were formed in the coating and at the coating/steel interface, depending on the coating composition.

  6. Characterization and nanomechanical properties of novel dental implant coatings containing copper decorated-carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Sasani, N; Vahdati Khaki, J; Mojtaba Zebarjad, S

    2014-09-01

    Fluorapatite-titania coated Ti-based implants are promising for using in dental surgery for restoring teeth. One of the challenges in implantology is to achieve a bioactive coating with appropriate mechanical properties. In this research, simple sol-gel method was developed for synthesis of fluorapatite-titania-carbon nanotube decorated with antibacterial agent. Triethyl phosphate [PO4(C2H5)3], calcium nitrate [Ca(NO3)2] and ammonium fluoride (NH4F) were used as precursors under an ethanol-water based solution for fluorapatite (FA) production. Titanium isopropoxide and isopropanol were used as starting materials for making TiO2 sol-gels. Also, Copper acetate [Cu(C2H3O2)2·H2O] was used as precursor for decoration of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with wet chemical method. The decorated MWCNTs (CNT(Cu)) were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The phase identification of the FA-TiO2-CNT(Cu) coating was carried out by XRD analysis. Morphology of coated samples was investigated by SEM observations. The surface elastic modulus and hardness of coatings were studied using nanoindentation technique. The results indicate that novel dental implant coating containing FA, TiO2 and copper decorated MWCNTs have proper morphological features. The results of nanoindentation test show that incorporation of CNT(Cu) in FA-TiO2 matrix can improve the nanomechanical properties of composite coating.

  7. Protection of carbon steel against hot corrosion using thermal spray Si- and Cr-base coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcayo-Calderon, J.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J. G.; Martinez, L.

    1998-02-01

    A Fe75Si thermal spray coating was applied on the surface of a plain carbon steel baffle plate. Beneath this coating, a Ni20Cr coating was applied to give better adherence to the silicon coating. The baffle was installed in the high-temperature, fireside, corrosion zone of a steam generator. At the same time, an uncoated 304 stainless steel baffle was installed nearby for comparison. For 13 months the boiler burned heavy fuel oil with high contents of vanadium. The samples were studied employing scanning electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, and x-ray diffraction techniques. After that, it was possible to inspect the structural state of the components, and it was found that the stainless steel baffle plates were destroyed almost completely by corrosion, whereas the carbon steel coated baffle plate did not suffer a significant attack, showing that the performance of the thermal spray coating was outstanding and that the coating was not attacked by vanadium salts of the molten slag.

  8. HYDROTHERMALLY SELF-ADVANCING HYBRID COATINGS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.

    2006-11-22

    Hydrothermally self-advancing hybrid coatings were prepared by blending two starting materials, water-borne styrene acrylic latex (SAL) as the matrix and calcium aluminate cement (CAC) as the hydraulic filler, and then their usefulness was evaluated as the room temperature curable anti-corrosion coatings for carbon steel in CO{sub 2}-laden geothermal environments at 250 C. The following two major factors supported the self-improving mechanisms of the coating during its exposure in an autoclave: First was the formation of a high temperature stable polymer structure of Ca-complexed carboxylate groups containing SAL (Ca-CCG-SAL) due to hydrothermal reactions between SAL and CAC; second was the growth with continuing exposure time of crystalline calcite and boehmite phases coexisting with Ca-CCG-SAL. These two factors promoted the conversion of the porous microstructure in the non-autoclaved coating into a densified one after 7 days exposure. The densified microstructure not only considerably reduced the conductivity of corrosive ionic electrolytes through the coatings' layers, but also contributed to the excellent adherence of the coating to underlying steel' s surface that, in turn, retarded the cathodic oxygen reduction reaction at the corrosion site of steel. Such characteristics including the minimum uptake of corrosive electrolytes by the coating and the retardation of the cathodic corrosion reaction played an important role in inhibiting the corrosion of carbon steel in geothermal environments.

  9. Pyrolytic carbon-coated silicon/carbon nanofiber composite anodes for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanli; Hu, Yi; Shao, Jianzhong; Shen, Zhen; Chen, Renzhong; Zhang, Xiangwu; He, Xia; Song, Yuanze; Xing, Xiuli

    2015-12-01

    Pyrolytic carbon-coated Si/C nanofibers (Si/C-CNFs) composites have been prepared through the sucrose coating and secondary thermal treatment of Si/CNFs composites produced via electrospinning and carbonization. This results in a structure in which Si nanoparticles are distributed along the fibers, with the fiber surface being coated with an amorphous carbon layer through pyrolysis of the sucrose. This carbon coating not only limits the volume expansion of the exposed Si nanoparticles, preventing their direct contact with the electrolyte, but also creates a connection between the fibers that is beneficial to Li+ ion transport, structural integrity, and electrochemical conductivity. Consequently, the Si/C-CNFs composite exhibits a more stable cycle performance, better rate performance, and higher conductivity than Si/CNFs alone. The optimal level of performance was attained with a 20:200 mass ratio of sucrose to deionized water, with a high retained capacity of 1215.2 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, thus indicating that it is a suitable anode material for Li-ion batteries.

  10. Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demas, Nicholaos G.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Erck, Robert A.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2016-04-01

    Standard nanoindentation measurements on commercially available TiAlN, CrN, metal-containing diamond-like carbon, and TiN coatings, deposited on steel substrates were performed to determine coating hardness and elastic modulus. It was found that the coating surface roughness/morphology present after deposition can significantly affect the measurements of nanomechanical properties so that measurements of these properties on the as-deposited coating surface may be significantly different from the bulk. In addition, a surface measurement may produce a lower nanohardness due to the existence of a soft surface contamination layer. A simple method was developed to enable accurate measurement of the nanomechanical properties of coatings, while avoiding errors introduced by surface topography and the presence of superficial contamination layers on thin films. Friction and wear behavior, as well as the wear mechanisms in dry reciprocating sliding contact of the various coatings with a steel ball can be correlated to the surface attributes of each coating in terms of roughness and the presence of contamination layers, both of which are shown to also affect the nanohardness measurements.

  11. Evaluating the Thermal Damage Resistance of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Lamuel; Feldman, Ari; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Lehman, John; Singh, Gurpreet; National Institute of Standards and Technology Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes and graphene are known to exhibit some exceptional thermal (K ~ 2000 to 4400 W.m-1K-1 at 300K) and optical properties. Here, we demonstrate preparation and testing of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chemically modified graphene-composite spray coatings for use on thermal detectors for high-power lasers. The synthesized nanocomposite material was tested by preparing spray coatings on aluminum test coupons used as a representation of the thermal detector's surface. These coatings were then exposed to increasing laser powers and extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The graphene/carbon nanotube (prepared at varying mass% of graphene in CNTs) coatings demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power (10.6 μm wavelength) than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens showed that the composite coating endured high laser-power densities (up to 2 kW.cm-2) without significant visual damage. This research is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation (Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems Division), under grant no. 1335862 to G. Singh.

  12. Electroless Co-P-Carbon Nanotube composite coating to enhance magnetic properties of grain-oriented electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, Vishu; Anderson, Philip; Hall, Jeremy; Robinson, Fiona; Bohm, Siva

    2016-06-01

    The effect of Co-P-CNT coating on the magnetic properties of grain oriented electrical steel was investigated. To analyse the coating, Raman spectroscopy, Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID), single strip testing, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and talysurf surface profilometry were performed. Raman spectra showed the D and G band which corroborates the presence of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT) in the coating. The magnetic nature of the coating was confirmed by SQUID results. Power loss results show an improvement ranging 13-15% after coating with Co-P-CNT. The resistivity of the coating was measured to be 104 μΩ cm. Loss separation graphs were plotted before and after coating to study the improvement in power loss. It was found that the coating helps in reducing the hysteresis loss. The thickness of the coating was found to be 414±40 nm. The surface profilometry results showed that the surface roughness improved after coating the sample.

  13. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  14. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Zhu; Brewer, Marilee; Brown, Ian; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    1994-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment.

  15. Pretreatment process for forming a smooth surface diamond film on a carbon-coated substrate

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Z.; Brewer, M.; Brown, I.; Komvopoulos, K.

    1994-05-03

    A process is disclosed for the pretreatment of a carbon-coated substrate to provide a uniform high density of nucleation sites thereon for the subsequent deposition of a continuous diamond film without the application of a bias voltage to the substrate. The process comprises exposing the carbon-coated substrate, in a microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system, to a mixture of hydrogen-methane gases, having a methane gas concentration of at least about 4% (as measured by partial pressure), while maintaining the substrate at a pressure of about 10 to about 30 Torr during the pretreatment. 6 figures.

  16. Carbon-Coated SnO2 Nanorod Array for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode Material

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Carbon-coated SnO2 nanorod array directly grown on the substrate has been prepared by a two-step hydrothermal method for anode material of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The structural, morphological and electrochemical properties were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical measurement. When used as anodes for LIBs with high current density, as-obtained array reveals excellent cycling stability and rate capability. This straightforward approach can be extended to the synthesis of other carbon-coated metal oxides for application of LIBs. PMID:20672094

  17. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, John P.; Friedmann, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced.

  18. Multi-layer carbon-based coatings for field emission

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, J.P.; Friedmann, T.A.

    1998-10-13

    A multi-layer resistive carbon film field emitter device for cold cathode field emission applications is disclosed. The multi-layered film of the present invention consists of at least two layers of a conductive carbon material, preferably amorphous-tetrahedrally coordinated carbon, where the resistivities of adjacent layers differ. For electron emission from the surface, the preferred structure can be a top layer having a lower resistivity than the bottom layer. For edge emitting structures, the preferred structure of the film can be a plurality of carbon layers, where adjacent layers have different resistivities. Through selection of deposition conditions, including the energy of the depositing carbon species, the presence or absence of certain elements such as H, N, inert gases or boron, carbon layers having desired resistivities can be produced. 8 figs.

  19. Study on the oriented recrystallization of carbon-coated polyethylene oriented ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haibo; Guo, Qipeng; Shen, Deyan; Li, Lin; Qiu, Zhaobin; Wang, Feng; Yan, Shouke

    2010-10-21

    It is confirmed that a layer of vacuum-evaporated carbon on the surface of a preoriented ultrathin polymer film can lead to an oriented recrystallization of the polymer film. This has been attributed to a strong fixing effect of vacuum-evaporated carbon layer on the film surface of the polymer. To study the origin of the strong fixing effect of vacuum-evaporated carbon layer on the polymer films, the melting and recrystallization behaviors of the preoriented ultrathin PE film with a vacuum-evaporated carbon layer were studied by using atomic force microscopy, electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We found that there exists some extent of chain orientation of carbon-coated polyethylene (PE) preoriented ultrathin film above its melting temperature. These oriented PE chain sequences act as nucleation sites and induce the oriented recrystallization of preoriented PE film from melt. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that new carbon-carbon bonds between the carbon layer and the oriented PE film are created during the process of vacuum carbon evaporation. As a result, some of the PE chain stems are fixed to the coated carbon substrate via covalent bond. Such a bonding has retarded the relaxation of the PE chains at the spot and, therefore, preserves the original orientation of the PE stems at high temperature, which in turn derives the recrystallization of the PE chains in an oriented structure.

  20. Hydroxyapatite-anatase-carbon nanotube nanocomposite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic codeposition for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bokai; Kwok, Chi Tat

    2011-10-01

    In order to eliminate micro-cracks in the monolithic hydroxyapatite (HA) and composite hydroxyapatite/carbon nanotube (HA/CNT) coatings, novel HA/TiO(2)/CNT nanocomposite coatings on Ti6Al4V were attempted to fabricate by a single-step electrophoretic codeposition process for biomedical applications. The electrophoretically deposited layers with difference contents of HA, TiO(2) (anatase) and CNT nanoparticles were sintered at 800°C for densification with thickness of about 7-10 μm. A dense and crack-free coating was achieved with constituents of 85 wt% HA, 10 wt% TiO(2) and 5 wt% CNT. Open-circuit potential measurements and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests were used to investigate the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the coatings in vitro conditions (Hanks' solution at 37°C). The HA/TiO(2)/CNT coatings possess higher corrosion resistance than that of the Ti6Al4V substrate as reflected by nobler open circuit potential and lower corrosion current density. In addition, the surface hardness and adhesion strength of the HA/TiO(2)/CNT coatings are higher than that of the monolithic HA and HA/CNT coatings without compromising their apatite forming ability. The enhanced properties were attributed to the nanostructure of the coatings with the appropriate TiO(2) and CNT contents for eliminating micro-cracks and micro-pores.

  1. Sol-Gel-Derived Hydroxyapatite-Carbon Nanotube/Titania Coatings on Titanium Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoli; Lou, Weiwei; Wang, Qi; Ma, Jianfeng; Xu, Haihong; Bai, Qing; Liu, Chuantong; Liu, Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, hydroxyapatite-carbon nanotube/titania (HA-CNT/TiO2) double layer coatings were successfully developed on titanium (Ti) substrates intended for biomedical applications. A TiO2 coating was firstly developed by anodization to improve bonding between HA and Ti, and then the layer of HA and CNTs was coated on the surface by the sol-gel process to improve the biocompatibility and mechanical properties of Ti. The surfaces of double layer coatings were uniform and crack-free with a thickness of about 7 μm. The bonding strength of the HA-CNT/TiO2 coating was higher than that of the pure HA and HA-CNT coatings. Additionally, in vitro cell experiments showed that CNTs promoted the adhesion of preosteoblasts on the HA-CNT/TiO2 double layer coatings. These unique surfaces combined with the osteoconductive properties of HA exhibited the excellent mechanical properties of CNTs. Therefore, the developed HA-CNT/TiO2 coatings on Ti substrates might be a promising material for bone replacement. PMID:22606041

  2. Dopamine as the coating agent and carbon precursor for the fabrication of N-doped carbon coated Fe3O4 composites as superior lithium ion anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Cheng; Han, Fei; Li, Duo; Li, Wen-Cui; Sun, Qiang; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Lu, An-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is an excellent and flexible agent for surface coating of inorganic nanoparticles and contains unusually high concentrations of amine groups. In this study, we demonstrate that through a controlled coating of a thin layer of polydopamine on the surface of α-Fe2O3 in the dopamine aqueous solution, followed by subsequent carbonization, N-doped carbon-encapsulated magnetite has been synthesized and shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Due to the strong binding affinity to iron oxide and excellent coating capability of this new carbon precursor, the conformal polydopamine derived carbon is continuous and uniform, and its thickness can be tailored. Moreover, due to the high percentage of nitrogen content in the precursor, the resulting carbon layer contains a moderate amount of N species, which can substantially improve the electrochemical performance. The composites synthesized by this facile method exhibit superior electrochemical performance, including remarkably high specific capacity (>800 mA h g-1 at a current of 500 mA g-1), high rate capability (595 and 396 mA h g-1 at a current of 1000 and 2000 mA g-1, respectively) and excellent cycle performance (200 cycles with 99% capacity retention), which adds to the potential as promising anodes for the application in lithium-ion batteries.Dopamine is an excellent and flexible agent for surface coating of inorganic nanoparticles and contains unusually high concentrations of amine groups. In this study, we demonstrate that through a controlled coating of a thin layer of polydopamine on the surface of α-Fe2O3 in the dopamine aqueous solution, followed by subsequent carbonization, N-doped carbon-encapsulated magnetite has been synthesized and shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Due to the strong binding affinity to iron oxide and excellent coating capability of this new carbon precursor, the conformal

  3. Facile preparation of mesoporous carbon-silica-coated graphene for the selective enrichment of endogenous peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanqing; Zhang, Qinghe; Xiong, Zhichao; Wan, Hao; Chen, Xiaoting; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich-like composite composed of ordered mesoporous carbon-silica shell-coated graphene (denoted as graphene@mSiO2-C) was prepared by an in-situ carbonation strategy. A mesoporous silica shell was synthesized by a sol-gel method, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide inside the mesopores were in-situ carbonized as a carbon source to obtain a carbon-silica shell. The resulting mesoporous carbon-silica material with a sandwich structure possesses a high surface area (600 m(2) g(-1)), large pore volume (0.587 cm(3) g(-1)), highly ordered mesoporous pore (3 nm), and high carbon content (30%). This material shows not only high hydrophobicity of graphene and mesoporous carbon but also a hydrophilic silica framework that ensures excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution. The material can capture many more peptides from bovine serum albumin tryptic digests than mesoporous silica shell-coated graphene, demonstrating great enrichment efficiency for peptides. Furthermore, the prepared composite was applied to the enrichment of low-abundance endogenous peptides in human serum. Based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry identification, the graphene@mSiO2-C could efficiently size-exclude proteins and enriches the low-abundant peptides on the graphene and mesoporous carbon. And based on the LC-MS/MS results, 892 endogenous peptides were obtained by graphene@mSiO2-C, hinting at its great potential in peptides analysis. PMID:26695263

  4. Facile preparation of mesoporous carbon-silica-coated graphene for the selective enrichment of endogenous peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanqing; Zhang, Qinghe; Xiong, Zhichao; Wan, Hao; Chen, Xiaoting; Li, Hongmei; Zou, Hanfa

    2016-01-01

    A sandwich-like composite composed of ordered mesoporous carbon-silica shell-coated graphene (denoted as graphene@mSiO2-C) was prepared by an in-situ carbonation strategy. A mesoporous silica shell was synthesized by a sol-gel method, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide inside the mesopores were in-situ carbonized as a carbon source to obtain a carbon-silica shell. The resulting mesoporous carbon-silica material with a sandwich structure possesses a high surface area (600 m(2) g(-1)), large pore volume (0.587 cm(3) g(-1)), highly ordered mesoporous pore (3 nm), and high carbon content (30%). This material shows not only high hydrophobicity of graphene and mesoporous carbon but also a hydrophilic silica framework that ensures excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution. The material can capture many more peptides from bovine serum albumin tryptic digests than mesoporous silica shell-coated graphene, demonstrating great enrichment efficiency for peptides. Furthermore, the prepared composite was applied to the enrichment of low-abundance endogenous peptides in human serum. Based on Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry identification, the graphene@mSiO2-C could efficiently size-exclude proteins and enriches the low-abundant peptides on the graphene and mesoporous carbon. And based on the LC-MS/MS results, 892 endogenous peptides were obtained by graphene@mSiO2-C, hinting at its great potential in peptides analysis.

  5. Tribological performance of NFC coatings under oil lubrication[Near Frictionless Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, O. O.; Alzoubi, M.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.; Eryilmaz, O. L.; Zimmerman, S.

    2000-01-20

    An increase in engine and vehicle efficiency usually requires an increase in the severity of contact at the interfaces of many critical components. Examples of such components include piston rings and cylinder liners in the engine, gears in the transmission and axle, bearings, etc. These components are oil-lubricated and require enhancement of their tribological performance. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) recently developed a carbon-based coating with very low friction and wear properties. These near-frictionless-carbon (NFC) coatings have potential for application in various engine components for performance enhancement. This paper presents the study of the tribological performance of NFC-coated steel surfaces when lubricated with fully formulated and basestock synthetic oils. The NFC coatings reduced both the friction and wear of lubricated steel surfaces. The effect of the coating was much more pronounced in tests with basestock oil. This suggests that NFC-coated parts may not require heavily formulated lubricant oils to perform satisfactorily in terms of reliability and durability.

  6. Optimization of Carbon Coatings on LiFePO4

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M.; Wilcox, James D.; Kostecki, Robert; Lau, Grace

    2005-07-14

    The electrochemical performance of LiFePO{sub 4} in lithium cells is strongly dependent on the structure (disordered/graphene or D/G ratio) of the in situ carbon produced during synthesis from carbon-containing precursors. Addition of pyromellitic acid (PA) prior to final calcination results in lower D/G ratios, yielding a higher-rate material. Further, improvements in electrochemical performance are realized when graphitization catalysts such as ferrocene are also added during LiFePO{sub 4} preparation, although overall carbon content is still less than 2 wt.%.

  7. Barrier properties to surrogates of hydrogenated carbon nano-films deposited on PET by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Éder C; Echegoyen, Yolanda; Nerin, Cristina; Cruz, Sandra A

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) resin was contaminated with a series of surrogates using a US Food and Drug Administration protocol. The contaminated samples were coated with two different kinds of hydrogenated amorphous carbon thin films (a-C:H): one with diamond-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon and another with polymer-like hydrogenated carbon (PLCH) phases. To evaluate the barrier properties of the a-C:H films, migration assays were performed using food simulants. After the tests, analysis by gas chromatography with different detectors was carried out. The appearance of the films before and after the migration experiments was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that a-C:H films have good barrier properties for most of the evaluated compounds, mainly when they are deposited as PLCH phase. PMID:25254307

  8. Industrially scaled pulsed laser deposition based coating techniques for the realization of hemocompatible surfaces for blood contact applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Juergen M.; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Roman; Major, Boguslaw; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Bruckert, Franz

    2008-05-01

    Non-thrombogenic blood contacting surfaces and appropriate blood flow characteristics are essential for clinical application. State-of-the-art coatings are based on heparin and struggle with the problem of bleeding. Thus, there is increasing demand for developing new coating materials for improved human body acceptance. Materials deposited by vacuum coating techniques would be an excellent alternative if the coating temperatures can be kept low due to the applied substrate materials of low temperature resistance (mostly polymers). Under these circumstances, adequate film structure and high adhesion can be reached by the Pulsed Laser Deposition at room temperature (RT-PLD), which was developed to an industrial-scaled process at Laser Center Leoben. This process was applied to deposit Ti, TiN, TiCN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) on polyurethane, titanium and silicon substrates to study the biological interactions to blood cells and the kinetic mechanism of eukaryote cell attachment. Besides high biological acceptance, distinct differences for the critical delamination shear stress were found for the coatings, indicating higher adhesion at higher carbon contents.

  9. Effects of a carbon nanotube-collagen coating on a titanium surface on osteoblast growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung Eun; Park, Il-Song; Neupane, Madhav Prasad; Bae, Tae-Sung; Lee, Min-Ho

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of collagen-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite coating deposited on titanium on osteoblast growth. Titanium samples coated with only collagen and MWCNTs were used as controls. Pure titanium was coated with collagen-MWCNTs composite coating with 5, 10 and 20 μg cm-2 MWCNTs by dip coating method. Scanning probe microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to ascertain the root mean squared roughness, structural and morphological features and, the interaction between the collagen and the MWCNTs, respectively. The biocompatibility of the collagen-MWCNTs composite coated Ti was assessed by MTT and ALP activity assays after culturing the cells for 2 and 5 days. The study reveals that root mean squared surface roughness of collagen-MWCNTs composite coated titanium is relatively higher than those of collagen and MWCNTs coated Ti. There is a strong interaction between the MWCNTs and the collagen, which is supported by the inferences made in FE-SEM and TEM studies and further confirmed by FT-IR spectra. Among all the specimens tested, cell proliferation is relatively higher on collagen-MWCNTs composite coated Ti specimen incorporated with 20 μg cm-2 of MWCNTs (p < 0.05) after 5 days of cell culture. Cell proliferation studies confirm the existence of a strong dependence of the extent of cell proliferation on the amount of MWCNTs incorporated in the composite; the higher the amount of MWCNTs, the greater the extent of cell proliferation. The higher surface roughness of collagen-MWCNTs composite coated Ti specimens is considered responsible for the relatively higher extent of cell proliferation. The MWCNTs incorporated in the composite could have also contributed to the cell viability and growth.

  10. Coating geometry of Ag, Ti, Co, Ni, and Al nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberio, M.; Stranges, F.; Xu, F.

    2015-04-01

    We present a morphology study on laser ablation produced metal nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on carbon nanotube (CNT) substrates. We analyzed the coating geometry and topography by processing AFM and SEM images. Our results show that Ag NPs aggregate together to form large agglomerates, that Ti NPs are well dispersed on the substrate surface forming a quasi-continuous layer, and that Co, Ni, and Al NPs coat quite uniformly CNTs and locally grow in a layer like fashion. We interpret the coating and clustering geometries in terms of cohesion, surface, and interfacial energies and diffusion barriers. Fractal analysis of composites morphology suggests the formation of structures with a smoother topography relative to pure carbon nanotubes for reactive metal nanoparticles.

  11. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability.

  12. Oleic acid-grafted chitosan/graphene oxide composite coating for corrosion protection of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Fayyad, Eman M; Sadasivuni, Kishor Kumar; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    2016-10-20

    An anticorrosion coating film based on the formation of nanocomposite coating is reported in this study. The composite consisted of chitosan (green matrix), oleic acid, and graphene oxide (nano filler). The nanocomposite coating was arranged on the surface of carbon steel, and the corrosion resistance was monitored using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP). Compared to the pure chitosan (CS) coating, the corrosion resistance of oleic acid-modified chitosan/graphene oxide film (CS/GO-OA) is increased by 100 folds. Since the well-dispersed smart grafted nanolayers delayed the penetration rate of corrosive species and thus maintained long term anticorrosive stability which is correlated with hydrophobicity and permeability. PMID:27474635

  13. Synthesis and Photocatalytic Activity of Anatase TiO2 Nanoparticles-coated Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yi; Heo, Sung Hwan; Yoo, Seung Hwa; Ali, Ghafar; Cho, Sung Oh

    2010-03-01

    A simple and straightforward approach to prepare TiO2-coated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with the average size ~8 nm were coated on CNTs from peroxo titanic acid (PTA) precursor even at low temperature of 100 °C. We demonstrate the effects of CNTs/TiO2 molar ratio on the adsorption capability and photocatalytic efficiency under UV-visible irradiation. The samples showed not only good optical absorption in visible range, but also great adsorption capacity for methyl orange (MO) dye molecules. These properties facilitated the great enhancement of photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs photocatalysts. The TiO2 NPs-coated CNTs exhibited 2.45 times higher photocatalytic activity for MO degradation than that of pure TiO2.

  14. Preparation of ZrC nano-particles reinforced amorphous carbon composite coating by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, W.; Xiong, X.; Huang, B. Y.; Li, G. D.; Zhang, H. B.; Xiao, P.; Chen, Z. K.; Zheng, X. L.

    2009-05-01

    To eliminate cracks caused by thermal expansion mismatch between ZrC coating and carbon-carbon composites, a kind of ZrC/C composite coating was designed as an interlayer. The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition was used as a method to achieve co-deposition of ZrC and C from ZrCl 4-C 3H 6-H 2-Ar source. Zirconium tetrachloride (ZrCl 4) powder carrier was especially made to control accurately the flow rate. The microstructure of ZrC/C composite coating was studied using analytical techniques. ZrC/C coating shows same morphology as pyrolytic carbon. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows ZrC grains with size of 10-50 nm embed in turbostratic carbon. The formation mechanism is that the growth of ZrC crystals was inhibited by surrounding pyrolytic carbon and kept as nano-particles. Fracture morphologies imply good combination between coating and substrate. The ZrC crystals have stoichiometric proportion near 1, with good crystalline but no clear preferred orientation while pyrolytic carbon is amorphous. The heating-up oxidation of ZrC/C coating shows 11.58 wt.% loss. It can be calculated that the coating consists of 74.04 wt.% ZrC and 25.96 wt.% pyrolytic carbon. The average density of the composite coating is 5.892 g/cm 3 by Archimedes' principle.

  15. Tests Of Materials For Repair Coating Of Carbon Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdowell, Louis G., III

    1995-01-01

    Report describes tests of paints (primers and topcoats) for use in recoating rusted carbon steel for protection against further corrosion. Paints selected for evaluation all designated by manufacturers as suitable for application over tightly adhering rust.

  16. Livestock Air Treatment Using PVA-Coated Powdered Activated Carbon Biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ideal biofilter media provide surface for attachment of microorganisms responsible for removing air-born contaminants while facilitating passage of air. This study evaluated the efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated powdered activated carbon particles as a biofiltration medium. This material e...

  17. Livestock air treatment using PVA-coated powdered activated carbon biofilter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) biofilters was studied using bench-scale biofilters and air from aerobically-treated swine manure. The PVA-coated powdered activated carbon particles showed excellent properties as a biofiltration medium: water holding capacity of 1.39 g H2O/g-dry PVA; wet por...

  18. Enhanced Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbon Black/Silicone Rubber Coating by Frequency-Selective Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoning; Luo, Fa; Gao, Lu; Qing, Yuchang; Zhou, Wancheng; Zhu, Dongmei

    2016-10-01

    A square frequency-selective surface (FSS) design has been employed to improve the microwave absorption properties of carbon black/silicone rubber (CBSR) composite coating. The FSS is placed on the surface of the CBSR coating. The effects of FSS design parameters on the microwave absorption properties of the CBSR coating have been investigated, including the size and period of the FSS design, and the thickness and permittivity of the coating. Simulation results indicate that the absorption peak for the CBSR coating alone is related to its thickness and electromagnetic parameters, while the combination of the CBSR coating with a FSS can exhibit a new absorption peak in the reflection curve; the frequency of the new absorption peak is determined by the resonance of the square FSS design and tightly depends on the size of the squares, with larger squares in the FSS design leading to a lower frequency of the new absorption peak. The enhancement of the absorption performance depends on achievement of a new absorption peak using a suitable size and period of the FSS design. In addition, the FSS design has a stable frequency response for both transverse electromagnetic (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations as the incident angle varies from 0° to 40°. The optimized results indicate that the bandwidth with reflection loss below -5 dB can encompass the whole frequency range from 8 GHz to 18 GHz for thickness of the CBSR coating of only 1.8 mm. The simulation results are confirmed by experiments.

  19. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Warm-Sprayed Titanium Coating on Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Amirthan; Takuma, Okada; Yamada, Motohiro; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    Polymer materials are increasingly dominating various engineering fields. Recently, polymer-based composite materials' surface performances—in particular, surface in relative motion—have been improved markedly by thermal spray coating. Despite this recent progress, the deposition of high-strength materials—producing a coating thickness of the order of more than 500 μm—remains highly challenging. In the present work, a highly dense and thick titanium coating was successfully deposited onto the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) substrate using a newly developed high-pressure warm spray (WS) system. The coating properties, such as hardness (300 ± 20 HV) and adhesion strength (8.1 ± 0.5 MPa), were evaluated and correlated with the microstructures of the coating. In addition, a wipe-test and in situ particle velocity and temperature measurement were performed to validate the particle deposition behavior as a function of the nitrogen flow rate in the WS system. It was found that the microstructures, deposition efficiency, and mechanical properties of the coatings were highly sensitive to nitrogen flow rates. The coating porosity increased with increasing nitrogen flow rates; however, the highest density was observed for nitrogen flow rate of 1000 standard liters per minute (SLM) samples due to the high fraction of semi-molten particles in the spray stream.

  20. Effect of tetrahedral amorphous carbon coating on the resistivity and wear of single-walled carbon nanotube network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ajai; Kaskela, Antti; Novikov, Serguei; Etula, Jarkko; Liu, Xuwen; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Koskinen, Jari

    2016-05-01

    Single walled carbon nanotube networks (SWCNTNs) were coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) to improve the mechanical wear properties of the composite film. The ta-C deposition was performed by using pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc method resulting in the generation of C+ ions in the energy range of 40-60 eV which coalesce to form a ta-C film. The primary disadvantage of this process is a significant increase in the electrical resistance of the SWCNTN post coating. The increase in the SWCNTN resistance is attributed primarily to the intrinsic stress of the ta-C coating which affects the inter-bundle junction resistance between the SWCNTN bundles. E-beam evaporated carbon was deposited on the SWCNTNs prior to the ta-C deposition in order to protect the SWCNTN from the intrinsic stress of the ta-C film. The causes of changes in electrical resistance and the effect of evaporated carbon thickness on the changes in electrical resistance and mechanical wear properties have been studied.

  1. Micro-oxidation treatment to improve bonding strength of Sr and Na co-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings for carbon/carbon composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Hejun; Li, Kezhi; Zhang, Yulei; Liu, Shoujie; Guo, Qian; Li, Shaoxian

    2016-08-01

    To improve the bonding strength of Sr and Na co-substituted hydroxyapatite (SNH) coatings for carbon/carbon composites, carbon/carbon composites are surface modified by micro-oxidation treatment. The micro-oxidation treatment could generate large number of pores containing oxygenic functional groups on the surface of carbon/carbon composites. SNH is nucleated on the inwall of the pores and form a flaky shape coating with 10-50 nm in thickness and 200-900 nm in width. The bonding strength between SNH coating and carbon/carbon composites increases from 4.27 ± 0.26 MPa to 10.57 ± 0.38 MPa after the micro-oxidation treatment. The promotion of bonding strength is mainly attributed to the pinning effect caused by the pores and chemical bonding generated by the oxygenic functional groups.

  2. Analysis of Wear Mechanisms in Low Friction, Nanocomposite AlMgB14-TiB2 Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Bruce A; Harringa, J; Anderegg, A; Russell, A M; Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Higdon, Clifton; Elmoursi, Alaa A

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in coating science and technology offer new opportunities to enhance the energy-efficiency and performance of industrial machinery such as hydraulic fluid pumps and motors. The lubricated friction and wear characteristics of two wear-resistant coatings, diamond-like carbon and a nanocomposite material based on AlMgB{sub 14}-50 vol.% TiB{sub 2}, were compared in pin-on-disk tribotests using Mobil DTE-24{trademark} oil as the lubricant. In each case, the pins were fixed 9.53 mm diameter spheres of AISI 52100 steel, the load was 10 N, and the speed 0.5 m/s in all tests. Average steady-state friction coefficient values of 0.10 and 0.08 were measured for the DLC and nanocomposite, respectively. The coatings and their 52100 steel counterfaces were analyzed after the tests by X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy for evidence of material transfer or tribo-chemical reactions. The low-friction behavior of the boride nanocomposite coating is due to the formation of lubricative boric acid, B(OH){sub 3}. In contrast, the low-friction behavior of the DLC coating is related to the relatively low dielectric constant of the oil-based lubricant, leading to desorption of surface hydrogen from the coating.

  3. Color Anodizing of Titanium Coated Rolled Carbon Steel Plate

    SciTech Connect

    Sarajan, Zohair; Mobarakeh, Hooman Nikbakht; Namiranian, Sohrab

    2011-12-26

    As an important kind of structural materials, the titanium cladded steel plates have the advantages of both metals and have been applied in aviation, spaceflight, chemical and nuclear industries. In this study, the specimens which were prepared under soldering mechanism during rolling were anodized by electrochemical process under a given conditions. The color anodizing takes place by physical phenomenon of color interference. Part of incident light on the titanium oxide is reflected and the other part reflects inside coated titanium layer. Major part of the light which reflects from titanium-oxide interface, reflects again inside of the oxide layer.

  4. Influence of carbon nanotube addition on sliding wear behaviour of pulse electrodeposited cobalt (Co)-phosphorus (P) coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward Anand, E.; Natarajan, S.

    2015-09-01

    This work examines the sliding wear behaviour of nanostructured cobalt-phosphorus (Co-P) alloy electrodeposits reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus alloy coatings reinforced with carbon nanotubes were produced by pulse electrodeposition from an aqueous bath. Tribological properties of the coatings with and without MWCNT addition were characterized. Anisotropic tribological behaviour was observed for the coatings reinforced with MWCNTs when slided against hard steel counterparts. The nanocrystalline Co-P-CNT coatings display better wear resistance and friction reduction compared with the nanocrystalline Co-P coating. The friction coefficients and wear rates of the nanocrystalline Co-P-CNT coating are influenced by the test conditions including the applied load, sliding speed and more importantly the alignment of MWCNTs in the deposits. The wear mechanisms of the nanocrystalline Co-P and Co-P-CNT alloy coatings involved in different sliding conditions are explained related to their friction and wear properties.

  5. Friction and wear behaviour of Mo-W doped carbon-based coating during boundary lubricated sliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Mandal, Paranjayee; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Sáfrán, G.; Tietema, R.; Doerwald, D.

    2016-03-01

    A molybdenum and tungsten doped carbon-based coating (Mo-W-C) was developed in order to provide low friction in boundary lubricated sliding condition at ambient and at high temperature. The Mo-W-C coating showed the lowest friction coefficient among a number of commercially available state-of-the-art DLC coatings at ambient temperature. At elevated temperature (200 °C), Mo-W-C coating showed a significant reduction in friction coefficient with sliding distance in contrast to DLC coatings. Raman spectroscopy revealed the importance of combined Mo and W doping for achieving low friction at both ambient and high temperature. The significant decrease in friction and wear rate was attributed to the presence of graphitic carbon debris (from coating) and 'in situ' formed metal sulphides (WS2 and MoS2, where metals were supplied from coating and sulphur from engine oil) in the transfer layer.

  6. Electron Cloud in Steel Beam Pipe vs Titanium Nitride Coated and Amorphous Carbon Coated Beam Pipes in Fermilab's Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Backfish, Michael

    2013-04-01

    This paper documents the use of four retarding field analyzers (RFAs) to measure electron cloud signals created in Fermilab’s Main Injector during 120 GeV operations. The first data set was taken from September 11, 2009 to July 4, 2010. This data set is used to compare two different types of beam pipe that were installed in the accelerator. Two RFAs were installed in a normal steel beam pipe like the rest of the Main Injector while another two were installed in a one meter section of beam pipe that was coated on the inside with titanium nitride (TiN). A second data run started on August 23, 2010 and ended on January 10, 2011 when Main Injector beam intensities were reduced thus eliminating the electron cloud. This second run uses the same RFA setup but the TiN coated beam pipe was replaced by a one meter section coated with amorphous carbon (aC). This section of beam pipe was provided by CERN in an effort to better understand how an aC coating will perform over time in an accelerator. The research consists of three basic parts: (a) continuously monitoring the conditioning of the three different types of beam pipe over both time and absorbed electrons (b) measurement of the characteristics of the surrounding magnetic fields in the Main Injector in order to better relate actual data observed in the Main Injector with that of simulations (c) measurement of the energy spectrum of the electron cloud signals using retarding field analyzers in all three types of beam pipe.

  7. The structural-phase state of iron-carbon coatings formed by the ultradispersed particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manakova, Irina A. Ozernoy, Alexey N. Tuleushev, Yuriy Zh. Vereshchak, Mikhail F. Volodin, Valeriy N. Zhakanbayev, Yeldar A.

    2014-10-27

    The methods of nuclear gamma-resonance spectroscopy, elemental microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction were used to study nanoscale coatings. The samples were prepared by magnetron sputtering of carbon and iron particles. They alternately were deposited on monocrystalline silicon or polycrystalline corundum substrate moving relative to the plasma flows in the form of sublayers with a thickness of less than 0.6 nm up to the total thickness of 150-500 nm. Solid solutions with the carbon concentrations of up to 7.5, 12.0, 17.6, and 23.9 at% were produced by co-precipitation of ultradispersed particles of iron and carbon. Using method of conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, we detected the anisotropy of orientation of magnetic moments of iron atoms due to texturing of the formed coatings. The deviation of the crystallite orientation from the average value depends on the degree of carbonization. At 550°C, the pearlite eutectic α‐Fe(C)+Fe{sub 3}C is formed from the amorphous structure without formation of intermediate carbides. The relative content of cementite correlates with the amount of carbon in the coating. The formation of the solid solutions-alloys directly during the deposition process confirms the theory of thermal-fluctuation melting of small particles.

  8. Roll-to-roll production of spray coated N-doped carbon nanotube electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Raghavendra, Achyut J.; Podila, Ramakrishna; Parler, Samuel G.; Kaplan, James P.; Rao, Apparao M.

    2014-12-01

    Although carbon nanomaterials are being increasingly used in energy storage, there has been a lack of inexpensive, continuous, and scalable synthesis methods. Here, we present a scalable roll-to-roll (R2R) spray coating process for synthesizing randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrodes on Al foils. The coin and jellyroll type supercapacitors comprised such electrodes yield high power densities (˜700 mW/cm3) and energy densities (1 mW h/cm3) on par with Li-ion thin film batteries. These devices exhibit excellent cycle stability with no loss in performance over more than a thousand cycles. Our cost analysis shows that the R2R spray coating process can produce supercapacitors with 10 times the energy density of conventional activated carbon devices at ˜17% lower cost.

  9. Carbon-coated hexagonal magnetite nanoflakes production by spray CVD of alcohols in mixture with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Reyes, Marisol; Hernández-Arriaga, Daniel; López-Sandoval, Román

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we report a successful technique for synthesizing magnetite hexagonal nanoflakes coated with carbon layers using spray thermal decomposition, which is a reproducible method that is easy to scale up. We investigated the effects of mixing different volumes of deionized (DI) water with alcohol on the population and quality of single-crystalline Fe3O4 hexagonal nanoflakes. Methanol and ethanol were used as the carbon and oxygen source, while ferrocene was mainly used as the Fe source. To obtain a large quantity of hexagonal structures, a strongly oxidative atmosphere was required. The DI water was used to enhance the oxidative environment during the reaction and was an important component for obtaining well-shaped hexagonal magnetite crystalline nanoflakes. The use of alcohols, water and the spray chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method make this procedure easy to use. In addition, this method provides a one-step process for synthesizing carbon-coated hexagonal Fe3O4 nanocrystals.

  10. Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films for high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Fan, Xing; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2009-09-01

    Carbon-coated silicon nanowire array films prepared by metal catalytic etching of silicon wafers and pyrolyzing of carbon aerogel were used for lithium-ion battery anodes. The films exhibited an excellent first discharge capacity of 3344 mAh g-1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 84% at a rate of 150 mA g-1 between 2 and 0.02 V and a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 1326 mAh g-1 was retained after 40 cycles. These improvements were attributed to the uniform and continuous carbon coatings, which increased electronic contact and conduction and buffered large volume changes during lithium ion insertion/extraction.

  11. Dynamic behavior of iron forms in rapid reduction of carbon-coated iron ore

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Katsuyasu; Morimoto, Koji; Sugawara, T.; Dranoff, J.S.

    1999-03-01

    As a part of a fundamental study of the kinetics of rapid smelting reduction of iron oxide with solid carbon, particles of carbon-coated iron ore were prepared by heating a mixture of iron ore and phenolphthalein (a model compound of coal tar) at 773 K in a nitrogen stream. The reduction behavior of the carbon-coated iron ore particles during rapid heating was studied using a drop-tube reactor at temperatures from 1,073 to 1,773 K. The reduction extent increased rapidly with the beginning of melting at temperatures over 1,650 K, reaching 60% at 1,773 within 0.7 s. The observed changes in the distribution of iron states in the particles were successfully simulated.

  12. Final Technical Report CONDUCTIVE COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS USING CARBON NANOTUBES

    SciTech Connect

    Paul J Glatkowski; Jorma Peltola; Christopher Weeks; Mike Trottier; David Britz

    2007-09-30

    US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant for Eikos Inc. to investigate the feasibility of developing and utilizing Transparent Conducting Coatings (TCCs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) for solar cell applications. Conventional solar cells today employ metal oxide based TCCs with both Electrical Resistivity (R) and Optical Transparency (T), commonly referred to as optoelectronic (RT) performance significantly higher than with those possible with CNT based TCCs available today. Transparent metal oxide based coatings are also inherently brittle requiring high temperature in vacuum processing and are thus expensive to manufacture. One such material is indium tin oxide (ITO). Global demand for indium has recently increased rapidly while supply has diminished causing substantial spikes in raw material cost and availability. In contrast, the raw material, carbon, needed for CNT fabrication is abundantly available. Transparent Conducting Coatings based on CNTs can overcome not only cost and availability constraints while also offering the ability to be applied by existing, low cost process technologies under ambient conditions. Processes thus can readily be designed both for rigid and flexible PV technology platforms based on mature spray or dip coatings for silicon based solar cells and continuous roll to roll coating processes for polymer solar applications.

  13. Graphene coating makes carbon nanotube aerogels superelastic and resistant to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu Hun; Oh, Youngseok; Islam, M F

    2012-09-01

    Lightweight materials that are both highly compressible and resilient under large cyclic strains can be used in a variety of applications. Carbon nanotubes offer a combination of elasticity, mechanical resilience and low density, and these properties have been exploited in nanotube-based foams and aerogels. However, all nanotube-based foams and aerogels developed so far undergo structural collapse or significant plastic deformation with a reduction in compressive strength when they are subjected to cyclic strain. Here, we show that an inelastic aerogel made of single-walled carbon nanotubes can be transformed into a superelastic material by coating it with between one and five layers of graphene nanoplates. The graphene-coated aerogel exhibits no change in mechanical properties after more than 1 × 10(6) compressive cycles, and its original shape can be recovered quickly after compression release. Moreover, the coating does not affect the structural integrity of the nanotubes or the compressibility and porosity of the nanotube network. The coating also increases Young's modulus and energy storage modulus by a factor of ∼6, and the loss modulus by a factor of ∼3. We attribute the superelasticity and complete fatigue resistance to the graphene coating strengthening the existing crosslinking points or 'nodes' in the aerogel. PMID:22820743

  14. The Electrochemical Behavior of Zn-Mn Alloy Coating in Carbonated Concrete Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touazi, S.; Bučko, M.; Makhloufi, L.; Legat, A.; Bajat, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    In order to improve the protective performance of Zn coating on reinforcing steel in concrete, the electrochemical deposition of Zn-Mn coatings was conducted on steel surface. The morphology, chemical and phase compositions of Zn-Mn coatings obtained from sulfate-citrate bath were investigated in the first part of paper. In the second part, the obtained deposits were tested in solution simulating carbonated concrete, consisting of NaHCO3 and Na2CO3. Data obtained from Tafel analysis showed higher corrosion resistance for Zn-Mn alloy deposits obtained at -1700 and -1800mV versus SCE, when compared to pure Zn deposit. Impedance spectroscopy investigations revealed that the total impedance of Zn-Mn coatings increased steadily with time, and was significantly higher as compared to pure Zn after 24h in corrosion solution. On the contrary, for pure Zn, the impedance increased in the first 12h, and then decreased during prolonged exposure time, which can be explained by rapid growth of nonprotective white rust and the degradation of zinc coating, as was confirmed by optical microscope after 24h of immersion in carbonated concrete pore solution.

  15. Role of third bodies in friction and wear of protective coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, I. L.; Dvorak, S. D.; Wahl, K. J.; Scharf, T. W.

    2003-09-01

    The literature on protective tribological coatings often focuses on correlations with measurable coating properties (composition, structure, and mechanical) but ignores the mechanisms of friction and wear. In fact, long-lived coatings often survive because of third bodies that form inside the moving contact. This article reviews earlier studies of third body processes carried out by mainly ex situ methods and reports more recent studies investigating third body processes using in situ techniques. Direct evidence that third bodies control friction and wear processes has been obtained with a tribometer incorporating in situ optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Videotapes and Raman spectra of the sliding contact were recorded during reciprocating sliding tests performed in both dry and humid air with transparent hemispheres (glass or sapphire). Third body processes were correlated directly to friction and wear behavior of three low friction coatings: amorphous Pb-Mo-S diamond-like carbon (DLC); and annealed boron carbide. In all three cases, the friction behavior could be explained in terms of the relative motion between a transfer film on the hemisphere and the wear track. With amorphous Pb-Mo-S, the transfer film was MoS2; with DLC, it was a graphite-like carbon; and with annealed boron carbide, it was either a mix of H3BO3 and carbon (at μ=0.08) or, when the H3BO3 wore away, carbon alone (at μ=0.2). Friction rises with Pb-Mo-S and DLC in humid air were ascribed to a change in interfacial shear strength; friction spikes and fluctuations with DLC were associated with periodic loss of transfer film thickness. For all three coatings, interfacial sliding between transfer film and wear track on coating was the dominant velocity accommodation mode.

  16. Improving the quality of asphalt coating with carbon nanomodifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larisa, Urkhanova; Nikolay, Shestakov; Aleksandr, Semenov; Natalya, Smirnyagina; Irina, Semenova

    2015-07-01

    This article deals with the possibility of modifying the binder by adding carbon nanomodifier to bitumen to improve the quality of asphalt. Addition of 0.05%-0.5% of nanomodifier significantly changes the properties of bitumen. Asphalt with this astringent has increased strength, heat resistance and shear resistance.

  17. Coating of porous carbon for use in lithium air batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Amine, Khalil; Lu, Jun; Du, Peng; Lei, Yu; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2015-04-14

    A cathode includes a carbon material having a surface, the surface having a first thin layer of an inert material and a first catalyst overlaying the first thin layer, the first catalyst including metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the cathode is configured for use as the cathode of a lithium-air battery.

  18. Chemical Sensing with Polyaniline Coated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Mengning; Tang, Yifan; Gou, Pingping; Reber, Michael J; Star, Alexander

    2011-01-25

    Single-walled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (SWNT/PAni) nanocomposite with controlled core/shell morphology was synthesized by a noncovalent functionalization approach. Unique electron interactions between the SWNT core and the PAni shell were studied electrochemically and spectroscopically, and superior sensor performance to chemical gases and vapors was demonstrated.

  19. Carbide Coatings for Nickel Alloys, Graphite and Carbon/Carbon Composites to be used in Fluoride Salt Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, Denis; Zhang, Dajie

    2015-10-22

    The focus of this research was concerned with developing materials technology that supports the evolution of Generation IV Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) concepts. Specifically, we investigate refractory carbide coatings for 1) nickel alloys, and 2) commercial carbon-carbon composites (CCCs). Numerous compelling reasons have driven us to focus on carbon and carbide materials. First, unlike metals, the strength and modulus of CCCs increase with rising temperature. Secondly, graphite and carbon composites have been proven effective for resisting highly corrosive fluoride melts such as molten cryolite [Na₃AlF₆] at ~1000°C in aluminum reduction cells. Thirdly, graphite and carbide materials exhibit extraordinary radiation damage tolerance and stability up to 2000°C. Finally, carbides are thermodynamically more stable in liquid fluoride salt than the corresponding metals (i.e. Cr and Zr) found in nickel based alloys.

  20. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; Guo, Jiaming; Zeng, Feng; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2010-12-10

    Two kinds of porous carbon materials, including carbon aerogels (CAs), wormhole-like mesoporous carbons (WMCs), were synthesized and used as the coatings of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By using stainless steel wire as the supporting core, six types of fibers were prepared with sol-gel method, direct coating method and direct coating plus sol-gel method. Headspace SPME experiments indicated that the extraction efficiencies of the CA fibers are better than those of the WMC fibers, although the surface area of WMCs is much higher than that of CAs. The sol-gel-CA fiber (CA-A) exhibited excellent extraction properties for non-polar compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene), while direct-coated CA fiber (CA-B) presented the best performance in extracting polar compounds (phenols). The two CA fibers showed wide linear ranges, low detection limits (0.008-0.047μgL(-1) for BTEX, 0.15-5.7μgL(-1) for phenols) and good repeatabilities (RSDs less than 4.6% for BTEX, and less than 9.5% for phenols) and satisfying reproducibilities between fibers (RSDs less than 5.2% for BTEX, and less than 9.9% for phenols). These fibers were successfully used for the analysis of water samples from the Pearl River, which demonstrated the applicability of the home-made CA fibers. PMID:21074162

  1. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon material-coated solid-phase microextraction metal fibers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fang; Guo, Jiaming; Zeng, Feng; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai; Luan, Tiangang; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Tongbu; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2010-12-10

    Two kinds of porous carbon materials, including carbon aerogels (CAs), wormhole-like mesoporous carbons (WMCs), were synthesized and used as the coatings of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. By using stainless steel wire as the supporting core, six types of fibers were prepared with sol-gel method, direct coating method and direct coating plus sol-gel method. Headspace SPME experiments indicated that the extraction efficiencies of the CA fibers are better than those of the WMC fibers, although the surface area of WMCs is much higher than that of CAs. The sol-gel-CA fiber (CA-A) exhibited excellent extraction properties for non-polar compounds (BTEX, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene), while direct-coated CA fiber (CA-B) presented the best performance in extracting polar compounds (phenols). The two CA fibers showed wide linear ranges, low detection limits (0.008-0.047μgL(-1) for BTEX, 0.15-5.7μgL(-1) for phenols) and good repeatabilities (RSDs less than 4.6% for BTEX, and less than 9.5% for phenols) and satisfying reproducibilities between fibers (RSDs less than 5.2% for BTEX, and less than 9.9% for phenols). These fibers were successfully used for the analysis of water samples from the Pearl River, which demonstrated the applicability of the home-made CA fibers.

  2. Influence of (bi)carbonate on bacterial interaction with quartz and metal oxide-coated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Jik; Kim, Song-Bae

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of (bi)carbonate on the adhesion of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) to quartz, aluminum oxide-coated, and iron oxide-coated surfaces. Column experiments were conducted at various NaHCO(3) concentrations. Bacterial breakthrough curves were obtained by monitoring effluent, and mass recoveries were quantified from these curves. With NaHCO(3) concentrations varying from 0 to 200mM, the corresponding effective ionic strength varied from 0 to 149.0mM and solution pH from 6.2 to 8.7. Results show that at low and intermediate NaHCO(3) concentrations (1 and 10mM), bacterial adhesion to negatively charged quartz sand increased with increasing NaHCO(3) concentration, due to compression of the electrical double layers. At high NaHCO(3) concentrations (100 and 200mM), however, bacterial attachment to quartz sand decreased compared to the case of 10mM, possibly due to formation of short-range forces (steric repulsion/hydration force) by high ionic strength. In aluminum-coated sand, bacterial adhesion decreased gradually with increasing NaHCO(3) concentrations, due to charge modification from positive to negative by adsorbed (bi)carbonate ions. At low concentrations of 0.1 and 1mM, bacterial attachment to iron-coated sand surfaces decreased with increasing NaHCO(3) concentration, due to charge modification of coated sand surfaces from positive to negative. At intermediate concentration of 10mM, iron-coated sand surfaces were negatively charged like quartz sand, and so the presence of (bi)carbonate ions resulted in the increment of bacterial adhesion due to compression of the electrical double layers. At high concentrations of 100 and 200mM (pH 8.5-8.6), where iron-coated surfaces were negatively charged, bacterial deposition decreased compared to the case of 10mM, possibly due to the same phenomenon observed in quartz sand (short-range forces). This study demonstrates that bacterial adhesions to quartz and metal oxide-coated surfaces

  3. Carbon nanotube-coating accelerated cell adhesion and proliferation on poly (L-lactide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Eri; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Uo, Motohiro; Takita, Hiroko; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2012-12-01

    The surface of a polylactic acid (PLLA) was coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in order to improve the surface properties. In addition, its surface characteristics and cell culturing properties were examined. Whole surface of PLLA was homogeneously covered by MWCNTs maintained a unique tubular structure. MWCNT-coated PLLA showed remarkable higher wettability than uncoated PLLA. Human osteosarcoma cell line (Saos2) adhered well on the CNT-coated PLLA whereas there are few cells attached on the uncoated PLLA at 2 h after seeding. The number of the cells on uncoated PLLA was still smaller than on the MWCNT-coated PLLA at 1 and 3 days. Moreover, The DNA content in the cells attached to the MWCNT-coated PLLA was significantly higher than that on the uncoated PLLA (p < 0.05) at 1 and 3 days. There was no significant difference between the scaffolds for ALP activity normalized by DNA content at both term (p > 0.1). Therefore MWCNT-coating on PLLA improved the surface wettability and initial cell attachment at early stage.

  4. Enhanced field emission from lanthanum hexaboride coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Correlation with physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S.; Sheremet, E.; Jha, Menaka; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Ganguli, A. K.; Schmidt, H.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2014-10-01

    Detailed results from field emission studies of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films, pristine LaB6 films, and pristine MWCNT films are reported. The films have been synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. An impressive increase in field enhancement factor and temporal stability as well as a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field are observed in LaB6-coated MWCNTs compared to pristine MWCNT and pristine LaB6 films. Surface morphology of the films has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. Introduction of LaB6 nanoparticles on the outer walls of CNTs LaB6-coated MWCNTs films is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of LaB6 was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and further validated by the Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy also shows 67% increase in defect concentration in MWCNTs upon coating with LaB6 and an upshift in the 2D band that could be attributed to p-type doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal a reduction in the work function of LaB6-coated MWCNT with respect to its pristine counterpart. The enhanced field emission properties in LaB6-coated MWCNT films are correlated with a change in microstructure and work function.

  5. Enhanced field emission from lanthanum hexaboride coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Correlation with physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Patra, Rajkumar; Ghosh, S.; Sheremet, E.; Rodriguez, R. D.; Lehmann, D.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Jha, Menaka; Ganguli, A. K.; Schmidt, H.; Schulze, S.; Hietschold, M.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2014-10-28

    Detailed results from field emission studies of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) coated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) films, pristine LaB{sub 6} films, and pristine MWCNT films are reported. The films have been synthesized by a combination of chemical and physical deposition processes. An impressive increase in field enhancement factor and temporal stability as well as a reduction in turn-on field and threshold field are observed in LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNTs compared to pristine MWCNT and pristine LaB{sub 6} films. Surface morphology of the films has been examined by scanning electron microscopy. Introduction of LaB{sub 6} nanoparticles on the outer walls of CNTs LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNTs films is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The presence of LaB{sub 6} was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results and further validated by the Raman spectra. Raman spectroscopy also shows 67% increase in defect concentration in MWCNTs upon coating with LaB{sub 6} and an upshift in the 2D band that could be attributed to p-type doping. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal a reduction in the work function of LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNT with respect to its pristine counterpart. The enhanced field emission properties in LaB{sub 6}-coated MWCNT films are correlated with a change in microstructure and work function.

  6. Structure, texture, and properties of superconductive electrolytic niobium coatings on glassy carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, V. N.; Shevyrev, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Superconductive electrolytic niobium coatings 0.1-100 μm thick are prepared via electrochemical deposition onto SU-2000 glassy carbon substrates in (LiF + NaF + KF)eut-K2NbF7 molten salt. Their structure, texture, and residual stresses are investigated by X-ray diffraction methods. It is shown that, when depositing the coatings, the diffusion superconductive layer of niobium carbide is formed at the substrate-coating interface. The sequence of changes in the axis of the texture of niobium coating from <100> through <211> to a textureless state with an increase in their thickness is established. It is found that, in the interval 0.5-5 μm, the sign of the stress changes (compressive stresses change into tensile stresses) and it reaches its maximum value. With an increase in the coating thickness from 5 to 100 μm, tensile stresses decrease from 345 to 80 MPa. It is shown that the coatings formed can be used as the material for creating a working layer of a superconducting cryogenic gyroscope rotor.

  7. Production of carbon nano-tubes via CCVD method and their corrosion protection performance in epoxy based coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, M. A.; Ghauri, F. A.; Awan, M. S.; Farooq, A.; Ahmad, R.

    2016-08-01

    Good yield of carbon products was obtained by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) technique using 100-500mg of ferrocene catalyst at temperature of 900 °C and acetylene flow rate of 150-200cc/min. The effects of amount of ferrocene, temperature and hydrocarbons precursors on the yield of carbon nanomaterial's was calculated and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) andenergy- dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Good yield of carbon nanomaterials primarily consisted of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanoparticles was obtained. CNTs obtained after purification were dispersed in epoxy resin to produce composite coatings which were coated on stainless steel 316L. The coated stainless steel samples’ corrosion behavior was studied using open circuit potential (OCP), cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Results showed that epoxy coating containing 4 wt. % of CNTs offered improved corrosion resistance to stainless steel.

  8. Metal coated functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes for composite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qiang

    This study is considered as a method for producing multifunctional composite materials by using metals coated Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). In this research, various metals (Ni, Cu, Ag) were successfully deposited onto the surface of SWCNTs. It has been found that homogenous dispersion and dense nucleation sites are the necessary conditions to form uniform coatings on SWCNTs. Functionalization has been applied to achieve considerable improvement in the dispersion of purified SWCNTs and creates more nucleation sites for subsequent metal deposition. A three-step electroless plating approach was used and the coating mechanism is described in the paper. The samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Bulk copper/aluminum-SWNT composites were processed by powder metallurgy with wet mixing techniques. Coated SWCNTs were well dispersed in the metal matrix. Cold pressing followed by sintering was applied to control porosity. The relationships between hardness and SWCNTs addition were discussed. Ni-SWCNTs composite coatings were prepared by electro-composite deposition. SWCNTs were suspended in a Ni deposition electrolyte and deposited together with nickel during electrodeposition. SWCNTs concentrations in the coatings were found to be related to the SWCNTs concentration in the solution, current density and agitation rate. The microstructure of the coatings has been examined by electron microscopy. Ni coated SWCNTs were also incorporated into the high temperature Bismaleimide (BMI)/graphite composite to improve Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding and surface conductivity. The vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) was used to process these composites. Surface and volume resistivity and EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites

  9. Polyaniline-coated freestanding porous carbon nanofibers as efficient hybrid electrodes for supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Chau; Singhal, Richa; Lawrence, Daniel; Kalra, Vibha

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional, free-standing, hybrid supercapacitor electrodes combining polyaniline (PANI) and porous carbon nanofibers (P-CNFs) were fabricated with the aim to integrate the benefits of both electric double layer capacitors (high power, cyclability) and pseudocapacitors (high energy density). A systematic investigation of three different electropolymerization techniques, namely, potentiodynamic, potentiostatic, and galvanostatic, for electrodeposition of PANI on freestanding carbon nanofiber mats was conducted. It was found that the galvanostatic method, where the current density is kept constant and can be easily controlled facilitates conformal and uniform coating of PANI on three-dimensional carbon nanofiber substrates. The electrochemical tests indicated that the PANI-coated P-CNFs exhibit excellent specific capacitance of 366 F g-1 (vs. 140 F g-1 for uncoated porous carbon nanofibers), 140 F cm-3 volumetric capacitance, and up to 2.3 F cm-2 areal capacitance at 100 mV s-1 scan rate. Such excellent performance is attributed to a thin and conformal coating of PANI achieved using the galvanostatic electrodeposition technique, which not only provides pseudocapacitance with high rate capability, but also retains the double-layer capacitance of the underlying P-CNFs.

  10. CO2 sensing at room temperature using carbon nanotubes coated core fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivananju, B. N.; Yamdagni, S.; Fazuldeen, R.; Sarin Kumar, A. K.; Hegde, G. M.; Varma, M. M.; Asokan, S.

    2013-06-01

    The sensing of carbon dioxide (CO2) at room temperature, which has potential applications in environmental monitoring, healthcare, mining, biotechnology, food industry, etc., is a challenge for the scientific community due to the relative inertness of CO2. Here, we propose a novel gas sensor based on clad-etched Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) with polyallylamine-amino-carbon nanotube coated on the surface of the core for detecting the concentrations of CO2 gas at room temperature, in ppm levels over a wide range (1000 ppm-4000 ppm). The limit of detection observed in polyallylamine-amino-carbon nanotube coated core-FBG has been found to be about 75 ppm. In this approach, when CO2 gas molecules interact with the polyallylamine-amino-carbon nanotube coated FBG, the effective refractive index of the fiber core changes, resulting in a shift in Bragg wavelength. The experimental data show a linear response of Bragg wavelength shift for increase in concentration of CO2 gas. Besides being reproducible and repeatable, the technique is fast, compact, and highly sensitive.

  11. Rapid synthesis of inherently robust and stable superhydrophobic carbon soot coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmeryan, Karekin D.; Castano, Carlos E.; Bressler, Ashton H.; Abolghasemibizaki, Mehran; Mohammadi, Reza

    2016-04-01

    The fabrication of superhydrophobic coatings using a candle flame or rapeseed oil has become very attractive as a novel approach for synthesis of water repellent surfaces. Here, we report an improved, simplified and time-efficient method for the preparation of robust superhydrophobic carbon soot that does not require any additional stabilizers or chemical treatment. The soot's inherent stabilization is achieved using a specially-designed cone-shaped aluminum chimney, mounted over an ignited paper-based wick immersed in a rapeseed oil. Such configuration decreases the level of oxygen during the process of combustion; altering the ratio of chemical bonds in the soot. As a result, the fractal-like network of the carbon nanoparticles is converted into dense and fused carbon chains, rigidly coupled to the substrate surface. The modified carbon coating shows thermal sustainability and retains superhydrophobicity up to ∼300 °C. Furthermore, it demonstrates a low contact angle hysteresis of 0.7-1.2° accompanied by enhanced surface adhesion and mechanical durability under random water flows. In addition, the soot's deposition rate of ∼1.5 μm/s reduces the exposure time of the substrate to heat and consequently minimizes the thermal effects, allowing the creation of superhydrophobic coatings on materials with low thermal stability (e.g. wood or polyethylene).

  12. A highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Mohamed R.; Hafez, Inas H.; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2015-01-01

    Driven by the demand for the commercialization of fuel cell (FC) technology, we describe the design and fabrication of a highly durable FC electrocatalyst based on double-polymer-coated carbon nanotubes for use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The fabricated electrocatalyst is composed of Pt-deposited polybenzimidazole-coated carbon nanotubes, which are further coated with Nafion. By using this electrocatalyst, a high FC performance with a power density of 375 mW/cm2 (at 70 ˚C, 50% relative humidity using air (cathode)/H2(anode)) was obtained, and a remarkable durability of 500,000 accelerated potential cycles was recorded with only a 5% loss of the initial FC potential and 20% loss of the maximum power density, which were far superior properties compared to those of the membrane electrode assembly prepared using carbon black in place of the carbon nanotubes. The present study indicates that the prepared highly durable fuel cell electrocatalyst is a promising material for the next generation of PEMFCs. PMID:26594045

  13. Neutron-reflectometry study of alcohol adsorption on various DLC coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, M.; Simič, R.; Hirayama, T.; Geue, T.; Korelis, P.

    2014-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings are notable for their excellent tribological properties. Our understanding of the lubrication of DLC coatings has improved drastically over the past decade. However, only a few details are known about the properties of the adsorbed layers on DLC, which crucially affect their tribological properties under lubricated conditions. In this work we used neutron reflectometry to determine the thickness and the density of adsorbed layers of alcohol molecules on several different types of DLC coatings, i.e., non-hydrogenated (a-C) and hydrogenated, of which both non-doped (a-C:H) and doped (a-C:H:F and a-C:H:Si) coatings were used. The results showed that a 0.9-nm-thick and relatively dense (≈45%) layer of alcohol adsorbed on the a-C coating. In contrast, no adsorption layer was found on the a-C:H, confirming the important role of hydrogen, which predominantly acts as a dangling-bond passivation source and affects the reactivity and tribochemistry of DLC coatings. The incorporation of F into a DLC coating also did not cause an increase in the adsorption ability with respect to alcohol molecules. On the contrary, the incorporation of Si increased the reactivity of the DLC coating so that a 1.3-nm-thick alcohol layer with a 35% bulk density was detected on the surface. We also discuss the very good agreement of the current results with the surface energy of selected coatings found in these experiments.

  14. Coating of meso-porous metallic membranes with oriented channel-like fine pores by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Mukherji, D; Lackner, J; Wanderka, N; Kardjilov, N; Näth, O; Jäger, S; Schmitz, F; Rösler, J

    2008-02-13

    There is increasing demand to functionalize meso- and nanoporous materials by coating and make the porous substrate biocompatible or environmentally friendly. However, coating on a meso-porous substrate poses great challenges, especially if the pore aspect ratio is high. We adopted the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method to coat Ni(3)Al-based meso-porous membranes, which were fabricated from a single-crystal Ni-based superalloy by a unique selective phase dissolution technique. These membranes were about 250 µm thick and had channel-like pores (∼200 nm wide) with very high aspect ratio. Two different coating materials, i.e. diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium, were used to coat these membranes. High energy C or Ti ions, produced in the plasma plume by the PLD process, penetrated the channel-like pores and deposited coatings on the pore walls deep inside the membrane. The thickness and the quality of coatings on the pore walls were examined using the dual-beam system. The coating thickness, of the order of 50 nm, was adherent to the pore walls and was quite uniform at different depths. The carbon and the Ti deposition behaved quite similarly. The preliminary experiments showed that the PLD is an adequate method for coating fine open cavities of complex geometry. Simulations based on stopping and the range of ions in matter (SRIM) calculations helped in understanding the deposition processes on pore walls at great depths. PMID:21730712

  15. Palladium-nanoparticle-coated carbon nanotube gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Maeum; Jung, Daewoong; Lee, Gil S.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible hydrogen gas sensors were fabricated using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) decorated with Pd nanoparticles for the detection of H2 gas at room temperature. A comparative gas-sensing study was carried out on both the Pd-nanoparticles-decorated and undecorated MWCNT sheets in order to examine the effect of Pd nanoparticles on the gas-sensing performances at room temperature. Experimental results showed that the MWCNTs/Pd sensor exhibited fast response and recovery as well as high sensitivity compared with the pure MWCNT sensor. The improved sensing properties of this sensor were attributed to the spillover effect of Pd nanoparticles and the highly conductive MWCNT sheet.

  16. Boron Nitride Coated Carbon Nanotube Arrays with Enhanced Compressive Mechanical Property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Lin; Tay, Roland Yingjie; Li, Hongling; Tsang, Siu Hon; Tan, Dunlin; Zhang, Bowei; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) array is one of the most promising energy dissipating materials due to its excellent temperature invariant mechanical property. However, the CNT arrays with desirable recoverability after compression is still a challenge. Here, we report on the mechanical enhancement of the CNT arrays reinforced by coating with boron nitride (BN) layers. These BN coated CNT (BN/CNT) arrays exhibit excellent compressive strength and recoverability as compared to those of the as-prepared CNT arrays which totally collapsed after compression. In addition, the BN coating also provides better resistance to oxidation due to its intrinsic thermal stability. This work presented here opens a new pathway towards tuning mechanical behavior of any arbitrary CNT arrays for promising potential such as damper, vibration isolator and shock absorber applications.

  17. Bioglass-based scaffolds with carbon nanotube coating for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Meng, Decheng; Ioannou, John; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2009-10-01

    Highly porous 45S5 Bioglass-based foam scaffolds were coated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. By placing the scaffolds in between the two electrodes of the EPD cell, a CNT coating of up to 1 mum thickness was achieved on the surface throughout the whole three dimensional (3D) matrix. A 0.5 wt% CNT aqueous suspension was used and EPD was carried out at 2.8 V for 10 mins. The compression strength of this CNT/Bioglass composite was measured to be 0.70 MPa. Moreover the increased electrical conductivity of the composite with CNT coating was confirmed. The scaffolds have the potential for applications in bone tissue engineering due to the high bioactivity, nano-roughness in 3D and electrical conductivity provided by the addition of CNT. PMID:19437104

  18. Effects of rare earth and tantalum on graphite-like carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zuo-ping; Ma, Zhong-wei; Chen, Peng-bo; Xing, Jian-dong; Sun, Hai-lin

    2011-01-01

    The graphite-like carbon (GLC) coating with low friction and good wear resistance is appreciable to make further improvement. Ce, Y and Ta are doped into GLC by using mosaic in the target of magnetron sputtering process. The result shows that yttrium composed in chromium interlayer can increase the bonding strength and refine the microstructure of the GLC coating. For the surface layer of GLC, incorporation of Ta improves wear resistance and deposition rate, in the mean time the friction coefficient is decreased. As the modifications of interlayer and top layer are composed together to form complex GLC coating, the specific wear rate is reduced and the hardness, bonding strength and anti corrosion behavior are improved.

  19. Preparation and properties of dysprosium nanocapsules coated with boron, carbon, and dysprosium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Si, P.Z.; Brueck, E.; Zhang, Z.D.; Skorvanek, I.; Kovac, J.; Zhang, M

    2004-06-08

    Boron-coated dysprosium/dysprosium oxide, carbon-coated dysprosium/DyC{sub 2}, and dysprosium oxide-coated dysprosium nanocapsules were prepared using an arc discharge method in diborane, methane, and argon, respectively. The magnetization of these nanocapsules has been measured at temperatures between 4 and 290 K, in applied fields up to 6 T. The transition temperature of nanocrystalline Dy from the helical phase to the ferromagnetic phase is much lower than that of bulk Dy. The linear temperature dependence of the inverse susceptibility of these nanocapsules, being a mixture of superparamagnetic Dy and paramagnetic dysprosium oxide or carbide, can be explained within the molecular field theory with magnetic moments with the total angular momentum J=15/2 and the Lande factor g=4/3. We discuss the relations between the structure and the magnetization of these nanocapsules.

  20. Towards lightweight nanocomposite coatings for corrosion inhibition: Graphene, carbon nanotubes, and nanostructured magnesium as case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Robert Vincent, III

    The field of nanocomposites is a burgeoning area of research due to the interest in the remarkable properties which can be achieved through their use in a variety of applications, including corrosion resistant coatings. Lightweighting is of increasing importance in the world today due to the ever growing push towards energy efficiency and the green movement and in recent years there has been a vast amount of research performed in the area of developing lightweight nanocomposites for corrosion inhibition. Many new composite materials have been developed through the use of newly developed nanomaterials (including carbonaceous and metallic constituents) and their specialized incorporation in the coating matrix materials. We start with a general review on the development of hybrid nanostructured composites for corrosion protection of base metals from a sustainability perspective in Chapter 1. This review demonstrates the ever swelling requirements for a paradigm shift in the way that we protect metals against corrosion due to the costs and environmental concerns that exist with currently used technology. In Chapter 2, we delve into the much required understanding of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide through near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements to elucidate information about the electronic structure upon incorporation of nitrogen within the structure. For successful integration of the carbonaceous nanomaterials into a composite coating, a full swath of knowledge is necessary. Within this work we have shown that upon chemical defunctionalization of graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide by means of hydrazine treatment, nitrogen is incorporated into the structure in the form of a pyrazole ring. In Chapter 3, we demonstrate that by way of in situ polymerization, graphene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes can be incorporated within a polymer (polyetherimide, PEI) matrix. Two systems have been developed including graphene and

  1. Mesoporous carbon-zirconium oxide nanocomposite derived from carbonized metal organic framework: A coating for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Mehrafza, Narges

    2016-08-19

    In this paper, a mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a stainless steel wire for the first time and used as the solid-phase microextraction coating. The fiber was synthesized with the direct carbonization of a Zr-based metal organic framework. With the utilization of the metal organic framework as the precursor, no additional carbon source was used for the synthesis of the mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite coating. The fiber was applied for the determination of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m, p-xylenes) in different water samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Such important experimental factors as synthesis time and temperature, salt concentration, equilibrium and extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time and desorption temperature were studied and optimized. Good linearity in the concentration range of 0.2-200μgL(-1) and detection limits in the range of 0.05-0.56μgL(-1) was achieved for BTEX compounds. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.5-4.8% and 4.9-6.7%, respectively. The prepared fiber showed high capability for the analysis of BTEX compounds in different water and wastewater samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 93-107%. PMID:27451259

  2. Development of a carbon-nanoparticle-coated stirrer for stir bar sorptive extraction by a simple carbon deposition in flame.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-03-01

    Stir bar sorptive extraction is an environmentally friendly microextraction technique based on a stir bar with various sorbents. A commercial stirrer is a good support, but it has not been used in stir bar sorptive extraction due to difficult modification. A stirrer was modified with carbon nanoparticles by a simple carbon deposition process in flame and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. A three-dimensional porous coating was formed with carbon nanoparticles. In combination with high-performance liquid chromatography, the stir bar was evaluated using five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as model analytes. Conditions including extraction time and temperature, ionic strength, and desorption solvent were investigated by a factor-by-factor optimization method. The established method exhibited good linearity (0.01-10 μg/L) and low limits of quantification (0.01 μg/L). It was applied to detect model analytes in environmental water samples. No analyte was detected in river water, and five analytes were quantified in rain water. The recoveries of five analytes in two samples with spiked at 2 μg/L were in the range of 92.2-106% and 93.4-108%, respectively. The results indicated that the carbon nanoparticle-coated stirrer was an efficient stir bar for extraction analysis of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:26663510

  3. Mesoporous carbon-zirconium oxide nanocomposite derived from carbonized metal organic framework: A coating for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Saraji, Mohammad; Mehrafza, Narges

    2016-08-19

    In this paper, a mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite was fabricated on a stainless steel wire for the first time and used as the solid-phase microextraction coating. The fiber was synthesized with the direct carbonization of a Zr-based metal organic framework. With the utilization of the metal organic framework as the precursor, no additional carbon source was used for the synthesis of the mesoporous carbon-ZrO2 nanocomposite coating. The fiber was applied for the determination of BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m, p-xylenes) in different water samples prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Such important experimental factors as synthesis time and temperature, salt concentration, equilibrium and extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time and desorption temperature were studied and optimized. Good linearity in the concentration range of 0.2-200μgL(-1) and detection limits in the range of 0.05-0.56μgL(-1) was achieved for BTEX compounds. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.5-4.8% and 4.9-6.7%, respectively. The prepared fiber showed high capability for the analysis of BTEX compounds in different water and wastewater samples with good relative recoveries in the range of 93-107%.

  4. Effects of surface coating on reducing friction and wear of orthopaedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Hee Ay; Choudhury, Dipankar; Julker Nine, Md; Azuan Abu Osman, Noor

    2014-02-01

    Coatings such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride (TiN) are employed in joint implants due to their excellent tribological properties. Recently, graphite-like carbon (GLC) and tantalum (Ta) have been proven to have good potential as coating as they possess mechanical properties similar to bones—high hardness and high flexibility. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to summarize the coating techniques of these four materials in order to compare their mechanical properties and tribological outcomes. Eighteen studies published between January 2000 and February 2013 have met the inclusion criteria for this review. Details of their fabrication parameters, material and mechanical properties along with the tribological outcomes, such as friction and wear rate, were identified and are presented in a systematic way. Although experiment conditions varied, we conclude that Ta has the lowest wear rate compared to DLC, GLC and TiN because it has a lower wear rate with high contact pressure as well as higher hardness to elasticity ratio. However, a further tribology test is needed in an environment which replicates artificial joints to confirm the acceptability of these findings.

  5. Thermal Infrared Reflective Metal Oxide Sol-Gel Coatings for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Brandon Demar

    Recent trends in composite research include the development of structural materials with multiple functionalities. In new studies, novel materials are being designed, developed, modified, and implemented into composite designs. Typically, an increase in functionality requires additional material phases within one system. The presence of excessive phases can result in deterioration of individual or overall properties. True multi-functional materials must maintain all properties at or above the minimum operating limit. In this project, samples of antimony and cobalt-doped tin oxide (ATO(Co2O 3)) sol-gel solutions are used to coat carbon fibers and are heat treated at a temperature range of 200 - 500 °C. Results from this research are used to model the implementation of sol-gel coatings into carbon fiber reinforced multifunctional composite systems. This research presents a novel thermo-responsive sol-gel/ (dopant) combination and evaluation of the actuating responses (reflectivity and surface heat dissipation) due to various heat treatment temperatures. While ATO is a well-known transparent conductive material, the implementation of ATO on carbon fibers for infrared thermal reflectivity has not been examined. These coatings serve as actuators capable of reflecting thermal infrared radiation in the near infrared wavelengths of 0.7-1.2 μm. By altering the level of Co2O3 and heat treatment temperatures, optimal optical properties are obtained. While scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is used for imaging, electron diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) is used to verify the compounds present in the coatings. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was performed to analyze the chemical bonds and reflectivity in the infrared spectra after the heat treatments. Total reflection and angle-dependent reflectivity measurements were performed on the coatings in the wavelengths of 0.7-2 μm. Laser induced damage threshold testing was done to investigate the dielectric breakdown

  6. Roll-to-Roll Production of Spray Coated N-doped Carbon Nanotube Electrodes for Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakaya, Mehmet; Zhu, Jingyi; Raghavendra, Achyut; Podila, Ramakrishna; Parler, Samuel; Kaplan, James; Rao, Apparao; Cornell Dubilier Electronics, Inc. Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Although nanocarbons are being increasingly used in energy storage, there has been a lack of inexpensive, continuous and scalable synthesis methods. Here we present a scalable roll-to-roll spray coating process for synthesizing supercapacitors from randomly oriented multi-walled carbon nanotubes electrodes on Al foils, which yield high power and energy densities (~ 700 mW/cm3 and 1 mWh/cm3) and cycle stability (>10000 cycles) on par with Li-ion thin film batteries. Our cost analysis shows that the R2R spray coating process can produce supercapacitors with 10 times the energy density of conventional activated carbon devices at ~ 17% lower cost. NSF CMMI SNM Award #1246800.

  7. Measurement of molecular diffusion coefficients in supercritical carbon dioxide using a coated capillary column

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.C.; Tan, C.S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    Molecular diffusion coefficients of ethyl acetate, toluene, phenol, and caffeine in supercritical carbon dioxide were measured by a chromatographic peak broadening technique in a coated capillary column at temperatures of 308, 318, and 328 K and pressures up to 145 bar. A linear adsorption in the polymer layer coated on the inner wall of the capillary column was observed. The experimentally determined diffusion coefficients showed substantial agreement with those reported in the literature. The diffusion coefficients were in the order of 10[sup [minus]4] cm[sup 2]/s and decreased with increasing carbon dioxide density. Based on the molecular diffusion coefficient data reported here and those published elsewhere, an empirically modified Wilke-Chang equation was proposed which was found to be more quantitative than some existing equations such as the Stokes-Einstein and Wilke-Chang equations.

  8. Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Harris, Alexander

    2014-04-15

    High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

  9. Evaluating the thermal damage resistance of graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid composite coatings

    PubMed Central

    David, L.; Feldman, A.; Mansfield, E.; Lehman, J.; Singh, G.

    2014-01-01

    We study laser irradiation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chemically modified graphene (rGO)-composite spray coatings for use as a thermal absorber material for high-power laser calorimeters. Spray coatings on aluminum test coupon were exposed to increasing laser irradiance for extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The coatings, prepared at varying mass % of MWCNTs in rGO, demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power at 10.6 μm wavelength than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens show that the coating prepared at 50% CNT loading endure at least 2 kW.cm−2 for 10 seconds without significant damage. The improved damage resistance is attributed to the unique structure of the composite in which the MWCNTs act as an efficient absorber of laser light while the much larger rGO sheets surrounding them, dissipate the heat over a wider area. PMID:24603681

  10. Evaluating the thermal damage resistance of graphene/carbon nanotube hybrid composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, L.; Feldman, A.; Mansfield, E.; Lehman, J.; Singh, G.

    2014-03-01

    We study laser irradiation behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chemically modified graphene (rGO)-composite spray coatings for use as a thermal absorber material for high-power laser calorimeters. Spray coatings on aluminum test coupon were exposed to increasing laser irradiance for extended exposure times to quantify their damage threshold and optical absorbance. The coatings, prepared at varying mass % of MWCNTs in rGO, demonstrated significantly higher damage threshold values at 2.5 kW laser power at 10.6 μm wavelength than carbon paint or MWCNTs alone. Electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy of irradiated specimens show that the coating prepared at 50% CNT loading endure at least 2 kW.cm-2 for 10 seconds without significant damage. The improved damage resistance is attributed to the unique structure of the composite in which the MWCNTs act as an efficient absorber of laser light while the much larger rGO sheets surrounding them, dissipate the heat over a wider area.

  11. Carbonized polydopamine as coating for solid-phase microextraction of organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Chua, Pey Ee; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-06-19

    A facile preparation route for coating a stainless steel fiber with carbonaceous material derived from polydopamine is reported in this work. The self-oxidation induced polymerization of dopamine in alkaline solution enables growth of polydopamine on the inert surface of the fiber. The robust adhesion of dopamine to metal oxides ensured sufficient stability of the polymer coating. After carbonization of the polymer coating, the obtained carbon coated fiber was utilized for solid-phase microextraction and exhibited effectiveness in the extraction of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from aqueous solution. Extraction time, agitation speed and salt addition were optimized. The possible interference of humic acid on the extraction of these analytes was also investigated. The results showed that most of the analytes could be detected efficiently in the presence of humic acid at a concentration of 20mg/L. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factors of 102-757 were obtained for the selected OCPs in aqueous solution. The proposed method provided low limits of detection (1.4-15 ng/L), good linearity (correlation coefficients>0.9971) and acceptable precision (relative standard deviations<16.3%).

  12. Experimental lumbar spine fusion with novel tantalum-coated carbon fiber implant.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisheng; Zou, Xuenong; Woo, Charlotte; Ding, Ming; Lind, Martin; Bünger, Cody

    2007-04-01

    Implants of carbon fiber composite have been widely used in orthopedic and spinal surgeries. However, studies using carbon fiber-reinforced cages demonstrate frequent appearance of fibrous layer interposed between the implant and the surrounding bone. The aim of the present study was to test the possibility of coating a biocompatible metal layer on top of the carbon fiber material, to improve its biological performance. Tantalum was chosen because of its bone compatibility, based on our previous studies. A novel spinal fusion cage was fabricated by applying a thin tantalum coating on the surface of carbon-carbon composite material through chemical vapor deposition. Mechanical and biological performance was tested in vitro and in vivo. Compress strength was found to be 4.9 kN (SD, 0.2). Fatigue test with 500,000 cycles was passed. In vitro radiological evaluation demonstrated good compatibility with X-ray and CT scan examinations. In vivo test employed eight pigs weighing 50 kg each. Instrumented lumbar spine fusion of L3/4 and L4/5 with these cages was performed on each pig. After 3 months, excellent bone integration property was demonstrated by direct contact of the cage with the host bone and newly formed bone. No inflammatory cells were found around the implant. Cages packed with two different graft materials (autograft and COLLOSS) achieved the same new bone formation. The present study proved that coating tantalum on top of the carbon-based implant is feasible, and good bone integration could be achieved.

  13. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate. PMID:23858864

  14. Carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers for advanced hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guanglin; Li, Dan; Chen, Xiaowei; Tan, Yingbin; Tang, Ziwei; Guo, Zaiping; Liu, Huakun; Liu, Zongwen; Yu, Xuebin

    2013-11-20

    3D porous carbon-coated Li3 N nanofibers are successfully fabricated via the electrospinning technique. The as-prepared nanofibers exhibit a highly improved hydrogen-sorption performance in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. More interestingly, a stable regeneration can be achieved due to the unique structure of the nanofibers, over 10 cycles of H2 sorption at a temperature as low as 250 °C.

  15. N-doped carbon-coated tungsten oxynitride nanowire arrays for highly efficient electrochemical hydrogen evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qun; Cui, Wei; Tian, Jingqi; Xing, Zhicai; Liu, Qian; Xing, Wei; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2015-08-10

    It is highly desired but still challenging to develop active nonprecious metal hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts operating under all pH conditions. Herein, the development of three-dimensional N-doped carbon-coated tungsten oxynitride nanowire arrays on carbon cloth as a highly efficient and durable HER cathode was explored. The material delivers current densities of 10 and 100 mA cm(-2) at overpotentials of 106 and 172 mV, respectively, in acidic medium, and it also performs well in neutral and basic electrolytes.

  16. Electricity Generation from Microbial Fuel Cell with Polypyrrole-Coated Carbon Nanofiber Composite.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, with and without embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were fabricated by the electrospinning process. Polypyrrole (PPy) was coated on the activated PAN/CNT nanofiber by in-situ chemical polymerization in order to improve the electrochemical performance. The electrocatalytic behaviors of the PPy-PAN/CNT composite anode were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry to evaluate as the anode for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) application. In comparison with unmodified carbon cloth (CC) anodes, PPy-PAN/CNT nanofiber composite showed the improvement of the maximum power density by 40%. The PPy-PAN/CNT nanofiber composite electrode therefore offers good prospects for application in MFCs. PMID:26353717

  17. Eutectic bonding of a Ti sputter coated, carbon aerogel wafer to a Ni foil

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Hayes, J.P.; Kanna, R.L.

    1994-06-01

    The formation of high energy density, storage devices is achievable using composite material systems. Alternate layering of carbon aerogel wafers and Ni foils with rnicroporous separators is a prospective composite for capacitor applications. An inherent problem exists to form a physical bond between Ni and the porous carbon wafer. The bonding process must be limited to temperatures less than 1000{degrees}C, at which point the aerogel begins to degrade. The advantage of a low temperature eutectic in the Ni-Ti alloy system solves this problem. Ti, a carbide former, is readily adherent as a sputter deposited thin film onto the carbon wafer. A vacuum bonding process is then used to join the Ni foil and Ti coating through eutectic phase formation. The parameters required for successfld bonding are described along with a structural characterization of the Ni foil-carbon aerogel wafer interface.

  18. Structural and morphological properties of mesoporous carbon coated molybdenum oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayal, Saurabh; Kumar, C. Sasi

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report the structural and morphological properties of mesoporous carbon coated molybdenum oxide films. The deposition of films was carried out in a two-step process, the first step involves deposition of molybdenum and carbon bilayer thin films using DC magnetron sputtering. In the second step the sample was ex-situ annealed in a muffle furnace at different temperatures (400°C to 600°C) and air cooled in the ambient atmosphere. The formation of the meso-porous carbon clusters on molybdenum oxide during the cooling step was investigated using FESEM and AFM techniques. The structural details were explored using XRD. The meso-porous carbon were found growing over molybdenum oxide layer as a result of segregation phenomena.

  19. Tomato Seed Coat Permeability to Selected Carbon Nanomaterials and Enhancement of Germination and Seedling Growth.

    PubMed

    Ratnikova, Tatsiana A; Podila, Ramakrishna; Rao, Apparao M; Taylor, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Seed coat permeability was examined using a model that tested the effects of soaking tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) seeds in combination with carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNMs) and ultrasonic irradiation (US). Penetration of seed coats to the embryo by CBNMs, as well as CBNMs effects on seed germination and seedling growth, was examined. Two CBNMs, C60(OH)20 (fullerol) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), were applied at 50 mg/L, and treatment exposure ranged from 0 to 60 minutes. Bright field, fluorescence, and electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy provided corroborating evidence that neither CBNM was able to penetrate the seed coat. The restriction of nanomaterial (NM) uptake was attributed to the semipermeable layer located at the innermost layer of the seed coat adjacent to the endosperm. Seed treatments using US at 30 or 60 minutes in the presence of MWNTs physically disrupted the seed coat; however, the integrity of the semipermeable layer was not impaired. The germination percentage and seedling length and weight were enhanced in the presence of MWNTs but were not altered by C60(OH)20. The combined exposure of seeds to NMs and US provided insight into the nanoparticle-seed interaction and may serve as a delivery system for enhancing seed germination and early seedling growth.

  20. Tailoring Interfacial Properties by Controlling Carbon Nanotube Coating Thickness on Glass Fibers Using Electrophoretic Deposition.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Sandeep; An, Qi; Thostenson, Erik T; Rider, Andrew N; Haque, Bazle Z Gama; Gillespie, John W

    2016-01-20

    The electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method was used to deposit polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) films onto the surface of individual S-2 glass fibers. By varying the processing parameters of EPD following Hamaker's equation, the thickness of the CNT film was controlled over a wide range from 200 nm to 2 μm. The films exhibited low electrical resistance, providing evidence of coating uniformity and consolidation. The effect of the CNT coating on fiber matrix interfacial properties was investigated through microdroplet experiments. Changes in interfacial properties due to application of CNT coatings onto the fiber surface with and without a CNT-modified matrix were studied. A glass fiber with a 2 μm thick CNT coating and the unmodified epoxy matrix showed the highest increase (58%) in interfacial shear strength (IFSS) compared to the baseline. The increase in the IFSS was proportional to CNT film thickness. Failure analysis of the microdroplet specimens indicated higher IFSS was related to fracture morphologies with higher levels of surface roughness. EPD enables the thickness of the CNT coating to be adjusted, facilitating control of fiber/matrix interfacial resistivity. The electrical sensitivity provides the opportunity to fabricate a new class of sizing with tailored interfacial properties and the ability to detect damage initiation.