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Sample records for diarrhea experimentally induced

  1. Drug-induced diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  2. Evaluation of safety and protective effects of Potentilla fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tangpu, Vareishang; Deori, Khirod; Yadav, Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. (Rosaceae) have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in Northeast India to treat diarrhea. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and protective effects of P. fulgens root extract in experimentally induced diarrhea in mice. Materials and Methods: The protective effects of P. fulgens root extract was investigated against experimentally induced diarrhea in mice, using four experimental models, that is the measurement of fecal output, castor oil model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) enteropooling assay, and gastrointestinal transit test. The safety assessment of root extract was done in mice on the basis of general signs and symptoms of toxicity, food water intake and mortality of animals following their treatment with various doses of extract (100-3200 mg/kg). In addition, the serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and total protein of experimental mice were also monitored to assess the toxicity of root extract. Results: In the safety assessment studies, P. fulgens root extract did not showed any visible signs of toxicity, but mortality was observed in a single animal at 3200 mg/kg dose of extract. The extract also did not showed any adverse effects on the studied serum parameters of experimental animals. In the antidiarrheal tests, administration of 800 mg/kg dose of extract to mice showed 50% protection from diarrhea evoked by castor oil. In addition, the extract also showed 29.27% reduction in PGE2-induced intestinal secretion as compared with 30.31% recorded for loperamide, a standard antidiarrheal drug. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that P. fulgens root extract possesses significant antidiarrheal properties. Therefore, the roots of this plant can be an effective traditional medicine for protection from diarrhea. PMID:26401356

  3. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally induced diarrhea in rats.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, O S; Akomolafe, R O; Ojabo, C O; Eru, E U; Olaleye, S B

    2014-01-01

    Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS) can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. Several mechanisms of action of zinc has been proposed, however there is dearth of information about the effect of zinc on intestinal motility during diarrhea. Male albino Wistar rats (80-100g) were used. The effect of different doses of zinc sulphate (25, 50, 100, 150 mg/Kg) on the number of wet faeces was investigated. Intestinal motility during castor oil induced diarrhea was assessed using activated charcoal meal and the mechanisms of action of zinc sulphate on motility were investigated. The effective dose of zinc sulphate (100mg/Kg) significantly reduced (p< 0.001) the number of wet faeces (3.0 ± 0.00) compared with control (6.8 ± 0.25) during diarrhea. This antidiarrheal effect of zinc was abolished by propranolol and nifedipine. Zinc sulphate significantly reduced (p< 0.05) intestinal transit time (60.7 ± 7.13%) compared with control (85.7 ± 2.35%). It is concluded that zinc sulphate reduces the frequency of wet faeces output and intestinal motility during diarrhea via activation of β adrenergic receptor and L-type Ca2+ channel.

  4. Experimental infection with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice induces megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Lee, Jin-Sol; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-02-01

    Here, we infected mice with cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (cp BVDV1) by oral inoculation and investigated the effects of infection by histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), hematological methods. Twelve mice were infected, and samples were obtained at day 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). Most of the infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness such as reduced movement, crouching, loose feces, loss of appetite, and reduced water intake. Blood samples from six mice were positive for BVDV based on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Blood analysis also revealed thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. Viral antigens were detected in the spleen (12/12), bone marrow (12/12), and/or mesenteric lymph nodes (4/12) of all infected mice by IHC analysis. The spleens showed significant histopathological changes including (i) substantially increased numbers of megakaryocytes, (ii) lymphocyte depletion, and (iii) hemorrhages. The bone marrow also had an increased number of megakaryocytes, although this increase was not as strong as it was in the spleen. Severe lymphoid depletion was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Viral infections were present in the lymphocytes but not detected in megakaryocytes of the spleen, bone marrow, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These results suggest that the increased numbers of megakaryocytes may be a direct result of BVDV infection. BVDV infection in mice following oral inoculation of cp BVDV1 leads to megakaryopoiesis in the spleen and bone marrow to replenish the platelets.

  5. Experimental infection with non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 in mice induces inflammatory cell infiltration in the spleen.

    PubMed

    Han, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Young-Je; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Choi, Eun-Jin; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2016-09-01

    Previously, our study showed that oral inoculation of mice with cytopathic (cp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) led to lymphocyte depletion and increased numbers of megakaryocytes in the spleen as well as thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia. In the present study, to investigate the possible differences in the detection of viral antigen, histopathological lesions, and hematologic changes between non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV1 and cp BVDV1, mice were orally administered low and high doses of ncp BVDV1 and were necropsied at days 0, 2, 5, and 9 postinfection (pi). None of the ncp BVDV1-infected mice exhibited clinical signs of illness, unlike those infected with cp BVDV1. Statistically significant thrombocytopenia was observed during ncp BVDV1 infection, and lymphopenia was found only in mice infected with a high dose at day 9 pi. Interestingly, ncp BVDV1 infection increased the numbers of basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes in some infected mice. Viral antigen was detected in the lymphocytes of the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and bone marrow by immunohistochemistry. Lymphoid depletion was evident in the mesenteric lymph nodes of mice infected with a high dose and also found in the Peyer's patches of some infected mice. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and monocytes, and an increased number of megakaryocytes were seen in the spleen. These results suggest that the distribution of viral antigens is not associated with the presence of histopathological lesions. Inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the spleens as a result of viral replication and may be attributable to the host reaction to ncp BVDV1 infection. Together, these findings support the possibility that mice can be used as an animal model for BVDV infection.

  6. New molecular insights into inflammatory bowel disease-induced diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the common symptoms that significantly affects quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical manifestation of diarrhea is mainly dependant on the type of IBD and the location, extent and severity of intestinal inflammation. Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea in patients with IBD will be beneficial to developing effective treatments for IBD-associated diarrhea. In recent years, modern molecular techniques have been used intensively to dissect the role of the intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and the host immune system in the mechanisms of IBD-induced diarrhea. These studies have significantly advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms of IBD-induced diarrhea. In this article, we focus on the new and critical molecular insights into the contributions of the intestinal microbiota, epithelial tight junctions, proinflammatory cytokines and microRNA as potential mechanisms underlying to IBD-induced diarrhea. PMID:21910579

  7. New molecular insights into inflammatory bowel disease-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yueming; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2011-10-01

    Diarrhea is one of the common symptoms that significantly affects quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical manifestation of diarrhea is mainly dependant on the type of IBD and the location, extent and severity of intestinal inflammation. Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea in patients with IBD will be beneficial to developing effective treatments for IBD-associated diarrhea. In recent years, modern molecular techniques have been used intensively to dissect the role of the intestinal microbiota, epithelial barrier and the host immune system in the mechanisms of IBD-induced diarrhea. These studies have significantly advanced our knowledge of the mechanisms of IBD-induced diarrhea. In this article, we focus on the new and critical molecular insights into the contributions of the intestinal microbiota, epithelial tight junctions, proinflammatory cytokines and microRNA as potential mechanisms underlying to IBD-induced diarrhea. PMID:21910579

  8. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... with diarrhea should drink water, fruit juices, sports drinks, sodas without caffeine, and salty broths. As your symptoms improve, you can eat soft, bland food. Children with diarrhea should be given ...

  9. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as fruit juices, sports drinks, caffeine-free soft drinks, and broths. Children with diarrhea should be given ... from street vendors Travelers can drink bottled water, soft drinks, and hot drinks such as coffee or tea. ...

  10. Therapeutic Targeting of CPT-11 Induced Diarrhea: A Case for Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Swami, Umang; Goel, Sanjay; Mani, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    CPT-11 (irinotecan), a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor is one of the main treatments for colorectal cancer. The main dose limiting toxicities are neutropenia and late onset diarrhea. Though neutropenia is manageable, CPT-11 induced diarrhea is frequently severe, resulting in hospitalizations, dose reductions or omissions leading to ineffective treatment administration. Many potential agents have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies to prevent or ameliorate CPT-11 induced late onset diarrhea. It is predicted that prophylaxis of CPT-11 induced diarrhea will reduce sub-therapeutic dosing as well as hospitalizations and will eventually lead to dose escalations resulting in better response rates. This article reviews various experimental agents and strategies employed to prevent this debilitating toxicity. Covered topics include schedule/dose modification, intestinal alkalization, structural/chemical modification, genetic testing, anti-diarrheal therapies, transporter (ABCB1, ABCC2, BCRP2) inhibitors, enzyme (β-glucuronidase, UGT1A1, CYP3A4, carboxylesterase, COX-2) inducers and inhibitors, probiotics, antibiotics, adsorbing agents, cytokine and growth factor activators and inhibitors and other miscellaneous agents. PMID:23597015

  11. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    PubMed

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-07-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  12. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces autophagy in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Ren, Yan; Guo, Fei; Ni, Wei; Qiao, Jun; Wang, Pengyan; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu

    2014-07-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the genus Pestivirus (Flaviviridae). The signaling pathways and levels of signaling molecules are altered in Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells infected with BVDV. Autophagy is a conservative biological degradation pathway that mainly eliminates and degrades damaged or superfluous organelles and macromolecular complexes for intracellular recycling in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy can also be induced as an effective response to maintain cellular homeostasis in response to different stresses, such as nutrient or growth factor deprivation, hypoxia, reactive oxygen species exposure and pathogen infection. However, the effects of BVDV infection on autophagy in MDBK cells remain unclear. Therefore, we performed an analysis of autophagic activity after BVDV NADL infection using real-time PCR, electron microscopy, laser confocal microscopy, and Western blotting analysis. The results demonstrated that BVDV NADL infection increased autophagic activity and significantly elevated the expression levels of the autophagy-related genes Beclin1 and ATG14 in MDBK cells. However, the knockdown of Beclin1 and ATG14 by RNA interference (RNAi) did not affect BVDV NADL infection-related autophagic activity. These findings provided a novel perspective to elaborate the effects of viral infection on the host cells.

  14. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    PubMed Central

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  15. 5-HTP induced diarrhea as a carcinoid syndrome model in mice?

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Hascoet, M; Deguiral, P

    1996-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is present in the gastrointestinal tract and is probably one of the compounds responsible for diarrhea in patients presenting with carcinoid syndrome. Intraperitoneal administration of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (L-5-HTP) at doses of 25 to 100 mg/kg dramatically increase defecation in mice. In this new paradigm, counting fecal boli deposited is simple and the appraised or inhibition of diarrhea induced by ip 25 mg/kg of L-5-HIP is very clear, with a good reproducibility of scores. L-5-HTP needs to be metabolized into 5-HT to be active; benserazide, an inhibitor of decarboxylase, antagonized the diarrhea induced by 5-HT. Among the 5-HT antagonists used in interaction with 5-HT, only these of the 5-HT3 type (ondansetron, granisetron, tropisetron) and, to a lesser extent 5-HT2 type (ritanserin), decreased the diarrhea induced by 5-HTP. The 5-HT4 receptor agonists from the benzamide family (metoclopramide and zacopride) increased defecation in mice but the effect failed to reach statistical significance.

  16. Calcium polycarbophil, a water absorbing polymer, increases bowel movement and prevents sennoside-induced diarrhea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Yamada, T; Iwanaga, Y; Morikawa, K; Nagata, O; Kato, H; Mizumoto, A; Itoh, Z

    2000-07-01

    The effects of calcium polycarbophil (CP), a water-absorbing polymer, on bowel movement were examined in comparison with known laxatives and anti-diarrheal agents in dogs, a species that resembles humans for stool output. CP increased stool frequency, fecal water content and fecal weight in a dose-dependent manner, but did not induce diarrhea. Sennoside and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) increased fecal water content and induced diarrhea at lower doses than that which enhanced stool frequency. Trimebutine decreased stool frequency, fecal weight and fecal water content, resulting in inhibition rather than stimulation of defecation. In sennoside-induced diarrhea, loperamide and CP improved stool consistency and this was accompanied by reduced fecal moisture and frequency of diarrhea. In contrast, CMC-Na aggravated stool consistency with increased fecal water content and frequency of diarrhea, and trimebutine had little noticeable effect apart from reducing fecal weight. Our results show that CP has both laxative and anti-diarrheal effects in dogs and differed from conventional laxatives and anti-diarrheal agents. CP may be a suitable agent for treatment of idiopathic constipation, secretory diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome with alternating constipation and diarrhea and with either predominating in terms of less side effects such as diarrhea or constipation.

  17. Calcium polycarbophil, a water absorbing polymer, increases bowel movement and prevents sennoside-induced diarrhea in dogs.

    PubMed

    Saito, T; Yamada, T; Iwanaga, Y; Morikawa, K; Nagata, O; Kato, H; Mizumoto, A; Itoh, Z

    2000-07-01

    The effects of calcium polycarbophil (CP), a water-absorbing polymer, on bowel movement were examined in comparison with known laxatives and anti-diarrheal agents in dogs, a species that resembles humans for stool output. CP increased stool frequency, fecal water content and fecal weight in a dose-dependent manner, but did not induce diarrhea. Sennoside and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) increased fecal water content and induced diarrhea at lower doses than that which enhanced stool frequency. Trimebutine decreased stool frequency, fecal weight and fecal water content, resulting in inhibition rather than stimulation of defecation. In sennoside-induced diarrhea, loperamide and CP improved stool consistency and this was accompanied by reduced fecal moisture and frequency of diarrhea. In contrast, CMC-Na aggravated stool consistency with increased fecal water content and frequency of diarrhea, and trimebutine had little noticeable effect apart from reducing fecal weight. Our results show that CP has both laxative and anti-diarrheal effects in dogs and differed from conventional laxatives and anti-diarrheal agents. CP may be a suitable agent for treatment of idiopathic constipation, secretory diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome with alternating constipation and diarrhea and with either predominating in terms of less side effects such as diarrhea or constipation. PMID:10952069

  18. Correlation between diarrhea severity and oocyst count via quantitative PCR or fluorescence microscopy in experimental cryptosporidiosis in calves.

    PubMed

    Operario, Darwin J; Bristol, Lauren S; Liotta, Janice; Nydam, Daryl V; Houpt, Eric R

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important diarrhea-associated pathogen, however the correlation between parasite burden and diarrhea severity remains unclear. We studied this relationship in 10 experimentally infected calves using immunofluorescence microscopy and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (N = 124 fecal samples). The qPCR data were corrected for extraction/amplification efficiency and gene copy number to generate parasite counts. The qPCR and microscopic oocyst quantities exhibited significant correlation (R(2) = 0.33, P < 0.05), however qPCR had increased sensitivity. Upon comparison with diarrhea severity scores (from 0 to 3), a PCR-based count of ≥ 2.6 × 10(5) parasites or an immunofluorescence microscopy count of ≥ 4.5 × 10(4) oocysts were discriminatory predictors of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (versus no-to-mild diarrhea), with accuracies and predictive values of 72-82%. In summary, a quantitative approach for Cryptosporidium can refine predictive power for diarrhea and appears useful for distinguishing clinical cryptosporidiosis versus subclinical infection.

  19. Recombinant Monovalent Llama-Derived Antibody Fragments (VHH) to Rotavirus VP6 Protect Neonatal Gnotobiotic Piglets against Human Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Anastasia N.; Chattha, Kuldeep S.; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Nuñez, Carmen; Alvarado, Carmen; Lasa, Rodrigo; Escribano, José M.; Garaicoechea, Lorena L.; Fernandez, Fernando; Bok, Karin; Wigdorovitz, Andrés; Saif, Linda J.; Parreño, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in children. The aims of the present study were to determine the neutralizing activity of VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH nanoAbs) against different RVA strains in vitro and to evaluate the ability of G6P[1] VP6-specific llama-derived single domain nanoantibodies (VHH) to protect against human rotavirus in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets experimentally inoculated with virulent Wa G1P[8] rotavirus. Supplementation of the daily milk diet with 3B2 VHH clone produced using a baculovirus vector expression system (final ELISA antibody -Ab- titer of 4096; virus neutralization -VN- titer of 256) for 9 days conferred full protection against rotavirus associated diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. The administration of comparable levels of porcine IgG Abs only protected 4 out of 6 of the animals from human RVA diarrhea but significantly reduced virus shedding. In contrast, G6P[1]-VP6 rotavirus-specific IgY Abs purified from eggs of hyperimmunized hens failed to protect piglets against human RVA-induced diarrhea or virus shedding when administering similar quantities of Abs. The oral administration of VHH nanoAb neither interfered with the host's isotype profiles of the Ab secreting cell responses to rotavirus, nor induced detectable host Ab responses to the treatment in serum or intestinal contents. This study shows that the oral administration of rotavirus VP6-VHH nanoAb is a broadly reactive and effective treatment against rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal pigs. Our findings highlight the potential value of a broad neutralizing VP6-specific VHH nanoAb as a treatment that can complement or be used as an alternative to the current strain-specific RVA vaccines. Nanobodies could also be scaled-up to develop pediatric medication or functional food like infant milk formulas that might help treat RVA diarrhea. PMID:23658521

  20. Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Tao; Wei, Jing; Guo, Hong-Xia; Han, Jiang-Bo; Ye, Nan; He, Hai-Yang; Yu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To establish a new animal model for the research of human rotavirus (HRV) infection, its pathogenesis and immunity and evaluation of potential vaccines. METHODS 5-d, 30-d and 60-d-old Chinese mini-pigs, Guizhou and Bamma, were inoculated with a single oral dose of attenuated strain Wa, G1, G3 of HRV, and PBS (control), respectively, and fecal samples of pigs from 0 to 7 d post infection (DPI) were collected individually. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HRV antigen in feces. The HRV was tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The sections of the intestinal tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe the morphologic variation by microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the HRV in intestinal tissue. HRV particles in cells of the ileum were observed by electron micrography. RESULTS When inoculated with HRV, mini-pigs younger than 30 d developed diarrhea in an age-dependent manner and shed HRV antigen of the same inoculum, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Histopathological changes were observed in HRV inoculated mini-pigs including small intestinal cell tumefaction and necrosis. HRV that was distributed in the small intestine was restricted to the top part of the villi on the internal wall of the ileum, which was observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virus particles were observed in Golgi like follicles in HRV-infected neonatal mini-pigs. Guizhou mini-pigs were more sensitive to HRV than Bamma with respect to RV antigen shedding and clinical diarrhea. CONCLUSION These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection. PMID:27610023

  1. Development of a human rotavirus induced diarrhea model in Chinese mini-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Tao; Wei, Jing; Guo, Hong-Xia; Han, Jiang-Bo; Ye, Nan; He, Hai-Yang; Yu, Tian-Tian; Wu, Yu-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To establish a new animal model for the research of human rotavirus (HRV) infection, its pathogenesis and immunity and evaluation of potential vaccines. METHODS 5-d, 30-d and 60-d-old Chinese mini-pigs, Guizhou and Bamma, were inoculated with a single oral dose of attenuated strain Wa, G1, G3 of HRV, and PBS (control), respectively, and fecal samples of pigs from 0 to 7 d post infection (DPI) were collected individually. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect HRV antigen in feces. The HRV was tested by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The sections of the intestinal tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to observe the morphologic variation by microscopy. Immunofluorescence was used to determine the HRV in intestinal tissue. HRV particles in cells of the ileum were observed by electron micrography. RESULTS When inoculated with HRV, mini-pigs younger than 30 d developed diarrhea in an age-dependent manner and shed HRV antigen of the same inoculum, as demonstrated by RT-PCR. Histopathological changes were observed in HRV inoculated mini-pigs including small intestinal cell tumefaction and necrosis. HRV that was distributed in the small intestine was restricted to the top part of the villi on the internal wall of the ileum, which was observed by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Virus particles were observed in Golgi like follicles in HRV-infected neonatal mini-pigs. Guizhou mini-pigs were more sensitive to HRV than Bamma with respect to RV antigen shedding and clinical diarrhea. CONCLUSION These results indicate that we have established a mini-pig model of HRV induced diarrhea. Our findings are useful for the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of HRV infection.

  2. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Passler, Thomas; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Chamorro, Manuel F; Neill, John D; Brodersen, Bruce W; Walz, Heather L; Galik, Patricia K; Zhang, Yijing; Walz, Paul H

    2014-04-04

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. BVDV infections of goats commonly result in reproductive disease, but viable PI goats are rare. Using 2 BVDV isolates, previously demonstrated to cause PI cattle and white-tailed deer, this study evaluated the outcome of experimental infection of pregnant goats. Pregnant goats (5 goats/group) were intranasally inoculated with BVDV 1b AU526 (group 1) or BVDV 2 PA131 (group 2) at approximately 25-35 days of gestation. The outcome of infection varied considerably between groups. In group 1, only 3 does became viremic, and 1 doe gave birth to a stillborn fetus and a viable PI kid, which appeared healthy and shed BVDV continuously. In group 2, all does became viremic, 4/5 does aborted, and 1 doe gave birth to a non-viable PI kid. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated BVDV antigen in tissues of evaluated fetuses, with similar distribution but reduced intensity as compared to cattle. The genetic sequence of inoculated viruses was compared to those from PI kids and their dam. Most nucleotide changes in group 1 were present during the dam's acute infection. In group 2, a similar number of mutations resulted from fetal infection as from maternal acute infection. Results demonstrated that BVDV may cause reproductive disease but may also be maintained in goats.

  3. The suppressive activities of six sources of medicinal ferns known as gusuibu on heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hung-Chi; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Yang, Jiun-Long; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2014-02-18

    Diarrheal disease is one of the most important worldwide health problems. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated enteropathogen in diarrheal diseases. In developing countries, a very large number of people, especially children, suffer from diarrhea. To combat this problem, World Health Organization has constituted the Diarrhea Diseases Control Program which guides studies on traditional medicinal practices and preventive measures. Gusuibu, a traditional folk medicine, has been claimed to heal certain types of diarrhea. However, so far no scientific study has been carried out on the anti-diarrheal mechanism of Gusiubu. The present study was performed to examine the suppressive activities of ethanol extracts of six sources of folk medicinal ferns used as Gusuibu on heat-labile enterotoxin (LT)-induced diarrhea. Inhibitory effects of six sources were evaluated on the ETEC LT subunit B (LTB) and monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GMI) interaction by GM1-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and patent mouse gut assay. Our results indicated that Drynaria fortunei had no anti-diarrheal effect, while, among the remaining five folk medicinal ferns, four belonging to family Davalliaceae had significant abilities on both the blocking of LTB and GM1 interaction and the inhibition of LT-induced diarrhea. In conclusion, these findings suggested the potential application of Gusuibu as an anti-diarrheal remedy.

  4. Experimental infection of pregnant goats with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)1 or 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of the genus pestivirus, family Flaviviridae, are not limited to cattle but occur in various artiodactyls. Persistently infected (PI) cattle are the main source of BVDV. Persistent infections also occur in heterologous hosts such as sheep and deer. ...

  5. Roles of bovine viral diarrhea virus envelope glycoproteins in inducing autophagy in MDBK cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Shi, Huijun; Shi, Mengting; Meng, Luping; Bao, Haiyang; Zhang, Guoqi; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Hui; Guo, Fei; Qiao, Jun; Jia, Bin; Wang, Pengyan; Ni, Wei; Sheng, Jinliang; Chen, Chuangfu

    2014-11-01

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved control process that maintains cellular homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Autophagy principally serves an adaptive role to degrade dysfunctional proteins and to clean damaged organelles in response to pathogenic, viral, or microbial infection, nutrient deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In previous study, we showed bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) NADL infection induced autophagy and significantly elevated the expression levels of autophagy-related genes, Beclin1 and ATG14, at 12 h post-infection in MDBK cells. However, the specific mechanisms involved in controlling autophagic activity remain unclear. Here, we investigate the effects of BVDV NADL envelope glycoproteins overexpression on inducing autophagy. The results show that viral envelope glycoproteins E(rns) and E2 overexpression mediated by lentivirus increase the formation of autophagosome, the percentage of GFP-LC3 puncta-positive cells and the expression levels of Beclin1 and ATG14. Whereas E1 overexpression doesn't affect autophagic activity. Collectively, these findings suggest that the viral envelope glycoproteins E(rns) and E2 are involved in inducing autophagy, and provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of autophagy in viral infected cells.

  6. Virus distribution and role of thymic macrophages during experimental infection with noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Raya, A I; Gomez-Villamandos, J C; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Bautista, M J

    2012-09-01

    Thymic depletion, presence of viral antigen, and changes in distribution and cytokine production of thymic macrophages were investigated in calves experimentally infected with a noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus type (BVDV) 1 strain. Ten clinically healthy colostrum-deprived calves were used. Eight calves were inoculated with the virus and two were used as uninfected controls. Calves were sedated and euthanized in batches between 3 and 14 days postinoculation. At necropsy, thymus samples were collected for structural, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural study and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling). From 6 days postinoculation, the thymic cortex was multifocally depleted with increased frequency of pyknosis and karyorrhexis, suggestive of apoptosis and confirmed by the TUNEL technique. Although the onset of lymphoid depletion was coincident with the detection of viral antigen by immunohistochemistry, the number of infected lymphocytes was very low through the experiment. There was an increase in number of macrophages in cortex and medulla, accompanied by ultrastructural changes indicative of phagocyte activation, and a decrease in cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1α. These results suggest that the increase in number of these cells could be related to phagocytosis of cell debris and apoptotic lymphocytes. Furthermore, the results imply that, in contrast to the situation with classical swine fever virus, the lymphocyte apoptosis resulting from bovine viral diarrhea virus infection is not mediated by TNF-α or interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) production by virus-infected macrophages. This is the first study that describes this decrease in the number of thymic cells expressing TNF-α and IL-1α in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1.

  7. Effect of Lianshu preparation on lipopolysaccharide-induced diarrhea in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Wan, Rong; Xu, Xuan-Fu; Wang, Xing-Peng; Yang, Wen-Juan; Xia, Yu-Jing; Liu, Hua; Yan, Qian-Lin; Yan, De-Xin; Guo, Chuan-Yong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Lianshu preparation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced diarrhea in rats. METHODS: A diarrhea model was established in Sprague Dawley rats via injection of 1 mL of 30 mg/kg LPS. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into normal group, LPS group, LPS + Lianshu group, LPS + berberine group (n = 10 in each group). Their intestinal mucosal barrier and frequency of diarrhea were observed. Levels of glucose, serum Na+, K+, Cl- and hematocrit, plasma nitrogen monoxide (NO), diamine oxidase (DAO), and D (-)-lactate were measured. The number of IgA+ plasma cells in small intestine was detected and SIgA levels in the intestinal fluid were measured. The antipyretic activity of Lianshu preparation in rats was evaluated using Brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia (10 mL/kg of 20% aqueous suspension). Acetaminophen (250 mg/kg, intragastric administration, bid) was used as a standard drug for comparison. Temperature was recorded 1 h before and 6 h after Brewer’s yeast injection. Finally, small intestinal transmission in mice treated with Lianshu was detected after intraperitoneal injection of methyl prostigmin (2 mg/kg). Atropine (10 g/kg) was used as a control. The ink content in intestine was determined and the total length of intestine was measured. RESULTS: The frequency of diarrhea was higher in LPS group than in LPS + Lianshu group and LPS + berberine group (36.70 ± 5.23 vs 28.50 ± 4.06 and 32.70 ± 9.30 respectively, P < 0.01), and lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (P = 0.03). The levels of Na+, glucose, Cl-, K+ were significantly lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (140.35 ± 3.19 mmol/L vs 131.99 ± 4.86 mmol/L, 8.49 ± 1.84 mmol/L vs 6.54 ± 2.30 mmol/L, 106.29 ± 4.41 mmol/L vs 102.5 ± 1.39 mmol/L, 5.08 ± 0.66 mmol/L vs 4.32 ± 0.62 mmol/L respectively, P < 0.05). The level of hematocrit was lower in LPS + Lianshu group than in LPS + berberine group (0.50% ± 0.07% vs 0.59% ± 0

  8. Failure of lactose-restricted diets to prevent radiation-induced diarrhea in patients undergoing whole pelvis irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Bartholomew, M.

    1986-05-01

    Sixty-four patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy into one of three dietary groups: the control group maintained a regular diet except that they drank at least 480 cc of milk daily; the lactose-restricted group was placed on a lactose-restricted diet; and the lactase group drank at least 480 cc of milk with lactase enzyme added to hydrolyze 90% of the lactose. The patients kept records of their stool frequency and the number of diphenoxylate tablets required to control their diarrhea during a 5 week course of standard whole pelvis irradiation. The data does not support the concept that one of the mechanisms of radiation-induced diarrhea associated with pelvic irradiation is a reduction the ability of the intestine to hydrolyze ingested lactose due to the effect of the radiation on the small intestine. There was not a significant difference in stool frequency or diphenoxylate usage among the dietary groups.

  9. Approved and experimental countermeasures against pestiviral diseases: Bovine viral diarrhea, classical swine fever and border disease.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, M Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), classical swine fever (CSFV) and border disease virus, are important livestock pathogens in many countries, but current vaccines do not completely prevent the spread of infection. Control of pestiviral diseases is especially difficult due to the constant viremia and viral shedding of persistently infected (PI) animals, which must be identified and eliminated to prevent disease transmission. Existing vaccines are limited by the delay between vaccination and the onset of protection, the difficulty of differentiating serologically between vaccinated and naturally infected animals and the need for broad vaccine cross-protection against diverse virus strains. Antiviral therapy could potentially supplement vaccination by providing immediate protection in the case of an outbreak. Numerous compounds with in vitro antiviral activity against BVDV have been identified through its role as a surrogate for hepatitis C virus. Fewer drugs active against CSFV have been identified, but many compounds that are effective against BVDV will likely inhibit CSFV, given their similar genomic sequences. While in vitro research has been promising, the paucity of efficacy studies in animals has hindered the commercial development of effective antiviral drugs against the pestiviruses. In this article, we summarize the clinical syndromes and routes of transmission of BVD, CSF and border disease, discuss currently approved vaccines, review efforts to develop antiviral therapies for use in outbreak control and suggest promising directions for future research.

  10. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  11. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  12. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  13. Factitious diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Saibil, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The causes of diarrhea are legion. In any diagnostic problem a factitious etiology must be carefully considered. Three cases are presented, in two of which daily ingestion of prunes and prune juice was found to be the cause of chronic diarrhea. In the third case an edible oil product, Coffee Rich, was determined by dietary manipulation to be the cause, carrageenan possibly being the laxative principle. PMID:4429937

  14. [Acute diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Schoepfer, Alain

    2014-09-01

    Diarrhea, defined as three or more loose or watery stools per day, represents a frequent problem in outpatients as well as inpatients. As most of the patients with acute diarrhea show a self-limiting disease course, the main challenge for the physician is to discriminate patients for whom symptomatic therapy is sufficient from those with severe disease course and threatening complications. This review aims to provide a practical guidance for such decisions.

  15. Prevention of irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced diarrhea by oral alkalization combined with control of defecation in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Y; Kobayashi, K; Akiyama, Y; Soma, T; Handa, S; Kudoh, S; Kudo, K

    2001-04-15

    It has been reported that 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxy-camptothecin (CPT-11) and its active metabolite, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), have absorption characteristics of weakly basic drugs, suggesting that alkalization of the intestinal lumen might reduce reabsorption and its attendant side effects. Furthermore, stasis of stools containing these compounds is thought to induce damage to the intestinal mucosa. The prevention of CPT-11-induced side effects by oral alkalization (OA) combined with control of defecation (CD) was estimated in a case-control study of lung cancer patients. Coinciding with day 1 of CPT-11 infusion and for 4 days thereafter, OA and CD were practiced utilizing orally administered sodium bicarbonate, magnesium oxide, basic water and ursodeoxycholic acid. OA involved the daily use of all four therapeutics, and CD required doses of up to 4.0 g/day of magnesium oxide and 2 L/day of excess basic water. From three ongoing prospective phase I/II studies, we selected 37 consecutive patients who were treated with CPT-11 in combination with cisplatin in the presence of OA and CD (group B). Thirty-two control subjects who were matched to the background characteristics of the case patients were treated with the same regimen in the absence of OA and CD (group A). Toxicities induced by the CPT-11/cisplatin combination were evaluated and analyzed in group A and group B in a case-control format. The use of OA and CD resulted in significantly higher stool pH (p < 0.0001), while reducing the incidence of delayed diarrhea (> or = grade 2: group A 32.3% versus group B 9.4%; p = 0.005), nausea (p = 0.0001), vomiting (p = 0.001) and myelotoxicity, especially granulocytopenia (p = 0.03) and lymphocytopenia (p = 0.034). In addition, dose intensification was well tolerated in patients receiving OA and CD, allowing dose escalation from 35.6 +/- 6.0 to 39.9 +/- 5.6 mg/m(2)/week (p < 0.001). Tumor response rates for non-small cell lung

  16. Compartmentalized accumulation of cAMP near complexes of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contributes to drug-induced diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Ren, Aixia; Arora, Kavisha; Sinha, Chandrima; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Woodrooffe, Koryse; Schuetz, John D; Valasani, Koteswara Rao; de Jonge, Hugo R; Shanmukhappa, Shiva Kumar; Shata, Mohamed Tarek M; Buddington, Randal K; Parthasarathi, Kaushik; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-05-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common adverse side effects observed in ∼7% of individuals consuming Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. The mechanism of how these drugs alter fluid secretion in the gut and induce diarrhea is not clearly understood. Several drugs are either substrates or inhibitors of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), such as the anti-colon cancer drug irinotecan and an anti-retroviral used to treat HIV infection, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). These drugs activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluid secretion by inhibiting MRP4-mediated cAMP efflux. Binding of drugs to MRP4 augments the formation of MRP4-CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes that is mediated via scaffolding protein PDZK1. Importantly, HIV patients on AZT treatment demonstrate augmented MRP4-CFTR complex formation in the colon, which defines a novel paradigm of drug-induced diarrhea.

  17. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation. PMID:27227496

  18. Acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tobillo, E T; Schwartz, S M

    1998-10-01

    Diarrhea can result from damage to the intestinal lining caused by viruses or bacteria, malabsorption, inflammatory processes, bile salt and pancreatic enzyme deficiency, abnormal motility, or the presence of osmotically active solutes in the gut. While it is important to elicit information to determine the possible cause of diarrhea, be sure to check circulatory status first. Some patients may need rehydration therapy more urgently than they need a diagnosis. The main goals of treatment are to prevent dehydration and correct electrolyte imbalance, to provide supportive and symptomatic therapy, and to treat underlying disease. In most cases, a specific diagnosis is not necessary to guide initial treatment.

  19. Recent advances and new perspectives in targeting CFTR for therapy of cystic fibrosis and enterotoxin-induced secretory diarrheas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiqiang; Fujii, Naoaki; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2012-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated chloride channel localized primarily at the apical surfaces of epithelial cells lining airway, gut and exocrine glands, where it is responsible for transepithelial salt and water transport. Several human diseases are associated with an altered channel function of CFTR. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the loss or dysfunction of CFTR-channel activity resulting from the mutations on the gene; whereas enterotoxin-induced secretory diarrheas are caused by the hyperactivation of CFTR channel function. CFTR is a validated target for drug development to treat these diseases. Significant progress has been made in developing CFTR modulator therapy by means of high-throughput screening followed by hit-to-lead optimization. Several oral administrated investigational drugs are currently being evaluated in clinical trials for CF. Also importantly, new ideas and methodologies are emerging. Targeting CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes is one such novel approach. PMID:22393940

  20. An Outbreak of Late-Term Abortions, Premature Births, and Congenital Deformities Associated with a Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 Subtype b that Induces Thrombocytopenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype 1 subtype b caused an outbreak of premature births, late term abortions, brachygnathism, growth retardation, brain deformities and rare other skeletal deformities in Holstein calves born to first calf heifers on one dairy. Experimental challenge of three,...

  1. Evaluation of the effectiveness of semen processing techniques to remove bovine viral diarrhea virus from experimentally contaminated semen samples.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, Andrea G; Junior, Nelson B; Arruda, Nathalia S; Corbellini, Angela O; Chiappetta, Catarina M; Pavão, Danielle L; D'Angelo, Magali; Canal, Cláudio W; Rodrigues, José L

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of three semen processing techniques, Percoll gradient centrifugation, Swim-up and a combination of Swim-up and Percoll gradient centrifugation, to reduce the viral load of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in experimentally infected semen samples. The evaluation was performed using two approaches: first, searching for the presence of virus in the processed samples (via virus titration and RT-PCR) and second, ascertaining the possible interference on in vitro embryo production. The sperm count and DNA integrity (Comet assay) of the processed samples were analyzed (Experiment 1). The amount of virus in the processed samples was determined by titration in cell culture (Experiment 2). The samples processed by Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation were utilized for in vitro embryo production, and the embryos produced were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR (Experiment 3). Sperm concentration, Comet assay and embryo production were analyzed by chi-squared tests (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between sperm separation techniques when the sperm count and Comet assay were analyzed. The sperm count obtained from the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group was lower than that obtained in either of the two other groups (Swim up and Percoll gradient centrifugation), and the Comet assay showed that the combination of the two semen processing techniques (Swim up/Percoll gradient) produced a 1.1% prevalence of Comet level 2, which was not observed in the other groups. The BVDV titer (10(6.68)TCID(50)/mL) added to experimentally infected semen samples decreased after Percoll gradient centrifugation to 10(2.3)-10(1)TCID(50)/mL; for the Swim up group, the titer range was 10(3.3)-10(1.87)TCID(50)/mL, and in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group, BVDV was undetectable. The decreases in titer varied from 99.9% in the Swim up-processed group to 100% in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group. In vitro

  2. Two doses of bovine viral diarrhea virus DNA vaccine delivered by electroporation induce long-term protective immune responses.

    PubMed

    van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia; Lawman, Zoe; Snider, Marlene; Wilson, Don; van den Hurk, Jan V; Ellefsen, Barry; Hannaman, Drew

    2013-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen of major importance in cattle, so there is a need for new effective vaccines. DNA vaccines induce balanced immune responses and are relatively inexpensive and thus promising for both human and veterinary applications. In this study, newborn calves with maternal antibodies were vaccinated intramuscularly (i.m.) with a BVDV E2 DNA vaccine with the TriGrid Delivery System for i.m. delivery (TDS-IM). Two doses of this vaccine spaced 6 or 12 weeks apart were sufficient to induce significant virus-neutralizing antibody titers, numbers of activated T cells, and reduction in viral shedding and clinical presentations after BVDV-2 challenge. In contrast to the placebo-treated animals, the vaccinated calves did not lose any weight, which is an excellent indicator of the well-being of an animal and has a significant economic impact. Furthermore, the interval between the two vaccinations did not influence the magnitude of the immune responses or degree of clinical protection, and a third immunization was not necessary or beneficial. Since electroporation may enhance not only the magnitude but also the duration of immunity after DNA immunization, the interval between vaccination and challenge was extended in a second trial, which showed that two doses of this E2 DNA vaccine again significantly reduced clinical disease against BVDV for several months. These results are promising and support this technology for use against infectious diseases in cattle and large species, including humans, in general.

  3. Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus Casei DN-114 001 in Prevention of Radiation-Induced Diarrhea: Results From Multicenter, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Nutritional Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Giralt, Jordi Regadera, Jose Perez; Verges, Ramona; Romero, Jesus; Fuente, Isabel de la; Biete, Albert; Villoria, Jesus; Cobo, Jose Maria; Guarner, Francisco

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion. The probiotic drink consisted of liquid yogurt containing L. casei DN-114 001 at 10{sup 8} CFU/g. The patients recorded the daily the number of bowel movements and scored the stool consistency using the Bristol scale. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria system. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade of 2 or greater or the need for loperamide. Results: A total of 85 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 or greater diarrhea and/or the use of loperamide was observed in 24 of 41 patients in the placebo group and 30 of 44 in the probiotic group (p = 0.568). No differences were found in the median time to the presentation of the primary endpoint. Probiotic intervention had a significant effect on stool consistency (p = 0.04). The median time for patients to present with Bristol scale stools of Type 6 or greater was 14 days for patients receiving the probiotic drink vs. 10 days for those receiving placebo. Conclusion: Nutritional intervention with the probiotic drink containing L. casei DN-114 001 does not reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea as defined by a Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 2 or greater. However, it had a significant effect on stool consistency as measured by the Bristol scale.

  4. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced chlamydial persistence/stress does not require viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Schoborg, Robert V.; Borel, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae may exist at the site of infection in an alternative replicative form, called the aberrant body (AB). ABs are produced during a viable but non-infectious developmental state termed “persistence” or “chlamydial stress.” As persistent/stressed chlamydiae: (i) may contribute to chronic inflammation observed in diseases like trachoma; and (ii) are more resistant to current anti-chlamydial drugs of choice, it is critical to better understand this developmental stage. We previously demonstrated that porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) co-infection induced Chlamydia pecorum persistence/stress in culture. One critical characteristic of persistence/stress is that the chlamydiae remain viable and can reenter the normal developmental cycle when the stressor is removed. Thus, we hypothesized that PEDV-induced persistence would be reversible if viral replication was inhibited. Therefore, we performed time course experiments in which Vero cells were C. pecorum/PEDV infected in the presence of cycloheximide (CHX), which inhibits viral but not chlamydial protein synthesis. CHX-exposure inhibited PEDV replication, but did not inhibit induction of C. pecorum persistence at 24 h post-PEDV infection, as indicated by AB formation and reduced production of infectious EBs. Interestingly, production of infectious EBs resumed when CHX-exposed, co-infected cells were incubated 48–72 h post-PEDV co-infection. These data demonstrate that PEDV co-infection-induced chlamydial persistence/stress is reversible and suggest that this induction (i) does not require viral replication in host cells; and (ii) does not require de novo host or viral protein synthesis. These data also suggest that viral binding and/or entry may be required for this effect. Because the PEDV host cell receptor (CD13 or aminopeptidase N) stimulates cellular signaling pathways in the absence of PEDV infection, we suspect that PEDV co-infection might alter CD13 function and induce the chlamydiae to

  5. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  6. Diarrhea in infants

    MedlinePlus

    Diarrhea - babies ... Diarrhea in babies usually does not last long. Most often, it is caused by a virus and ... on its own. Your baby could also have diarrhea with: A change in your baby's diet or ...

  7. St. John's wort attenuates irinotecan-induced diarrhea via down-regulation of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Zeping; Yang Xiaoxia; Chan Suiyung; Xu Anlong; Duan Wei; Zhu Yizhun; Sheu, F.-S.; Boelsterli, Urs Alex; Chan, Eli; Zhang Qiang; Wang, J.-C.; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel; Koh, H.L.; Huang Min; Zhou Shufeng . E-mail: phazsf@nus.edu.sg

    2006-10-15

    Diarrhea is a common dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy, in particular for drugs such as irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-fluouracil, oxaliplatin, capecitabine and raltitrexed. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, SJW) has anti-inflammatory activity, and our preliminary study in the rat and a pilot study in cancer patients found that treatment of SJW alleviated irinotecan-induced diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated whether SJW modulated various pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins (IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-6), interferon (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and intestinal epithelium apoptosis in rats. The rats were treated with irinotecan at 60 mg/kg for 4 days in combination with oral SJW or SJW-free control vehicle at 400 mg/kg for 8 days. Diarrhea, tissue damage, body weight loss, various cytokines including IL-1{beta}, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} and intestinal epithelial apoptosis were monitored over 11 days. Our studies demonstrated that combined SJW markedly reduced CPT-11-induced diarrhea and intestinal lesions. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta}, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha} was significantly up-regulated in intestine. In the mean time, combined SJW significantly suppressed the intestinal epithelial apoptosis induced by CPT-11 over days 5-11. In particular, combination of SJW significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-{alpha} mRNA in the intestine over days 5-11. In conclusion, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and intestinal epithelium apoptosis partly explained the protective effect of SJW against the intestinal toxicities induced by irinotecan. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential for STW as an agent in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs to lower their dose-limiting toxicities.

  8. [A case-control study of prevention of irinotecan-induced diarrhea: the reducing side effects of irinotecan by oral alkalization combined with control of defecation].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Akiyama, Yoshiko; Soma, Tomoyuki; Handa, Satoko; Kudoh, Shouji; Kudo, Koichiro

    2002-07-01

    Irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, were reported to have the absorption characteristics of weakly basic drugs. Moreover, stasis of these compounds is thought to induce damage to the intestinal mucous membrane. The purpose of this report was to examine whether oral alkalization (OA) combined with control of defecation (CD) might prevent irinotecan-induced side effects. From day one of irinotecan infusion to day four, OA & CD were practiced using orally administered sodium bicarbonate, magnesium oxide, basic water, and ursodeoxycholic acid. Thirty-two lung cancer patients were treated with irinotecan in combination with cisplatin in the absence of OA & CD (Group A). Thirty-seven patients matched for background characteristics were treated with the same regimen in the presence of OA & CD (Group B). Group B had a reduced incidence of delayed diarrhea (Grade 2 < or = Group A 32.3% vs. Group B 9.4%), nausea, vomiting, and myelotoxicity, especially granulocytopenia compared with Group A. In addition, dose intensification was well-tolerated in Group B. Tumor response rates for non-small cell lung cancer were 59.3% (16/27 patients) in Group B against 38.5% (10/26 patients) in Group A. OA & CD appears to reduce the irinotecan-induced side effects, especially delayed diarrhea. Risk factors statistically associated with delayed diarrhea include advanced age and the use of irinotecan without OA & CD. PMID:12145998

  9. Beneficial effects of sucralphate in radiation induced diarrhea. An open randomized study in gynecological cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, R; Arevärn, M; Franzén, L; Persson, H; Stendahl, U

    1990-01-01

    In an open randomized study including 51 consecutive patients with gynaecological malignancies sucralphate was daily administered to patients receiving pelvic irradiation. Sucralphate, an aluminium hydroxide complex of sulphated sucrose used in the treatment of gastric ulcer, seems to be of value in preventing radiation-induced bowel discomfort. The most objective parameter, frequency of diarrhoea was almost 50% less in the sucralphate groups as compared to the controls. The patients receiving sucralphate in general displayed only minor alterations in bowel habits even at the end of the radiation treatment. The number of patients requiring symptomatic therapy with loperamide were markedly lower in the sucralphate group. Subjective discomfort such as nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite were also less common. A reduction in acute reactions to irradiation increases the possibility of carrying through planned treatment and avoids unfavourable intermissions, and thus curing the patient with cancer in the pelvis by means of radiotherapy. PMID:2245814

  10. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C

    2001-10-01

    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P < 0.05) were only observed in calves infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  11. Clinical response and immunomodulation following experimental challenge of calves with type 2 noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Archambault, D; Béliveau, C; Couture, Y; Carman, S

    2000-01-01

    Eight calves between 16 and 18 weeks of age that were seronegative to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine leucosis virus and bovine immunodeficiency-like virus were infected (day 0) intranasally with the type 2 noncytopathogenic Canadian 24515 field isolate of BVDV in order to evaluate the effect of BVDV infection on certain clinical, hematological and immunological parameters. All virus-exposed animals developed fever and showed a significant (P < 0.05, 0.01 or 0.001) drop in the number of circulating leucocytes (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) by day 3 or 5 post-exposure (PE), which continued to the end of the experiment at day 12 PE. BVDV was consistently isolated from the peripheral blood buffy coat cells from day 5 PE, and also from selected tissues (spleen, thymus, mesenteric and submaxillary lymph nodes, small intestine, lungs and thyroid gland) that were collected at the time of euthanasia of the animals at day 12 PE. Diminished significant (P < 0.05) percentages of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) expressing at their surface either B7 and MHC II molecules were observed in virus-exposed calves at days 7, 10 and/or 12 PE, when compared to virus-nonexposed control calves (n = 5). However, no changes in the percentages of PBMCs expressing either B4 or MHC I molecules were observed throughout the experiment. Finally, a significant (P < 0.05 or 0.01) enhanced phagocytic capability of the PBMCs, as analyzed by flow cytometry, was observed in virus-exposed animals at days 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 PE, when compared to control calves. These results demonstrated the virulence of the 24515 isolate of BVDV in 4 to 4.5 month-old calves, and suggest that type 2 BVDV infection in calves is associated with dysregulation of certain immunological functions. PMID:10779200

  12. Experimental risk assessment of bovine viral diarrhea virus transmission via in vitro embryo production using somatic cell nucleus transfer.

    PubMed

    Gregg, K; Chen, S H; Sadeghieh, S; Guerra, T; Xiang, T; Meredith, J; Polejaeva, I

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive risk assessment on infectious disease transmission in the system of in vitro embryo production via somatic cell nucleus transfer (SCNT) technology using bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) as a model. The risks of BVDV transmission in each step of the SCNT embryo production procedure, from donor cells to preimplantation SCNT embryo culture, were carefully examined using a sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The identified primary source of BVDV transmission in SCNT embryo production was donor cell infection, most likely caused by contaminated fetal bovine serum in the culture medium. The risk of disease transmission through contaminated oocytes from an abattoir was relatively low, and it can be greatly minimized by cumulus cell removal and adequate oocyte washing procedures. Of the 200 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) and more than 1500 cumulus cell-free oocyte (CFO) samples collected from multiple sources over a course of 7 months, only 2.5% of the COCs were BVDV positive, and all of the CFOs (100%) were BVDV negative. To evaluate the risk of BVDV introduction during in vitro SCNT embryo culture, 324 SCNT embryos were produced from 18 different cell lines using oocytes from 26 different batches collected over a course of 9 months. The embryos were cultured in vitro for 7 days and then tested for BVDV. All of the 324 SCNT embryos (100%) were negative, indicating that the embryo culture system is virtually risk-free for BVDV transmission. Based on these results, a standard operational protocol (SOP) for SCNT embryo production was proposed to greatly minimize the risk of BVDV transmission through the SCNT embryo production system. This SOP could be a starting point to produce a SCNT system that is virtually risk-free for disease transmission in general.

  13. Probiotics for prevention and treatment of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    Probiotics have been extensively studied over the past several years in the prevention and, to a larger extent, in the treatment of diarrheal diseases, especially in pediatric populations. Diarrhea is a symptom, and not a disease. This review will not address chronic disorders associated with diarrhea, or Clostridium difficile-induced diarrhea. Rather it will focus on published clinical trials performed on acute-onset, likely infectious diarrhea occurring in the settings of day-care centers, in the community, acquired in the hospital, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. For prevention of diarrhea acquired in day-care centers, 9 randomized and placebo-controlled trials have been published, conducted in different parts of the world. Probiotics tested were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis (alone or in combination with Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (not GG), and Lactobacillus acidophilus, in various trials either alone or in comparison with each other. The evidence of their efficacy in these settings is only modest for the prevention of diarrhea, although somewhat better for prevention of upper respiratory infections. In the community, new trails conducted in underprivileged areas of India, again with modest efficacy. Previous trials that examined the potential role of probiotics in preventing the spreading of diarrhea in hospitalized children had yielded conflicting results. More recently, a large trial in Poland showed, however, rather good evidence of efficacy for Lactobacillus GG. The prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea has been the subject of many investigations, both in children and in adults. Most commonly used probiotics were Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium ssp, Streptococcus ssp, and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. In general, most of these trials do show clear evidence of efficacy, with the 2 most

  14. Experimental infection of colostrum-deprived calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)

    PubMed Central

    Raizman, Eran A.; Pogranichniy, Roman M.; Levy, Michel; Negron, Maria; Van Alstine, William

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally infect calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer. Twelve colostrum-deprived male Holstein calves were used. Eight were inoculated intranasally with a BVDV type 1a isolated from free-ranging white-tailed deer, and the other four were inoculated with the cell culture medium only and served as a control group. Whole blood, saliva, and nasal and rectal secretions were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 after inoculation for virus isolation and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). On days 14 and 21, 4 calves in the infected group and 2 in the control group were euthanized; multiple tissue samples were collected for histopathologic study. Histopathologic changes included thymic atrophy and lymphoid depletion of the Peyer’s patches in all 8 infected calves. The RT-PCR gave positive results with the buffy coat of all 8 infected calves, the nasal samples of 7, and the saliva samples of 2. Virus neutralization testing of the serum gave positive results for 4 of the 8 infected calves, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the serum gave positive results for 3. All of the samples from the control calves yielded negative results. PMID:21461198

  15. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - traveler's diarrhea; Diarrhea - traveler's - diet; Gastroenteritis - traveler's ... sick because their bodies are used to the bacteria. You can lower your ... diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent ...

  16. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant.

  17. Quillaja brasiliensis saponins induce robust humoral and cellular responses in a bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine in mice.

    PubMed

    Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Silveira, Fernando; Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Yendo, Anna Carolina; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo Michel

    2016-04-01

    A saponin fraction extracted from Quillaja brasiliensis leaves (QB-90) and a semi-purified aqueous extract (AE) were evaluated as adjuvants in a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine in mice. Animals were immunized on days 0 and 14 with antigen plus either QB-90 or AE or an oil-adjuvanted vaccine. Two-weeks after boosting, antibodies were measured by ELISA; cellular immunity was evaluated by DTH, lymphoproliferation, cytokine release and single cell IFN-γ production. Serum anti-BVDV IgG, IgG1 and IgG2b were significantly increased in QB-90- and AE-adjuvanted vaccines. A robust DTH response, increased splenocyte proliferation, Th1-type cytokines and enhanced production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes were detected in mice that received QB-90-adjuvanted vaccine. The AE-adjuvanted preparation stimulated humoral responses but not cellular immune responses. These findings reveal that QB-90 is capable of stimulating both cellular and humoral immune responses when used as adjuvant. PMID:27012913

  18. Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Austin, Kathleen J; Han, Hyungchul; Montgomery, Donald L; Shoemaker, Megan L; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection occurs in the cattle population worldwide. Non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV strains cause transient infection (TI) or persistent infection (PI) depending on the host's immune status. Immunocompetent adult animals and fetuses in late gestation resolve the infection. Fetal infection in early gestation results in PI with chronic viremia and life-long viral shedding, ensuring virus perpetuation in the population. Eighteen pregnant heifers, divided into three groups, were intranasally inoculated with ncp BVDV2 virus early (day 75) and late (day 175) in gestation, or kept BVDV-naïve. Fetuses were retrieved on day 190. Antiviral activity in blood of dams and fetuses, maternal expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene 15kDa (ISG15), virological and serological status of heifers and fetuses, and fetal growth were studied. A pronounced antiviral activity in blood of heifers and TI fetuses during acute BVDV infection was accompanied by drastic up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in maternal blood. Only one PI fetus expressed low IFN response 115 days post inoculation despite high BVDV antigen and RNA levels. PI fetuses presented with growth retardation. Infection of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 early in gestation adversely affects fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam.

  19. Acute non-cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus infection induces pronounced type I interferon response in pregnant cows and fetuses.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Austin, Kathleen J; Han, Hyungchul; Montgomery, Donald L; Shoemaker, Megan L; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2008-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection occurs in the cattle population worldwide. Non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV strains cause transient infection (TI) or persistent infection (PI) depending on the host's immune status. Immunocompetent adult animals and fetuses in late gestation resolve the infection. Fetal infection in early gestation results in PI with chronic viremia and life-long viral shedding, ensuring virus perpetuation in the population. Eighteen pregnant heifers, divided into three groups, were intranasally inoculated with ncp BVDV2 virus early (day 75) and late (day 175) in gestation, or kept BVDV-naïve. Fetuses were retrieved on day 190. Antiviral activity in blood of dams and fetuses, maternal expression of interferon (IFN) stimulated gene 15kDa (ISG15), virological and serological status of heifers and fetuses, and fetal growth were studied. A pronounced antiviral activity in blood of heifers and TI fetuses during acute BVDV infection was accompanied by drastic up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in maternal blood. Only one PI fetus expressed low IFN response 115 days post inoculation despite high BVDV antigen and RNA levels. PI fetuses presented with growth retardation. Infection of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV2 early in gestation adversely affects fetal development and antiviral responses, despite protective immune responses in the dam. PMID:18053605

  20. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Tellier, R; Keystone, J S

    1992-06-01

    Preventing traveler's diarrhea is usually a matter of common sense, good luck, and the host's ability to defend against enteric pathogens, particularly enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Untreated tap water, ice cubes, unpasteurized milk products, salads, food from street vendors, and dining in unhygienic-appearing restaurants should be avoided. Well-cooked food that is served hot and carbonated, commercially bottled beverages are usually safe. Food and water precautions, however, are no guarantee of success in preventing traveler's diarrhea. Bismuth subsalicylate used prophylactically is somewhat inconvenient and is only moderately effective. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is very effective for traveler's diarrhea, particularly the quinolones, it should be reserved for high-risk travelers. PMID:1624780

  1. Effects of lactadherin on plasma D-lactic acid and small intestinal MUC2 and claudin-1 expression levels in rats with rotavirus-induced diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    XU, RUI; LEI, YI-HUI; SHI, JUN; ZHOU, YI-JUN; CHEN, YING-WEI; HE, ZHEN-JUAN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lactadherin on plasma D-lactic acid and small intestinal mucin (MUC) 2 and claudin-1 expression levels in rats with diarrhea induced by rotavirus (RV) infection. A total of 75 seven-day-old healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following five groups: Control (C), RV infection (RVI), lactadherin before rotavirus infection (LBRI), lactadherin after rotavirus infection (LARI), and blank (B). On day 4 of artificial feeding, the rats in groups RVI, LBRI and LARI were intragastric administered 1×106 PFU RV; whereas the rats in groups C and B were intragastrically administered an equal volume of maintenance solution from the RV supernatant and normal saline, respectively. In the LBRI and LARI groups, rats received daily intragastric administration of 0.25 mg lactadherin for three days prior to and following infection with RV, respectively. The course of diarrheal symptoms was observed in each group and samples were collected on days 1, 4, and 7 post-infection in order to determine the mucosal morphology, plasma D-lactic acid levels and the expression levels of MUC2 and the intracellular junction protein, claudin-1, in the small intestine. On day 4 post-infection, the rats in group RVI demonstrated severely damaged small intestines and typical diarrheal characteristics, as detected by light microscopy; whereas rats in groups LBRI and LARI demonstrated intact small intestinal villi with partial vacuolation of epithelial cells and changes in the position of their nuclei. Electron microscopy demonstrated that the rats in the RVI group had sparse, shortened, disordered intestinal microvilli and widened intercellular junctions; whereas those in groups LBRI and LARI had long intestinal microvilli sparser compared with groups B and C and slightly widened intercellular junctions. Plasma D-lactic acid levels were increased in groups RVI, LBRI and LARI, as compared with groups B and C, and the

  2. Gastrointestinal Infections and Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... in and drinking water from contaminated streams or lakes can lead to an infection and chronic diarrhea. ... or camping, never drink from streams, springs, or lakes unless local health authorities have certified the water ...

  3. Candida-associated diarrhea: a syndrome in search of credibility.

    PubMed

    Levine, J; Dykoski, R K; Janoff, E N

    1995-10-01

    Candida species have been often considered but infrequently documented as a credible cause of diarrhea. Evaluations of the colon in patients who have diarrhea and for whom Candida organisms have been isolated from stool have not shown invasive fungal lesions, and the mechanisms by which Candida species may induce diarrhea remain undefined. However, symptoms ascribed to Candida-associated diarrhea in the literature include prolonged secretory diarrhea with abdominal pain and cramping but without blood, mucus, fever, nausea, or vomiting. A critical review literature review showed a strong between the abatement of diarrheal symptoms in patients for whom a significant growth of Candida was found in their stools and treatment with specific topical antifungal agents. Most of the patients had received antibacterial therapy before the onset of symptoms. On the basis of these data, we conclude that Candida species may cause diarrhea in selective clinical settings.

  4. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An experimental contact lens design releases a glaucoma medicine at a ...

  5. [Experimental and human nephrotoxicity induced by ochratoxins].

    PubMed

    Fillastre, J P

    1997-10-01

    Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin: a dihydroisocoumarin derivative linked to L. beta phenylalanine. Ochratoxin A is produced by a number of Aspergillus and Penicillium species. This mycotoxin is a carcinogenic, teratogenic, mutagenic and immunosuppressive substance. Ochratoxin A is a common contaminant found in a variety of foods for human nutrition as well as animal feeds. The aim of this study is to discuss nephrotoxic properties of this mycotoxin in humans. Nephrotoxicity has been reported in many animals after exposure to ochratoxin A. Porcine nephropathy due to this mycotoxin is a well known disease characterized by impairment of proximal renal function. Renal damage is also confined to the proximal tubule in other animal species. A good correlation is found between renal function abnormalities and the location of the lesions along the nephron. Of particular interest is the presence of nuclear abnormalities of the epithelial cells with pyknosis, karyorrhexis and karyomegaly. The question is to know if ochratoxin is nephrotoxic in humans. Acute nephrotoxicity seems to be very rare and we found only one case report suggesting such a possibility. We observed the occurrence of chronic renal failure in two patients with a possible responsibility of a chronic ochratoxin A intoxication. Clinical and histologic findings in these two patients were quite similar to those described in several cases of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis. Striking similarities between the changes in renal structure and function seen in ochratoxin A-induced experimental nephropathies and in Balkan endemic nephropathy suggest a common etiologic agent. This mycotoxin could be also responsible for interstitial nephropathies in North Africa.

  6. The bovine viral diarrhea virus E2 protein formulated with a novel adjuvant induces strong, balanced immune responses and provides protection from viral challenge in cattle.

    PubMed

    Snider, Marlene; Garg, Ravendra; Brownlie, Robert; van den Hurk, Jan V; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2014-11-28

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is still one of the most serious pathogens in cattle, meriting the development of improved vaccines. Recently, we developed a new adjuvant consisting of poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)]-phosphazene (PCEP), either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), and an immune defense regulator (IDR) peptide. As this adjuvant has been shown to mediate the induction of robust, balanced immune responses, it was evaluated in an E2 subunit vaccine against BVDV in lambs and calves. The BVDV type 2 E2 protein was produced at high levels in a mammalian expression system and purified. When formulated with either CpG ODN or poly(I:C), together with IDR and PCEP, the E2 protein elicited high antibody titers and production of IFN-γ secreting cells in lambs. As the immune responses were stronger when poly(I:C) was used, the E2 protein with poly(I:C), IDR and PCEP was subsequently tested in cattle. Robust virus neutralizing antibodies as well as cell-mediated immune responses, including CD8(+) cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses, were induced. The fact that CTL responses were demonstrated in calves vaccinated with an E2 protein subunit vaccine indicates that this adjuvant formulation promotes cross-presentation. Furthermore, upon challenge with a high dose of virulent BVDV-2, the vaccinated calves showed almost no temperature response, weight loss, leukopenia or virus replication, in contrast to the control animals, which had severe clinical disease. These data suggest that this E2 subunit formulation induces significant protection from BVDV-2 challenge, and thus is a promising BVDV vaccine candidate; in addition, the adjuvant platform has applications in bovine vaccines in general.

  7. Alterations in the Colonic Microbiota in Response to Osmotic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Trajanoski, Slave; Lackner, Stefan; Stocker, Gernot; Hinterleitner, Thomas; Gülly, Christian; Högenauer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Diseases of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract are often accompanied by diarrhea with profound alterations in the GI microbiota termed dysbiosis. Whether dysbiosis is due to the disease itself or to the accompanying diarrhea remains elusive. With this study we characterized the net effects of osmotic diarrhea on the composition of the GI microbiota in the absence of disease. Methods We induced osmotic diarrhea in four healthy adults by oral administration of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG). Stool as well as mucosa specimens were collected before, during and after diarrhea and 16S rDNA-based microbial community profiling was used to assess the microbial community structure. Results Stool and mucosal microbiotas were strikingly different, with Firmicutes dominating the mucosa and Bacteroidetes the stools. Osmotic diarrhea decreased phylotype richness and showed a strong tendency to equalize the otherwise individualized microbiotas on the mucosa. Moreover, diarrhea led to significant relative shifts in the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and to a relative increase in the abundance of Proteobacteria on the mucosa, a phenomenon also noted in several inflammatory and diarrheal GI diseases. Conclusions Changes in microbial community structure induced by osmotic diarrhea are profound and show similarities to changes observed in other GI diseases including IBD. These effects so must be considered when specimens from diarrheal diseases (i.e. obtained by stratification of samples according to diarrheal status) or conditions wherein bowel preparations like PEG (i.e. specimens obtained during endoscopy) are used. PMID:23409050

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus Strains on Intestinal Microflora and Mucosa Immunity in Escherichia coli O157:H7-Induced Diarrhea in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xin; Wang, Ting-Ting; Xu, Min; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Luo, Guang-Wen; Liang, Hong-Zhang; Yu, Shang-Fu; Huo, Gui-Cheng

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of KLDS 1.8701 and AD1 administrations by gavage on intestinal microflora and mucosal immunity in diarrhea mice infected by Escherichia coli O157:H7 compared to normal mice. The levels of E. coli, Enterobacteria, and Enterococcus decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while viable counts of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium increased in diarrhea mice. Moreover, KLDS 1.8701 and AD1 improved secretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and enhanced the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin. Results indicate that KLDS 1.8701 and AD1 could effectively alleviate diarrhea in mice via modulation of intestinal microflora and improve the function of immune system. The study on the effect of KLDS1.8701 and AD1 supplementation in human flora-associated animal models was recommended. PMID:27025726

  9. Clinical and hematologic variables in ponies with experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis (Potomac horse fever).

    PubMed

    Ziemer, E L; Whitlock, R H; Palmer, J E; Spencer, P A

    1987-01-01

    The clinical and hematologic variables of 10 ponies with experimentally induced equine ehrlichial colitis (EEC; syn: Potomac horse fever) were studied for a 30-day period (6 ponies) or until death (4 ponies). The earliest clinical sign indicative of EEC was fever (rectal temperature exceeding 39 C). All ponies became depressed (CNS) at various times during the disease, and 90% of the ponies developed diarrhea between 9 and 15 days after infection was induced. The most significant hematologic change was an increase in plasma protein concentration after the onset of fever (P less than 0.05). The PCV in all ponies became increased above base line during the diarrheic phase of EEC. Forty percent of the ponies developed anemia (PCV less than or equal to 23%) during the study. White blood cell counts were highly variable, with 80% of the ponies developing leukopenia (WBC less than 5,000/microliters) during the illness and 60% of the ponies developing leukocytosis (WBC greater than 14,000/microliters) after leukopenia was observed. Differential WBC changes varied widely and included neutropenia with a left shift, lymphopenia, and eosinopenia. Serial thrombocyte counts, which were done for only 1 pony, identified the development of marked thrombocytopenia. Some hematologic changes in ponies with EEC were similar to those reported in canine monocytic and equine granulocytic ehrlichioses. These data are discussed in the context of the pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of EEC.

  10. Limited efficacy of Fever Tag(®) temperature sensing ear tags in calves with naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease or induced bovine viral diarrhea virus infection.

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Windeyer, Claire; Schaefer, Al

    2014-07-01

    Temperature sensing ear tags were tested in 1) auction-derived calves with 50% incidence of bovine respiratory disease, and 2) specific pathogen-free calves infected with bovine virus diarrhea virus. There were no false positives, but tag placement, probe displacement, and a high threshold for activation all contributed to failure to reliably detect sick calves.

  11. "Experimental amnesia" induced by emotional items.

    PubMed

    Angelini, R; Capozzoli, F; Lepore, P; Grossi, D; Orsini, A

    1994-02-01

    Tulving described an effect of retrograde amnesia in a free-recall task of word lists, produced by inserting items having priority in recall. Other authors confirmed the amnesic effect without giving instructions for priority both in recall and in recognition tasks. The effect was explained by Tulving as a premature termination of encoding processes. The similarity between these experiments and the researches aimed at reproducing amnesia by emotional trauma led us to hypothesize that the two phenomena might be due to the same functional mechanisms. We have organized a free-recall task of word lists into which emotional items were inserted. Our aim was to verify whether with these experimental conditions Tulving's results would be reproduced. The obtained data show amnesic effects in free recall; nevertheless, they do not seem to confirm closely the experimental hypothesis. Lastly, changes in primacy and recency effects produced by emotional items are analyzed.

  12. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte kinetics in experimentally induced keratitis.

    PubMed

    Chusid, M J; Davis, S D

    1985-02-01

    The movement of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) into inflamed corneas was studied using a quantitative technique to measure PMNL chemotaxis in vivo. Our studies suggested that, in this model, most PMNLs enter the cornea through limbal vessels. A variety of bacterial agents, including viable bacteria, killed bacteria, culture filtrates, and endotoxin, were found to induce a significant corneal inflammatory response. Of the agents tested, viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa produced greatest inflammation. Host factors (serum, PMNLs) also induced movement of PMNLs into corneas, but only after preincubation with activating agents. Normal serum, resting PMNLs, and PMNL lysates derived from resting cells did not promote PMNL corneal ingress. These studies provide further insight into the movement of PMNLs into the inflamed cornea and information that may be of use in developing techniques to inhibit the corneal inflammatory response. PMID:3977698

  13. Experimental and analytical investigation of flow through rocket pump inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of a rocket pump inducer are discussed. The effect of the pumping requirements on the blade configuration is analyzed. The effects of viscosity on blade design were determined by tests of a four bladed inducer operated in air at a flow coefficient of 0.065. The fluid properties were measured at the exit of the inducer using conventional and hot wire probes. The experimental results and the method of predicting the outlet tangential velocity and head rise are discussed.

  14. [Trial chemoprophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using nifuroxazide].

    PubMed

    Bourée, P; Kouchner, G

    1986-06-01

    Traveler's diarrhea is a very common condition that affects approximately 12 million subjects each year. This disorder is benign but nevertheless interferes with the traveler's plans in 40% of cases. Several drugs have been used for prophylaxis, in association with appropriate precautions concerning food and drink. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cyclines are effective but may induce adverse effects. Nifuroxazide in a dose of 400 mg each day throughout the trip has proved effective. Tolerance was outstanding with no adverse effects. PMID:3534765

  15. Experimental background due to particle induced gas desorption in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,S.Y.; Trbojevic, D.

    2008-08-10

    Beam-gas collision created experimental background, i.e., singles, has affected heavy ion and polarized proton operations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The gas molecules in interaction region are mainly caused by the electron induced gas desorption. and the electrons are produced from the beam induced electron multipacting, or called electron cloud. The background has a dependence on the usual electron cloud related parameters, such as the bunch intensity, bunch spacing, and the solenoid field. With the RHIC upgrade plan, the experimental background may become a luminosity limiting factor. Mitigations are discussed.

  16. Acute Diarrhea in Children.

    PubMed

    Radlović, Nedeljko; Leković, Zoran; Vuletić, Biljana; Radlović, Vladimir; Simić, Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Acute diarrhea (AD) is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child's treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea.The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD. PMID:26946776

  17. Experimentally induced otitis and audiogenic seizure in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Niaussat, M M

    1977-04-15

    Audiogenic seizures can be induced in genetically non-susceptible 17-day-old mice (Rb/3 strain) with various results. Priming only induces 9% of seizures, auditory insulation 3,8%, while experimental otitis leads to 79%. The hypothesis concerning disuse supersensitivity subsequent to acoustic deprivation was not confirmed by the experiment. However, modification of acoustic transmission at middle ear level induced by otitis or ear physical damage during the maturation period, exposes the upper nervous centers to intense stimulation to which the reaction is a recruiting response. PMID:862735

  18. Experimentally Induced Learned Helplessness: How Far Does it Generalize?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuffin, Keith; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Assessed whether experimentally induced learned helplessness on a cognitive training task generalized to a situationally dissimilar social interaction test task. No significant differences were observed between groups on the subsequent test task, showing that helplessness failed to generalize. (Author/ABB)

  19. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc’s anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Methods Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Results Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p < 0.05), with improved jejunum histology (p < 0.0001). Zinc supplementation diminished bacterial translocation only in lactose-challenged undernourished rats (p = 0.03) compared with the untreated challenged controls and reduced intestinal IL-1β and TNF-α cytokines to control levels. Conclusion Altogether our findings provide novel mechanisms of zinc action in the setting of diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea. PMID:25095704

  20. Bile Acid Diarrhea: Prevalence, Pathogenesis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is usually seen in patients with ileal Crohn’s disease or ileal resection. However, 25% to 50% of patients with functional diarrhea or diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) also have evidence of BAD. It is estimated that 1% of the population may have BAD. The causes of BAD include a deficiency in fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a hormone produced in enterocytes that regulates hepatic bile acid (BA) synthesis. Other potential causes include genetic variations that affect the proteins involved in BA enterohepatic circulation and synthesis or in the TGR5 receptor that mediates the actions of BA in colonic secretion and motility. BAs enhance mucosal permeability, induce water and electrolyte secretion, and accelerate colonic transit partly by stimulating propulsive high-amplitude colonic contractions. There is an increased proportion of primary BAs in the stool of patients with IBS-D, and some changes in the fecal microbiome have been described. There are several methods of diagnosing BAD, such as 75selenium homotaurocholic acid test retention, serum C4, FGF-19, and fecal BA measurement; presently, therapeutic trials with BA sequestrants are most commonly used for diagnosis. Management involves the use of BA sequestrants including cholestyramine, colestipol, and colesevelam. FXR agonists such as obeticholic acid constitute a promising new approach to treating BAD. PMID:25918262

  1. Diarrhea and acaroid mites: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Pin; Cui, Yu-Bao; Wang, Jian; Yang, Qing-Gui; Tian, Ye

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the characteristics of diarrhea caused by acaroid mites. METHODS: Acaroid mites in fresh stools of 241 patients with diarrhea were separated by flotation in saturated saline. Meanwhile, skin prick test, total IgE and mite-specific IgE were detected in all patients. RESULTS: The total positive rate of mites in stool samples of the patients was 17.01% (41/241), the positive rates of mites in male and female patients were 15.86% (23/145) and 18.75% (18/96), respectively, without significant difference (P > 0.05). The percentage of skin prick test as" +++", "++", "+", and "-" was 9.13% (22/241), 7.47% (18/241), 5.81% (14/241), 4.98% (12/241) and 72.61% (175/241), respectively. The serum levels of total IgE, mite-specific IgE in patients with and without mites in stool samples were (165.72 ± 78.55) IU/ml, (132.44 ± 26.80) IU/mL and (145.22 ± 82.47) IU/ml, (67.35 ± 45.28) IU/ml, respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.01). The positive rate of mites in stool samples in staffs working in traditional Chinese medicine storehouses or rice storehouses (experimental group) was 26.74% (23/86), which was significantly higher than that (11.61%, 18/155) in people engaged in other professions (χ2 = 8.97, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Acaroid mites cause diarrhea and increase serum levels of total IgE and mite-specific IgE of patients, and the prevalence of diarrhea caused by acaroid mites is associated with occupations rather than the gender of patients. PMID:12854179

  2. PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF HYPERALGESIA EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BY NUCLEUS PULPOSUS

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Grava, André Luiz; Ferrari, Luiz Fernando; Parada, Carlos Amílcar; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of anti-inflammatory drugs (dexamethasone, indomethacin, atenolol and indomethacin plus atenolol) and analgesic drugs (morphine) on hyperalgesia experimentally induced by the nucleus pulposus (NP) in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats of weights ranging from 220 to 250 g were used in the study. Hyperalgesia was induced by means of a fragment of NP removed from the sacrococcygeal region that was placed in contact with the L5 dorsal root ganglion. The 30 animals were divided into experimental groups according to the drug used. The drugs were administered for two weeks after the surgical procedure to induce hyperalgesia. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was evaluated using the paw pressure test, von Frey electronic test and Hargreaves test, over a seven-week period. Results: The greatest reduction of hyperalgesia was observed in the group of animals treated with morphine, followed by dexamethasone, indomethacin and atenolol. Reductions in hyperalgesia were observed after drug administration ceased, except for the group of animals treated with morphine, in which there was an increase in hyperalgesia after discontinuation of the treatment. Conclusion: Hyperalgesia induced by NP contact with the DRG can be reduced through administration of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs, but a greater reduction was observed with the administration of dexamethasone. PMID:27026966

  3. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Mariana A; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2011-12-01

    Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema. PMID:22159348

  4. Elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema: insights from experimental models.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Mariana A; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2011-12-01

    Several distinct stimuli can be used to reproduce histological and functional features of human emphysema, a leading cause of disability and death. Since cigarette smoke is the main cause of emphysema in humans, experimental researches have attempted to reproduce this situation. However, this is an expensive and cumbersome method of emphysema induction, and simpler, more efficacious alternatives have been sought. Among these approaches, elastolytic enzymes have been widely used to reproduce some characteristics of human cigarette smoke-induced disease, such as: augmentation of airspaces, inflammatory cell influx into the lungs, and systemic inflammation. Nevertheless, the use of elastase-induced emphysema models is still controversial, since the disease pathways involved in elastase induction may differ from those occurring in smoke-induced emphysema. This indicates that the choice of an emphysema model may impact the results of new therapies or drugs being tested. The aim of this review is to compare the mechanisms of disease induction in smoke and elastase emphysema models, to describe the differences among various elastase models, and to establish the advantages and disadvantages of elastase-induced emphysema models. More studies are required to shed light on the mechanisms of elastase-induced emphysema.

  5. Corticostriatal Plastic Changes in Experimental L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Ghiglieri, Veronica; Bagetta, Vincenza; Pendolino, Valentina; Picconi, Barbara; Calabresi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease (PD), alteration of dopamine- (DA-) dependent striatal functions and pulsatile stimulation of DA receptors caused by the discontinuous administration of levodopa (L-DOPA) lead to a complex cascade of events affecting the postsynaptic striatal neurons that might account for the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Experimental models of LID have been widely used and extensively characterized in rodents and electrophysiological studies provided remarkable insights into the inner mechanisms underlying L-DOPA-induced corticostriatal plastic changes. Here we provide an overview of recent findings that represent a further step into the comprehension of mechanisms underlying maladaptive changes of basal ganglia functions in response to L-DOPA and associated to development of LID. PMID:22666628

  6. Experimental realization of optomechanically induced non-reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen; Zhang, Yan-Lei; Chen, Yuan; Zou, Chang-Ling; Xiao, Yun-Feng; Zou, Xu-Bo; Sun, Fang-Wen; Guo, Guang-Can; Dong, Chun-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Non-reciprocal devices, such as circulators and isolators, are indispensable components in classical and quantum information processing in integrated photonic circuits. Aside from these applications, the non-reciprocal phase shift is of fundamental interest for exploring exotic topological photonics, such as the realization of chiral edge states and topological protection. However, incorporating low-optical-loss magnetic materials into a photonic chip is technically challenging. In this study we experimentally demonstrate non-magnetic non-reciprocity using optomechanical interactions in a whispering gallery microresonator, as proposed in a previous work. Optomechanically induced non-reciprocal transparency and amplification are observed and a non-reciprocal phase shift of up to 40° is also demonstrated. The underlying mechanism of optomechanically induced non-reciprocity has great potential for all-optical controllable isolators and circulators, as well as non-reciprocal phase shifters in integrated photonic chips.

  7. Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

    2005-09-01

    We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations.

  8. Ichnocarpus frutescens Ameliorates Experimentally Induced Convulsion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narendra Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Garabadu, Debapriya; Singh, Tryambak Deo; Singh, Virendra Pratap

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anticonvulsant activity and probable mechanism of action of the methanol root extract from I. frutescens (MEIF) using different experimental animal models. Anticonvulsant activity of the single dose of MEIF (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was evaluated in maximal electroshock- (MES-), pentylenetetrazole- (PTZ-), and isoniazid- (INH-) induced convulsions models in rats. The levels of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) activity and oxidative stress markers were measured in pretreated rat's brain homogenate to corroborate the mechanism of observed anticonvulsant activity. MEIF (200–400 mg/kg, p.o.) protected the animals in all the behavioral models used. Pretreatment of MEIF (200–400 mg/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) to the animals in INH-induced convulsion model showed 100% and 80% protection, respectively, as well as significant restoration of GABA and glutamate level in the rat's brain. MEIF and vigabatrin (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the PTZ-induced increase in the activity of GABA-T (46%) in the brain. Further, MEIF reversed the PTZ-induced increase in lipid peroxidase (LPO) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The findings of this study validate the anticonvulsant activity of I. frutescens. PMID:27379268

  9. Pathogenesis of experimentally induced feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, J K; Sparger, E; Ho, E W; Andersen, P R; O'Connor, T P; Mandell, C P; Lowenstine, L; Munn, R; Pedersen, N C

    1988-08-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV; formerly, feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus) is a typical lentivirus resembling human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in morphologic features, protein structure, and reverse transcriptase enzyme. It is antigenically dissimilar, however. The virus is tropic for primary and permanent feline T-lymphoblastoid cells and Crandell feline kidney cells. The virus did not grow in other permanent feline non-lymphoblastoid cells that were tested, or in lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells from man, dogs, mice, and sheep. During short-term inoculation studies in cats, the feline immunodeficiency-like syndrome found in nature was not experimentally induced, but a distinct primary phase of infection was observed. Fever and neutropenia were observed 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation; fever lasted several days, and neutropenia persisted from 1 to 9 weeks. Generalized lymphadenopathy that persisted for 2 to 9 months appeared at the same time. Antibodies to FIV appeared 2 weeks after inoculation and then plateaued. Virus was reisolated from the blood of all infected cats within 4 to 5 weeks after inoculation and persisted indefinitely in the face of humoral antibody response. Virus was recovered from blood, plasma, CSF and saliva, but not from colostrum or milk. Contact transmission was achieved slowly in one colony of naturally infected cats, but not between experimentally infected and susceptible specific-pathogen-free cats kept together for periods as long as 4 to 14 months. The infection was transmitted readily, however, by parenteral inoculation with blood, plasma, or infective cell culture fluids. In utero and lactogenic transmission were not observed in kittens born to naturally or experimentally infected queens. Lymphadenopathy observed during the initial stage of FIV infection was ascribed to lymphoid hyperplasia and follicular dysplasia. A myeloproliferative disorder was observed in 1 cat with experimentally induced infection. PMID:2459996

  10. Symposium on diarrhea. 1. Definition and mechanisms of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jeejeebhoy, K N

    1977-04-01

    Diarrhea, an increase in frequency of evacuation and in water content of the stool, is the result of three categories of mechanism--solute malabsorption, secretion of fluid and motility disturbance. Before diarrhea is considered an abnormal condition, any alteration in stool frequency and content must be related to an individual person's normal bowel habit and to norms for the population, but more than three bowel movements or the passage of liquid stools exceeding 300 g daily should, in general, be considered abnormal. A useful way of understanding the mechanism of diarrhea is to become familiar with the normal functions of the bowel in regard to water and electrolyte absorption and motility, and then to relate these functions to solute malabsorption, fluid secretion and motility disturbance.

  11. Randomized trial of loperamide versus dose escalation of octreotide acetate for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea in bone marrow transplant and leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Geller, R B; Gilmore, C E; Dix, S P; Lin, L S; Topping, D L; Davidson, T G; Holland, H K; Wingard, J R

    1995-11-01

    This study compares maximal daily doses of loperamide to escalating doses of continuous intravenous (CI) octreotide acetate in bone marrow transplant (BMT) and leukemia patients. Following chemotherapy, BMT and leukemia patients who developed > or = 600 ml of stool volume in a 24-hr period were randomized to receive loperamide 4 mg po q6h or octreotide 150 micrograms mixed in hyperalimentation solution or normal saline and administered CI. Patients were assessed at 48 hr intervals for decrease in stool volume from baseline. Complete response (CR) was defined as > or = 50% from baseline stool volume (BSV). Patients receiving octreotide who did not achieve a CR at 48 hr were dose escalated by doubling the dose to a maximum of 2,400 micrograms with evaluations at 48 hr intervals. Patients receiving loperamide who did not achieve a CR at 48 hr had treatment discontinued. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, all were evaluable for intention to treat, and 31 were evaluable for initial response. Based on intent to treat at the initial 48 hr, patients receiving loperamide had a higher complete response rate (86% vs. 45%, P = 0.033) than did those who received octreotide. By treatment analysis (patients who actually received the drug), patients receiving loperamide had a higher complete response rate (92% vs. 56%, P = 0.0448) than did those who received octreotide at the 150 micrograms dosage level. Additional octreotide patients eventually achieved a CR at a higher dosage level (78%). Loperamide at maximal doses of 4 mg po q6h is more effective than octreotide 150 micrograms CI in treating diarrhea following chemotherapy in BMT and leukemia patients. Higher doses of octreotide may be required in a significant number of patients not responding to lower doses.

  12. Hafnia alvei, a probable cause of diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M J; Alam, K; Islam, M; Montanaro, J; Rahaman, A S; Haider, K; Hossain, M A; Kibriya, A K; Tzipori, S

    1991-01-01

    Hafnia alvei, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, was the only species of bacteria cultured from the stool of a 9-month-old child who was admitted with a 3-day history of watery diarrhea. The isolated strain of H. alvei failed to produce heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins or Shiga-like toxin I or II and did not invade HeLa cells, nor did it cause keratoconjunctivitis (determined by the Sereny test) in a guinea pig's eye. The strain, however, induced diarrhea in 8 of 12 adult rabbits with removable intestinal ties (removable intestinal tie-adult rabbit diarrhea [RITARD] assay) and in 1 of 2 orally fed animals. No diarrhea could be induced with Escherichia coli K-12 in eight RITARD assay rabbits and three orally fed rabbits, respectively. Microscopic examination of affected animals revealed moderate inflammatory cellular infiltration of the intestinal mucosa, in which bacterial attachment to the surface epithelium and loss of the microvillus border were evident in the ileum and colon. Electron microscopy demonstrated cellular modifications of the apical surface, with cupping or pedestal formation and increased terminal web density at sites of bacterial "attachment-effacement," a well-known characteristic and mechanism of diarrhea of enteropathogenic E. coli. Identical lesions were also induced by H. alvei in rabbit ileal loops, which ruled out naturally occurring rabbit enteropathogenic E. coli strains, which are known to produce similar lesions. It is concluded that at least some strains of H. alvei have the potential to cause diarrhea and that attachment-effacement is a virulence characteristic shared by bacteria other than E. coli. Images PMID:2004829

  13. Silibinin ameliorates LPS-induced memory deficits in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ritu; Garabadu, Debapriya; Teja, Gangineni Ravi; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-12-01

    Neuroinflammation is considered as one of the predisposing factor in the etiology of several neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of silibinin (SIL) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammatory model. The effect of SIL on memory function was also evaluated on normal rats without LPS administration. In the first experiment, male rats were divided into five groups. Except control group animals, all rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of LPS (5 μg/5 μl) into lateral ventricles on the first day of the experimental schedule. Control rats received bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of artificial cerebrospinal fluid into lateral ventricles. SIL in doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. was administered 1h before LPS injection and continued for 7 days. On Day-7, SIL attenuated the LPS-induced long-term and working memory loss in elevated plus and Y-maze test respectively. Further, SIL dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced decrease in acetylcholine level and increase in the acetylcholinestrase activity in hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex. SIL ameliorated LPS-induced decrease in the mitochondrial complex activity (I, IV and V) and integrity, increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase in both the brain regions. SIL attenuated amyloidogenesis in the hippocampus, while it decreased the LPS-induced increase in the level of NFκB in the pre-frontal cortex. In another study, SIL dose-dependently, enhanced memory functions in the normal rats, indicating its nootropic activity. Hence, SIL could be a potential candidate in the management of neuroinflammation-related memory disorders.

  14. Experimental microembolism induces localized neuritic pathology in guinea pig cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ming; Cai, Yan; Liu, Fei; Yang, La; Hu, Xia; Patrylo, Peter R; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang; Xiao, Dong; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2015-05-10

    Microbleeds are a common finding in aged human brains. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuritic plaques composed of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits and dystrophic neurites occur frequently around cerebral vasculature, raising a compelling question as to whether, and if so, how, microvascular abnormality and amyloid/neuritic pathology might be causally related. Here we used a guinea pig model of cerebral microembolism to explore a potential inductive effect of vascular injury on neuritic and amyloid pathogenesis. Brains were examined 7-30 days after experimental microvascular embolization occupying ~0.5% of total cortical area. Compared to sham-operated controls, glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was increased in the embolized cerebrum, evidently around intracortical vasculature. Swollen/sprouting neurites exhibiting increased reactivity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase, parvalbumin, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and choline acetyltransferase appeared locally in the embolized brains in proximity to intracortical vasculature. The embolization-induced swollen/sprouting neurites were also robustly immunoreactive for β-amyloid precursor protein and β-secretase-1, the substrate and initiating enzyme for Aβ genesis. These experimental data suggest that microvascular injury can induce multisystem neuritic pathology associated with an enhanced amyloidogenic potential in wild-type mammalian brain.

  15. Experimental identification of pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingólfsson, E. T.; Georgakis, C. T.; Ricciardelli, F.; Jönsson, J.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of lateral forces generated by single pedestrians during continuous walking on a treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The experimental campaign involved 71 male and female human adults and covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed between 4954 individual tests. When walking on a laterally moving surface, motion-induced forces develop at the frequency of the movement and are herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. Their dependency on the vibration frequency and amplitude is presented, both in terms of mean values and probabilistically to illustrate the randomness associated with intra- and inter-subject variability. It is shown that the motion-induced portion of the pedestrian load (on average) inputs energy into the structure in the frequency range (normalised by the mean walking frequency) between approximately 0.6 and 1.2. Furthermore, it is shown that the load component in phase with the acceleration of the treadmill depends on the frequency of the movement, such that pedestrians (on average) subtract from the overall modal mass for low frequency motion and add to the overall modal mass at higher frequencies.

  16. Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in experimentally infected conventional piglets.

    PubMed

    Poutahidis, T; Tsangaris, T; Kanakoudis, G; Vlemmas, I; Iliadis, N; Sofianou, D

    2001-11-01

    A conventional nonmutant animal that could be experimentally infected with Helicobacter pylori isolates would be a useful animal model for human H. pylori-associated gastritis. Gnotobiotic and barrier-born pigs are susceptible to H. pylori infection, but attempts to infect conventional pigs with this bacterium have been unsuccessful. In the present study, a litter of eight 20-day-old crossbreed piglets were purchased from a commercial farm. Six of them were orally challenged two to five times at different ages, between 29 and 49 days, with doses of H. pylori inoculum containing approximately 10(9) bacterial cells. Two animals served as controls. The inoculation program began 2 days postweaning when the piglets were 29 days of age. Prior to every inoculation, the piglets were fasted and pretreated with cimetidine, and prior to the first and second inoculation each piglet also was pretreated with dexamethasone. The challenged piglets were euthanasized between 36 and 76 days of age. H. pylori colonized all six inoculated piglets. The pathology of the experimentally induced gastritis was examined macroscopically and by light and electron microscopy. H. pylori induced a severe lymphocytic gastritis in the conventional piglets and reproduced the large majority of the pathologic features of the human disease. Therefore, the conventional piglet represents a promising new model for study of the various pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of lesions of the human H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  17. [Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea viruses].

    PubMed

    Loginov, Raisa; Mannonen, Laura; Lappalainen, Maija

    2016-01-01

    Viral diagnosis is required mainly in the analysis of outbreaks of diarrhea, cases of gastroenteritis in infants and in the exploration of the cause of diarrhea in severely ill patients. Antigens of rotaviruses and adenoviruses can be detected in the feces of the patient, and the rapid tests applied have proven to possess sufficient sensitivity. Sensitivities of the tests intended for norovirus antigen detection have instead remained poor. In addition to antigen detection tests, a real-time PCR test based on the,detection of norovirus nucleic acids has come onto the market, being both easy to use and substantially more sensitive. In the future, multiplex PCR tests allowing simultaneous detection of several different diarrhea-causing microorganisms are expected to become more common. PMID:27188089

  18. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  19. In vivo Expression of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimentally Induced Neurologic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Zheng, Yong Mu; Heber-Katz, Ellen; Fraser, Nigel; Rorke, Lucy; Fu, Zhen Fang; Hanlon, Cathleen; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the brain tissue of rats and mice under the following experimental conditions: in rats infected with borna disease virus and rabies virus, in mice infected with herpes simplex virus, and in rats after the induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The results showed that iNOS mRNA, normally nondetectable in the brain, was present in animals after viral infection or after induction of experimental allergic encephalitis. The induction of iNOS mRNA coincided with the severity of clinical signs and in some cases with the presence of inflammatory cells in the brain. The results indicate that nitric oxide produced by cells induced by iNOS may be the toxic factor accounting for cell damage and this may open the door to approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  20. Role of probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Surawicz, Christina M

    2008-07-01

    The role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile diarrhea, and recurrent C. difficile diarrhea is reviewed. Various probiotics have variable efficacy. More studies are needed to define further their efficacies, roles, and indications.

  1. Colestipol hydrochloride prophylaxis of diarrhea during pelvic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Layser, J.D.

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-three patients were randomized prior to pelvic radiotherapy to receive the bile acid-sequestering resin colestipol hydrochloride, 5 grams qid, during the entire time of their therapy or diphenoxylate hydrochloride and atropine sulfate 2.5-20 mg per day (control) if they experienced diarrhea. The colestipol patients also took diphenoxylate if they had diarrhea. The patients in the colestipol group often experienced nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps and 8 were forced to discontinue the drug. There was no difference in the weekly stool frequency between the colestipol and the control patients but the colestipol patients who took at least 50% of the prescribed dose required fewer diphenoxylate tablets than the controls. The data suggest that colestipol hydrochloride is not of value in preventing radiation-induced diarrhea because of the side effects associated with the drug, but the theory on which the use of bile acid-sequestering agents is based may be correct.

  2. Tutorials for Africa - Diarrhea: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    Tutorials for Africa: Diarrhea Diarrhea remains one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in ... of treatment and techniques for prevention. Select the tutorial to play: Japadhola Japadhola (Self Playing Tutorial) Luganda ...

  3. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Risling, M; Plantman, S; Angeria, M; Rostami, E; Bellander, B-M; Kirkegaard, M; Arborelius, U; Davidsson, J

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) potentially induced by blast waves from detonations result in significant diagnostic problems. It may be assumed that several mechanisms contribute to the injury. This study is an attempt to characterize the presumed components of the blast induced TBI. Our experimental models include a blast tube in which an anesthetized rat can be exposed to controlled detonations of explosives that result in a pressure wave with a magnitude between 130 and 260 kPa. In this model, the animal is fixed with a metal net to avoid head acceleration forces. The second model is a controlled penetration of a 2mm thick needle. In the third model the animal is subjected to a high-speed sagittal rotation angular acceleration. Immunohistochemical labeling for amyloid precursor protein revealed signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the penetration and rotation models. Signs of punctuate inflammation were observed after focal and rotation injury. Exposure in the blast tube did not induce DAI or detectable cell death, but functional changes. Affymetrix Gene arrays showed changes in the expression in a large number of gene families including cell death, inflammation and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus after both acceleration and penetration injuries. Exposure to the primary blast wave induced limited shifts in gene expression in the hippocampus. The most interesting findings were a downregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic transmission. These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects. PMID:20493951

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Tsunami-Induced Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Y.; Xiao, H.

    2007-05-01

    As demonstrated by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, high intensity wave runup and drawdown can mobilize substantial amount of sediment deposits. The resulting erosion and scour damage can undermine building foundations, roadways, sea walls, embankments, and may even lead to eventual collapse of the coastal structure. However, most previous models ignore the effect of tsunami-induced sediment transport and scour due to the complex physics and multiple scaling issues. In this work, a numerical model is presented for the simulation of solitary waves over a uniform sloped movable bed. The depth averaged nonlinear shallow water equations (SWEs) are used to model long waves, the wave profile gradient method is used to detect wave breaking, and the effect of energy-dissipation due to wave breaking is captured as a bore collapse. The effect of sediment transport is modeled via a passive scalar and is fully coupled with the SWEs to form a complete system. New forms of the erosion and deposition fluxes are introduced to account for the effect of the flow velocity, particle fall velocity, wave profile, and pore pressure gradient. The model is validated by comparing the numerical solutions to the measured bed changes obtained from the cross-shore sediment transport experiment under breaking solitary waves conducted by (Kobayashi & Lawrence 2004). To further validate the numerical model, two sets of experimental studies are planned for 2007. The first experimental study focuses on the effect of enhanced transport due to pore pressure gradients, and will be conducted at the 30-ft long flume in the hydraulics lab at the University of Hawaii using multiple grain sizes. The second experimental study focuses on tsunami-induced sediment transport, and will be conducted at the 160-ft long tsunami wave basin at Oregon State University using fine Oregon beach sand with D50=0.20mm. The experimental setups are shown, and scaling issues for the two movable bed physical models are discussed

  5. The Day Care Center Diarrhea Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Larry K.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention and control of diarrhea in day care settings depends on: maintenance of hygienic standards; disease surveillance; adhering to a policy for exclusion of children with diarrhea; and education of staff. When diarrhea afflicts several children, isolating together can stop the spread of disease without interrupting normal operation. (KH)

  6. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    PubMed

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy.

  7. Laser-induced acoustic emissions in experimental dental composites.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Lin, C T; Keh, E S; Pan, L C; Huang, H M; Shih, Y H; Cheng, H C

    2000-07-01

    A laser thermoacoustic technique was innovated to evaluate laser-induced acoustic emissions (AEs) in experimental dental composites aged with 75% ethanol solution. Experimental composite systems of 75/25 BisGMA/TEGDMA resin filled with 0, 12.6, 30.0, and 56.5 vol% of 8-microm silanized and unsilanized BaSiO6 were analyzed. The sample size was 4.65 mm (diameter) x 0.5 mm (thick). Aging effects of immersing in 75% ethanol for up to 14 h on AEs were then evaluated. A continuous-wave CO2 laser was used to heat the samples. Acoustic emissions were collected as a function of filler fraction, laser power, silanization, and immersion time. Onset of burst-pattern acoustic signals characteristic of fracturing occurred at different laser powers for different tested groups. Acoustic emissions generally increased with laser power, in which lower laser powers produced low-amplitude (45-50 dB) signals; the amplitude distribution (50-85 dB) became more extensive as laser powers increased. After immersion, the lower laser powers could produce the same phenomenon. The higher the filler fraction, the fewer AEs generated. A large percentage AE reduction due to silanization was noted as a function of filler fraction. Unsilanized specimens showed more thermal damages than did silanized ones.

  8. Diarrhea and malabsorption in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Lawrence R

    2009-09-01

    Acute and chronic diarrheal disorders are common problems at all ages. It has been estimated that 5% to 7% of the population has an episode of acute diarrhea each year and that 3% to 5% have chronic diarrhea that lasts more than 4 weeks. It is likely that the prevalence of diarrhea is similar in older individuals. This article reviews the impact of diarrhea in the elderly, many of whom are less fit physiologically to withstand the effect of diarrhea on fluid balance and nutritional balance.

  9. Infectious diarrhea in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; McDonald, Jay R; Thielman, Nathan M

    2005-10-01

    Diarrhea from gastrointestinal infection remains a common problem. In industrialized countries, management is aimed at reducing morbidity and defining groups that may benefit from further investigation. Most infectious diarrhea is self-limiting and only requires supportive management. Viral agents are increasingly recognized as causative agents of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea. In developing countries, diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in children. Oral rehydration therapy, guided by a clinical assessment of the degree of dehydration, is cheap, simple, and effective and remains the mainstay of management of infant diarrhea. Controversies focus on the optimal formulation of oral rehydration solution. A vaccine against rotavirus has the potential to save millions of lives worldwide.

  10. [Chronic diarrhea--rational diagnosis and therapy].

    PubMed

    Pohl, C; Kruis, W

    1996-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea, defined by frequent bowel movements with decreased stool consistency lasting for longer than 3 weeks represents a major problem in gastroenterology. In addition to the very frequent functional disturbances of irritable bowel syndrome a wide variety of infectious, drug-induced, alimentary, metabolic, hormonal and organic causes requires a thorough evaluation of this symptom. To reach diagnosis an algorithm applying a wide array of diagnostic procedures based on the results of thorough anamnesis, physical examination and stool visit should be followed. In addition to alleviation of symptoms, reconstitution and prevention of nutrional deficits (volume, electrolytes, trace elements, vitamines, calories) therapeutic approaches should eliminate underlying causes whenever possible. Symptomatic relief is provided by substances inhibiting secretion and motility as the opiatagonist Loperamid or anticholinergics. Substitution of vitamins, trace elements, calories, enzymes or bile salts should be adapted to the individual needs. Elimination of a cause of chronic diarrhea is generally provided be anti-infectious therapy, other causes however (e.g. sprue by the elimination of gliadin from diet) may be treated effectively as well.

  11. The effects of experimentally induced adelphophagy in gastropod embryos.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10-30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids.

  12. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Adelphophagy in Gastropod Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Olaf; Collin, Rachel; Carrillo-Baltodano, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Adelphophagy, development where embryos grow large by consuming morphologically distinct nutritive embryos or their own normal siblings is widespread but uncommon among animal phyla. Among invertebrates it is particularly common in some families of marine gastropods and segmented worms, but rare or unknown in other closely related families. In calyptraeid gastropods phylogenetic analysis indicates that adelphophagy has arisen at least 9 times from species with planktotrophic larval development. This pattern of frequent parallel evolution of adelphophagy suggests that the embryos of planktotrophic species might be predisposed to evolve adelphophagy. Here we used embryos of three species of planktotrophic calyptraeids, one from each of three major genera in the family (Bostrycapulus, Crucibulum, and Crepidula), to answer the following 3 questions: (1) Can embryos of species with planktotrophic development benefit, in terms of pre-hatching growth, from the ingestion of yolk and tissue from experimentally damaged siblings? (2) Does ingestion of this material from damaged siblings increase variation in pre-hatching size? and (3) Does this experimentally induced adelphophagy alter the allometry between the velum and the shell, increasing morphological similarity to embryos of normally adelphophagic species? We found an overall increase in shell length and velum diameter when embryos feed on damaged siblings within their capsules. There was no detectable increase in variation in shell length or velum diameter, or changes in allometry. The overall effect of our treatment was small compared to the embryonic growth observed in naturally adelphophagic development. However each embryo in our experiment probably consumed less than one sibling on average, whereas natural adelphophages often each consume 10–30 or more siblings. These results suggest that the ability to consume, assimilate, and benefit from yolk and tissue of their siblings is widespread across calyptraeids

  13. 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induced experimental oral carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Deepak; Vaidya, Milind M

    2006-08-01

    Human oral cancer is the sixth largest group of malignancies worldwide and single largest group of malignancies in the Indian subcontinent. Seventy percent of premalignant cancers appear from premalignant lesions. Only 8-10% of these lesions finally turn into malignancy. The appearance of these premalignant lesions is one distinct feature of human oral cancer. At present there is dearth of biomarkers to identify which of these lesions will turn into malignancy. Regional lymph node metastasis and locoregional recurrence are the major factors responsible for the limited survival of patients with oral cancer. Paucity of early diagnostic and prognostic markers is one of the contributory factors for higher mortality rates. Cancer is a multistep process and because of constrain in availability of human tissues from multiple stages of oral carcinogenesis including normal tissues, animal models are being widely used, aiming for the development of diagnostic and prognostic markers. A number of chemical carcinogens like coal tar, 20 methyl cholanthrene (20MC), 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) have been used in experimental oral carcinogenesis. However, 4NQO is the preferred carcinogen apart from DMBA in the development of experimental oral carcinogenesis. 4NQO is a water soluble carcinogen, which induces tumors predominantly in the oral cavity. It produces all the stages of oral carcinogenesis and several lines of evidences suggest that similar histological as well as molecular changes are observed in the human system. In the present review an attempt has been made to collate the information available on mechanisms of action of 4NQO, studies carried out for the development of biomarkers and chemopreventives agents using 4NQO animal models. PMID:16448841

  14. The Cell Nucleus in Physiological and Experimentally Induced Hypometabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, M.

    The main problem for manned space mission is, at present, represented by the mass penalty associated to the human presence. An efficient approach could be the induction of a hypometabolic stasis in the astronauts, thus drastically reducing the physical and psychological requirements of the crew. On the other hand, in the wild, a reduction in resource consumptions physiologi- cally occurs in certain animals which periodically enter hibernation, a hypometabolic state in which both the energy need and energy offer are kept at a minimum. During the last twelve years, we have been studying different tissues of hibernating dormice, with the aim of analyzing their features during the euthermia -hibernation-arousal cycle as well as getting insight into the mechanisms allowing adaptation to hypometabolism. We paid particular attention to the cell nucleus, as it is the site of chief metabolic functions, such as DNA replication and RNA transcription. Our observations revealed no significant modification in the basic features of cell nuclei during hibernation; however, the cell nuclei of hibernating dormice showed unusual nuclear bodies containing molecules involved in RNA pathways. Therefore, we supposed that they could represent storage/assembly sites of several factors for processing some RNA which could be slowly synthesised during hibernation and rapidly and abundantly released in early arousal in order to meet the increased metabolic needs of the cell. The nucleolus also underwent structural and molecular modifications during hibernation, maybe to continue important nucleolar functions, or, alternatively, permit a most efficient reactivation upon arousal. On the basis of the observations made in vivo , we recently tried to experimentally induce a reversible hypometabolic state in in vitro models, using cell lines derived from hibernating and non-hibernating species. By administering the synthetic opioid DADLE, we could significantly reduce both RNA transcrip- tion and

  15. Erythropoietin is a hypoxia inducible factor-induced protective molecule in experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bangwei; Jiang, Man; Yang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Xiong, Jian; Schluesener, Hermann J; Zhang, Zhiren; Wu, Yuzhang

    2013-08-01

    Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an autoantigen-specific T-cell-mediated disease model for human demyelinating inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system, is characterized by self-limitation. Here we investigated the regulation and contribution of erythropoietin (EPO) in EAN self-limitation. In EAN sciatic nerves, hypoxia, and protein and mRNA levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), HIF-2α, EPO and EPO receptor (EPOR) were induced in parallel at disease peak phase but reduced at recovery periods. Further, the deactivation of HIF reduced EAN-induced EPO/EPOR upregulation in EAN, suggesting the central contribution of HIF to EPO/EPOR induction. The deactivation of EPOR signalling exacerbated EAN progression, implying that endogenous EPO contributed to EAN recovery. Exogenous EPO treatment greatly improved EAN recovery. In addition, EPO was shown to promote Schwann cell survival and myelin production. In EAN, EPO treatment inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and altered helper T cell differentiation by inducing increase of Foxp3(+)/CD4(+) regulatory T cells and decrease of IFN-γ(+)/CD4(+) Th1 cells. Furthermore, EPO inhibited inflammatory macrophage activation and promoted its phagocytic activity. In summary, our data demonstrated that EPO was induced in EAN by HIF and contributed to EAN recovery, and endogenous and exogenous EPO could effectively suppress EAN by attenuating inflammation and exerting direct cell protection, indicating that EPO contributes to the self-recovery of EAN and could be a potent candidate for treatment of autoimmune neuropathies. PMID:23603807

  16. Dietary sugar beet fiber ameliorates diarrhea as an acute gamma-radiation injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, S; Ito, S; Kasai, T; Hara, H

    2000-09-01

    Gamma radiation induces diarrhea as an acute injury. We have studied whether ingestion of sugar beet fiber influences radiation-induced diarrhea. Abdominal irradiation with gamma rays induced diarrhea in male Wistar/ST rats from 2 to 7 days after a single sublethal dose. The body weight of the irradiated rats was decreased temporarily at 4 days after irradiation regardless of the ingestion of sugar beet fiber. At day 8, it returned to almost the same level as that of unirradiated rats. A change in daily food intake resulted in a pattern similar to that for body weight. Dietary sugar beet fiber had little significant effect on the changes in body weight and daily food intake, and its ingestion significantly decreased gamma-ray-induced diarrhea. Changes in biochemical and histological parameters in intestinal mucosa (small intestine, cecum and colon) were not greatly influenced by the ingestion of sugar beet fiber through the periods of diarrhea. It was concluded that dietary sugar beet fiber ameliorated the diarrhea induced by abdominal irradiation. We suggest that the inhibitory effect of the ingestion of sugar beet fiber is due to its effects on the luminal environment, such as support for bacterial function in the luminal contents in the colon of animals that ingest sugar beet fiber.

  17. Early corticosteroid administration in experimental radiation-induced heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, W.C.; Stryker, J.A.; Abt, A.A.; Chung, C.K.; Whitesell, L.; Zelis, R.

    1980-02-01

    The ability of dexamethasone (DEX) to reduce the severity of the late stage of radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) was assessed in 25 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits served as unirradiated controls (CONT). In Group A, seven rabbits received intravenous DEX prior to irradiation and every 24 hours for three consecutive days. DEX was not administered to the eight rabbits in Group B. At 100 days postirradiation, the severity of the late state was determined by microscopic examination (MICRO) for myocardial fibrosis and determination of myocardial hydroxyproline content (MHP). Myocardial fibrosis was evident in groups A (40%) and B (80%) while none was present in CONT by MICRO. One rabbit in Group B with no fibrosis by MICRO had abnormally increased MHP. MHP was significantly increased in Groups A and B, as compared to CONT (p < 0.01). In addition to less fibrosis by MICRO, Group A demonstrated a significant reduction of MHP when compared to Group B (p < 0.05). Determination of MHP may be superior to MICRO in the detection of the late stage of RIHD. Also, early DEX administration appears to reduce myocardial collagen content (fibrosis) in this experimental model.

  18. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption.

  19. Multiple-dose therapy with bovine colostrum confers significant protection against diarrhea in a mouse model of human rotavirus-induced gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, M; Yamamoto, M; Cairangzhuoma; Xijier; Yabe, T; Uchida, K; Kawasaki, M; Nakagomi, T; Nakagomi, O; Minamoto, N; Kanamaru, Y

    2013-02-01

    Rotavirus is the most important etiologic agent of severe gastroenteritis. Previously, we reported that skimmed and concentrated bovine late colostrum (SCBLC) obtained from normal unimmunized cows at 6 to 7d after parturition effectively prevented against human rotavirus (HRV)-induced severe gastroenteritis in vivo, when administered as a single dose 60 min before viral inoculation. In the present study, we examined the efficacy of multiple administrations of SCBLC at smaller dosages after viral inoculation in vivo. We demonstrate that multiple administrations within 24h after virus inoculation resulted in earlier recovery from diarrheal symptoms, in an administration frequency-dependent manner. Furthermore, we investigated whether isolated IgG anti-HRV activity in SCBLC was equivalent to that of IgG isolated from bovine mature milk as measured by in vitro activity assays. We found that IgG-containing fractions from SCBLC and mature milk exhibited approximately the same level of anti-HRV activity. We concluded that the SCBLC contains a high level of IgG against HRV-induced severe gastroenteritis, which will be possible to use in protective effects in immunocompromised hosts, such as children and the elderly. Multiple doses of SCBLC during the early stages of infection or lower dosage of SCBLC given as a single dose both resulted in relief of diarrheal symptoms. PMID:23200479

  20. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  1. Some infectious causes of diarrhea in young farm animals.

    PubMed Central

    Holland, R E

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli, rotaviruses, and Cryptosporidium parvum are discussed in this review as they relate to enteric disease in calves, lambs, and pigs. These microorganisms are frequently incriminated as causative agents in diarrheas among neonatal food animals, and in some cases different strains or serotypes of the same organism cause diarrhea in humans. E. coli causes diarrhea by mechanisms that include production of heat-labile or heat-stable enterotoxins and synthesis of potent cytotoxins, and some strains cause diarrhea by yet undetermined mechanisms. Rotaviruses and C. parvum induce various degrees of villous atrophy. Rotaviruses infect and replicate within the cytoplasm of enterocytes, whereas C. parvum resides in an intracellular, extracytoplasmic location. E. coli, rotavirus, and C. parvum infections are of concern to producers, veterinarians, and public health officials. These agents are a major cause of economic loss to the producer because of costs associated with therapy, reduced performance, and high morbidity and mortality rates. Moreover, diarrheic animals may harbor, incubate, and act as a source to healthy animals and humans of some of these agents. Images PMID:2224836

  2. Etiology of summer diarrhea among the Navajo.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Rouse, J D; Barada, F A; Guerrant, R L

    1980-07-01

    The etiology of diarrhea in children and adults on the Navajo Indian Reservation was investigated in August 1975. Fifty-six ill individuals and 37 controls were included in the study. Shigella was most commonly associated with diarrhea, and was isolated from 32% of ill children and adults. Fifty percent of Shigella isolates tested were resistant to ampicillin. Heat-stable enterotoxin-(ST)-producing organisms were associated with noninflammatory diarrhea in adults (27% of these cases had ST-producing strains) but not in children. Heat-labile enterotoxin-producing organisms were found among controls as well as individuals with diarrhea. No children had evidence of rotavirus infection. These findings suggest that ST-producing organisms are important causes of sporadic cases of noninflammatory summer diarrhea among Navajo adults and confirm the importance of Shigella in inflammatory diarrhea among adults and children in this setting. PMID:7406112

  3. Experimental validation of a numerical model for subway induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the experimental validation of a coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model for the prediction of subway induced vibrations. The model fully accounts for the dynamic interaction between the train, the track, the tunnel and the soil. The periodicity or invariance of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transformation, which allows for an efficient formulation in the frequency-wavenumber domain. A general analytical formulation is used to compute the response of three-dimensional invariant or periodic media that are excited by moving loads. The numerical model is validated by means of several experiments that have been performed at a site in Regent's Park on the Bakerloo line of London Underground. Vibration measurements have been performed on the axle boxes of the train, on the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall, and in the free field, both at the surface and at a depth of 15 m. Prior to these vibration measurements, the dynamic soil characteristics and the track characteristics have been determined. The Bakerloo line tunnel of London Underground has been modelled using the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element approach and free field vibrations due to the passage of a train at different speeds have been predicted and compared to the measurements. The correspondence between the predicted and measured response in the tunnel is reasonably good, although some differences are observed in the free field. The discrepancies are explained on the basis of various uncertainties involved in the problem. The variation in the response with train speed is similar for the measurements as well as the predictions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model to make realistic predictions of the vibrations from underground railways.

  4. [Campylobacter in acute diarrhea of infants].

    PubMed

    Khemiri, F; Ben Aissa, R; Seffen, S; Gueddana, N; Khadraoui, S

    1985-01-01

    Investigation of C. jejuni, C. coli has been realised on 280 babies in Tunis, 123 of them do not present any diarrhea. The global frequency of campylobacter isolated is 4.64%. Concerning babies with diarrhea, the frequency is 4.45%, whereas it is 4.86% in the group without diarrhea. A similar frequency of C. jejuni and C. coli appears in the two groups.

  5. Expression of Serotonin Receptors in the Colonic Tissue of Chronic Diarrhea Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3 receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet. PMID:27184643

  6. Astigmatism in Monkeys with Experimentally Induced Myopia or Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    KEE, CHEA-SU; HUNG, LI-FANG; QIAO-GRIDER, YING; RAMAMIRTHAM, RAMKUMAR; SMITH, EARL L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Astigmatism is the most common ametropia found in humans and is often associated with large spherical ametropias. However, little is known about the etiology of astigmatism or the reason(s) for the association between spherical and astigmatic refractive errors. This study examines the frequency and characteristics of astigmatism in infant monkeys that developed axial ametropias as a result of altered early visual experience. Methods Data were obtained from 112 rhesus monkeys that experienced a variety of lens-rearing regimens that were intended to alter the normal course of emmetropization. These visual manipulations included form deprivation (n = 13); optically imposed defocus (n = 48); and continuous ambient lighting with (n = 6) or without optically imposed defocus (n = 6). In addition, data from 19 control monkeys and 39 infants reared with an optically imposed astigmatism were used for comparison purposes. The lens-rearing period started at approximately 3 weeks of age and ended by 4 to 5 months of age. Refractive development for all monkeys was assessed periodically throughout the treatment and subsequent recovery periods by retinoscopy, keratometry, and A-scan ultrasonography. Results In contrast to control monkeys, the monkeys that had experimentally induced axial ametropias frequently developed significant amounts of astigmatism (mean refractive astigmatism = 0.37 ± 0.33 D [control] vs. 1.24 ± 0.81 D [treated]; two-sample t-test, p < 0.0001), especially when their eyes exhibited relative hyperopic shifts in refractive error. The astigmatism was corneal in origin (Pearson’s r; p < 0.001 for total astigmatism and the JO and J45 components), and the axes of the astigmatism were typically oblique and bilaterally mirror symmetric. Interestingly, the astigmatism was not permanent; the majority of the monkeys exhibited substantial reductions in the amount of astigmatism at or near the end of the lens-rearing procedures. Conclusions In infant monkeys

  7. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... doses at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Rotarix is given in two doses. The first dose is given when the baby is 6 weeks old, and the second is given at least 4 weeks later but before the baby is 24 weeks old. To learn more about rotavirus vaccines, talk with your child’s ...

  8. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  9. Chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyungil; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151

  10. Chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyungil; Park, Sang Hyoung; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2016-07-01

    As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151

  11. Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in calves.

    PubMed Central

    Coria, M F; McClurkin, A W

    1978-01-01

    Duration of active and colostrum-derived passive antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus was studied in 14 calves. Five calves born with actively induced antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus retained high titers during the year of observation. Colostrum-derived antibodies to bovine viral diarrhea virus in nine calves declined at an expected rate for the first four to six months of age. However, titers of six of these calves increased at five to eight months of age and either remained constant or increased through one year of age. Bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody titers of the other three calves declined at a constant rate to less than 1:4 by nine to 12 months of age. PMID:208738

  12. Kampo Extract of Shinbuto Improved Refractory Diarrhea in Milroy's Disease.

    PubMed

    Horiba, Yuko; Yoshino, Tetsuhiro; Watanabe, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Milroy's disease is a hereditary congenital lymphedema caused by lymphatic obstruction. The legs are most commonly affected, but impaired intestinal lymphatic flow can cause loose bowel movements. Here, we report the use of the Kampo extract of shinbuto for successful treatment of and abdominal pain in a patient with Milroy's disease. Milroy's disease was diagnosed because of left leg lymph-edema with onset at birth. Conservative therapy with a compression bandage was applied. However, when the patient moved to Manila at 35 years of age, she was exposed to drastic temperature changes between the air-conditioned cold environment in her room and the hot and humid environment outside. She developed a constitutional state of coldness as in hiesho (え). Then sudden lower abdominal pain and diarrhea began to occur 3 times per week and lasted at least 1 hour, sometimes accompanied by vomiting. It happened particularly when she was exposed to the cold environment and was not related to meals. Conventional anti-cholinergic or antidiarrhetic drugs had no therapeutic effect. These attacks continued in the same frequency for 3 years, so the patient visited a Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine) clinic, where her diagnosis of Milroy's disease-associated diarrhea and abdominal pain was augmented by the Kampo diagnosis of hiesho, suitai (body fluid retention). She was prescribed 7.5 g of shinbuto extract per day (TJ-30; Tsumura Co, Tokyo, Japan). The shinbuto extract significantly reduced abdominal pain and refractory diarrhea to about 2 days per month, and it tapered off completely in 3 months. Shinbuto is usually used against cold-induced diarrhea. Rewarming and water movement by shinbuto resulted in significant improvement in symptoms induced by hiesho and suitai triggered by the cold environment, though the patient's leg swelling did not change.

  13. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children <5 years of age, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common bacterial cause of children's diarrhea. Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Whole-cell vaccine candidates have been under development but require further improvements because they provide inadequate protection and produce unwanted adverse effects. Meanwhile, a newer approach using polypeptide or subunit vaccine candidates focusing on ETEC colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins, the major virulence determinants of ETEC diarrhea, shows substantial promise. A conservative CFA/I adhesin tip antigen and a CFA MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) were shown to induce cross-reactive antiadhesin antibodies that protected against adherence by multiple important CFAs. Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both enterotoxins. Moreover, CFA-toxoid MEFA polypeptides, generated by fusing CFA MEFA to an STa-LT toxoid fusion, induced antiadhesin antibodies that broadly inhibited adherence of the seven most important ETEC CFAs associated with about 80% of the diarrhea cases caused by ETEC strains with known CFAs. This same antigen preparation also induced antitoxin antibodies that neutralized both toxins that are associated with all cases of ETEC diarrhea. Results from these studies suggest that polypeptide or subunit vaccines have the potential to effectively protect against ETEC diarrhea. In addition, novel adhesins and mucin proteases have been investigated as potential alternatives or, more likely, additional antigens for ETEC subunit vaccine development. PMID:26135975

  14. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Sack, David A

    2015-09-01

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children <5 years of age, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common bacterial cause of children's diarrhea. Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Whole-cell vaccine candidates have been under development but require further improvements because they provide inadequate protection and produce unwanted adverse effects. Meanwhile, a newer approach using polypeptide or subunit vaccine candidates focusing on ETEC colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins, the major virulence determinants of ETEC diarrhea, shows substantial promise. A conservative CFA/I adhesin tip antigen and a CFA MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) were shown to induce cross-reactive antiadhesin antibodies that protected against adherence by multiple important CFAs. Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both enterotoxins. Moreover, CFA-toxoid MEFA polypeptides, generated by fusing CFA MEFA to an STa-LT toxoid fusion, induced antiadhesin antibodies that broadly inhibited adherence of the seven most important ETEC CFAs associated with about 80% of the diarrhea cases caused by ETEC strains with known CFAs. This same antigen preparation also induced antitoxin antibodies that neutralized both toxins that are associated with all cases of ETEC diarrhea. Results from these studies suggest that polypeptide or subunit vaccines have the potential to effectively protect against ETEC diarrhea. In addition, novel adhesins and mucin proteases have been investigated as potential alternatives or, more likely, additional antigens for ETEC subunit vaccine development. PMID:26135975

  15. Current Progress in Developing Subunit Vaccines against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-Associated Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Sack, David A

    2015-09-01

    Diarrhea continues to be a leading cause of death in children <5 years of age, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common bacterial cause of children's diarrhea. Currently, there are no available vaccines against ETEC-associated diarrhea. Whole-cell vaccine candidates have been under development but require further improvements because they provide inadequate protection and produce unwanted adverse effects. Meanwhile, a newer approach using polypeptide or subunit vaccine candidates focusing on ETEC colonization factor antigens (CFAs) and enterotoxins, the major virulence determinants of ETEC diarrhea, shows substantial promise. A conservative CFA/I adhesin tip antigen and a CFA MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) were shown to induce cross-reactive antiadhesin antibodies that protected against adherence by multiple important CFAs. Genetic fusion of toxoids derived from ETEC heat-labile toxin (LT) and heat-stable toxin (STa) induced antibodies neutralizing both enterotoxins. Moreover, CFA-toxoid MEFA polypeptides, generated by fusing CFA MEFA to an STa-LT toxoid fusion, induced antiadhesin antibodies that broadly inhibited adherence of the seven most important ETEC CFAs associated with about 80% of the diarrhea cases caused by ETEC strains with known CFAs. This same antigen preparation also induced antitoxin antibodies that neutralized both toxins that are associated with all cases of ETEC diarrhea. Results from these studies suggest that polypeptide or subunit vaccines have the potential to effectively protect against ETEC diarrhea. In addition, novel adhesins and mucin proteases have been investigated as potential alternatives or, more likely, additional antigens for ETEC subunit vaccine development.

  16. Experimentally Induced Empathy and Its Role in Reducing Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard J.; And Others

    This study attempted to induce empathy toward a hypothetical individual in an effort to reduce aggressive responses directed toward him. Forty fourth grade volunteer boys from two Michigan public schools were administered the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents to determine pre-existing empathic potential (EP). Subjects were matched for…

  17. Induced thermoluminescence study of experimentally shock-loaded oligoclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivliev, A. I.; Kashkarov, L. L.; Badjukov, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Artificially induced thermoluminescence (TL) in oligoclase samples which were shock-loaded up to 27 GPa was measured. The essential increase of the TL sensitivity in relation to the total gamma-ray irradiation dose was observed only in samples at the 27 GPa pressure. This result can be explained by the initiation of additional radiation damages in the shocked oligoclace crystal lattice.

  18. Pediatric norovirus diarrhea in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, Filemon; Nordgren, Johan; Carlsson, Beatrice; Paniagua, Margarita; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Espinoza, Felix; Svensson, Lennart

    2008-08-01

    Information about norovirus (NoV) infections in Central America is limited. Through a passive community and hospital pediatric diarrhea surveillance program, a total of 542 stool samples were collected between March 2005 and February 2006 in León, Nicaragua. NoV was detected in 12% (65/542) of the children; of these, 11% (45/409) were in the community and 15% (20/133) were in the hospital, with most strains (88%) belonging to genogroup II. NoV infections were age and gender associated, with children of <2 years of age (P < 0.05) and girls (P < 0.05) being most affected. Breast-feeding did not reduce the number of NoV infections. An important proportion (57%) of NoV-infected children were coinfected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. A significant proportion (18/31) of NoV-positive children with dehydration required intravenous rehydration. Nucleotide sequence analysis (38/65) of the N-terminal and shell region in the capsid gene revealed that at least six genotypes (GI.4, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and a potentially novel cluster termed "GII.18-Nica") circulated during the study period, with GII.4 virus being predominant (26/38). The majority (20/26) of those GII.4 strains shared high nucleotide homology (99%) with the globally emerging Hunter strain. The mean viral load was approximately 15-fold higher in children infected with GII.4 virus than in those infected with other G.II viruses, with the highest viral load observed for the group of children infected with GII.4 and requiring intravenous rehydration. This study, the first of its type from a Central American country, suggests that NoV is an important etiological agent of acute diarrhea among children of <2 years of age in Nicaragua.

  19. Pediatric Norovirus Diarrhea in Nicaragua▿

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Filemon; Nordgren, Johan; Carlsson, Beatrice; Paniagua, Margarita; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Espinoza, Felix; Svensson, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Information about norovirus (NoV) infections in Central America is limited. Through a passive community and hospital pediatric diarrhea surveillance program, a total of 542 stool samples were collected between March 2005 and February 2006 in León, Nicaragua. NoV was detected in 12% (65/542) of the children; of these, 11% (45/409) were in the community and 15% (20/133) were in the hospital, with most strains (88%) belonging to genogroup II. NoV infections were age and gender associated, with children of <2 years of age (P < 0.05) and girls (P < 0.05) being most affected. Breast-feeding did not reduce the number of NoV infections. An important proportion (57%) of NoV-infected children were coinfected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. A significant proportion (18/31) of NoV-positive children with dehydration required intravenous rehydration. Nucleotide sequence analysis (38/65) of the N-terminal and shell region in the capsid gene revealed that at least six genotypes (GI.4, GII.2, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and a potentially novel cluster termed “GII.18-Nica”) circulated during the study period, with GII.4 virus being predominant (26/38). The majority (20/26) of those GII.4 strains shared high nucleotide homology (99%) with the globally emerging Hunter strain. The mean viral load was approximately 15-fold higher in children infected with GII.4 virus than in those infected with other G.II viruses, with the highest viral load observed for the group of children infected with GII.4 and requiring intravenous rehydration. This study, the first of its type from a Central American country, suggests that NoV is an important etiological agent of acute diarrhea among children of <2 years of age in Nicaragua. PMID:18562593

  20. Experimental Feedback Control of Flow Induced Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of the application of discrete-time, linear quadratic control design methods to the cavity tone problem is described. State space models of the dynamics from a synthetic jet actuator at the leading edge of the cavity to two pressure sensors in the cavity were computed from experimental data. Variations in model order, control order, control bandwidth, and properties of a Kalman state estimator were studied. Feedback control reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. Closed loop performance was often limited by excitation of sidebands of cavity tones, and creation of new tones in the spectrum. State space models were useful for explaining some of these limitations, but were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.

  1. Comparison of methods for evaluation of experimentally induced emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Smith, L.G.

    1984-04-01

    Four methods to quantify induced emphysema, in a manner economically applicable to large numbers of animals, are compared by correlation analyses. Lung tissue used was from rats pretreated intratracheally with elastase or saline prior to exposure to air or (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ or NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ aerosols. The most sensitive quantitative evaluation was from mean chord length (MCL) measurements on scanning electron micrographs (SEM). Four-corner and parallel-line grids provided similar results, and reducing sample size to one selected field per lobe yielded a high degree of reliability for MCL measurements. Alveolar-pore perimeter and area (also measured on SEM photographs) were increased by induced emphysema, but were not reliable indicators for degree of pulmonary involvement. Both subjective score (grading the degree of emphysema) and percentage-area-affected determinations indicated the presence of emphysema, but with less sensitivity than MCL measurements. However, these two subgross methods (performed with a dissecting microscope) provided valuable information on the distribution of pulmonary lesions; emphysema was induced in a nonuniform but consistent and progressive pattern in the two lobes of the lung studied. 23 studied.

  2. Interleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yukiko; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Natsuho; Ikeda, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-19, a member of the IL-10 family, functions as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Here, we investigated the contribution of IL-19 to intestinal inflammation in a model of T cell-mediated colitis in mice. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. IL-19 deficiency aggravated TNBS-induced colitis and compromised intestinal recovery in mice. Additionally, the exacerbation of TNBS-induced colonic inflammation following genetic ablation of IL-19 was accompanied by increased production of interferon-gamma, IL-12 (p40), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-33, and decreased production of IL-4. Moreover, the exacerbation of colitis following IL-19 knockout was also accompanied by increased production of CXCL1, G-CSF and CCL5. Using this model of induced colitis, our results revealed the immunopathological relevance of IL-19 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in intestinal inflammation in mice.

  3. Experimental study of microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ryan T.

    Microwave-Induced Thermoacoustic Imaging (TAI) is a noninvasive hybrid modality which improves contrast by using thermoelastic wave generation induced by microwave absorption. Ultrasonography is widely used in medical practice as a low-cost alternative and supplement to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although ultrasonography has relatively high image resolution (depending on the ultrasonic wavelength at diagnostic frequencies), it suffers from low image contrast of soft tissues. In this work samples are irradiated with sub-microsecond electromagnetic pulses inducing acoustic waves in the sample that are then detected with an unfocused transducer. The advantage of this hybrid modality is the ability to take advantage of the microwave absorption coefficients which provide high contrast in tissue samples. This in combination with the superior spatial resolution of ultrasound waves is important to providing a low-cost alternative to MRI and early breast cancer detection methods. This work describes the implementation of a thermoacoustic experiment using a 5 kW peak power microwave source.

  4. Acute phase proteins in experimentally induced pregnancy toxemia in goats.

    PubMed

    González, Félix H D; Hernández, Fuensanta; Madrid, Josefa; Martínez-Subiela, Silvia; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José J; Tecles, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the behavior of acute phase proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin) in fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats and their relationship with classical indicators of this disorder such as beta-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids in the blood and decreased urine pH and ketonuria. Twelve adult Murciano-Granadina goats at the final stage of gestation were used in this experiment. Pregnancy toxemia was induced in 6 goats by fasting for 72 hr. The other 6 animals were used as control group. Ketonuria was present in 4 out of 5 fasting animals at 24 hr and in all fasting animals at 48 hr of fasting. Serum nonesterified fatty acids were significantly increased at 24, 48, and 72 hr of fasting. Beta-hydroxybutyrate and haptoglobin achieved significantly increased concentrations at 48 hr and 72 hr, respectively, remaining increased during the entire study. Serum amyloid A, acid soluble glycoprotein, fibrinogen, and albumin were not affected by fasting. In conclusion, acute phase proteins (including haptoglobin) seemed not to have an advantage over traditional markers in diagnosis of fasting-induced pregnancy toxemia in goats. PMID:21217028

  5. Histochemical changes in the testes of lead induced experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A R; Rao, R V; Gautam, A K

    1986-01-01

    The experiments were performed on mature male rats divided in five groups, one control and four experimental in which the animals received 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 6 mg/kg body weight lead acetate intraperitoneally respectively, over a period of 30 days. ALA-D and lead was estimated in the blood by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer and ATP-ase, AMP-ase, Alk-ase were histochemically localized. Significant increase in blood and testis of lead levels along with decrease of ALA-D levels were observed. Changes in the testicular tissue were encountered. Other details concerned with the damage of the testicular tissue are discussed.

  6. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  7. Experimental Feedback Control of Flow Induced Cavity Tones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Kegerise, Michael A.; Cox, David E.; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2005-01-01

    Discrete-time, linear quadratic methods were used to design feedback controllers for reducing tones generated by flow over a cavity. The dynamics of a synthetic jet actuator mounted at the leading edge of the cavity as observed by two microphones in the cavity were modeled over a broad frequency range using state space models computed from experimental data. Variations in closed loop performance as a function of model order, control order, control bandwidth, and state estimator design were studied using a cavity in the Probe Calibration Tunnel at NASA Langley. The controller successfully reduced the levels of multiple cavity tones at the tested flow speeds of Mach 0.275, 0.35, and 0.45. In some cases, the closed loop results were limited by excitation of sidebands of the cavity tones, or the creation of new tones at frequencies away from the cavity tones. Nonetheless, the results validate the combination of optimal control and experimentally-generated state space models, and suggest this approach may be useful for other flow control problems. The models were not able to account for non-linear dynamics, such as interactions between tones at different frequencies.

  8. Experimentally induced Fasciola hepatica infections in black-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Kistner, T P; Koller, L D

    1975-04-01

    The susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) to the common liver fluke (F. hepatica) was studied. Two deer and one sheep comprised each of three experimental groups. Animals in each group were inoculated individually with 250, 500, or 1000 F. hepatica metacercariae. One deer and one sheep given 1000 metacercariae died with lesions consistent with black disease 7 weeks after inoculation. At necropsy 6 or 15 weeks postinoculation, the mean percentage recovery of the inoculum was 38.9% from the deer and 51.9% from the sheep. Fluke eggs recovered from the deer were viable and metacercariae cultured from the eggs were fully infective for sheep. Pathologic changes associated with F. hepatica infection were more severe in the infected deer; consequently, the deer were less resistant to the lethal effects of the parasite than sheep. Considering the experimental results and the fact that naturally acquired common liver fluke infection has been reported infrequently from black-tailed deer, it was concluded that black-tailed deer do not constitute a significant reservoir for F. hepatica in domestic livestock.

  9. Genistein protects dermal fibrosis in bleomycin-induced experimental scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Koca, Süleyman Serdar; Dağlı, Adile Ferda; Yolbaş, Servet; Gözel, Nevzat; Işık, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective Genistein, a phytoestrogen, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the protective effect of genistein in bleomycin (BLM)-induced dermal fibrosis. Material and Methods This study involved four groups of Balb/c mice (n=10 per group). Mice in three groups were administered BLM [100 μg/day in 100 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)] subcutaneously for 4 weeks; the remaining (control) group received only 100 μL/day of PBS subcutaneously. PBS or BLM was injected into the shaved upper back. Two of the BLM-treated groups also received genistein (1 or 3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneously, to the dorsal front of neck). At the end of the fourth week, all mice were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Results The BLM applications increased the dermal thicknesses, tissue hydroxyproline contents, α-smooth muscle actin-positive cell counts, and led to histopathologically prominent dermal fibrosis. The genistein treatments decreased the tissue hydroxyproline contents and dermal thicknesses, in the BLM-injected mice. Conclusion Genistein has antifibrotic potential in BLM-induced dermal fibrosis model. However, its therapeutic potentials on human scleroderma require evaluation in future studies.

  10. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  11. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted. PMID:23320641

  12. Neuroprotective effect of melatonin in experimentally induced hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Vornicescu, Corina; Boşca, Bianca; Crişan, Doiniţa; Yacoob, Sumaya; Stan, Nora; Filip, Adriana; Şovrea, Alina

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (MEL) is an endogenous neurohormone with many biological functions, including a powerful antioxidant effect. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MEL protects the brain tissue from the oxidative stress induced by hypobaric hypoxia (HH) in vivo. This study was performed on Wistar rats randomly assigned in four groups, according to the pressure conditions and treatment: Group 1: normoxia and placebo; Group 2: HH and placebo; Group 3: normoxia and MEL; and Group 4: HH and MEL. The following aspects were evaluated: cognitive function (space reference and memory), oxidative stress parameters - serum and brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels -, and brain tissue macroscopic and microscopic morphological changes. Exposure to oxidative stress results in cognitive dysfunctions and biochemical alterations: significant increase of MDA and reduction of GSH in both serum and brain tissue. The most important morphological changes were observed in Group 2: increased cellularity, loss of pericellular haloes, shrunken neurons with scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic, pyknotic or absent nuclei; reactive gliosis, edema and blood-brain barrier alterations could also be observed in some areas. MEL treatment significantly diminished all these effects. Our results suggest that melatonin is a neuroprotective antioxidant both in normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia that can prevent and counteract the deleterious effects of oxidative stress (neuronal death, reactive astrogliosis, memory impairment and cognitive dysfunctions). Dietary supplements containing melatonin might be useful neuroprotective agents for the therapy of hypoxia-induced consequences. PMID:24399008

  13. Immunogens of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Bolin, S R

    1993-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a ubiquitous pathogen of cattle that induces economically important diseases affecting multiple organ systems. In the United States, over 150 biological products are licensed for control of BVDV. These products contain live or killed BVDV, and many products contain other viruses or bacteria. Potency tests for these vaccines are based on animal inoculation and serology. For live virus vaccines, titration of viral infectivity in cell culture is an accepted alternative to animal inoculation. The immunogens in a killed virus vaccine may be measured by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay. Immunogens of BVDV that stimulate a protective immune response have not been conclusively identified. Epitopes on a putative viral envelope glycoprotein, gp53, are involved in viral neutralization. Other viral glycoproteins, gp48 and gp25, are immunogenic but epitopes on these proteins do not stimulate production of antibodies that efficiently neutralize virus. Progress in developing meaningful in vitro assays for quantitation of BVDV immunogens awaits identification of viral proteins that stimulate a protective immunity.

  14. Experimental distinction of Autler-Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency using coupled mechanical oscillators system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingliang; Yang, Hujiang; Wang, Chuan; Xu, Kun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Here we experimentally demonstrated the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) effects in mechanical coupled pendulums. The analogue of EIT and ATS has been studied in mechanical systems and the intrinsic physics between these two phenomena are also been discussed. Exploiting the Akaike Information Criterion, we discern the ATS effect from EIT effect in our experimental results. PMID:26751738

  15. Experimental distinction of Autler-Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency using coupled mechanical oscillators system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingliang; Yang, Hujiang; Wang, Chuan; Xu, Kun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Here we experimentally demonstrated the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) effects in mechanical coupled pendulums. The analogue of EIT and ATS has been studied in mechanical systems and the intrinsic physics between these two phenomena are also been discussed. Exploiting the Akaike Information Criterion, we discern the ATS effect from EIT effect in our experimental results.

  16. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental viral myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Glück, B; Merkle, I; Dornberger, G; Stelzner, A

    2000-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important bioactive molecule with regulatory, cytotoxic or cytoprotective properties. In virus-induced myocarditis, NO mediates host defense mechanisms against the infection or causes cardiac dysfunctions. NO is synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The expression of the inducible form of the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is regulated by cytokines, involved in the complex myocardial immune response to enterovirus infections. The present study was undertaken to characterize the role of iNOS and NO in the murine model of viral myocarditis induced by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3). In response to CVB3 infection we investigated the time course of iNOS induction in correlation with cytokine mRNA expression (TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IFN-gamma, TGF-beta) in the heart of NMRI mice by RT-PCR. Positive PCR signals for viral RNA were found in the acute and chronic stage of disease by seminested PCR, indicating the persistence of viral genome. We found distinct expression of iNOS at all time points (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 28, 56, 98 days post infection [p.i.]). Higher iNOS mRNA levels were identified between days 4 until 28 p.i. in comparison to day 56 and 98 p.i. using densitometric values. The mRNA of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, IFN-gamma appeared at days 1, 4, and 7 p.i., peaked at day 7 p.i. and persisted until day 98 p.i. Similar like the iNOS mRNA pattern was the expression profile of TGF-beta. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry iNOS was localized in infiltrates, vascular endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, myocytes and throughout the interstitial spaces between myocardial fibers in the heart sections of NMRI mice. Increased levels of NO were measured as total nitrate/nitrite concentration in the sera of mice from day 7 until day 28 p.i.

  17. Probiotics for children with diarrhea: an update.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2008-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy of probiotics for diarrhea in children in different settings: day-care centers, diarrhea acquired in the hospital, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. For prevention of diarrhea acquired in day-care centers, 5 randomized and placebo-controlled trials have been published. Probiotics tested were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis (alone or in combination with Streptococcus thermophilus), and Lactobacillus reuteri. The evidence of their efficacy in these settings is only modest: statistically significant for some strains only and in any case of minimal to mild clinical importance. Few trials have examined the potential role of probiotics in preventing the spread of diarrhea in hospitalized children, an event most commonly due to either rotavirus or Clostridium difficile, and they have yielded conflicting results. Overall, these studies provide only weak evidence on the efficacy of probiotics. On the other hand, a large number of trials on the role of probiotics in preventing the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea have been published. Most commonly employed probiotics were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. In general, these trials do show clear evidence of efficacy, with the 2 most effective strains being Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardii. Today, we have a large number of published clinical trials on the role of probiotics in treating sporadic infectious diarrhea in children, and many of them are randomized, blinded, and controlled. They consistently show a statistically significant benefit and moderate clinical benefit of a few, well-identified probiotic strains-mostly Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardii, but also L. reuteri-in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea, primarily rotaviral, in infants and young children of developed countries. Such a beneficial effect seems to result in a reduction of diarrhea duration of

  18. Histochemical changes in the testes of lead induced experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A R; Rao, R V; Gautam, A K

    1986-01-01

    The experiments were performed on mature male rats divided in five groups, one control and four experimental in which the animals received 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 6 mg/kg body weight lead acetate intraperitoneally respectively, over a period of 30 days. ALA-D and lead was estimated in the blood by the use of atomic absorption spectrophotometer and ATP-ase, AMP-ase, Alk-ase were histochemically localized. Significant increase in blood and testis of lead levels along with decrease of ALA-D levels were observed. Changes in the testicular tissue were encountered. Other details concerned with the damage of the testicular tissue are discussed. PMID:3030829

  19. The use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with special interest in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cynthia L; Bartolini, Vickie; Jones, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobials are effective agents used to combat virulent bacterial, yeast, and fungal infections that may otherwise cause rampant disease leading to skyrocketing social/economic costs and possible epidemic morbidity and mortality rates. Antibiotics are designed to attack specific bacterial pathogens but, in the process, indiscreetly reduce the number of beneficial human microbiota that is part of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can upset this uniquely balanced gut ratio, allowing pathogens to propagate in a largely unrestrained environment, which may result in antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Critical illness, age, immunosuppression, exposure to nosocomial microorganisms, and the length of hospitalization are additional factors that contribute to the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. In mild to moderate cases of diarrhea, absorptive impairment may occur, thereby reducing micro/macronutrient assimilation, resulting in malnutrition and growth issues in children. In severe cases, infectious diarrhea can have devastating complications. Of particular interest is the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which has the potential to cause a host of symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to severe life-threatening conditions. C. difficile infection can increase mortality rates by 10%-30%. Probiotic supplementation may prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Specific probiotics may modulate the intestinal mucosa by antagonizing pathogens through the production of antimicrobial compounds and chemicals, thereby reducing the rate of nosocomial infection and recurrence of C. difficile.

  20. Management of children with prolonged diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Giannattasio, Antonietta; Guarino, Alfredo; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged diarrhea is usually defined as acute-onset diarrhea lasting 7 days or more, but less than 14 days. Its trend has been declining in recent years because of improvement in the management of acute diarrhea, which represents the ideal strategy to prevent prolonged diarrhea. The pathogenesis of prolonged diarrhea is multifactorial and essentially based on persistent mucosal damage due to specific infections or sequential infections with different pathogens, host-related factors including micronutrient and/or vitamin deficiency, undernutrition and immunodeficiency, high mucosal permeability due to previous infectious processes and nutrient deficiency with consequential malabsorption, and microbiota disruption. Infections seem to play a major role in causing prolonged diarrhea in both developing and developed areas. However, single etiologic pathogens have not been identified, and the pattern of agents varies according to settings, host risk factors, and previous use of antibiotics and other drugs. The management of prolonged diarrhea is complex. Because of the wide etiologic spectrum, diagnostic algorithms should take into consideration the age of the patient, clinical and epidemiological factors, and the nutritional status and should always include a search for enteric pathogens. Often, expensive laboratory evaluations are of little benefit in guiding therapy, and an empirical approach may be effective in the majority of cases. The presence or absence of weight loss is crucial for driving the initial management of prolonged diarrhea. If there is no weight loss, generally there is no need for further evaluation. If weight loss is present, empiric anti-infectious therapy or elimination diet may be considered once specific etiologies have been excluded. PMID:26962439

  1. The Fecal Microbiome in Cats with Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Foster, Mary L.; Sohail, Muhammad U.; Leutenegger, Christian; Queen, Erica V.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Marks, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21) and cats with acute (n = 19) or chronic diarrhea (n = 29) and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration), while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001) altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or therapeutic

  2. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers. PMID:25864115

  3. Dietary oregano essential oil alleviates experimentally induced coccidiosis in broilers.

    PubMed

    Mohiti-Asli, M; Ghanaatparast-Rashti, M

    2015-06-15

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of oregano essential oil on growth performance and coccidiosis prevention in mild challenged broilers. A total of 250 1-d-old chicks were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 5 replicates with 10 birds in each replication. Experimental treatments included: (1) negative control (NC; unchallenged), (2) positive control (PC; challenged with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria), (3) PC fed 200 ppm Diclazuril in diet, (4) PC fed 300 ppm oregano oil in diet, and (5) PC fed 500 ppm oregano oil in diet. At 22 d of age, all the experimental groups except for NC were challenged with 50-fold dose of Livacox T as a trivalent live attenuated coccidiosis vaccine. On d 28, two birds were slaughtered and intestinal coccidiosis lesions were scored 0-4. Moreover, dropping was scored in the scale of 0-3, and oocysts per gram feces (OPG) were measured. Oregano oil at either supplementation rate increased body weight gain (P=0.039) and improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.010) from d 22 to 28, when compared with PC group. Using 500 ppm oregano oil in challenged broilers diet increased European efficiency factor than PC group (P=0.020). Moreover, challenged broilers fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets displayed lower coccidiosis lesions scores in upper (P=0.003) and middle (P=0.018) regions of intestine than PC group, with the effect being similar to unchallenged birds. In general, challenged birds fed 500 ppm oregano oil or Diclazuril in diets had lower OPG (P=0.001), dropping scores (P=0.001), litter scores (P=0.001), and pH of litter (P=0.001) than PC group. It could be concluded that supplementation of oregano oil at the dose of 500 ppm in diet may have beneficial effect on prevention of coccidiosis in broilers.

  4. Experimental diet-induced atherosclerosis in Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus).

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, H; Nevarez, J G; Wakamatsu, N; Clubb, S; Cray, C; Tully, T N

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous atherosclerosis is common in psittaciformes, and clinical signs associated with flow-limiting stenosis are encountered in pet birds. Nevertheless, a psittacine model of atherosclerosis has not been developed for research investigations. Sixteen captive-bred Quaker parrots (Myiopsitta monachus) were used in this study. While 4 control birds were fed a maintenance diet, 12 other birds were fed an atherogenic diet composed of 1% cholesterol controlling for a calorie-to-protein ratio for periods ranging from 2 to 8 months. The birds were euthanized at the end of their respective food trial period. Histopathology, transmission electron microscopy, and cholesterol measurement were performed on the ascending aorta and brachiocephalic and pulmonary arteries. Plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol, and triglycerides were also measured on a monthly basis. Significant atherosclerotic lesions were induced within 2 months and advanced atherosclerotic lesions within 4 to 6 months. The advanced lesions were histologically similar to naturally occurring lesions identified in the same parrot species with a lipid core and a fibrous cap. Ultrastructurally, there were extracellular lipid, foam cell, and endothelial changes. Arterial cholesterol content increased linearly over time. Plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) significantly increased over time by an average of 5- and 15-fold, respectively, with a shift from high-density lipoprotein to LDL as the main plasma lipoprotein. Quaker parrots also exhibited high plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity that increased, although not significantly, over time. This experiment demonstrates that in Quaker parrots fed 1% cholesterol, advanced atherosclerosis can be induced relatively quickly, and lesions resemble those found in other avian models and humans.

  5. Experimental Studies of Laser-Induced Breakdown in Transparent Dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, C W

    2003-09-23

    The mechanisms by which transparent dielectrics damage when exposed to high power laser radiation has been of scientific and technological interest since the invention of the laser. In this work, a set of three experiments are presented which provide insight into the damage initiation mechanisms and the processes involved in laser-induced damage. Using an OPO (optical parametric oscillator) laser, we have measured the damage thresholds of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) from the near ultraviolet into the visible. Distinct steps, whose width is of order K{sub b}T, are observed in the damage threshold at photon energies associated with the number of photons (3{yields}2 or 4{yields}3) needed to promote a ground state electron across the energy gap. The wavelength dependence of the damage threshold suggests that a primary mechanism for damage initiation in DKDP is a multi-photon process in which the order is reduced through excited defect state absorption. In-situ fluorescence microscopy, in conjunction with theoretical calculations by Liu et al., has been used to establish that hydrogen displacement defects are potentially responsible for the reduction in the multi-photon cross-section. During the damage process, the material absorbs energy from the laser pulse and produces an ionized region that gives rise to broadband emission. By performing a time-resolved investigation of this emission, we demonstrate both that it is blackbody in nature, and we provide the first direct measurement of the localized temperature during and following laser damage initiation for various optical materials. For excitation using nanosecond laser pulses, the plasma, when confined in the bulk, is in thermal equilibrium with the lattice. These results allow for a detailed characterization of temperature, pressure, and electron densities occurring during laser-induced damage.

  6. Pulsed radio frequency therapy of experimentally induced arthritis in ponies.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, W H; Houge, J C; Neirby, D T; Di Mino, A; Di Mino, A A

    1991-01-01

    The effect of pulsed radio frequency therapy (PRFT) was evaluated on seven ponies with no arthritis and in 28 ponies in which arthritis was created using intra-articular amphotericin B to induce synovitis in the right middle carpal joint. The ponies were divided into five treatment and two control groups. Two levels of arthritis were created and two dosage levels of PRFT were evaluated. The effect of PRFT on arthritic and nonarthritic joints was measured by comparing synovial fluid parameters, the degree and duration of lameness, the range of carpal motion, and carpus circumference, for treated and untreated groups. Lesions seen radiographically, at gross pathology, and by histopathology were also compared between the treated and control groups. In the ponies with a mild form of induced arthritis, PRFT significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced the severity and duration of lameness, swelling of the carpus, and the severity of gross pathological and radiographic changes. In these ponies the synovial acid phosphatase levels were lower, the mucin clot quality was superior, and the synovial protein levels were lower for the ponies receiving PRFT as compared to the arthritic ponies receiving no treatment. A dose response effect was evident. In ponies with a slightly more severe form of arthritis, PRFT was evaluated at one dosage level. The treated ponies were significantly improved over the untreated ponies with respect to carpal range of motion, degree of lameness, carpus swelling, and radiographic lesions. No deleterious effects were noted when normal, PRFT treated, middle carpal joints were compared to contralateral untreated, normal joints. It was concluded that significant beneficial effects resulted when affected ponies were treated with PRFT. PMID:1884288

  7. Epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, K L; Cohen, M L

    1986-01-01

    Identification of the characteristics that make certain travelers more likely to develop diarrhea, the most common illness affecting international travelers, can lead to prevention of the illness and to improved understanding of endemic diarrheal disease in developing countries. Travelers' diarrhea, a syndrome with a spectrum of clinical symptoms, is most frequently characterized by watery diarrhea, cramps, and nausea. The highest attack rates have been reported in travelers from the United States or northern Europe to less-developed, particularly tropical, countries. Among travelers from less-developed countries, diarrhea has been correlated with higher socioeconomic status. The findings that country of origin and socioeconomic status may affect the frequency of previous exposures to enteric pathogens suggest that persons with prolonged exposure acquire immunity and are at lower risk of developing travelers' diarrhea. Although few studies have shown a clear correlation between the eating of specific foods and the development of travelers' diarrhea, the syndrome has been associated with eating in public places. PMID:3523707

  8. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation Induced Feedline Instability from an Orifice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitt, Matthew A.; Lineberry, David M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Frederick, Robert A,

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the results of an experimental investigation into the cavitation instabilities created by a circular orifice conducted at the University of Alabama in Huntsville Propulsion Research Center. This experiment was conducted in concert with a computational simulation to serve as a reference point for the simulation. Testing was conducted using liquid nitrogen as a cryogenic propellant simulant. A 1.06 cm diameter thin orifice with a rounded inlet was tested in an approximately 1.25 kg/s flow with inlet pressures ranging from 504.1 kPa to 829.3 kPa. Pressure fluctuations generated by the orifice were measured using a high frequency pressure sensor located 0.64 tube diameters downstream of the orifice. Fast Fourier Transforms were performed on the high frequency data to determine the instability frequency. Shedding resulted in a primary frequency with a cavitation related subharmonic frequency. For this experiment, the cavitation instability ranged from 153 Hz to 275 Hz. Additionally, the strength of the cavitation occur red as a function of cavitation number. At lower cavitation numbers, the strength of the cavitation instability ranged from 2.4 % to 7 % of the inlet pressure. However, at higher cavitation numbers, the strength of the cavitation instability ranged from 0.6 % to 1 % of the inlet pressure.

  9. Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced Tbi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, M. D.; Son, S. F.; Christou, G.; Goel, R.; Young, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. Our hypothesis is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were dynamically loaded using a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-scale explosive charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the high density fillers surpassing all others tested. These results lead to a conclusion that low porosity, high density materials offer superior attenuation by reducing air blast features and spatially distributing the transmitted wave.

  10. Experimental Studies of Mitigation Materials for Blast Induced TBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, Matthew; Son, Steven

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to compare the effects of various materials obstructing the flow of a blast wave and the ability of the given material to reduce the damage caused by the blast. Several methods of energy transfer in blast wave flows are known or expected including: material interfaces with impedance mismatches, density changes in a given material, internal shearing, and particle fracture. The theory applied to this research is that the greatest energy transfer within the obstructing material will yield the greatest mitigation effects to the blast. Sample configurations of foam were varied to introduce material interfaces and filler materials with varying densities and impedances (liquids and powders). The samples were loaded according to a small scale blast produced by an explosive driven shock tube housing gram-range charges. The transmitted blast profiles were analyzed for variations in impulse characteristics and frequency components as compared to standard free field profiles. The results showed a rounding effect of the transmitted blast profile for all samples with the effects of the low density fillers surpassing all others tested.

  11. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson’s disease dementia and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders. PMID:27598124

  12. Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment.

    PubMed

    More, Sandeep Vasant; Kumar, Hemant; Cho, Duk-Yeon; Yun, Yo-Sep; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2016-01-01

    Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders. PMID:27598124

  13. Enhanced bile formation induced by experimental dicrocoeliosis in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Campos, S; Tuñón, M J; González, P; Marín, J J; González-Gallego, J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of experimental dicrocoeliosis on bile formation in the hamster. Studies were carried out at 120 days after infection with an oral dose of 40 metacercariae of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. A significant elevation in bile flow (+20%) and in the biliary output of glutathione (+34%), bile acid (+59%), cholesterol (+108%), phospholipids (+99%) and alkaline phosphatase (+36%) was observed in the infected animals. The bile-to-plasma [14C] mannitol ratio increased to values greater than 1 and there was a reduced contribution (-26%) of biliary tree to bile formation. Those data suggest that enhancement in choleresis had a canalicular origin. The presence of oxidative stress, evidenced by the increased oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio and TBARS concentrations, may contribute to the elevated glutathione efflux into bile. Enhancement in bile acid output was not due to qualitative or quantitative changes in bile acid metabolism, as indicated by the absence of significant modification in liver cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity and bile acid profile in bile. Increase in the ability of the canalicular membrane to export bile acids was not involved, since maximal secretion rate for exogenously administered taurocholate was decreased. When bile flow, bile acid and biliary lipid secretion was determined in colchicine-pretreated animals differences between control and infected animals were abolished, suggesting that stimulation of the transcytotic vesicle pathway plays an important role in the alteration of the biliary function caused by dicrocoeliosis.

  14. Experimentally induced metamorphosis in axolotls reduces regenerative rate and fidelity

    PubMed Central

    Stier, Adrian C.; Michonneau, François; Smith, Matthew D.; Pasch, Bret; Maden, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Abstract While most tetrapods are unable to regenerate severed body parts, amphibians display a remarkable ability to regenerate an array of structures. Frogs can regenerate appendages as larva, but they lose this ability around metamorphosis. In contrast, salamanders regenerate appendages as larva, juveniles, and adults. However, the extent to which fundamental traits (e.g., metamorphosis, body size, aging, etc.) restrict regenerative ability remains contentious. Here we utilize the ability of normally paedomorphic adult axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to undergo induced metamorphosis by thyroxine exposure to test how metamorphosis and body size affects regeneration in age‐matched paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals. We show that body size does not affect regeneration in adult axolotls, but metamorphosis causes a twofold reduction in regeneration rate, and lead to carpal and digit malformations. Furthermore, we find evidence that metamorphic blastemal cells may take longer to traverse the cell cycle and display a lower proliferative rate. This study identifies the axolotl as a powerful system to study how metamorphosis restricts regeneration independently of developmental stage, body size, and age; and more broadly how metamorphosis affects tissue‐specific changes. PMID:27499857

  15. Experimental rabies in skunks: effects of immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A; Campbell, J B

    1984-01-01

    Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) were inoculated with street rabies virus and immunosuppressed with several doses of cyclophosphamide. Control skunks were inoculated with street virus only. The skunks were killed in terminal stages of the disease and several tissues were collected for examination by immunofluorescence, light microscopy and viral titration. Sera collected at euthanasia from most of the principals did not contain detectable rabies neutralizing antibodies, whereas high titers occurred terminally in controls. Immunofluorescence was much more entensive in submandibular salivary glands of cyclophosphamide-treated than control skunks. Similarly, virus was isolated from this tissue more consistently and at higher titer from principals than from controls. Immunofluorescence was extensive in brains of all skunks (both groups), but virus was isolated consistently only from brains of cyclophosphamide-treated skunks. Most of the cyclophosphamide-treated skunks had very few inflammatory cells in brain and cerebrospinal ganglia. Neuronal degeneration occurred in dorsal root ganglia of both principals and controls. The results suggest that the immune response has no effect on the development of rabies-induced aggressive behavior, that the immune response may inhibit salivary gland infection and that it is not essential for the development of neuronal degeneration in dorsal root ganglia.

  16. Experimental and theoretical investigations on shock wave induced phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.

    2001-06-01

    Shock wave loading of a material can cause variety of phase transitions, like polymorphism, amorphization, metallization and molecular dissociations. As the shocked state lasts only for a very short duration (about a few microseconds or less), in-situ microscopic measurements are very difficult. Although such studies are beginning to be possible, most of the shock-induced phase transitions are detected using macroscopic measurements. The microscopic nature of the transition is then inferred from comparison with static pressure data or interpreted by theoretical methods. For irreversible phase transitions, microscopic measurements on recovered samples, together with orientation relations determined from selected area electron diffraction and examination of the morphology of growth of the new phase can provide insight into mechanism of phase transitions. On theoretical side, the current ab initio band structure techniques based on density functional formalism provide capability for accurate computation of the small energy differences (a few mRy or smaller) between different plausible structures. Total energy calculation along the path of a phase transition can furnish estimates of activation barrier, which has implications for understanding kinetics of phase transitions. Molecular dynamics calculations, where the new structure evolves naturally, are becoming increasingly popular especially for understanding crystal to amorphous phase transitions. Illustrations from work at our laboratory will be presented.

  17. Experimental treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shireen, Erum

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are extensively prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other related psychiatric disorders. These drugs produced their action by blocking dopamine (DA) receptors, and these receptors are widely present throughout the brain. Therefore, extended antipsychotic use also leads to severe extrapyramidal side effects. The short-term effects include parkinsonism and the later appearing tardive dyskinesia. Currently available treatments for these disorders are mostly symptomatic and insufficient, and are often linked with a number of detrimental side effects. Antipsychotic-drug-induced tardive dyskinesia prompted researchers to explore novel drugs with fewer undesirable extrapyramidal side effects. Preclinical studies suggest a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-1A and 2A/2C receptors in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and motivating a search for better therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia and related disorders. In addition, adjunctive treatment with antioxidants such as vitamin E, red rice bran oil, and curcumin in the early phases of illness may prevent additional oxidative injury, and thus improve and prevent further possible worsening of related neurological and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. This review explains the role of serotonergic receptors and oxidative stress, with the aim of providing principles for prospect development of compounds to improve therapeutic effects of antischizophrenic drugs. PMID:27540314

  18. Experimental treatment of antipsychotic-induced movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Shireen, Erum

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are extensively prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and other related psychiatric disorders. These drugs produced their action by blocking dopamine (DA) receptors, and these receptors are widely present throughout the brain. Therefore, extended antipsychotic use also leads to severe extrapyramidal side effects. The short-term effects include parkinsonism and the later appearing tardive dyskinesia. Currently available treatments for these disorders are mostly symptomatic and insufficient, and are often linked with a number of detrimental side effects. Antipsychotic-drug-induced tardive dyskinesia prompted researchers to explore novel drugs with fewer undesirable extrapyramidal side effects. Preclinical studies suggest a role of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-1A and 2A/2C receptors in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and motivating a search for better therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia and related disorders. In addition, adjunctive treatment with antioxidants such as vitamin E, red rice bran oil, and curcumin in the early phases of illness may prevent additional oxidative injury, and thus improve and prevent further possible worsening of related neurological and behavioral deficits in schizophrenia. This review explains the role of serotonergic receptors and oxidative stress, with the aim of providing principles for prospect development of compounds to improve therapeutic effects of antischizophrenic drugs. PMID:27540314

  19. Experimentally induced metamorphosis in axolotls reduces regenerative rate and fidelity.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, James R; Stier, Adrian C; Michonneau, François; Smith, Matthew D; Pasch, Bret; Maden, Malcolm; Seifert, Ashley W

    2014-02-01

    While most tetrapods are unable to regenerate severed body parts, amphibians display a remarkable ability to regenerate an array of structures. Frogs can regenerate appendages as larva, but they lose this ability around metamorphosis. In contrast, salamanders regenerate appendages as larva, juveniles, and adults. However, the extent to which fundamental traits (e.g., metamorphosis, body size, aging, etc.) restrict regenerative ability remains contentious. Here we utilize the ability of normally paedomorphic adult axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum) to undergo induced metamorphosis by thyroxine exposure to test how metamorphosis and body size affects regeneration in age-matched paedomorphic and metamorphic individuals. We show that body size does not affect regeneration in adult axolotls, but metamorphosis causes a twofold reduction in regeneration rate, and lead to carpal and digit malformations. Furthermore, we find evidence that metamorphic blastemal cells may take longer to traverse the cell cycle and display a lower proliferative rate. This study identifies the axolotl as a powerful system to study how metamorphosis restricts regeneration independently of developmental stage, body size, and age; and more broadly how metamorphosis affects tissue-specific changes. PMID:27499857

  20. Chemically induced skin carcinogenesis: Updates in experimental models (Review)

    PubMed Central

    NEAGU, MONICA; CARUNTU, CONSTANTIN; CONSTANTIN, CAROLINA; BODA, DANIEL; ZURAC, SABINA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.

    2016-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting humans worldwide, and its incidence is rapidly increasing. The study of skin carcinogenesis is of major interest for both scientific research and clinical practice and the use of in vivo systems may facilitate the investigation of early alterations in the skin and of the mechanisms involved, and may also lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for skin cancer. This review outlines several aspects regarding the skin toxicity testing domain in mouse models of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands-on experience. Using mouse models in preclinical testing is important due to the fact that, at the molecular level, common mechanisms with human cutaneous tumorigenesis are depicted. These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. keeping in mind the differences between human and rodent skin physiology. PMID:26986013

  1. Photodynamic therapy induced vascular damage: an overview of experimental PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Moriyama, L. T.; Bagnato, V. S.

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed as one of the most important therapeutic options in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. By resorting to the photosensitizer and light, which convert oxygen into cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), PDT will induce vascular damage and direct tumor cell killing. Another consequence of PDT is the microvascular stasis, which results in hypoxia and further produces tumor regression. To improve the treatment with PDT, three promising strategies are currently attracting much interest: (1) the combination of PDT and anti-angiogenesis agents, which more effectively prevent the proliferation of endothelial cells and the formation of new blood vessels; (2) the nanoparticle-assisted delivery of photosensitizer, which makes the photosensitizer more localized in tumor sites and thus renders minimal damage to the normal tissues; (3) the application of intravascular PDT, which can avoid the loss of energy during the transmission and expose the target area directly. Here we aim to review the important findings on vascular damage by PDT on mice. The combination of PDT with other approaches as well as its effect on cancer photomedicine are also reviewed.

  2. Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial

  3. Experimental systems for mechanistic studies of toxicant induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Fahy, O; Tsicopoulos, A; Gosset, P; Tonnel, A B

    2000-03-15

    Human breath contains a large array of complex and poorly characterized mixtures. We can measure the potential risk of these exposures at molecular, cell, organ, organismic levels or in population. This paper emphasizes the characteristics of in vitro tests of lung cells and discusses the use of in vitro systems to determine the health effects of inhaled pollutants. Exposure to gases can be performed with roller bottles fitted with modified rotating caps with tubing connections, or by using dishes on rocker platforms, which tilt back and forth to expose the cell culture to gases. Exposure of cells may also be obtained by using very thin gas-permable membrane on which cells grow. However, it is clear that in using these systems, the culture medium constitutes a barrier between the gas and the target cells and thus does not permit a physiological approach of the toxic effects of gases. This is the reason why an experimental model, using a biphasic cell culture technique in gas phase, was developed. We report the value and the limits of this method using bronchial cells or alveolar macrophages. Exposure of lung cells to gas pollutants or particles may be responsible for either cell injury or cell activation associated with the overexpression of mRNA and the release of various bioactive mediators. In vitro assays have some limitations, particularly because the human pulmonary response to inhaled pollutants is the result of complex interactions involving many different cell types within the lungs. However, cell culture using biphasic systems in aerobiosis opens new ways for the research on the biological effects of gas pollutants.

  4. Experimental investigation of the flow induced by artificial cilia.

    PubMed

    Hussong, J; Schorr, N; Belardi, J; Prucker, O; Rühe, J; Westerweel, J

    2011-06-21

    The fluid transport produced by rectangular shaped, magnetically actuated artificial cilia of 70 μm length and 20 μm width was determined by means of phase-locked Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) measurements in a closed microfluidic chamber. The phase-averaged flow produced by the artificial cilia reached up to 130 μm s(-1) with an actuation cycle frequency of 10 Hz. Analysis of the measured flow data indicate that the present system is capable of achieving volume flow rates of V[combining dot above](cilia) = 14 ± 4 μl min(-1) in a micro channel of 0.5 × 5 mm(2) cross-sectional area when no back pressure is built up. This corresponds to an effective pressure gradient of 6 ± 1 Pa m(-1), which equals a pressure difference of 0.6 ± 0.1 mPa over a distance of 100 μm between two rows of cilia. These results were derived analytically from the measured velocity profile by treating the cilia as a thin boundary layer. While the cilia produce phase-averaged velocities of the order of O(10(2)μm s(-1)), time-resolved measurements showed that the flow field reverses two times during one actuation cycle inducing instantaneous velocities of up to approximately 2 mm s(-1). This shows that the flow field is dominated by fluid oscillations and flow rates are expected to increase if the beating motion of the cilia is further improved. PMID:21614349

  5. Predictions of Experimentally Observed Stochastic Ground Vibrations Induced by Blasting

    PubMed Central

    Kostić, Srđan; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Trajković, Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we investigate the blast induced ground motion recorded at the limestone quarry “Suva Vrela” near Kosjerić, which is located in the western part of Serbia. We examine the recorded signals by means of surrogate data methods and a determinism test, in order to determine whether the recorded ground velocity is stochastic or deterministic in nature. Longitudinal, transversal and the vertical ground motion component are analyzed at three monitoring points that are located at different distances from the blasting source. The analysis reveals that the recordings belong to a class of stationary linear stochastic processes with Gaussian inputs, which could be distorted by a monotonic, instantaneous, time-independent nonlinear function. Low determinism factors obtained with the determinism test further confirm the stochastic nature of the recordings. Guided by the outcome of time series analysis, we propose an improved prediction model for the peak particle velocity based on a neural network. We show that, while conventional predictors fail to provide acceptable prediction accuracy, the neural network model with four main blast parameters as input, namely total charge, maximum charge per delay, distance from the blasting source to the measuring point, and hole depth, delivers significantly more accurate predictions that may be applicable on site. We also perform a sensitivity analysis, which reveals that the distance from the blasting source has the strongest influence on the final value of the peak particle velocity. This is in full agreement with previous observations and theory, thus additionally validating our methodology and main conclusions. PMID:24358140

  6. Plant-induced weathering of a basaltic rock: experimental evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsinger, Philippe; Fernandes Barros, Omar Neto; Benedetti, Marc F.; Noack, Yves; Callot, Gabriel

    2001-01-01

    The active role of higher plants in the weathering of silicate minerals and rocks is still a question for debate. The present work aimed at providing experimental evidence of the important role of a range of crop plants in such processes. In order to quantitatively assess the possible effect of these diverse plant species on the weathering of a basaltic rock, two laboratory experiments were carried out at room temperature. These compared the amounts of elements released from basalt when leached with a dilute salt solution in the presence or absence of crop plants grown for up to 36 days. For Si, Ca, Mg, and Na, plants resulted in an increase in the release rate by a factor ranging from 1 to 5 in most cases. Ca and Na seemed to be preferentially released relative to other elements, suggesting that plagioclase dissolved faster than the other constituents of the studied basalt. Negligible amounts of Fe were released in the absence of plants as a consequence of the neutral pH and atmospheric pO 2 that were maintained in the leaching solution. However, the amounts of Fe released from basalt in the presence of plants were up to 100- to 500-fold larger than in the absence of plants, for banana and maize. The kinetics of dissolution of basalt in the absence of plants showed a constantly decreasing release rate over the whole duration of the experiment (36 days). No steady state value was reached both in the absence and presence of banana plants. However, in the latter case, the rates remained at a high initial level over a longer period of time (up to 15 days) before starting to decrease. For Fe, the maximum rate of release was reached beyond 4 days and this rate remained high up to 22 days of growth of banana. The possible mechanisms responsible for this enhanced release of elements from basalt in the presence of plants are discussed. Although these mechanisms need to be elucidated, the present results clearly show that higher plants can considerably affect the kinetics

  7. Controlling Rotavirus-associated diarrhea: Could single-domain antibody fragments make the difference?

    PubMed

    Maffey, Lucia; Vega, Celina G; Parreño, Viviana; Garaicoechea, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) remains a leading cause of severe diarrhea and child mortality. The variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHH) display potent antigen-binding capacity, have low production costs and are suitable for oral therapies. Two sets of anti-RVA VHHs have been developed: ARP1-ARP3; 2KD1-3B2. Here, we explore the potential of both sets as a prevention strategy complementary to vaccination and a treatment option against RVA-associated diarrhea in endangered populations. Both sets have been expressed in multiple production systems, showing extensive neutralizing capacity against strains of RVA in vitro. They were also tested in the neonatal mouse model with various degrees of success in preventing or treating RVA-induced diarrhea. Interestingly, mitigation of the symptoms was also achieved with freeze-dried ARP1, so that it could be applied in areas where cold chains are difficult to maintain. 3B2 was tested in a pre-clinical trial involving gnotobiotic piglets where it conferred complete protection against RVA-induced diarrhea. ARP1 was used in the first clinical trial for anti-RVA VHHs, successfully reducing stool output in infants with RVA diarrhea, with no detected side effects. PMID:26654700

  8. Experimental demonstration of population inversion driven by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Alvaro Peralta; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Klein, Jens; Oberst, Martin; Halfmann, Thomas

    2005-11-15

    We present experimental data to demonstrate coherently driven population inversion by retroreflection-induced bichromatic adiabatic passage in metastable helium atoms. Complete and robust population transfer from an initial to a target state is induced by coherent interaction of the atoms in a supersonic beam with two counterpropagating and temporally delayed laser pulses of different intensities. The radiation fields intersect the atomic beam slightly tilted away from normal incidence, thereby inducing Doppler shifts of the atomic resonance between the initial and the target state. Thus the laser pulses produce a bichromatic field in the rest frame of each atom, which induces complete coherent population transfer by an adiabatic passage process.

  9. Maternal knowledge, attitudes and practice in diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, P; Rajput, V J

    1993-01-01

    In developing countries where diarrhea is a major health problem, mothers are often ignorant about the cause and management of the disease and tend to restrict fluid intake instead of taking steps to prevent dehydration. 300 mothers of children hospitalized in Rewa, India, were interviewed with a pretested questionnaire on their diarrhea knowledge. 74.3% were rural and 80.6% were aged 20-30 years. 70% were illiterate and belonged to the upper lower or lower middle class. Causes of diarrhea cited by the mothers included teething (64.3%), evil eye (46%), contact with another case (36.6%), malnutrition (28.3), worm infestation (22.6%), eating mud (18.6%), mother's food habits (17.6%), eating sweets (17.3%), dirty water (15.3%), hot/cold foods (10.6%), change of food (8.3), and dirty environment (6%). During diarrhea, 266 mothers allowed breast milk, 118 pulses and rice gruel, 104 diluted cow's milk, 57 undiluted cow's milk, 25 boiled pulses water, 23 boiled rice water, 16 banana, 13 oral rehydration solution, 10 a whole diet, 8 tea, and 7 curd. Half of the mothers considered passage of liquid stools 3-5 times a day as diarrhea. Only 3% of the mothers listed dehydration as an important complication of the disease. Of the mothers using oral rehydration therapy, the fluid was often not reconstituted properly, and inadequate amounts were administered. Improved health education for mothers, with information on general hygiene, adequate diet during illness, and the use of oral rehydration solution in diarrhea would reduce diarrhea deaths. PMID:8406719

  10. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens. PMID:23697572

  11. A multiepitope fusion antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and homologous bovine viral diarrhea virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hashish, Emad A; Zhang, Chengxian; Ruan, Xiaosai; Knudsen, David E; Chase, Christopher C; Isaacson, Richard E; Zhou, Guoqiang; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-07-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most important bovine diseases. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are the major causes of diarrhea in calves and cattle. ETEC expressing K99 (F5) fimbriae and heat-stable type Ia (STa) toxin are the leading bacteria causing calf diarrhea, and BVDV causes diarrhea and other clinical illnesses in cattle of all ages. It is reported that maternal immunization with K99 fimbrial antigens provides passive protection to calves against K99 fimbrial ETEC and that BVDV major structural protein E2 elicits antibodies neutralizing against BVDV viral infection. Vaccines inducing anti-K99 and anti-STa immunity would protect calves more effectively against ETEC diarrhea, and those also inducing anti-E2 neutralizing antibodies would protect calves and cattle against diarrhea caused by both ETEC and BVDV. In this study, we used the ETEC K99 major subunit FanC as a backbone, genetically embedded the STa toxoid STaP12F and the most-antigenic B-cell epitope and T-cell epitope predicted from the BVDV E2 glycoprotein into FanC for the multivalent antigen FanC-STa-E2, and examined immunogenicity of this multivalent antigen to assess vaccine potential against bovine diarrhea. Mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) immunized with this multivalent antigen developed anti-K99, anti-STa, and anti-BVDV antibodies. Moreover, elicited antibodies showed neutralization activities, as they inhibited adherence of K99 fimbrial E. coli, neutralized STa toxin, and prevented homologous BVDV viral infection in vitro. Results from this study suggest that this multiepitope fusion antigen can potentially be developed as a vaccine for broad protection against bovine diarrhea and that the multiepitope fusion strategy may be generally applied for multivalent vaccine development against heterogeneous pathogens.

  12. [Probiotics for the treating acute diarrhea and preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Carlos

    2015-02-07

    Probiotics are helpful in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Several systematic reviews show that the use of probiotics shortens the duration of diarrhea in one day and reduces by 59% the risk of diarrhea lasting longer than 4 days. Hospital stay is 24 hours shorter in children treated with probiotics. The benefitial effect of probiotics is species-specific; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the two species with proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea. The use of probiotics reduces by 50% the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. No significant side effects were found in the clinical trials but rare cases of invasive infections have been reported in immunosuppressed children or those with indwelling central venous catheters.

  13. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  14. Chronic diarrhea: causes, presentation, and management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D I; Lebenthal, E; Blecker, U

    1996-01-01

    Important inroads are being made into understanding the pathophysiology of diarrhea. Clear understanding of key mechanisms should suggest new approaches to combat disease. Exciting developments are occurring in terms of super-ORS solutions, particularly with the promise of short chained glucose polymers and glutamine. Perhaps the most important development is the prospect of a good rotavirus vaccine being available before the end of the decade. Chronic diarrhea seems to be on the increase globally, probably because of the success of ORS. The mechanisms that lead to mucosal injury are elusive, and therapy still largely supportive and empiric. Celiac disease continues to be a puzzle, because of the uncomfortable feeling that a majority of cases may be missed because of atypical presentations. The successful use of long term parenteral nutrition has allowed survival and better characterization of cases that otherwise would have perished as 'lethal protracted diarrhea'. Microvillus inclusion disease may be the commonest congenital secretory diarrhea. The role of the recently reported high prevalence of glucoamlase deficiency may be important. Lastly, attention to micronutrients, particularly low vitamin A and probably zinc may prove to be important in prevention and amelioration of diarrhea and growth failure. PMID:10832466

  15. Chronic diarrhea in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D I; Blecker, U

    1998-09-01

    Important inroads are being made into understanding the pathophysiology of acute diarrhea. Clear understanding of key mechanisms should suggest new approaches to combat disease. Exciting developments are occurring in terms of super-ORS solutions, particularly with the promise of short-chained glucose polymers and glutamine. Perhaps the most important development is the prospect of a good rotavirus vaccine being available before the end of the decade. Chronic diarrhea seems to be on the increase globally, probably because of the success of ORS. The mechanisms that lead to mucosal injury are elusive and therapy is still largely supportive and empiric. Celiac disease continues to be a puzzle, not least because of the uncomfortable feeling that a majority of cases may be being missed because of atypical presentations. The successful use of long-term parenteral nutrition has allowed survival and better characterization of cases that otherwise would have perished as "lethal protracted diarrhea". Microvillus inclusion disease may be the most common congenital secretory diarrhea. The role of the recently reported high prevalence of glucoamylase deficiency may be important. Lastly attention to micronutrients, particularly low vitamin A and probably zinc, may prove to be important in prevention and amelioration of diarrhea and growth failure. PMID:9785754

  16. Randomized controlled trial of live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum in prophylaxis of diarrhea during radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced diarrhea is frequently observed during pelvic radiotherapy. This study was performed to determine the ability of a probiotic containing live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum to reduce the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in locally advanced cervical cancer patients. Methods Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy concurrent with weekly cisplatin were randomly assigned to a study drug or placebo, in a double-blind study. Diarrhea was graded weekly according the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) system. Stool consistency and white and red blood cell count in stool were also assessed. The primary endpoint was to reduce the incidence of diarrhea, defined by a CTC grade 2 or more, and the need for anti-diarrheal medication. Results A total of 63 patients were enrolled. Grade 2 -3 diarrhea was observed in 45% of the placebo group (n = 31) and 9% of the study drug group (n = 32) (p = 0.002). Anti-diarrheal medication use was significantly reduced in the placebo group (p = 0.03). The patients in the study drug group had a significantly improved stool consistency (p < 0.001). Conclusions Live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum reduced the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea and the need for anti-diarrheal medication and had a significant benefits on stool consistency. PMID:20444243

  17. Experimental gastric ulcers induced by immobilization and electric shock of rats and their pharmacotherapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodin, O. N.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism of development of experimental gastric ulcers, induced in rats by combined immobilization and electric shock, was analyzed pharmacologically with peripheral neurotropic agents. It is concluded that: (1) The most marked preventive effect in the development of the experimentally induced gastric ulcers was displayed by agents capable of blocking the ascending activation system of the reticular formation. (2) Sympathetic fibers, which disrupt the trophism of the gastric wall, form the efferent portion of the reflex arc. (3) Gastric secretion does not appear to be the primary cause of ulceration.

  18. Colloid-induced kidney injury: experimental evidence may help to understand mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schortgen, Frédérique; Brochard, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation is widely used, and many patients are therefore exposed to plasma volume expanders. Among these, colloids, particularly hydroxyethyl starches, have been shown in recent experiments and clinical studies to induce acute kidney injury. The mechanisms of colloid-induced acute kidney injury remain incompletely elucidated. The risks associated with colloid osmotic pressure elevation in vivo and the high incidence of osmotic nephrosis lesions in experimental models and clinical studies indicate that hydroxyethyl starches can no longer be considered safe.

  19. Advances in understanding of bile acid diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na+-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25–33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA (75SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss. In clinical practice, diagnosis is often based on response to BA sequestrants (e.g., cholestyramine or colesevelam). Diagnostic tests for BA malabsorption (BAM) need to be used more extensively in clinical practice. In the future, farnesoid X receptor agonists that stimulate ileal production of FGF-19 may be alternative treatments of BAD. PMID:24410472

  20. Role of the Enteric Nervous System in the Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion of Rotavirus Diarrhea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, Ove; Peregrin, Attila Timar; Persson, Kjell; Kordasti, Shirin; Uhnoo, Ingrid; Svensson, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the intestinal fluid loss in rotavirus diarrhea, which often afflicts children in developing countries, is not known. One hypothesis is that the rotavirus evokes intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion by activation of the nervous system in the intestinal wall, the enteric nervous system (ENS). Four different drugs that inhibit ENS functions were used to obtain experimental evidence for this hypothesis in mice in vitro and in vivo. The involvement of the ENS in rotavirus diarrhea indicates potential sites of action for drugs in the treatment of the disease.

  1. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffry A

    2006-03-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a common clinical problem occurring in up to 25% of patients, with diarrhea owing to Clostridium difficile accounting for up to a quarter of cases. The clinical and economic costs of antibiotic-associated diarrhea are significant and better treatments are needed. Probiotics may offer potential effective therapy for antibiotic-associated diarrhea by restoring intestinal microbial balance. A number of different probiotics have been evaluated in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and children, including the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and multiple lactic-acid fermenting bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). A careful review of the literature supports the efficacy of S. boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea recurrent C. difficile infection in adults, whereas LGG is useful in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Not enough data exist to currently support the use of other probiotic preparations in these conditions. Although generally safe and well tolerated, both S. boulardii and LGG should be used cautiously in immunocompromised patients. Further study of probiotics, including large, well-designed, randomized controlled dose-ranging trials, comparative trials, and cost-benefit analyses are necessary.

  2. Hospitalizations for diarrhea in Quebec children from 1985 to 1998: Estimates of rotavirus-associated diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Buigues, René-Pierre; Duval, Bernard; Rochette, Louis; Boulianne, Nicole; Douville-Fradet, Monique; Déry, Pierre; De Serres, Gaston

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence and duration of hospitalization due to diarrhea and to assess the proportion of hospitalizations that are attributed to rotavirus-associated diarrhea. DESIGN: Retrospective study of hospitalization data. SETTING: Hospitals located in Quebec. POPULATION STUDIED: Children from one to 59 months of age who were discharged from hospital from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1998. MAIN RESULTS: There were 63,827 hospitalizations for diarrhea over the study period, for an average of 4910 hospitalizations/year. The epidemic curve showed a periodicity with regular alternation of high and low annual peaks. The number of hospitalizations for rotavirus-associated diarrhea was estimated according to three different methods. The estimates varied between 1353 and 1849 hospitalizations due to rotavirus-associated diarrhea/year over the 13-year period, with good agreement between the results of the three methods for a one-month to five years of age incidence of 320 hospitalizations for rotavirus-associated diarrhea/100,000 children. The average duration of hospital stay decreased from 5.2 days in 1985 to 3.3 days in 1998. CONCLUSIONS: The present article shows the importance of diarrhea hospitalizations among children and the alternating peak-year periodicity. PMID:18159396

  3. Microbiological Diagnosis of Severe Diarrhea in Kidney Transplant Recipients by Use of Multiplex PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Jean-François; Vuiblet, Vincent; Moustapha, Betoul; Bouin, Alexis; Lavaud, Sylvie; Toupance, Olivier; de Rougemont, Alexis; Benejat, Lucie; Megraud, Francis; Wolak-Thierry, Aurore; Villena, Isabelle; Chemla, Cathy; Le Magrex, Elisabeth; de Champs, Christophe; Andreoletti, Laurent; Rieu, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation, ascribed to adverse effects of the immunosuppressive therapy in case of negative microbiological examination of the stools. The aim of this study was to improve the microbiological diagnosis by implementing molecular tests. Fifty-four severe diarrhea events that occurred in 49 adult kidney transplant recipients from September 2010 to November 2011 were investigated. One or several enteric pathogens were detected in 13 (23%) stool samples using classical microbiological methods versus 39 (72%) for the seven commercially available multiplex PCR assays used retrospectively (P = 0.006). Interestingly, molecular diagnosis identified 15 multiple infections compared to none using classical techniques. The primary pathogens detected were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (n = 15; 38%), Campylobacter spp. (n = 15; 38%), and Norovirus (n = 14; 36%). Specificities for Campylobacter and Norovirus infection diagnosis were 75 and 100%, respectively, by comparison to reference methods. Based on molecular findings, a cyclosporine-mycophenolate mofetil combination was identified as a risk factor for developing Norovirus-induced diarrhea. Norovirus infections were also responsible for higher weight loss than all the other causes of diarrhea. In samples from asymptomatic immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, EPEC but not Norovirus and Campylobacter infections were detected at a frequency similar to that observed in symptomatic kidney transplant recipients. In conclusion, molecular tools significantly improved the detection of single and multiple enteric infections by comparison to classical techniques and could quickly become the key element in the management of severe acute diarrhea in transplant recipients. PMID:23554205

  4. The maximum single dose of resistant maltodextrin that does not cause diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Yuka; Kanahori, Sumiko; Sakano, Katsuhisa; Ebihara, Shukuko

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the maximum dose of resistant maltodextrin (Fibersol)-2, a non-viscous water-soluble dietary fiber), that does not induce transitory diarrhea. Ten healthy adult subjects (5 men and 5 women) ingested Fibersol-2 at increasing dose levels of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 g/kg body weight (bw). Each administration was separated from the previous dose by an interval of 1 wk. The highest dose level that did not cause diarrhea in any subject was regarded as the maximum non-effective level for a single dose. The results showed that no subject of either sex experienced diarrhea at dose levels of 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, or 1.0 g/kg bw. At the highest dose level of 1.1 g/kg bw, no female subject experienced diarrhea, whereas 1 male subject developed diarrhea with muddy stools 2 h after ingestion of the test substance. Consequently, the maximum non-effective level for a single dose of the resistant maltodextrin Fibersol-2 is 1.0 g/kg bw for men and >1.1 g/kg bw for women. Gastrointestinal symptoms were gurgling sounds in 4 subjects (7 events) and flatus in 5 subjects (9 events), although no association with dose level was observed. These symptoms were mild and transient and resolved without treatment.

  5. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves].

    PubMed

    Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Vercruysse, J

    2005-12-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in the etiology of diarrhea in calves is highlighted with emphasis on correct diagnosis. In neonatal calves, Cryptosporidium parvum is isolated in more than 44% of the faeces of diarrhetic calves. In calves older than one month, both Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii, and Giardia duodenalis are associated with diarrhea and poor growth. Clinical diagnosis has to be confirmed by examination of host faecal material. Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment.

  6. Nasal IL-12p70 DNA prevents and treats intestinal allergic diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hino, Ayako; Fukuyama, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Kweon, Mi-Na; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2005-06-01

    OVA-induced allergic diarrhea occurs as a consequence of over-expression of Th1 inhibitory IL-12p40 monomers and homodimers in the large intestine, establishing a dominant Th2-type environment. In this study, we demonstrate that intranasally administered murine IL-12p70 naked DNA expression plasmids resulted in the synthesis of corresponding cytokine in the large intestinal CD11c(+) dendritic cells, leading to the inhibition of Ag-specific Th2-type response for the prevention of allergic diarrhea and the suppression of clinical symptoms including OVA-specific IgE Ab synthesis. The nasal IL-12p70 DNA treatment proved effective even after the establishment of allergic diarrhea. These results suggest that the mucosal administration of naked IL-12p70 DNA plasmid should be considered as a possible preventive and therapeutic treatment for Th2 cell-mediated food allergic diseases in the intestinal tract.

  7. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  8. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  9. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  10. [Diarrhea from the infectologist's point of view].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Zsuzsanna

    2009-02-22

    Gastroenteritis is a nonspecific term for various pathologic states of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastroenteritis causing pathogens are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the developed countries diarrhea is the most common reason for missing work, while in the developing world, it is a leading cause of death. Internationally, the mortality rate is 5-10 million deaths each year. "Traveller's diarrhea" is a polyetiologic common health problem of international travellers which affects travellers generally for days, but it can result in chronic postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome as well. Infectious agents usually cause acute gastroenteritis either by adherence of the intestinal mucosa, or by mucosal invasion, enterotoxin production, and/or cytotoxin production. The incubation period can often suggest the cause of etiology. When symptoms occur within 6 hours of eating, ingestion of preformed toxin of S. aureus or Bacillus cereus should be suspected. The incidence of hypervirulent C. difficile associated colitis is an emerging problem as a healthcare system associated infection. While infectious agents do not commonly cause chronic diarrhea, those that do include C. difficile, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium, Aeromonas and Yersinia . Amoebiasis is the second to malaria as a protozoal cause of death. Infection with HIV is also a common cause of diarrhea.

  11. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  12. Travelers' diarrhea: Risk reduction and management.

    PubMed

    Moore, Karen S

    2015-11-15

    Travelers' diarrhea is a common complaint for patients traveling abroad. Onset of illness, symptoms experienced, and the duration of symptoms are greatly impacted by the causative agent. This article explores the causes, prevention recommendations, and treatment methodologies recommended for this common condition.

  13. Constipation, diarrhea, and symptomatic hemorrhoids during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wald, Arnold

    2003-03-01

    Constipation, diarrhea, and symptomatic hemorrhoids are disorders common in the general population, particularly in women. These conditions, if mild, often are self-treated with various home remedies or nonprescription preparations. Few of these patients, moreover, are referred to gastroenterologists, as primary care providers generally are confident managing these conditions, unless they are severe, refractory to conventional management, or require additional diagnostic studies.

  14. Gene Therapy Induces Antigen-Specific Tolerance in Experimental Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jirholt, Pernilla; Turesson, Olof; Wing, Kajsa; Holmdahl, Rikard; Kihlberg, Jan; Stern, Anna; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill; Henningsson, Louise; Gustafsson, Kenth; Gjertsson, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Here, we investigate induction of immunological tolerance by lentiviral based gene therapy in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen II-induced arthritis (CIA). Targeting the expression of the collagen type II (CII) to antigen presenting cells (APCs) induced antigen-specific tolerance, where only 5% of the mice developed arthritis as compared with 95% of the control mice. In the CII-tolerized mice, the proportion of Tregs as well as mRNA expression of SOCS1 (suppressors of cytokine signaling 1) increased at day 3 after CII immunization. Transfer of B cells or non-B cell APC, as well as T cells, from tolerized to naïve mice all mediated a certain degree of tolerance. Thus, sustainable tolerance is established very early during the course of arthritis and is mediated by both B and non-B cells as APCs. This novel approach for inducing tolerance to disease specific antigens can be used for studying tolerance mechanisms, not only in CIA but also in other autoimmune diseases. PMID:27159398

  15. Entamoeba moshkovskii Is Associated With Diarrhea in Infants and Causes Diarrhea and Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Chikako; Kabir, Mamun; Taniuchi, Mami; Mondal, Dinesh; Kobayashi, Seiki; Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Sobuz, Shihab U.; Senba, Masachika; Houpt, Eric; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2012-01-01

    Background.Entamoeba moshkovskii is prevalent in developing countries and morphologically indistinguishable from pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar. It is not known if E. moshkovskii is pathogenic. Methods.Mice were intracecally challenged with the trophozoites of each Entamoeba spp. to test the ability to cause diarrhea, and infants in Bangladesh were prospectively observed to see if newly acquired E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. Results.E. moshkovskii and E. histolytica caused diarrhea and weight loss in susceptible mice. E. dispar infected none of the mouse strains tested. In Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E. moshkovskii, E. histolytica, and E. dispar were identified in 42 (2.95%), 66 (4.63%), and 5 (0.35%), respectively, of 1426 diarrheal episodes in 385 children followed prospectively from birth to one year of age. Diarrhea occurred temporally with acquisition of a new E. moshkovskii infection: in the 2 months preceding E. moshkvskii-associated diarrhea, 86% (36 of 42) of monthly surveillance stool samples were negative for E. moshkovskii. Conclusions.E. moshkovskii was found to be pathogenic in mice. In children, the acquisition of E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. These data are consistent with E. moshkovskii causing disease, indicating that it is important to reexamine its pathogenicity. PMID:22723640

  16. Antisecretory and antimotility activity of Aconitum heterophyllum and its significance in treatment of diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Satyendra K.; Jain, Divya; Patel, Dinesh K.; Sahu, Alakh N.; Hemalatha, Siva

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The roots of the plant Aconitum heterophyllum (EAH) are traditionally used for curing hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes, and diarrhea. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism involved in the anti-diarrheal activity of roots of A. heterophyllum. Materials and Methods: Ant-diarrheal activity of ethanol extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg p.o. was evaluated using fecal excretion and castor oil-induced diarrhea models, while optimized dose, that is, 100 mg/kg p.o. was further subjected to small intestinal transit, intestinal fluids accumulation, PGE2-induced enteropooling and gastric emptying test. To elucidate the probable mechanism, various biochemical parameters and Na+, K+ concentration in intestinal fluids were also determined. Further, antibacterial activity of extract along with its standardization using aconitine as a marker with the help of HPLC was carried out. Results: The results depicted a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in normal fecal output at 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. of extract after 5th and 7th h of treatment. Castor oil-induced diarrhea model demonstrated a ceiling effect at 100 mg/kg p.o. with a protection of 60.185% from diarrhea. EAH at 100 mg/kg p.o. also showed significant activity in small intestinal transit, fluid accumulation, and PGE2-induced enteropooling models, which also restored the altered biochemical parameters and prevented Na+ and K+ loss. The extract with 0.0833% w/w of aconitine depicted a potential antibacterial activity of extract against microbes implicated in diarrhea. Conclusion: The study concluded antisecretory and antimotility effect of A. heterophyllum, which mediates through nitric oxide path way. PMID:24550590

  17. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Equivalent properties of single event burnout induced by different sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shi-Yu; Cao, Zhou; Da, Dao-An; Xue, Yu-Xiong

    2009-05-01

    The experimental results of single event burnout induced by heavy ions and 252Cf fission fragments in power MOSFET devices have been investigated. It is concluded that the characteristics of single event burnout induced by 252Cf fission fragments is consistent to that in heavy ions. The power MOSFET in the “turn-off" state is more susceptible to single event burnout than it is in the “turn-on" state. The thresholds of the drain-source voltage for single event burnout induced by 173 MeV bromine ions and 252Cf fission fragments are close to each other, and the burnout cross section is sensitive to variation of the drain-source voltage above the threshold of single event burnout. In addition, the current waveforms of single event burnouts induced by different sources are similar. Different power MOSFET devices may have different probabilities for the occurrence of single event burnout.

  18. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough.

  19. Peripheral site of action of levodropropizine in experimentally-induced cough: role of sensory neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Lavezzo, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1992-06-01

    The mechanism of action of levodropropizine has been investigated in different models of experimentally-induced cough in guinea-pigs. In particular it has been demonstrated that the antitussive drug has a peripheral site of action by injecting the drug intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). In these experiments levodropropizine (40 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) did not prevent electrically-induced cough. On the other hand, codeine (5 micrograms/50 microliters i.c.v.) markedly prevented coughing. A difference in the potency ratio of levodropropizine and codeine has been demonstrated in capsaicin-induced cough; after oral administration, codeine was about two to three times more potent than levodropropizine. However, after aerosol administration the two compounds were equipotent. These data might suggest a peripheral site of action for levodropropizine which is related to sensory neuropeptides. Further support for the role of sensory neuropeptides in the mechanism of action of levodropropizine comes from the results obtained in capsaicin-desensitized animals. In this experimental model levodropropizine failed to prevent the vagally elicited cough in neuropeptide-depleted animals, whereas codeine did not differentiate between control and capsaicin-treated animals. In conclusion, our results support the suggestion that levodropropizine has a peripheral site of action. In addition, the interference with the sensory neuropeptide system may explain, at least in part, its activity in experimentally-induced cough. PMID:1611233

  20. Activity and milk compositional changes following experimentally induced Streptococcus uberis bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Kester, H J; Sorter, D E; Hogan, J S

    2015-02-01

    Milk constituents and physical activity of cows experimentally infected with Streptococcus uberis mastitis were compared with those of uninfected cows. Twelve late-lactation Holsteins cows were paired based on milk production and parity. One cow in each pair was experimentally infected in the right front mammary gland with Strep. uberis. The remaining cow in each pair served as an uninfected control. Real-time analyses of milk constituents provided fat, protein, and lactose percentages at each milking. Pedometers were placed on the left front leg of all cows and activity was measured. Intramammary infections with Strep. uberis reduced milk yield in experimental cows by approximately 1.6kg/d in the first week after challenge compared with control cows. Lactose percentage in milk was reduced on d 3, 4, 5, and 6 after challenge in treatment cows compared with controls. Percentages of fat and protein in milk did not differ between infected and uninfected cows the week after infections were induced. Total steps per day were reduced and minutes resting per day were increased the week after experimental challenge in infected cows compared with control cows. The number of resting bouts did not differ between infected and uninfected cows. Changes in percentage of lactose in milk and animal activity caused by experimentally induced Strep. uberis mastitis were detected by the automated milk analyzer and pedometer systems.

  1. Experimental Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Induces Upstream Pericyte Loss and Vascular Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Elisa; Raoul, William; Calippe, Bertrand; Sahel, José-Alain; Guillonneau, Xavier; Paques, Michel; Sennlaub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Aims Branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) leads to extensive vascular remodeling and is important cause of visual impairment. Although the vascular morphological changes following experimental vein occlusion have been described in a variety of models using angiography, the underlying cellular events are ill defined. Methods and Results We here show that laser-induced experimental BRVO in mice leads to a wave of TUNEL-positive endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis in the upstream vascular network associated with a transient edema and hemorrhages. Subsequently, we observe an induction of EC proliferation within the dilated vein and capillaries, detected by EdU incorporation, and the edema resolves. However, the pericytes of the upstream capillaries are severely reduced, which was associated with continuing EC apoptosis and proliferation. The vascular remodeling was associated with increased expression of TGFβ, TSP-1, but also FGF2 expression. Exposure of the experimental animals to hypoxia, when pericyte (PC) dropout had occurred, led to a dramatic increase in endothelial cell proliferation, confirming the vascular instability induced by the experimental BRVO. Conclusion Experimental BRVO leads to acute endothelial cells apoptosis and increased permeability. Subsequently the upstream vascular network remains destabilized, characterized by pericyte dropout, un-physiologically high endothelial cells turnover and sensitivity to hypoxia. These early changes might pave the way for capillary loss and subsequent chronic ischemia and edema that characterize the late stage disease. PMID:26208283

  2. [Reporting maternal behavior during diarrhea in Bedouin children].

    PubMed

    Bilenko, N; Levy, A; Fraser, D

    1997-05-15

    Diarrhea is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. The Bedouin population of southern Israel is in transition from a nomadic to a settled life-style. We examined maternal knowledge and reported behavior when their children had diarrhea. Mothers defined diarrhea as the passing of 4-5 stools per day. The most frequent signs of the illness were an increased number of watery stools with changes in either color or form. The most frequent symptom that prompted mothers to seek medical aid was blood in the stool. All mothers reported increasing fluid intake in their children during diarrhea, and most reported giving herbal tea. About half of the women avoided milk products and used special foods for the treatment of diarrhea. A quarter of the women reported stopping or decreasing the frequency of breast feeding during diarrhea. Reported cessation of breast feeding during diarrhea was associated with changing to special foods, and failure to note the onset of diarrhea or to recognize signs of dehydration. The withdrawal of breast feeding during episodes of illness and diarrhea is related to lack of knowledge regarding diarrhea. These data indicate that even in this population, with free access to preventive and curative medical care, there should be greater efforts to educate mothers to detect diarrheal disease and to maintain breast feeding during the diarrhea. PMID:9264967

  3. Experimental models of virus-induced demyelination of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, M C; Rabinowitz, S G

    1982-02-01

    One of the arguments in favor of a viral pathogenesis for multiple sclerosis is the existence of several experimental and natural animal models of virus-induced primary demyelination. This review deals comprehensively with such models. Well-known examples of demyelinating viral infections in their natural host are JHM, Theiler, visna, and canine distemper encephalomyelitides. Recent reports of experimental murine infections with pathogens such as vesicular stomatitis, Chandipura, herpes simplex, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, and Semliki Forest viruses are also discussed. The thrust of the review is to include viral models suspected of producing primary demyelination on an immunopathological basis.

  4. Experimental study of the spectral characteristics of laser-induced air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Zhaoxiang; Wu Jinquan; Sun Fenglou; Gong Shunsheng

    2010-05-01

    The characteristics of laser-induced air, N2, and O2 plasma spectra are investigated spectroscopically. The study concentrates mainly on the temporal behavior of laser-induced plasma after breakdown. We used delayed spectra and spectra evolution for this study. Except for the general one-beam laser-induced breakdown experiment, a second laser beam was added to further probe the behavior of plasma during its decay. We report the experimental results of spectra composition, spectra time evolution, and spectra affected by a second laser beam. We determined that all the laser-induced air plasma spectra are from a continuous spectrum and some line spectra superposed on the continuous spectrum. The stronger short wavelength continuous spectrum is caused by bremsstrahlung radiation of electrons in the plasma, and the weaker long wavelength continuous spectrum is caused by electron and ion recombination. Line spectra originate from excited molecules, atoms, and their first-order ions, but no line spectra form higher-order ions. The results show that the temporal behavior of some spectra is a decay-rise-redecay pattern. With the two laser beam experiment we found that all the spectra intensities are enhanced by the second laser beam, but the response of various spectra to the delay of the second laser beam is quite different, in particular, the intensity increments of some spectra increase with the delay of the second laser beam. Some microscopic processes of laser-induced plasma obtained from the experimental results are discussed. These results are useful for a better understanding of some laser-induced air plasma related applications, such as laser-guided lightning and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  5. Clinical trial evaluating cholestyramine to prevent diarrhea in patients maintained on low-fat diets during pelvic radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chary, S.; Thomson, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    A prospective randomized trial to determine the value of a low fat diet with or without cholestyramine in the treatment of acute intestinal complications of pelvic irradiation is presented. A total of 35 patients receiving pelvic irradiation were entered in the study and all patients had received a 40 gm fat diet. The group was then randomized to receive either placebo (17 patients) or cholestyramine (18 patients). Diarrhea occurred in six out of 16 evaluable patients in the control group and only one of the 17 evaluable patients in the cholestyramine group. The frequency of diarrhea and the diarrhea scale remained high in the placebo group in the entire observation period. Statistical analysis had revealed better diarrhea control in the cholestyramine group. In this report mechanism by which diarrhea occurs following pelvic irradiation is discussed. The adverse effects associated with the use of cholestyramine have been presented. It was concluded that cholestyramine is effective in preventing acute diarrhea induced by pelvic irradiation in patients receiving a low fat diet but is associated with side effects.

  6. The effect of various drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in immobilized rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, H.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments related to the importance of functional disorders in the central nervous system in connection with stomach diseases were performed on Wistar rats. Assuming that severe mental strains may be triggering factors for such disorders, testing of the effects of different drugs on experimentally induced ulcers in these rats was done. The immobilization method described by Bonfils was used. Particular importance was placed on the sex related difference which appeared.

  7. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Ashok Kumar; Mohebali, Nooshin; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA. PMID:26251571

  8. Analytical and experimental study of flow phenomena in noncavitating rocket pump inducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.

    1981-01-01

    The flow processes in rocket pump inducers are summarized. The experimental investigations were carried out with air as the test medium. The major characteristics features of the rocket pump inducers are low flow coefficient (0.05 to 0.2) large stagger angle (70 deg to 85 deg) and high solidity blades of little or no camber. The investigations are concerned with the effect of viscosity not the effects of cavitation. Flow visualization, conventional and hot wire probe measurement inside and at the exit of the blade passage, were the analytical methods used. The experiment was carried out using four three and two bladed inducers with cambered blades. Both the passage and the exit flow were measured. The basic research and boundary layer investigation was carried out using a helical flat plate (of some dimensions as the inducer blades tested), and flat plate helical inducer (four bladed). Detailed mean and turbulence flow field inside the passage as well as the exit of the rotor were derived from these measurement. The boundary layer, endwall, and other passage data reveal extremely complex nature of the flow, with major effects of viscosity present across the entire passage. Several analyses were carried out to predict the flow field in inducers. These included an approximate analysis, the shear pumping analysis, and a numerical solution of exact viscous equations with approximate modeling for the viscous terms.

  9. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH): a real clinical problem or just an experimental phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Suzan, Erica; Pud, Dorit

    2015-03-01

    Although opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is mentioned as a potential cause of opioid dose escalation without adequate analgesia, true evidence in support of this notion is relatively limited. Most studies conducted in the context of acute and experimental pain, which seemingly demonstrated evidence for OIH, actually might have measured other phenomena such as acute opioid withdrawal or tolerance. OIH studies in patients with chronic pain have used various experimental pain models (such as cold pain tolerance or heat pain intensity). Therefore, the fact that they have yielded inconsistent results is hard to interpret. Thus far, with the exception of a few clinical case reports on OIH in patients with cancer pain and one prospective study in patients with chronic neuropathic pain, evidence for OIH in patients with chronic or cancer-related pain is lacking. Whether experimental pain models are necessary for establishing the clinical diagnosis of OIH, and which specific model is preferred, are yet to be determined. PMID:25128284

  10. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH): a real clinical problem or just an experimental phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Elon; Suzan, Erica; Pud, Dorit

    2015-03-01

    Although opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is mentioned as a potential cause of opioid dose escalation without adequate analgesia, true evidence in support of this notion is relatively limited. Most studies conducted in the context of acute and experimental pain, which seemingly demonstrated evidence for OIH, actually might have measured other phenomena such as acute opioid withdrawal or tolerance. OIH studies in patients with chronic pain have used various experimental pain models (such as cold pain tolerance or heat pain intensity). Therefore, the fact that they have yielded inconsistent results is hard to interpret. Thus far, with the exception of a few clinical case reports on OIH in patients with cancer pain and one prospective study in patients with chronic neuropathic pain, evidence for OIH in patients with chronic or cancer-related pain is lacking. Whether experimental pain models are necessary for establishing the clinical diagnosis of OIH, and which specific model is preferred, are yet to be determined.

  11. Radiological and histopathological evaluation of experimentally-induced periapical lesion in rats

    PubMed Central

    TEIXEIRA, Renata Cordeiro; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; ASSIS, Gerson Francisco; LAURIS, José Roberto Pereira; CESTARI, Tania Mary; RUBIRA-BULLEN, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated experimentally-induced periapical bone loss sites using digital radiographic and histopathologic parameters. Material and Methods Twenty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to coronal opening of their mandibular right first molars. They were radiographed at 2, 15 and 30 days after the operative procedure by two digital radiographic storage phosphor plates (Digora®). The images were analyzed by creating a region of interest at the periapical region of each tooth (ImageJ) and registering the corresponding pixel values. After the sacrifice, the specimens were submitted to microscopic analysis in order to confirm the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. Results There was significant statistically difference between the control and test sides in all the experimental periods regarding the pixel values (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05). Conclusions The microscopic analysis proved that a periapical disease development occurred during the experimental periods with an evolution from pulpal necrosis to periapical bone resorption. PMID:21922123

  12. The role of experimentally-induced subacromial pain on shoulder strength and throwing accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wassinger, Craig A; Sole, Gisela; Osborne, Hamish

    2012-10-01

    Shoulder injuries often comprise two separate yet related components, structural tissue damage and pain. The role of each of these components on shoulder function is difficult to ascertain. Experimental pain models allow the assessment of consequences of localized pain when applied to healthy individuals. By understanding the role of pain on shoulder function, clinicians will be able to more efficiently assess and treat shoulder injuries. The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of experimentally-induced sub-acromial pain on shoulder isokinetic rotational strength and throwing accuracy. This was a block counterbalanced, crossover, repeated measures study design utilizing 20 individuals without self-reported shoulder or cervical pathology. Shoulder function was measured with and without experimental pain injection (2 mL of 5% hypertonic saline) in the sub-acromial space. Functional tasks consisted of shoulder rotational strength utilizing isokinetic testing and throwing accuracy via the functional throwing performance index. The hypertonic saline induced moderate pain levels in all participants (4.3-5.1/10). Normalized shoulder internal (t = 3.76, p = 0.001) and external (t = 3.12, p = 0.006) rotation strength were both diminished in the painful condition compared to the pain free condition. Throwing accuracy was also reduced while the participants experienced pain (t = 3.99, p = 0.001). Moderate levels of experimental shoulder pain were sufficient to negatively influence shoulder strength and throwing accuracy in participants without shoulder pathology.

  13. Sex Differences in Experimentally Induced Colitis in Mice: a Role for Estrogens.

    PubMed

    Bábíčková, Janka; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Lengyelová, Eva; Bartoňová, Anastázie; Hodosy, Július; Gardlík, Roman; Celec, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Sex differences have been found in the incidence and progression of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The reported differences in observational studies are controversial, and the effects of sex hormones on the pathogenesis of IBD are not clear. The aim of this study was to analyze sex differences in the progression of experimentally induced colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in adult mice by adding 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) into drinking water. Male and female mice were used as intact, gonadectomized, and supplemented with either estradiol or testosterone. In comparison to males, female mice with induced colitis had significantly longer colon (p < 0.05), lower decrease in body weight (p < 0.001), and lower stool consistency score (p < 0.05). Histopathological analysis showed less inflammatory infiltrates (p < 0.001) and crypt damage (p < 0.001) in female mice. Female mice with colitis had also lower concentration of TNF-α in colon homogenates (p < 0.01). Supplementation with estradiol in ovariectomized mice ameliorated the severity of colitis. Female mice are partially protected against chemically induced colitis. This protection seems to be mediated by estradiol.

  14. Duration of Analgesia Induced by Acupuncture-Like TENS on Experimental Heat Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brochu, Marilyne; Dupuis-Michaud, Cynthia; Pagé, Catherine; Popovic, Draga; Simard, Marie-Eve

    2013-01-01

    Background. Acupuncture-like TENS (AL-TENS) is a treatment modality that can be used to temporarily reduce pain. However, there is no clear data in the literature regarding the specific duration of analgesia induced by AL-TENS. Objectives. To describe and quantify the duration and magnitude of AL-TENS analgesia on experimental heat pain in healthy subjects and verify if the duration or magnitude of analgesia induced by the AL-TENS was influenced by the duration of the application of the AL-TENS (15 versus 30 minutes). Methods. A repeated-measures, intrasubject randomized experimental design was used, where each participant was his/her own control. 22 healthy volunteers underwent heat pain stimulations with a contact thermode before (pretest) and after (posttest) AL-TENS application (15 and 30 minutes). Outcome measures included subjective pain during AL-TENS, duration, and magnitude of AL-TENS-induced analgesia. Results. Survival analysis showed that the median duration of AL-TENS analgesia was 10 minutes following the application of either 15 or 30 minutes of AL-TENS. The magnitude of analgesia following either application was comparable at all points in time (P values > 0.05) and ranged between −20% and −36% pain reduction. Conclusion. Only half of the participants still had heat-pain analgesia induced by the AL-TENS at 15 minutes postapplication. PMID:27335882

  15. Effect of ranitidine on healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, C G; Sangiah, S

    1993-07-01

    Thirty young ponies were examined endoscopically for evidence of gastric ulceration. Seven ponies had noninduced gastric ulcers present at the initial examination and were eliminated from the study. In an attempt to induce gastric ulcers experimentally, flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg of body weight, IM, q 8 h) was administered for 7 days to the 23 ponies with endoscopically normal gastric mucosa. During the 7 days of flunixin administration, 11 ponies developed gastric ulcers that were appropriate for study. The 11 ponies were randomly allotted to 2 groups. Group-A (n = 5) and group-B (n = 6) ponies received ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) and corn syrup, respectively, until ulcers healed or for a maximum of 40 days. General anesthesia was induced every 3 to 5 days for visual evaluation of ulcer healing by use of a video endoscope. The earliest complete healing of gastric lesions observed in a corn syrup-treated pony was at 17 days. At 40 days, 3 of 5 and 3 of 6 ponies of the ranitidine and corn syrup-treated groups, respectively, had healed ulcers. Results of this study indicate that: noninduced gastric ulcers may be common in young ponies, flunixin meglumine may be effective in inducing gastric ulcers for gastric healing studies in young ponies, and ranitidine (4.4 mg/kg, q 8 h) is not significantly effective in accelerating healing of experimentally induced gastric ulcers in ponies under conditions of this study. PMID:8368605

  16. Inflammation-induced pain sensitization in men and women: does sex matter in experimental endotoxemia?

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P < 0.001, condition effects), with more pronounced LPS-induced cytokine increases in women (P < 0.05, interaction effects). Although both rectal and pressure pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P < 0.05, condition effect), no sex differences in endotoxin-induced sensitization were observed. In summary, LPS-induced systemic immune activation leads to visceral and musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, irrespective of biological sex. These findings support the broad applicability of experimental endotoxin administration as a translational preclinical model of inflammation-induced pain sensitization in both sexes. PMID:26058036

  17. Inflammation-induced pain sensitization in men and women: does sex matter in experimental endotoxemia?

    PubMed

    Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven

    2015-10-01

    A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P < 0.001, condition effects), with more pronounced LPS-induced cytokine increases in women (P < 0.05, interaction effects). Although both rectal and pressure pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P < 0.05, condition effect), no sex differences in endotoxin-induced sensitization were observed. In summary, LPS-induced systemic immune activation leads to visceral and musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, irrespective of biological sex. These findings support the broad applicability of experimental endotoxin administration as a translational preclinical model of inflammation-induced pain sensitization in both sexes.

  18. Inflammation-induced pain sensitization in men and women: does sex matter in experimental endotoxemia?

    PubMed

    Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven

    2015-10-01

    A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P < 0.001, condition effects), with more pronounced LPS-induced cytokine increases in women (P < 0.05, interaction effects). Although both rectal and pressure pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P < 0.05, condition effect), no sex differences in endotoxin-induced sensitization were observed. In summary, LPS-induced systemic immune activation leads to visceral and musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, irrespective of biological sex. These findings support the broad applicability of experimental endotoxin administration as a translational preclinical model of inflammation-induced pain sensitization in both sexes. PMID:26058036

  19. [Differential diagnosis of viral diarrheas in calves].

    PubMed

    Svoboda, I; Rodák, L; Franz, J; Stĕpánek, J; Valícek, L

    1986-08-01

    There is a description of the enzymoimmunologic method (ELISA), which was used for demonstration of rotaviruses and coronaviruses in the samples of excrements of the calves suffering from diarrheas. It is shown by a comparison with the results obtained by electron microscopy that the ELISA method provides by up to 50% higher capture rate and the reaction is highly specific. The method can also be applied to a detection of human rotavirus in the children's stool.

  20. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered.

  1. Diagnostics of dairy and beef cattle diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Patricia Carey

    2012-11-01

    Calf diarrhea is a multifactorial disease related to a combination of host and pathogen factors. The most common pathogens found in diarrheic calves are cryptosporidium, rotavirus, coronavirus, Salmonella, attaching and effacing E coli and F5 (K99) Escherichia coli. Increased mortality and morbidity are often due to the presence of more than one pathogen. This article includes a discussion of key information to obtain a clinical history, the pathogens, pathology findings, and diagnostic methods.

  2. Intractable and dramatic diarrhea in liver transplantation recipient with vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor after split liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Haiqing, W; Jiayin, Y; Jian, Y; Lunan, Y

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea after liver transplantation is a common complication. Vasoactive intestinal peptide-producing tumor (VIPoma) is a rare cause of watery diarrhea; 80% of such tumors occur in the pancreas, but it is rare in liver. Hypersecretion of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide can stimulate intestinal water and electrolyte secretion, and patients with VIPoma present with watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dehydration. Here we report on a 50-year-old man who presented with a 7-month history of watery diarrhea. He had undergone an orthotopic split-liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma in November 2011. Two months after the liver transplantation, he presented with watery diarrhea, dehydration, and hypokalemia. Antibiotics, immunosuppressive drugs modification, antidiarrheal agents, antispasmodics, adsorbents, and fasting were alternately used to control the diarrhea, but his symptoms remained unchanged. A chromogranin examination, a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm, was positive in the third month of the diarrhea history and VIPoma was considered. Treatment with somatostatin immediately controlled the diarrhea, but the primary lesion could not be identified even after corresponding examinations were completed. In the ninth month of diarrhea, a 1 × 1-cm lesion was detected in the right liver by ultrasonography. Radiofrequency ablation was performed, and the diarrhea stopped. Seventeen months later, the chromogranin level decreased to normal and the patient was asymptomatic. Neither the recipient sharing the other liver portion nor the donor presented with any symptoms, so we wondered how the tumor occurred. It is possible that a small VIPoma lesion existed in the liver donor before the transplantation, and that the immunosuppressive drugs induced tumor development. PMID:25596962

  3. Anti-rotaviral effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract in piglets with rotavirus diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since rotavirus is one of the leading pathogens that cause severe gastroenteritis and represents a serious threat to human and animal health, researchers have been searching for cheap, safe, and effective anti-rotaviral drugs. There is a widespread of interest in using natural products as antiviral agents, and among them, licorice derived from Glycyrrhiza spp. has exerted antiviral properties against several viruses. In this study, anti-rotaviral efficacy of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) as an effective and cheaper remedy without side-effects was evaluated in colostrums-deprived piglets after induction of rotavirus diarrhea. Methods Colostrums-deprived piglets were inoculated with porcine rotavirus K85 (G5P[7]) strain. On the onset of diarrhea, piglets were treated with different concentration of GUE. To evaluate the antiviral efficacy of GUE, fecal consistency score, fecal virus shedding and histological changes of the small intestine, mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α), signaling molecules (p38 and JNK), and transcription factor (NFκB) in the small intestine and spleen were determined. Results Among the dosages (100-400 mg/ml) administrated to animals, 400 mg/ml of GUE cured diarrhea, and markedly improved small intestinal lesion score and fecal virus shedding. mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL8, IL10, IFN-β, IFN-γ and TNF-α), signaling molecules (p38 and JNK), and transcription factor (NFκB) in the small intestine and spleen were markedly increased in animals with RVA-induced diarrhea, but dose- dependently decreased in GUE treated animals after RVA-induced diarrhea. Conclusions GUE cures rotaviral enteritis by coordinating antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Therapy of this herbal medicine can be a viable medication for curing rotaviral enteritis in animals and humans. PMID:23244491

  4. Consuming transgenic goats' milk containing the antimicrobial protein lysozyme helps resolve diarrhea in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Garas Klobas, Lydia C; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea.

  5. Consuming Transgenic Goats' Milk Containing the Antimicrobial Protein Lysozyme Helps Resolve Diarrhea in Young Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Caitlin A.; Garas Klobas, Lydia C.; Maga, Elizabeth A.; Murray, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is a significant problem in many developing countries and E. coli is a main causative agent of diarrhea in young children. Lysozyme is an antimicrobial protein highly expressed in human milk, but not ruminant milk, and is thought to help protect breastfeeding children against diarrheal diseases. We hypothesized that consumption of milk from transgenic goats which produce human lysozyme (hLZ-milk) in their milk would accelerate recovery from bacterial-induced diarrhea. Young pigs were used as a model for children and infected with enterotoxigenic E. coli. Once clinical signs of diarrhea developed, pigs were fed hLZ-milk or non-transgenic control goat milk three times a day for two days. Clinical observations and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed. Animals were euthanized and samples collected to assess differences in histology, cytokine expression and bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph node. Pigs consuming hLZ-milk recovered from clinical signs of infection faster than pigs consuming control milk, with significantly improved fecal consistency (p = 0.0190) and activity level (p = 0.0350). The CBC analysis showed circulating monocytes (p = 0.0413), neutrophils (p = 0.0219), and lymphocytes (p = 0.0222) returned faster to pre-infection proportions in hLZ-milk fed pigs, while control-fed pigs had significantly higher hematocrit (p = 0.027), indicating continuing dehydration. In the ileum, pigs fed hLZ-milk had significantly lower expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 (p = 0.0271), longer intestinal villi (p<0.0001), deeper crypts (p = 0.0053), and a thinner lamina propria (p = 0.0004). These data demonstrate that consumption of hLZ-milk helped pigs recover from infection faster, making hLZ-milk an effective treatment of E. coli-induced diarrhea. PMID:23516474

  6. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoshan; Liu, Tong; Wang, Xiaohong; Zheng, Xin; Wang, Hong; Ma, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Guchang capsule (GC) is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells. PMID:27313642

  7. Experimental investigations on flow induced vibration of an externally excited flexible plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Ashish; Darpe, Ashish K.; Singh, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Flow-induced vibration of a harmonically actuated flexible plate in the wake of an upstream bluff body is experimentally investigated. The experiments are performed in an open-ended wind tunnel. A flexible plate trailing a bluff body is under fluid induced excitation due to the flowing fluid. The additional external excitation to the trailing plate is applied using an electro-magnetic exciter. The frequency and amplitude of the external harmonic excitation are selected as variable parameters in the experiments and their effect on the plate vibration and is investigated. To know the nature of acoustic pressure wave generated from the vibrating system, near-field acoustic pressure is also measured. A laser vibrometer, a pressure microphone and a high-speed camera are employed to measure the plate vibration, pressure signal, and instantaneous images of the plate motion respectively. The results obtained indicate that the dynamics of the plate is influenced by both the flow-induced excitation and external harmonic excitation. When frequency of the two excitations is close enough, a large vibration level and a high tonal sound pressure are observed. At higher amplitude of external excitation, the frequency component corresponding to the flow-induced excitation is found to reduce significantly in the frequency spectrum of the vibration signal. It is observed that, for certain range of excitation frequency, the plate vibration first reduces, reaches a minimum value and then increases with increase in the level of external excitation. A fair qualitative agreement of the experimental results with numerical simulation result of the past study has been noted. In addition to the experiments, the role of phase difference between the flow-induced excitation generated from the front obstacle and externally applied harmonic excitation is investigated through numerical simulations. The result obtained reveals that the final steady state vibration of the coupled system is

  8. Experimental rat model for alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Shunichiro; Nagoya, Satoshi; Tateda, Kenji; Katada, Ryuichi; Mizuo, Keisuke; Watanabe, Satoshi; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is observed in alcohol abusers and patients with alcoholic fatty liver disease. It has been reported that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signalling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported a corticosteroid-induced ONFH rat model, and suggested that TLR4 signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of ONFH. Thus, it is thought that the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced ONFH is probably similar to that of corticosteroid-induced ONFH. The aim of this study was to develop a new animal model for alcohol-induced ONFH and to evaluate the relationship between the pro-inflammatory response via TLRs and the development of ONFH in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a Lieber–DeCarli liquid diet containing 5% ethanol (experimental group) or dextran (control group) for 1–24 weeks. Histopathological and biochemical analyses were performed. Feeding the ethanol-containing liquid diet resulted in the development of ONFH with hepatic steatosis, hepatic dysfunction and hyperlipidaemia, whereas feeding the dextran-containing diet did not cause ONFH. However, we could not recognize any relationship between the pro-inflammatory response via TLR4 and the development of alcohol-induced ONFH. Thus in this study we have developed a new rat model for alcohol-induced ONFH based on the feeding of an ethanol liquid diet. ONFH was observed within seven days from the start of feeding with 5% ethanol-containing liquid diet. Although this was linked to hepatic steatosis, a TLR4 association was not a feature of this model. PMID:24020403

  9. Diarrhea as a cause and an effect of malnutrition: diarrhea prevents catch-up growth and malnutrition increases diarrhea frequency and duration.

    PubMed

    Guerrant, R L; Schorling, J B; McAuliffe, J F; de Souza, M A

    1992-07-01

    Diarrhea and malnutrition, alone or together, constitute major causes of morbidity and mortality among children throughout the tropical world. Data from northeast Brazil, taken with numerous other studies, clearly show that diarrhea is both a cause and an effect of malnutrition. Diarrheal illnesses impair weight as well as height gains, with the greatest effects being seen with recurrent illnesses, which reduce the critical catch-up growth that otherwise occurs after diarrheal illnesses or severe malnutrition. Malnutrition (whether assessed by impaired weight or height for age) leads to increased frequencies and durations of diarrheal illnesses, with a 37% increase in frequency and a 73% increase in duration accounting for a doubling of the diarrhea burden (days of diarrhea) in malnourished children. A multi-pronged approach focusing on those with prolonged diarrhea and severe malnutrition is suggested.

  10. Effect of experimentally induced low back pain on postural sway with breathing.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle; Coppieters, Michel W; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-09-01

    Although breathing perturbs balance, in healthy individuals little sway is detected in ground reaction forces because small movements of the spine and lower limbs compensate for the postural disturbance. When people have chronic low back pain (LBP), sway at the ground is increased, possibly as a result of reduced compensatory motion of the trunk. The aim of this study was to determine whether postural compensation for breathing is reduced during experimentally induced pain. Subjects stood on a force plate with eyes open, eyes closed, and while breathing with hypercapnoea before and after injection of hypertonic saline into the right lumbar longissimus muscle to induce LBP. Motion of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and lower limbs was measured with four inclinometers fixed over bony landmarks. During experimental pain, motion of the trunk in association with breathing was reduced. However, despite this reduction in motion, there was no increase in postural sway with breathing. These data suggest that increased body sway with breathing in people with chronic LBP is not simply because of reduced trunk movement, but instead, indicates changes in coordination by the central nervous system that are not replicated by experimental nociceptor stimulation.

  11. The effect of experimentally induced sedentariness on mood and psychobiological responses to mental stress

    PubMed Central

    Endrighi, Romano; Steptoe, Andrew; Hamer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a link between sedentary behaviours and depressive symptoms. Mechanisms underlying this relationship are not understood, but inflammatory processes may be involved. Autonomic and inflammatory responses to stress may be heightened in sedentary individuals contributing to risk, but no study has experimentally investigated this. Aims To examine the effect of sedentary time on mood and stress responses using an experimental design. Method Forty-three individuals were assigned to a free-living sedentary condition and to a control condition (usual activity) in a cross-over, randomised fashion and were tested in a psychophysiology laboratory after spending 2 weeks in each condition. Participants completed mood questionnaires (General Health Questionnaire and Profile of Mood States) and wore a motion sensor for 4 weeks. Results Sedentary time increased by an average of 32 min/day (P = 0.01) during the experimental condition compared with control. Being sedentary resulted in increases in negative mood independent of changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (ΔGHQ = 6.23, ΔPOMS = 2.80). Mood disturbances were associated with greater stress-induced inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses (β = 0.37). Conclusions Two weeks of exposure to greater free-living sedentary time resulted in mood disturbances independent of reduction in physical activity. Stress-induced IL-6 responses were associated with changes in mood. PMID:26294364

  12. Experimental study to explore the 8Be-induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan horse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Qun-Gang; Li, Cheng-Bo; Zhou, Shu-Hua; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Fu, Yuan-Yong; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Zhou, Jing; Meng, Qiu-Ying; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2016-03-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for 8Be induced astrophysical reactions, the 8Be=(8Be+n ) cluster structure has been studied via the Trojan horse method. For the first time a 8Be nucleus having an ultrashort lifetime is studied by the Trojan horse method and a 9Be nucleus in the ground state is used for this purpose. The 9Be nucleus is assumed to have a (8Be+n ) cluster structure and used as a Trojan horse nucleus. The 8Be nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual 8Be+d →α +6Li reaction via the 3-body reaction 8Be+d →α +6Li+n . The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside 9Be has been reconstructed. The agreement between the experimental momentum distribution and the theoretical one indicates that a (8Be+n ) cluster structure inside 9Be is very likely. Therefore, the experimental study of 8Be induced reactions, for example, the measurement of the 8Be+α →12C reaction proceeding through the Hoyle state, is possible.

  13. Change in serum ferritin concentration in experimentally induced anemia of chronic inflammation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chikazawa, Seishiro; Nakazawa, Takafumi; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Kanai, Kazutaka; Ito, Naoyuki; Orino, Koichi; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2013-11-01

    In veterinary medicine, hyperferritinemia is often observed in dogs with various diseases (e.g., histiocytic sarcoma and immune-mediated hemolytic anemia) without evidence of iron overload. The mechanism underlying hyperferritinemia development is not well understood. Anemia caused by inflammation is termed as anemia of chronic disease (ACD), and experimentally induced ACD is known to cause slight hyperferritinemia. However, almost all these studies were based on short-term acute inflammation. Hepcidin, a protein mainly produced by hepatocytes, is thought to be a key regulator in iron release from reticuloendothelial cells (RECs), and its expression is related to ACD. We hypothesized that in the case of long-term ACD, iron deposition in RECs increases through hepcidin, causing a diachronic increase in serum ferritin levels. In the present study, we used a canine model with repeated subcutaneous administration of turpentine oil every 3 days over a period of 42 days (15 injections) and induced long-term inflammatory conditions; furthermore, we evaluated the change in serum ferritin concentration. Hypoproliferative anemia, bone marrow iron deposition and hypoferremia, which are characteristic of ACD, were observed on administering the turpentine injections. Hepatic iron content, hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression and serum ferritin concentration increased during the early period after turpentine injection, but returned to normal levels later. These results show that experimentally induced long-term ACD caused hypoproliferative anemia without sustained increase in hepcidin expression and did not cause systemic iron overload. Thus, chronic inflammation may not contribute greatly to increase in hyperferritinemia.

  14. Induced oral breathing and craniocervical postural relations: an experimental study in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Colombo, Anna; Turci, Michela; Grassi, GianPiero; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2004-01-01

    The influence of induced oral breathing on head and craniocervical posture was studied in ten healthy young adults. After a baseline recording, oral respiration was induced by using a swimmer's type nose clip. The subjects were filmed 15 and 90 minutes after wearing the nose clip, immediately and 15 minutes after taking it off. The angles C7-tragion versus the true vertical, nasion-tragion versus the vertical, and C7-tragion-nasion were calculated, and the difference between the baseline and the four experimental recordings was computed. During the experiment, head and neck positions were modified in all subjects, but with a large variability for both the direction (flexion or extension) and the extent of the modification. Overall, the mean differences were minimal with large standard deviations. Differences between baseline and the experimental recordings were significant only for the C7-tragion versus the vertical angle (analysis of variance, p=0.0083). In conclusion, induced oral respiration may have a significant role in the alteration of head and craniocervical posture, but the effect was highly variable.

  15. Scaling law for bubbles induced by different external sources: theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gong, S W; Ohl, S W; Klaseboer, E; Khoo, B C

    2010-05-01

    The scaling relations for bubbles induced by different external sources are investigated based on a modified Rayleigh model and experimental observations. The equations derived from the modified Rayleigh model are presented to describe the collapse of bubbles induced by the different external sources such as electrical spark, laser, and underwater explosion. A scaling law is then formulated to establish the scaling relations between the different types of bubbles. The scaling law reveals the fact that the characteristic length scale factor differs from the characteristic time scale factor for the different types of bubbles. It is then validated by our experimental observations of the spark- and laser-generated bubbles as well as the bubbles induced by underwater explosions from previous published reports. With the present scaling law, studies on spark- or laser-generated bubbles as well as their applications (for example, in industrial or biomedical related applications) can benefit from the experiences and information built up over the years in underwater explosion bubbles. Conversely, it is possible to substitute a spark- or laser-generated bubble for an underwater explosion bubble in the study of a large-scale and complex physical problem.

  16. [Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea: diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Ulbricht, Korinna; Layer, Peter; Andresen, Viola

    2016-09-01

    Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available. Eluxadolin presents a new therapeutic option. It can alleviate abdominal pain and diarrhea by modulation of opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system. Additional approaches in intractable irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) include 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, the antibiotic Rifaximin as well as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants. Specific diets such as the low-FODMAP diet can also relieve symptoms in IBS. PMID:27642742

  17. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  18. Current concepts: management of diarrhea in acute care.

    PubMed

    Fruto, L V

    1994-09-01

    Diarrhea is common in the acute care setting, particularly among critically ill patients. Factors that cause diarrhea are usually multifactorial; some of the most common include medications, hyperosmolar or rapidly delivered tube feedings, atrophy of intestinal epithelium or ischemic bowel, short bowel syndrome, pseudomembranous colitis, infection (Salmonella and Shigella species), opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and severe hypoproteinemia. This article reviews different types and mechanisms of diarrhea commonly encountered in acute care. It includes current concepts of managing diarrhea, such as calculation of stool osmotic gap, identification of medications that cause diarrhea, modification of enteral therapy, and the use of antisecretory agents. Nursing responsibilities and contributions in the collaborative assessment and clinical management of diarrhea are also explored. PMID:7704125

  19. Paricalcitol may improve oxidative DNA damage on experimental amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity model.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Gulay; Basbugan, Yildiray; Ari, Elif; Erten, Remzi; Bektas, Havva; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Bayram, Irfan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of paricalcitol on experimental amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity model in rats. Wistar albino rats (n = 32) were allocated into four equal groups of eight each, the control (Group C), paricalcitol (Group P), amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity (Group A), and paricalcitol-treated amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity (Group A + P) groups. Paricalcitol was given intra-peritoneally at a dose of 0.4 μg/kg/d for 5 consecutive days prior to induction of amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity. Intra-peritoneal amikacin (1.2 g/kg) was used to induce nephrotoxicity at day 4. Renal function parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine ratio), kidney histology, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunoexpression were determined. Group A + P had lower mean fractional sodium excretion (p < 0.001) as well as higher creatinine clearance (p = 0.026) than the amikacin group (Group A). Renal tissue malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.035) and serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine ratio (8-OHdG/dG ratio) (p < 0.001) were significantly lower; superoxide dismutase (p = 0.024) and glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.007) activities of renal tissue were significantly higher in group A + P than in group A. The mean scores of tubular necrosis (p = 0.024), proteinaceous casts (p = 0.038), medullary congestion (p = 0.035), and VEGF immunoexpression (p = 0.018) were also lower in group A + P when compared with group A. This study demonstrates the protective effect of paricalcitol in the prevention of amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in an experimental model. Furthermore, it is the first study to demonstrate that paricalcitol improves oxidative DNA damage in an experimental acute kidney injury model.

  20. An enzyme-linked immuno focus assay for rapid detection and enumeration, and a newborn mouse model for human non-polio enteroviruses associated with acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Rao, C Durga; Reddy, Harikrishna; Naidu, Jagadish R; Raghavendra, A; Radhika, N S; Karande, Anjali

    2015-11-01

    We have recently reported significant association of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with acute and persistent diarrhea (18-21% of total diarrheal cases), and non-diarrheal Increased Frequency of Bowel Movements (IFoBM-ND) (about 29% of the NPEV infections) in children and that the NPEV-associated diarrhea was as significant as rotavirus diarrhea. However, their diarrhea-causing potential is yet to be demonstrated in an animal model system. Since the determination of virus titers by the traditional plaque assay takes 4-7 days, there is a need for development of a rapid method for virus titer determination to facilitate active clinical research on enterovirus-associated diarrhea. The goal of this study is to develop a cell-based rapid detection and enumeration method and to demonstrate the diarrhea-inducing potential of purified and characterized non-polio enteroviruses, which were isolated from diarrheic children. Here we describe generation of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against purified strains belonging to different serotypes, and development of an enzyme-linked immuno focus assay (ELIFA) for detection and enumeration of live NPEV particles in clinical and purified virus samples, and a newborn mouse model for NPEV diarrhea. Plaque-purified NPVEs, belonging to different serotypes, isolated from children with diarrhea, were grown in cell culture and purified by isopycnic CsCl density gradient centrifugation. By ELIFA, NPEVs could be detected and enumerated within 12h post-infection. Our results demonstrated that Coxsackievirus B1 (CVB1) and CVB5 strains, isolated from diarrheic children, induced severe diarrhea in orally-inoculated 9-12 day-old mouse pups, fulfilling Koch's postulates. The methods described here would facilitate studies on NPEV-associated gastrointestinal disease.

  1. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  2. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the specially designed form. Results: 116 children with rotavirus diarrhea are included in the study. The majority boys (74.4%) and children aged 0 – 12 months (82.75%). Mean age of children in the study was 16.38 months. Almost every third child in the study was hypotrophic (29.2%). More than half of the infants (55.2%) were on mixed food, somewhat more than every third was breast feeding (36.45%), and every twelfth (8.33%) was on artificial milk (animal or formula). Apart from diarrhea, present in all patients, vomiting (97.41%) and fever (43.96%) were characteristics of the clinical presentation of the diarrhea. Two thirds of the children had mild grade dehydration (70.7%). All patients recovered with no sequels. Conclusion: Rotavirus continues to be responsible for a significant portion of acute diarrhea in Kosovo. Clinical features, epidemiological data and the agglutination test are safe enough to establish the diagnosis. Treated correctly rotavirus diarrhea has a favorable outcome. PMID:25568634

  3. Persistent diarrhea in northeast Brazil: etiologies and interactions with malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Lima, A A; Fang, G; Schorling, J B; de Albuquerque, L; McAuliffe, J F; Mota, S; Leite, R; Guerrant, R L

    1992-09-01

    With the improved control of acute diarrheal illness mortality with oral rehydration therapy, persistent diarrhea is now emerging as a major cause of childhood mortality in tropical developing areas like the impoverished populations in Brazil's Northeast. "Graveyard surveillance" in the rural community of Guaiuba in northeastern Brazil revealed fully half of the 70% diarrhea mortality was due to persistent diarrheal illnesses. Furthermore, 11% of 14 or more diarrheal illnesses per child per year in an urban slum in Fortaleza persisted beyond 14 days, a definition that clearly identified the high risk children for heavy diarrhea burdens. Not only did heavy diarrhea burdens ablate the key "catch-up" growth seen in severely malnourished children and in children following previous diarrheal illnesses, but malnutrition significantly predisposed children to a greater incidence and duration of diarrhea as well as a greater incidence of persistent diarrhea. Etiologic studies of 37 children presenting with persistent diarrhea to Hospital das Clinicas in Fortaleza revealed that Cryptosporidium (in 13%) and enteroadherent E. coli (36% with aggregative, 29% with diffuse and 13% with localized adherence to HEp-2 cells) were the predominant potential pathogens found in the stool or upper small bowel. These findings suggest that persistent diarrhea is emerging as an important health problem in Brazil's Northeast, that it identifies a high risk child for heavy diarrhea burdens, that important interactions occur with malnutrition and that Cryptosporidium and enteroadherent E. coli warrant further study as potential etiologies of this major cause of morbidity and mortality.

  4. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  5. A combined experimental and numerical investigation of roughness induced supersonic boundary layer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunfei; Liu, Wei; Xu, Dan; Gang, Dundian; Yi, Shihe

    2016-01-01

    The effect of surface roughness on boundary layer transition is of great importance to hypersonic vehicles. In this paper, both experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate the laminar-turbulent transition of a Mach 3 flat-plate boundary layer induced by isolated roughness element. Good agreements are achieved between experimental data and high-order numerical simulations. It is observed that, with increasing height of roughness, the transition tends to move forward. Two different types of transition mechanisms are found according to the height of the roughness elements. For the smallest roughness height of h=1 mm, the shear layer instability in the wake region appears to be the leading mechanism for transition to turbulence. For two larger roughness elements of h=2 mm and h=4 mm, strong unsteadiness is developed from the upstream separation zone and transition is immediately accomplished, which indicates that the absolute instability in upstream separation zone dominates the transition.

  6. Experimental evaluation of flow-induced noise in level flight of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingkai; Zhong, Siyang; Huang, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The experimental method employed in an anechoic wind tunnel to characterize flow-induced noise of the pigeon (Columba livia) during level flight is described in this letter. A live pigeon was managed to maintain a steady level flight at the wind tunnel test flow of 15 m/s. A microphone array was fabricated, and the conventional beamforming method was then adopted to yield the corresponding narrowband acoustic images and broadband sound pressure spectral results. The results justified the experimental method developed in this work. It can be seen that the flight noise of the pigeon is mostly from the wing tips. In addition, the spectral waveform of the pigeon flight suggests a slope of -20 dB/dec between 500 Hz and 5 kHz.

  7. Experimental evaluation of flow-induced noise in level flight of the pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingkai; Zhong, Siyang; Huang, Xun

    2013-07-01

    The experimental method employed in an anechoic wind tunnel to characterize flow-induced noise of the pigeon (Columba livia) during level flight is described in this letter. A live pigeon was managed to maintain a steady level flight at the wind tunnel test flow of 15 m/s. A microphone array was fabricated, and the conventional beamforming method was then adopted to yield the corresponding narrowband acoustic images and broadband sound pressure spectral results. The results justified the experimental method developed in this work. It can be seen that the flight noise of the pigeon is mostly from the wing tips. In addition, the spectral waveform of the pigeon flight suggests a slope of -20 dB/dec between 500 Hz and 5 kHz. PMID:23862907

  8. Catechin averts experimental diabetes mellitus-induced vascular endothelial structural and functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an induction of vascular endothelial dysfunction (VED), an initial event that could lead to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Previous studies showed that catechin, a key component of green tea, possesses vascular beneficial effects. We investigated the effect of catechin hydrate in diabetes mellitus-induced experimental vascular endothelial abnormalities (VEA). Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg, i.p., once) administration to rats produced diabetes mellitus, which subsequently induced VEA in 8 weeks by markedly attenuating acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aortic ring preparation, decreasing aortic and serum nitrite/nitrate concentrations and impairing aortic endothelial integrity. These abnormalities in diabetic rats were accompanied with elevated aortic superoxide anion generation and serum lipid peroxidation in addition to hyperglycemia. Catechin hydrate treatment (50 mg/kg/day p.o., 3 weeks) markedly prevented diabetes mellitus-induced VEA and vascular oxidative stress. Intriguingly, in vitro incubation of L-NAME (100 μM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, or Wortmannin (100 nM), a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), markedly prevented catechin hydrate-induced improvement in acetylcholine-provoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in the diabetic rat aorta. Moreover, catechin hydrate treatment considerably reduced the elevated level of serum glucose in diabetic rats. In conclusion, catechin hydrate treatment prevents diabetes mellitus-induced VED through the activation of endothelial PI3K signal and subsequent activation of eNOS and generation of nitric oxide. In addition, reduction in high glucose, vascular oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation might additionally contribute to catechin hydrate-associated prevention of diabetic VEA. PMID:24048981

  9. Boehmeria nivea Attenuates the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Ju; Sung, Mi Jeong; Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Myung Sunny; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2014-01-01

    We examined the therapeutic effect of an ethanol extract derived from Boehmeria nivea (Linn.) Gaudich in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Treatment with 70% ethanol extract derived from B. nivea (EBN) at a dose of 100, 200, or 500 mg/(kg·d) improved colon shortening, body weight, the disease activity index (DAI), and histopathological score of DSS-induced colitis mice. DSS significantly increased the levels of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 in colon tissue relative to that of the untreated control group. EBN administered at 100, 200, or 500 mg/(kg·d) reduced COX-2 levels in the DSS-treated mice. In addition, EBN decreased the DSS-induced secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Taken together, these data suggest that B. nivea extract is effective in preventing colitis. PMID:25045208

  10. Experimental plan for the investigation of thermally-induced ventilation in atria

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, S.K.; Young, M.F.; Pierson, R.E.

    1981-09-09

    A detailed and logical work plan is outlined for determining if current atrium designs are capable, and to what extent, of thermally inducing ventilation in atria. This passive cooling technique could displace costly refrigerated cooling, ventilation fan energy, and auxiliary space heating. The principal area of interest is for thermally-induced ventilation cooling in commercial and multi-residential buildings. The present work proposes ten test sites for detailed experimental investigation. Six test sites are recommended for detailed quantitative measurements while four are recommended for qualitative examination. These test sites include several atrium designs and span several US climate zones. Measurements planned include: (1) ambient conditions of wind, temperature, humidity and solar radiation; (2) atrium conditions of air flow rates, heat transfer rates, temperature, humidity, internal heat generation, infiltration and HVAC status. A detailed cost plan and test schedule are presented in this work. An optional costing procedure is presented which lists anticipated cost per site rather than a total project cost.

  11. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of {alpha}-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanne, A.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Szucs, Z.

    2005-05-24

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E{alpha}=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi({alpha},2n)211At, 209Bi({alpha},3n)210At, 209Bi({alpha},x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  12. Experimental characterization and mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades within an ad hoc FSO network.

    PubMed

    Perez, Joaquin; Zvanovec, Stanislav; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O

    2014-02-10

    Optical beams propagating through the turbulent atmospheric channel suffer from both the attenuation and phase distortion. Since future wireless networks are envisaged to be deployed in the ad hoc mesh topology, this paper presents the experimental laboratory characterization of mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades for two ad hoc scenarios. Results from measurements of the thermal structure constant along the propagation channels, changes of the coherence lengths for different turbulence regimes and the eye diagrams for partially correlated turbulences in free space optical channels are discussed. Based on these results future deployment of optical ad hoc networks can be more straightforwardly planned.

  13. Experimental investigation of the systematic error on photomechanic methods induced by camera self-heating.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qinwei; Ma, Shaopeng

    2013-03-25

    The systematic error for photomechanic methods caused by self-heating induced image expansion when using a digital camera was systematically studied, and a new physical model to explain the mechanism has been proposed and verified. The experimental results showed that the thermal expansion of the camera outer case and lens mount, instead of mechanical components within the camera, were the main reason for image expansion. The corresponding systematic error for both image analysis and fringe analysis based photomechanic methods were analyzed and measured, then error compensation techniques were proposed and verified.

  14. Laser-induced damage in dielectrics with nanosecond to subpicosecond pulses. I. Experimental. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-12-01

    The authors report extensive laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics at 1053 and 526 mm for pulse durations, {tau}, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated {tau}{sup 1/2} scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for {tau}{le}10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for {tau}>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in good agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results.

  15. Theoretical and experimental optical studies of cholesteric liquid crystal films with thermally induced pitch gradients.

    PubMed

    Zografopoulos, Dimitrios C; Kriezis, Emmanouil E; Mitov, Michel; Binet, Corinne

    2006-06-01

    The reflection properties of cholesteric films with thermally induced pitch gradients are theoretically and experimentally studied. It is shown that the optical behavior of such films corresponds to the averaged contribution of a number of stochastic pitch variation profiles, due to the transversal and longitudinal nonuniformities that develop in the helical structure of such samples. Depending on the annealing time, both narrow-band and broadband behavior can be selectively achieved. The influence of the pitch profile gradient on the broadband reflection performance of cholesteric samples is theoretically analyzed, and a multi-slab structure for achieving optimum efficiency is proposed.

  16. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats ("EAE" group). 2- "N. sativa + EAE" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- "EAE + N. sativa" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE.

  17. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats (“EAE” group). 2- “N. sativa + EAE” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- “EAE + N. sativa” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE. PMID:26261504

  18. Ameliorative potential of fluoxetine/raloxifene combination on experimentally induced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kabel, Ahmed M; Elkhoely, Abeer A

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common types of malignancies in females worldwide. Targeting the estrogen receptors alone with raloxifene (RAL) reduces the incidence of estrogen receptor positive tumors. Fluoxetine (FLX) is one of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors that was proven to have anticancer properties. Our aim was to detect the effects of RAL/FLX combination on experimentally induced breast cancer. Eighty female Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: 7,12-Dimethyl Benzanthracene (DMBA) induced breast cancer group, DMBA+RAL, DMBA+FLX and DMBA+RAL+FLX. Tumor volume, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) were determined in the tumor tissues. Parts of the tumor were subjected to histopathological examination. RAL or FLX alone or in combination induced significant increase in tumor CAT and SOD with significant decrease in tumor volume, tissue MDA, TNF-α, IL-6 and TGF-β1 and alleviated the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes compared to DMBA group. In conclusion, RAL/FLX combination had a better effect than each of RAL or FLX alone against DMBA-induced breast cancer in rats which may represent a new therapeutic modality for management of breast cancer. PMID:26881735

  19. Bromocriptine induces parapoptosis as the main type of cell death responsible for experimental pituitary tumor shrinkage

    SciTech Connect

    Palmeri, Claudia Mariela Petiti, Juan Pablo; Valle Sosa, Liliana del; Gutierrez, Silvina; Paul, Ana Lucia de; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Torres, Alicia Ines

    2009-10-01

    Bromocriptine (Bc) produces pituitary tumoral mass regression which induces the cellular death that was classically described as apoptosis. However, recent works have related that other mechanisms of cell death could also be involved in the maintenance of physiological and pathological pituitary homeostasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the different types of cell death in the involution induced by Bc in experimental rat pituitary tumors. The current study demonstrated that Bc induced an effective regression of estrogen induced pituitary tumors by a mechanism identified as parapoptosis. This alternative cell death was ultrastructurally recognized by extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and an increased cell electron density, represented around 25% of the total pituitary cells counted. Furthermore, the results obtained from biochemical assays did not correspond to the criteria of apoptosis or necrosis. We also investigated the participation of p38, ERK1/2 and PKC{delta} in the parapoptotic pathway. An important observation was the significant increase in phosphorylated forms of these MAPKs, the holoenzyme and catalytic fragments of PKC{delta} in nuclear fractions after Bc administration compared to control and estrogen treated rats. Furthermore, the immunolocalization at ultrastructural level of these kinases showed a similar distribution pattern, with a prevalent localization at nuclear level in lactotrophs from Bc treated rats. In summary, we determined that parapoptosis is the predominant cell death type involved in the regression of pituitary tumors in response to Bc treatment, and may cause the activation of PKC{delta}, ERK1/2 and p38.

  20. The Effects of Experimentally Induced Low Back Pain on Spine Rotational Stiffness and Local Dynamic Stability.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gwyneth B; Mavor, Matthew; Brown, Stephen H M; Graham, Ryan B

    2015-09-01

    Local dynamic stability, quantified using the maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponent (λ max), and the muscular contributions to spine rotational stiffness can provide pertinent information regarding the neuromuscular control of the spine during movement tasks. The primary goal of the present study was to assess if experimental capsaicin-induced low back pain (LBP) affects spine stability and the neuromuscular control of repetitive trunk movements in a group of healthy participants with no history of LBP. Fourteen healthy males were recruited for this investigation. Each participant was asked to complete three trials (baseline, in pain, and recovery) of 35 cycles of a repetitive trunk flexion/extension task at a rate of 0.25 Hz. Local dynamic stability and the muscular contributions to lumbar spine rotational stiffness were significantly impaired during the LBP trial compared to the baseline trial (p < 0.05); however, there was a trend for these measures to recover after a 1 h rest. This study provides evidence that capsaicin can effectively induce LBP, thereby altering spine rotational stiffness and local dynamic stability. Future research should directly compare the effects capsaicin-induced LBP and intramuscular/intraligamentous induced LBP on these same variables.

  1. A proposal for the experimental detection of CSL induced random walk

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Sayantani; Motwani, Bhawna; Singh, Tejinder P.; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) is one possible explanation for dynamically induced collapse of the wave-function during a quantum measurement. The collapse is mediated by a stochastic non-linear modification of the Schrödinger equation. A consequence of the CSL mechanism is an extremely tiny violation of energy-momentum conservation, which can, in principle, be detected in the laboratory via the random diffusion of a particle induced by the stochastic collapse mechanism. In a paper in 2003, Collett and Pearle investigated the translational CSL diffusion of a sphere, and the rotational CSL diffusion of a disc, and showed that this effect dominates over the ambient environmental noise at low temperatures and extremely low pressures (about ten-thousandth of a pico-Torr). In the present paper, we revisit their analysis and argue that this stringent condition on pressure can be relaxed, and that the CSL effect can be seen at the pressure of about a pico-Torr. A similar analysis is provided for diffusion produced by gravity-induced decoherence, where the effect is typically much weaker than CSL. We also discuss the CSL induced random displacement of a quantum oscillator. Lastly, we propose possible experimental set-ups justifying that CSL diffusion is indeed measurable with the current technology. PMID:25563619

  2. Hypolipidemic Effect of Celastrus paniculatus in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, K.; Maheshwari, V. L.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding the animals with high fat diet. Oral administration of methanolic seed extract (50%) of Celastrus paniculatus at the optimized dose of 65 mg/kg body weight, substantially reduced the plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol in comparison with induced hypercholesterolemic animal group and the results were comparable with the standard hypocholesterolemic drug and almost similar to the control group. Atherogenic index and liver weight of treated animals also showed significant decrease compared to the hypercholesterolemic animals. It substantially increased the HDL cholesterol level as compared to control group. A significant increase in the activities of lipoprotein lipase and plasma LCAT enhanced hepatic bile acid synthesis and thereby, increased degradation of cholesterol to neutral sterols. Furthermore, the activities of HMG-CoA reductase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase were significantly reduced. Histological studies showed less cholesterol deposits in the aorta of animals fed with seed extract of C. paniculatus compared to the induced hypercholesterolemic animals not given C. paniculatus supplement. PMID:21966115

  3. A proposal for the experimental detection of CSL induced random walk.

    PubMed

    Bera, Sayantani; Motwani, Bhawna; Singh, Tejinder P; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) is one possible explanation for dynamically induced collapse of the wave-function during a quantum measurement. The collapse is mediated by a stochastic non-linear modification of the Schrödinger equation. A consequence of the CSL mechanism is an extremely tiny violation of energy-momentum conservation, which can, in principle, be detected in the laboratory via the random diffusion of a particle induced by the stochastic collapse mechanism. In a paper in 2003, Collett and Pearle investigated the translational CSL diffusion of a sphere, and the rotational CSL diffusion of a disc, and showed that this effect dominates over the ambient environmental noise at low temperatures and extremely low pressures (about ten-thousandth of a pico-Torr). In the present paper, we revisit their analysis and argue that this stringent condition on pressure can be relaxed, and that the CSL effect can be seen at the pressure of about a pico-Torr. A similar analysis is provided for diffusion produced by gravity-induced decoherence, where the effect is typically much weaker than CSL. We also discuss the CSL induced random displacement of a quantum oscillator. Lastly, we propose possible experimental set-ups justifying that CSL diffusion is indeed measurable with the current technology. PMID:25563619

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF HESPERIDIN ON CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN DIABETES IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Kakadiya, Jagdish; Mulani, Haresh; Shah, Nehal

    2010-01-01

    Present study was designed to evaluate effect Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in normal and Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced in diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC) and after isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) induced myocardial infarction in rats on 29th and 30th day. At the end of experimental period (i.e. on the day 31) serum and heart tissues sample were collected, and glucose, HbA1c and Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol ester synthetase (CES), lecithin Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were find out. Administration of STZ–NIC in rats showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the levels of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) whereas the levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) were found to be non significant but significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of heart tissues CES and significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) decreased LCAT and LPL, significantly (p<0.01) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to respective control groups. Treatment with Hesperidin significantly (P<0.05) decreased HbA1c, glucose, CES level and significantly (P<0.01) decreased LDL, TC, TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant (P<0.01) increased LCAT and LPL level but no significantly change HDL in compared to diabetic control group. We concluded that HES (100 mg/kg) is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction diabetic rats. PMID:24825971

  5. Protective effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction in diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakadiya, Jagdish; Mulani, Haresh; Shah, Nehal

    2010-03-01

    Present study was designed to evaluate effect Hesperidin on Cardiovascular Complication in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in normal and Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide induced in diabetic rats. Hesperidin (100 mg/kg, p.o) was administered for 28 days in rats injected with single dose of Streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p, STZ) and Nicotinamide (110 mg/kg, i.p, NIC) and after isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) induced myocardial infarction in rats on 29(th) and 30(th) day. At the end of experimental period (i.e. on the day 31) serum and heart tissues sample were collected, and glucose, HbA1c and Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and High density lipoprotein (HDL) and cholesterol ester synthetase (CES), lecithin Cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), systolic and diastolic blood pressure were find out. Administration of STZ-NIC in rats showed a significant (p<0.001) increased in the levels of serum glucose, glycosylated heamoglobin (HbA1c), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and Low density lipoprotein (LDL) whereas the levels of High density lipoprotein (HDL) were found to be non significant but significant (p<0.001) increased in the level of heart tissues CES and significant (p<0.001, p<0.01) decreased LCAT and LPL, significantly (p<0.01) increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure as compared to respective control groups. Treatment with Hesperidin significantly (P<0.05) decreased HbA1c, glucose, CES level and significantly (P<0.01) decreased LDL, TC, TG, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant (P<0.01) increased LCAT and LPL level but no significantly change HDL in compared to diabetic control group. We concluded that HES (100 mg/kg) is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and reduced cardiac complication in experimentally induced myocardial infarction diabetic rats.

  6. Action of phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharides on immune and hematological responses and fecal consistency of dogs experimentally infected with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, E.M.M.F.; Silva, I.S.; Nakazato, G.; Onselem, V.J.V.; Corrêa, R.A.C.; Araujo, F.R.; Chang, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic action of phosphorylated mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) was investigated regarding its prebiotic activity on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Diarrhea was induced in dogs by experimental infection with EPEC strains. Then MOS was supplied once a day, in water for 20 days. Immunological (IgA and IgG), hematological (lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes) and bacteriological variables (PCR detection of the eae gene of EPEC recovered from stool culture), as well as occurrence of diarrhea were evaluated. All strains caused diarrhea at 24, 48 and 72 h after infection. PCR results indicated that E. coli isolated from stool culture of all infected animals had the eae gene. There was no significant difference among groups as to number of blood cells in the hemogram and IgA and IgG production. MOS was effective in recovering of EPEC-infected dogs since prebiotic-treated animals recovered more rapidly from infection than untreated ones (p < 0.05). This is an important finding since diarrhea causes intense dehydration and nutrient loss. The use of prebiotics for humans and other animals with diarrhea can be an alternative for the treatment and prophylaxis of EPEC infections. PMID:24294246

  7. Diarrhea & Child Care: Controlling Diarrhea in Out-of-Home Child Care. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.

    This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report notes that the rate…

  8. Eluxadoline for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lembo, Anthony J; Lacy, Brian E; Zuckerman, Marc J; Schey, Ron; Dove, Leonard S; Andrae, David A; Davenport, J Michael; McIntyre, Gail; Lopez, Rocio; Turner, Lisa; Covington, Paul S

    2016-01-21

    Background Effective and safe treatments are needed for patients who have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. We conducted two phase 3 trials to assess the efficacy and safety of eluxadoline, a new oral agent with mixed opioid effects (μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist), in patients with IBS with diarrhea. Methods We randomly assigned 2427 adults who had IBS with diarrhea to eluxadoline (at a dose of 75 mg or 100 mg) or placebo twice daily for 26 weeks (IBS-3002 trial) or 52 weeks (IBS-3001 trial). The primary end point was the proportion of patients who had a composite response of decrease in abdominal pain and improvement in stool consistency on the same day for at least 50% of the days from weeks 1 through 12 and from weeks 1 through 26. Results For weeks 1 through 12, more patients in the eluxadoline groups (75 mg and 100 mg) than in the placebo group reached the primary end point (IBS-3001 trial, 23.9% with the 75-mg dose and 25.1% with the 100-mg dose vs. 17.1% with placebo; P=0.01 and P=0.004, respectively; IBS-3002 trial, 28.9% and 29.6%, respectively, vs. 16.2%; P<0.001 for both comparisons). For weeks 1 through 26, the corresponding rates in IBS-3001 were 23.4% and 29.3% versus 19.0% (P=0.11 and P<0.001, respectively), and the corresponding rates in IBS-3002 were 30.4% and 32.7% versus 20.2% (P=0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The most common adverse events associated with 75 mg of eluxadoline and 100 mg of eluxadoline, as compared with placebo, were nausea (8.1% and 7.5% vs. 5.1%), constipation (7.4% and 8.6% vs. 2.5%), and abdominal pain (5.8% and 7.2% vs. 4.1%). Pancreatitis developed in 5 (2 in the 75-mg group and 3 in the 100-mg group) of the 1666 patients in the safety population (0.3%). Conclusions Eluxadoline is a new therapeutic agent that reduced symptoms of IBS with diarrhea in men and women, with sustained efficacy over 6 months in patients who received the 100-mg dose twice daily. (Funded by

  9. A Computational and Experimental Study of Nonlinear Aspects of Induced Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.

    1996-01-01

    performance of the split-tip wing was also investigated by wing tunnel experiments. Induced drag was determined from force measurements by subtracting the estimated viscous drag, and from an analytical drag-decomposition method using a wake survey. The experimental results confirm the computational prediction.

  10. Antihepatotoxic nature of Ulva reticulata (Chlorophyceae) on acetaminophen-induced hepatoxicity in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Balaji Raghavendra Rao, H; Sathivel, A; Devaki, T

    2004-01-01

    Ulva reticulata, a marine edible green alga, is a known source of proteins, vitamins, and sulfated polysaccharides. Though there are many reports in the literature regarding the composition and antiviral property of Ulva sp., studies of the antihepatotoxic property of green seaweeds in animal model are scarce. We have studied the antihepatotoxic nature of this marine green edible alga, U. reticulata, in a hot water extract (150 mg/kg of body weight for a period of 15 days) against acetaminophen- induced hepatotoxicity in experimental albino rats. The acetaminophen-induced rats showed significant elevation in levels of the serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase and of lipid peroxides in liver tissue with decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. The levels of reduced glutathione and vitamins (E and C) were also decreased in the liver tissue of acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. The oral pretreatment with a hot water extract of U. reticulata reduced the hepatotoxicity triggered by acetaminophen considerably by improving the antioxidant status in experimental animals with depleted levels of lipid peroxides. These results indicate that the oral pretreatment with a hot water extract of U. reticulata in rats is effective in reducing the hepatic oxidative stress via free radical scavenging properties, suggesting an antihepatotoxic activity. PMID:15671697

  11. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  12. Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript 2 protein treatment attenuates experimentally-induced colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Vishal; Amdare, Nitin; Yadav, Ravi Shankar; Tarnekar, Aaditya; Goswami, Kalyan; Reddy, Maryada Venkata Rami

    2015-11-01

    Helminths are known to modulate host's immunity by suppressing host protective pro-inflammatory responses. Such immunomodulatory effects have been experimentally shown to have therapeutic implications in immune mediated disorders. In the present study, we have explored a filarial protein i.e. Brugia malayi recombinant abundant larval transcript 2 (rBmALT2) for its therapeutic effect in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) induced colitis in mouse model. The immunomodulatory activity of rBmALT-2 was initially confirmed by demonstrating that it suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide synthesis and down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro by peritoneal exudate cells of mice. Treatment with rBmALT2 reduced severity of colitis associated with significant reduction in weight loss, disease activity, colon damage, mucosal edema and histopathological score including myeloperoxidase activity in colon tissues. rBmALT2 was comparatively more effective in attenuation of colitis when used in the preventive mode than when used for curative purpose. The therapeutic effect of rBmALT2 was found to be associated with downregulation of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17 and upregulation of IL-10 cytokines. These results provide strong experimental evidence that BmALT2 could be a potential alternative therapeutic agent in colitis. PMID:26669016

  13. Experimental investigation of flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaiswal, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on experimental observations of flow induced large amplitude dust-acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma. The experiments have been carried out in a Π shaped direct current glow discharge experimental device using kaolin particles as the dust component in a background of Argon plasma. A strong supersonic flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change in the gas flow rate is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks whose dynamics are captured by fast video pictures of the evolving structures. The physical characteristics of these shocks are delineated through a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of flow speeds and potential hill heights. The observed evolution of the shock waves and their propagation characteristics are found to compare well with model numerical results based on a modified Korteweg-de-Vries-Burgers type equation.

  14. Expression of Sonic hedgehog and retinal opsin genes in experimentally-induced myopic chick eyes.

    PubMed

    Escaño, M F; Fujii, S; Sekiya, Y; Yamamoto, M; Negi, A

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of different genes in chick retinal tissues after induction of experimental myopia and to evaluate the roles of these genes in the regulation of postnatal eye growth and myopia. Form-deprivation using occlusive goggles and hyperopic defocus by negative spectacle lenses were used to induce myopia in hatched chicks. Expression levels of Sonic hedgehog, its receptor complex, and other retinal cell genes were evaluated by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Levels of Sonic hedgehog protein were further evaluated by Western blot analysis. The induction of myopia caused significant increase in expression of Sonic hedgehog mRNA and protein and increased expression of blue and red opsin mRNA. In contrast, the expression of mRNA for Sonic hedgehog receptor complex (Patched-Smoothened), rhodopsin, vimentin, green opsin, violet opsin, and HPC-1 were unaffected by the induction of myopia. The increase in expression of Sonic hedgehog in chick retinas in experimentally-induced myopia suggests involvement in the retina control of postnatal eye growth. Furthermore, Sonic hedgehog may influence the expression of blue and red opsins under myopic conditions.

  15. Numerical and experimental investigation of natural flow-induced vibrations of flexible hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Eun Jung; Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Lelong, Alexandra; Astolfi, Jacques Andre; Young, Yin Lu

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this work is to present combined numerical and experimental studies of natural flow-induced vibrations of flexible hydrofoils. The focus is on identifying the dependence of the foil's vibration frequencies and damping characteristics on the inflow velocity, angle of attack, and solid-to-fluid added mass ratio. Experimental results are shown for a cantilevered polyacetate (POM) hydrofoil tested in the cavitation tunnel at the French Naval Academy Research Institute (IRENav). The foil is observed to primarily behave as a chordwise rigid body and undergoes spanwise bending and twisting deformations, and the flow is observed to be effectively two-dimensional (2D) because of the strong lift retention at the free tip caused by a small gap with a thickness less than the wall boundary layer. Hence, the viscous fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is formulated by coupling a 2D unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) model with a two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) model representing the spanwise tip bending and twisting deformations. Good agreements were observed between viscous FSI predictions and experimental measurements of natural flow-induced vibrations in fully turbulent and attached flow conditions. The foil vibrations were found to be dominated by the natural frequencies in absence of large scale vortex shedding due to flow separation. The natural frequencies and fluid damping coefficients were found to vary with velocity, angle of attack, and solid-to-fluid added mass ratio. In addition, the numerical results showed that the in-water to in-air natural frequency ratios decreased rapidly, and the fluid damping coefficients increased rapidly, as the solid-to-fluid added mass ratio decreases. Uncoupled mode (UM) linear potential theory was found to significantly over-predict the fluid damping for cases of lightweight flexible hydrofoils, and this over-prediction increased with higher velocity and lower solid-to-fluid added mass ratio.

  16. Experimental tonic hand pain modulates the corticospinal plasticity induced by a subsequent hand deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Mavromatis, N; Gagné, M; Voisin, J I A V; Reilly, K T; Mercier, C

    2016-08-25

    Sensorimotor reorganization is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of phantom limb pain, but pain itself might modulate sensorimotor plasticity induced by deafferentation. Clinical and basic research support this idea, as pain prior to amputation increases the risk of developing post-amputation pain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experimental tonic cutaneous hand pain on the plasticity induced by temporary ischemic hand deafferentation. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (Pain, No Pain) in which transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal excitability in two forearm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis) before (T0, T10, T20, and T40) and after (T60 and T75) inflation of a cuff around the wrist. The cuff was inflated at T45 in both sessions and in the Pain session capsaicin cream was applied on the dorsum of the hand at T5. Corticospinal excitability was significantly greater during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.002) and increased similarly in both muscles (p=0.861). Importantly, the excitability increase in the Post-inflation phase was greater for the Pain than the No-Pain condition (p=0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between the two conditions during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.030) but no difference during the Pre-inflation phase (p=0.601). In other words, the corticospinal facilitation was greater when pain was present prior to cuff inflation. These results indicate that pain can modulate the plasticity induced by another event, and could partially explain the sensorimotor reorganization often reported in chronic pain populations. PMID:27291642

  17. Assessing potential abiotic and biotic complications of crayfish-induced gravel transport in experimental streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Statzner, Bernhard; Peltret, Odile

    2006-03-01

    Biogeomorphology adds the element "biological dynamics" (of populations or communities) to chemical and physical geomorphic factors and thus complicates the framework of geomorphic processes. Such biological complications of the animal-induced transport of solids in streams should be particularly important in crayfish, as crayfish affect this transport through their overall activity and intraspecific aggression levels, which could be modified by shelter availability or the establishment of dominance hierarchies among individuals not knowing each other. Using experimental streams, we tested these hypotheses by measuring how shelter availability or residential crayfish group invasion by unknown individuals affected the impact of the crayfish Orconectes limosus on the (i) transport of gravel at baseflow (during 12 experimental days); (ii) sediment surface characteristics (after 12 days); and (iii) critical shear stress causing incipient gravel motion during simulated floods (after 12 days). The two potentially important factors shelter availability or residential group invasion negligibly affected the crayfish impact on gravel sediments, suggesting that habitat unfamiliarity (a third potentially important factor affecting crayfish activity) should increase the crayfish-induced sediment transport. Because habitat unfamiliarity is associated with sporadic long-distance migrations of a few crayfish individuals, this third factor should play a minor role in real streams, where crayfish biomass should be a key factor in relations with crayfish effects on sediments. Therefore, we combined the results of this study with those of previous crayfish experiments to assess how crayfish biomass could serve in modelling the gravel transport. Crayfish biomass explained 47% of the variability in the baseflow gravel transport and, in combination with the coefficient of variation of the bed elevation and algal cover, 72% of the variability in the critical gravel shear stress. These

  18. Morphological and cellular examinations of experimentally induced malocclusion in mice mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Kwang; Sohn, Wern-Joo; Lee, Youngkyun; Bae, Yong Chul; Choi, Jae-Kap; Kim, Jae-Young

    2014-02-01

    Occlusal alignment is known clinically to have a widespread influence on the stomatognathic system, including the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles. However, while occlusion is still an important determinant of most dental treatments, the exact effect of occlusal alignment is unclear because of a lack of conclusive scientific evidence. In this study, a malocclusion model system is used to examine the cellular and histologic alterations in the contralateral condyle of mice after a malocclusion was induced by a build-up of resin on the left maxillary molars. A significant decrease in the thickness of the condylar cartilage was found in the 1-week experimental group, together with increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation in the condylar head, which included cartilage and subchondral bone. Additionally, the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and MPO- and F4/80-positive inflammatory cells in the subchondral bone were significantly higher in the 1-week experimental group. Unbalanced malocclusion caused increased bone remodeling, as evidenced by increased osteoclastic activity and inflammatory responses (macrophages and neutrophils, respectively). However, these alterations in the 1-week experimental group were subsequently attenuated and restored almost to the baseline at 3 weeks after the induction of the malocclusion.

  19. Radiating plasma species density distribution in EUV-induced plasma in argon: a spatiotemporal experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; van de Ven, T. H. M.; Banine, V. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this contribution we experimentally study temporally and spatially resolved radiating plasma species density distribution in plasma induced by irradiating a low pressure argon gas with high energy photons with a wavelength of 13.5 nm, i.e. extreme ultraviolet (EUV). This is done by recording the optical emission spatially and temporally resolved by an iCCD camera as a function of the argon gas pressure. Our experimental results show that the emission intensity, i.e. density of radiating plasma species, depends quadratically on the gas pressure. The linear term is due to photoionization and simultaneous excitation by EUV photons, the quadratic term due to electron impact excitation by electrons generated by photoionization. The decay of radiating plasma species can be divided into two phases. At time scales shorter than 10 μs (first phase), the decay is governed by radiative decay of radiating plasma species. At longer time scales (second phase, >10 μs), the decay is dominated by diffusion and subsequent de-excitation at the wall. The experimental decay and expansion during this phase corresponds well with a simplified diffusion model. In order to gain more insight in this exotic type of plasma, we compare the electron density from previous measurements with the results obtained here.

  20. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  1. Experimental Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Induces Blunted Vasoconstriction and Functional Changes in the Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Tufiño, Cecilia; Villanueva-López, Cleva; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Bracho-Valdés, Ismael; Bobadilla-Lugo, Rosa Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic conditions increase vascular reactivity to angiotensin II in several studies but there are scarce reports on cardiovascular effects of hypercaloric diet (HD) induced gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), so the objective of this work was to determine the effects of HD induced GDM on vascular responses. Angiotensin II as well as phenylephrine induced vascular contraction was tested in isolated aorta rings with and without endothelium from rats fed for 7 weeks (4 before and 3 weeks during pregnancy) with standard (SD) or hypercaloric (HD) diet. Also, protein expression of AT1R, AT2R, COX-1, COX-2, NOS-1, and NOS-3 and plasma glucose, insulin, and angiotensin II levels were measured. GDM impaired vasoconstrictor response (P < 0.05 versus SD) in intact (e+) but not in endothelium-free (e−) vessels. Losartan reduced GDM but not SD e− vasoconstriction (P < 0.01 versus SD). AT1R, AT2R, and COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression were significantly increased in GDM vessels (P < 0.05 versus SD). Results suggest an increased participation of endothelium vasodilator mediators, probably prostaglandins, as well as of AT2 vasodilator receptors as a compensatory mechanism for vasoconstrictor changes generated by experimental GDM. Considering the short term of rat pregnancy findings can reflect early stage GDM adaptations. PMID:25610861

  2. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Ravishankar, B; Ashok, B K; Patil, Panchakshari D

    2012-07-01

    Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16(th) day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats. PMID:23723654

  3. Evaluation of anti-urolithiatic activity of Pashanabhedadi Ghrita against experimentally induced renal calculi in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Baghel, Madhav Singh; Bhuyan, Chaturbhuja; Ravishankar, B.; Ashok, B. K.; Patil, Panchakshari D.

    2012-01-01

    Population in an industrialized world is afflicted by urinary stone disease. Kidney stones are common in all kinds of urolithiasis. One distinguished formulation mentioned by Sushruta for management of Ashmari (urolithiasis) is Pashanabhedadi Ghrita (PBG), which is in clinical practice since centuries. Validation of drug is the requirement of time through the experimental study. In this study, trial of PBG has been made against ammonium oxalate rich diet and gentamicin injection induced renal calculi in albino rats. The calculi were induced by gentamicin injection and ammonium oxalate rich diet. Test drug was administered concomitantly in the dose of 900 mg/kg for 15 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed on the 16th day. Parameters like kidney weight, serum biochemical, kidney tissue and histopathology of kidney were studied. Concomitant treatment of PBG attenuates blood biochemical parameters non-significantly, where as it significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation and enhanced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activities. It also decreased crystal deposition markedly into the renal tubules in number as well as size and prevented damage to the renal tubules. The findings showed that PBG is having significant anti-urolithiatic activities against ammonium oxalate rich diet plus gentamicine injection induced urolithiasis in rats. PMID:23723654

  4. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K N S; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration.

  5. Interleukin 1-induced augmentation of experimental metastases from a human melanoma in nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Giavazzi, R.; Garofalo, A.; Bani, M.R.; Abbate, M.; Ghezzi, P.; Boraschi, D.; Mantovani, A.; Dejana, E. )

    1990-08-01

    This study has examined the effect of the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) on metastasis formation by the human melanoma A375M in nude mice. We have found that human recombinant IL-1 beta (a single injection greater than 0.01 micrograms per mouse i.v. given before tumor cells) induced an augmentation of experimental lung metastases from the A375M tumor cells in nude mice. This effect was rapidly induced and reversible within 24 h after IL-1 injection. A similar effect was induced by human recombinant IL-1 alpha and human recombinant tumor necrosis factor, but not by human recombinant interleukin 6. 5-(125I)odo-2'-deoxyuridine-radiolabeled A375M tumor cells injected i.v. remained at a higher level in the lungs of nude mice receiving IL-1 than in control mice. In addition, IL-1 injected 1 h, but not 24 h, after tumor cells enhanced lung colonization as well, thus suggesting an effect of IL-1 on the vascular transit of tumor cells. These findings may explain the observation of enhanced secondary localization of tumor cells at inflammatory sites and suggest that modulation of secondary spread should be carefully considered when assessing the ability of this cytokine to complement cytoreductive therapies.

  6. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba Extract on Experimental Bothrops Venom-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Martines, Monique Silva; Mendes, Mirian M.; Shimizu, Maria H. M.; Melo Rodrigues, Veridiana; de Castro, Isac; Filho, Sebastião R. Ferreira; Malheiros, Denise M. A. C.; Yu, Luis; Burdmann, Emmanuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP) extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV)-induced AKI. Methodology Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C), SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T) in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance), renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler), blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method), hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit), fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified) and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score). Principal Findings BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. Conclusion SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR. PMID:24551041

  7. Diet shifts and population dynamics of estuarine foraminifera during ecosystem recovery after experimentally induced hypoxia crises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, G. M.; Duijnstee, I. A. P.; Hazeleger, J. H.; Rossi, F.; Lourens, L. J.; Middelburg, J. J.; Wolthers, M.

    2016-03-01

    This study shows foraminiferal dynamics after experimentally induced hypoxia within the wider context of ecosystem recovery. 13C-labeled bicarbonate and glucose were added to the sediments to examine foraminiferal diet shifts during ecosystem recovery and test-size measurements were used to deduce population dynamics. Hypoxia-treated and undisturbed patches were compared to distinguish natural (seasonal) fluctuations from hypoxia-induced responses. The effect of timing of disturbance and duration of recovery were investigated. The foraminiferal diets and population dynamics showed higher fluctuations in the recovering patches compared to the controls. The foraminiferal diet and population structure of Haynesina germanica and Ammonia beccarii responded differentially and generally inversely to progressive stages of ecosystem recovery. Tracer inferred diet estimates in April and June and the two distinctly visible cohorts in the test-size distribution, discussed to reflect reproduction in June, strongly suggest that the ample availability of diatoms during the first month of ecosystem recovery after the winter hypoxia was likely profitable to A. beccarii. Enhanced reproduction itself was strongly linked to the subsequent dietary shift to bacteria. The distribution of the test dimensions of H. germanica indicated that this species had less fluctuation in population structure during ecosystem recovery but possibly reproduced in response to the induced winter hypoxia. Bacteria seemed to consistently contribute more to the diet of H. germanica than diatoms. For the diet and test-size distribution of both species, the timing of disturbance seemed to have a higher impact than the duration of the subsequent recovery period.

  8. The effect of local deep microwave hyperthermia on experimental zymosan-induced arthritis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, A; Abramonvici, A; Fadila, R; Levy, A; Giler, S; Lev, A

    1990-10-01

    The effect of local deep microwave hyperthermia (LDMWH) on normal and Zymosan-induced arthritis has been evaluated in 12 rabbits (24 joints). LDMWH, four treatments to each joint (twice weekly for a period of 2 wk), was generated by an antenna operating at 915 MHz for 60 min, reaching an intraarticular temperature of 42.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C. A surface cooling system was used with the microwave apparatus. Two weeks after the last treatment, all animals were sacrificed. The application of LDMWH on normal joints induced a limited proliferation of the synovial lining cells with a minimal perivascular infiltration of mononuclear and neutrophil cells. However, no histologic damage to the skin, muscles, bone, cartilage or bone marrow adjacent to the heated joints could be noted. Induction of Zymosan arthritis (2 wk before LDMWH) was characterized by pannus formation and granulomatous reaction accompanied by fibrinoid deposits and disseminated necrotic foci in the synovial intima. The LDMWH treatment on the examined arthritic joints brought about a reduction in the degree of granulomatous reaction concomitant with the appearance of some fibrocytes and fine collagen fibrils. These findings suggest that LDMWH can be safely applied, even repeatedly, without morphologic evidence of damage to any normal mesenchymal tissue. Moreover, it reduces the inflammatory process in experimentally induced synovitis.

  9. Fumigaclavine C ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine experimental colitis via NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenjie; Hu, Shasha; Elgehama, Ahmed; Shao, Fenli; Ren, Ren; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Wenjing; Wang, Xinlei; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Jiao, Ruihua

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the effect of Fumigaclavine C, a fungal metabolite, on murine experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and its possible mechanism were examined in vivo and vitro. Oral administration of Fumigaclavine C dose-dependently attenuated the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length induced by DSS. The disease activity index, histopathologic scores of musco was also significantly reduced by Fumigaclavine C treatment. Protein and mRNA levels of DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in colon, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-17A, were markedly suppressed by Fumigaclavine C. At the same time, decreased activation of caspase-1 in peritoneal macrophages was detected in Fumigaclavine C -treated mice which suggested that the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was suppressed. Furthermore, in the LPS plus ATP cell model, we found that Fumigaclavine C dose-dependent inhibited IL-1β release and caspase-1 activation. Taken together, our results demonstrate the ability of Fumigaclavine C to inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome activation and give some evidence for its potential use in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26320672

  10. An experimental setup to characterize MR switched gradient-induced potentials.

    PubMed

    Fokapu, Odette; El-Tatar, Aziz

    2013-06-01

    We have developed an experimental setup as an in vitro research tool for studying the contamination of electrophysiological signals (EPS) by MRI environment; particularly, when due to the switched gradient-induced potentials. The system is composed of: 1) a MRI compatible module for the transmission of the EPS into the MRI tunnel, 2) a gelatin-based tissue-mimicking phantom, placed inside the tunnel, in which EPS is injected, 3) a detection module composed of a five input channel MRI compatible transmitter placed inside the tunnel, allowing an on-site pre-amplification of the bio-potentials and their transmission, via an optical fiber cable, to a four filtered output per channel receiver (350 Hz, 160 Hz, 80 Hz, and 40 Hz, for a total of 20 channels) placed in the control room, and 4) a signal processing algorithm used to analyze the generated induced potentials. A set of tests were performed to validate the electronic performances of the setup. We also present in this work an interesting application of the setup, i.e., the acquisition and analysis of the induced potentials with respect of the slice orientation for a given MRI sequence. Significant modifications of the time and frequency characteristics were observed with respect to axial, coronal or sagittal orientations. PMID:23853335

  11. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 10(4) colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 10(5) focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4-5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens. PMID:26459937

  12. High protective efficacy of rice bran against human rotavirus diarrhea via enhancing probiotic growth, gut barrier function, and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xingdong; Twitchell, Erica; Li, Guohua; Wen, Ke; Weiss, Mariah; Kocher, Jacob; Lei, Shaohua; Ramesh, Ashwin; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Yuan, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we showed that rice bran (RB) was able to reduce human rotavirus (HRV) diarrhea in gnotobiotic pigs. Here, we investigated its effect on the growth of diarrhea-reducing probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), and the resulting effects on HRV diarrhea, gut epithelial health, permeability and innate immune responses during virulent HRV challenge. On 3, 5, and 7 days of age pigs were inoculated with 2 × 104 colony-forming-units LGG+EcN to initiate colonization. Daily RB supplementation (replacing 10% calorie intake) was started at 5 days of age and continued until euthanasia. A subset of pigs in each group was challenged orally with 105 focus-forming-units of virulent HRV at 33 days of age. RB completely prevented HRV diarrhea in LGG+EcN colonized pigs. RB significantly promoted the growth of both probiotic strains in the gut (~5 logs) and increased the body-weight-gain at 4–5 weeks of age compared to non-RB group. After HRV challenge, RB-fed pigs had significantly lower ileal mitotic index and villus width, and significantly increased intestinal IFN-γ and total IgA levels compared to non-RB group. Therefore, RB plus LGG+EcN colonization may represent a highly effective therapeutic approach against HRV and potentially a variety of other diarrhea-inducing enteric pathogens. PMID:26459937

  13. The first case of porcine epidemic diarrhea in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ojkic, Davor; Hazlett, Murray; Fairles, Jim; Marom, Anna; Slavic, Durda; Maxie, Grant; Alexandersen, Soren; Pasick, John; Alsop, Janet; Burlatschenko, Sue

    2015-01-01

    In January, 2014, increased mortality was reported in piglets with acute diarrhea on an Ontario farm. Villus atrophy in affected piglets was confined to the small intestine. Samples of colon content were PCR-positive for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Other laboratory tests did not detect significant pathogens, confirming this was the first case of PED in Canada. PMID:25694663

  14. Diarrhea associated with myenteric ganglionitis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Willard, M D; Mullaney, T; Karasek, S; Yamini, B

    1988-08-01

    Diarrhea in a Border Terrier was associated with inflammatory lesions of the myenteric plexus. This lesion has been documented rarely in dogs. It is speculated that the myenteric plexus lesions were responsible for an autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which resulted in extreme intestinal hypermotility and subsequent diarrhea. Suggested tests for dogs suspected to have autonomic dysfunction are given.

  15. The knowledge of intensive care professionals about diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Lordani, Cláudia Regina Felicetti; Eckert, Raquel Goreti; Tozetto, Altevir Garcia; Lordani, Tarcísio Vitor Augusto; Duarte, Péricles Almeida Delfino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the opinions and practices of intensive care professionals with regard to diarrhea in critically ill patients. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted among health care professionals working at three adult intensive care units. Participants responded individually to a self-administered questionnaire about their length of work experience in intensive care; the definition, characterization, and causes of diarrhea; types of records in the patient's medical record; and training received. Results A total of 78 professionals participated in this study, of whom 59.0% were nurse technicians, 25.7% were nurses, and 15.3% were physicians; 77.0% of them had worked in intensive care for over 1 year. Only 37.2% had received training on this topic. Half of the interviewees defined diarrhea as "liquid and/or pasty stools" regardless of frequency, while the other 50.0% defined diarrhea based on the increased number of daily bowel movements. The majority of them mentioned diet as the main cause of diarrhea, followed by "use of medications" (p<0.001). Distinct nutritional practices were observed among the analyzed professionals regarding episodes of diarrhea, such as discontinuing, maintaining, or reducing the volume of enteral nutrition; physicians reported that they do not routinely communicate the problem to other professionals (for example, to a nutritionist) and do not routinely record and quantify diarrhea events in patients' medical records. Conclusion Different opinions and practices were observed in intensive care professionals with regard to diarrhea. PMID:25295825

  16. Immunochromatography-based Diagnosis of Rotavirus Infection in Acute Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Vashishtha, Vipin M; Thacker, Sandeep; Namjoshi, Gajanan Sudhir

    2016-07-01

    Documentation of rotavirus diarrhea in a rural, resource-poor setting is a difficult task. We analyzed stool samples of 103 children admitted for acute diarrhea in a pediatric hospital in Bijnor, UP, India, using a simple bedside immunochromatography kit. Rotavirus infection was detected in 47 out of total of 103 children (45.6%). PMID:27508549

  17. Spontaneous and experimental glycoprotein storage disease of goats induced by Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa (Convolvulaceae).

    PubMed

    Armién, A G; Tokarnia, C H; Peixoto, P Vargas; Frese, K

    2007-03-01

    Spontaneous and experimental poisoning with the swainsonine-containing and calystegine-containing plant Ipomoea carnea subsp fistulosa is described. Three of 8 goats presenting with emaciation, weakness, symmetrical ataxia, posterior paresis, proprioceptive deficits, abnormal posture, abnormal postural reaction, and muscle hypertonia were necropsied. I fistulosa was suspected to be the cause of the neurologic disease in all cases. An experiment was conducted to confirm the diagnosis using 12 goats and diets containing 3 different concentrations of the plant. All goats fed I fistulosa developed neurological signs that were similar to those observed in the spontaneous intoxication. Muscle atrophy and pallor were the only macroscopic changes observed in spontaneous and in experimental intoxication. Histological lesions of spontaneous and experimental animals were similar. The most prominent lesion was cytoplasmic vacuolation in neurons of the central and the autonomous nervous system, pancreatic acinar cells, hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, follicular epithelial cells of the thyroid gland, and macrophages of the lymphatic tissues. Neuronal necrosis, axonal spheroids formation, and astrogliosis were additionally observed in the brain. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic vacuoles consisted of distended lysosomes surrounded by a single-layered membrane. Nonreduced end-rests or sequence of alpha-Man, alpha-Glc, beta(1-4)-GlcNAc, and NeuNAc on lysosomal membrane were revealed by lectin histochemistry. Samples of plants used in the experimental trial contained swainsonine and calystegine and their intermediary derivate. We conclude that I fistulosa induces a glycoprotein storage disease primarily based on the inhibition of the lysosomal alpha-mannosidase by the alkaloid swainsonine. PMID:17317794

  18. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Induce Organ Damage during Experimental and Clinical Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Czaikoski, Paula Giselle; Mota, José Maurício Segundo Correia; Nascimento, Daniele Carvalho; Sônego, Fabiane; Castanheira, Fernanda Vargas e Silva; Melo, Paulo Henrique; Scortegagna, Gabriela Trentin; Silva, Rangel Leal; Barroso-Sousa, Romualdo; Souto, Fabrício Oliveira; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Figueiredo, Florencio; Alves-Filho, José Carlos; Cunha, Fernando Queiróz

    2016-01-01

    Organ dysfunction is a major concern in sepsis pathophysiology and contributes to its high mortality rate. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been implicated in endothelial damage and take part in the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction in several conditions. NETs also have an important role in counteracting invading microorganisms during infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate systemic NETs formation, their participation in host bacterial clearance and their contribution to organ dysfunction in sepsis. C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to endotoxic shock or a polymicrobial sepsis model induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The involvement of cf-DNA/NETs in the physiopathology of sepsis was evaluated through NETs degradation by rhDNase. This treatment was also associated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment (ertapenem) in mice after CLP. CLP or endotoxin administration induced a significant increase in the serum concentrations of NETs. The increase in CLP-induced NETs was sustained over a period of 3 to 24 h after surgery in mice and was not inhibited by the antibiotic treatment. Systemic rhDNase treatment reduced serum NETs and increased the bacterial load in non-antibiotic-treated septic mice. rhDNase plus antibiotics attenuated sepsis-induced organ damage and improved the survival rate. The correlation between the presence of NETs in peripheral blood and organ dysfunction was evaluated in 31 septic patients. Higher cf-DNA concentrations were detected in septic patients in comparison with healthy controls, and levels were correlated with sepsis severity and organ dysfunction. In conclusion, cf-DNA/NETs are formed during sepsis and are associated with sepsis severity. In the experimental setting, the degradation of NETs by rhDNase attenuates organ damage only when combined with antibiotics, confirming that NETs take part in sepsis pathogenesis. Altogether, our results suggest that NETs are important for host bacterial control and are

  19. Coupled plasma filtration adsorption in experimental peritonitis-induced septic shock.

    PubMed

    Sykora, Roman; Chvojka, Jiri; Krouzecky, Ales; Radej, Jaroslav; Kuncova, Jitka; Varnerova, Veronika; Karvunidis, Thomas; Novak, Ivan; Matejovic, Martin

    2009-05-01

    The coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) was developed as an adsorptive hemopurification method aimed at nonselective removal of circulating soluble mediators potentially involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. We hypothesized that this nonselective hemopurification could protect from detrimental consequences of long-term, volume-resuscitated porcine septic shock. In 16 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented pigs, the hyperdynamic septic shock secondary to peritonitis was induced by intraperitoneally inoculating feces and maintained for 22 h with fluid resuscitation and norepinephrine infusion as needed to maintain MAP above 65 mmHg. After 12 h of peritonitis, animals were randomized to receive either supportive treatment (control, n = 8) or CPFA treatment (CPFA, n = 8). Systemic, hepatosplanchnic, and renal hemodynamics; oxygen exchange; energy metabolism (lactate/pyruvate and ketone body ratios); ileal mucosal and renal cortex microcirculation; systemic inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-6); nitrosative/oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, nitrates + nitrites); and endothelial/coagulation dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine, von Willebrand factor, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, platelet count) were assessed before and 12, 18, and 22 h of peritonitis. Coupled plasma filtration adsorption neither delayed the development of hypotension nor reduced the dose of norepinephrine. The treatment failed to attenuate sepsis-induced alterations in microcirculation, surrogate markers of cellular energetics, endothelial injury, and systemic inflammation. Similarly, CPFA did not protect from lung and liver dysfunction and even aggravated sepsis-induced disturbances in coagulation and oxidative/nitrosative stress. In this porcine model of septic shock, the early treatment with CPFA was not capable of reversing the sepsis-induced disturbances in various biological pathways and organ systems. Both the efficacy and safety of this method

  20. Effect of different doses of Manuka honey in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A; Medhi, B; Avti, P K; Saikia, U N; Pandhi, P; Khanduja, K L

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of different doses of Manuka honey in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Adult Wistar rats of either sex were used (n = 30). Colitis was induced by a single intracolonic administration of TNBS dissolved in 35% ethanol. The rats (n = 30) were divided into five groups (n = 6) and were treated with vehicle (ethanol), TNBS, Manuka honey (5 g/kg, p.o.), Manuka honey (10 g/kg, p.o.) or sulfasalazine (360 mg/kg, p.o.) body weight for 14 days. After completion of treatment, the animals were killed and the following parameters were assessed: morphological score, histological score and different antioxidant parameters.Manuka honey at different doses provided protection against TNBS-induced colonic damage. There was significant protection with Manuka honey 5 g/kg as well as with 10 g/kg body weight compared with the control (p < 0.001). All the treated groups showed reduced colonic inflammation and all the biochemical parameters were significantly reduced compared with the control in the Manuka honey treated groups (p < 0.001). Manuka honey at different doses restored lipid peroxidation as well as improved antioxidant parameters. Morphological and histological scores were significantly reduced in the low dose Manuka honey treated group (p < 0.001). In the inflammatory model of colitis, oral administration of Manuka honey 5 g/kg and Manuka honey 10 g/kg body weight significantly reduced the colonic inflammation. The present study indicates that Manuka honey is efficacious in the TNBS-induced rat colitis model, but these results require further confirmation in human studies.

  1. Correlation Between Stereoacuity and Experimentally Induced Graded Monocular and Binocular Astigmatism

    PubMed Central

    Puthran, Neelam; Gagal, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stereopsis, the highest grade of binocular single vision, is affected by various factors, such as mis-alignment of visual axes, refractive errors especially anisometropia and astigmatism, both of which may result in amblyopia. There are very few studies in literature regarding the relationship between stereoacuity and refractive errors, especially astigmatism. Aim The present study was conducted to determine the correlation between stereoacuity and experimentally induced graded astigmatism in emmetropes. Materials and Methods A randomized study was conducted on 2000 individuals of either gender, between the ages of 8-35 years, at tertiary care centre attached to a medical college during the period of August 2012 to August 2014, All subjects were emmetropic with normal binocular single vision. Participants were randomly divided into four groups of 500 individuals each. Two groups were subjected to induced myopic astigmatism, either uni-ocularly or binocularly, using + 1.0 D and + 2.0 D cylinders at varying axes i.e., 450, 900 and 1800. Similarily, the remaining two groups were subjected to induced hypermetropic astigmatism, using - 1.0 D and - 2.0D cylinders at varying axes i.e. 450, 900 and 1800. Near stereoacuity was determined by the Titmus Fly Stereo Test, both before and after induction of astigmatism. Statistical analysis was done using paired t-test and ANOVA. Results The mean stereoacuity in emmetropes was 28.81±4.97 seconds of arc. There was a decrease in stereoacuity with increase in dioptric power of astigmatism (p<0.001). Oblique astigmatism reduced the stereoacuity maximally, while stereoacuity was least affected at 180o axis. Hypermetropic astigmatism caused more deterioration in stereoacuity than myopic astigmatism. A gross reduction in stereoacuity was noted in induced monocular astigmatism as against binocular astigmatism. Conclusion This study suggests that stereoacuity is significantly affected by even minor degrees of monocular or

  2. Methanolic extract of Anthocephalus cadamba induces apoptosis in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells in experimental mice

    PubMed Central

    Dolai, Narayan; Islam, Aminul; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Family: Rubiaceae), a folk medicine commonly known as “Kadam” in Bengali, has been used for the treatment of tumor. The methanolic extract of A. cadamba (MEAC) showing antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells treated mice was already reported. This study was designed to study the apoptosis-inducing property of MEAC and its mechanism in EAC cells in mice. Materials and Methods: Apoptogenic morphology was determined by fluorescent DNA-binding double staining method using dyes acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB). Comet assay was estimated to check the DNA damage. Flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS]) was used to detect the apoptotic rate quantitatively by double labeling techniques using annexin V FITC/propidium iodide staining. Apoptotic protein expression was done using Western blotting assay method. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post hoc test of GraphPad Prism software. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 were considered statistically significant. Results: Apoptosis-inducing effect of MEAC on EAC cells was confirmed from AO/EB staining and FACS analysis. MEAC treatment showed dose-dependent induction of DNA damage. Apoptosis was induced by increasing the expression of multiple downstream factors such as pro-apoptotic protein p53 and p21 in EAC. Bax was up-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was down-regulated resulting in decrease of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio by MEAC treatment. Conclusion: Experimental results revealed that MEAC induces apoptosis by modulating the expression of some pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins in EAC and thus exerts its anti-tumor activity. PMID:27756959

  3. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  4. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  5. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  6. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  7. The use of airborne imaging spectrometer data to determine experimentally induced variation in coniferous canopy chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanberg, Nancy A.; Matson, Pamela A.

    1987-01-01

    It was experimentally determined whether induced differences in forest canopy chemical composition can be detected using data from the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS). Treatments were applied to an even-aged forest of Douglas fir trees. Work to date has stressed wet chemical analysis of foilage samples and correction of AIS data. Plot treatments were successful in providing a range of foliar N2 concentrations. Much time was spent investigating and correcting problems with the raw AIS data. Initial problems with groups of drop out lines in the AIS data were traced to the tape recorder and the tape drive. Custom adjustment of the tape drive led to recovery of most missing lines. Remaining individual drop out lines were replaced using average of adjacent lines. Application of a notch filter to the Fourier transform of the image in each band satisfactorily removed vertical striping. The aspect ratio was corrected by resampling the image in the line direction using nearest neighbor interpolation.

  8. Experimental studies of collective excitations of a BEC in light-induced gauge fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Hsun; Niffenegger, Robert; Blasing, David; Olson, Abraham; Chen, Yong P.

    2015-05-01

    We present our experimental studies of collective modes including spin dipole mode and scissors mode of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the presence of Raman light-induced gauge fields and synthetic spin-orbit coupling (SOC). By Raman dressing the mf spin states within the F =1 manifold, we engineer atoms' energy-momentum dispersion to create synthetic SOC, and spin dependent synthetic electric and magnetic fields. We have used spin dependent synthetic electric fields to make two BECs with different spins oscillate and collide in the optical trap. We have studied the effects of SOC on both the momentum damping and thermalization behaviors of the BECs when undergoing such spin dipole oscillations. We have also used spatially dependent synthetic electric fields to excite the scissors mode, which has been used as a probe for superfluidity. We have investigated the effects of the synthetic gauge fields and SOC on the measured scissors mode.

  9. Theoretical and experimental study of electromagnetic forces induced in one-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, J. E.; Doti, Rafael; Faubert, Jocelyn; Sanchez, Noemi; Sanchez, Javier; Palomino, Martha A.; de la Mora, M. Beatriz; del Rio, J. Antonio

    2013-10-01

    We studied theoretically and experimentally the induction of electromagnetic forces in one-dimensional photonic crystals with localized defects when light impinges transversally to the defect layer. The theoretical calculations indicate that the electromagnetic forces increases at a certain frequency that coincide with a defect photonic state. The photonic structure consists of a microcavity like structure formed of two one-dimensional photonic crystals made of free-standing porous silicon, separated by variable air gap and the working wavelength is 633 nm. The force generation is made evident by driving a laser light by means of a chopper; the light hits the photonic structure and induces a vibration and the vibration is characterized by using a very sensitive vibrometer.

  10. Recurrent aerosol antigen exposure induces distinct patterns of experimental allergic asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    Jungsuwadee, Paiboon; Dekan, Gerhard; Stingl, Georg; Epstein, Michelle M

    2002-02-01

    Patients with allergic asthma present clinically with chronic or intermittent disease caused by either persistent or periodic allergen exposure. We sought to generate clinically relevant disease in mice, which would reflect the relapsing, remitting, and constant nature of this syndrome. We generated and compared acute onset, remission, relapse, and overt phases of the disease and found that acute disease was characterized by airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic lung inflammation, excessive mucus production, and antigen-specific antibody and was rapidly followed by a remission. Mice rechallenged with aerosol antigen during the remission or treated with repeated aerosol challenges developed relapse and overt disease, respectively. Recurrent antigen exposure induced a progressive increase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immunoglobulin, mucus production, and a change in inflammatory infiltrates indicating a transition from acute to chronic inflammation. These data demonstrate distinct phases of disease representing a clinical spectrum of experimental allergic asthma and may have important implications for new treatment strategies.

  11. An experimental investigation of vortex-induced vibration with nonlinear restoring forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackowski, A. W.; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2013-08-01

    We experimentally examine the amplitude of a bluff body undergoing vortex-induced vibration (VIV) supported by linear and various nonlinear structural forces. This investigation is made possible by our Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics force-feedback technique; using it, we can impose arbitrary nonlinear restoring forces on a circular cylinder in our water channel. For the range of nonlinearities examined, detailed analysis allows one to understand and predict the response of the nonlinear structural system using knowledge of a standard, linear VIV system. We also present a case study examining the potential of nonlinear springs to aid in a VIV-based energy harvesting device. Appropriate choices of the spring's nonlinearity allow the hypothetical energy harvester to operate at high performance over a much larger range of Reynolds number than a standard system.

  12. Experimental investigation of a supersonic swept ramp injector using laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J.; Hollo, Steven D.; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Planar measurements of injectant mole fraction and temperature have been conducted in a nonreacting supersonic combustor configured with underexpanded injection in the base of a swept ramp. The temperature measurements were conducted with a Mach 2 test section inlet in streamwise planes perpendicular to the test section wall on which the ramp was mounted. Injection concentration measurements, conducted in cross flow planes with both Mach 2 and Mach 2.9 free stream conditions, dramatically illustrate the domination of the mixing process by streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp. These measurements, conducted using a nonintrusive optical technique (laser-induced iodine fluorescence), provide an accurate and extensive experimental data base for the validation of computation fluid dynamic codes for the calculation of highly three-dimensional supersonic combustor flow fields.

  13. Experimental study of the water jet induced by underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Sun, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation on the effects of explosion depth and tube width on the water jet induced by an underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube. The water jet formation and bubble structure were evaluated from the images recorded by a high-speed video camera. Two typical patterns of jet formation and four general patterns of bubble implosion were observed, depending on the explosion depth and tube width. The velocity of the water jet was calculated from the recorded images. The jet velocity was observed to depend on not only the explosion depth and energy, but also on the tube width. We proposed an empirical formula defining the water jet velocity in the tube as a function of the tube width and explosion depth and energy.

  14. Anti-arthritic effect of eugenol on collagen-induced arthritis experimental model.

    PubMed

    Grespan, Renata; Paludo, Marcia; Lemos, Henrique de Paula; Barbosa, Carmem Patrícia; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Dalalio, Marcia Machado de Oliveira; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to test the efficacy of eugenol, a compound obtained from the essential oil of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum) in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a well characterized murine model of rheumatoid arthritis. Macroscopic clinical evidence of CIA manifests first as periarticular erythema and edema in the hind paws. Treatment with eugenol starting at the onset of arthritis (day 25) ameliorated these clinical signs of CIA. Furthermore, eugenol inhibited mononuclear cell infiltration into the knee joints of arthritic mice and also lowered the levels of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor growth factor (TGF)-β) within the ankle joints. Eugenol treatment did not affect the in vitro cell viability as assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Therefore, eugenol ameliorates experimental arthritis and could be useful as a beneficial supplement in treating human arthritis. PMID:23037170

  15. An explanation for experimental observations of harmonic cyclotron emission induced by fast ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.R.; Horton, W.; Van Dam, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    An explanation, supported by numerical simulations and analytical theory, is given for the harmonic cyclotron emission induced by fast ions in tokamak plasmas - particular, for the emission observed at low harmonics in deuterium-deuterium md deuterium-tritium experiments in the Joint European Tokamak. We show that the first proton harmonic is one of the highest spectral peaks whereas the first alpha is weak. We also compare the relative spectral amplitudes of different harmonics. Our results axe consistent with the experimental observations. The simulations verify that the instabilities are caused by a weak relativistic mass effect. Simulation that a nonuniform magnetic field leads to no appreciable change in the growth and saturation amplitude of the waves.

  16. High-intensity laser therapy during chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced in broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Bilotta, Teresa W.; Zati, Allesandro; Gazzotti, Valeria; Venturini, Antonio; Pinna, Stefania; Serra, Christian; Masotti, Leonardo

    2002-10-01

    The aims of this study was the safety and the efficacy of High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) on chronic degenerative tenosynovitis. We have effectuated the histological evaluation and seroassay (C reactive protein) on 18 chickens affect by chronic degenerative tenosynovitis experimentally induced. We have been employed a Nd:YAG laser pulsed wave; all irradiated subjects received the same total energy (270 Joule) with a fluence of 7,7 J/cm2 and intensity of 10,7 W/cm2. The histological findings revealed a distinct reduction of the mineralization of the choral matrix, the anti-inflammatory effect of the laser, the hyperplasia of the synoviocytes and ectasia of the lymphatic vessels.

  17. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-01-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  18. Nanolesions induced by heavy ions in human tissues: Experimental and theoretical studies

    PubMed Central

    Bleicher, Marcus; Burigo, Lucas; Herrlitz, Maren; Krämer, Michael; Mishustin, Igor; Müller, Iris; Natale, Francesco; Pshenichnov, Igor; Schramm, Stefan; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Wälzlein, Cathrin

    2012-01-01

    Summary The biological effects of energetic heavy ions are attracting increasing interest for their applications in cancer therapy and protection against space radiation. The cascade of events leading to cell death or late effects starts from stochastic energy deposition on the nanometer scale and the corresponding lesions in biological molecules, primarily DNA. We have developed experimental techniques to visualize DNA nanolesions induced by heavy ions. Nanolesions appear in cells as “streaks” which can be visualized by using different DNA repair markers. We have studied the kinetics of repair of these “streaks” also with respect to the chromatin conformation. Initial steps in the modeling of the energy deposition patterns at the micrometer and nanometer scale were made with MCHIT and TRAX models, respectively. PMID:23019551

  19. Experimental investigation of the flow-induced vibration of hydrofoils in cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoyu; Wu, Qin; Huang, Biao; Gao, Yuan

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the correlation between fluid induced vibration and unsteady cavitation behaviours. Experimental results are presented for a modified NACA66 hydrofoil, which is fixed at α=8°. The high-speed camera is synchronized with a single point Laser Doppler Vibrometer to analyze the transient cavitating flow structures and the corresponding structural vibration characteristics. The results showed that, with the decreasing of the cavitation number, the cavitating flows in a water tunnel display several types of cavitation patterns, such as incipient cavitation, sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation. The cavity shedding frequency reduces with the decrease of the cavitation number. As for the cloud cavitation regime, the trend of the vibration velocity goes up with the growth of the attached cavity, accompanied with small amplitude fluctuations. Then the collapse and shedding of the large-scale cloud cavities leads to substantial increase of the vibration velocity fluctuations.

  20. Differences in lymphocyte subpopulations and cell counts before and after experimentally induced swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Robert; Johannisson, Anders; Jacobson, Magdalena; Fellström, Claes; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the levels of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations before and immediately after experimentally induced swine dysentery. Twenty-one healthy crossbred pigs (approximately 22 kg) were orally inoculated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Blood was sampled before inoculation and when clinical signs of swine dysentery occurred. Pigs that remained healthy were sampled when killed. Total and differential white blood cell counts were performed, and lymphocyte subpopulations were analysed using flow cytometry. Following a mean incubation period of 13 days, 12 pigs developed swine dysentery, whereas nine remained healthy throughout the study. Before inoculation, pigs that subsequently developed swine dysentery displayed higher levels of circulating gamma delta T cells (mean +/- se; 30.7 +/- 3.5 %) compared with pigs that remained healthy (14.9 +/- 1.4 %). Sick animals also displayed lower levels of CD8 cells (24.6 +/- 1.5 %), cytotoxic/suppressor T cells (10.9 +/- 1.3 %) and CD4 CD8 T cells (8.1 +/- 1.0 %) than the pigs that remained healthy (34.9 +/- 3.1 %; 17.6 +/- 2.0 %; 13.6 +/- 2.3 %). No difference was observed in leukocyte counts before inoculation. At onset of swine dysentery, there was an increase in monocytes (from 1.5 +/- 0.2 x 10 to 3.8 +/- 0.5 x 10 l) and CD4 CD8 T cells (from 5.8 +/- 0.9 to 8.9 +/- 0.7 %). In conclusion, gamma delta T cells and CD8 cells may be associated with susceptibility to experimentally induced swine dysentery, whereas monocytes and CD4 CD8 T cells appear to be the major responding leukocytes during the disease.

  1. Experimental Neuromyelitis Optica Induces a Type I Interferon Signature in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Nathalie; Zeka, Bleranda; Schanda, Kathrin; Fujihara, Kazuo; Illes, Zsolt; Dahle, Charlotte; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an acute inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly affects spinal cord and optic nerves. Most patients harbor pathogenic autoantibodies, the so-called NMO-IgGs, which are directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) on astrocytes. When these antibodies gain access to the CNS, they mediate astrocyte destruction by complement-dependent and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In contrast to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients who benefit from therapies involving type I interferons (I-IFN), NMO patients typically do not profit from such treatments. How is I-IFN involved in NMO pathogenesis? To address this question, we made gene expression profiles of spinal cords from Lewis rat models of experimental neuromyelitis optica (ENMO) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We found an upregulation of I-IFN signature genes in EAE spinal cords, and a further upregulation of these genes in ENMO. To learn whether the local I-IFN signature is harmful or beneficial, we induced ENMO by transfer of CNS antigen-specific T cells and NMO-IgG, and treated the animals with I-IFN at the very onset of clinical symptoms, when the blood-brain barrier was open. With this treatment regimen, we could amplify possible effects of the I-IFN induced genes on the transmigration of infiltrating cells through the blood brain barrier, and on lesion formation and expansion, but could avoid effects of I-IFN on the differentiation of pathogenic T and B cells in the lymph nodes. We observed that I-IFN treated ENMO rats had spinal cord lesions with fewer T cells, macrophages/activated microglia and activated neutrophils, and less astrocyte damage than their vehicle treated counterparts, suggesting beneficial effects of I-IFN. PMID:26990978

  2. Polymethoxy flavonoids, nobiletin and tangeretin, prevent lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory bone loss in an experimental model for periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Hirata, Michiko; Matsumoto, Chiho; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2012-01-01

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxy flavonoid (PMF), inhibits systemic bone resorption and maintains bone mass in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized mice. This study examined the anti-inflammatory effects of PMFs, nobiletin, and tangeretin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone resorption. Nobiletin and tangeretin suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption and suppressed the receptor activator of NFκB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 macrophages. Nobiletin clearly restored the alveolar bone mass in a mouse experimental model for periodontitis by inhibiting LPS-induced bone resorption. PMFs may therefore provide a new therapeutic approach for periodontal bone loss.

  3. Experimentally induced compaction and coalification in peat from the Okefenokee Swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Dulong, F.T.; Neuzil, S.G.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of temperature (T) and pressure (P) on compaction and coalification of peat were studied in experiments that simulated open and closed systems of burial. In the open system, normal hydrostatic and lithostatic pressure conditions were simulated; in the closed system, hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures were equal. Samples consisted of fibric Taxodium peat and wood collected from the Okefenokee peat swamp. The experimental conditions were increased from ambient T and P to conditions simulating a depth of 900m at 100/sup 0/C over the span of one month and held constant for a second month until the experiment was terminated. The results indicate that more compaction and coalification occurred in the open system than in the closed system. The relative amount of CO/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ evolved in the open-system was more than four times the amount evolved in the closed system. The fluorescence spectra of pollen grains also indicate that the artificially induced coalification was greatest in the open system. The experimental data indicate that both compaction and coalification are controlled by peat composition and by P and T conditions during burial. At least in the early stages of coalification, wood in peat is not as compactible as the fibric peat. Anomalies in coal rank and in organic-maturation indicators may be the result of variable pressure conditions that affected or controlled the fugacity or activity of the reaction products during coalification.

  4. Experimentally-induced Increases in Early Gesture Lead to Increases in Spoken Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Raudenbush, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Differences in vocabulary that children bring with them to school can be traced back to the gestures they produce at 1;2, which, in turn, can be traced back to the gestures their parents produce at the same age (Rowe & Goldin-Meadow, 2009b). We ask here whether child gesture can be experimentally increased and, if so, whether the increases lead to increases in spoken vocabulary. Fifteen children aged 1;5 participated in an 8-week at-home intervention study (6 weekly training sessions plus follow-up 2 weeks later) in which all were exposed to object words, but only some were told to point at the named objects. Before each training session and at follow-up, children interacted naturally with caregivers to establish a baseline against which changes in communication were measured. Children who were told to gesture increased the number of gesture meanings they conveyed, not only during training but also during interactions with caregivers. These experimentally-induced increases in gesture led to larger spoken repertoires at follow-up. PMID:26120283

  5. Role of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the pathogenesis of experimental leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Prêtre, Gabriela; Olivera, Noelia; Cédola, Maia; Haase, Santiago; Alberdi, Lucrecia; Brihuega, Bibiana; Gómez, Ricardo M

    2011-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is a radical effector molecule of the innate immune system that can directly inhibit pathogen replication. In order to study subsequent iNOS kidney expression in experimental leptospirosis, Golden Syrian hamsters and C3H/HeJ mice were infected intraperitoneally with 10(2) or 10(7) virulent Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni (LIC) strain Fiocruz L1-130. Results showed increased levels of iNOS mRNA and protein in kidneys of infected animals when compared to that in mock-infected animals. To get a deeper insight into the role of iNOS in experimental leptospirosis, both subject species were treated or not treated with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 0.3mg/kg), an iNOS inhibitor. Treatment of infected hamsters with 4-AP accelerated the mortality rate to 100% by one day and increased the mortality rate from 20 to 60% in mice at 14 days post-infection. In kidney tissues, 4-AP treatment increased the bacterial burden, as demonstrated through leptospiral DNA quantification by real-time PCR, and aggravated tubulointerstitial nephritis. In addition, iNOS inhibition reduced the specific humoral response against LIC when compared to that in untreated infected animals. According to these results, iNOS expression and the resulting NO have an important role in leptospirosis.

  6. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, W.I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971. Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis. Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory. Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds. The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  7. Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a killifish in response to the introduction of guppies.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew R; Reznick, David N

    2011-04-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased predation on juvenile age/size-classes favors delayed maturation and decreased reproductive investment. Although this theory has received correlative support, experimental tests in nature are rare. In 1976 and 1981, guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were transplanted into localities that previously only contained a killifish, Rivulus hartii. This situation presents an opportunity to experimentally test this life-history prediction because guppies prey upon young Rivulus. We evaluated the response to selection in Rivulus by measuring phenotypic and genotypic divergence between introduction and upstream "control" localities that lack guppies. Contrary to expectations, Rivulus from the introduction sites evolved earlier maturation and increased reproductive investment within 25 years. Such evolutionary changes parallel previous investigations on natural communities of Rivulus, but do not comply with predictions of age/size-specific theory. Guppies also caused reduced densities and increased growth rates of Rivulus, which are hypothesized indirect effects of predation. Additional life-history theories show that changes in density and growth can interact with predator-induced mortality to alter the predicted trajectory of evolution. We discuss how these latter frameworks improve the fit between theory and evolution in Rivulus.

  8. Experimentally Induced Pulpal Lesion and Substance P Expression: Effect of Ketoprofen—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Gian Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Amodeo, Giada; Mangano, Alessandro; Levrini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate substance P (SP) and the effect of ketoprofen administration, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on SP in the pulp of upper third molars with experimentally induced pulpal lesion. Materials and Methods. A sample of 20 young systemically healthy adults of both sexes, nonsmokers, with a healthy upper third molar to extract for orthodontic purposes, was selected. Prior to the procedure, an inflammatory process was generated by mechanical exposure of the pulp. After 15 minutes, the pulp was collected using a sterile barbed broach. SP levels were determined by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 received a dose of ketoprofen 30 minutes prior to the experimental procedure. The subjects of group 2 did not receive any kind of drug administration. The patients were asked to complete a diary on the postoperative pain. Results. No statistically significant difference could be detected in SP expression between the two groups. In group 1, pain manifestation was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2. Conclusions. Preventive administration of ketoprofen did not significantly affect the pulpal levels of SP but resulted in a significantly postponed manifestation of pain after extraction. PMID:27034673

  9. Wild Vervet Monkeys Trade Tolerance and Specific Coalitionary Support for Grooming in Experimentally Induced Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Borgeaud, Christèle; Bshary, Redouan

    2015-11-16

    Grooming is a key social behavior in many primate species. Research has focused on three important aspects: the short- and long-term trading patterns of grooming for itself and/or for other commodities like tolerance or coalitionary support, the issue of whether exchanges are a convincing example for reciprocity, and what decision rules underlie trading. These issues remain largely unresolved due to the correlative nature of observational studies and the rarity of experimental studies. Here, we present a new experimental paradigm to address these questions in wild vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus pygerythrus). Adult females were first trained to approach a personal box, identifiable by unique color patterns, to access high-quality food. During the experiments, two boxes were placed next to each other to induce conflict through forced proximity. We found that while dominants were generally more tolerant toward bonded individuals, recent grooming increased tolerance independently of relationship quality. The latter result shows that vervet monkeys traded grooming for short-term tolerance, where dominants used a direct-reciprocity decision rule. In contrast, females invariably supported the higher-ranking opponent in a conflict, independently of who was the recent grooming partner. Nevertheless, recent grooming increased the probability that a female supported the partner during conflicts with a low-ranking third party. Thus, females' decisions about coalitionary support seem to integrate information about the current social hierarchy with recent grooming events. In conclusion, decision rules underlying trading of grooming for other commodities involve a variety of timescales and factors.

  10. Experimentally Induced Pulpal Lesion and Substance P Expression: Effect of Ketoprofen-A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Abbate, Gian Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Amodeo, Giada; Mangano, Alessandro; Levrini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate substance P (SP) and the effect of ketoprofen administration, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on SP in the pulp of upper third molars with experimentally induced pulpal lesion. Materials and Methods. A sample of 20 young systemically healthy adults of both sexes, nonsmokers, with a healthy upper third molar to extract for orthodontic purposes, was selected. Prior to the procedure, an inflammatory process was generated by mechanical exposure of the pulp. After 15 minutes, the pulp was collected using a sterile barbed broach. SP levels were determined by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 received a dose of ketoprofen 30 minutes prior to the experimental procedure. The subjects of group 2 did not receive any kind of drug administration. The patients were asked to complete a diary on the postoperative pain. Results. No statistically significant difference could be detected in SP expression between the two groups. In group 1, pain manifestation was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2. Conclusions. Preventive administration of ketoprofen did not significantly affect the pulpal levels of SP but resulted in a significantly postponed manifestation of pain after extraction. PMID:27034673

  11. Application of metabonomics on an experimental model of fibrosis and cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Constantinou, Maria A.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Mikros, Emmanuel . E-mail: mikros@pharm.uoa.gr

    2007-01-01

    Metabonomics has already been used to discriminate different pathological states in biological fields. The metabolic profiles of chronic experimental fibrosis and cirrhosis induction in rats were investigated using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy of liver extracts and serum combined with pattern recognition techniques. Rats were continuously administered with thioacetamide (TAA) in the drinking water (300 mg TAA/L), and sacrificed on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd month of treatment. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of aqueous and lipid liver extracts, together with serum were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Liver portions were also subjected to histopathological examination and biochemical determination of malondialdehyde (MDA). Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were progressively induced in TAA-treated rats, verified by the histopathological examination and the alterations of MDA levels. TAA administration revealed a number of changes in the {sup 1}H NMR spectra compared to control samples. The performance of PCA in liver extracts and serum, discriminated the control samples from the fibrotic and cirrhotic ones. Metabolic alterations revealed in NMR spectra during experimental liver fibrosis and cirrhosis induction, characterize the stage of fibrosis and could be illustrated by subsequent PCA of the spectra. Additionally, the PCA plots of the serum samples presented marked clustering during fibrosis progression and could be extended in clinical diagnosis for the management of cirrhotic patients.

  12. Prediction of Symptom Change in Placebo Versus No-Treatment Group in Experimentally Induced Motion Sickness.

    PubMed

    Horing, Bjoern; Weimer, Katja; Muth, Eric R; Enck, Paul

    2015-09-01

    The long-standing question of who responds to placebo and who does not is of great theoretical and clinical relevance and has received increasing attention in recent years. We therefore performed a post hoc analysis of one of our previously published studies on placebo responses (PRs). In the analysis, fourteen potential predictors for the PR on experimentally induced motion sickness in 32 healthy volunteers were explored using moderated multiple regression. Generalized self-efficacy, generalized self, internal locus of control and cognitive flexibility were significantly associated with symptom improvement in the placebo group, as compared to the untreated control group. Notably, the directions of the associations were such that the "unfavorable" side of the constructs (e.g. low self-efficacy) predicted a higher PR. Instead, the "favorable" side predicted symptom improvement in the control group. Results fit well with prior research into psychological influences on motion sickness. Although PRs in motion sickness are not well established, it is suggested to include the identified constructs in future research involving motion sickness-related symptoms such as nausea and vertigo. Concerning PRs in general, the results may have implications for clinical as well as experimental research on other symptoms and disorders, such as pain or depression. PMID:25912825

  13. Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a killifish in response to the introduction of guppies.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Matthew R; Reznick, David N

    2011-04-01

    Life-history theory predicts that increased predation on juvenile age/size-classes favors delayed maturation and decreased reproductive investment. Although this theory has received correlative support, experimental tests in nature are rare. In 1976 and 1981, guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were transplanted into localities that previously only contained a killifish, Rivulus hartii. This situation presents an opportunity to experimentally test this life-history prediction because guppies prey upon young Rivulus. We evaluated the response to selection in Rivulus by measuring phenotypic and genotypic divergence between introduction and upstream "control" localities that lack guppies. Contrary to expectations, Rivulus from the introduction sites evolved earlier maturation and increased reproductive investment within 25 years. Such evolutionary changes parallel previous investigations on natural communities of Rivulus, but do not comply with predictions of age/size-specific theory. Guppies also caused reduced densities and increased growth rates of Rivulus, which are hypothesized indirect effects of predation. Additional life-history theories show that changes in density and growth can interact with predator-induced mortality to alter the predicted trajectory of evolution. We discuss how these latter frameworks improve the fit between theory and evolution in Rivulus. PMID:21062280

  14. Innate immune response in experimentally induced bovine intramammary infection with Staphylococcus simulans and S. epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are in several countries the most common bacteria isolated in subclinical mastitis. To investigate the innate immune response of cows to infections with two common mastitis-causing CNS species, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans, experimental intramammary infection was induced in eight cows using a crossover design. The milk somatic cell count (SCC), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) activity, milk amyloid A (MAA), serum amyloid A (SAA) and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were determined at several time points before and after challenge. All cows became infected and showed mild to moderate clinical signs of mastitis. The spontaneous elimination rate of the 16 infections was 31.3%, with no difference between species. Infections triggered a local cytokine response in the experimental udder quarters, but cytokines were not detected in the uninfected control quarters or in systemic circulation. The innate local immune response for S. simulans was slightly stronger, with significantly higher concentrations of IL-1β and IL-8. The IL-8 response could be divided into early, delayed, or combined types of response. The CNS species or persistency of infection was not associated with the type of IL-8 response. No significant differences were seen between spontaneously eliminated or persistent infections. PMID:21414189

  15. Experimental Protoporphyria: Effect of Bile Acids on Liver Damage Induced by Griseofulvin

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, María del Carmen; Ruspini, Silvina Fernanda; Afonso, Susana Graciela; Meiss, Roberto; Buzaleh, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bile acids administration to an experimental mice model of Protoporphyria produced by griseofulvin (Gris) was investigated. The aim was to assess whether porphyrin excretion could be accelerated by bile acids treatment in an attempt to diminish liver damage induced by Gris. Liver damage markers, heme metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters were analyzed in mice treated with Gris and deoxycholic (DXA), dehydrocholic (DHA), chenodeoxycholic, or ursodeoxycholic (URSO). The administration of Gris alone increased the activities of glutathione reductase (GRed), superoxide dismutase (SOD), alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), as well as total porphyrins, glutathione (GSH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels in liver. Among the bile acids studied, DXA and DHA increased PROTO IX excretion, DXA also abolished the action of Gris, reducing lipid peroxidation and hepatic GSH and CYP levels, and the activities of GGT, AP, SOD, and GST returned to control values. However, porphyrin accumulation was not prevented by URSO; instead this bile acid reduced ALA-S and the antioxidant defense enzymes system activities. In conclusion, we postulate that DXA acid would be more effective to prevent liver damage induced by Gris. PMID:25945334

  16. Experimental confirmation of the scaling theory for noise-induced crises

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerer, J.C.; Ditto, W.L.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E.; Spano, M.L. Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland 20723 Naval Surface Warfare Center, Silver Spring, Maryland 20903)

    1991-04-15

    We investigate experimentally the scaling of the average time {tau} between intermittent, noise-induced bursts for a chaotic mechanical system near a crisis. The system studied is a periodically driven (frequency {ital f}) magnetoelastic ribbon. Theory predicts that for deterministic crises where {tau} scales as {tau}{similar to}{vert bar}{ital f}{minus}{ital f}{sub {ital c}}{vert bar}{sup {minus}{gamma}} ({ital f}{lt}{ital f}{sub {ital c}}, {ital f}={ital f}{sub {ital c}} at crisis), the characteristic time between noise-induced bursts ({ital f}{ge}{ital f}{sub {ital c}}) should scale as {tau}{similar to}{sigma}{sup {minus}{gamma}}{ital g}({vert bar}{ital f}{minus}{ital f}{sub {ital c}}{vert bar}/{sigma}), where {sigma} is the noise strength and {gamma} is the same in both cases. We determine {gamma} for the low-noise ( deterministic'') system, then add noise and observe that the scaling for {tau} is as predicted.

  17. Cell-specific regulation of Ferroportin transcription following experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiabrando, Deborah; Fiorito, Veronica; Marro, Samuele; Silengo, Lorenzo; Altruda, Fiorella; Tolosano, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Ferroportin (FPN), the sole characterized iron exporter, is mainly controlled by the peptide hormone hepcidin in response to iron, erythroid factors, hypoxia, and inflammation. In addition, intracellular iron level controls FPN translation by modulating the binding of Iron Responsive Proteins at the 5'UTR of FPN mRNA. Recently, hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)2α has been shown to regulate FPN expression in intestinal cells. Here we show that, during experimentally-induced acute anemia in mice, FPN is regulated at transcriptional level in a cell-specific manner. FPN mRNA level increases in duodenum and spleen macrophages, whereas it does not change in liver and is strongly down-regulated in erythroid precursors. These results were confirmed in Caco2, Raw264.7 and K562 cells treated with a hypoxic stimulus. Moreover, we found a differential expression of HIF1α and HIF2α in cells and tissues that might account for the specificity of FPN regulation. Thus, hypoxia, by directly controlling hepcidin and its target FPN, orchestrates a complex regulatory network aimed at ensuring rapid iron recovery from the periphery and efficient iron utilization in the erythroid compartment.

  18. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels.

  19. Low-Dose IL-2 Induces Regulatory T Cell-Mediated Control of Experimental Food Allergy.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Benjamin; Vigneron, James; Levacher, Béatrice; Vazquez, Thomas; Pitoiset, Fabien; Brimaud, Faustine; Churlaud, Guillaume; Klatzmann, David; Bellier, Bertrand

    2016-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are pivotal for maintenance of immune self-tolerance and also regulate immune responses to exogenous Ags, including allergens. Both decreased Treg number and function have been reported in allergic patients, offering new therapeutic perspectives. We previously demonstrated that Tregs can be selectively expanded and activated by low doses of IL-2 (ld-IL-2) inducing immunoregulation without immunosuppression and established its protective effect in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of ld-IL-2 to control allergy in an experimental model of food allergy. Ld-IL-2 induced Treg expansion and activation that elicited protection against clinical manifestations of food allergy in two mouse models with OVA and peanut. This clinical effect was lost in Treg-depleted mice, demonstrating the major contribution of Tregs in ld-IL-2 efficacy. Mechanistic studies further indicated that protection from allergy could be explained by a Treg-dependent local modification of the Th1/Th2 balance and an inhibition of mast cell recruitment and activation. Preventive and therapeutic effects of ld-IL-2 were observed over a 7-mo-period, highlighting its long-term efficacy. This study demonstrated that ld-IL-2 is efficient to prevent and to treat allergic immune responses, and thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy for managing allergic diseases. PMID:27259854

  20. Plasmepsin 4-Deficient Plasmodium berghei Are Virulence Attenuated and Induce Protective Immunity against Experimental Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Spaccapelo, Roberta; Janse, Chris J.; Caterbi, Sara; Franke-Fayard, Blandine; Bonilla, J. Alfredo; Syphard, Luke M.; Di Cristina, Manlio; Dottorini, Tania; Savarino, Andrea; Cassone, Antonio; Bistoni, Francesco; Waters, Andrew P.; Dame, John B.; Crisanti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites lacking plasmepsin 4 (PM4), an aspartic protease that functions in the lysosomal compartment and contributes to hemoglobin digestion, have only a modest decrease in the asexual blood-stage growth rate; however, PM4 deficiency in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei results in significantly less virulence than that for the parental parasite. P. berghei Δpm4 parasites failed to induce experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in ECM-susceptible mice, and ECM-resistant mice were able to clear infections. Furthermore, after a single infection, all convalescent mice were protected against subsequent parasite challenge for at least 1 year. Real-time in vivo parasite imaging and splenectomy experiments demonstrated that protective immunity acted through antibody-mediated parasite clearance in the spleen. This work demonstrates, for the first time, that a single Plasmodium gene disruption can generate virulence-attenuated parasites that do not induce cerebral complications and, moreover, are able to stimulate strong protective immunity against subsequent challenge with wild-type parasites. Parasite blood-stage attenuation should help identify protective immune responses against malaria, unravel parasite-derived factors involved in malarial pathologies, such as cerebral malaria, and potentially pave the way for blood-stage whole organism vaccines. PMID:20019192

  1. In vivo microtubule dynamics during experimentally induced conversions between tubulin assembly states in Allogromia laticollaris.

    PubMed

    Welnhofer, E A; Travis, J L

    1996-01-01

    A distinctive property of foraminiferan tubulin is that, in addition to microtubules (MTs), it exists in an alternate assembly state, helical filaments. Here, we have examined in vivo MT dynamics during experimentally induced conversions between these two assembly states in the reticulopods of the marine foraminiferan Allogromia laticollaris. Exposure to high extracellular concentrations of Mg2+ (165 mM) resulted in a complete conversion of MTs into helical filaments. However, Mg2+ treatment also induced a retrograde movement of organelles and cytoplasm, and it was necessary to inhibit this response in order to assess the effects of assembly state changes on individual MTs. This was accomplished by simultaneous treatment with high extracellular Mg2+ and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). The resulting loss in MTs was detected by video enhanced DIC (VEC-DIC) microscopy as either an endwise MT shortening (at an average rate of 474 microns/min) or transformation into one or more irregularly shaped fibrils, which we termed residual fibrils. Correlative immunofluorescence and video microscopy showed residual fibrils to be composed of helical filaments. Removal of extracellular Mg2+/DNP initiated a reversal in assembly state, from helical filaments into MTs, which was completed within 5 min. VEC-DIC microscopy showed that MTs reformed by an endwise lengthening at an average rate of 216 microns/min. These results suggest that conversion between alternate tubulin assembly states provides a more rapid means to build and dismantle MTs than conventional subunit-driven pathways.

  2. Critical role of activation induced cytidine deaminase in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yonglian; Peng, Ivan; Senger, Kate; Hamidzadeh, Kajal; Reichelt, Mike; Baca, Miriam; Yeh, Ronald; Lorenzo, Maria N; Sebrell, Andrew; Dela Cruz, Christopher; Tam, Lucinda; Corpuz, Racquel; Wu, Jiansheng; Sai, Tao; Roose-Girma, Merone; Warming, Søren; Balazs, Mercedesz; Gonzalez, Lino C; Caplazi, Patrick; Martin, Flavius; Devoss, Jason; Zarrin, Ali A

    2013-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder caused by chronic inflammation and demyelination within the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical studies in MS patients have demonstrated efficacy with B cell targeted therapies such as anti-CD20. However, the exact role that B cells play in the disease process is unclear. Activation Induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme for the processes of antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. To evaluate the impact of affinity maturation and isotype switching, we have interrogated the effect of AID-deficiency in an animal model of MS. Here, we show that the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the extracellular domain of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG1-125) is significantly reduced in Aicda deficient mice, which, unlike wild-type mice, lack serum IgG to myelin associated antigens. MOG specific T cell responses are comparable between wild-type and Aicda knockout mice suggesting an active role for antigen experienced B cells. Thus affinity maturation and/or class switching are critical processes in the pathogenesis of EAE. PMID:23167594

  3. Critical role of activation induced cytidine deaminase in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder caused by chronic inflammation and demyelination within the central nervous system (CNS). Clinical studies in MS patients have demonstrated efficacy with B cell targeted therapies such as anti-CD20. However, the exact role that B cells play in the disease process is unclear. Activation Induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme for the processes of antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching. To evaluate the impact of affinity maturation and isotype switching, we have interrogated the effect of AID-deficiency in an animal model of MS. Here, we show that the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by the extracellular domain of human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG1-125) is significantly reduced in Aicda deficient mice, which, unlike wild-type mice, lack serum IgG to myelin associated antigens. MOG specific T cell responses are comparable between wild-type and Aicda knockout mice suggesting an active role for antigen experienced B cells. Thus affinity maturation and/or class switching are critical processes in the pathogenesis of EAE. PMID:23167594

  4. Exploring the electron density in plasma induced by EUV radiation: I. Experimental study in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, R. M.; Beckers, J.; Osorio, E. A.; Astakhov, D. I.; Goedheer, W. J.; Lee, C. J.; Ivanov, V. V.; Krivtsum, V. M.; Koshelev, K. N.; Lopaev, D. V.; Bijkerk, F.; Banine, V. Y.

    2016-04-01

    Plasmas induced by EUV radiation are unique since they are created without the need of any discharge. Moreover, it is essential to characterize these plasmas to understand and predict their long term impact on highly delicate optics in EUV lithography tools. In this paper we study plasmas induced by 13.5 nm EUV radiation in hydrogen gas. The electron density is measured temporally resolved using a non-invasive technique known as microwave cavity resonance spectroscopy. The influence of the EUV pulse energy and gas pressure on the temporal evolution of the electron density has been explored over a parameter range relevant for industry. Our experimental results show that the maximum electron density is in the order of 1014 m-3 and depends linearly on the EUV pulse energy. Furthermore, the maximum electron density depends quadratically on the pressure; the linear term is caused by photoionization and the quadratic term by subsequent electron impact ionization. The decay of the plasma is governed by ambipolar diffusion and, hence, becomes slower at elevated pressures. Similarities and differences of the same processes in argon are highlighted in this paper.

  5. Extract of Sesbania grandiflora Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Panigrahi, Ghanshyam; Panda, Chhayakanta; Patra, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sesbania grandiflora has been traditionally used as antidiabetic, antioxidant, antipyretic, and expectorant and in the management of various ailments. Materials and Methods. The study evaluates the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG) in type 2 diabetic rats induced by low dose streptozotocine and high fat diet. Diabetic rats were given vehicle, MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), and the standard drug, metformin (10 mg/kg), for 28 days. During the experimental period, body weight, abdominal girth, food intake, fasting serum glucose, urine analyses were measured. Insulin tolerance test was carried out on 25th day of drug treatment period. Serum analyses for lipid profile and SGOT and SGPT and serums creatinine, urea, protein, SOD, and MDA were also carried out. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, the liver and pancreas were immediately dissected out, and the ratio of pancreas to body weight and hepatic glycogen were calculated. Results. MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P < 0.05) of raised blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and also restored other parameters to normal level. Conclusion. Therefore, it is concluded that MESG has potential antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipemic activities and alleviate insulin resistance conditions. PMID:27313954

  6. Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaf extracts inhibit acetylcholinesterase and improve cognition in rats with experimentally induced dementia.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Mani, Vasudevan; Ashok Dundapa, Taranalli; Watanabe, Kenichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-09-01

    Cognitive disorders such as dementia, attention deficits, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been well investigated. However, effective interventions for the promotion and progression of AD are unavailable to date. The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous (300 and 500 mg/kg) and alcoholic (300 and 500 mg/kg) extracts of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves as an antidementic and anticholinesterase agent and also as an immunostimulant in rats. Maximal electroshock, atropine, and cyclosporine were used to induce dementia. The passive avoidance task was used for assessing memory. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was estimated in different parts of the brain, and immune status was studied using dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) skin sensitivity tests. In all the three models both aqueous and alcoholic O. sanctum extracts decreased the time taken to reach the shock-free zone and the number of mistakes and significantly decreased the AChE activity in rats. O. sanctum treatment significantly increased the induration in the DNCB skin test. Therefore, O. sanctum was shown to be useful for the management of experimentally induced cognitive dysfunctions in rats.

  7. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    PubMed

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:21584872

  8. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Yogesh A.; Panjabi, Ritesh; Patel, Vishvas; Tawade, Aditi; Gokhale, Alok

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gmelina arborea Roxb (Verbenaceae), also known as “Gambhari”, is an important medicinal plant in the Ayurveda. There are no meticulous scientific reports on effect of the plant on inflammation and pain. Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of aqueous extracts (AE) and methanol extracts (ME) of G. arborea. Materials and Methods: The AE and ME of stembark of G. arborea was prepared by cold maceration and Soxhlet extraction technique respectively. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined in Wistar albino rats in a model of acute plantar inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated by using hot plate test and writhing test in Swiss albino mice. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: AE and ME at dose of 500 mg/kg showed maximum inhibition in carrageenan induced inflammation up to 30.15 and 31.21% respectively. In hot plate test, the AE and ME showed the maximum response of 8.8 ± 0.97 (P < 0.01) and 8.2 ± 1.24 (P < 0.01) respectively at dose of 500 mg/kg when compared with control. AE showed maximum inhibition of writhing response (84.3%) as compared to ME (77.9%) in writhing test at a dose of 500 mg/kg. Conclusion: The findings suggested that G. arborea possess significant anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities. PMID:24250144

  9. Prevention of chemically induced diabetes mellitus in experimental animals by virgin argan oil.

    PubMed

    Bellahcen, Said; Mekhfi, Hassane; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Hakkou, Abdelkader; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2012-02-01

    The argan tree plays an important socioeconomic and ecologic role in South Morocco. Moreover, there is much evidence for the beneficial effects of virgin argan oil (VAO) on human health. Thus, this study investigated whether administering VAO to rats can prevent the development of diabetes. VAO extracted by a traditional method from the almonds of Argania spinosa (2 mL/kg) was administered orally (for 7 consecutive days) to rats before and during intraperitoneal alloxan administration (75 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days). An alloxan diabetic-induced untreated group and treated by table oil were used as control groups. Body mass, blood glucose and hepatic glycogen were evaluated. In the present study, subchronic treatment with VAO at a dose of 2 mL/kg, before the experimental induction of diabetes, prevented the body mass loss, induced a significant reduction of blood glucose and a significant increase of hepatic glycogen level (p < 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the present study shows that argan oil should be further investigated in a human study to clarify its possible role in reducing weight loss in diabetics, and even in inhibiting the development or progression of diabetes. This antidiabetic effect could be due to the richness of VAO in tocopherols, phenolic compounds and unsaturated fatty acids.

  10. Role of neurosteroids in experimental 3-nitropropionic acid induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pushpender; Kumar, Puneet; Khan, Aamir; Deshmukh, Rahul; Lal Sharma, Pyare

    2014-01-15

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms. Systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid, a complex II inhibitor of the electron transport chain induces selective striatal lesions in rodents. Neurosteroids are synthesized in central nervous system, able to modulate GABAA receptor function and has been reported to have neuroprotective action. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of neurosteroids such as progesterone and pregnenolone which are positive and negative modulators of GABA respectively against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease. Systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (10mg/kg i.p.) for 14 days significantly reduced body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, balance beam walk performance, antioxidant defense enzymes (reduced glutathione and catalase) and significantly increase oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation and nitrite level) in striatum and cortex. 3-Nitropropionic acid treatment also increases pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) level in striatum. Progesterone (10, 20mg/kg/day i.p.) treatments for 14 days significantly reversed the behavioral, antioxidant defense enzymes, oxidative stress marker and pro-inflammatory cytokines as compared to the 3-Nitropropionic acid treated group. Pregnenolone (1 and 2mg/kg i.p.), a negative modulator of GABAA pretreatment significantly reversed the protective effect of progesterone on behavioral and biochemical parameters. The results of the present study suggest that the positive GABAergic modulation may be beneficial for the treatment of motor disorder. PMID:24333475

  11. Extract of Sesbania grandiflora Ameliorates Hyperglycemia in High Fat Diet-Streptozotocin Induced Experimental Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Ghanshyam; Panda, Chhayakanta; Patra, Arjun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sesbania grandiflora has been traditionally used as antidiabetic, antioxidant, antipyretic, and expectorant and in the management of various ailments. Materials and Methods. The study evaluates the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora (MESG) in type 2 diabetic rats induced by low dose streptozotocine and high fat diet. Diabetic rats were given vehicle, MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.), and the standard drug, metformin (10 mg/kg), for 28 days. During the experimental period, body weight, abdominal girth, food intake, fasting serum glucose, urine analyses were measured. Insulin tolerance test was carried out on 25th day of drug treatment period. Serum analyses for lipid profile and SGOT and SGPT and serums creatinine, urea, protein, SOD, and MDA were also carried out. At the end of the experiment, animals were euthanized, the liver and pancreas were immediately dissected out, and the ratio of pancreas to body weight and hepatic glycogen were calculated. Results. MESG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) induced significant reduction (P < 0.05) of raised blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and also restored other parameters to normal level. Conclusion. Therefore, it is concluded that MESG has potential antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipemic activities and alleviate insulin resistance conditions. PMID:27313954

  12. Antitussive effect of naringin on experimentally induced cough in Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sen; Li, Peibo; Yang, Hongliang; Fang, Siqi; Su, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism of action of naringin has been investigated in different models of experimentally induced cough in guinea pigs. In contrast to codeine phosphate (6 mg/kg, intravenous administration [i. v.]), naringin (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i. v.) had no central antitussive effect on cough elicited by electrical stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve. Naringin (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 µmol) could not prevent the cough reflex induced by stimulation of the trachea after intracerebroventricular injection (i. c. v.), while codeine phosphate (0.5 µmol) was highly effective. Further characterizing the peripheral mechanism of naringin, we found that its effect (50 mg/kg, i. v.) was not affected by the depletion of sensory neuropeptides, whereas levodropropizine (10 mg/kg, i. v.) lost its capacity to prevent cough in the capsaicin-desensitized guinea pig. Furthermore, pretreatment with glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i. p.]) significantly reduced the antitussive effect of pinacidil (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous [s. c.]), but could not antagonize the antitussive effect of naringin (30 mg/kg, s. c.). Our present results suggest that naringin is not a central antitussive drug. And naringin does not exert its peripheral antitussive effect through either the sensory neuropeptides system or the modulation of ATP-sensitive K (+) channels. PMID:20645246

  13. Experimentally induced sickness decreases food intake, but not hoarding, in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus).

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Alfredo; Proud, Kevin; Demas, Gregory E

    2008-11-01

    A wide range of physiological and behavioral alterations occur in response to sickness. Sickness behaviors, rather than incidental by-products or side-effects of acute illness, serve as adaptive functional responses that allow animals to cope with a pathogenic challenge. Among the more salient sickness behaviors is a reduction in food intake; virtually all sick animals display marked decreases in this behavior. Food intake, however, is only one component of the food-related behavioral repertoire. For many mammalian species, food hoarding represents a substantial portion of the total energetic budget. Here we tested the effects of experimental sickness on food hoarding and food intake in a naturally food hoarding species, Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). Adult male and female hamsters received injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce sickness or control injections. LPS-induced sickness resulted in a marked decrease in food intake in both males and females, but did not decrease hoarding in either sex. These results support previous findings suggesting that food hoarding and food intake appear to be differentially regulated at the physiological level.

  14. Changes and significance of IL-25 in chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA).

    PubMed

    Kaiwen, Wang; Zhaoliang, Su; Yinxia, Zhao; Siamak, Sandoghchian Shotorbani; Zhijun, Jiao; Yuan, Xue; Heng, Yang; Dong, Zheng; Yanfang, Liu; Pei, Shen; Shengjun, Wang; Qixiang, Shao; Xinxiang, Huang; Liwei, Lu; Huaxi, Xu

    2012-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease. It is a systemic inflammatory disease, characterized by chronic, symmetrical, multi-articular synovial arthritis. IL-25 (IL-17E) is a member of the recently emerged cytokine family (IL-17s), which is expressed in Th2 cells and bone marrow-derived mast cells. Unlike the other members of this family, IL-25 is capable of inducing Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and also promotes the release of some pro-immune factors (IL-6 and IL-8). IL-25 is also a pleiotropic factor, which constitutes a tissue-specific pathological injury and chronic inflammation. In this study, we used chicken collagen II-induced experimental arthritis (CIA) model in DBA/1 mice to investigate the relationship between IL-25 and other inflammatory factors, revealing the possible mechanism in CIA. Our results showed that the expression level of IL-25 was enhanced in the late stage of CIA, and IL-17 was increased in the early stage of the disease. It is well known that IL-17 has a crucial role in the development of RA pathogenesis, and IL-25 plays a significant role in humoral immune. For reasons given above, we suggested that the IL-25 inhibited IL-17 expression to some extent, while enhancing the production of IL-4. It was confirmed that IL-25 not only regulated the cellular immune, but also involved the humoral immune in rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Treatment of protracted diarrhea of infancy.

    PubMed

    Merritt, R J; Shah, P H; Hack, S L; Henton, D; Smith, T; Thomas, D W; Sinatra, F R

    1984-08-01

    Ten patients with protracted diarrhea of infancy received either 8% or 16% of 130 calories/kg/day as amino acids. Patients were treated initially with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and subsequently with an elemental diet. Nitrogen balance was better during TPN in those who received the higher amino acid intake. No differences were noted between groups in weight gain or restoration of muscle mass. Higher levels of serum urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase were noted in patients with the higher amino acid intake; cholestatic liver injury developed in two of these patients. The patients receiving the higher amount of amino acid demonstrated enhanced calciuria during TPN. Other than better nitrogen balance, no clinical benefits and more undesirable side effects were observed in patients receiving 16% amino acid calories.

  16. The Complement Anaphylatoxin C5a Induces Apoptosis in Adrenomedullary Cells during Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Flierl, Michael A.; Rittirsch, Daniel; Chen, Anthony J.; Nadeau, Brian A.; Day, Danielle E.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Huber-Lang, Markus S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis remains a poorly understood, enigmatic disease. One of the cascades crucially involved in its pathogenesis is the complement system. Especially the anaphylatoxin C5a has been shown to have numerous harmful effects during sepsis. We have investigated the impact of high levels of C5a on the adrenal medulla following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in rats as well as the role of C5a on catecholamine production from pheochromocytoma-derived PC12 cells. There was significant apoptosis of adrenal medulla cells in rats 24 hrs after CLP, as assessed by the TUNEL technique. These effects could be reversed by dual-blockade of the C5a receptors, C5aR and C5L2. When rats were subjected to CLP, levels of C5a and norepinephrine were found to be antipodal as a function of time. PC12 cell production of norepinephrine and dopamine was significantly blunted following exposure to recombinant rat C5a in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This impaired production could be related to C5a-induced initiation of apoptosis as defined by binding of Annexin V and Propidium Iodine to PC12 cells. Collectively, we describe a C5a-dependent induction of apoptotic events in cells of adrenal medulla in vivo and pheochromocytoma PC12 cells in vitro. These data suggest that experimental sepsis induces apoptosis of adrenomedullary cells, which are responsible for the bulk of endogenous catecholamines. Septic shock may be linked to these events. Since blockade of both C5a receptors virtually abolished adrenomedullary apoptosis in vivo, C5aR and C5L2 become promising targets with implications on future complement-blocking strategies in the clinical setting of sepsis. PMID:18648551

  17. Computational and experimental analysis of TMS-induced electric field vectors critical to neuronal activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Todd D.; Salinas, Felipe S.; Narayana, Shalini; Fox, Peter T.; Mogul, David J.

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) represents a powerful technique to noninvasively modulate cortical neurophysiology in the brain. However, the relationship between the magnetic fields created by TMS coils and neuronal activation in the cortex is still not well-understood, making predictable cortical activation by TMS difficult to achieve. Our goal in this study was to investigate the relationship between induced electric fields and cortical activation measured by blood flow response. Particularly, we sought to discover the E-field characteristics that lead to cortical activation. Approach. Subject-specific finite element models (FEMs) of the head and brain were constructed for each of six subjects using magnetic resonance image scans. Positron emission tomography (PET) measured each subject’s cortical response to image-guided robotically-positioned TMS to the primary motor cortex. FEM models that employed the given coil position, orientation, and stimulus intensity in experimental applications of TMS were used to calculate the electric field (E-field) vectors within a region of interest for each subject. TMS-induced E-fields were analyzed to better understand what vector components led to regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses recorded by PET. Main results. This study found that decomposing the E-field into orthogonal vector components based on the cortical surface geometry (and hence, cortical neuron directions) led to significant differences between the regions of cortex that were active and nonactive. Specifically, active regions had significantly higher E-field components in the normal inward direction (i.e., parallel to pyramidal neurons in the dendrite-to-axon orientation) and in the tangential direction (i.e., parallel to interneurons) at high gradient. In contrast, nonactive regions had higher E-field vectors in the outward normal direction suggesting inhibitory responses. Significance. These results provide critical new

  18. Differential effects of experimentally induced chronic pancreatitis on neuropeptide immunoreactivities in the feline pancreas.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, R; Sternini, C; Widdison, A L; Alvarez, C; Brecha, N C; Reber, H A; Go, V L

    1993-11-01

    The distribution and concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) immunoreactivities in the pancreas of cats with experimentally induced chronic pancreatitis and of age- and sex-matched controls were investigated. By narrowing the main pancreatic duct between the head and the body to approximately 25% of its normal diameter, we induced within 5 weeks chronic pancreatitis restricted to the body and tail. In control animals, peptide immunoreactive nerves were distributed to the islets, acini, and ducts; the latter were predominantly innervated by fibers immunoreactive for NPY, VIP, or CGRP. The vasculature received an abundant supply of NPY-, CGRP-, and, to a lesser extent, SP-containing axons. Within intrapancreatic ganglia, peptide immunoreactivities were identified in fibers and ganglion cells, with the exception of CGRP and SP immunostaining, which could be visualized only in fibers. In animals with chronic pancreatitis, the innervation pattern of each peptidergic system was comparable to that described in controls. However, there was a remarkable increase in the density and staining intensity of VIP and NPY immunoreactive fibers in the exocrine parenchyma and fibrous septa of the body and tail, where chronic pancreatitis developed. Fibers immunoreactive for CGRP and SP also were moderately denser than in controls, whereas those containing GRP immunoreactivity did not show any detectable changes. In addition, a marked increase of the immunostaining for VIP and, to a much lesser extent, for NPY and GRP, was observed in neurites supplying the head of the pancreas, which appeared devoid of histologically detectable pathological alterations. Radioimmunoassay analysis confirmed the immunohistochemical observations. The increased density of distinct peptidergic nerves in the pancreas with induced chronic pancreatitis might be the result of

  19. Androgen- and Estrogen-Receptor Content in Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Canine Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Trachtenberg, John; Hicks, L. Louise; Walsh, Patrick C.

    1980-01-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism by which steroidal hormones influence the development of canine prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear and cytosolic androgen- and estrogen-receptor content, as measured under exchange conditions by the binding of [3H]R1881 (methyltrienolone) and [3H]estradiol, respectively, were quantitated in the prostates of purebred beagles of known age. In young dogs with spontaneously arising and experimentally induced (androstanediol plus estradiol treatment) prostatic hyperplasia, nuclear, but not cytosolic, prostatic androgen-receptor content was significantly greater than that determined in the normal prostates of age-matched dogs (3,452±222 and 4,035±274 fmol/mg DNA vs. 2,096±364 fmol/mg DNA, respectively). No differences were observed between the androgen-receptor content of the normal prostates of young dogs and the hyperplastic prostates of old dogs. The cytosolic and nuclear estrogen-receptor content of spontaneously arising prostatic hyperplasia in both young and old animals was similar to that found in normal prostates. The administration of estradiol plus androstanediol to castrate dogs significantly increased the prostatic nuclear androgen-receptor content over that found in dogs treated only with androstanediol. This estradiol-associated increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content was accompanied by the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Estradiol treatment of castrate dogs resulted in an increase in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, in the appearance of a putative prostatic cytosolic progesterone receptor, and in an alteration of the epithelium of the prostate to one characterized by squamous metaplasia. Treatment of castrate dogs with both estradiol and androstanediol resulted in a reduction in prostatic nuclear estrogen-receptor content, disappearance of the progesterone receptor, and loss of squamous metaplasia. An increase in nuclear androgen-receptor content, thus, appears to be an important event in the

  20. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on experimentally induced pain: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) can reduce pain, the mechanisms involved are not well established. There is a need to review the scientific literature to establish the evidence-base for the reduction of pain following SMT. Objectives To determine if SMT can reduce experimentally induced pain, and if so, if the effect is i) only at the level of the treated spinal segment, ii) broader but in the same general region as SMT is performed, or iii) systemic. Design A systematic critical literature review. Methods A systematic search was performed for experimental studies on healthy volunteers and people without chronic syndromes, in which the immediate effect of SMT was tested. Articles selected were reviewed blindly by two authors. A summary quality score was calculated to indicate level of manuscript quality. Outcome was considered positive if the pain-reducing effect was statistically significant. Separate evidence tables were constructed with information relevant to each research question. Results were interpreted taking into account their manuscript quality. Results Twenty-two articles were included, describing 43 experiments, primarily on pain produced by pressure (n = 27) or temperature (n = 9). Their quality was generally moderate. A hypoalgesic effect was shown in 19/27 experiments on pressure pain, produced by pressure in 3/9 on pain produced by temperature and in 6/7 tests on pain induced by other measures. Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear. Manipulation of a “restricted motion segment” (“manipulable lesion”) seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs. lower quality scores. Conclusions These results indicate that SMT has a direct local/regional hypoalgesic effect on

  1. Experimental and Numerical Study of Laser-Induced Forward Transfer Printing of Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Matthew S.

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is an emerging high-resolution printing technique, which can deposit a wide range of fluid materials without a nozzle. In this process, a pulsed laser initiates the highly directed expulsion of fluid from a thin donor ink film onto a confined region of an acceptor substrate. Despite being validated as a versatile technique for printing devices, the fundamental mechanisms of the deposition process are still not fully understood. Further investigation of the laser-induced ejection dynamics is necessary in order to motivate new ways in which to optimize and control the printing process. Additionally, the LIFT configuration presents a unique laboratory in which to study novel regimes of fluid dynamics. This thesis presents an in-depth study of the LIFT printing process using a balance of experimental measurement and computational modeling. In the first part, time-resolved imaging is used to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the laser-induced ejection of ink. Fluid ejections driven by a rapidly expanding gas cavity within the ink film are observed and analyzed within the context of similar work on cavitation bubble formation, revealing that the unique geometry and size scale of LIFT invokes novel flow behavior. An alternative mechanism is also observed in which the fluid is ejected by the rapid formation of blister on a polymer layer adjacent to the ink film. The dynamics of the blister expansion and associated ink ejection are analyzed as a function of system properties and processing parameters. In the second part, a computational model of the blister-actuated ejection process is developed and used to study the novel regime of free-surface jetting from thin liquid films. The model is first validated against experimental results. It is then used to develop a fundamental understanding of the ejection process as well as conduct a detailed parametric study on the influence of system parameters on printing performance. These

  2. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  3. Experimental and predicted cavitation performance of an 80.6 deg helical inducer in high temperature water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovich, G.

    1972-01-01

    The cavitating performance of a stainless steel 80.6 degree flat-plate helical inducer was investigated in water over a range of liquid temperatures and flow coefficients. A semi-empirical prediction method was used to compare predicted values of required net positive suction head in water with experimental values obtained in water. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and experimental data in water. The required net positive suction head in water decreased with increasing temperature and increased with flow coefficient, similar to that observed for a like inducer in liquid hydrogen.

  4. Expectation-induced placebo responses fail to accelerate wound healing in healthy volunteers: results from a prospective controlled experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Vits, Sabine; Dissemond, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kriegler, Lisa; Körber, Andreas; Schedlowski, Manfred; Cesko, Elvir

    2015-12-01

    Placebo responses have been shown to affect the symptomatology of skin diseases. However, expectation-induced placebo effects on wound healing processes have not been investigated yet. We analysed whether subjects' expectation of receiving an active drug accelerates the healing process of experimentally induced wounds. In 22 healthy men (experimental group, n = 11; control group, n = 11) wounds were induced by ablative laser on both thighs. Using a deceptive paradigm, participants in the experimental group were informed that an innovative 'wound gel' was applied on one of the two wounds, whereas a 'non-active gel' was applied on the wound of the other thigh. In fact, both gels were identical hydrogels without any active components. A control group was informed to receive a non-active gel on both wounds. Progress in wound healing was documented via planimetry on days 1, 4 and 7 after wound induction. From day 9 onwards wound inspections were performed daily accompanied by a change of the dressing and a new application of the gel. No significant differences could be observed with regard to duration or process of wound healing, either by intraindividual or by interindividual comparisons. These data document no expectation-induced placebo effect on the healing process of experimentally induced wounds in healthy volunteers. PMID:24373522

  5. Expectation-induced placebo responses fail to accelerate wound healing in healthy volunteers: results from a prospective controlled experimental trial.

    PubMed

    Vits, Sabine; Dissemond, Joachim; Schadendorf, Dirk; Kriegler, Lisa; Körber, Andreas; Schedlowski, Manfred; Cesko, Elvir

    2015-12-01

    Placebo responses have been shown to affect the symptomatology of skin diseases. However, expectation-induced placebo effects on wound healing processes have not been investigated yet. We analysed whether subjects' expectation of receiving an active drug accelerates the healing process of experimentally induced wounds. In 22 healthy men (experimental group, n = 11; control group, n = 11) wounds were induced by ablative laser on both thighs. Using a deceptive paradigm, participants in the experimental group were informed that an innovative 'wound gel' was applied on one of the two wounds, whereas a 'non-active gel' was applied on the wound of the other thigh. In fact, both gels were identical hydrogels without any active components. A control group was informed to receive a non-active gel on both wounds. Progress in wound healing was documented via planimetry on days 1, 4 and 7 after wound induction. From day 9 onwards wound inspections were performed daily accompanied by a change of the dressing and a new application of the gel. No significant differences could be observed with regard to duration or process of wound healing, either by intraindividual or by interindividual comparisons. These data document no expectation-induced placebo effect on the healing process of experimentally induced wounds in healthy volunteers.

  6. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Guiping; Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Gong, Ting; Tossou, Myrlene Carine B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  7. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  8. Therapeutics Insight with Inclusive Immunopharmacology Explication of Human Rotavirus A for the Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Hashem, Abu; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe infant and childhood diarrhea worldwide, and the morbidity and mortality rate is going to be outnumbered in developing countries like Bangladesh. To mitigate this substantial burden of disease, new therapeutics such as vaccine and drug are swiftly required against rotavirus. The present therapeutics insight study was performed with comprehensive immunoinformatics and pharmacoinformatics approach. T and B-cell epitopes were assessed in the conserved region of outer capsid protein VP4 among the highly reviewed strains from different countries including Bangladesh. The results suggest that epitope SU1 (TLKNLNDNY) could be an ideal candidate among the predicted five epitopes for both T and B-cell epitopes for the development of universal vaccine against rotavirus. This research also suggests five novel drug compounds from medicinal plant Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. for better therapeutics strategies against rotavirus diarrhea based on 3D structure building, pharmacophore, ADMET, and QSAR properties. The exact mode of action between drug compounds and target protein VP4 were revealed by molecular docking analysis. Drug likeness and oral bioavailability further confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed drugs against rotavirus diarrhea. This study might be implemented for experimental validation to facilitate the novel vaccine and drug design.

  9. Therapeutics Insight with Inclusive Immunopharmacology Explication of Human Rotavirus A for the Treatment of Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Hashem, Abu; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe infant and childhood diarrhea worldwide, and the morbidity and mortality rate is going to be outnumbered in developing countries like Bangladesh. To mitigate this substantial burden of disease, new therapeutics such as vaccine and drug are swiftly required against rotavirus. The present therapeutics insight study was performed with comprehensive immunoinformatics and pharmacoinformatics approach. T and B-cell epitopes were assessed in the conserved region of outer capsid protein VP4 among the highly reviewed strains from different countries including Bangladesh. The results suggest that epitope SU1 (TLKNLNDNY) could be an ideal candidate among the predicted five epitopes for both T and B-cell epitopes for the development of universal vaccine against rotavirus. This research also suggests five novel drug compounds from medicinal plant Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. for better therapeutics strategies against rotavirus diarrhea based on 3D structure building, pharmacophore, ADMET, and QSAR properties. The exact mode of action between drug compounds and target protein VP4 were revealed by molecular docking analysis. Drug likeness and oral bioavailability further confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed drugs against rotavirus diarrhea. This study might be implemented for experimental validation to facilitate the novel vaccine and drug design. PMID:27445802

  10. Therapeutics Insight with Inclusive Immunopharmacology Explication of Human Rotavirus A for the Treatment of Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Uzzal; Hashem, Abu; Keya, Chaman Ara; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe infant and childhood diarrhea worldwide, and the morbidity and mortality rate is going to be outnumbered in developing countries like Bangladesh. To mitigate this substantial burden of disease, new therapeutics such as vaccine and drug are swiftly required against rotavirus. The present therapeutics insight study was performed with comprehensive immunoinformatics and pharmacoinformatics approach. T and B-cell epitopes were assessed in the conserved region of outer capsid protein VP4 among the highly reviewed strains from different countries including Bangladesh. The results suggest that epitope SU1 (TLKNLNDNY) could be an ideal candidate among the predicted five epitopes for both T and B-cell epitopes for the development of universal vaccine against rotavirus. This research also suggests five novel drug compounds from medicinal plant Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. for better therapeutics strategies against rotavirus diarrhea based on 3D structure building, pharmacophore, ADMET, and QSAR properties. The exact mode of action between drug compounds and target protein VP4 were revealed by molecular docking analysis. Drug likeness and oral bioavailability further confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed drugs against rotavirus diarrhea. This study might be implemented for experimental validation to facilitate the novel vaccine and drug design. PMID:27445802

  11. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Suojala, Leena; Orro, Toomas; Järvinen, Hanna; Saatsi, Johanna; Pyörälä, Satu

    2008-01-01

    Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary induction of the same animals

  12. Schistosoma mansoni Tegument (Smteg) Induces IL-10 and Modulates Experimental Airway Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that S. mansoni infection and inoculation of the parasite eggs and antigens are able to modulate airways inflammation induced by OVA in mice. This modulation was associated to an enhanced production of interleukin-10 and to an increased number of regulatory T cells. The S. mansoni schistosomulum is the first stage to come into contact with the host immune system and its tegument represents the host-parasite interface. The schistosomula tegument (Smteg) has never been studied in the context of modulation of inflammatory disorders, although immune evasion mechanisms take place in this phase of infection to guarantee the persistence of the parasite in the host. Methodology and Principal Findings The aim of this study was to evaluate the Smteg ability to modulate inflammation in an experimental airway inflammation model induced by OVA and to characterize the immune factors involved in this modulation. To achieve the objective, BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA aerosol after Smteg intraperitoneal inoculation. Protein extravasation and inflammatory cells were assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage and IgE levels were measured in serum. Additionally, lungs were excised for histopathological analyses, cytokine measurement and characterization of the cell populations. Inoculation with Smteg led to a reduction in the protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and eosinophils in both BAL and lung tissue. In the lung tissue there was a reduction in inflammatory cells and collagen deposition as well as in IL-5, IL-13, IL-25 and CCL11 levels. Additionally, a decrease in specific anti-OVA IgE levels was observed. The reduction observed in these inflammatory parameters was associated with increased levels of IL-10 in lung tissues. Furthermore, Smteg/asthma mice showed high percentage of CD11b+F4/80+IL-10+ and CD11c+CD11b+IL-10+ cells in lungs. Conclusion Taken together, these findings

  13. Effect of sildenafil citrate in nicotine-induced ischemia: An experimental study using a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Baykan, Halit; Ozyazgan, Irfan; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Altiparmak, Mehmet; Özköse, Mehmet; Özyurt, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the negative effects of nicotine on the viability of skin flaps. Necrotic damage to skin flaps can result in significant complications including delayed wound healing, dehiscence and wound contraction. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil citrate, have a protective effect in ischemic injuries of the brain, kidney, myocardium, spinal cord, ileum and testes. In the present study, the authors evaluated the effect of sildenafil citrate on the viability of skin exposed to nicotine-induced ischemia in Sprague Dawley rats. In the preoperative period, the rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Group C was treated with subcutaneous saline and group S and group N were treated with 2 mg/kg nicotine, administered subcutaneously twice per day for 28 days. McFarlane flaps were created in all experimental animals using an incision measuring 7 cm × 3 cm. Postoperative treatment varied among the groups: group S was treated with 20 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate, while group C and group N were treated with equivalent doses of saline for seven days. A laser Doppler flow meter was used to monitor the microvasculature. Preoperative measurements of the microvasculature revealed decreased blood flow in group N and group S, both of which were treated with subcutaneous nicotine. During the postoperative evaluation, a trend toward increased blood flow was observed in group S compared with the group with nicotine-induced ischemia treated with saline alone postoperatively (group N). A visual fluorescein dye test was used to predict skin viability and demonstrated diminished skin viability in group N and group S (P<0.05) during the preoperative period. Following treatment with sildenafil for seven days, a statically significant improvement in skin viability was observed in group S (P<0.05). Nicotine decreased blood flow within the skin and impaired skin viability, while postoperative application of

  14. Effect of sildenafil citrate in nicotine-induced ischemia: An experimental study using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Baykan, Halit; Ozyazgan, Irfan; Selçuk, Caferi Tayyar; Altiparmak, Mehmet; Ozköse, Mehmet; Ozyurt, Kemal

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the negative effects of nicotine on the viability of skin flaps. Necrotic damage to skin flaps can result in significant complications including delayed wound healing, dehiscence and wound contraction. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil citrate, have a protective effect in ischemic injuries of the brain, kidney, myocardium, spinal cord, ileum and testes. In the present study, the authors evaluated the effect of sildenafil citrate on the viability of skin exposed to nicotine-induced ischemia in Sprague Dawley rats. In the preoperative period, the rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Group C was treated with subcutaneous saline and group S and group N were treated with 2 mg/kg nicotine, administered subcutaneously twice per day for 28 days. McFarlane flaps were created in all experimental animals using an incision measuring 7 cm × 3 cm. Postoperative treatment varied among the groups: group S was treated with 20 mg/kg/day sildenafil citrate, while group C and group N were treated with equivalent doses of saline for seven days. A laser Doppler flow meter was used to monitor the microvasculature. Preoperative measurements of the microvasculature revealed decreased blood flow in group N and group S, both of which were treated with subcutaneous nicotine. During the postoperative evaluation, a trend toward increased blood flow was observed in group S compared with the group with nicotine-induced ischemia treated with saline alone postoperatively (group N). A visual fluorescein dye test was used to predict skin viability and demonstrated diminished skin viability in group N and group S (P<0.05) during the preoperative period. Following treatment with sildenafil for seven days, a statically significant improvement in skin viability was observed in group S (P<0.05). Nicotine decreased blood flow within the skin and impaired skin viability, while postoperative application of

  15. Detection of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NADPH-diaphorase in experimentally induced hyperoxaluric animals.

    PubMed

    Pragasam, Viswanathan; Sakthivel, Ramasamy; Kalaiselvi, Periyandavan; Rajesh, Nachiappa Ganesh; Varalakshmi, Palaninathan

    2005-08-01

    Nitrosative stress plays a role in calcium oxalate stone formation, as nitrosated proteins have been identified in stone formers. Nitric oxide (NO(*)), the common precursor for reactive nitrogen species, is synthesized in the juxtaglomerular apparatus of the kidneys. The present study is aimed to determine the role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in an experimental hyperoxaluric condition by histological and biochemical techniques. Hyperoxaluria was induced by 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water. L-arginine (L-arg) was supplemented at a dose of 1.25 g/kg body weight orally for 28 days. Nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), protein content in the urine and lipid peroxidation in the kidney were determined at the end of the experimental period. Histopathological examination of the rat kidneys was then carried out. NADPH-diaphorase and eNOS expression studies were carried out in control and hyperoxaluric rat kidneys using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques. Significant amounts of NOx were present in the urine of hyperoxaluric animals when compared to control rats. Histopathological examinations revealed membrane injury, tubular dilatation and edema in the hyperoxaluric rats, whereas co-supplementation of L-arg to the hyperoxaluric rats significantly reduced these changes. The results of histochemical analysis for NADPH-diaphorase staining demonstrate the role of NOS in hyperoxaluric rats. Hyperoxaluric rats showed intense staining for NADPH-diaphorase when compared to control and L-arg co-supplemented hyperoxaluric rats. Immunohistochemical demonstration confirmed that eNOS expression was markedly increased in L-arg supplemented rats, when compared to EG treated rat kidney sections. Thus, from the present study, we conclude that supplementation of L-arg to the hyperoxaluric animals minimizes the cellular injury mediated by ethylene glycol, prevents oxidative/nitrosative damage to the membranes and reduces the incidence of calcium oxalate stone formation.

  16. Cellular Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes in Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Comparing Experimental Setups.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zachary S; Hubbard, W Brad; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves. While there are benefits to the various methods, certain specifications need to be accounted for in order to properly examine BINT. Primary cell injury mechanisms, occurring as a direct result of the blast wave, have been identified in several studies and include cerebral vascular damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage. Secondary cell injury mechanisms, triggered subsequent to the initial insult, result in the activation of several molecular cascades and can include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The collective result of these secondary injuries can lead to functional deficits. Behavioral measures examining motor function, anxiety traits, and cognition/memory problems have been utilized to determine the level of injury severity. While cellular injury mechanisms have been identified following blast exposure, the various experimental models present both concurrent and conflicting results. Furthermore, the temporal response and progression of pathology after blast exposure have yet to be detailed and remain unclear due to limited resemblance of methodologies. This chapter summarizes the current state of blast neuropathology and emphasizes the need for a standardized preclinical model of blast neurotrauma.

  17. System dynamic instabilities induced by sliding contact: A numerical analysis with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, J.; Massi, F.; Saulot, A.; Renouf, M.; D`Ambrogio, W.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical systems present several contact surfaces between deformable bodies. The contact interface can be either static (joints) or in sliding (active interfaces). The sliding interfaces can have several roles and according to their application they can be developed either for maximizing the friction coefficient and the energy dissipation (e.g. brakes) or rather to allow the relative displacement at joints with a maximum efficiency. In both cases the coupling between system and local contact dynamics can bring to system dynamics instabilities (e.g. brake squeal or squeaking of hip prostheses). This results in unstable vibrations of the system, induced by the oscillation of the contact forces. In the literature, a large number of works deal with such kind of instabilities and are mainly focused on applied problems such as brake squeal noise. This paper shows a more general numerical analysis of a simple system constituted by two bodies in sliding contact: a rigid cylinder rotating inside a deformable one. The parametrical Complex Eigenvalue Analysis and the transient numerical simulations show how the friction forces can give rise to in-plane dynamic instabilities due to the interaction between two system modes, even for such a simple system characterized by one deformable body. Results from transient simulations highlight the key role of realistic values of the material damping to have convergence of the model and, consequently, reliable physical results. To this aim an experimental estimation of the material damping has been carried out. Moreover, the simplicity of the system allows for a deeper analysis of the contact instability and a balance of the energy flux among friction, system vibrations and damping. The numerical results have been validated by comparison with experimental ones, obtained by a specific test bench developed to reproduce and analyze the contact friction instabilities.

  18. Cellular Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes in Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Comparing Experimental Setups.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zachary S; Hubbard, W Brad; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves. While there are benefits to the various methods, certain specifications need to be accounted for in order to properly examine BINT. Primary cell injury mechanisms, occurring as a direct result of the blast wave, have been identified in several studies and include cerebral vascular damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage. Secondary cell injury mechanisms, triggered subsequent to the initial insult, result in the activation of several molecular cascades and can include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The collective result of these secondary injuries can lead to functional deficits. Behavioral measures examining motor function, anxiety traits, and cognition/memory problems have been utilized to determine the level of injury severity. While cellular injury mechanisms have been identified following blast exposure, the various experimental models present both concurrent and conflicting results. Furthermore, the temporal response and progression of pathology after blast exposure have yet to be detailed and remain unclear due to limited resemblance of methodologies. This chapter summarizes the current state of blast neuropathology and emphasizes the need for a standardized preclinical model of blast neurotrauma. PMID:27604716

  19. Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia induced by perinatal inflammation and hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Li, Yuan-Tsung; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systemic maternal inflammation and neonatal hyperoxia arrest alveolarization in neonates. The aims were to test whether human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduce lung inflammation and improve lung development in perinatal inflammation- and hyperoxia-induced experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 mg/kg/day) on Gestational Days 20 and 21. Human MSCs (3×105 and 1×106 cells) in 0.03 ml normal saline (NS) were administered intratracheally on Postnatal Day 5. Pups were reared in room air (RA) or an oxygen-enriched atmosphere (O2) from Postnatal Days 1 to 14, and six study groups were obtained: LPS+RA+NS, LPS+RA+MSC (3×105 cells), LPS+RA+MSC (1×106 cells), LPS+O2+NS, LPS+O2+MSC (3×105 cells), and LPS+O2+MSC (1×106 cells). The lungs were excised for cytokine, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, and histological analyses on Postnatal Day 14. Results: Body weight was significantly lower in rats reared in hyperoxia than in those reared in RA. The LPS+O2+NS group exhibited a significantly higher mean linear intercept (MLI) and collagen density and a significantly lower vascular density than the LPS+RA+NS group did. Administering MSC to hyperoxia-exposed rats improved MLI and vascular density and reduced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels and collagen density to normoxic levels. This improvement in lung development and fibrosis was accompanied by an increase and decrease in lung VEGF and CTGF expression, respectively. Conclusion: Human MSCs attenuated perinatal inflammation- and hyperoxia-induced defective alveolarization and angiogenesis and reduced lung fibrosis, likely through increased VEGF and decreased CTGF expression. PMID:27158330

  20. Gastroprotective Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Scoparone Derivatives on Experimentally Induced Gastric Lesions in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dong Ju; Lee, Gyung Rak; Oh, Sungil; Lee, Sung Eun; Choi, Won Sik

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the gastroprotective efficacy of synthesized scoparone derivatives on experimentally induced gastritis and their toxicological safety. Six scoparone derivatives were synthesized and screened for gastroprotective activities against HCl/ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Among these compounds, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin were found to have gastroprotective activity greater than the standard drug rebamipide; 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6-methoxy-7,8-(1-methoxy)-methylenedioxycoumarin, 6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, and 6,7-(1-methoxy)-methylenedioxycoumarin were found to be equipotent or less potent that of rebamipide. Pharmacological studies suggest that the presence of a methoxy group at position C-5 or C-8 of the scoparone’s phenyl ring significantly improves gastroprotective activity, whereas the presence of a dioxolane ring at C-6, C-7, or C-8 was found to have decreased activity. In order to assess toxicological safety, two of the potent gastroprotective scoparone derivatives—5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin—were examined for their acute toxicity in mice as well as their effect on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. These two compounds showed low acute oral toxicity in adult male and female mice, and caused minimal changes to CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 enzyme activity. These results indicate that compared to other scoparone derivatives, 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and 6,7,8-trimethoxycoumarin can improve gastroprotective effects, and they have low toxicity and minimal effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25781220

  1. Effect of a lipid-rich emollient containing ceramide 3 in experimentally induced skin barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kucharekova, M; Schalkwijk, J; Van De Kerkhof, P C M; Van De Valk, P G M

    2002-06-01

    In the present study we compared the effect of a ceramide 3-containing emollient (Locobase(R) Repair) with a control emollient (vaselinum album/cremor lanette ana) and untreated damaged skin using clinical, bioengineering and immunohistochemical methods in two different models of experimentally induced skin barrier dysfunction. In model A (n = 13) skin barrier dysfunction was inflicted at three investigation sites by tape stripping. In model B (n = 13) the volunteers were patch tested at three investigation sites with sodium dodecyl sulphate (0.2%) for 4 h a day for 4 consecutive days. The investigation sites were treated once a day with the above-mentioned agents. Irritant reaction was assessed daily by erythema scoring and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). After 5D, punch biopsies were taken from all sites. Immunohistochemical assessment was carried out with respect to epidermal proliferation, epidermal differentiation and Langerhans cells. Tape stripping resulted in an erythematous reaction and an increase of TEWL associated with up-regulation of cycling cells, involucrin and expression of cytokeratin 16. At day 4, ceramide 3-containing emollient significantly decreased (p < 0.03) the erythema score, TEWL and cycling cells in comparison with the untreated site. Repetitive exposure to SDS induced a variable degree of erythema, gradual increase of TEWL, an increase of cycling cells, and up-regulation of involucrin, E-FABP and SKALP. The treatment with the control emollient significantly prevented erythema, increase of TEWL and cycling cells at day 4 compared to the untreated site. In summary, the present study demonstrated that both tested emollients improve skin barrier in different conditions compared to the untreated skin. There is some indication that formulations containing skin-related lipids might be of benefit in barrier disruption following tape stripping. Different models and clinical trials are needed to establish the usefulness in

  2. The tick saliva immunosuppressor, Salp15, contributes to Th17-induced pathology during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Juncadella, Ignacio J.; Bates, Tonya C.; Suleiman, Reem; Monteagudo-Mera, Andrea; Olson, Chris M.; Navasa, Nicolás; Olivera, Elias R.; Osborne, Barbara A.; Anguita, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Summary Salp15 is a tick saliva protein that inhibits CD4+ T cell differentiation through its interaction with CD4. The protein inhibits early signaling events during T cell activation and IL-2 production. Because murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development is mediated by central nervous system-infiltrating CD4+ T cells that are specific for myelin-associated proteins, we sought to determine whether the treatment of mice with Salp15 during EAE induction would prevent the generation of proinflammatory T cell responses and the development of the disease. Surprisingly, Salp15-treated mice developed more severe EAE than control animals. The treatment of EAE-induced mice with the tick saliva protein did not result in increased infiltration of T cells to the central nervous system, indicating that Salp15 had not affected the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Salp15 treatment did not affect the development of antibody responses against the eliciting peptide or the presence of IFNγ in the sera. The treatment with Salp15 resulted, however, in the increased differentiation of Th17 cells in vivo, as evidenced by higher IL-17 production from PLP139-151-specific CD4+ T cells isolated from the central nervous system and the periphery. In vitro, Salp15 was able to induce the differentiation of Th17 cells in the presence of IL-6 and the absence of TGFβ These results suggest that a conductive milieu for the differentiation of Th17 cells can be achieved by restriction of the production of IL-2 during T cell differentiation, a role that may be performed by TGFβ and other immunosuppressive agents. PMID:20920474

  3. Methylglyoxal-induced neuroinflammatory response in in vitro astrocytic cultures and hippocampus of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Chu, John M T; Lee, Dicky K M; Wong, Daniella P K; Wong, Gordon T C; Yue, Kevin K M

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and its diverse complications. Hyperglycemia is associated with inflammatory responses in different organs and diabetic patients have a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative disorders. Methylglyoxal is a reactive advanced glycation end product precursor that accumulates in diabetic patients. It induces various stress responses in the central nervous system and causes neuronal dysfunction. Astrocytes are actively involved in maintaining neuronal homeostasis and possibly play a role in protecting the brain against neurodegeneration. However it is not clear whether methylglyoxal exerts any adverse effects towards these astrocytes. In the present study we investigated the effects of methylglyoxal in astrocytic cultures and hippocampi of experimental animals. The cells from the astrocytic line DITNC1 were treated with methylglyoxal for 1 to 24 h. For the in vivo model, 3 months old C57BL/6 mice were treated with methylglyoxal solution for 6 weeks by intraperitoneal injection. Following the treatment, both astrocytes and hippocampi were harvested for MTT assay, Western blot and real time PCR analyses. We found that methylglyoxal induced astrogliosis in DITNC1 astrocytic cultures and C57BL/6 mice. Further, activation of the pro-inflammatory JNK signaling pathway and its downstream effectors c-Jun were observed. Furthermore, increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and astrocytic markers were observed from real time PCR analyses. In addition, inhibition of JNK activities resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α gene expression in methylglyoxal treated astrocytes. Our results suggest that methylglyoxal may contribute to the progression of diabetes related neurodegeneration through JNK pathway activation in astrocytes and the subsequent neuroinflammatory responses in the central nervous system. PMID:27250968

  4. Tracking anti-fibrotic pathways of nilotinib and imatinib in experimentally induced liver fibrosis: an insight.

    PubMed

    Shiha, Gamal E; Abu-Elsaad, Nashwa M; Zalata, Khaled R; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2014-10-01

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib and nilotinib have been suggested to have promising antifibrotic activity in experimental models of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate new pathways underlying this beneficial effect. Hepatic injury was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 for 12 weeks. During the last 8 weeks of treatment, rats were also injected daily intraperitoneally with 20 mg/kg imatinib or 20, 10 or 5 mg/kg nilotinib. At the end of treatment, effects on fibrosis were assessed by measuring serum fibrotic markers and profibrogenic cytokines, as well as by histopathological examination. Possible anti-inflammatory effects were estimated by measuring levels of inflammatory cytokines in liver tissue. Liver expression of α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 antibodies and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining techniques. Nilotinib (5 and 10 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased all serum fibrotic markers measured, but 20 mg/kg of either nilotinib or imatinib had limited effects. At all doses tested, nilotinib significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the CCl4 -induced increases in tissue inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, 5 and 10 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased TGF-β1 levels and tissue expression of its antibody, as well expression of PDGFRβ. In conclusion, low doses (5 and 10 but not 20 mg/kg) of nilotinib, rather than imatinib, can control hepatic fibrosis by regulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, primarily interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Nilotinib also controls the signalling pathways of profibrogenic cytokines by lowering TGF-β1 levels and decreasing expression of PDGFRβ.

  5. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Veeraraghavan, Vishnu Priya; Jainu, Mallika

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is an important component of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which progresses to the end stage liver disease, if not diagnosed and treated properly. The disproportionate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from fat contributes to the pathogenesis of NASH. In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix (ECM) component levels were studied in experimentally induced NASH. Materials and Methods: The experimental protocol consists of using 48 male Wister rats, which were divided into 8 groups. The levels of hyaluronic acid, leptin and adiponectin were monitored in experimental NASH. Results: The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Conclusion: Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid. PMID:26557974

  6. Pharmacologic Comparison of Clinical Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors in a Rat Model of Acute Secretory Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Prinsen, Michael J.; Oliva, Jonathan; Campbell, Mary A.; Arnett, Stacy D.; Tajfirouz, Deena; Ruminski, Peter G.; Yu, Ying; Bond, Brian R.; Ji, Yuhua; Neckermann, Georg; Choy, Robert K. M.; de Hostos, Eugenio; Meyers, Marvin J.

    2016-01-01

    Racecadotril (acetorphan) is a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor with known antidiarrheal activity in animals and humans; however, in humans, it suffers from shortcomings that might be improved with newer drugs in this class that have progressed to the clinic for nonenteric disease indications. To identify potentially superior NEP inhibitors with immediate clinical utility for diarrhea treatment, we compared their efficacy and pharmacologic properties in a rat intestinal hypersecretion model. Racecadotril and seven other clinical-stage inhibitors of NEP were obtained or synthesized. Enzyme potency and specificity were compared using purified peptidases. Compounds were orally administered to rats before administration of castor oil to induce diarrhea. Stool weight was recorded over 4 hours. To assess other pharmacologic properties, select compounds were orally administered to normal or castor oil–treated rats, blood and tissue samples collected at multiple time points, and active compound concentrations determined by mass spectroscopy. NEP enzyme activity was measured in tissue homogenates. Three previously untested clinical NEP inhibitors delayed diarrhea onset and reduced total stool output, with little or no effect on intestinal motility assessed by the charcoal meal test. Each was shown to be a potent, highly specific inhibitor of NEP. Each exhibited greater suppression of NEP activity in intestinal and nonintestinal tissues than did racecadotril and sustained this inhibition longer. These results suggest that newer clinical-stage NEP inhibitors originally developed for other indications may be directly repositioned for treatment of acute secretory diarrhea and offer advantages over racecadotril, such as less frequent dosing and potentially improved efficacy. PMID:26907621

  7. Prevention and Self-Treatment of Traveler's Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Diemert, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Of the millions who travel from the industrialized world to developing countries every year, between 20% and 50% will develop at least one episode of diarrhea, making it the most common medical ailment afflicting travelers. Although usually a mild illness, traveler's diarrhea can result in significant morbidity and hardship overseas. Precautions can be taken to minimize the risk of developing traveler's diarrhea, either through avoidance of potentially contaminated food or drink or through various prophylactic measures, including both nonpharmacological and antimicrobial strategies. If diarrhea does develop despite the precautions taken, effective treatment—usually a combination of an antibiotic and an antimotility agent—can be brought by the traveler and initiated as soon as symptoms develop. In the future, vaccines—several of which are in the advanced stages of clinical testing—may be added to the list of prophylactic measures. PMID:16847088

  8. Ultrasound stimulation attenuates resorption of tooth root induced by experimental force application.

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Eiji; Rego, Emanuel B; Ohtani, Junji; Kawazoe, Aki; Tanne, Kazuo; Miyauchi, Mutsumi; Takata, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    Root resorption is an adverse outcome of orthodontic tooth movement. However, there have been no available approaches for the protection and repair of root resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on root resorption during experimental tooth movement and the effects of LIPUS in the RANKL/OPG mechanism in osteoblasts and cementoblasts in vitro. Twenty four Wistar strain male rats of 12-week-old were used in this study. The upper first molars were subjected to experimental movement in the mesial direction for 1-3weeks. Through the experimental periods, the right upper first maxillary molar was exposed to LIPUS (LIPUS group) every day for 1, 2 or 3weeks. The nature of root resorption was observed and then quantified by histomorphometric analysis. In the 2weeks period, significantly greater amount of tooth movement was observed in the LIPUS group (p<0.05). In addition, LIPUS group showed less root resorption lacunae and lower number of odontoclasts. In the period of 3weeks, LIPUS group presented significantly shorter length of root resorption lacunae and smaller amount of root resorption area (p<0.01). The number of odontoclasts and osteoclasts was also significantly lower in the LIPUS group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). However, no significant differences could be found regarding the amount of tooth movement. It is shown that LIPUS exposure significantly reduced the degree of root resorption during tooth movement without interrupting tooth movement. In vitro experiments showed that MC3T3-1 constitutively expressed higher levels of RANKL and RANTES mRNA comparing to OCCM-30. However, OPG mRNA expression was much higher in OCCM-30. LIPUS stimulation significantly increased the mRNA expression of RANKL in MC3T3-E1 at 4 (p<0.01) and 12h (p<0.05), although OPG mRNA expression was not affected by LIPUS. In contrast, the expression of RANKL and OPG mRNAs were both significantly increased by LIPUS in OCCM-30

  9. [Experimental detection of integration of mTDNA in the nuclear genome induced by ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Abdullaev, S A; Fomenko, L A; Kuznetsova, E A; Gaziev, A I

    2013-01-01

    Transfer of mtDNA in the nuclear genome is usually regarded as a continued and dynamic process of forming numt-pseudogenes or numt-insertions. They can be regarded not only as a neutral polymorphism, but may be involved in oncogenesis, aging and genetic diseases. Experimental identification of numt-insertions arising de novo is limited due to the presence of numerous homology mtDNA constitutively existing in the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes. It is known that the chick nuclear DNA (nDNA) constitutively contains 12 numt-pseudogenes. We attempted to experimentally detect the formation of numt-insertions de novo in the nDNA of chick embryos (Gallus gallus) from the eggs exposed to X-rays. Free mtDNAs were removed from preparations of nDNA of liver embryos through double gel electrophoresis. Numt-inserts in nDNA of control and survival embryos (from irradiated eggs) were revealed by PCR using 11 pairs of primers flanking the region of mtDNA of about 300-400 bp. PCR analysis with nDNA of control group showed no presence of homology mtDNA amplified with selected primers. PCR assays of nDNA of eight embryos from irradiated eggs showed that nDNA of two embryos contained new sites of mtDNA. PCR amplification of 3 loci of mtDNA is stably detected in nDNA from one embryo and 4 loci of mtDNA in nDNA from another embryo. Sequencing of PCR amplicons synthesized on templates of these nDNA showed that their sequences are identical to mtDNA and accurately cover the sites of several genes and the site of mtDNA D-loop. Thus, the experimental results indicate that ionizing radiation can induce integration of mtDNA fragments in the nuclear genome, apparently, through the mechanism of nonhomologous end-joining repair of double-strand breaks of nDNA.

  10. Cardiac isoenzymes in healthy Holstein calves and calves with experimentally induced endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Simon F.; Apple, Fred S.; Murakami, Mary Ann; Crump, Peter M.; Semrad, Susan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a controlled study designed to establish normal values for cardiac troponins I and T (cTnI and cTnT) and CK-MB mass in healthy newborn Holstein calves, and to compare values for cTnI, cTnT, CK-MB and total creatine kinase (CK) with age-matched calves experiencing experimentally induced endotoxemia. Nineteen healthy Holstein bull calves, 48 to 72 h of age were used. Baseline cTnI, cTnT, CK-MB and total CK measurements were obtained from control (n = 9) and experimental (n = 10) calves. Controls then received physiological saline and experimental calves received endotoxin (O55:B5 Escherichia coli LPS) intravenously after which cardiac biomarkers and total CK were measured at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h post-initiation of infusion. Measured values were analyzed and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) by repeated measure design, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. The cardiac biomarker cTnT was not detected in any calf at any time point, and CK-MB was only detected in 5 of 95 samples. The cTnI was significantly increased compared to baseline and controls, 3 h post lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. Total CK was significantly increased in LPS administered calves at 18 and 24 h post infusion. The mean, standard deviation, and range for cTnI in healthy controls were 0.023 ng/mL (s = 0.01), and 0.01 to 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. In conclusion, LPS administration was associated with rapid and significant increases in cTnI but CK-MB and cTnT were not detected in the plasma of healthy calves. Total CK values increased significantly following LPS administration. Biochemical evidence of myocardial injury occurs within 3 h following LPS administration to neonatal Holstein calves. PMID:18783025

  11. Experimental study on impact-induced seismic wave propagating through quartz sand simulating asteroid regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsue, Kazuma; Arakawa, Masahiko; Yasui, Minami; Matsumoto, Rie; Tsujido, Sayaka; Takano, Shota; Hasegawa, Sunao

    2015-08-01

    Introduction: Recent spacecraft surveys clarified that asteroid surfaces were covered with regolith made of boulders and pebbles such as that found on the asteroid Itokawa. It was also found that surface morphologies of asteroids formed on the regolith layer were modified. For example, the high-resolution images of the asteroid Eros revealed the evidence of the downslope movement of the regolith layer, then it could cause the degradation and the erasure of small impact crater. One possible process to explain these observations is the regolith layer collapse caused by seismic vibration after projectile impacts. The impact-induced seismic wave might be an important physical process affecting the morphology change of regolith layer on asteroid surfaces. Therefore, it is significant for us to know the relationship between the impact energy and the impact-induced seismic wave. So in this study, we carried out impact cratering experiments in order to observe the seismic wave propagating through the target far from the impact crater.Experimental method: Impact cratering experiments were conducted by using a single stage vertical gas gun set at Kobe Univ and a two-stage vertical gas gun set at ISAS. We used quartz sands with the particle diameter of 500μm, and the bulk density of 1.48g/cm3. The projectile was a ball made of polycarbonate with the diameter of 4.75mm and aluminum, titan, zirconia, stainless steel, cupper, tungsten carbide projectile with the diameter of 2mm. These projectiles were launched at the impact velocity from 0.2 to 7km/s. The target was set in a vacuum chamber evacuated below 10 Pa. We measured the seismic wave by using a piezoelectric uniaxial accelerometer.Result: The impact-induced seismic wave was measured to show a large single peak and found to attenuate with the propagation distance. The maximum acceleration of the seismic wave was recognized to have a good relationship with the normalized distance x/R, where x is the propagation distance

  12. [Chronic Salmonella typhimurium diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient].

    PubMed

    Mellado-Ferreiro, M; Jarne-Betrán, V; Arteaga-Mazuelas, M; Abínzano-Guillén, M L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea caused by infection in immunocompetent patients is an infrequent condition in developed countries, although certain pathogens,generally parasites (Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli,Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Strongyloides, Ameba,Trichuris and Schistosoma) and some bacteria (Aeromonas,Plesiomonas, Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Salmonella or Mycobacterium tuberculosis)can cause persistent diarrhea.We present the case of a patient who showed Salmonella typhimurium in his stool culture and recovered following treatment with levofloxacin for 7 days. PMID:27125610

  13. Rectal Mechano-sensory Function in Patients with Carcinoid Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Tine; Brock, Christina; Haase, Anne-Mette; Laurberg, Søren; Drewes, Asbjørn M; Grønbæk, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims In patients with neuroendocrine tumors, excessive production of serotonin and other amines may cause the carcinoid syndrome, which is mainly characterized by diarrhea and flushing. Little is known about the pathophysiology of carcinoid diarrhea. In several other groups of patients, diarrhea may be associated with rectal hypersensitivity and increased rectal tone. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare rectal sensitivity and compliance in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and in healthy subjects. Methods Twelve patients (6 males, aged 54–78 years, median 65 years), with carcinoid diarrhea and 19 healthy subjects (7 males, aged 50–78 years, median 61 years) were included. Rectal mechanical and heat stimulation was used for assessment of rectal mechano-sensory properties. Results Overall, 5.3% higher temperatures were needed to elicit sensory responses in patients with carcinoid diarrhea than in healthy subjects (P = 0.015). Posthoc analyses revealed that the sensory threshold to heat was 48.1 ± 3.1°C in patients vs 44.7 ± 4.7°C in healthy subjects (P = 0.041). In contrast, patients and healthy subjects showed no overall differences in rectal sensory response to mechanical distension (P = 0.731) or rectal compliance (P = 0.990). Conclusions Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have higher sensory thresholds to heat stimulation in comparison to healthy subjects, but normal rectal sensation to mechanical distension and normal compliance. Therefore, treatment of carcinoid diarrhea should aim at prolonging gastrointestinal transit and decreasing secretion, rather than modifying rectal mechano-sensory function. PMID:26690884

  14. The Prevalence of Norovirus in returning international travelers with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a high incidence of diarrhea in traveling populations. Norovirus (NV) infection is a common cause of diarrhea and is associated with 7% of all diarrhea related deaths in the US. However, data on the overall prevalence of NV infection in traveling populations is limited. Furthermore, the prevalence of NV amongst travelers returning to Europe has not been reported. This study determined the prevalence of NV among international travelers returning to Germany from over 50 destinations in and outside Europe. Methods Stool samples of a total of 104 patients with a recent (< 14days) history of international travel (55 male, mean age 37 yrs.) were tested for the presence of NV genogroup (GG) I and II infection using a sensitive and well established quantitative RT PCR method. 57 patients experienced diarrhea at the time of presentation at the Department of Infectious Diseases & Tropical Medicine. The remaining 47 patients had no experience of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms for at least 14 days prior to their date of presentation at our institute. Results In our cohort, NV infection was detected in 15.7% of returning travelers with diarrhea. The closer to the date of return symptoms appeared, the higher the incidence of NV, ranging as high as 21.2% within the first four days after return. Conclusions In our cohort, NV infection was shown to be frequent among returning travelers especially in those with diarrhea, with over 1/5 of diarrhea patients tested positive for NV within the first four days after their return to Germany. Due to this prevalence, routine testing for NV infection and hygienic precautions may be warranted in this group. This is especially applicable to patients at an increased risk of spreading the disease, such as healthcare workers, teachers or food-handlers. PMID:20500860

  15. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  16. Induced Cannibalism in Experimental Populations of the Forensic Indicator Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Botteon, V W; Fernandes, F S; Godoy, W A C

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the behavior of third-instars of Chrysomya putoria as potential cannibals in experimental populations. Cannibalism rates were evaluated in three settings observed for 3, 6, 9, and 24 h, placing injured and uninjured larvae of C. putoria together. Our data heavily support that C. putoria larvae behave as cannibals when induced by a wound in another larva, and also after starving for 24 h. The probability of cannibalism increased as a function of time, both in no-choice and in choice experiments evidencing that time is a determining factor for cannibalism induction in C. putoria. However, the treatment combining injured with uninjured larvae showed the highest probability of cannibalism. These results suggest that C. putoria larvae may cannibalize under scarcity of food over long time or the presence of injured larvae. This study is useful to understand the behavior of C. putoria feeding on ephemeral substrates such as carrion or corpses and brings relevant and significant contribution to population ecology of blowflies and also forensic entomology. PMID:26698866

  17. Quantitative evaluation of an experimental inflammation induced with Freund's complete adjuvant in dogs.

    PubMed

    Botrel, M A; Haak, T; Legrand, C; Concordet, D; Chevalier, R; Toutain, P L

    1994-10-01

    A chronic inflammation model in dogs was induced by intraarticular injection of Freund's Complete Adjuvant in the stifle. After a primary, acute response during the first 24 hr, a secondary subacute response was observed after a delay of approximately 3 weeks and persisted for several weeks. To evaluate the time course of the inflammatory process quantitatively, we tested more than 100 different parameters. Finally, only four parameters were selected based on practicability and metrological properties, namely, the body temperature, difference in skin temperature, difference in stifle diameter and vertical force exerted by arthritic hind limb measured using a force plate. The main results of the experimentation were the demonstration that these four parameters were sufficiently repeatable, reproducible, and appropriate to be used for quantitative evaluation of the inflammatory process, and that training of both animals and investigators was required. Finally, it was illustrated that an adjuvant periarthritis in dogs can be used to carry out a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling of an antiinflammatory drug. PMID:7865864

  18. Illusions and Delusions: Relating Experimentally-Induced False Memories to Anomalous Experiences and Ideas

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, Philip R.; Simons, Jon S.; Pigott, Jennifer S.; Gardner, Jennifer M.; Murray, Graham K.; Krystal, John H.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    The salience hypothesis of psychosis rests on a simple but profound observation that subtle alterations in the way that we perceive and experience stimuli have important consequences for how important these stimuli become for us, how much they draw our attention, how they embed themselves in our memory and, ultimately, how they shape our beliefs. We put forward the idea that a classical memory illusion – the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) effect – offers a useful way of exploring processes related to such aberrant belief formation. The illusion occurs when, as a consequence of its relationship to previous stimuli, a stimulus that has not previously been presented is falsely remembered. Such illusory familiarity is thought to be generated by the surprising fluency with which the stimulus is processed. In this respect, the illusion relates directly to the salience hypothesis and may share common cognitive underpinnings with aberrations of perception and attribution that are found in psychosis. In this paper, we explore the theoretical importance of this experimentally-induced illusion in relation to the salience model of psychosis. We present data showing that, in healthy volunteers, the illusion relates directly to self reported anomalies of experience and magical thinking. We discuss this finding in terms of the salience hypothesis and of a broader Bayesian framework of perception and cognition which emphasizes the salience both of predictable and unpredictable experiences. PMID:19956402

  19. Two randomized controlled trials of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy of experimentally induced rhinovirus colds.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, B M; Conner, E M; Betts, R F; Oleske, J; Minnefor, A; Gwaltney, J M

    1987-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of zinc gluconate lozenge therapy in experimentally induced rhinovirus infection was assessed in two randomized controlled trials in susceptible adult volunteers. In trial 1, lozenges containing either zinc gluconate (23 mg of elemental zinc) or placebo were given 36 h after nasal inoculation of rhinovirus type 39 and administered eight times per day for 5 days. All of the volunteers had early cold symptoms at the time that treatment was begun. In trial 2, the same lozenge regimen was used, beginning 2 h after nasal inoculation with rhinovirus type 13, and continued for 7 days. Zinc therapy did not reduce the severity or duration of cold symptoms or the frequency or duration of viral shedding in either trial. Viral titers were measured in trial 2 and were shown to be unaffected by zinc therapy. Nasal mucus weights and the numbers of paper tissues used were slightly higher in zinc recipients. A statistically significant increase in levels of zinc in serum was documented in zinc recipients after 5 days of therapy. These data suggest that zinc gluconate lozenge therapy is not therapeutically useful in the treatment of rhinovirus colds. PMID:2820298

  20. Activity of cathepsins in rat's spleen due to experimentally induced pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, R; Burdan, F; Madej, B; Kiś, G; Szkodziak, P; Burski, K

    The aim of this study was to establish and quantify the changes of the level of cathepsin B, D and L in the spleen during experimental pancreatitis. The experiment was carried out in 115 male Wistar rats, randomly divided into three groups: intact (n = 15), injected with 0.9% NaCl solution into the common bile pancreatic duct (n = 50) and injected with 5% sodium taurocholate into this duct to induce acute pancreatitis (n = 50). After 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours rats were anaesthetised, and blood was taken for amylase determination from the heart, and the spleen was removed. Alpha-amylase level in the blood serum samples was measured by enzymatic method. Cathepsin activity was established by spectrophotometric methods using substrates which form coloured complexes when they react with these proteases. The specific free fraction activity of cathepsin B, D and L in the spleen changed during the course of experiment, but there was no correlation between their activity and the intensity of pancreatitis established by serum amylase level.

  1. Blockade of Extracellular ATP Effect by Oxidized ATP Effectively Mitigated Induced Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis (EAU)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ronglan; Liang, Dongchun; Sun, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Various pathological conditions are accompanied by ATP release from the intracellular to the extracellular compartment. Extracellular ATP (eATP) functions as a signaling molecule by activating purinergic P2 purine receptors. The key P2 receptor involved in inflammation was identified as P2X7R. Recent studies have shown that P2X7R signaling is required to trigger the Th1/Th17 immune response, and oxidized ATP (oxATP) effectively blocks P2X7R activation. In this study we investigated the effect of oxATP on mouse experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Our results demonstrated that induced EAU in B6 mice was almost completely abolished by the administration of small doses of oxATP, and the Th17 response, but not the Th1 response, was significantly weakened in the treated mice. Mechanistic studies showed that the therapeutic effects involve the functional change of a number of immune cells, including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, and regulatory T cells. OxATP not only directly inhibits the T cell response; it also suppresses T cell activation by altering the function of DCs and Foxp3+ T cell. Our results demonstrated that inhibition of P2X7R activation effectively exempts excessive autoimmune inflammation, which may indicate a possible therapeutic use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:27196432

  2. Collision induced dissociation study of azobenzene and its derivatives: computational and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Compton, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Experimental and computational investigation have been performed in order to study the bond dissociation energy of azobenzene and its derivatives using collision induced dissociation method as well as other energy and structural characteristics. The results have been verified by comparing with results obtained from computational quantum chemistry. We used different density functional methods as well as the Möller-Plesset perturbation theory and the coupled cluster methods to explore geometric, electronic and the spectral properties of the sample molecules. Geometries were calculated and optimized using the 6-311 + + G(2d,2p) basis set and the B3LYP level of theory and these optimized structures have been subjected to the frequency calculations to obtain thermochemical properties by means of different density functional, Möller-Plesset, and coupled cluster theories to obtain a high accuracy estimation of the bond dissociation energy value. The results from experiments and the results obtained from computational thermochemistry are in close agreement. Physics and Astronomy Department

  3. Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air

    SciTech Connect

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Scharer, John

    2008-07-01

    We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities and temperatures in dry air by focusing 200 mJ, 10 MW high power, 193 nm ultraviolet ArF (argon fluoride) laser radiation to a 30 {mu}m radius spot size. We examine these properties that result from multiphoton and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnostic technique is used to obtain the plasma electron temperature just after the shock front and this is compared with optical emission spectroscopic measurements of nitrogen rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two-color laser interferometry is employed to measure time resolved spatial electron and neutral density decay in initial local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma are analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) supported by SPECAIR, a special OES program for air constituent plasmas. Core plasma rotational and vibrational temperatures are obtained from the emission spectra from the N{sub 2}C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results and the results are compared with the electron temperature just behind the shock wave. The plasma density decay measurements are compared with a simplified electron density decay model that illustrates the dominant three-and two-body recombination terms with good correlation.

  4. Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Scharer, John

    2008-07-01

    We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities and temperatures in dry air by focusing 200 mJ, 10 MW high power, 193 nm ultraviolet ArF (argon fluoride) laser radiation to a 30 μm radius spot size. We examine these properties that result from multiphoton and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnostic technique is used to obtain the plasma electron temperature just after the shock front and this is compared with optical emission spectroscopic measurements of nitrogen rotational and vibrational temperatures. Two-color laser interferometry is employed to measure time resolved spatial electron and neutral density decay in initial local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The radiating species and thermodynamic characteristics of the plasma are analyzed by means of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) supported by SPECAIR, a special OES program for air constituent plasmas. Core plasma rotational and vibrational temperatures are obtained from the emission spectra from the N2C-B(2+) transitions by matching the experimental spectrum results with the SPECAIR simulation results and the results are compared with the electron temperature just behind the shock wave. The plasma density decay measurements are compared with a simplified electron density decay model that illustrates the dominant three-and two-body recombination terms with good correlation.

  5. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  6. Experimental characterization of fire-induced response of rigid polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Gill, W.; Moore, J.W.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gritzo, L.A.; Moya, J.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reported is the result of an experimental investigation of fire-induced response of a 96 kg/m{sup 3} closed cell rigid polyurethane foam. The specimen is 0.37 m in diameter, and 152 mm thick, placed in a cylindrical test vessel. The fire condition is simulated by heating the bottom of the test vessel to 1283 K using a radiant heat source. Real-time x-ray shows that the degradation process involves the progression of a charring front into the virgin material. The charred region has a regular and graded structure consisting of a packed bubble outer layer and successive layers of thin shells. The layer-to-layer permeability appears to be poor. There are indications that gas vents laterally. The shell-like structure might be the result of lateral venting. Although the foam degradation process is quite complicated, the in-depth temperature responses in the uncharted foam appear to be consistent with steady state ablation. The measured temperature responses are well represented by the exponential distribution for steady state ablation. An estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the foam is obtained from the ablation model. The experiment is part of a more comprehensive program to develop material response models of foams and encapsulants.

  7. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  8. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David. A.; Jones, Scott B.; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T.; Smith, Andrew R.; Jones, Davey L.; Marshall, Miles R.; Emmett, Bridget A.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  9. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction. PMID:26804897

  10. Gamma interferon is a major mediator of antiviral defense in experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis.

    PubMed Central

    Finke, D; Brinckmann, U G; ter Meulen, V; Liebert, U G

    1995-01-01

    Measles virus infection of the central nervous system in the murine model of experimental measles virus-induced encephalitis is successfully controlled by virus-specific T-helper lymphocytes. T cells from BALB/c mice that are resistant to measles virus encephalitis proliferate well against measles virus in vitro, and bulk cultures recognize viral nucleocapsid and hemagglutinin as well as fusion proteins. The measles virus-specific T cells secrete large amounts of interleukin 2 (IL-2), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) but no IL-4, IL-6, or IL-10, and hence the cytokine pattern is consistent with that of subtype 1 T-helper lymphocytes. In contrast, cells obtained from measles virus-infected susceptible C3H mice recognize measles virus proteins only weakly and secrete little IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Treatment of infected mice with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies has no effect on survival or virus clearance from the brain. Upon neutralization of IFN-gamma in vivo, the phenotype of measles virus-specific T-helper cells isolatable from BALB/c mice is reversed from subtype 1 to subtype 2-like. Anti-IFN-gamma antibody-treated BALB/c mice are susceptible to measles virus encephalitis, and viral clearance from the central nervous system is impaired. These results indicate that IFN-gamma plays a significant role in the control of measles virus infection of the central nervous system. PMID:7636992

  11. Circulating and localized immune complexes in experimental mycoplasma-induced arthritis-associated ocular inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Thirkill, C E; Tyler, N K; Roth, A M

    1992-01-01

    Ocular deposits of immune complexes are believed to contribute to the anterior segment inflammations observed in association with the human arthritides. Arthritis-related ocular inflammations may be reproduced in animals by infection with certain species of mycoplasma. To evaluate the role of immune complexes in the production of ocular lesions, we studied their involvement in the rodent model of experimental arthritis-associated ocular inflammation induced by Mycoplasma arthritidis. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with viable concentrates of M. arthritidis and monitored for the production of related circulating and intraocular immune complexes. Circulating immune complexes were monitored by antigen capture systems, and localized intraocular complexes were identified by indirect immunohistochemistry. Polyacrylamide gel immunoblot analysis of captured complexes confirmed the antigen(s) involved as proteins derived from M. arthritidis. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed localized complexes containing mycoplasma antigens within the ciliary-iris vasculature. Concentrations of the generated complexes diminished rapidly over a 30-day period. While complex deposits within ocular tissues could represent a contributing cause to the localized anterior segment inflammation reported in this rodent model, secondary challenge with viable M. arthritidis, which reproduced high concentrations of intraocular and circulating immune complexes, failed to elicit any ocular response. Images PMID:1730469

  12. Experimental setup and first measurement of DNA damage induced along and around an antiproton beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, J. N.; Currell, F. J.; Timson, D. J.; Holzscheiter, M. H.; Bassler, N.; Herrmann, R.; Prise, K. M.; Schettino, G.

    2010-10-01

    Radiotherapy employs ionizing radiation to induce lethal DNA lesions in cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissues. Due to their pattern of energy deposition, better therapeutic outcomes can, in theory, be achieved with ions compared to photons. Antiprotons have been proposed to offer a further enhancement due to their annihilation at the end of the path. The work presented here aimed to establish and validate an experimental procedure for the quantification of plasmid and genomic DNA damage resulting from antiproton exposure. Immunocytochemistry was used to assess DNA damage in directly and indirectly exposed human fibroblasts irradiated in both plateau and Bragg peak regions of a 126 MeV antiproton beam at CERN. Cells were stained post irradiation with an anti- γ-H2AX antibody. Quantification of the γ-H2AX foci-dose relationship is consistent with a linear increase in the Bragg peak region. A qualitative analysis of the foci detected in the Bragg peak and plateau region indicates significant differences highlighting the different severity of DNA lesions produced along the particle path. Irradiation of desalted plasmid DNA with 5 Gy antiprotons at the Bragg peak resulted in a significant portion of linear plasmid in the resultant solution.

  13. Modeling and simulation of organophosphate-induced neurotoxicity: Prediction and validation by experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Greget, Renaud; Dadak, Selma; Barbier, Laure; Lauga, Fabien; Linossier-Pierre, Sandra; Pernot, Fabien; Legendre, Arnaud; Ambert, Nicolas; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie; Dorandeu, Frédéric; Bischoff, Serge; Baudry, Michel; Fagni, Laurent; Moussaoui, Saliha

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, either pesticides or chemical warfare agents, represents a major health problem. As potent irreversible inhibitors of cholinesterase, OP may induce seizures, as in status epilepticus, and occasionally brain lesions. Although these compounds are extremely toxic agents, the search for novel antidotes remains extremely limited. In silico modeling constitutes a useful tool to identify pharmacological targets and to develop efficient therapeutic strategies. In the present work, we developed a new in silico simulator in order to predict the neurotoxicity of irreversible inhibitors of acetyl- and/or butyrylcholinesterase (ChE) as well as the potential neuroprotection provided by antagonists of cholinergic muscarinic and glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The simulator reproduced firing of CA1 hippocampal neurons triggered by exposure to paraoxon (POX), as found in patch-clamp recordings in in vitro mouse hippocampal slices. In the case of POX intoxication, it predicted a preventing action of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine sulfate, as well as a synergistic action with the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine. These in silico predictions relative to beneficial effects of atropine sulfate combined with memantine were recapitulated experimentally in an in vivo model of POX in adult male Swiss mice using electroencephalic (EEG) recordings. Thus, our simulator is a new powerful tool to identify protective therapeutic strategies against OP central effects, by screening various combinations of muscarinic and NMDA receptor antagonists. PMID:27108687

  14. Experimental evidence for drought induced alternative stable states of soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Robinson, David A; Jones, Scott B; Lebron, Inma; Reinsch, Sabine; Domínguez, María T; Smith, Andrew R; Jones, Davey L; Marshall, Miles R; Emmett, Bridget A

    2016-01-25

    Ecosystems may exhibit alternative stable states (ASS) in response to environmental change. Modelling and observational data broadly support the theory of ASS, however evidence from manipulation experiments supporting this theory is limited. Here, we provide long-term manipulation and observation data supporting the existence of drought induced alternative stable soil moisture states (irreversible soil wetting) in upland Atlantic heath, dominated by Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. Manipulated repeated moderate summer drought, and intense natural summer drought both lowered resilience resulting in shifts in soil moisture dynamics. The repeated moderate summer drought decreased winter soil moisture retention by ~10%. However, intense summer drought, superimposed on the experiment, that began in 2003 and peaked in 2005 caused an unexpected erosion of resilience and a shift to an ASS; both for the experimental drought manipulation and control plots, impairing the soil from rewetting in winter. Measurements outside plots, with vegetation removal, showed no evidence of moisture shifts. Further independent evidence supports our findings from historical soil moisture monitoring at a long-term upland hydrological observatory. The results herald the need for a new paradigm regarding our understanding of soil structure, hydraulics and climate interaction.

  15. Experimental investigation on vortex-induced vibration of steel catenary riser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yu-ting; Mao, Hai-ying; Guo, Hai-yan; Liu, Qing-hai; Li, Xiao-min

    2015-10-01

    Steel catenary riser (SCR) is the transmission device between the seabed and the floating production facilities. As developments move into deeper water, the fatigue life of the riser can become critical to the whole production system, especially due to the vortex-induced vibration (VIV), which is the key factor to operational longevity. As a result, experimental investigation about VIV of the riser was performed in a large plane pool which is 60 m long, 36 m wide and 6.5 m deep. Experiments were developed to study the influence of current speed and seabed on VIV of SCR. The results show that amplitudes of strain and response frequencies increase with the current speed both in cross-flow (CF) and in-line (IL). When the current speed is high, multi-mode response is observed in the VIV motion. The amplitudes of strain in IL direction are not much smaller than those in CF direction. The seabed has influence on the response frequencies of riser and the positions of damage for riser.

  16. Gravity-induced coating flows of vaginal gel formulations: in vitro experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Kieweg, Sarah L; Geonnotti, Anthony R; Katz, David F

    2004-12-01

    Efficacy of topical microbicidal drug delivery formulations against HIV depends in part on their coating distributions and retention on vaginal epithelium. This study focused on gravity-induced coating flows of vaginal gels, and effects of formulation composition and surface wettability on coating. We hypothesized that presence of a yield stress, and surface wettability, affect coating. Experiments imaged and analyzed coating flows of gels on inclined model hydrophilic or hydrophobic surfaces. The in vitro wettability conditions bracket those believed to exist on vaginal epithelium in vivo. Six commercial vaginal gels were studied: three polyacrylic acid-based (PAA) and three cellulose-based. Our research group uses these gels in complementary human in vivo studies and other in vitro experimental analyses; this study is a first step in linking the in vivo and in vitro measurements. Coating by PAA gels was different from cellulose-based gels: the former exhibited yield stresses, which prevented initial gel shape from deforming during sliding. Coating flows of cellulose gels depended upon surface wettability. The slipping rates of the PAA gels ranked inversely with fitted yield stress values. The coating flow rates of the cellulose gels (hydrophilic surface) did not correlate with consistency index, but ranked inversely with the shear-thinning index. This study introduces a simple methodology for comparing trial formulations and relating their flows to gel constituents and physical properties. It also suggests differences in coating by current commercial gels.

  17. [A study of epidermal alterations induced by PCDF on experimental carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Hirose, R; Hori, M; Toyoshima, H; Shukuwa, T; Udono, M; Yoshida, H

    1991-05-01

    An effect of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) as a promoter on a course of experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice by chemicals 20-methylcholanthrene (MC) has been proved by our previous studies. Details of ultrastructural epidermal alterations induced by MC and PCDF were observed and an attempt to differentiate benign tumor from malignant one in which a combined application of MC and PCDF on mice skin resulted was done electron microscopically. Four significant findings as follows were detected. First of all even the epidermal cells without tumor had some atypicality. Secondly both of benign tumor and normal-appeared skin without tumor had giant and round-shaped keratohyalin granules (KHGs) which show a tendency of less keratinization. Thirdly cytoplasmic projections of epidermal cells increased in number and sparse tonofilaments scattered in the cytoplasm of benign tumor. This is also an appearance of mucous metaplasia of keratinocytes as well as the form of KHGs mentioned above. Finally benign tumor had thick horny cells including numerous lipid droplets, and that is a sign of acceleration of epidermal turn over. Since epidermal cells have little chance to be exposed to carcinogens when they quickly keratinize, they rarely form a cancer. When epidermal cells have such tendency as less keratinization or more keratinization, they are supposed to be less sensitive to any stimuli of carcinogens, and consequently they incline to be benign tumor instead of malignant one. PMID:1916594

  18. Numerical and experimental study of the thermal stress of silicon induced by a millisecond laser

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xi; Qin Yuan; Wang Bin; Zhang Liang; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu

    2011-07-20

    A spatial axisymmetric finite element model of single-crystal silicon irradiated by a 1064 nm millisecond laser is used to investigate the thermal stress damage induced by a millisecond laser. The transient temperature field and the thermal stress field for 2 ms laser irradiation with a laser fluence of 254 J/cm{sup 2} are obtained. The numerical simulation results indicate that the hoop stresses along the r axis on the front surface are compressive stress within the laser spot and convert to tensile stress outside the laser spot, while the radial stresses along the r axis on the front surface and on the z axis are compressive stress. The temperature of the irradiated center is the highest temperature obtained, yet the stress is not always highest during laser irradiation. At the end of the laser irradiation, the maximal hoop stress is located at r=0.5 mm and the maximal radial stress is located at r=0.76 mm. The temperature measurement experiments are performed by IR pyrometer. The numerical result of the temperature field is consistent with the experimental result. The damage morphologies of silicon under the action of a 254 J/cm{sup 2} laser are inspected by optical microscope. The cracks are observed initiating at r=0.5 mm and extending along the radial direction.

  19. Numerical and experimental study of the thermal stress of silicon induced by a millisecond laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Liang; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2011-07-20

    A spatial axisymmetric finite element model of single-crystal silicon irradiated by a 1064 nm millisecond laser is used to investigate the thermal stress damage induced by a millisecond laser. The transient temperature field and the thermal stress field for 2 ms laser irradiation with a laser fluence of 254 J/cm(2) are obtained. The numerical simulation results indicate that the hoop stresses along the r axis on the front surface are compressive stress within the laser spot and convert to tensile stress outside the laser spot, while the radial stresses along the r axis on the front surface and on the z axis are compressive stress. The temperature of the irradiated center is the highest temperature obtained, yet the stress is not always highest during laser irradiation. At the end of the laser irradiation, the maximal hoop stress is located at r=0.5 mm and the maximal radial stress is located at r=0.76 mm. The temperature measurement experiments are performed by IR pyrometer. The numerical result of the temperature field is consistent with the experimental result. The damage morphologies of silicon under the action of a 254 J/cm(2) laser are inspected by optical microscope. The cracks are observed initiating at r=0.5 mm and extending along the radial direction. PMID:21772353

  20. Pathophysiological mechanisms of diarrhea caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant: an in vivo study in mice.

    PubMed

    Satitsri, Saravut; Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2016-10-01

    Cholera is caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of diarrhea caused by the V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant (EL), a major epidemic strain causing severe diarrhea in several regions. In the ligated ileal loop model of EL-induced diarrhea in the ICR mice, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor and a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitor similarly inhibited intestinal fluid secretion. In addition, barrier disruption and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses, e.g., iNOS and COX-2 expression, were observed in the infected ileal loops. Interestingly, intestinal fluid secretion and barrier disruption were suppressed by NF-κB and COX-2 inhibitors, whereas an iNOS inhibitor suppressed barrier disruption without affecting fluid secretion. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 PGE2 receptor antagonists ameliorated the fluid secretion in the infected ileal loops. The amount of cholera toxin (CT) produced in the ileal loops by the EL was ∼2.4-fold of the classical biotype. The CT transcription inhibitor virstatin, a toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) antibody and a CT antibody suppressed the EL-induced intestinal fluid secretion, barrier disruption and COX-2 expression. The CT at levels detected during EL infection induced mild intestinal barrier disruption without inducing inflammatory responses in mouse intestine. Collectively, this study indicates that CT-induced intestinal barrier disruption and subsequent TLR-4-NF-κB-mediated COX-2 expression are involved in the pathogenesis of EL-induced diarrhea and represent promising novel therapeutic targets of cholera. PMID:27222028

  1. Pathophysiological mechanisms of diarrhea caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant: an in vivo study in mice.

    PubMed

    Satitsri, Saravut; Pongkorpsakol, Pawin; Srimanote, Potjanee; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Muanprasat, Chatchai

    2016-10-01

    Cholera is caused by infection with Vibrio cholerae. This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of diarrhea caused by the V. cholerae O1 El Tor variant (EL), a major epidemic strain causing severe diarrhea in several regions. In the ligated ileal loop model of EL-induced diarrhea in the ICR mice, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitor and a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitor similarly inhibited intestinal fluid secretion. In addition, barrier disruption and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses, e.g., iNOS and COX-2 expression, were observed in the infected ileal loops. Interestingly, intestinal fluid secretion and barrier disruption were suppressed by NF-κB and COX-2 inhibitors, whereas an iNOS inhibitor suppressed barrier disruption without affecting fluid secretion. Furthermore, EP2 and EP4 PGE2 receptor antagonists ameliorated the fluid secretion in the infected ileal loops. The amount of cholera toxin (CT) produced in the ileal loops by the EL was ∼2.4-fold of the classical biotype. The CT transcription inhibitor virstatin, a toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) antibody and a CT antibody suppressed the EL-induced intestinal fluid secretion, barrier disruption and COX-2 expression. The CT at levels detected during EL infection induced mild intestinal barrier disruption without inducing inflammatory responses in mouse intestine. Collectively, this study indicates that CT-induced intestinal barrier disruption and subsequent TLR-4-NF-κB-mediated COX-2 expression are involved in the pathogenesis of EL-induced diarrhea and represent promising novel therapeutic targets of cholera.

  2. Protective effects of D-002 on experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Zullyt; Molina, Vivian; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Perez, Yohany; Oyarzabal, Ambar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of beeswax alcohols (D-002) on the esophageal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in rats. METHODS: Sixty male rats were randomized into six groups (10 rats/group): a negative control and five groups with experimentally induced GER: a positive vehicle control, three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively), and one with omeprazole 10 mg/kg. All treatments were given by gastric gavage. One hour after dosing, GER was produced by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and the forestomach. Esophageal lesions index (ELI), gastric secretion volume and acidity, and esophageal malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations were measured. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: As compared to the negative control, the positive control group exhibited increased ELI (5.2 ± 0.33 vs 0 ± 0, P = 0.0003), gastric secretion volume (2.69 ± 0.09 vs 0.1 ± 0.0, P = 0.0003) and acidity (238 ± 19.37 vs 120.0 ± 5.77, P = 0.001), and esophageal concentrations of MDA (2.56 ± 0.1 vs 1.76 ± 0.28, P = 0.001) and SH groups (1.02 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.08, P = 0.0003). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced ELI (3.36 ± 0.31, 2.90 ± 0.46 and 2.8 ± 0.23, respectively) vs the positive control (5.2 ± 0.33) (P = 0.004; P = 0.002; P = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant changes in acidity with D-002 treatment, and only the highest dose reduced the volume of the gastric secretion (1.92 ± 0.25) vs the positive control (2.69 ± 0.09, P = 0.013). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) lowered the esophageal MDA (2.05 ± 0.16, 1.98 ± 0.22 and 1.93 ± 0.22, respectively) (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.03, respectively) and SH group concentration (0.87 ± 0.06, 0.79 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ± 0.06, respectively) (P = 0.04; P = 0.04; P = 0.02) vs the positive control (2.56 ± 0.10 and 1.02 ± 0.05, respectively). Omeprazole decreased ELI (2.54 ± 0.47), gastric secretion volume (1.97 ± 0.14) and acidity

  3. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.

  4. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    PubMed

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible. PMID:25382477

  5. Activation of adenosine A2A receptors by polydeoxyribonucleotide increases vascular endothelial growth factor and protects against testicular damage induced by experimental varicocele in rats.

    PubMed

    Minutoli, Letteria; Arena, Salvatore; Bonvissuto, Giulio; Bitto, Alessandra; Polito, Francesca; Irrera, Natasha; Arena, Francesco; Fragalà, Eugenia; Romeo, Carmelo; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Fazzari, Carmine; Marini, Herbert; Implatini, Alessandra; Grimaldi, Silvia; Cantone, Noemi; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo; Squadrito, Francesco; Altavilla, Domenica; Morgia, Giuseppe

    2011-03-15

    In rat experimental varicocele, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, thereby enhancing testicular function. This may point to a new therapeutic approach in human varicocele.

  6. COMPARISON OF LUNG ATTENUATION AND HETEROGENEITY BETWEEN CATS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ALLERGIC ASTHMA, NATURALLY OCCURRING ASTHMA AND NORMAL CATS.

    PubMed

    Masseau, Isabelle; Banuelos, Alina; Dodam, John; Cohn, Leah A; Reinero, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Airway remodeling is a prominent feature of feline allergic asthma but requires biopsy for characterization. Computed tomography (CT) has appeal as a minimally invasive diagnostic test. The purpose of this prospective case-control study was to compare indices of airway remodeling between cats with experimentally induced, spontaneous asthma and healthy unaffected cats using CT. We hypothesized that experimental and spontaneous feline asthma would have similar CT airway remodeling characteristics and that these would be significantly different in healthy cats. Experimentally induced asthmatic research cats (n = 5), spontaneously asthmatic pet cats (n = 6), and healthy research cats (n = 5) were scanned unrestrained using a 64-detector row CT scanner. Inspiratory breath-hold CT scans were also performed in experimentally induced asthmatic and healthy cats. Mean ± extent variation of lung attenuation for each cat was determined using an airway inspector software program and CT images were scored for lung heterogeneity by a board-certified veterinary radiologist who was unaware of cat group status. Groups were compared using one-way ANOVA (unrestrained scans) and the Student's t-test (anesthetized scans) with significance defined as P < 0.10. Experimentally asthmatic and spontaneously asthmatic cats had significantly (P = 0.028 and P = 0.073, respectively) increased lung attenuation compared to healthy cats. Heterogeneity scores were higher in experimentally induced asthmatic cat than in healthy cats. Objective quantification of lung heterogeneity and lung volume did not differ among the three groups (P = 0.311, P = 0.181, respectively). Findings supported our hypothesis. Inspiratory breath-hold anesthetized CT scans facilitated discrimination between asthmatic and healthy cats in comparison to unrestrained CT scans.

  7. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  8. Experimental investigation of flow-induced vibration on isolated and tandem circular cylinders fitted with strakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkischko, I.; Meneghini, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    The effect of varying the geometric parameters of helical strakes on vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is investigated in this paper. The degree of oscillation attenuation or even suppression is analysed for isolated circular cylinder cases. How a cylinder fitted with strakes behaves when immersed in the wake of another cylinder in tandem arrangement is also investigated and these results are compared to those with a single straked cylinder. The experimental tests are conducted at a circulating water channel facility and the cylindrical models are mounted on a low-damping air bearing elastic base with one degree-of-freedom, restricted to oscillate in the transverse direction to the channel flow. Three strake pitches (p) and heights (h) are tested: p=5, 10, 15d, and h=0.1, 0.2, 0.25d. The mass ratio is 1.8 for all models. The Reynolds number range is from 1000 to 10 000, and the reduced velocity varies up to 21. The cases with h=0.1d strakes reduce the amplitude response when compared to the isolated plain cylinder, however the oscillation still persists. On the other hand, the cases with h=0.2, 0.25d strakes almost completely suppress VIV. Spanwise vorticity fields, obtained through stereoscopic digital particle image velocimetry (SDPIV), show an alternating vortex wake for the p=10d and h=0.1d straked cylinder. The p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder wake has separated shear layers with constant width and no roll-up close to the body. The strakes do not increase the magnitude of the out-of-plane velocity compared to the isolated plain cylinder. However, they deflect the flow in the out-of-plane direction in a controlled way, which can prevent the vortex shedding correlation along the span. In order to investigate the wake interference effect on the strake efficiency, an experimental arrangement with two cylinders in tandem is employed. The centre-to-centre distance for the tandem arrangement varies from 2 to 6. When the downstream p=10d and h=0.2d cylinder is immersed in the

  9. Experimental Animal Models for Studies on the Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Neurotrauma

    PubMed Central

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments

  10. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  11. Experimental animal models for studies on the mechanisms of blast-induced neurotrauma.

    PubMed

    Risling, Mårten; Davidsson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    A blast injury is a complex type of physical trauma resulting from the detonation of explosive compounds and has become an important issue due to the use of improvised explosive devices (IED) in current military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a major concern in contemporary military medicine and includes a variety of injuries that range from mild to lethal. Extreme forces and their complex propagation characterize BINT. Modern body protection and the development of armored military vehicles can be assumed to have changed the outcome of BINT. Primary blast injuries are caused by overpressure waves whereas secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries can have more varied origins such as the impact of fragments, abnormal movements, or heat. The characteristics of the blast wave can be assumed to be significantly different in open field detonations compared to explosions in a confined space, such an armored vehicle. Important parameters include peak pressure, duration, and shape of the pulse. Reflections from walls and armor can make the prediction of effects in individual cases very complex. Epidemiological data do not contain information of the comparative importance of the different blast mechanisms. It is therefore important to generate data in carefully designed animal models. Such models can be selective reproductions of a primary blast, penetrating injuries from fragments, acceleration movements, or combinations of such mechanisms. It is of crucial importance that the physical parameters of the employed models are well characterized so that the experiments can be reproduced in different laboratory settings. Ideally, pressure recordings should be calibrated by using the same equipment in several laboratories. With carefully designed models and thoroughly evaluated animal data it should be possible to achieve a translation of data between animal and clinical data. Imaging and computer simulation represent a possible link between experiments

  12. Biological studies on the effect of estrogen on experimentally induced asthma in mice.

    PubMed

    El-Desouki, Nabila I; Tabl, Ghada A; Elkhodary, Yasmin A A

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of estrogen hormone on the experimentally induced asthma in male mice. The animals were divided into four groups, with 20 mice in each group; group I (control mice) included mice that received no treatment, group II included mice that received intraperitoneal estrogen injection (0.25 mg/kg body weight (bw), twice on day 28 of the experiment), group III (asthmatic mice) included asthmatic mice that received intraperitoneal injection of two doses of ovalbumin (OVA; 2 µg of OVA mixed with 100 µg of aluminum potassium sulfate) on days 1 and 14 of the experiment and then challenged intranasally with a single dose of OVA (50 µg dissolved in 0.05 ml phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) on day 28 of the experiment, and group IV (asthmatic mice treated with estrogen) included asthma model male mice that received the estrogen (0.5 mg/kg bw in 40 ml PBS, twice on the day 28 of the experiment). The immunohistochemical studies observed a marked intensity of CD15 immunoreactivity in the lung tissues of asthma model mice. Physiological results recorded that the total and differential count of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of asthma model mice recorded a significant increase in the number of leukocytes especially in the number of eosinophil cells. The BALF of asthma model mice showed high levels of interleukins 4 and 5 (IL-4 and IL-5), and there was a significant decrease in both the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF of asthma model mice treated with estrogen. In conclusion, the obtained results indicated that the asthma is responsible for certain immunohistochemical and physiological alterations induced in lung tissues of mice. The administration of estrogen to asthmatic male mice could improve these changes. For this reason, the present findings support the possible role of estrogen in modulating the inflammatory effects caused by asthma in male mice and may be helpful to cure many asthmatic progressions.

  13. Changes in the Swine Gut Microbiota in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hongik; Park, Soo-Je

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is a complex ecosystem with distinct environments and comprises hundreds of different types of bacterial cells. The gut microbiota may play a critical role in the gut health of the host. We herein attempted to identify a microbiota shift that may be affected by porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). We observed significant differences in microbiota between the control and PED virus (PEDV)-infected groups at both the phylum and genus level. Most commensal bacteria (i.e. Psychrobacter, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium) in the healthy gastrointestinal tract were decreased due to dysbiosis induced by PEDV infection. PMID:26212519

  14. Changes in the Swine Gut Microbiota in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Infection.

    PubMed

    Koh, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Myun Soo; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hongik; Park, Soo-Je

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of mammals is a complex ecosystem with distinct environments and comprises hundreds of different types of bacterial cells. The gut microbiota may play a critical role in the gut health of the host. We herein attempted to identify a microbiota shift that may be affected by porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). We observed significant differences in microbiota between the control and PED virus (PEDV)-infected groups at both the phylum and genus level. Most commensal bacteria (i.e. Psychrobacter, Prevotella, and Faecalibacterium) in the healthy gastrointestinal tract were decreased due to dysbiosis induced by PEDV infection. PMID:26212519

  15. Gastrointestinal Diseases in Pregnancy: Nausea, Vomiting, Hyperemesis Gravidarum, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease, Constipation, and Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Body, Cameron; Christie, Jennifer A

    2016-06-01

    Many disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are common in pregnancy. Elevated levels of progesterone may lead to alterations in gastrointestinal motility which could contribute to nausea, vomiting, and/or GERD. Pregnancy-induced diarrhea may be due to elevated levels prostaglandins. This article reviews the normal physiologic and structural changes associated with pregnancy that could contribute to many of the common gastrointestinal complaints in pregnant patients. Additionally, the appropriate clinical and laboratory evaluations, other pathologic conditions that should be included in the differential, as well as the nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic therapies for each of these conditions is discussed. PMID:27261898

  16. The role of Allium cepa on aluminum-induced reproductive dysfunction in experimental male rat models

    PubMed Central

    Ige, Serah F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Reproductive toxicity is a major challenge associated with aluminum (Al) exposure. Studies that associated Al with reproductive dysfunction did not account for the possible influence of Allium cepa extract. This study, therefore, investigates the influence of A. cepa on aluminum-induced reproductive dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six male rats per group were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: The control animals were on control diet. A. cepa-treated rats received 1 ml of the extract/100 g body weight (BW), Al-treated rats received 100 mg AlCl3 /kg BW, and A.cepa+Al received 1 ml of the extract/100 g BW plus 100 mg AlCl3 /kg BW. Rats were orally administered their respective doses. A. cepa treatment was for 8 weeks, while Al treatment was for the last 3 days of the experimental period. RESULTS: Results obtained showed that Al significantly decreased (P < 0.05) plasma testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sperm count, motility, morphology and viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, while lipid peroxidation index [malondialdehyde (MDA)] was significantly (P < 0.05) increased. Reproductive hormones (except testosterone), sperm qualities, and enzymatic antioxidants were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in A. cepa-treated rats and A. cepa plus Al-treated rats, while MDA was significantly (P < 0.05) improved. Weights of testes were comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: It is thus suggested that Al exerts reproductive dysfunction by oxidative damage. A. cepa antagonizes the toxic effects of AlCl3 and improves the antioxidant status and sperm quality of male rat. However, testosterone level did not increase with A. cepa treatment. PMID:23162360

  17. Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin: an endoplasmic reticulum protein expressed by trophozoites into experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses.

    PubMed

    González, Enrique; de Leon, Maria del Carmen García; Meza, Isaura; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Silva-Olivares, Angelica; Galindo-Gómez, Silvia; Shibayama, Mineko; Morán, Patricia; Valadez, Alicia; Limón, Angelica; Rojas, Liliana; Hernández, Eric G; Cerritos, René; Ximenez, Cecilia

    2011-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica calreticulin (EhCRT) is remarkably immunogenic in humans (90-100% of invasive amoebiasis patients). Nevertheless, the study of calreticulin in this protozoan is still in its early stages. The exact location, biological functions, and its role in pathogenesis are yet to be fully understood. The aim of the present work is to determine the location of EhCRT in virulent trophozoites in vivo and the expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of experimentally induced amoebic liver abscesses (ALA) in hamsters. Antibodies against recombinant EhCRT were used for the immunolocalization of EhCRT in trophozoites through confocal microscopy; immunohistochemical assays were also performed on tissue sections of ALAs at different times after intrahepatic inoculation. The expression of the Ehcrt gene during the development of ALA was estimated through both in situ RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR. Confocal assays of virulent trophozoites showed a distribution of EhCRT in the cytoplasmic vesicles of different sizes. Apparently, EhCRT is not exported into the hepatic tissue. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated an over-expression of the Ehcrt gene at 30 min after trophozoite inoculation, reaching a peak at 1-2 h; thereafter, the expression fell sharply to its original levels. These results demonstrate for the first time in an in vivo model of ALA, the expression of Ehcrt gene in E. histolytica trophozoites and add evidence that support CRT as a resident protein of the ER in E. histolytica species. The in vivo experiments suggest that CRT may play an important role during the early stages of the host-parasite relationship, when the parasite is adapting to a new environment, although the protein seems to be constitutively synthesized. Moreover, trophozoites apparently do not export EhCRT into the hepatic tissue in ALA.

  18. Glycyrrhizin ameliorates metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Sil, Rajarshi; Ray, Doel; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2015-11-01

    Glycyrrhizin, a major constituent of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root, has been reported to ameliorate insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and obesity in rats with metabolic syndrome. Liver dysfunction is associated with this syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of glycyrrhizin treatment on metabolic syndrome-induced liver damage. After induction of metabolic syndrome in rats by high fructose (60%) diet for 6 weeks, the rats were treated with glycyrrhizin (50 mg/kg body weight, single intra-peritoneal injection). After 2 weeks of treatment, rats were sacrificed to collect blood samples and liver tissues. Compared to normal, elevated activities of serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase, increased levels of liver advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, protein kinase Cα, NADPH oxidase-2, and decreased glutathione cycle components established liver damage and oxidative stress in fructose-fed rats. Activation of nuclear factor κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways as well as signals from mitochondria were found to be involved in liver cell apoptosis. Increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-12 proteins suggested hepatic inflammation. Metabolic syndrome caused hepatic DNA damage and poly-ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting using annexin V/propidium iodide staining confirmed the apoptotic hepatic cell death. Histology of liver tissue also supported the experimental findings. Treatment with glycyrrhizin reduced oxidative stress, hepatic inflammation, and apoptotic cell death in fructose-fed rats. The results suggest that glycyrrhizin possesses therapeutic potential against hepatocellular damage in metabolic syndrome. PMID:26400710

  19. Alterations of testosterone metabolism in microsomes from rats with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanjuan; Hu, Nan; Gao, Xuejiao; Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Sai; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru

    2015-05-01

    Down-regulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) was observed in patients and animals with ulcerative colitis (UC). This study examined changes of CYP450s activities in microsomes of liver (RLMs), intestine (RIMs) and kidney (RRMs) from rats with experimental acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days and those receiving DSS treatment followed by 7-d cessation through measuring 6α-(CYP1A1), 7α-(CYP2A1), 16α-(CYP2C11) and 2β-/6β-(CYP3A2) hydroxytestosterone (OHT) formed from testosterone. Both pro-(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-(IL-4, IL-10) inflammatory cytokines were elevated in acute colitis, while the production of the former was enhanced and that of the latter declined by DSS withdrawal. In RLMs, the CYP2A1 activity was significantly increased at DSS stimulation and partially returned to normal level when DSS treatment was terminated. Activity of other CYP450s were decreased by acute colitis and remained after DSS withdrawal. In RRMs, formations of 6α-, 16α- and 2β-OHT significantly declined in acute colitis and DSS termination further potentiated the down-regulation, while 7α-OHT formation was suppressed at DSS stimulation and remained after DSS withdrawal. The formation of 6β-OHT only showed significant decrease after DSS withdrawal. Two metabolites (6α- and 6β-OHT) formed in RIMs and 6β-OHT formation was significantly decreased by DSS stimulation and continued after DSS treatment halted. These findings indicate that the alterations of CYP450s activities vary with organ, CYP isoforms and colitis status, which arouse cautions on efficacy and toxicity of drug therapy during disease progression.

  20. A new modified animal model of myosin-induced experimental autoimmune myositis enhanced by defibrase

    PubMed Central

    Wen-Jing, Luo; Hong-Hua, Li; Xiang-Hui, Lu; Jie-Xiao, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the effect of defibrase (a proteolytic enzyme extraction of Agkistrodon halys venom) on experimental autoimmune myositis (EAM) in guinea pigs and explored the option of using a modified pig model of EAM to enhance the study of this disease. Material and methods Guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: group A (control group) was immunized with complete Freund adjuvant (CFA), then received 6 injections of saline weekly; group B (EAM group) was immunized with partially purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of saline; group C (EAM + defibrase group) was immunized with purified rabbit myosin emulsified with CFA, then received an injection of defibrase. The animals were observed for their general health condition and the body weight was measured daily. Plasma levels of fibrinogen and creatine kinase (CK) were determined. Muscle tissues were examined histologically. Results After immunizations for 6 weeks, incidence of EAM in groups A, B and C was 0 (0/7), 83.3% (10/12) and 100% (15/15), respectively. Guinea pigs with EAM presented angeitis symptoms of muscle weakness. Histological analysis revealed a significant difference. Muscles with EAM had scattered or diffuse inflammatory manifestations, which are also common pathological features of human idiopathic polymyositis (IPM). Defibrase-treated animals displayed extensive inflammation and fiber necrosis compared with the EAM group (histological score: 2.80 ±1.15 vs. 1.88 ±1.32, p < 0.05). Severity of inflammation of group B was mainly mild to moderate; 16.7% (2/12) of animals developed severe inflammation. Incidence of severe inflammation with a score up to 4 in group C was 40% (6/15). Conclusions Defibrase can exacerbate myosin-induced EAM; thus a new modified model was generated. PMID:26788090

  1. Experimental study of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced by a Mach 3 shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    BP Puranik; JG Oakley; MH Anderson; R Bonaazza

    2003-11-12

    OAK-B135 An experimental investigation of a shock-induced interfacial instability (Richtmyer-Meshkov instability) is undertaken in an effort to study temporal evolution of interfacial perturbations in the late stages of development. The experiments are performed in a vertical shock tube with a square cross-section. A membraneless interface is prepared by retracting a sinusoidally shaped metal plate initially separating carbon dioxide from air, with both gases initially at atmospheric pressure. With carbon dioxide above the plate, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability commences as the plate is retracted and the amplitude of the initial sinusoidal perturbation imposed on the interface begins to grow. The interface is accelerated by a strong shock wave (M=3.08) while its shape is still sinusoidal and before the Kelvin-Helmhotz instability distorts it into the well known mushroom-like structures; its initial amplitude to wavelength ratio is large enough that the interface evolution enters its nonlinear stage very shortly after shock acceleration. The pre-shock evolution of the interface due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the post-shock evolution of the interface due to the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are visualized using planar Mie scattering. The pre-shock evolution of the interface is carried out in an independent set of experiments. The initial conditions for the Richtmyer-Meshkov experiment are determined from the pre-shock Rayleigh-Taylor growth. One image of the post-shock interface is obtained per experiment and image sequences, showing the post-shock evolution of the interface, are constructed from several experiments. The growth rate of the perturbation amplitude is measured and compared with two recent analytical models of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.

  2. Temperature dependence of spectral induced polarization data: experimental results and membrane polarization theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairlein, Katharina; Bücker, Matthias; Hördt, Andreas; Hinze, Björn

    2016-04-01

    Spectral induced polarization measurements are affected by temperature variations due to a variety of temperature-dependent parameters that control the complex electrical conductivity. Most important is the influence of the ion mobility, which increases with increasing temperature. It is responsible for the increase of the conductivity of the fluid in the pores with temperature and influences the electrical double layer on the mineral surface. This work is based on laboratory measurements of 13 sandstone samples from different sources with different geological and petrophysical characteristics. We measured the complex impedance in a frequency range from 0.01 to 100 Hz and a temperature range from 0 to 40 °C. The main observation is a decrease of the characteristic time (defined by the inverse of the frequency, at which the phase shift is maximum) with increasing temperature. The strength of this decrease differs from one sample to another. The temperature dependence of the phase shift magnitude cannot easily be generalized, as it depends on the particular sample. The experimental findings suggest that neglecting the influence of temperature on complex conductivity may lead to significant errors when estimating hydraulic conductivity from relaxation time. We also simulate the temperature dependence with a theoretical model of membrane polarization and review some of the model properties, with an emphasis on the temperature dependence of the parameters. The model reproduces several features characterizing the measured data, including the temperature dependence of the characteristic times. Computed tomography and microscope images of the pore structure of three samples also allow us to associate differences in the geometrical parameters used in the modelling with pore scale parameters of the actual samples.

  3. Psychological and cortisol reactivity to experimentally induced stress in adults with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Raz, Sivan; Leykin, Dmitry

    2015-10-01

    Individuals with ADHD suffer from increased vulnerability to environmental and mental stressors and may be at increased risk for chronic stress in everyday life. The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical physiological system that mediates responses to stress. The present study seeks to examine test performance, test anxiety, self-reported psychological stress and cortisol reactivity to mental-cognitive stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Stress was induced by an arithmetic ability test. Psychological stress was assessed repeatedly throughout the experimental session. Salivary cortisol, an indicator of the HPA axis function, was evaluated immediately upon arrival, as well as 1 min and 20 min post-test completion. Results revealed higher levels of test anxiety and poorer performance on the test in the ADHD group. The ADHD and control groups showed no difference in base-line levels of subjective stress and in subjective stress levels 20 min after the test. In contrast, individuals with ADHD reported significantly higher levels of stress at the test anticipation phase and 1 min post-test completion. Cortisol response to stress differed according to group: in the ADHD group, 20 min post-test cortisol levels were significantly higher than base-line cortisol levels. This was not evident in the control group. These results suggest greater activation of the HPA axis in response to stress in adults with ADHD when compared with healthy controls. Adults with ADHD do not differ from controls in basal levels of subjective stress and cortisol, but do have stronger psychophysiological reactions in response to stressful challenges. The present findings are among the first to demonstrate significant alterations in cortisol reactivity to stress in adults with ADHD.

  4. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Capeto, F A; Lima, F J B; Okoba, W; Ramos, F L; Messias, T F A; Rigonatto, G A; Sbragia, L; Magalhães, P J C; Melo-Filho, A A

    2015-05-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO). Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA), and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA). Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh). The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). The maximum effect values (Emax) for DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA were significantly lower than control (P<0.05), but the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values were not significantly different when the three groups were compared (P>0.05). In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05). No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05). In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation.

  5. Contractile profile of esophageal and gastric fundus strips in experimental doxorubicin-induced esophageal atresia

    PubMed Central

    Capeto, F.A.; Lima, F.J.B.; Okoba, W.; Ramos, F.L.; Messias, T.F.A.; Rigonatto, G.A.; Sbragia, L.; Magalhães, P.J.C.; Melo-Filho, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) is characterized by esophageal and gastric motility changes secondary to developmental and postsurgical damage. This study evaluated the in vitro contractile profile of the distal esophagus and gastric fundus in an experimental model of EA induced by doxorubicin (DOXO). Wistar pregnant rats received DOXO 2.2 mg/kg on the 8th and 9th gestational days. On day 21.5, fetuses were collected, sacrificed, and divided into groups: control, DOXO without EA (DOXO-EA), and DOXO with EA (DOXO+EA). Strips from the distal esophagus and gastric fundus were mounted on a wire myograph and isolated organ-bath system, respectively, and subjected to increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol, CCh). The isolated esophagus was also stimulated with increasing concentrations of KCl. In esophagus, the concentration-effect curves were reduced in response to CCh in the DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA groups compared to the control group (P<0.05). The maximum effect values (Emax) for DOXO+EA and DOXO-EA were significantly lower than control (P<0.05), but the half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) values were not significantly different when the three groups were compared (P>0.05). In response to KCl, the distal esophagus samples in the three groups were not statistically different with regard to Emax or EC50 values (P>0.05). No significant difference was noted for EC50 or Emax values in fundic strips stimulated with CCh (P>0.05). In conclusion, exposure of dams to DOXO during gestation inhibited the contractile behavior of esophageal strips from offspring in response to CCh but not KCl, regardless of EA induction. The gastric fundus of DOXO-exposed offspring did not have altered contractile responsiveness to cholinergic stimulation. PMID:25760030

  6. Restoration of micturition using microelectric current in experimentally induced spastic urinary bladder in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Karoutas, G; Karacostas, D; Artemis, N; Liapis, J; Tzotzoras, T; Andreou, A; Tsitsopoulos, P

    1988-12-01

    The 29 rabbits used in this study were divided into three groups, A (A1 and A2), B, and C. In subgroup A1, 4 animals were used in order to verify whether the contact of an electrode to the sacral nerves results in some abnormality of voiding reflex. In subgroups A1 and A2 (4 animals each) we further studied the micturition function using three parameters: (i) urinary bladder fluoroscopy and radiography, (ii) cystomanometry, and (iii) electromyography of the pelvic floor muscles (external sphinter). In group B (9 rabbits) spastic paraplegia and micturition disturbances resulted from spinal cord compression that was induced by inserting a balloon catheter into the T11-T12 intervertebral foramen. In this group the parameters studied revealed a spastic urinary bladder in all animals. Finally, the 12 animals of group C were rendered paraplegic as described in group B, and microelectrodes were placed over the sacral nerves as in subgroup A1. By applying a specific sequence of sacral nerve stimulation we succeeded in satisfactory urinary bladder emptying as confirmed by the micturition parameters studied: The urinary bladder pressure decreased from 65 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 3 mm Hg. The pelvic floor muscle amplitude was lowered from 130 +/- 7 to 20 +/- 3 microV, and finally the radiological bladder size also decreased from 38 cm2 before voiding to 18 +/- 3 cm2 after voiding. These results indicate that microelectric current stimulation of the sacral nerves, when applied under a specific sequence, could rather satisfactorily restore micturition disturbances, at least in this experimental animal.

  7. Computational and experimental study of flow-induced vibration of the SSME main injector post

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) liquid-oxygen (LOX) posts are subjected to high-velocity turbulent flow from the transfer ducts. In a preliminary assessment of the vibration problem, it was determined that the two potential excitation mechanisms for LOX post vibration are fluidelastic instability and turbulent buffeting. A fundamental study is being conducted to understand the problem and to develop techniques to avoid detrimental vibrational effects with the objective of improving engine life. This paper summarizes the results of an analytical model for fluidelastic instability and test results for turbulent buffeting of a tube array in crossflow. A general theory of fluidelastic instability for a tube array in crossflow is presented. Various techniques to obtain the motion-dependent fluid-force coefficients are discussed and the general instability characteristics are summarized. The theory is also used to evaluate the results of other mathematical models for crossflow-induced instability. The fluid excitation forces acting on a tube array are presented as a function of Reynolds number, incoming flow conditions, and tube location in an array. The experimental data show the general characteristics of flow across a tube array. As the flow passes through each row of tubes, the fluid is subjected to resistance, the effect of which is to convert some of the fluid pressure energy to turbulent energy. In the first few rows, the transformation of energy occurs in a somewhat orderly manner. As the flow reaches the interior tubes, unsteadiness of the flow increases and, usually, a randomness of the flow and its pressure fluctuation exists in the flow field.

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus promotes Moraxella catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental otitis media.

    PubMed

    Brockson, M Elizabeth; Novotny, Laura A; Jurcisek, Joseph A; McGillivary, Glen; Bowers, Martha R; Bakaletz, Lauren O

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a polymicrobial disease wherein prior or concurrent infection with an upper respiratory tract virus plays an essential role, predisposing the middle ear to bacterial invasion. In episodes of acute bacterial OM, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most commonly isolated virus and thus serves as an important co-pathogen. Of the predominant bacterial agents of OM, the pathogenesis of disease due to Moraxella catarrhalis is the least well understood. Rigorous study of M. catarrhalis in the context of OM has been significantly hindered by lack of an animal model. To bridge this gap, we assessed whether co-infection of chinchillas with M. catarrhalis and RSV would facilitate ascension of M. catarrhalis from the nasopharynx into the middle ear. Chinchillas were challenged intranasally with M. catarrhalis followed 48 hours later by intranasal challenge with RSV. Within 7 days, 100% of nasopharynges were colonized with M. catarrhalis and homogenates of middle ear mucosa were also culture-positive. Moreover, within the middle ear space, the mucosa exhibited hemorrhagic foci, and a small volume of serosanguinous effusion was present in one of six ears. To improve upon this model, and based on epidemiologic data, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) was included as an additional bacterial co-pathogen via intranasal administration four days before M. catarrhalis challenge. With this latter protocol, M. catarrhalis was cultured from the nasopharynx and middle ear homogenates of a maximum of 88% and 79% animals, respectively, for up to 17 days after intranasal challenge with M. catarrhalis. Additionally, hemorrhagic foci were observed in 79% of middle ears upon sacrifice. Thus, these data demonstrated that co-infection with RSV and NTHI predisposed to M. catarrhalis-induced ascending experimental OM. This model can be used both in studies of pathogenesis as well as to investigate strategies to prevent or treat OM due to M. catarrhalis.

  9. Combination treatment of lycopene and hesperidin protect experimentally induced ulcer in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dilpesh; Katti, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Lycopene, a carotenoid and hesperidin, a flavonoid are naturally occurring in vegetables and fruits. Synergistic effect of a combination of carotenoid and flavonoid has been reported due to its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of this combination on pylorus ligation induced ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). Rats were fasted for 24 h before pylorus ligation. After 24 h of fasting the rats were treated with hesperidin (100 mg/kg) and lycopene (2 mg/kg) and their combination 1h prior to surgery. After an hour under ether anesthesia pylorus ligation was performed, after 5 h the animals were sacrificed, stomach was dissected, and gastric contents were collected and measured. Total acidity and pH of gastric content was estimated. Ulcer index was calculated, and macroscopic examination of the stomach was carried out. Results: The sham operated rats showed a significant increase in pH, volume of gastric content and total acidity and ulcer index. The rats pretreated with lycopene and hesperidin showed significant improvement in the ulcer conditions. However, rats treated with a combination of lycopene and hesperidin showed more significant restoration of gastric function as compared to sham operated rats. Moreover, a significant difference was also noted in rats treated with a combination as compared to lycopene and hesperidin treatment alone. Conclusion: Thus experimentally the combination was seen to treat ulcers by anti-secretory, neutralizing, cytoprotective and mainly due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26401402

  10. [Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-induced diarrhea].

    PubMed

    Eser, A; Thalhammer, F; Burghuber, F; Högenauer, C; Stockenhuber, F; Wenisch, C; Widhalm, K; Reinisch, W

    2012-10-01

    Between 5 and 49% of patients treated with antibiotics suffer from diarrhoea. Principally all microbial agents can cause diarrhoea, especially oral agents like cephalosporines, clindamycin, broad-spectrum penicillins, and quinolones of the 3  rd and 4th generation. Manifestations of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea range from mild self-limiting forms to severe life-threatening courses. The potentially most severe form of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea is caused by Clostridium diffcile accounting for approx. 25  % of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. In the past two decades a broad spectrum of different probiotic strains has been evaluated for the primary prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults. Based on their efficacy and clinical data, different levels of evidence and recommendations are emerging on the preventive use of probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

  11. Pyridopyrimidine derivatives as inhibitors of cyclic nucleotide synthesis: Application for treatment of diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Kots, Alexander Y; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Estrella-Jimenez, Maria E; Warren, Cirle A; Gilbertson, Scott R; Guerrant, Richard L; Murad, Ferid

    2008-06-17

    Acute secretory diarrhea induced by infection with enterotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli involves binding of stable toxin (STa) to its receptor on the intestinal brush border, guanylyl cyclase type C (GC-C). Intracellular cGMP is elevated, inducing increase in chloride efflux and subsequent accumulation of fluid in the intestinal lumen. We have screened a library of compounds and identified a pyridopyrimidine derivatives {5-(3-bromophenyl)-1,3-dimethyl-5,11-dihydro-1H-indeno[2',1':5,6]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4,6-trione; BPIPP} as an inhibitor of GC-C that can suppress STa-stimulated cGMP accumulation by decreasing GC-C activation in intact T84 human colorectal carcinoma cells. BPIPP inhibited stimulation of guanylyl cyclases, including types A and B and soluble isoform in various cells. BPIPP suppressed stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and significantly decreased the activities of adenylyl cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis and edema toxin of Bacillus anthracis. The effects of BPIPP on cyclic nucleotide synthesis were observed only in intact cells. The mechanism of BPIPP-dependent inhibition appears to be complex and indirect, possibly associated with phospholipase C and tyrosine-specific phosphorylation. BPIPP inhibited chloride-ion transport stimulated by activation of guanylyl or adenylyl cyclases and suppressed STa-induced fluid accumulation in an in vivo rabbit intestinal loop model. Thus, BPIPP may be a promising lead compound for treatment of diarrhea and other diseases.

  12. Silymarin ameliorates memory deficits and neuropathological changes in mouse model of high-fat-diet-induced experimental dementia.

    PubMed

    Neha; Kumar, Amit; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Sodhi, Rupinder K; Singh, Nirmal

    2014-08-01

    A huge body evidences suggest that obesity is the single great risk factor for the development of dementia. Recently, silymarin, a flavonoid, clinically in use as a hepatoprotectant, has been reported to prevent amyloid beta-induced memory impairment by reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in mice brain. However, its potential in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced dementia has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the present study is designed to explore the role of silymarin in HFD-induced experimental dementia in mice. Morris water maze test was employed to assess learning and memory. Various biochemical estimations including brain acetylcholinerstarse activity (AchE), thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione level (GSH), nirate/nitrite, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Serum cholesterol level was also determined. HFD significantly impaired the cognitive abilities, along with increasing brain AchE, TBARS, MPO, nitrate/nitrite, and serum cholesterol levels. Marked reduction of brain GSH levels was observed. On the contrary, silymarin significantly reversed HFD-induced cognitive deficits and the biochemical changes. The present study indicates strong potential of silymarin in HFD-induced experimental dementia.

  13. Experimental Assessment and Enhancement of Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Nitric Oxide in an Inverse Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, William P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally assessed the quantitative nature of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of NO concentration in a unique atmospheric pressure, laminar, axial inverse diffusion flame (IDF). The PLIF measurements were assessed relative to a two-dimensional array of separate laser saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements. We demonstrated and evaluated several experimentally-based procedures for enhancing the quantitative nature of PLIF concentration images. Because these experimentally-based PLIF correction schemes require only the ability to make PLIF and LSF measurements, they produce a more broadly applicable PLIF diagnostic compared to numerically-based correction schemes. We experimentally assessed the influence of interferences on both narrow-band and broad-band fluorescence measurements at atmospheric and high pressures. Optimum excitation and detection schemes were determined for the LSF and PLIF measurements. Single-input and multiple-input, experimentally-based PLIF enhancement procedures were developed for application in test environments with both negligible and significant quench-dependent error gradients. Each experimentally-based procedure provides an enhancement of approximately 50% in the quantitative nature of the PLIF measurements, and results in concentration images nominally as quantitative as LSF point measurements. These correction procedures can be applied to other species, including radicals, for which no experimental data are available from which to implement numerically-based PLIF enhancement procedures.

  14. Minocycline attenuates experimental colitis in mice by blocking expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.-Y.; Chu, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Hsieh, T.-Y.; Chang, W.-K.; Chao, Y.-C.; Liao, C.-L.

    2009-05-15

    In addition to its antimicrobial activity, minocycline exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several disease models. However, whether minocycline affects the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has not been determined. We investigated the effects of minocycline on experimental colitis and its underlying mechanisms. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in mice by treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of minocycline on colonic injury was assessed clinically and histologically. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of mice with minocycline significantly diminished mortality rate and attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis. Mechanistically, minocycline administration suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitrotyrosine production, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, repressed the elevated mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 3, 9, and 13, diminished the apoptotic index in colonic tissues, and inhibited nitric oxide production in the serum of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. In DSS-induced chronic colitis, minocycline treatment also reduced body weight loss, improved colonic histology, and blocked expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs from colonic tissues. Similarly, minocycline could ameliorate the severity of TNBS-induced acute colitis in mice by decreasing mortality rate and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression in colonic tissues. These results demonstrate that minocycline protects mice against DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, probably via inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression in intestinal tissues. Therefore, minocycline is a potential remedy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  15. Metagenomic Analysis of Human Diarrhea: Viral Detection and Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, Phillip I.; Klein, Eileen J.; Kirkwood, Carl D.; Wang, David

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 1.8 million children die from diarrhea annually, and millions more suffer multiple episodes of nonfatal diarrhea. On average, in up to 40% of cases, no etiologic agent can be identified. The advent of metagenomic sequencing has enabled systematic and unbiased characterization of microbial populations; thus, metagenomic approaches have the potential to define the spectrum of viruses, including novel viruses, present in stool during episodes of acute diarrhea. The detection of novel or unexpected viruses would then enable investigations to assess whether these agents play a causal role in human diarrhea. In this study, we characterized the eukaryotic viral communities present in diarrhea specimens from 12 children by employing a strategy of “micro-mass sequencing” that entails minimal starting sample quantity (<100 mg stool), minimal sample purification, and limited sequencing (384 reads per sample). Using this methodology we detected known enteric viruses as well as multiple sequences from putatively novel viruses with only limited sequence similarity to viruses in GenBank. PMID:18398449

  16. Experimental measurement of surface temperatures during flame-jet induced thermal spallation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, M. A.; Tester, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    temperature measurements and heat flux determination during laser and flame-jet induced thermal spallation are used to provide appropriate values of the “Weibull parameters” that statistically describe the size-strength relationship in granite. Use of these parameters allows one to accurately estimate surface temperatures required by the numerical simulation model to calculate heat and mass transport rates occurring in the flow field above the spalling rock surface. Based on the results of this experimental study, we concluded that mechanically-determined Weibull parameters are not directly applicable to describe spallation failure phenomena caused by thermal stress. Under the extreme rapid heating conditions of flame-jet drilling, local overheating and possibly stress relief lead to higher temperatures than predicted using room temperature Weibull parameters. Nonetheless, the Weibull-based statistical model of failure can be utilized by empirically fitting the m and σ0 Weibull parameters to match experimental measurements of spalling surface temperature as a function of applied heat flux. Correlations for steady state and onset spallation conditions were established with consistent results obtained for both laser and propane-oxygen flame jet heating.

  17. Arsenic-induced phosphate limitation under experimental Early Proterozoic oceanic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi Fru, Ernest; Hemmingsson, Christoffer; Holm, Mikaela; Chiu, Beverly; Iñiguez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of phosphorus concentrations associated with modern hydrothermal Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides and ancient Fe(III) oxide-rich iron formations, is used to estimate bioavailable Precambrian marine phosphorus (P) concentrations. This led to the proposition of a low dissolved P budget of ˜10-25% of present-day levels, before ˜1.9 billion years ago. Estimates incorporating ancient marine Si levels ≥ 0.67 mM instead suggested global dissolved P levels greater than today. Here we unite current experimental models that have considered NaCl solutions containing elevated dissolved Fe(II), Si, Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions in the incorporation of P in Precambrian marine Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides, in addition to arsenic as a hydrothermal proxy. We show that the coprecipitation of dissolved P and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides from arsenic-rich marine waters produces an average P distribution coefficient of ˜0.072 (± 0.01) μM-1. This is comparable to the ˜ 0.07 μM-1 predicted for Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides in modern arsenic-rich, submarine hydrothermal settings, from which the lower Early Proterozoic dissolved marine P concentrations were predicted. As/P molar ratios below modern seawater ratios removed the negative feedback effect high Si impose on P scavenging by Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides. The binding of As(III) to Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides exhibits a lower competitive influence on P fixation. As(V) that likely became prominent in the surficially oxidized Early Proterozoic oceans induced dissolved P limitation because of preferential P sequestration at the expense of dissolved As(V) enrichment. The control of As on P scavenging by the precipitating Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides is strong regardless of common seawater cations (Mg2+ and Ca2+). The data suggest that the application of Si and Fe(III)(oxyhydr)oxides as an ancient seawater P proxy should consider chemical variability between depositional basins, taking into account the rather strong role hydrothermal arsenic has on the distribution of P in

  18. Experimental study of blast-induced traumatic brain injury using a physical head model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangyue; Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Gennarelli, Thomas A; Son, Steven F

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted to quantify intracranial biomechanical responses and external blast overpressures using physical head model to understand the biomechanics of blast traumatic brain injury and to provide experimental data for computer simulation of blast-induced brain trauma. Ellipsoidal-shaped physical head models, made from 3-mm polycarbonate shell filled with Sylgard 527 silicon gel, were used. Six blast tests were conducted in frontal, side, and 45 degrees oblique orientations. External blast overpressures and internal pressures were quantified with ballistic pressure sensors. Blast overpressures, ranging from 129.5 kPa to 769.3 kPa, were generated using a rigid cannon and 1.3 to 3.0 grams of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) plastic sheet explosive (explosive yield of 13.24 kJ and TNT equivalent mass of 2.87 grams for 3 grams of material). The PETN plastic sheet explosive consisted of 63% PETN powder, 29% plasticizer, and 8% nitrocellulose with a density of 1.48 g/cm3 and detonation velocity of 6.8 km/s. Propagation and reflection of the shockwave was captured using a shadowgraph technique. Shockwave speeds ranging from 423.3 m/s to 680.3 m/s were recorded. The model demonstrated a two-stage response: a pressure dominant (overpressure) stage followed by kinematic dominant (blast wind) stage. Positive pressures in the brain simulant ranged from 75.1 kPa to 1095 kPa, and negative pressures ranged from -43.6 kPa to -646.0 kPa. High- and normal-speed videos did not reveal observable deformations in the brain simulant from the neutral density markers embedded in the midsagittal plane of the head model. Amplitudes of the internal positive and negative pressures were found to linearly correlate with external overpressure. Results from the current study suggested a pressure-dominant brain injury mechanism instead of strain injury mechanism under the blast severity of the current study. These quantitative results also served as the validation and calibration

  19. An evaluation of the clinical pathologic findings in experimentally induced urinary bladder rupture in pre-ruminant calves.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, D G; MacWilliams, P S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to study the biochemical abnormalities that develop over time in preruminant calves with experimentally induced uroperitoneum. Uroperitoneum was produced by incising the bladder via a standing left flank laparotomy. Serum and peritoneal concentrations sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphate and creatinine were determined at 0, 2, 4, 8, 24, and 40 h. Serum creatinine concentration was increased by 8 h post-bladder rupture. Peritoneal concentrations of potassium and phosphate were significantly elevated 2 h after bladder rupture and peritoneal creatinine was significantly elevated by 4 h. Serum to peritoneal fluid ratios for potassium, phosphate and creatinine exceeded 2:1 within 2 h of bladder rupture. Pre-ruminant calves with experimentally induced uroperitoneum did not become hyperkalemic during the 40 h experiment. PMID:9553714

  20. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hookman, Perry; Barkin, Jamie S

    2009-01-01

    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to two-thirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficile-associated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate

  1. Experimental investigation of effects of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate: Tabulated data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tabular data are presented for an experimental study of the effects of jet decay rate on the jet-induced pressure distribution on a flat plate for a single jet issuing at right angle to the flat plate into a uniform crossflow. The data are presented in four sections: (1)