Mitchell, J. P.
When using the conventional diathermy generator in surgery failure to apply the plate electrode can always present a serious risk of a thermoelectrical burn at any point where the patient makes contact with an earthed object on the operating table. The recent introduction of the earth-free (isolated circuit) diathermy should, under most conditions, provide complete protection against such risks. However, there are still certain circumstances under which even the isolated circuit may give rise to a thermoelectrical burn. Two such hypothetical examples are described; the sequences of events for these are fairly frequent occurrence. PMID:475272
Potty, Anish G; Khan, Wasim; Tailor, Hitesh D
Diathermy has revolutionised modern surgery and is an important tool for efficient and safe surgical practice. It has evolved to become the modern day scalpel, being used for cutting and coagulating tissues. This article addresses the functioning and safe use of diathermy in the perioperative setting. The various precautionary checks before surgery, which are prerequisite for safe usage, are highlighted along with the necessary safety drills during and after operation. A specific note is included about the use of electrical equipment in specialised surgeries like cardiac and laparoscopic surgery. The issues regarding the maintenance and repair of equipment are acknowledged and finally, the anticipation for a future with precise and safer cutting and coagulation devices is addressed.
Sudhindra, T V; Joseph, A; Haray, P N; Hacking, B C
Surgical diathermy is an invaluable aid in modern surgery and most contemporary diathermy machines are considered safe. However, diathermy accidents do still occur and a diathermy unit can be potentially lethal if adequate care is not exercised in its use.
Sudhindra, T V; Joseph, A; Hacking, C J; Haray, P N
Surgical diathermy is an invaluable aid in modern surgery and most contemporary diathermy machines are considered safe. However, diathermy accidents still do occur and a diathermy unit can be potentially lethal if adequate care is not exercised in its use.
Sudhindra, T. V.; Joseph, A.; Hacking, C. J.; Haray, P. N.
Surgical diathermy is an invaluable aid in modern surgery and most contemporary diathermy machines are considered safe. However, diathermy accidents still do occur and a diathermy unit can be potentially lethal if adequate care is not exercised in its use. PMID:10700764
... treatment of malignancies. (2) Classification. Class II (performance standards). (b) Ultrasonic diathermy... treatment of malignancies is a device that applies to the body ultrasonic energy at a frequency beyond 20...
Webb, J B; Balaratnam, S; Park, A J
Diathermy and spirit-based skin preparations are both used on a daily basis in most hospital theatres. We report a case illustrating the potential hazards of this combination and discuss the management of its complications and possibilities of their prevention.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ultrasonic diathermy. 890.5300 Section 890.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5300 Ultrasonic...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Microwave diathermy. 890.5275 Section 890.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5275 Microwave...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Microwave diathermy. 890.5275 Section 890.5275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5275 Microwave...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ultrasonic diathermy. 890.5300 Section 890.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5300...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ultrasonic diathermy. 890.5300 Section 890.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... medical conditions is a device that applies to specific areas of the body ultrasonic energy at a...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ultrasonic diathermy. 890.5300 Section 890.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5300...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shortwave diathermy. 890.5290 Section 890.5290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5290...
Heick, A; Espersen, T; Pedersen, H L; Raahauge, J
Ultrasound and short-wave diathermy are widely used in physiotherapy to induce heating of deep tissues, since this causes a concomitant increase in local blood flow. A metallic implant in the treated field is generally regarded as a contra-indication to diathermy because of the risk of thermodamage to surrounding tissues. It is not certain, however, if copperbearing IUDs contain sufficient metal as to constitute a risk. In order to exclude the possibility that diathermy might lead to intra-uterine burns in women using copperbearing IUDs a technique was devised of measuring temperatures in the copper wire of an IUD in situ during short-wave an ultrasonic therapy. The results indicate diathermy to be perfectly safe in women whit copper-bearing IUDs.
Goats, G C
Continuous shortwave diathermy is the technique of choice when uniform marked elevation of temperature is required in the deep tissues. This heating can be targeted accurately by using an appropriate applicator positioned correctly. SWD also allows superficial structures to be heated selectively, although for this the various methods of surface heating are usually preferable. Sub-acute or chronic conditions respond best to continuous shortwave diathermy which, when used properly, can be as effective as ultrasound. Acute lesions are better treated with pulsed shortwave diathermy. Continuous shortwave diathermy can help to relieve pain and muscle spasm, resolve inflammatory states and reduce swelling, promote vasodilation, increase the compliance of connective tissue, increase joint range and decrease joint stiffness.
Sidhu, S. K.; Shaw, S.
We report 2 cases of elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates from disposable blue diathermy pads used on patients who underwent routine surgery. Their reactions were severe, and took approximately 5 weeks to resolve. Both patients gave a prior history of finger tip dermatitis following the use of artificial sculptured acrylic nails, which is a common, but poorly reported, cause of acrylate allergy. Patch testing subsequently confirmed allergies to multiple acrylates present in both the conducting gel of disposable blue diathermy pads, and artificial sculptured acrylic nails. We advocate careful history taking prior to surgery to avoid unnecessary exposure to acrylates in patients already sensitized. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10364952
Ning, Huaxiu; Wang, Yun; Yuan, Yiwen; Ning, Huaying
This paper aims to discuss the nursing and safety of silver needle diathermy in the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis. We nursed 46 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated with silver needle diathermy. Specific nursing was focused on physical condition evaluation and mental nursing before treatment, observation during and after treatment, diet nursing, needle eye nursing, functional training and propaganda and education when discharged. The result suggested that all the patients received mental nursing, diet guide, skin care, health education, functional training and follow-up visit from the nurse and all of them could endure silver needle diathermy as discomfort or drug allergy was barely found, so were slight scald and skin infection nearby the needle eye caused by fainting during acupuncture, accidental puncture or overheat. Follow-up visit showed that no patient suffered obvious untoward effect and the pain, joint range of motion and living condition were distinctly improved a week after discharging. In conclusion, during the treatment for ankylosing spondylitis applying silver needle diathermy, the nursing before, during and after the treatment can obviously reduce the complication, accelerate the recovery, which is highly safe.
Marks, R M; Penny, R
Cultures generated from tissues consisting of multiple types of cells are often heterogeneous. Unless the cell type of interest has or can be given some selective growth advantage it may be overgrown by other cells. While developing techniques for the tissue culture of microvascular endothelial cells we evaluated an electrosurgical generator (diathermy) to selectively kill nonendothelial cells. Primary cell cultures were observed at X 100 magnification under phase contrast microscopy and a needle electrode apposed to the cell to be destroyed. A return electrode was constructed by placing a sterile clip in contact with the culture medium. The diathermy power setting controlled the area of lysis. Use of this technique allowed weeding of unwanted cells without damage to endothelial cells, which were able to grow to confluence in pure culture.
Sharma, Karan; Kumar, Devinder
Tonsillectomy despite being less performed nowadays still is a very common surgery performed by ENT surgeons. The use of various modalities like bipolar diathermy, laser, cryosurgery, radiofrequency and ionic coblation for hemostasis in tonsillectomy remains controversial so far. A thorough scan of literature comparing the ligation with diathermy has been presented. In this prospective study, we analysed 50 patients undergoing tonsillectomy by dissection method. Right sided tonsillectomies act as study group (bipolar diathermy used) and left sided tonsillectomies as the control group (ligation for hemostasis used). The aim of our study is to compare the amount of blood loss, number of ligatures applied, average time taken and incidence of postoperative haemorrhage following the use of ligation and bipolar diathermy. The study found that diathermy hemostatic technique is associated with a quicker procedure, less intraoperative blood loss, comparable postoperative pain.
Hussain, Rumana; Savant, Vijay
To describe our experience of the use of subconjunctival bevacizumab in conjunction with fine-needle diathermy for the treatment of corneal vascularization. Retrospective analysis of cases treated between 2010 and 2013. Those patients with corneal lipid deposition had good results following treatment with 3/5 cases requiring more than one session of treatment. A single patient with severe atopy and multiple previous failed penetrating keratoplasty underwent five sessions of treatment but his third graft subsequently also failed. Concurrent use of subconjunctival bevacizumab with FND gives good results in patients with lipid deposition; however, the management of cases with ongoing inflammatory processes is much more challenging.
Yamazaki, Takashi; Matsudaira, Ko
The purpose of this retrospective study was to demonstrate the utility of diathermy in avoiding nerve injuries due to misplacement of lumbar pedicle screws (PSs). The authors used diathermy to assess whether a screw deviated from the pedicle by observing synchronous leg movements caused by intermittently touching an electric knife to the pedicular instrument. Diathermy was performed in 259 cases in which 1301 PSs had been placed. Leg movements were observed in 36 cases, and the sensitivity of diathermy was 85.7%, with a specificity of 99.5%. No neurological complications associated with the placement of PSs were observed after adding diathermy testing to conventional methods. Diathermy testing may be a way to avoid nerve injuries during lumbar PS placement.
Cardozo, A A J; Hallikeri, C; Lawrence, H; Sankar, V; Hargreaves, S
To determine whether an increase in the use of bipolar diathermy energy to perform a tonsillectomy is associated with an increase in postoperative pain and haemorrhage. Prospective study. District General Hospital. In all, 101 patients above the age of 13 years who underwent a tonsillectomy that involved the use of bipolar diathermy during the study period were included. The cumulative amount of diathermy energy used to perform each tonsillectomy was calculated with the help of a digital stop clock timing device connected to the diathermy foot-pedal. Postoperative pain scores and the incidence of secondary haemorrhage were recorded for each patient at four points in time following surgery, up to the tenth postoperative day. The haemorrhage rates were categorised into three groups (no bleeding, minor bleeding and major bleeding) according to severity. Associations between the diathermy energy used to perform each tonsillectomy and the corresponding postoperative pain scores and secondary bleeding rates were investigated. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between the total amount of bipolar diathermy energy used per tonsillectomy and the pain scores at all the four recorded points in time (r(s) = 0.44-0.72, P < 0.001). When the median energy consumption in the three groups (no bleeding, minor bleeding and major bleeding) were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test, we found that there was limited evidence of a difference between the groups, but this was not statistically significant at the 5% level [H (2) = 5.374, P = 0.065, 99% CI 0.058-0.071]. Increased use of bipolar diathermy during the performance of a tonsillectomy is associated with a statistically significant increased amount of postoperative pain. The dose-response relationship between diathermy energy and postoperative bleeding is less clear. This suggests that there could be other important factors such as surgical instrument characteristics and degree of tonsillar adherence that
Lowe, David; Cromwell, David A; Lewsey, James D; Copley, Lynn P; Brown, Peter; Yung, Matthew; van der Meulen, Jan H
To investigate bipolar diathermy power settings as a risk factor for postoperative hemorrhage following tonsillectomy. A prospective cohort study was undertaken between July 2003 and September 2004 in National Health Service (NHS) and independent hospitals in England and Northern Ireland. Data were collected on patient characteristics, tonsillectomy technique, and postoperative hemorrhage within 28 days of surgery. Among the 9572 patients who had a tonsillectomy performed with bipolar diathermy dissection and hemostasis, the overall rate of hemorrhage was 4.6 percent and the risk of hemorrhage was not associated with the diathermy power setting. Among the 8465 patients who had tonsillectomy with cold steel dissection and bipolar diathermy hemostasis, the rate of hemorrhage increased from 1.8% in patients with the lowest power settings (6 to 8 watts) to 3.7% in those with settings above 18 watts (P value for trend = 0.005). In tonsillectomies using cold steel dissection and bipolar diathermy for hemostasis, the risk of postoperative hemorrhage becomes greater as diathermy power increases.
Batista Neto, Simone; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Kawagoe, Júlia Yaeko
In Brazil, single use diathermy pencils (SUDP) are among the most common reused devices. This study assesses the sterilization efficacy of reprocessing SUDP using two cleansing methods (manual or automated), followed by one of three of the low-temperature sterilization methods: Hydrogen Peroxide Plasma (HPP), Ethylene Oxide (ETO) or Low-Temperature Steam Formaldehyde (LTSF). The sample was composed of 360 SUDP after their first use. The probability of sterilization failure was estimated considering the number of positive microbiological results obtained by cultures of the studied devices. The overall sterilization failure probability for SUDP was 0.26. The sterilization method, which presented the lowest failure probability was the LTSF (0.01), followed by ETO (0.21) and HPP (0.56). Automated cleansing obtained a better result than manual cleansing. This trial demonstrated that the probability of sterilization in reprocessed SUDP is highly dependent on both the type of cleansing and the sterilization method applied.
Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T.; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S.; Duncan, W. Colin
In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30–100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles. PMID:25343339
Connolly, Fiona; Rae, Michael T; Butler, Mairead; Klibanov, Alexander L; Sboros, Vassilis; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin
In order to develop a medical alternative to surgical ovarian diathermy (OD) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) more mechanistic information is required about OD. We therefore studied the cellular, molecular and vascular effects of diathermy on the ovary using an established ovine model of PCOS. Pregnant sheep were treated twice weekly with testosterone propionate (100 mg) from day 30-100 gestation. Their female offspring (n = 12) were studied during their second breeding season when the PCOS-like phenotype, with anovulation, is fully manifest. In one group (n = 4) one ovary underwent diathermy and it was collected and compared to the contralateral ovary after 24 hours. In another group a treatment PCOS cohort underwent diathermy (n = 4) and the ovaries were collected and compared to the control PCOS cohort (n = 4) after 5 weeks. Ovarian vascular indices were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound and colour Doppler before, immediately after, 24 hours and five weeks after diathermy. Antral follicles were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ovarian stromal gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR 24 hours and 5 weeks after diathermy. Diathermy increased follicular atresia (P<0.05) and reduced antral follicle numbers after 5 weeks (P<0.05). There was an increase in stromal CCL2 expression 24 hours after diathermy (P<0.01) but no alteration in inflammatory indices at 5 weeks. Immediately after diathermy there was increased microbubble transit time in the ovarian microvasculature (P = 0.05) but this was not seen at 24 hours. However 24 hours after diathermy there was a reduction in the stromal Doppler blood flow signal (P<0.05) and an increased ovarian resistance index (P<0.05) both of which persisted at 5 weeks (P<0.01; P<0.05). In the ovine model of PCOS, OD causes a sustained reduction in ovarian stromal blood flow with an increased ovarian artery resistance index associated with atresia of antral follicles.
Sriman, Narayanan; Prabhakar, V; Bhuvaneswaran, J S; Subha, N
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three electronic apex locators (EAL), electric pulp tester (EPT) and diathermy on pacemaker function in vitro. Three EALs: Root ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, CA, U.S.A.), Propex (Dentsply), Mini Apex locator (SybronEndo, Anaheim, CA, USA), EPT (Parkell pulp vitality tester Farmingdale, NY, USA) and Diathermy (Neomed 250 B) were tested for any interference with one pacemaker (A medtronic kappa KVDD901-serial number: PLE734632S). Directly connecting the pacemaker lead with the EAL/EPT/diathermy operating on a flat bench top, the telemetry wand was held directly over the pacemaker to monitor the pacing pattern for a period of 30 s. Pacemaker activity was continuously recorded on the telemetric programmer and electro gram (EGM) readings examined for pacer inhibition, noise reversion or inappropriate pacemaker pulses. All the three apex locators showed no pacing interference or background noise during its function or at rest. The EGM readings of EPT showed varying levels of background noise in between pacing however, this did not affect the normal pacing pattern and the pacing interval remained constant. EGM readings of diathermy showed an increase in the pacing interval (irregular pacing pattern) followed by complete inhibition of the pacing system. The tested EALs do not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. The tested EPT showed varying levels of background noise but does not interfere with cardiac pacemaker function. Use of Diathermy interfered with the normal pacing, leading to complete inhibition of the pacing system.
Szentgyörgyi, Lajos; Leny, Andrij; Tamás, Eva; Péterffy, Arpád
The authors describe two intraoperative fires during cardiac surgery. In both cases, in addition to the usual disinfection and isolation of the operating field, they wanted to reduce the infection hazard and to restore the partly ruined isolation by 70% alcoholic skin antiseptic solution. Soon after the disinfection, but before the evaporation of alcohol, diathermy was used and caused fire. In case of the first patient the fire spread over the isolation film and resulted second grade (5%) and third-grade (1%) burn injury which required plastic surgery. In the second case the patient's beard caught fire causing second-grade (1%) burn that was treated locally. Despite these burn injuries both patients recovered after the heart surgery. These two intraoperative fires are 0.003-0.004% of all surgical procedures. Fires during surgery are rare and might have serious consequences. They can be prevented by keeping the discipline of work and instructions of fire protection. The best way of prevention is regular education of all the staff (doctors, nurses, etc.) working in the operating theatre.
Olmi, R; Bini, M; Ignesti, A; Feroldi, P; Spiazzi, L; Bodini, G
The four-electrode electrical impedance measurement technique is proposed for the evaluation of the hyperaemia variation in tissues treated by diathermic therapy. An impedance meter suitable for such measurements is described, and an electrical model of the heated tissues, concerning the impedance variation during diathermy and its relation with hyperaemia, is presented. The occurrence of the substantial contribution of blood to the overall transverse impedance is demonstrated by comparing the experimental results with those arising from a 2D electrical/thermal model of the treated tissues. A two-admittance model is proposed to explain the electrical behaviour of the tissues treated by diathermy. The model allows us to separate the impedance violation due to the temperature dependence of tissue conductivity from that due to the change of tissue blood content. The results of preliminary measurements of tissue impedance on healthy volunteers treated by electromagnetic diathermy are presented and discussed, showing the feasibility of impedance detection of hyperaemia variations inside tissues.
Hawkes, Amanda R.; Draper, David O.; Johnson, A. Wayne; Diede, Mike T.; Rigby, Justin H.
Context: The effectiveness of a new continuous diathermy unit, ReBound, as a heating modality is unknown. Objective: To compare the effects of ReBound diathermy with silicate-gel moist hot packs on tissue temperature in the human triceps surae muscle. Design: Crossover study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 12 healthy, college-aged volunteers (4 men, 8 women; age = 22.2 ± 2.25 years, calf subcutaneous fat thickness = 7.2 ± 1.9 mm). Intervention(s): On 2 different days, 1 of 2 modalities (ReBound diathermy, silicate-gel moist hot pack) was applied to the triceps surae muscle of each participant for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the modality was removed, and temperature decay was recorded for 20 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s): Medial triceps surae intramuscular tissue temperature at a depth of 1 cm was measured using an implantable thermocouple inserted horizontally into the muscle. Measurements were taken every 5 minutes during the 30-minute treatment and every minute during the 20-minute temperature decay, for a total of 50 minutes. Treatment was analyzed through a 2 × 7 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. Temperature decay was analyzed through a 2 × 21 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results: During the 30-minute application, tissue temperatures at a depth of 1 cm increased more with the ReBound diathermy than with the moist hot pack (F6,66 = 7.14, P < .001). ReBound diathermy and moist hot packs increased tissue temperatures 3.69°C ± 1.50°C and 2.82°C ± 0.90°C, respectively, from baseline. Throughout the temperature decay, ReBound diathermy produced a greater rate of heat dissipation than the moist hot pack (F20,222 = 4.42, P < .001). Conclusions: During a 30-minute treatment at a superficial depth, the ReBound diathermy increased tissue temperature to moderate levels, which were greater than the levels reached with moist hot packs. PMID:23855362
Hawkes, Amanda R; Draper, David O; Johnson, A Wayne; Diede, Mike T; Rigby, Justin H
The effectiveness of a new continuous diathermy unit, ReBound, as a heating modality is unknown. To compare the effects of ReBound diathermy with silicate-gel moist hot packs on tissue temperature in the human triceps surae muscle. Crossover study. University research laboratory. A total of 12 healthy, college-aged volunteers (4 men, 8 women; age = 22.2 ± 2.25 years, calf subcutaneous fat thickness = 7.2 ± 1.9 mm). On 2 different days, 1 of 2 modalities (ReBound diathermy, silicate-gel moist hot pack) was applied to the triceps surae muscle of each participant for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes, the modality was removed, and temperature decay was recorded for 20 minutes. Medial triceps surae intramuscular tissue temperature at a depth of 1 cm was measured using an implantable thermocouple inserted horizontally into the muscle. Measurements were taken every 5 minutes during the 30-minute treatment and every minute during the 20-minute temperature decay, for a total of 50 minutes. Treatment was analyzed through a 2 × 7 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. Temperature decay was analyzed through a 2 × 21 mixed-model analysis of variance with repeated measures. During the 30-minute application, tissue temperatures at a depth of 1 cm increased more with the ReBound diathermy than with the moist hot pack (F6,66 = 7.14, P < .001). ReBound diathermy and moist hot packs increased tissue temperatures 3.69°C ± 1.50°C and 2.82°C ± 0.90°C, respectively, from baseline. Throughout the temperature decay, ReBound diathermy produced a greater rate of heat dissipation than the moist hot pack (F20,222 = 4.42, P < .001). During a 30-minute treatment at a superficial depth, the ReBound diathermy increased tissue temperature to moderate levels, which were greater than the levels reached with moist hot packs.
Mattila, Anne; Mrena, Johanna; Kautiainen, Hannu; Nevantaus, Juha; Kellokumpu, Ilmo
To examine the impact of day-care laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) with ultrasonic scissors dissection versus diathermy hook dissection method in a randomized setting. From April 2012 to September 2014, a total of 169 elective day-care patients were randomized to undergo either laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ultrasonic scissors using fundus-first approach (n = 88) or diathermy hook dissection starting from the triangle of Calot (n = 79). Main measures of outcome were operative time, same-day discharge and intraoperative complications. Secondary outcome measures were postoperative pain (numeric rating scale), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), readmissions and 30-day morbidity. Median operative time was similar in the ultrasonic dissection and diathermy hook dissection groups (45 vs 45 min, p = 0.95). Same-day discharge was possible in 77 patients (87 %) in the ultrasonic dissection group and in 69 patients (87 %) in the diathermy group, p = 0.98. Intraoperative gallbladder perforations, mean intraoperative bleeding, postoperative pain and PONV at 1, 2 and 4 h (p = 0.78) did not differ significantly between the study groups. Day-care LC using either diathermy hook or ultrasonic dissection resulted in excellent same-day discharge in both groups (87 %). LC with ultrasonic dissection does not offer any clinical advantages compared to diathermy dissection.
Garrett, Candi L.; Draper, David O.; Knight, Kenneth L.
Objective: To compare tissue temperature rise and decay after 20-minute diathermy and ultrasound treatments. Design and Setting: We inserted 3 26-gauge thermistor microprobes into the medial aspect of the anesthetized triceps surae muscle at a depth of 3 cm and spaced 5 cm apart. Eight subjects received the diathermy treatment first, followed by the ultrasound treatment. This sequence was reversed for the remaining 8 subjects. The diathermy was applied at a frequency of 27.12 MHz at the following settings: 800 bursts per second, 400-microsecond burst duration, 850-microsecond interburst interval, peak root mean square amplitude of 150 W per burst, and an average root mean square output of 48 W per burst. The ultrasound was delivered at a frequency of 1 MHz and an intensity of 1.5 W/cm2 in the continuous mode for 20 minutes over an area of 40 times the effective radiating area. The study was performed in a ventilated research laboratory. Subjects: Sixteen (11 men, 5 women) healthy subjects (mean age = 23.56 ± 4.73 years) volunteered to participate in this study. Measurements: We recorded baseline, final, and decay temperatures for each of the 3 sites. Results: The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after pulsed short-wave diathermy were 3.02°C ± 1.02°C in site 1, 4.58°C ± 0.87°C in site 2, and 3.28°C ± 1.64°C in site 3. The average temperature increases over baseline temperature after ultrasound were only 0.17°C ± 0.40°C, 0.09°C ± 0.56°C, and -0.43°C ± 0.41°C in sites 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The temperature dropped only 1°C in 7.65 ± 4.96 minutes after pulsed short-wave diathermy. Conclusions: We conclude that pulsed short-wave diathermy was more effective than 1-MHz ultrasound in heating a large muscle mass and resulted in the muscles' retaining heat longer. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5. PMID:16558608
Andrade Ortega, Juan Alfonso; Cerón Fernández, Encarnación; García Llorent, Rosario; Ribeiro González, Marisa; Delgado Martínez, Alberto Damián
Although the use of deep heat therapy is widespread, there is scant literature available on its effectiveness in treating back or neck pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of microwave diathermy to treat nonspecific chronic neck pain. The study was designed as a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. The patient sample consisted of 149 patients with nonspecific chronic neck pain in a hospital of the Andalusian Public Health Care System, Spain The study outcome measures are as follows: at baseline, pain intensity (using a visual analogue scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and health-related quality of life (36-item short form health survey [SF-36]); at 3 weeks, baseline measures and patients' perceived overall outcome and satisfaction with the treatment; and at 6 months, 3-week measures, therapeutic co-interventions, and adherence to exercises. Patients were allocated randomly to three groups. The first group received continuous microwave diathermy, the second group was administered pulsed microwaves, and the third group (the control group) received unplugged microwaves. All three groups received the same general treatment: range of motion, isometric exercises, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The three groups had reduced pain and disability, and improvement was seen in some dimensions of the SF-36. However, there were no differences found in any of the parameters measured among the three therapeutic groups. Microwave diathermy does not provide additional benefit to a treatment regimen of chronic neck pain that already involves other treatment approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumar, V; Tewari, M; Shukla, H S
The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of patients following use of scalpel or surgical diathermy in elective skin incision of head and neck cancer. 80 patients undergoing surgery for various head and neck cancers were analyzed retrospectively from Jan 2002 to May 2005 and divided into two groups, matched for age, sex, stage and histopathology according to the method used to perform incision, i.e., scalpel or surgical diathermy. Blood loss, total operative time, blood transfusions, wound related complications and cosmetic assessments of the scar were compared. The two groups did not differ significantly in relation to patients or wound characteristics in terms of total operative time and quantity of blood transfusions. There was significantly less blood loss in the diathermy group compared with the scalpel group. There was no difference between the groups in wound complications and cosmetic results before discharge and at 1-month follow-up. There is no change in wound complication rate and scar formation even after application of heat during use of surgical diathermy. Therefore, surgical diathermy is safe and as effective as scalpel during elective skin incision of head and neck cancer.
Saeed, Summaya; Ali, Aun; Zainab, Saima; Junaid Khan, Muhammad Taha
To determine the mean post-operative pain in scalpel versus diathermy opening of midline laparotomies. The randomised controlled study was conducted at Civil Hospital and Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from May to November 2010, and comprised patients undergoing midline laparotomy. Patients were equally divided into two groups; those who received incision with diathermy were placed in group A, and those who received incision with scalpel in group B. Mean post-operative pain scores were recorded using numerical analogue scale on second post-operative day. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 58 patients, there were 29(50%) in each group. The overall mean age of the patients was 31.8±12.8 years. Besides, 40(68.9%) patients were male. The mean post-operative pain scores at 48 hours in diathermy group was 1.48±0.68 while in scalpel group it was 2.17±0.46 (p<0.05). The use of diathermy for midline laparotomy incision had significant advantage over scalpel in reducing pain on second post-operative day.
Ruggera, P. S.; Witters, D. M.; von Maltzahn, G.; Bassen, H. I.
A patient with bilateral implanted neurostimulators suffered significant brain tissue damage, and subsequently died, following diathermy treatment to hasten recovery from teeth extraction. Subsequent MRI examinations showed acute deterioration of the tissue near the deep brain stimulator (DBS) lead's electrodes which was attributed to excessive tissue heating induced by the diathermy treatment. Though not published in the open literature, a second incident was reported for a patient with implanted neurostimulators for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. During a diathermy treatment for severe kyphosis, the patient had a sudden change in mental status and neurological deficits. The diathermy was implicated in causing damage to the patient's brain tissue. To investigate if diathermy induced excessive heating was possible with other types of implantable lead systems, or metallic implants in general, we conducted a series of in vitro laboratory tests. We obtained a diathermy unit and also assembled a controllable laboratory exposure system. Specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements were performed using fibre optic thermometry in proximity to the implants to determine the rate of temperature rise using typical diathermy treatment power levels. Comparisons were made of the SAR measurements for a spinal cord stimulator (SCS) lead, a pacemaker lead and three types of bone prosthesis (screws, rods and a plate). Findings indicate that temperature changes of 2.54 and 4.88 °C s-1 with corresponding SAR values of 9129 and 17 563 W kg-1 near the SCS and pacemaker electrodes are significantly higher than those found in the proximity of the other metallic implants which ranged from 0.04 to 0.69 °C s-1 (129 to 2471 W kg-1). Since the DBS leads that were implanted in the reported human incidents have one-half the electrode surface area of the tested SCS lead, these results imply that tissue heating at rates at least equal to or up to twice as much as those reported here for
Shah, Syed Ghulam Sarwar; Farrow, Alexandra
We reviewed studies reporting the strength of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in physiotherapists' occupational environment. Studies from academic journals published from January 1990 to June 2010 were identified in nine online bibliographic databases. EMF strength was compared with occupational exposure limits (OELs) recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the reviewed studies, EMFs were measured at different distances (range 0.2 m to 6 m) from the console of diathermy devices, electrodes, and cables. For continuous shortwave diathermy (CSWD) (27.12 megahertz, MHz), measurements of EMFs at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m reported the maximum E field strength as 8197%, 1639%, 295%, and 69%, respectively, and the maximum H field strength as 6250%, 681%, 213%, and 56%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For pulsed shortwave diathermy (PSWD) (27.12 MHz), EMF measurements at < 1 m, 1 m, and, 1.1-1.5 m showed the maximum E field intensity as 1639%, 175%, and 32%, and the maximum H field strength as 1175%, 968%, and 28%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limits for E and H fields for occupational exposure. For microwave diathermy (MWD) (2.45 gigahertz, GHz), the maximum power density measured at < 1 m, 1 m, 1.1-1.5 m, and 2 m was 200%, <30%, 0.76%, and 0.82%, respectively, of the ICNIRP limit for occupational exposure. RF EMF emissions measured from continuous and pulsed electrotherapeutic diathermy devices may well be higher than OELs at specific distances, i.e., at 1 m, which is currently designated to be a safe distance for physiotherapists. The minimum safe distance for physiotherapists should be revised to at least 2 m for CSWD and 1.5 m for PSWD. The reviewed studies did not provide evidence of exceeding the ICNIRP's reference levels for occupational exposure at 1 m from MWD devices.
Talpur, Altaf Ahmed; Khaskheli, Abdul Basir; Kella, Nandlal; Jamal, Akmal
Background: Since a long time skin incisions have routinely been made with scalpels. Now a day there is a shift in trend from this method to electrosurgical skin incisions. However, fear of bad scars and improper wound healing has prevented its wide spread use. This Study aimed to compare both methods of skin incisions for different variables. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine incisional time, blood loss during incision and postoperative wound complications and pain with both methods of skin incision. Patients and Methods: A prospective, comparative and randomized study was conducted at different hospitals of Hyderabad and Nawabshah, Pakistan from 1st of December 2009 to 30th of November 2011. The study included patients of either sex above the age of five years with general surgical pathology who were to undergo surgery. these candidates were randomly put into two groups. In Group A patients incision was made with a scalpel and in group B with diathermy. Data was analyzed for age, sex, comorbid illness, incisional time, blood loss during incision making and postoperative pain and wound complications. Results: A total of 283 patients completed the follow-up and were included in the final analysis. Group A comprised of 143 (50.53%) patients; 83 (58%) males and 60 (42%) females with a mean age of 36.03 years. Amongst the 140 patients of group B, there were 85 (60.7%) males and 55 (39.3%) females with a mean age of 36.52 years. Twenty-five (17.48%) patients of group A and 27 (19.28%) of group B had comorbid illnesses. Mean incision time was 8.9025-sec/cm2 for group A and 7.3057 sec/cm2 for group B patients. Mean blood loss during incision making was 1.8262 mL/cm2 and 1.1346 mL/cm2 for group A and B patients, respectively. Pain was 5.2957 for group A patients on day one and 3.1181 for group B patients. Pain score was 2.1049 and 1.6206 on day two and 0.8191 and 0.7192 on day five, for group A and B patients, respectively. Postoperative wound complications
Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus; Guirro, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira; Alves de Sousa, Natanael Teixeira
Although shortwave diathermy has been widely used by physiotherapists, there are a few studies assessing the performance of the equipment in use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the procedures adopted by physiotherapists as users of shortwave diathermy continuous (CSWD), as well as to measure the power output and frequency of CSWD equipment. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three physical therapists were interviewed and 23 CSWD equipment were evaluated. Admeasurement was carried out by using a standard phantom to simulate the electrode-skin distance, which ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 cm. Data analysis was performed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and a post-hoc Tukey's test or Pearson's correlation coefficient. [Results] The questionnaires showed that 48% of the interviewees use the correct electrode-skin distance, 70% use a single electrical outlet, and 35% use a grounded electrical outlet, and that 48% of the physiotherapy tables and 61% of the plinths were made of wood. However, only 13% of the interviewees perform yearly preventive maintenance. The highest power (95.56 W) was achieved at electrode-skin distances ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 cm, with distances of 2.5 cm and 3.0 cm being null in four and eight equipment, respectively. There was a negative correlation between power output and electrode-skin distance as well as between power output and purchase date. [Conclusion] The physiotherapists involved in this study had inadequate knowledge about the correct use of CSWD equipment, which may adversely affect its performance and patient safety.
Tsunoda, Akira; Sada, Haruki; Sugimoto, Takuya; Kano, Nobuyasu; Kawana, Mariko; Sasaki, Tadanori; Hashimoto, Hideki
AIM: To compare hemorrhoidectomy with a bipolar electrothermal device or hemorrhoidectomy using an ultrasonically activated scalpel. METHODS: Sixty patients with grade III or IV hemorrhoids were prospectively randomized to undergo closed hemorrhoidectomy assisted by bipolar diathermy (group 1) or hemorrhoidectomy with the ultrasonic scalpel (group 2). Operative data were recorded, and patients were followed at 1, 3, and 6 wk to evaluate complications. Independent assessors were assigned to obtain postoperative pain scores, oral analgesic requirement and satisfaction scores. RESULTS: Reduced intraoperative blood loss median 0.9 mL (95% CI: 0.8-3.7) vs 4.6 mL (95% CI: 3.8-7.0), P = 0.001 and a short operating time median 16 (95% CI: 14.6-18.2) min vs 31 (95% CI: 28.1-35.3) min, P < 0.0001 was observed in group 1 compared with group 2. There was a trend towards lower postoperative pain scores on day 1 group 1 median 2 (95% CI: 1.8-3.5) vs group 2 median 3 (95% CI: 2.6-4.2), P = 0.135. Reduced oral analgesic requirement during postoperative 24 h after operation median 1 (95% CI: 0.4-0.9) tablet vs 1 (95% CI: 0.9-1.3) tablet, P = 0.006 was observed in group 1 compared with group 2. There was no difference between the two groups in the degree of patient satisfaction or number of postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Bipolar diathermy hemorrhoidectomy is quick and bloodless and, although as painful as closed hemorrhoidectomy with the ultrasonic scalpel, is associated with a reduced analgesic requirement immediately after operation. PMID:22110846
Allan, J; Dusseldorp, J; Rabey, N G; Malata, C M; Goltsman, D; Phoon, A F
The use of the bipolar diathermy dissection technique is widespread amongst surgeons performing flap perforator dissection and microvascular surgery. The 'heat-sink' modification uses a DeBakey forcep as a heat sinking interposition between the bipolar tip and the main (vascular or flap) pedicle aiming to protect it from the thermal effects of the bipolar diathermy. This study examines the thermal effects of bipolar cautery upon the microvasculature and investigates the efficacy of heat sinking as a thermally protective technique in microsurgical dissection. A chicken thigh microsurgical training model was used to examine the effects of bipolar cautery. The effects of bipolar were examined using high definition, real-time infrared thermographic imaging (FLIR Systems) and temperature quantitatively assessed at various distances away from the point of bipolar cautery. Comparison was made using the heat sink technique to determine if it conferred a thermoprotective effect compared to the standard technique without heat sink. Using paired t-test analysis (SPSS) the heat sink modification of the bipolar dissection technique was found to have a highly statistically significant effect (P < 0.000000001) in reducing the conductive temperature along the vascular pedicle. This protective effect kept temperatures comparable to controls. Bipolar cautery is an extremely safe method of electrosurgery, however when its use is required within 3 mm of important vascular architecture, the heat-sink method is a viable and easy technique to prevent thermal spread and limit potential coagulopathic changes. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pabuccu, Recai; Pabuccu, Emre Goksan; Gursoy, Asli Yarci; Caglar, Gamze Sinem; Yilmaz, Muserref Banu; Ozdegirmenci, Ozlem
Excessive response to ovarian stimulation is common among hyper-responder patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). Cycle cancellations and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) are all detrimental consequences observed within this cohort and several approaches have been proposed to enhance outcomes. The current study is designed to evaluate whether laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) improves ART outcomes and pregnancy rates by reducing Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in a group of patients who had a history of recurrent ART failure and high response. A total of 40 hyper-responder patients with history of previous ART failure were included. Group I consisted of 22 patients that underwent LOD prior to ART. Group II consisted of 18 patients that underwent only ART. Cycle outcomes of groups were compared. Following LOD, significant reduction in AMH levels were detected in group I (4.75 ng/mL to 2.25 ng/mL). Clinical pregnancies were similar among groups (40% versus 27.8% p = 0.65). There was no cycle cancellation in Group I, whereas there were three cycle cancellations observed due to OHSS in Group II. Our results indicate that LOD might offer enhanced fertility outcomes and may reduce the likelihood of cycle cancellations in hyper-responders with previous ART failures.
Taylor, M J O; Shalev, E; Tanawattanacharoen, S; Jolly, M; Kumar, S; Weiner, E; Cox, P M; Fisk, N M
To evaluate bipolar diathermy as a technique for selective fetocide in the treatment of advanced (Stage III/IV) twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). A prospective observational study in two tertiary referral fetal medicine centres: Queen Charlotte's Hospital, London, UK and Haemek Hospital, Afula, Israel. Fifteen cases of TTTS (14 twins and one triplet pregnancy) were treated by selective occlusion of either the donor (n=8) or recipient's (n=7) umbilical cord using ultrasound-guided bipolar diathermy. Following each procedure, patients were scanned serially for fetal growth, liquor volume and umbilical Doppler measurements. Procedural complications and obstetric outcome were recorded. Postnatal placental injection studies were performed. Overall co-twin survival in Stage III/IV TTTS was 13/14 (93%). There were no treatment failures. The incidence of preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) within 3 weeks of the procedure was 3/15 (20%). In those cases where pre-procedure umbilical artery Dopplers were abnormal, the Doppler findings normalised post-procedure in all non-cord-occluded fetuses. Growth velocities of surviving donors were similar to those of surviving recipients. Bipolar diathermy appears an effective technique for the selective reduction of monochorionic twins complicated by severe as well as preterminal TTTS, with recipient and donor fetuses being equally appropriate choices for fetocide. We suggest that for advanced-stage disease where the parents can contemplate this option, cord occlusion as a single preemptive procedure maximises the opportunity for intact survival of a single survivor. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Brown-Woodman, P.D.; Hadley, J.A.; Richardson, L.; Bright, D.; Porter, D.
In recent years, there has been increased concern regarding effects of operator exposure to the electromagnetic (EM) field associated with shortwave diathermy devices. The present study was designed to investigate the effects, on rats, of repeated exposure to such an EM field. Following repeated exposure for 5 wk, a reduction in fertility occurred as indicated by a reduced number of matings in exposed rats compared to sham-irradiated rats and a reduction in the number of rats that conceived after mating. The data suggest that female operators could experience reduced fertility, if they remained close to the console for prolonged periods. This has particular significant for the physiotherapy profession.
Anwar, Khurshid; Ahmad, Rafiq; Khan, Muneeb
Objective: To assess and compare the relative efficacy of silk ligation and diathermy coagulation techniques in controlling bleeding during tonsillectomy in the first 24 hours. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Department of ENT, Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital, Bannu and this department related consultants’ private clinics from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014. The study included 180 cases. All patients included were having history of recurrent, acute tonsillitis, with more than 6–7 episodes in one year, five episodes per year for two years, or three episodes per year for three years. All the surgeries were performed by dissection method. Haemostasis during the procedure was secured by either ligation with silk 1 or using diathermy. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 for windows. Results: A total of180 cases were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 5 to 40 years with the mean age of 15.56 years and a std.deviation of +/- 8.24. The male to female ratio was 1.25:1. The number of hemorrhages occurring was greater in the ‘diathermy coagulation’ group as compared to the ‘silk ligation’ group. However, the observed difference was statistically insignificant (p >.05). Conclusion: Primary haemorrhage occurring during tonsillectomy is a serious threat and control of bleeding during the procedure should therefore be meticulous. Both suture ligation and coagulation diathermy for control of bleeders during the procedure by dissection method are equally effective. PMID:26430438
Rabini, Alessia; Piazzini, Diana B; Bertolini, Carlo; Deriu, Laura; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Santagada, Domenico A; Sgadari, Antonio; Bernabei, Roberto; Fabbriciani, Carlo; Marzetti, Emanuele; Milano, Giuseppe
Single-blind randomized clinical trial, with a follow-up of 24 weeks. To determine the effects of hyperthermia via localized microwave diathermy on pain and disability in comparison to subacromial corticosteroid injections in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Hyperthermia improves symptoms and function in several painful musculoskeletal disorders. However, the effects of microwave diathermy in rotator cuff tendinopathy have not yet been established. Ninety-two patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy and pain lasting for at least 3 months were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Hospital, Rome, Italy. Participants were randomly allocated to either local microwave diathermy or subacromial corticosteroids. The primary outcome measure was the short form of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (QuickDASH). Secondary outcome measures were the Constant-Murley shoulder outcome score and a visual analog scale for pain assessment. At the end of treatment and at follow-up, both treatment groups experienced improvements in all outcome measures relative to baseline values. Changes over time in QuickDASH, Constant-Murley, and visual analog scale scores were not different between treatment arms. In patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy, the effects of localized microwave diathermy on disability, shoulder function, and pain are equivalent to those elicited by subacromial corticosteroid injections.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify shortwave diathermy (SWD) for all other uses, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to rename the device "nonthermal shortwave therapy'' (SWT). FDA is also making a technical correction in the regulation for the carrier frequency for SWD and SWT devices.
Vardiman, John P.; Moodie, Nicole; Siedlik, Jacob A.; Kudrna, Rebecca A.; Graham, Zachary; Gallagher, Philip
Context Various modalities have been used to pretreat skeletal muscle to attenuate inflammation. Objective To determine the effects of short-wave diathermy (SWD) preheating treatment on inflammation and stress markers after eccentric exercise. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting University laboratory setting. Patients or Other Participants Fifteen male (age = 22 ± 4.9 years, height = 179.75 ± 9.56 cm, mass = 82.22 ± 12.67 kg) college-aged students. Intervention(s) Seven participants were selected randomly to receive 40 minutes of SWD heat treatment (HT), and 8 participants served as the control (CON) group and rested without SWD. Both groups completed 7 sets of 10 repetitions of a high-intensity eccentric exercise protocol (EEP) at 120% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg extension. Main Outcome Measure(s) We biopsied muscles on days 1, 3 (24 hours post-EEP), and 4 (48 hours post-EEP) and collected blood samples on days 1, 2 (4 hours post-EEP), 3, and 4. We determined 1-RM on day 2 (24 hours post-SWD) and measured 1-RM on days 3 and 4. We analyzed the muscle samples for interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and heat shock protein 70 and the blood for serum creatine kinase. Results We found a group × time interaction for intramuscular IL-6 levels after SWD (F2,26 = 7.13, P = .003). The IL-6 decreased in HT (F1,6 = 17.8, P = .006), whereas CON showed no change (P > .05). We found a group × time interaction for tumor necrosis factor α levels (F2,26 = 3.71, P = .04), which increased in CON (F2,14 = 7.16, P = .007), but saw no changes for HT (P > .05). No group × time interactions were noted for 1-RM, heat shock protein 70, or creatine kinase (P > .05). Conclusions The SWD preheating treatment provided a treatment effect for intramuscular inflammatory myokines induced through high-intensity eccentric exercise but did not affect other factors associated with intense exercise and inflammation. PMID:25844857
Vardiman, John P; Moodie, Nicole; Siedlik, Jacob A; Kudrna, Rebecca A; Graham, Zachary; Gallagher, Philip
Various modalities have been used to pretreat skeletal muscle to attenuate inflammation. To determine the effects of short-wave diathermy (SWD) preheating treatment on inflammation and stress markers after eccentric exercise. Controlled laboratory study. University laboratory setting. Fifteen male (age = 22 ± 4.9 years, height = 179.75 ± 9.56 cm, mass = 82.22 ± 12.67 kg) college-aged students. Seven participants were selected randomly to receive 40 minutes of SWD heat treatment (HT), and 8 participants served as the control (CON) group and rested without SWD. Both groups completed 7 sets of 10 repetitions of a high-intensity eccentric exercise protocol (EEP) at 120% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) leg extension. We biopsied muscles on days 1, 3 (24 hours post-EEP), and 4 (48 hours post-EEP) and collected blood samples on days 1, 2 (4 hours post-EEP), 3, and 4. We determined 1-RM on day 2 (24 hours post-SWD) and measured 1-RM on days 3 and 4. We analyzed the muscle samples for interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor α, and heat shock protein 70 and the blood for serum creatine kinase. We found a group × time interaction for intramuscular IL-6 levels after SWD (F2,26 = 7.13, P = .003). The IL-6 decreased in HT (F1,6 = 17.8, P = .006), whereas CON showed no change (P > .05). We found a group × time interaction for tumor necrosis factor α levels (F2,26 = 3.71, P = .04), which increased in CON (F2,14 = 7.16, P = .007), but saw no changes for HT (P > .05). No group × time interactions were noted for 1-RM, heat shock protein 70, or creatine kinase (P > .05). The SWD preheating treatment provided a treatment effect for intramuscular inflammatory myokines induced through high-intensity eccentric exercise but did not affect other factors associated with intense exercise and inflammation.
Farquhar, Cindy; Brown, Julie; Marjoribanks, Jane
Surgical ovarian wedge resection was the first established treatment for women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but was largely abandoned both due to the risk of postsurgical adhesions and the introduction of medical ovulation induction. However, women with PCOS who are treated with medical ovulation induction, with drugs such as gonadotrophins, often have an over-production of follicles which may result in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and multiple pregnancies. Moreover, gonadotrophins, though effective, are costly and time-consuming and their use requires intensive monitoring. Surgical therapy with laparoscopic ovarian 'drilling' (LOD) may avoid or reduce the need for medical ovulation induction, or may facilitate its usefulness. The procedure can be done on an outpatient basis with less trauma and fewer postoperative adhesions than with traditional surgical approaches. Many uncontrolled observational studies have claimed that ovarian drilling is followed, at least temporarily, by a high rate of spontaneous ovulation and conception, or that subsequent medical ovulation induction becomes easier. To determine the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ovarian drilling compared with ovulation induction for subfertile women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS. We used the search strategy of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) to search the MDSG Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The keywords included polycystic ovary syndrome, laparoscopic ovarian drilling, electrocautery and diathermy. Searches were conducted in September 2011, and a further search of the MDSG Trials Register was made on 14 May 2012. We included randomised controlled trials of subfertile women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS who undertook laparoscopic ovarian drilling in order to induce ovulation. This is an update of a previously updated review. There were nine RCTs in the previous version; an additional 16 trials were added in the
Edward, Justin A; Psaltis, Alkis J; Williams, Ryan A; Charville, Gregory W; Dodd, Robert L; Nayak, Jayakar V
Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is associated with numerous craniofacial abnormalities but rarely with skull base tumor formation. We report an unusual and dramatic case of a symptomatic, mature skull base teratoma in an adult patient with KFS, with extension through the basisphenoid to obstruct the nasopharynx. This benign lesion was associated with midline palatal and cerebral defects, most notably pituitary and vertebrobasilar arteriolar duplications. A multidisciplinary workup and a complete endoscopic, transnasal surgical approach between otolaryngology and neurosurgery were undertaken. Out of concern for vascular control of the fibrofatty dense tumor stalk at the skull base and need for complete teratoma resection, we successfully employed a tissue resection tool with combined ultrasonic and bipolar diathermy to the tumor pedicle at the sphenoid/clivus junction. No CSF leak or major hemorrhage was noted using this endonasal approach, and no concerning postoperative sequelae were encountered. The patient continues to do well now 3 years after tumor extirpation, with resolution of all preoperative symptoms and absence of teratoma recurrence. KFS, teratoma biology, endocrine gland duplication, and the complex considerations required for successfully addressing this type of advanced skull base pathology are all reviewed herein.
Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam; Elawa, Ahmed
Laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) represents a successful treatment option for women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, in case of CC failure PCOS, LOD offers several theoretical advantages. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of LOD versus continuation of CC up to six further cycles in PCOS patients who failed to achieve pregnancy despite the previous successful CC induced ovulation. One hundred and seventy six infertile women with CC failure PCOS were selected in this randomized controlled trial. Patients (n = 87) underwent LOD with 6 months follow-up or received CC (n = 89) up to six cycles. Outcome measures were; clinical pregnancy rate, midcycle endometrial thickness, cycle length, miscarriage and live birth rates. The clinical pregnancy rate per patient and the cumulative pregnancy rate after six cycles were comparable in both groups (39 vs. 33.7% and 47 vs. 39.2%, respectively). Four twin pregnancies occurred in CC group and none in LOD group and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). No significant difference in midcycle endometrial thickness was observed (8.8 ± 1.2 mm vs. 7.7 ± 1.1 mm). Improvement in cycle length, miscarriage and live birth rates were comparable in both groups. No cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome occurred in either group. LOD during the 6 months follow-up period and CC for up to six further cycles are equally effective for achieving pregnancy in CC failure PCOS patients.
Psaltis, Alkis J.; Williams, Ryan A.; Charville, Gregory W.; Dodd, Robert L.
Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is associated with numerous craniofacial abnormalities but rarely with skull base tumor formation. We report an unusual and dramatic case of a symptomatic, mature skull base teratoma in an adult patient with KFS, with extension through the basisphenoid to obstruct the nasopharynx. This benign lesion was associated with midline palatal and cerebral defects, most notably pituitary and vertebrobasilar arteriolar duplications. A multidisciplinary workup and a complete endoscopic, transnasal surgical approach between otolaryngology and neurosurgery were undertaken. Out of concern for vascular control of the fibrofatty dense tumor stalk at the skull base and need for complete teratoma resection, we successfully employed a tissue resection tool with combined ultrasonic and bipolar diathermy to the tumor pedicle at the sphenoid/clivus junction. No CSF leak or major hemorrhage was noted using this endonasal approach, and no concerning postoperative sequelae were encountered. The patient continues to do well now 3 years after tumor extirpation, with resolution of all preoperative symptoms and absence of teratoma recurrence. KFS, teratoma biology, endocrine gland duplication, and the complex considerations required for successfully addressing this type of advanced skull base pathology are all reviewed herein. PMID:28133560
Draper, David O
Regaining full, active range of motion (ROM) after trauma to the elbow is difficult. To report the cases of 6 patients who lacked full ROM in the elbow because of trauma. The treatment regimen was thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations. Case series. University therapeutic modalities laboratory. Six patients (5 women [83%], 1 man [17%]) lacked a mean active ROM of 24.5° of extension approximately 4.8 years after trauma or surgery. Treatment consisted of 20 minutes of pulsed shortwave diathermy at 800 pulses per second for 400 microseconds (40-48 W average power, 150 W peak power) applied to the cubital fossa, immediately followed by 7 to 8 minutes of joint mobilizations. After posttreatment ROM was recorded, ice was applied to the area for about 30 minutes. Changes in extension active ROM were assessed before and after each treatment. Once the patient achieved full, active ROM or failed to improve on 2 consecutive visits, he or she was discharged from the study. By the fifth treatment, 4 participants (67%) achieved normal extension active ROM, and 2 of the 4 (50%) exceeded the norm. Five participants (83%) returned to normal activities and full use of their elbows. One month later, the 5 participants had maintained, on average, (mean ± SD) 92% ± 6% of their final measurements. A combination of thermal pulsed shortwave diathermy and joint mobilizations was effective in restoring active ROM of elbow extension in 5 of the 6 patients (83%) who lacked full ROM after injury or surgery.
Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John
Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.
Muenstermann, U; Kleinstein, J
This prospective, randomized study included 18 polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients with severe ovarian dysfunction, who were evaluated by standard clomiphene and FSH stimulation. In this group of patients, a 6 month down-regulation with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues gave outcomes similar to laparoscopic ovarian laser diathermy with respect to stimulatory outcome and pregnancy rate. Clomiphene stimulation with 50 mg of clomiphene/day and FSH stimulation in a low-dose, step-up protocol with purified FSH did not result in oligofollicular development; thus patients were divided into two subgroups: one subgroup received laparoscopic laser drilling and the other received 6 months of therapy with GnRH analogues plus add-back therapy after diagnostic laparoscopy. Subsequently, three cycles of low-dose, step-up stimulation with recombinant FSH were started. In both groups, approximately 30% of cycles still remained anovulatory. In the down-regulated subgroup, this mainly happened in the first cycle. In each group, ovulation was achieved in 14 cycles, intrauterine insemination was performed, and five pregnancies were obtained. This resulted in a pregnancy rate of 36% per ovulatory cycle in both groups. Overall, 50% of the formerly unreactive patients in both groups overcame childlessness. In achieving this, long-term treatment with GnRH analogues was as successful as laparoscopic laser diathermy.
It is submitted that the thermal action of short-wave therapy does not account for the therapeutic results obtained. The theory is put forward that many of the results obtained can be better explained by the disruptive and dispersive action of the impact of the electromagnetic vibrations. An analogy, indicating such disruptive effects at high frequency, is drawn from the molecular vibrations—transmitted through transformer oil, and excited by the application of high frequency currents to the layers of quartz in the piezo-electric oscillator of quartz. It is submitted that these disruptive and dispersive effects will be greatest where the conductivity of the tissues is low, such as in bones and fat, and it is shown that it is in these regions that the therapeutic action of these currents is most obvious. It is also pointed out that, if effects, comparable to those obtained in the subcutaneous area, are obtained in the deeper tissues and organs, the application of deep-wave therapy would be attended by serious risk. PMID:19990107
Chigbu, Chibuike O; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K
To compare the effectiveness of cryotherapy and loop electrosurgical excision procedure without colposcopy (visual LEEP) in treating cervical lesions detected through visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). In rural southeast Nigeria, women with VIA-positive lesions who were eligible for ablative treatment were selected to undergo immediate cryotherapy with nitrous oxide. Women with VIA-positive lesions who were not eligible for ablative treatment were selected to undergo visual LEEP at the same visit. A portable diathermy machine was used for LEEP. Participants were re-evaluated 6 months later using VIA. The main outcome measures included persistent VIA positivity at 6 months, duration of procedure, second clinic visits for complications, and patient acceptability. In total, 304 women completed the study. Persistent VIA-positivity rates, duration of procedure, second clinic visits for complications, and patient acceptability were similar in the 2 groups. Visual LEEP and cryotherapy have similar efficacy and patient acceptability in see-and-treat management of VIA-positive cervical lesions. In see-and-treat VIA-based cervical cancer prevention programs in low-resource countries, visual LEEP can be used to treat women who do not meet the criteria for ablative treatment. This would increase the treatment coverage of women with VIA-positive lesions and improve program efficiency. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metformin administration versus laparoscopic ovarian diathermy in clomiphene citrate-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Palomba, Stefano; Orio, Francesco; Nardo, Luciano Giovanni; Falbo, Angela; Russo, Tiziana; Corea, Domenico; Doldo, Patrizia; Lombardi, Gaetano; Tolino, Achille; Colao, Annamaria; Zullo, Fulvio
At present, it is unclear what the role is of laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (LOD) and of metformin administration as second-line treatments for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after failure of clomiphene citrate (CC) treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled fashion the effectiveness of LOD with metformin administration in the treatment of CC-resistant women with PCOS. A total of 120 overweight primary infertile anovulatory CC-resistant women with PCOS were enrolled and randomized into two groups of treatment. Group A underwent diagnostic laparoscopy, whereas group B underwent LOD. At hospital discharge, the patients were treated for 6 months with metformin cloridrate (group A; 850 mg twice daily) or with multivitamins (group B). The ovulation, pregnancy, abortion, and live-birth rates were evaluated. At the end of the study, the total ovulation rate was not statistically different between both treatment groups (54.8 vs. 53.2% [correction] in groups A and B, respectively), whereas the pregnancy (21.8 [correction] vs. 13.4%), the abortion (9.3 [correction] vs. 29.0%), and the live-birth (86.0 [correction] vs. 64.5%) rates were significantly (P < 0.05) different between the two groups. Our data show that metformin administration is more effective than LOD in overall reproductive outcomes in overweight infertile CC-resistant women with PCOS.
De La Casa Almeida, Maria; Suarez Serrano, Carmen; Medrano Sánchez, Ester Maria; Diaz Mohedo, Esther; Chamorro Moriana, Gema; Rebollo Salas, Manuel
Cellulite, despite its high prevalence in women, has been subjected to very little research, while the majority has been carried out using unvalidated evaluation tools. To determine the efficacy of capacitive radio-frequency diathermy (CRFD) in reducing buttock and posterior thigh cellulite and to verify its relationship with the reduction of body weight. Design: Experimental clinical study consists of two parallel groups. Totally 54 lower limbs of 27 women (26.41 ± 6.16 years) were considered with each patient's two limbs being assigned one to each group via simple random distribution. First group received local application of CRFD (30 min) and the second received the same treatment followed by a supplementary whole-segment application of CRFD (20 min). Each limb received 20 sessions, twice a week. Cellulite Severity Scale dimensions score, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were taken for the evaluation of the study. A significance of p less than 0.01 was observed for all the variables in both groups, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of both the treatments; no significant differences were observed between groups (p > 0.05). Monopolar static application of CRFD is effective in reducing buttock and posterior thigh cellulite. It appears that there is not necessarily any relationship between weight loss, decreased BMI and reduction in cellulite.
... spasms, and joint contractures, but not for the treatment of malignancies. (2) Classification. Class II... for all other uses except for the treatment of malignancies is a device that applies to the body...
... spasms, and joint contractures, but not for the treatment of malignancies. (2) Classification. Class II... for all other uses except for the treatment of malignancies is a device that applies to the body...
... medical conditions is a device that applies to specific areas of the body electromagnetic energy in the... electromagnetic energy in the microwave frequency bands of 915 megahertz to 2,450 megahertz and that is intended... paragraph (b) of this section shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being...
... medical conditions is a device that applies to specific areas of the body electromagnetic energy in the... electromagnetic energy in the microwave frequency bands of 915 megahertz to 2,450 megahertz and that is intended... paragraph (b) of this section shall have an approved PMA or declared completed PDP in effect before being...
Background To develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control and evaluate the safety and feasability of monopolar cauterization to cause ovarian injury using female cattle of reproductive age as an experimental model. Method Experimental study in a university research center was performed. Eleven female bovines of reproductive age were submitted to monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization. The right ovary (RO) was punctured at four sites and 40 W was applied for 5 s at each point, resulting in a total of 800 J (Joules) of thermal energy. In the left ovary (LO), the procedure was similar, with the same time and 80 W, resulting in a thermal energy of 1600 J. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Results Of 22 ovaries punctured, 20 were cauterized and exhibited macroscopic and typical microscopic lesions. No lesions could be found in the needle path. The measures of the areas of microscopic electrocautery lesions calculated estimating a cylindrical volume showed a median of 1.12% in the right ovary and 1.65% in the left ovary. When the estimate was calculated by spherical shape, the medians were 1.77% in the right ovary and 3.06% in the left ovary. There was a statistically significant difference in these two estimates (sphere, p = 0.008; cylinder, p = 0.021). Conclusion The experimental animal model described for transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovarian needle cauterization seems to be feasible. The ovaries were successfully cauterized without injuries in needle path and more energy resulted in significantly more thermal lesion. The safety and effectiveness of this technique, theoretically less invasive than current ovarian drilling methods, could be tested in anovulatory women with PCOS. PMID:23886295
Pimentel, Anita Mylius; Kliemann, Lucia Maria; Brum, Daniela Dos Santos; Leivas, Fábio Gallas; Sanches, Paulo Roberto Stefani; Capp, Edison; Corleta, Helena von Eye
To develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control and evaluate the safety and feasability of monopolar cauterization to cause ovarian injury using female cattle of reproductive age as an experimental model. Experimental study in a university research center was performed. Eleven female bovines of reproductive age were submitted to monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization. The right ovary (RO) was punctured at four sites and 40 W was applied for 5 s at each point, resulting in a total of 800 J (Joules) of thermal energy. In the left ovary (LO), the procedure was similar, with the same time and 80 W, resulting in a thermal energy of 1600 J. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Of 22 ovaries punctured, 20 were cauterized and exhibited macroscopic and typical microscopic lesions. No lesions could be found in the needle path. The measures of the areas of microscopic electrocautery lesions calculated estimating a cylindrical volume showed a median of 1.12% in the right ovary and 1.65% in the left ovary. When the estimate was calculated by spherical shape, the medians were 1.77% in the right ovary and 3.06% in the left ovary. There was a statistically significant difference in these two estimates (sphere, p = 0.008; cylinder, p = 0.021). The experimental animal model described for transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovarian needle cauterization seems to be feasible. The ovaries were successfully cauterized without injuries in needle path and more energy resulted in significantly more thermal lesion. The safety and effectiveness of this technique, theoretically less invasive than current ovarian drilling methods, could be tested in anovulatory women with PCOS.
Background Some techniques of transvaginal ovarian drilling have been previously described. Nevertheless a monopolar transvaginal ovarian cauterization, that use the expertise and safety of transvaginal puncture for oocyte captation seems to be an easier and feasible approach. The aim of this study was to develop a minimally invasive ovarian cauterization technique under transvaginal ultrasound control, and to evaluate the safety of the transvaginal ovarian monopolar cauterization, female sheep at reproductive age were used as an experimental model. Findings An experimental study was performed in a university research center. Seventeen female sheep (15 Corriedale e 2 Suffolk) in reproductive age were submitted to transvaginal ovarian cauterization with a monopolar Valleylab Force 2 electrocautery. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions were assessed. Ovarian size were 1.31 cm2 ± 0,43 (Corriedale) and 3.41 cm2 ± 0,64 (Suffolk). From 30 ovaries from Corriedale sheep punctured, only 3 were cauterized, presenting macroscopic and typical microscopic lesion. In the Suffolk sheep group, only one ovary was cauterized. No lesion could be found in the needle path. Conclusions This is the first experimental animal model described for ovarian cauterization needle guided by transvaginal ultrasound. The sheep does not seem to be the ideal animal model to study this technique. Another animal model, whose ovaries are better identified by transvaginal ultrasound should be sought for this technique, theoretically less invasive, before it could be offered safely to women with polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:22243998
Chiappa, Antonio; Bertani, Emilio; Biffi, Roberto; Zbar, Andrew P; Viale, Giuseppe; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Bellomi, Massimo; Venturino, Marco; Andreoni, Bruno
The principal cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality following hepatic resection is excessive intraoperative hemorrhage. This study evaluates the operative use of the LigaSure device in sealing ductal structures during major and minor hepatic resections. Patients were analyzed between June 1994 and December 2005, comparing 89 randomly selected cases undergoing hepatic resections using the clamp-crushing technique with LigaSure electrocautery and hepatic inflow occlusion where appropriate with 70 patients undergoing various hepatic resections using the clamp-crushing technique alone with hepatic inflow occlusion where appropriate. Intraoperative blood loss and perioperative blood transfusion requirements were significantly less for patients in the LigaSure group. LigaSure-assisted hepatic resection was generally performed more quickly than the conventional clamp-crushing technique. The overall maximum postoperative AST, ALT, and bilirubin serum levels were similar in the two groups, as was the incidence of major postoperative complications. The LigaSure device in this randomized study is safe and simple to use, resulting in less perioperative blood loss and transfusion requirement during hepatic parenchymal transection.
Luz, Rita; Barros, Joana; Aguiar, Ana; Rodrigues, Cátia; Soares, Ana Paula; Nunes, Joaquim; Sousa, Sandra; Calhaz-Jorge, Carlos
Introdução: A síndrome dos ovários poliquísticos é a causa mais frequente de anovulação e o tratamento envolve uma abordagem faseada. A electrocoagulação laparoscópica dos ovários é aceite como segunda linha no tratamento das doentes que não respondem ao citrato de clomifeno. Os objectivos deste estudo foram determinar a eficácia desta técnica a curto e longo prazo e definir os factores preditivos de gravidez espontânea. Material e Métodos: Este estudo retrospectivo envolveu 76 mulheres submetidas a electrocoagulação dos ovários entre 2004 e 2013, num hospital universitário. Os desfechos principais foram a regularidade menstrual e gravidez. Os resultados a curto prazo registados durante a vigilância na unidade foram revistos e os desfechos a longo prazo foram avaliados através de entrevista telefónica realizada a todas as mulheres operadas há mais de três anos. Dados clínicos e bioquímicos foram analisados como factores preditivos de gravidez espontânea em doentes sem outros factores de infertilidade. Resultados: A regularidade do ciclo menstrual foi alcançada inicialmente em 53 (70%) mulheres e a longo prazo, 52% (12/53) tinham ciclos regulares. Em geral, 53 (70%) mulheres engravidaram e foram obtidas 77 gravidezes, 60% das quais foram espontâneas. O único factor de prognóstico associado a gravidez espontânea foi a duração da infertilidade inferior a três anos (p < 0,05). Discussão: A electrocoagulação dos ovários demonstrou taxas de gravidez comparáveis a outros tratamentos de indução da ovulação com a vantagem de ter efeitos benéficos duradouros na regularidade menstrual e fertilidade. Conclusão: A electrocoagulação dos ovários é uma opção de tratamento segura e eficaz na infertilidade anovulatória em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários poliquísticos.
Farquhar, C; Lilford, R J; Marjoribanks, J; Vandekerckhove, P
Surgical ovarian wedge resection was the first established treatment for women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) but was largely abandoned due to the risk of postsurgical adhesions and the introduction of medical ovulation induction with clomiphene and gonadotrophins. However, women with PCOS who are treated with gonadotrophins often have an over-production of follicles which may result in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancies. Moreover, gonadotrophins, though effective, are costly and time-consuming requiring intensive monitoring. Surgical therapy with laparoscopic ovarian 'drilling' (LOD) may avoid or reduce the need for gonadotrophins or may facilitate their usefulness. The procedure can be done on an outpatient basis with less trauma and fewer postoperative adhesions than with traditional surgical approaches. Many uncontrolled observational studies have claimed that ovarian drilling is followed, at least temporarily, by a high rate of spontaneous ovulation and conception or that subsequent medical ovulation induction becomes easier. To determine the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ovarian drilling compared with ovulation induction for subfertile women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS. We used the search strategy of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group. We included randomised controlled trials of subfertile women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS who undertook laparoscopic ovarian drilling in order to induce ovulation. Sixteen trials were identified and nine were included in the review. All trials were assessed for quality criteria. The primary outcomes were live birth, ovulation and pregnancy rates and the secondary outcomes were rates of miscarriage, multiple pregnancy, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and cost. There was no evidence of a difference in live birth or clinical pregnancy rate between LOD and gonadotrophins and the pooled odds ratios (OR) (all studies) were 1.04 (95% CI 0.59 to 1.85) and 1.08 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.71) respectively. Multiple pregnancy rates were lower with ovarian drilling than with gonadotrophins (1% versus 16%; OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.52). There was no evidence of a difference in miscarriage rates between the two groups (OR 0.81, 95% 0.36 to 1.86). There was no evidence of a difference in the live birth rate and miscarriage rate in women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS undergoing LOD compared to gonadotrophin treatment. The reduction in multiple pregnancy rates in women undergoing LOD makes this option attractive. However, there are ongoing concerns about long-term effects of LOD on ovarian function.
Farquhar, C; Vandekerckhove, P; Lilford, R
Problems in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and anovulation (failure to ovulate) are well recognised. Surgical ovarian wedge resection was the first established treatment for anovulatory PCOS patients but was largely abandoned because of the risk of post-surgical adhesion formation. It was replaced by medical ovulation induction with clomiphene and gonadotrophins. However patients with PCOS treated with gonadotrophins often have a polyfollicular response and are exposed to the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancy. Although effective, it is an expensive, stressful and time consuming form of treatment requiring intensive monitoring. A new surgical therapy, laparoscopic ovarian "drilling", may avoid or reduce the need, or facilitate the use, of gonadotrophins for inducing ovulation. The procedure can be done on an outpatient basis with less trauma and fewer postoperative adhesions. It has been claimed in many uncontrolled observational studies that it is followed, at least temporarily, by a high rate of spontaneous postoperative ovulation and conception, or that subsequent medical ovulation induction becomes easier. To determine the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ovarian drilling with ovulation induction for subfertile women with clomiphene resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome. The search strategy of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was used for the identification of randomised controlled trials (RCTS). A computerised MEDLINE search was used to identify non randomised controlled trials. Trials were eligible for inclusion if treatment consisted of laparoscopic ovarian drilling in order to induce ovulation in subfertile women with PCOS and compared with a concurrent control group. Fifteen trials were identified; six were included in the review all of which were randomised. All trials were assessed for quality criteria. The main studied outcomes were ovulation and pregnancy rates. Miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and incidence of overstimulation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate were secondary outcomes. The ongoing pregnancy rate following ovarian drilling compared with gonadotrophins differed according to the length of follow up. Overall, the pooled OR (all studies) was not statistically significant (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.77, 1.98). Multiple pregnancy rates were reduced in the ovarian drilling arms of the four trials where there was a direct comparison with gonadotrophins (OR 0.16, 95%CI 0.03,0.98). There was no difference in miscarriage rates in the drilling group when compared with gonadotrophin in these trials (OR 0.61, 955% 0.17, 2.16). There is insufficient evidence of a difference in cumulative ongoing pregnancy rates between laparoscopic ovarian drilling after 6-12 months follow up and 3-6 cycles of ovulation induction with gonadotrophins as a primary treatment for subfertile patients with anovulation (failure to ovulate) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Multiple pregnancy rates are considerably reduced in those women who conceive following laparoscopic drilling.
Farquhar, C; Vandekerckhove, P; Arnot, M; Lilford, R
Problems in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and anovulation (failure to ovulate) are well recognised. Surgical ovarian wedge resection was the first established treatment for anovulatory PCOS patients but was largely abandoned of the risk of post-surgical adhesion formation. It was replaced by medical ovulation induction with clomiphene and gonadotrophins. However patients with PCOS treated with gonadotrophins often have a polyfollicular response and are exposed to the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancy. Although effective, it is an expensive, stressful and time consuming form of treatment requiring intensive monitoring. A new surgical therapy, laparoscopic ovarian "drilling", may avoid or reduce the need, or facilitate the use, of gonadotrophins for inducing ovulation. The procedure can be done on an outpatient basis with less trauma and fewer postoperative adhesions. It has been claimed in many uncontrolled observational studies that it is followed, at least temporarily, by a high rate of spontaneous postoperative ovulation and conception, or that subsequent medical ovulation induction becomes easier. To determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic ovarian drilling for ovulation induction in subfertile women with anovulation (failure to ovulate) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The search strategy of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group was used for the identification of randomised controlled trials (RCTS). A computerised MEDLINE search was used to identify non randomised controlled trials. Trials were eligible for inclusion if treatment consisted of laparoscopic ovarian drilling in order to induce ovulation in subfertile women with PCOS and compared with a concurrent control group. Fourteen trials were identified; eight were included in the review of which seven were randomised. All trials were assessed for quality criteria. The main studied outcomes were ovulation and pregnancy rates. Miscarriage rate, multiple pregnancy rate, and incidence of overstimulation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rate were secondary outcomes. With the exception of multiple pregnancy rates no differences were demonstrated for any of the interventions studied but the numbers of patients who have been randomised to controlled studies at this time is insufficient to conclude that laparoscopic ovarian drilling is more effective than gonadotrophin therapy for other outcomes. The value of laparoscopic ovarian drilling as a primary treatment for subfertile patients with anovulation (failure to ovulate) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is undetermined. There is insufficient evidence to determine a difference in ovulation or pregnancy rates when compared to gonadotrophin therapy as a secondary treatment for clomiphene resistant women. Multiple pregnancy rates are reduced in those women who conceive following laparoscopic drilling. None of the studied modalities of drilling technique had any obvious advantages.
Farquhar, C; Lilford, R J; Marjoribanks, J; Vandekerckhove, P
Problems in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and anovulation (failure to ovulate) are well recognised. Surgical ovarian wedge resection was the first established treatment for anovulatory PCOS patients but was largely abandoned due to the risk of post-surgical adhesions and the introduction of medical ovulation induction with clomiphene and gonadotrophins. However patients with PCOS treated with gonadotrophins often have an over-production of follicles and are exposed to the risks of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancy. Moreover ovulation induction with gonadotrophins, though effective, is an expensive, inconvenient and time-consuming treatment requiring intensive monitoring. Surgical therapy with laparoscopic ovarian "drilling" (LOD) may avoid or reduce the need for gonadotrophins or may facilitate their use. The procedure can be done on an outpatient basis with less trauma and fewer postoperative adhesions. Many uncontrolled observational studies have claimed that ovarian drilling is followed, at least temporarily, by a high rate of spontaneous ovulation and conception, and/or that subsequent medical ovulation induction becomes easier. To determine the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic ovarian drilling compared with ovulation induction for subfertile women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS. We used the search strategy of the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group. We included randomised controlled trials of subfertile women with clomiphene-resistant PCOS that undertook laparoscopic ovarian drilling in order to induce ovulation. Fifteen trials were identified and six were included in the review. All trials were assessed for quality criteria. The primary outcomes were live birth, ovulation and pregnancy rates and the secondary outcomes were rates of miscarriage, multiple pregnancy, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome and cost. There was no evidence of a difference in live births or ongoing pregnancies between LOD and gonadotrophins and the pooled Odds Ratio (OR) (all studies) was 1.04 (95% CI 0.74, 1.99) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.72, 1.86) respectively. Multiple pregnancy rates were lower with ovarian drilling than with gonadotrophins (1% vs 16%, OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.59). There was no evidence of a difference in miscarriage rates between the two groups (OR 0.81, 955% 0.36, 1.86). There was no evidence of a difference in the live birth rate and miscarriage rate in women with clomiphene resistant PCOS undergoing LOD compared to gonadotrophin treatment. The reduction in multiple pregnancy rates in women undergoing LOD makes this option attractive. However, there are ongoing concerns about long term effects of LOD on ovarian function.
Kozomara, Davorin; Galić, Gordan; Brekalo, Zdrinko; Sutalo, Nikica; Kvesić, Ante; Soljić, Martina
The purpose of this study was to perform an overall evaluation and comparison of the success rate of modified radical mastectomy by harmonic scalpel and monopolar electrocauter The prospective study included all of the patients that were planned for and mastectiomized because of breast carcinoma during July 1st 2008 until December 21st 2008 at the Department of Surgery and Urology, University Hospital Mostar. Duration of the surgical procedure, intraoperative blood loss and operational drain secretion was measured and registered. Leukocyte number (Le), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was tested and registered out of peripheral venous blood before the operation, 4 hrs after it, as well as on the first, second and third day after the operation. Every patient was tested for postoperative pain intensity, amount of administered analgesics during hospital stay, number and types of postoperative complications; also the time needed for return to everyday activities was registered. 61 patients were included in the study. 31 patients were operated with the harmonic scalpel, and 30 of them with the monopolar electrocauter. There is no statistically significant difference between the operation time in the two groups: 78.50 +/- 17.50 minutes by harmonic scalpel and 82.50 +/- 18.50 minutes by electrocauter (p = 0.796). The smaller amount of intraoperative blood loss is statistically significant in the group of patients mastectomized by harmonic scalpel 78 +/- 31 ml compared to 256 +/- 112 ml in the group mastectomized by electrocauter (p < 0.001); as is the total operational drain secretion: patients mastectomized by harmonic scalpel 540 +/- 390 mL compared to 960 +/- 710 mL in patients mastectomized by electrocauter (p < 0.001). There is no statistical difference in the number of leukocytes in blood after modified radical mastectomy using the harmonic scalpel or electrocauter (p = 0.957), or in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p = 0.114), CRP (p = 0.071) and IL-6 (p = 0.082). The duration of postoperative hospital stay does not differ statistically between the two groups, nor does the postoperative pain intensity, amount of administered analgesics, number or types of postoperative complications, as well as the time needed for return to everyday activities. Therefore using the ultrasound harmonic scalpel in comparison to monopolar electrocauter brings certain advantages, which however do not contribute significantly to the total success rate of the operation.
Bulat, Cristijan; Pešutić-Pisac, Valdi; Capkun, Vesna; Marović, Zlatko; Pogorelić, Zenon; Družijanić, Nikica
The internal thoracic artery (ITA) has been accepted worldwide as a first choice conduit for myocardial revascularisation. It still remains questionable what is the best method for ITA harvesting in a skeletonized fashion according to structural integrity of artery, as a risk factor of early and late graft failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the ultra-high radiofrequency energy used for ITA harvesting on arterial structural integrity, in particular on the endothelial layer. Seventy-four ITA specimens were divided into two groups depending on device used for harvesting (radiofrequency-knife (RF) or electrocauter (EC)). Thermal damage on arterial structural integrity was measured using light microscope, morphometric imaging analysis and immunohistochemical methods. Thermal damage of endothelium was 2.8 times higher in EC than in RF group (p = 0.041) and 5 times higher in patients older than 66 years of age (p = 0.002). Extent of endothelial damage (graded from 0 to 3) was significantly higher in EC group (p = 0.03). Also, in EC group, in patients older than 66 years of age higher proportion of extent of endothelial damage was found (p = 0.027). The endothelial damage was more often in EC than in RF group as in the patients older than 66 years of age. Demonstrated results suggest that the radiosurgery in comparison to conventional electrocautery is safe and effective method, and significantly reduces thermal damage to endothelial layer of artery. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larsen, A.I.; Skotte, J. )
As preparation for a case-control study dealing with possible teratogenic property of short waves, a pilot study was conducted in order to compare exposure assessment from different sources. In 11 physiotherapy clinics, exposure assessments based on interviews within 1 week among the exposed physiotherapists were compared with exposure assessments based on observations including measurements. It was possible to discriminate between recent high and low peak exposure. Furthermore, an interview index reflecting the duration of the exposure correlated to some extent with the corresponding measurements.
Fan, Xu; Wang, Yunguang; Cheng, Haiping; Chong, Xiaochen
The present circuit was designed to apply to human tissue impedance tuning and matching device in ultra-short wave treatment equipment. In order to judge if the optimum status of circuit parameter between energy emitter circuit and accepter circuit is in well syntony, we designed a high frequency envelope detect circuit to coordinate with automatic adjust device of accepter circuit, which would achieve the function of human tissue impedance matching and tuning. Using the sampling coil to receive the signal of amplitude-modulated wave, we compared the voltage signal of envelope detect circuit with electric current of energy emitter circuit. The result of experimental study was that the signal, which was transformed by the envelope detect circuit, was stable and could be recognized by low speed Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and was proportional to the electric current signal of energy emitter circuit. It could be concluded that the voltage, transformed by envelope detect circuit can mirror the real circuit state of syntony and realize the function of human tissue impedance collecting.
Sim, H-L; Tan, K-Y
Open haemorrhoidectomy has been associated with considerable postoperative pain and discomfort. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue has been shown to ablate perianal nerve endings and may bring about temporary pain relief after haemorrhoidectomy. We hypothesized that the administration of intradermal methylene blue would reduce postoperative pain during the initial period after surgery. A randomized, prospective, single-blind placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomized to intradermal injection at haemorrhoidectomy of either 4 ml 1% methylene blue and 16 ml 0.5% marcaine or of 16 ml 0.5% marcaine and 4 ml saline prior to surgical dissection. Patients were asked to fill in a pain diary with a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was pain score and analgesic use. Secondary outcomes were complications. There were 37 patients in the methylene blue arm and 30 patients in the placebo arm. There were no statistically significant differences in the sex, type of haemorrhoid, number of haemorrhoids excised, duration of surgery or hospital stay. The mean pain scores were significantly lower and the use of paracetamol was also significantly less in the methylene blue group during the first three postoperative days. The risk ratio of acute urinary retention occurring when methylene blue was not used was 2.320 (95% CI 1.754-3.067). Other complication rates were not significantly different. Perianal intradermal injection of methylene blue was useful in reducing the initial postoperative pain of open haemorrhoidectomy. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.
... Minutes, Meeting of the Circulatory System Devices Advisory Panel, Center for Devices and Radiological... system for the regulation of medical devices intended for human use. Section 513 of the FD&C Act (21 U.S... Standards Matched to North American Industry Classification System Codes,'' available at http://www.sba.gov...
George, Katherine S; Hyde, Nicholas C; Wilson, Philip; Smith, Graham I
It is important to obtain tumour-free resection margins in patients with oral cancer. Pathological processing is known to cause tissue to shrink, which affects the reported margins, and it is postulated that the method of resection also has an effect. We marked standardised simulated lesions on the tongues of 15 live anaesthetised pigs and divided each lesion into four equal sections. They were resected each with a margin of 10mm using cutting diathermy, coagulative diathermy, Harmonic scalpel, and a conventional scalpel. After processing, the excision margins were measured. With cutting diathermy and coagulative diathermy, shrinkage of the soft tissues was minimal relative to the margin of the simulated lesion compared with the Harmonic scalpel (p=0.001) and conventional scalpel (p=0.001). Cutting diathermy and coagulative diathermy caused significant thermal damage (p=0.001). The method of resection affects the surgical margin. Diathermy resulted in thermal injury and denaturing of the underlying muscle, but there was less tissue contraction than when the Harmonic scalpel and conventional scalpel were used. The ethics committee approved the study, which was undertaken in a registered European Scientific Institute in Hamburg.
Cole, A J; Eagleston, R A; Herring, S A
In brief Ultrasound and electromagnetic diathermy (both shortwave and microwave) have useful roles in treating sports injuries. Ultrasound can control inflammation, improve collagen elasticity, and deliver medication to selected tissues. Electromagnetic diathermy is an alternative to ultrasound for alleviating muscle or joint contractures, muscle spasm, and pain. Knowing the indications and contraindications of these modalities can help physicians make the best use of these treatment options.
Hong, Kwang Dae; Lee, Sun Il; Moon, Hong Young
Colonic gas explosion, although rare, is sometimes a fatal iatrogenic complication in endoscopic procedures or laparotomic surgery, but it has not been reported during port incision of laparoscopy. We report a case of gas detonation in a patient with pneumatosis intestinalis and pneumoperitoneum, on opening the peritoneum with a diathermy for umbilical trocar insertion. Based on our experience, in cases of pneumoperitoneum, surgeons need to avoid using a diathermy in opening the peritoneum.
Gryz, Krzysztof; Karpowicz, Jolanta
Electromagnetic fields used in physiotherapeutic treatment affect not only patients, but also physiotherapists, patients not undergoing treatment and electronic medical equipment. The aim of the work was to study the parameters of the electromagnetic fields of physiotherapeutic devices with respect to requirements regarding the protection of electronic devices, including medical implants, against electromagnetic intererence, and the protection of the general public (patients not undergoing treatment and bystanders), as well as medical personnel, against the health hazards caused by electromagnetic exposure. The spatial distribution of electric and magnetic field strength was investigated near 3 capacitive short-wave and 3 long-wave diathermies and 3 ultrasound therapy units, as along with the capacitive electric currents caused by electromagnetic field interaction in the upper limbs of the physiotherapists operating these devices. The physiotherapists' exposure to electromagnetic fields depends on the spatial organisation of the workspace and their location during treatment. Electric fields able to interfere with the function of electronic medical implants and in whic anyone not undergoing treatment should not be present were measured up to 150-200 cm away from active applicators of short-wave diathermy, and up to 40-45 cm away from long-wave diathermy ones. Electric fields in which workers should not be present were measured up to 30-40 cm away from the applicators and cables of active short-wave diathermy devices. A capacitive electric current with a strength exceeding many times the international recommendations regarding workers protection was measured in the wrist while touching applicators and cables of active short-wave diathermy devices. The strongest environmental electromagnetic hazards occur near short-wave diathermy devices, and to a lesser degree near long-wave diathermy devices, but were not found near ultrasound therapy units.
Peereboom-Wynia, J D
The influence of epilation by means of diathermy and galvanic current on the hair roots in the beard region of 11 women with idiopathic hirsutism has been investigated. The hair-roots could be destructed by both methods. Various differences were found between the two methods: 1. After 10 weeks, the hair density in the field treated by diathermy was lower than that in the corresponding field treated with galvanic current. However, the time required for total destruction of all hair roots was found to be the same for both methods. 2. The diameter of the hairs growing again after diathermy was found to be less than that after galvanic current, while the proportion of dysplastic/dystrophic hairs was significantly greater.
Khetarpal, Monica; Yadav, Monu; Kulkarni, Dilip; Gopinath, R
A 63-year-old man with severe Parkinson's disease (PD) who had been implanted with deep brain stimulators into both sides underwent radical nephrectomy under general anaesthesia with standard monitoring. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an alternative and effective treatment option for severe and refractory PD and other illnesses such as essential tremor and intractable epilepsy. Anaesthesia in the patients with implanted neurostimulator requires special consideration because of the interaction between neurostimulator and the diathermy. The diathermy can damage the brain tissue at the site of electrode. There are no standard guidelines for the anaesthetic management of a patient with DBS electrode in situ posted for surgery.
... laser) • Slit lamp • Retinal acuity • Fluorescence spectroscopy • Transilluminator • Wound healing • Low-level laser therapy • PUVA therapy • Intra-operative ... magnetic • Magnetic resonance imaging • Hyperthermia • Diathermy • Bone healing • Wound healing • Prostate therapy • Electrocautery • Bone density measurement • Cabinet x- ...
source of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum : radars, microwave ovens, diathermy units or communication facilities. TOP...stated in Military Standard (MIL-STD)-464C “ Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Requirement for Systems”. 15. SUBJECT TERMS High Power...Microwave Electromagnetic Radio Frequency 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF
Kauff, Daniel W; Kempski, Oliver; Huppert, Sabine; Koch, Klaus P; Hoffmann, Klaus P; Lang, Hauke; Kneist, Werner
The aim of this experimental study was to assess the quality of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation of different dissection techniques. Twelve pigs underwent low anterior rectal resection (LARR) with scissors, ultracision, monopolar diathermy, and waterjet, each in three animals. Assessment of pelvic autonomic nerve preservation was carried out by stimulation of the pelvic splanchnic nerves under electromyography of the internal anal sphincter (IAS). Neurostimulation was performed bilaterally after posterior dissection, after complete mesorectal dissection, and after rectal resection. Stimulation resulted in significantly increased amplitudes of the time-based electromyographic signal of the IAS, confirming nerve preservation. The stimulation results after complete mesorectal dissection showed comparable median amplitude increases for dissection with scissors (10.34 μV (interquartile range [IQR], 5.58; 14.74)) and ultracision (9.79 μV (IQR, 7.63; 11.6)). Lower amplitude increases were observed for monopolar diathermy (4.47 μV (IQR, 2.52; 10.46)) and waterjet (0.61 μV (IQR, 0.07; 2.11)) (p = 0.038). All animals undergoing dissection with scissors, ultracision, and monopolar diathermy had bilateral positive results. Of three animals undergoing LARR with waterjet, one had bilateral positive results. Two had unilateral negative results, indicating incomplete nerve preservation. Scissors, ultracision, and monopolar diathermy might have comparable nerve-sparing potentials and differed from waterjet.
Zaret, M M; Snyder, W Z; Birenbaum, L
The case histories of two individuals exposed to thermal radiation emitted from an electric oven and range were presented. In one patient, earlier exposure to medical diathermy appears to have initiated delayed or late-appearing, capsular cataracts. Instead of the anticipated slow progression, the cataractogenesis was accelerated following recent, repeated exposure to the intense, infrared radiation. In the other patient, exposed solely to infrared radiation, a chorioretinal lesion indistinguishable from the type characteristically secondary to repeated, thermal radiation was observed. More recently, the earliest sign of thermal radiation cataractogenesis, capsular opacification, has become evident. The widespread availability of radiant energy sources such as diathermy machines, microwave ovens, and electric ovens and ranges makes it imperative to examine carefully any possible hazards that may result from their use. With this in mind, radiant energy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cataractogenesis. Images PMID:990233
Zaret, M M; Snyder, W Z; Birenbaum, L
The case histories of two individuals exposed to thermal radiation emitted from an electric oven and range were presented. In one patient, earlier exposure to medical diathermy appears to have initiated delayed or late-appearing, capsular cataracts. Instead of the anticipated slow progression, the cataractogenesis was accelerated following recent, repeated exposure to the intense, infrared radiation. In the other patient, exposed solely to infrared radiation, a chorioretinal lesion indistinguishable from the type characteristically secondary to repeated, thermal radiation was observed. More recently, the earliest sign of thermal radiation cataractogenesis, capsular opacification, has become evident. The widespread availability of radiant energy sources such as diathermy machines, microwave ovens, and electric ovens and ranges makes it imperative to examine carefully any possible hazards that may result from their use. With this in mind, radiant energy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cataractogenesis.
Jain, S; Dalton, M E
To study the development of chocolate cysts by serial transvaginal ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles. Retrospective study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, United Kingdom. We reviewed case notes of all patients who underwent laparoscopy for diathermy to endometriosis/ovarian diathermy/aspiration of ovarian cysts from 1989 to 1998. Twelve women with histories of infertility and proven chocolate cysts with documented ultrasonographic findings were included in the study. Serial ultrasonographic tracking of ovarian follicles in the cycle leading to the development of the chocolate cysts, followed by ultrasonographic tracking of cysts for 3 months and laparoscopy. Development and formation of chocolate cysts. The diagnosis of chocolate cysts was confirmed laparoscopically in all patients and histopathologically in four. Ultrasound confirmed that they had all developed from follicles. Chocolate cysts can develop from ovarian follicles.
Shakoor, M A; Taslim, Md Abu; Hossain, Md Shahadat
A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on 162 patients of osteoarthritis of knee were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups- Group A and Group B. The Group A was treated with shortwave diathermy, exercise, naproxen and activity modification and the Group B was treated with shortwave diathermy, exercise and naproxen. Improvement was found more in Group A than Group B after 4th week (95% CI was -2.59 to 6.56). Then it was found that the improvement was gradually increased in Group A than Group B and finally, it was found that there was highly significant improvement in Group A than Group B after 6th week (95% CI was -3.45 to -0.70). This study suggests that activity modification play an important role for the treatment of the patients with osteoarthritis of knee.
Moseley, H; Johnston, S; Allen, A
It has been alleged that the exposure of a transdermal delivery system to leakage of microwave radiation from a domestic microwave oven can result in the user receiving a second-degree burn in the area of the patch. Several transdermal delivery systems were exposed to microwave radiation from an Electro Medical Supplies Microtron 200 microwave diathermy unit. Temperature rises of up to 2.2 degrees C were recorded at a maximum power density of 800 W/m2. These temperature rises were considered insignificant compared to that required to produce a burn. The exposure of transdermal delivery systems to a microwave diathermy field or lower level leakage radiation from a microwave oven is unlikely to cause direct thermal injury to the wearer.
Olmi, R.; Andreoli, S.; Bini, M.; Feroldi, P.; Spiazzi, L.
Tissue hyperaemia is a physiological consequence of the temperature increase that follows, for example, the absorption of electromagnetic or ultrasound power in clinical diathermy. Diathermy, as well as other physical therapies (for example massotherapy), affects the local blood content of tissues through various mechanisms (vasoconstriction/dilatation, opening/closing of precapillary sphincters). A method for evaluating hyperaemia in superficial and medium-depth tissues has been recently proposed, which is based on four-electrode impedance measurements. A microcirculation model has also been developed to describe the hyperaemic effects of local diathermic therapy. This paper describes an electrical model of the tissues in hyperaemic conditions which allows us to correlate electrical impedance measurements to microcirculation modifications.
Tiktinsky, R; Chen, L; Narayan, P
The use of electrotherapy has been part of physical therapy treatment for the past few decades. There have been numerous modalities used such as TENS, interferential, diathermy, magnetic therapy, ultrasound, laser and surface electromyography to name a few. There has been an upsurge in the past decade of new and innovative modalities. There needs to be extensive research on each of these electrotherapy devices to determine the proper use of each device.
Altokhais, Tariq Ibrahim
Circumcision is one of the most common procedures performed worldwide. Bleeding is one of the most common complications following male circumcision, and to decrease the risk of bleeding, electrosurgery may be utilized. However, the use of diathermy on the penis is controversial, and there are reported complications due to the use of electrosurgery for circumcision. The aim of this review is to evaluate the utilization and relative safety of monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery for circumcision in children. PMID:28216919
Pacemaker technology has advanced rapidly over the last decade. A lot of everyday interference can be regarded as transient. The media tend to cover stories of relatively insignificant transient interference incurred by pacemaker wearers while many manuals gloss over the high risks, some potentially life-threatening. These include the reliability of pacemakers and the use of monopolar diathermy which can generate electromagnetic interference, potentially causing a pacemaker to malfunction.
(1) Some patients experience pain and bleeding after a standard or extracapsular tonsillectomy. (2) Evidence suggests that none of the hot tonsillectomy techniques offers concurrent reductions in intra- and post-operative bleeding and pain, compared with traditional cold-steel dissection with packs or ties. (3) Little information is available on the cost effectiveness of the hot techniques. (4) Diathermy is likely to remain the most commonly practised hot tonsillectomy technique.
Mansfield, Scott K; Borrowdale, Roderick
The object of this study is to report a rare case of explosion during laparotomy where diathermy ignited intraperitoneal gas from a spontaneous stomach perforation. Fortunately, the patient survived but the surgeon experienced a finger burn. A literature review demonstrates other examples of intraoperative explosion where gastrointestinal gases were the fuel source. Lessons learned from these cases provide recommendations to prevent this potentially lethal event from occurring.
Aniołczyk, Halina; Mariańska, Magda; Mamrot, Paweł
European Union Directive 2013/35/UE provides for the implementation of EU regulations into national legislation. Our aim is to assess actual health hazards from radiofrequency eldctromagnetic field (RF EMF) (range: 100 kHz - 300 GHz) and indicate workplaces with the highest risk to employee health. Data from measurements of RF EMF performed by the Laboratory of Electromagnetic Hazards in Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Łódź, Poland) were analyzed. The analysis covered the results of electric field intensity (E) for over 450 selected items. The ranges of protection zones and the extent to which maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values were also analyzed. The determinations and'measurements of EMF in the work environment met the requirements of Polish Standard, while Polish regulations on the MAI values were used as the criterion for the assessment of the exposure. The highest values of E field intensity at workplaces were measured for: electrosurgery, to 400 V/m, and short-wave diathermy units, to 220 V/m, dielectric welders to 240 V/m, within the FM radio antenna systems, to 180 V/m. The widest protection zones were noted for prototype research instruments, short-wave diathermy units, and dielectric welders. The most excessive (up to 12-fold MAI) values were recorded for dielectric welders, short-wave diathermy units (up to 11-fold) and microwave diathermy units (up to 8-fold). Our results have confirmed the high RF EMF values for physiotherapists, operators of dielectric welders, and mast maintenance workers in radio com munication facilities (especially radio and TV broadcasting stations).
Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R
Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising.
Orsi, Franco; Penco, Silvia Matei, Victor; Bonomo, Guido; Vigna, Paolo Della; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Cobelli, Ottavio De
Background. Ureterointestinal anastomotic strictures (UAS) complicate 10-15% of surgeries for urinary diversion and are the main cause of deterioration in renal function. Treatments are surgical revision, management with autostatic stent, balloon dilatation, endoscopic incision, and percutaneous transrenal diathermy (Acucise). A new option is cryoplastic dilatation (Polar-Cath). Purpose. To assess the feasibility, complications, and preliminary results of UAS treatment using the Acucise and Polar-Cath systems. Methods. Nineteen UAS, diagnosed by ultrasonography or computed tomography and sequential renal scintigraphy, occurred in 15 cancer patients after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Fifteen were managed with balloon diathermy and 4 by balloon cryoplasty in a three-stage procedure-percutaneous nephrostomy, diathermal or cryoplastic dilatation, and transnephrostomic control with nephrostomy removal-each separated by 15 days. All patients gave written informed consent. Results. Dilatations were successful in all cases. The procedure is simple and rapid (about 45 min) under fluoroscopic control and sedation. Procedural complications occurred in 1 (5%) patient with UAS after Wallace II uretero-ileocutaneostomy: a common iliac artery lesion was induced by diathermal dilatation, evident subsequently, and required surgical repair. Patency with balloon diathermy was good, with two restenoses developing over 12 months (range 1-22) of follow-up. With balloon cryoplastic dilatation, one restenosis developed in the short term; follow-up is too brief to assess the long-term efficacy. Conclusion. Our short-term results with diathermal and cryoplastic dilatation to resolve UAS are good. If supported by longer follow-up, the techniques may be considered as first-choice approaches to UAS. Surgery should be reserved for cases in which this minimally invasive technique fails.
Jones, K D; Sutton, C J G
To estimate the recurrence rate of chocolate cysts 3 to 12 months after ablative laparoscopic surgery. The secondary outcome measure was the need for a repeat surgical procedure. Prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Tertiary referral center for laparoscopic treatment of endometriosis. Seventy-three consecutive women with chocolate cysts larger than 2 cm. Laparoscopy at which cyst capsules were vaporized or coagulated with the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser or Bicap bipolar diathermy. There were 96 cysts (23 bilateral) in 73 women (1 patient underwent a two-stage procedure). Their mean diameter was 4.79 cm (range 2-25 cm). The median r-AFS score was 56 (range 22-128), and 55 patients (75.3%) had stage 4 disease. The KTP laser was used in 50 women (68.5%) and bipolar diathermy in 23 (31.5%). At 12 months, 5 patients (6.9%) were lost to follow-up, and 12 had a recurrent cyst. Therefore, the cyst recurrence rate/patient was 16.4% (12/73) and the rate/cyst was 12.5% (12/96). Women who had recurrences were significantly more likely to have bilateral cysts, 7/12 (58.3%), than those with single cysts, 16/61 (26.2%, p =0.032). Bicap bipolar diathermy was associated with a recurrence rate of 20.8% (5/24). The rate in women who had KTP laser ablation was 14.3% (7/49, NS). Eighteen patients had repeat operations (including on recurrent cysts). Therefore the reoperation rate was 24.6% (18/73). No major surgical complications occurred. One woman had a postoperative wound infection after a second procedure to remove an ovary with a recurrent cyst. Laparoscopic cyst fenestration followed by capsule ablation is safe and effective treatment for preventing recurrence of chocolate cysts.
Söderman, A-C Hessén; Odhagen, E; Ericsson, E; Hemlin, C; Hultcrantz, E; Sunnergren, O; Stalfors, J
To analyse post-tonsillectomy haemorrhage (PTH) rates related to technique for dissection and haemostasis. Register study from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden (NTSRS). All patients, subjected to tonsillectomy (TE) without adenoidectomy from 1 March 2009 to 26 April 2013, were included in the study. The surgeon reports data about technique and early PTH, while late PTH is reported by the patient in a questionnaire 30 days after surgery. 15734 patients with complete data concerning technique for dissection and for haemostasis were identified in the NTSRS. Techniques used were cold steel dissection with uni- or bipolar diathermy haemostasis (65.3%), diathermy scissors (15.7%), coblation (9.1%), cold steel dissection with cold haemostasis (7.4%) and ultrascision (2.5%). Early and late PTH were reported in 3.2% and 9.4% of the cases, respectively, and return to theatre (RTT) in 2.7%. The rates for PTH and RTT related to technique were analysed. Compared with cold dissection+ cold haemostasis, late PTH rate was 2.8 times higher after cold dissection + hot haemostasis, 3.2 times higher after coblation, 4.3 times higher after diathermy scissors and 5.6 times higher after ultrascision. The risk for RTT was higher for all hot techniques except for coblation, while ultrascision resulted in a lower risk for early PTH. All hot techniques resulted in a higher risk for late PTH compared with cold steel dissection +cold haemostasis. The risk for RTT was higher for all hot techniques except for coblation, while ultrascision resulted in a lower risk for early PTH. An early PTH was associated with an increased risk for late PTH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tomkinson, A; De Martin, S; Gilchrist, C R; Temple, M
To investigate the effect of the type instrumentation used and the age and gender characteristics of patients on postoperative haemorrhage rates following tonsil and adenoid surgery. A retrospective analysis of 13 593 procedures was performed from The Patient Episode Database for Wales between 1 January 1999 and 31 March 2004. National health policy changes created four periods of different instrument usage (reusable, single-use with diathermy, single-use alone, specified single-use with diathermy). These and the age and gender distribution of the patients were examined against four categories of postoperative haemorrhage. Postoperative haemorrhage rates were expressed as the number of complications per operations performed. Primary postoperative haemorrhage that occurred during the initial admission either required a return to theatre [R1] or was managed conservatively [N1]; secondary postoperative haemorrhage that required a return to hospital either returned to theatre [R2] or was managed conservatively [N2], were compared. Primary haemorrhage with return to theatre doubled, from the baseline rate with reusable instruments, from 0.6% (CI 0.5-0.8) to 1.2% (CI 0.7-1.9) when single-use instruments were introduced and remained high at 1.4% (CI 0.9-2.1) after the withdrawal of single-use diathermy. This haemorrhage rate returned to the baseline rate (0.6% CI 0.3-1.0) when specified single-use instruments were introduced. None of the other haemorrhage rates changed significantly throughout the four observation periods. Adenotonsillectomy and tonsillectomy patients have different age and gender patterns. In a univariate analysis, males over the age of 12 years were twice as likely to have haemorrhage with return to theatre than girls of the same age, 3.8% (CI 3.0-4.7) versus 1.7% (CI 1.4-2.1). A significant rise in serious postoperative primary haemorrhage but not secondary haemorrhage was seen following the initial introduction of single-use instruments that reverted
Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish
Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows better planning of surgical procedure. The future holds good for stem cell research, customized OCT, and Zepto (precision pulse capsulotomy). PMID:28440249
Sherman, J A; Davies, H T
We report on the potential uses and benefits of a new development in incisive technology. The harmonic scalpel uses high-frequency mechanical energy to offer the surgeon controlled and precise incision and haemostasis. Vessels up to 2 mm in diameter may be sealed by coaptation with the blade before division. No special training or precautions are required before using this self-cleaning device. It produces considerably less smoke or smell than either diathermy or laser, which reduces the need for instrument exchanges and smoke evacuation. We think that it will be useful for tongue resections and possibly for neck dissections. Copyright 2000 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
Lusthaus, S; Benmeir, P; Neuman, A; Weinberg, A; Wexler, M R
The combined use of chemical peel and dermabrasion of the face was widely accepted since the first reports of DuPont and Horton. We present a refinement of this combined method by introducing the use of a simple diathermy head cleaner (Surgikos, Inc) as a safer method of face abrasion. This disposable device, available at every surgical theater allows a better control of the abrasive tool, permits a more accurate depth of the abrasion, and reduces the incidence of unexpected complications in this combined technique.
Hernández-Da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Béjar-Cornejo, Jorge Francisco
During a pars plana vitrectomy, an unplanned retinotomy in the raphe was performed in a 55-year-old female patient with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Since diathermy and laser therapy were not available at that moment, it was decided to peel off a small graft of the internal limiting membrane adjacent to the retinotomy site which had been previously stained with Brilliant Blue G. The graft was displaced under perfluorocarbon fluids and placed inside the retinotomy. Three weeks after surgery, the apparent closure of the retinotomy was observed clinically. PMID:28101042
Khokhar, Sudarshan Kumar; Pillay, Ganesh; Agarwal, Esha; Mahabir, Manish
Advances in technology have made surgery in children safer and faster. The management of pediatric cataract has made rapid progress in the past decade with the availability of safer anesthesia, newer technique's, more predictable intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation, a better understanding of neurobiology, genetics, amblyopia management, improved IOL designs for preventing visual axis opacification, and adjuvant postoperative care. Modern vitrectomy machines with minimally invasive instruments, radiofrequency, diathermy, and plasma blades help immensely in complicated cases. Preoperative evaluation with ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows better planning of surgical procedure. The future holds good for stem cell research, customized OCT, and Zepto (precision pulse capsulotomy).
Talaat, A M; el-Dibany, M M; el-Garf, A
A study of the effectiveness of physical therapy for patients with myofacial pain dysfunction syndrome was performed. Clinical evaluation of 120 patients revealed marked male preponderance, distribution according to age showed a great prevalence of the third decade, and most common chief complaints were pain and muscle tenderness. Patients were classified randomly into three equal groups treated by muscle relaxant drugs, shortwave diathermy, and ultrasonic therapy, respectively. Regular follow-up was carried out for 6 to 12 months to assess patients' responses to different forms of treatment. Evaluation revealed marked relief of symptoms by the use of physical therapy, and the best results were obtained by the use of ultrasonic therapy.
Murube, J; Murube, E
Occlusion of the lacrimal canaliculi improves the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye. In this review, methods of occlusion are classified as surgical, thermal and tamponade. Surgical methods include dacryocystectomy, canalicular ligature, canalicular offset, canalicular excision, transfer of the punctum to dry dock, punctal tarsorrhaphy and punctal patch. Thermal methods include cautery, diathermy and laser burn. Tamponade methods use absorbable inserts of hydroxypropyl cellulose, gelatin, collagen and catgut, and nonabsorbable inserts of silicone (punctum plugs, canalicular plugs), polyethylene, cyanoacrylate, and others. The characteristics of all these methods are analyzed.
Spontaneous healing of warts should be followed up for at least for six months, preferably one or two years. Salicylic acid products, i.e. anti-wart drops, gel and salicylic acid plaster, are still the cornerstones of the treatment of warts. Approximately four out of five warts are healed up in 1 to 3 months. The therapeutic value of formic acid solution or trichloroacetic acid products is not established. Other options available for the doctor include cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen and in cases of difficult, isolated plantar warts, removal of the lesion with a punch and diathermy which may be applied to selected hand warts also.
Elinder, Karolina; Söderman, Anne-Charlotte Hessén; Stalfors, Joacim; Knutsson, Johan
The objective of this study was to examine factors affecting morbidity after tonsillectomy in children. Data from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden on 18,712 patients who underwent tonsillectomy with or without simultaneous adenoidectomy between 1 and 18 years of age were analysed. This register includes data on sex, gender, surgical indication, and the surgical and haemostasis techniques used for each patient, as well as patient-reported outcomes for haemorrhage, analgesic use and antibiotic use. Comparison of patients who underwent surgery for infection versus upper airway obstruction revealed a significant increase in haemorrhage complications in the infection group. However, no significant difference remained after the adjustments for confounders in multivariable regression analysis. Instead, the increased risk among patients who underwent surgery for infection was mainly attributable to the use of bipolar diathermy and increased patient age. Patients who received surgery for infection reported more days of analgesic use, as well as more unplanned contacts with a health care service provider due to pain, compared with those who underwent surgery for upper airway obstruction. These results remained significant in multivariate analysis. The use of bipolar diathermy for haemostasis resulted in an increased risk, while the use of cold steel surgical instruments, a younger patient age and female sex led to a decreased risk. The surgical and haemostasis techniques used are the most important factors that affect morbidity after tonsillectomy in the paediatric age group. The choice of surgical techniques is of utmost importance for decreasing morbidity in these patients.
England, R J; Lau, M; Ell, S R
The operation of tonsillectomy requires the oral cavity to be held open mechanically in an unconscious patient, and intra-oral instrumentation to occur. Angular cheilitis may arise as a result of this after operation. This can cause morbidity and delay the re-establishment of a normal diet. The aim of this study was to identify what factors increase the likelihood of developing this problem postoperatively. Sixty patients were randomly selected in a prospective manner. Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative variables were recorded. The frequency of development of postoperative angular cheilitis was recorded. The prevalence of the condition was related to the prerecorded variables. Parametric analysis showed that the chance of developing angular cheilitis was directly related to the use of diathermy haemostasis (P = 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio of developing this complication if diathermy was used is 3.5 (95% confidence intervals 0.99, 12.4) and operation difficulty may also be a relevant variable. No other recorded variables were found to be significant.
Ferri, Emanuele; Armato, Enrico; Spinato, Giacomo; Lunghi, Marcello; Tirelli, Giancarlo; Spinato, Roberto
Purpose. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to compare operative factors, postoperative outcomes, and surgical complications of neck dissection (ND) when using the harmonic scalpel (HS) versus conventional haemostasis (CH) (classic technique of tying and knots, resorbable ligature, and bipolar diathermy). Materials and methods. Sixty-one patients who underwent ND with primary head and neck cancer (HNSCC) resection were enrolled in this study and were randomized into two homogeneous groups: CH (conventional haemostasis with classic technique of tying and knots, resorbable ligature, and bipolar diathermy) and HS (haemostasis with harmonic scalpel). Outcomes of the study included operative time, intraoperative blood loss, drainage volume, postoperative pain, hospital stay, and incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results. The use of the HS reduced significantly the operating time, the intraoperative blood loss, the postoperative pain, and the volume of drainage. No significant difference was observed in mean hospital stay and perioperative, and postoperative complications. Conclusion. The HS is a reliable and safe tool for reducing intraoperative blood loss, operative time, volume of drainage and postoperative pain in patients undergoing ND for HNSCC. Multicenter randomized studies need to be done to confirm the advantages of this technique and to evaluate the cost-benefit ratio. PMID:24490063
Hepworth, C C; Kadirkamanathan, S S; Gong, F; Swain, C P
A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. Mesenteric vessels were randomised to treatment with injection sclerotherapy (adrenaline and ethanolamine), bipolar diathermy, or mechanical methods (band, clips, sewing machine, endoloops). The vessels were severed and haemostasis recorded. Injection sclerotherapy and clips failed to stop bleeding from vessels of 1 mm (n = 20) and 2 mm (n = 20). Bipolar diathermy was effective on 8/10 vessels of 2 mm but failed on 3 mm vessels (n = 5). Unstretched elastic bands succeeded on 13/15 vessels of 2 mm but on only 3/10 vessels of 3 mm. The sewing machine achieved haemostasis on 8/10 vessels of 4 mm but failed on 5 mm vessels (n = 5); endoloops were effective on all 5 mm vessels (n = 5). Only mechanical methods were effective on vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter. Some mechanical methods (banding and clips) were less effective than expected and need modification. Thermal and (effective) mechanical methods were significantly (p < 0.01) more effective than injection sclerotherapy. The most effective mechanical methods were significantly more effective (p < 0.01) than thermal or injection on vessels greater than 2 mm.
Imaji, Reisuke; Dewan, Paddy A
In patients with congenital posterior urethral obstruction, transurethral fulguration (TUF) is usually the treatment of choice if the patient is in a stable condition. However, few papers have described the proportion of patients who need further fulguration. We reviewed 83 boys with a congenital obstructive posterior urethral membrane (COPUM) to assess the role of re-do fulguration, as judged by prospective video recordings. Between December 1990 and March 2000, 83 boys (aged from newborn to 15 years) underwent cystourethroscopy for investigation of a urethral anomaly and were found to have a COPUM. TUF was performed endoscopically with a hook diathermy electrode. Two to 3 months later boys who had cauterisation had a further urethroscopy and diathermy as required. Of the 83 membranous lesions in the posterior urethra, 38 were considered severe, 20 moderate, and 21 minor. Four patients had inadequate data to be properly classified. Eighteen (47.4%) of the 38 patients who had a severe obstructive membrane equired further endoscopic intervention to obliterate residual membrane elements. As over 45% of patients who had a severe obstructing membrane needed further fulguration, it is important to follow patients carefully and to repeat the cystourethroscopy.
Stewart, W.; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R.
In 1989 approximately 42,000 questionnaires were mailed to female physical therapists to assess the risk of adverse reproductive effects among those exposed to electromagnetic radiation at radiofrequencies. From the resulting data, the risk of early recognized fetal loss was assessed using a nested case-control design. The cases (1753 miscarriages) were matched to controls (1753 other pregnancies except ectopics) on mothers age at conception and the number of years elapsed between conception and interview. The results of the study indicate that female physical therapists who work with microwave diathermy 6 months prior to the pregnancy and/or during the first trimester were at increased risk of experiencing a recognized early fetal loss, but female physical therapists who work with shortwave diathermy were not at an increased risk. This association was shown to hold even when the mother's age at conception, the number of years elapsed between conception and interview, the number of prior early fetal losses, mother's conditions ever diagnosed, and use of other modalities were controlled. The data also suggest a possible association between exposure to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with an elevated risk of early recognized fetal loss.
This paper briefly reviews the present state of knowledge concerning the various factors involved in the aetiology of tennis elbow and the possible pathological lesions underlying the condition. Two series of cases are considered in greater detail. The first series, consisting of 37 cases, was treated by physical methods only, viz., manipulation, ultrasonic radiation, and short wave diathermy. The results were disappointing since little more than half the number were improved by sonation although subsequent diathermy did improve the majority of those who did not respond. But physical treatment is shown to be time consuming and variable in its results. The second series was treated by local infiltration of the painful area by hydrocortisone and, of the 38 cases, only one proved unsuccessful after one or two injections. The reduction in treatment-time and the fact that no special equipment is necessary are some of the obvious advantages in this form of treatment. The paper concludes with a discussion on the rationale of treatment and some additional aetiological factors which are in favour of an inflammatory, rather than a traumatic, basis for the condition. PMID:14278802
Ahlborg, Liv; Hedman, Leif; Murkes, Daniel; Westman, Bo; Kjellin, Ann; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars
To analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopy performed by consultants in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). This was a prospective cohort study carried out at two community hospitals in Sweden. Thirteen consultants in obstetrics and gynecology were included. They had previously independently performed 10-100 advanced laparoscopies. Participants were tested for visuospatial ability by the Mental Rotations Test version A (MRT-A). After a familiarization session and standardized instruction, all participants subsequently conducted three consecutive virtual tubal occlusions followed by three virtual salpingectomies. Performance in the simulator was measured by Total Time, Score and Ovarian Diathermy Damage. Linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between visuospatial ability and simulated laparoscopic performance. The learning curves in the simulator were assessed in order to interpret the relationship with the visuospatial ability. Visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r=-0.62; p=0.03) and Score (r=0.57; p=0.05) in the medium level of the virtual tubal occlusion. In the technically more advanced virtual salpingectomy the visuospatial ability correlated with Total Time (r=-0.64; p=0.02), Ovarian Diathermy Damage (r=-0.65; p=0.02) and with overall Score (r=0.64; p=0.02). Visuospatial ability appears to be related to the performance of gynecological laparoscopic procedures in a simulator. Testing visuospatial ability might be helpful when designing individual training programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walijee, Hussein; Al-Hussaini, Ali; Harris, Andrew; Owens, David
There are a multitude of techniques to undertake tonsillectomy, with hot techniques such as diathermy and coblation being associated with a higher risk of secondary haemorrhage. The UK National Prospective Tonsillectomy Audit (2004) advocated cold steel dissection and ties to be the gold standard. This prospective observational study investigates the trends in tonsillectomy techniques across Wales in the last decade to establish if surgeons have adhered to this national guidance. Data relating to tonsillectomy were extracted over a 10-year period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012 from the Wales Surgical Instrument Surveillance Programme database. A total of 19,195 patients were included. Time-series analysis using linear regression showed there was an increase in the number of bipolar diathermy tonsillectomies by 84% (Pearson's r = 0.762, p = 0.010) and coblation tonsillectomies by 120% (r = 0.825, p = 0.003). In contrast, there was a fall in the number of cold steel dissection tonsillectomies with ties by 60% (r = −0.939, p < 0.001). This observational study suggests that the use of bipolar and coblation techniques for tonsillectomy has increased. This deviation from national guidance may be due to these techniques being faster with less intraoperative bleeding. Further study for the underlying reasons for the increase in these techniques is warranted. PMID:26693228
Bright, Elizabeth; Vine, Samuel; Wilson, Mark R; Masters, Rich S W; McGrath, John S
To assess face validity, construct validity and the training benefits of a virtual reality TURP simulator. 11 novices (no TURP experience) and 7 experts (>200 TURP's) completed a virtual reality median lobe prostate resection task on the TURPsim™ (Simbionix USA Corp., Cleveland, OH). Performance indicators (percentage of prostate resected (PR), percentage of capsular resection (CR) and time diathermy loop active without tissue contact (TAWC) were recorded via the TURPsim™ and compared between novices and experts to assess construct validity. Verbal comments provided by experts following task completion were used to assess face validity. Repeated attempts of the task by the novices were analysed to assess the training benefits of the TURPsim™. Experts resected a significantly greater percentage of prostate per minute (p < 0.01) and had significantly less active diathermy time without tissue contact (p < 0.01) than novices. After practice, novices were able to perform the simulation more effectively, with significant improvement in all measured parameters. Improvement in performance was noted in novices following repetitive training, as evidenced by improved TAWC scores that were not significantly different from the expert group (p = 0.18). This study has established face and construct validity for the TURPsim™. The potential benefit in using this tool to train novices has also been demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ariyarathenam, A V; Nachimuthu, S; Tang, T Y; Courtney, E D; Harris, S A; Harris, A M
Enterobius vermicularis infestation of the vermiform appendix can mimic appendicitis. In these cases, laparoscopic appendicectomy runs a risk of contamination of the peritoneal cavity with worms. We reviewed our practice to suggest changes that will reduce the release of worms and propose methods to use in case contamination occurs. 498 patients underwent appendicectomy over a sixty-three month period. 13 (2.6%) patients had confirmed E. vermicularis on histology of whom 6 (46%) were performed laparoscopically. These patients' case notes were retrospectively reviewed. The worms were noted intra-operatively during the laparoscopic appendectomies. In 2 cases, where peritoneal cavity contamination with worms occurred, they were dealt with careful diathermy or endoscopic suction. In the other cases, contamination was avoided by simple measures including division of the appendix in a staggered manner whilst maintaining traction, removal of worms using endoscopic suction or diathermy and quick transfer to a specimen bag. We highlight that the symptoms of appendicitis can be due to Enterobius vermicularis infestation without any histological evidence of acute inflammation. Surgeons need to be aware of this possibility during laparoscopic appendicectomy and simple techniques can minimise the risk of contamination. It also enables early diagnosis and treatment without awaiting histological findings. Copyright © 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hill, D S; O'Neill, J K; Powell, R J; Oliver, D W
Surgeons and operating theatre personnel are routinely exposed to the surgical smoke plume generated through thermal tissue destruction. This represents a significant chemical and biological hazard and has been shown to be as mutagenic as cigarette smoke. It has previously been reported that ablation of 1 g of tissue produces a smoke plume with an equivalent mutagenicity to six unfiltered cigarettes. We studied six human and 78 porcine tissue samples to find the mass of tissue ablated during 5 min of monopolar diathermy. The total daily duration of diathermy use in a plastic surgery theatre was electronically recorded over a two-month period. On average the smoke produced daily was equivalent to 27-30 cigarettes. Our survey of smoke extractor use in UK plastic surgery units revealed that only 66% of units had these devices available. The Health and Safety Executive recommend specialist smoke extractor use, however they are not universally utilised. Surgical smoke inhalation is an occupational hazard in the operating department. Our study provides data to quantify this exposure. We hope this evidence can be used together with current legislation to make the use of surgical smoke extractors mandatory to protect all personnel in the operating theatre.
McClusky, D A; Ritter, E M; Lederman, A B; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D
Given the dynamic nature of modern surgical education, determining factors that may improve the efficiency of laparoscopic training is warranted. The objective of this study was to analyze whether perceptual, visuo-spatial, or psychomotor aptitude are related to the amount of training required to reach specific performance-based goals on a virtual reality surgical simulator. Sixteen MS4 medical students participated in an elective skills course intended to train laparoscopic skills. All were tested for perceptual, visuo-spatial, and psychomotor aptitude using previously validated psychological tests. Training involved as many instructor-guided 1-hour sessions as needed to reach performance goals on a custom designed MIST-VR manipulation-diathermy task (Mentice AB, Gothenberg, Sweden). Thirteen subjects reached performance goals by the end of the course. Two were excluded from analysis due to previous experience with the MIST-VR (total n = 11). Perceptual ability (r = -0.76, P = 0.007) and psychomotor skills (r = 0.62, P = 0.04) significantly correlated with the number of trials required. Visuo-spatial ability did not significantly correlate with training duration. The number of trials required to train subjects to performance goals on the MIST-VR manipulation diathermy task is significantly related to perceptual and psychomotor aptitude.
Sanchís Blanco, G; Gutiérrez San Román, C; Bordallo Vázquez, M; Cortés Sáez, J; Barrios Fontoba, J E; Lluna González, J; Esteban Ricós, M J; Vila Carbó, J J
Classic treatment for pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) has been surgical excision; however, less invasive therapeutic alternatives whose aim is the obliteration of the sinus have been described subsequently. The authors present a technical modification of endoscopic sclerosis with diathermy (ESD): continuous infusion of air flow through the flexible endoscope was used to distend the pyriform sinus and facilitate recognition of the fistula opening. The sinus obliteration was performed with a wire guide and diathermy. In the last 15 years, 9 patients were diagnosed of suffering from PSF in our institution. Initial treatment was antibiotics therapy associated in some cases to cervical abscess drainage. Fistulectomy was performed in 4 cases and ESD in 4. The ninth patient received both treatments, performing electrocauterization after a surgical recurrence. Three of the patients who underwent surgery relapsed; none treated by ESD did, or had any complications. In our experience, endoscopic sclerosis with pneumatic distension is a simple technique, reproducible, not invasive and very effective; hence we consider it might become a first line therapy for PSF.
Cristescu, Simona M.; Kiss, Rudolf; te Lintel Hekkert, Sacco; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J. M.; Risby, Terence H.
Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (>30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (>10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene. PMID:25128523
Cristescu, Simona M; Kiss, Rudolf; Hekkert, Sacco te Lintel; Dalby, Miles; Harren, Frans J M; Risby, Terence H; Marczin, Nandor
Pulmonary and systemic organ injury produced by oxidative stress including lipid peroxidation is a fundamental tenet of ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response to cardiac surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but is not routinely measured in a surgically relevant time frame. To initiate a paradigm shift toward noninvasive and real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation, we have explored pulmonary excretion and dynamism of exhaled breath ethylene during cardiac surgery to test the hypothesis that surgical technique and ischemia-reperfusion triggers lipid peroxidation. We have employed laser photoacoustic spectroscopy to measure real-time trace concentrations of ethylene from the patient breath and from the CPB machine. Patients undergoing aortic or mitral valve surgery-requiring CPB (n = 15) or off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB) (n = 7) were studied. Skin and tissue incision by diathermy caused striking (> 30-fold) increases in exhaled ethylene resulting in elevated levels until CPB. Gaseous ethylene in the CPB circuit was raised upon the establishment of CPB (> 10-fold) and decreased over time. Reperfusion of myocardium and lungs did not appear to enhance ethylene levels significantly. During OPCAB surgery, we have observed increased ethylene in 16 of 30 documented reperfusion events associated with coronary and aortic anastomoses. Therefore, novel real-time monitoring of endogenous lipid peroxidation in the intraoperative setting provides unparalleled detail of endogenous and surgery-triggered production of ethylene. Diathermy and unprotected regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are the most significant contributors to increased ethylene.
Ng, Philip CH
Introduction: Single-stream hydro-jet dissection is increasingly used in various laparoscopic procedures, but its use requires special equipment. We describe a simple method for using an irrigation system for saline-jet tissue dissection as a useful adjunct prior to adhesiolysis. Material and Methods: Intraabdominal adhesions prolong laparoscopic procedures, because tissue planes are difficult to identify. We performed multi-jet saline dissection (MSSJ) between 2000 and 2009 in more than 500 patients during laparoscopy involving hernias, gallbladders, appendices, and intestinal obstructions. We use a standard suction irrigation probe, which is attached to a 1-liter saline bag with an inflatable cuff around to create a pressure of 250mm Hg to 300mm Hg. In effect, this is the standard setup generally used for irrigation. After using saline dissection, tissue planes can be better defined and the structures can then be separated. Result and Discussion: Using this method, we have successfully identified tissue planes in spite of dense adhesions, and our conversion rates to open have been reduced dramatically. This method is relatively safer than other modalities of tissue dissection, such as diathermy, ultrasonic, blunt or sharp dissection. The disadvantage is that with tissues saturated with saline it becomes more difficult to use diathermy hemostasis. Care has to be exercised in monitoring the temperature and volume of the fluid used. PMID:20529528
Seaman, R L; Lebovitz, R M
Action potentials of neurons in cat dorsal and posteroventral cochlear nuclei were recorded extracellularly with glass microelectrodes while the head of the cat was exposed to microwave pulses at 915 MHz using a diathermy applicator. Response thresholds to acoustic tones, acoustic clicks, and microwave pulses were determined for auditory units with characteristic frequencies (CFs) from 278 Hz to 39.2 kHz. Tests with pulsatile stimuli were performed for durations of 20-700 mus, principally 20, 70, and 200 mus. Brainstem midline specific absorption rate (SAR) threshold was as small as 11.1 mW/g per pulse, and specific absorption (SA) threshold was a small as 0.6 muJ/g per pulse. Microwave thresholds were generally lower for CF less than 9 kHz, as were most acoustic thresholds. However, microwave threshold was only weakly related to click threshold and CF-tone threshold of each unit.
Theodossiadis, G P
For the treatment of retinal detachment arising from macular holes we do not apply cryotherapy, light-coagulation, or diathermy in the area of the macula. Our method involves merely the fixation of a silastic sponge of 14-17 mm length and 7.5 mm diameter at the posterior part of the eyeball corresponding to macula and along the meridian of 12-6 o'clock axis. The sponge is stretched and then fixed at both ends to the sclera away from the posterior pole. The stretching and fixation of the sponge creates the proper indentation which closes the macular hole. By avoiding energy application we obtain better visual acuity. The present paper describes the results we have had in the last 7 years exclusively using this technique.
Monaghan, J M
The CO2 laser proved to be a vital tool in the development of conservative therapy for the treatment of CIN in the 1980s. In conjunction with colposcopy, the laser has allowed many women to achieve the security of identified and treated CIN with the freedom to live their lives normally, including the achievement of pregnancies. The laser may be used either in the ablative (vaporization) or the cutting mode. This flexibility allows patients with unsatisfactory as well as satisfactory colposcopy to be managed. The results of treatment are universally excellent, with clearance rates of 96% being reported. Complications are rare both in the short and long term, most patients returning fully to normal activities within 4 weeks of therapy. Although the laser is being superceded to some extent by the advent of the loop diathermy technique, it will for years to come represent a valuable and useful tool in the treatment of CIN.
Jacob, Pushpa; Rose, Jeyanth S; Hoshing, Abhishek; Chacko, Geeta
A 16 year old girl presented with irritation and watering of the right eye for 3 months. On examination, the superior perilimbal sclera was ectatic with incarcerated uveal tissue covered by conjunctiva. The conjunctiva showed discreet, yellow white mucoid spots. Excision biopsy of the conjunctiva showed subepithelial spherules of sporangia containing numerous endospores, suggestive of rhinosporidiosis. Diathermy was applied to flatten the staphyloma. The ectatic area was covered with a corneal patch graft. The patient was started on prednisolone acetate eye drops and oral dapsone for 6 months. Corneal graft was well incorporated and conjunctivalized by 3 months. Since the graft was not seen within the palpebral aperture, there was good cosmetic result. The corneal graft had the added advantage of transparency which allowed visualization of the underlying tissue to diagnose early recurrence. There was no recurrence at 6 months.
Kocsis, Akos; Agócs, László; Kostic, Szilárd; Lévay, Bernadett; Török, Klára; Rényi-Vámos, Ferenc
The procedure of the ETS is carried out by two ports, a videothoracoscop and a diathermy instrument are introduced into the pleural cavity. After the identification of the sympathetic chain, the relevant ganglia are divided or excised. 22 patient underwent bilateral video assisted thoracoscopic T2-T4 sympathectomy in a half-way sitting position for palmar and axillary hyperhydrosis between December 2008 and January 2011. 5 male and 17 female patients with a mean age of 39.9 years, (19-63) underwent the above procedure. The mean operation time was 36 minutes, (30-61 minutes). No postoperative complications were detected. The authors believe that two port VATS sympathectomy is a safe and effective method for the treatment of hyperhydrosis even as one day surgical procedure.
Riga, Celia V. Bicknell, Colin D.; Wallace, Daniel; Hamady, Mohamad; Cheshire, Nicholas
To determine the technical feasibility of a novel approach of in-situ fenestration of aortic stent grafts by using a remotely controlled robotic steerable catheter system in the porcine model. A 65-kg pig underwent robot-assisted bilateral antegrade in-situ renal fenestration of an abdominal aortic stent graft with subsequent successful deployment of a bare metal stent into the right renal artery. A 16-mm iliac extension covered stent served as the porcine aortic endograft. Under fluoroscopic guidance, the graft was punctured with a 20-G customized diathermy needle that was introduced and kept in place by the robotic arm. The needle was exchanged for a 4 x 20 mm cutting balloon before successful deployment of the renal stent. Robot-assisted antegrade in-situ fenestration is technically feasible in a large mammalian model. The robotic system enables precise manipulation, stable positioning, and minimum instrumentation of the aorta and its branches while minimizing radiation exposure.
Moni, Monika; Rajda, Jay; Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar
Electrical devices, which have become an integral part of our daily life, may influence the electrical recording of the heart. These disturbances from external sources outside of the heart's own activity produce changes in the electrocardiography (ECG) of the patient, simulating rhythmic disturbances of the heart. Understanding these disturbances is essential in order to better interprete the ECG. Common sources of electrical interferences include external devices, such as alternating current and improper earthing, and surgical procedures like diathermy. We report a case of electrical interference in a patient's ECG due to an inserted bladder stimulator. This case report highlights the importance of precise identification of artefacts in the interpretation of ECG, as well as prompt localisation and elimination of the source of interference.
Onel, D; Sari, H; Dönmez, C
In this prospective study, 145 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis were evaluated for clinical signs and radiologic findings and conservative treatment results. Clinical parameters such as pain on motion, lumbar range of motion, straight leg raising test, deep tendon reflexes, dermatomal sensations, motor functions and neurogenic claudication distances were assessed at admission and were compared after a conservative treatment program was completed. A conservative treatment program consisted of physical therapy (infrared heating, ultrasonic diathermy and active lumbar exercises) and salmon calcitonin. Pain on motion (100%), restriction of extension (77%), limited straight leg raising test (23%), neurogenic claudication (100%), dermatomal sensory impairment (47%), motor deficit (29%), and reflex deficit (40%) were observed in the patients. All aforementioned disturbances except reflex deficits improved by the conservative treatment and results were statistically significant. The authors conclude that this conservative treatment should be the treatment of choice in elderly patients and in those patients without clinical surgical indications.
Golf, Ottmar; Strittmatter, Nicole; Karancsi, Tamas; Pringle, Steven D; Speller, Abigail V M; Mroz, Anna; Kinross, James M; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Jones, Emrys A; Takats, Zoltan
Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) technology allows real time intraoperative tissue classification and the characterization and identification of microorganisms. In order to create spectral libraries for training the classification models, reference data need to be acquired in large quantities as classification accuracy generally improves as a function of number of training samples. In this study, we present an automated high-throughput method for collecting REIMS data from heterogeneous organic tissue. The underlying instrumentation consists of a 2D stage with an additional high-precision z-axis actuator that is equipped with an electrosurgical diathermy-based sampling probe. The approach was validated using samples of human liver with metastases and bacterial strains, cultured on solid medium, belonging to the species P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, and S. aureus. For both sample types, spatially resolved spectral information was obtained that resulted in clearly distinguishable multivariate clustering between the healthy/cancerous liver tissues and between the bacterial species.
Vitale, Valerio; Di Serafino, Marco; Mercogliano, Carmela; Vallone, Gianfranco
A 6-year-old boy with a history of diarrhea and rectal bleeding was referred to our department where he underwent ultrasound (US) examination for suspected inflammatory bowel disease. US showed the presence of an echoic oval mass measuring about 30 × 24 mm located at the transition between the transverse and descending colon. It moved with the peristaltic waves and was attached to the intestinal wall through a pedicle. Color Doppler showed intralesional blood flow. On the basis of these findings, the patient was suspected of having a colon polyp. This diagnosis was confirmed at subsequent colonoscopy. The mass was removed using a diathermy snare, and histologic examination revealed hamartomatous polyp measuring 32 mm.
Kantor, G.; Witters, D.M. Jr.
The paper demonstrates the feasibility of a direct contact diathermy applicator operating at 915 MHz. The design is a circular waveguide internally loaded with two orthogonal pairs of forward ridges to obtain circular polarization and two rear ridges with a probe to excite the guide. Two designs were tested: a 15-cm diameter applicator with one annular choke covered with a microwave absorber and a 25-cm diameter applicator with two additional concentric chokes to limit radiation leakage. In delivering a thermally effective specific absorption rate to a planar phantom, leakage levels were less than 5 mW/sq. cm for applicators in direct contact with the phantom. If there is a small spacing between these applicators and planar phantoms, the net power and associated leakage is excessive.
Nachev, A; Vasilev, N; Ivanov, S; Meziad, S
The authors describe three cases of large vulvar lesions caused by HPV. One patient has condylomata covering entirely the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, the perineum and the perianal area. The lesions made the structures of the vulva hard to distinguish. She was treated with podophyllin, Solcoderm and diathermy without effect. After 2 applications of Laser vaporisation 40 days apart she was completely cured. The other patient had two big squamous papillomata 3.5 by 3.5 cm and 0.5 cm thick situated on both sides of commissura posterior. She was also treated unsuccessfully with Podophyllin, Solcoderm and surgical excision. She was completely cured by a single-stage CO2-laser treatment. The third patient had condylomata acuminata of the labia minora and majora, fossa navicularis, the perineum and the perianal area. No other treatment had been attempted before. After two sessions of laser vaporisation she was cured, too.
Cohen, Jonathan M; Cuckow, Peter; Davies, E Graham
We report two cases of life-threatening haemorrhage from bladder telangiectasia in children with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) who had been treated for lymphoma earlier in life. Whilst oculocutaneous telangiectasiae are an almost universal finding in this syndrome, bladder wall telangiectasis has not been reported previously. Both teenagers presented with recurrent severe haematuria due to extensive bladder telangiectasis. Recurrent haemorrhage was controlled with cystoscopic diathermy treatment. As A-T is a DNA repair disorder, it is possible that chemotherapy-mediated damage to the bladder mucosa prompted the development of clinically significant telangiectasis in these patients. We advocate early cystoscopy for A-T patients who develop haematuria to investigate the cause, and cystodiathermy to pre-emptively treat developing lesions prior to haemodynamically significant haemorrhage.
Nehme, Jean; Sodergren, Mikael Hans; Sugden, Colin; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Gillen, Sonja; Feussner, Huburtus; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara
The NOSCAR white paper lists training as an important step to the safe clinical application of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate whether training novices in either a laparoscopic or endoscopic simulator curriculum would affect performance in a NOTES simulator task. A total of 30 third-year medical undergraduates were recruited. They were randomized to 3 groups: no training (control; n = 10), endoscopy training on a validated colonoscopy simulator protocol (n = 10), and training on a validated laparoscopy simulator curriculum (n = 10). All participants subsequently completed a simulated NOTES task, consisting of 7 steps, on the ELITE (endoscopic-laparoscopic interdisciplinary training entity) model. Performance was assessed as time taken to complete individual steps, overall task time, and number of errors. The endoscopy group was significantly faster than the control group at accessing the peritoneal cavity through the gastric incision (median 27 vs 78 s; P = .015), applying diathermy to the base of the appendix (median 103.5 vs 173 s; P = .014), and navigating to the gallbladder (median 76 vs 169.5 s; P = .049). Endoscopy participants completed the full NOTES procedure in a shorter time than the laparoscopy group (median 863 vs 2074 s; P < .001). This study highlights the importance of endoscopic training for a simulated NOTES task that involves both navigation and resection with operative maneuvers. Although laparoscopic training confers some benefit for operative steps such as applying diathermy to the gallbladder fossa, this was not as beneficial as training in endoscopy.
Hepworth, C; Kadirkamanathan, S; Gong, F; Swain, C
Background and aims—A randomised controlled comparison of haemostatic efficacy of mechanical, injection, and thermal methods of haemostasis was undertaken using canine mesenteric vessels to test the hypothesis that mechanical methods of haemostasis are more effective in controlling haemorrhage than injection or thermal methods. The diameter of arteries in human bleeding ulcers measures up to 3.45 mm; mesenteric vessels up to 5 mm were therefore studied. Methods—Mesenteric vessels were randomised to treatment with injection sclerotherapy (adrenaline and ethanolamine), bipolar diathermy, or mechanical methods (band, clips, sewing machine, endoloops). The vessels were severed and haemostasis recorded. Results—Injection sclerotherapy and clips failed to stop bleeding from vessels of 1 mm (n=20) and 2 mm (n=20). Bipolar diathermy was effective on 8/10 vessels of 2 mm but failed on 3 mm vessels (n=5). Unstretched elastic bands succeeded on 13/15 vessels of 2 mm but on only 3/10 vessels of 3 mm. The sewing machine achieved haemostasis on 8/10 vessels of 4 mm but failed on 5 mm vessels (n=5); endoloops were effective on all 5 mm vessels (n=5). Conclusions—Only mechanical methods were effective on vessels greater than 2 mm in diameter. Some mechanical methods (banding and clips) were less effective than expected and need modification. Thermal and (effective) mechanical methods were significantly (p<0.01) more effective than injection sclerotherapy. The most effective mechanical methods were significantly more effective (p<0.01) than thermal or injection on vessels greater than 2mm. Keywords: endoscopic haemostasis; mesenteric vessels PMID:9616305
Attempted establishment of proficiency levels for laparoscopic performance on a national scale using simulation: the results from the 2004 SAGES Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) learning center study.
Van Sickle, K R; Ritter, E M; McClusky, D A; Lederman, A; Baghai, M; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D
The Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR) has been well validated as a training device for laparoscopic skills. It has been demonstrated that training to a level of proficiency on the simulator significantly improves operating room performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The purpose of this project was to obtain a national standard of proficiency using the MIST-VR based on the performance of experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Surgeons attending the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) 2004 Annual Scientific Meeting who had performed more than 100 laparoscopic procedures volunteered to participate. All the subjects completed a demographic questionnaire assessing laparoscopic and MIST-VR experience in the learning center of the SAGES 2004 meeting. Each subject performed two consecutive trials of the MIST-VR Core Skills 1 program at the medium setting. Each trial involved six basic tasks of increasing difficulty: acquire place (AP), transfer place (TP), traversal (TV), withdrawal insert (WI), diathermy task (DT), and manipulate diathermy (MD). Trial 1 was considered a "warm-up," and trial 2 functioned as the test trial proper. Subject performance was scored for time, errors, and economy of instrument movement for each task, and a cumulative total score was calculated. Trial 2 data are expressed as mean time in seconds in Table 2. Proficiency levels for laparoscopic skills have now been established on a national scale by experienced laparoscopic surgeons using the MIST-VR simulator. Residency programs, training centers, and practicing surgeons can now use these data as guidelines for performance criterion during MIST-VR skills training.
Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J; López-Martín, Elena
Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3 W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.
Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J
Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3 W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. PMID:25649190
Agrawal, Amit; Joshi, Milind; Mishra, Pankaj; Gupta, Rahul; Sanghvi, Beejal; Parelkar, Sandesh
The length of testicular vessels is the main length-limiting factor to bring down the testes in the scrotum. Fowler and Stephen proposed the division of testicular vessels, high and as far from the testes as possible to maintain collateral blood supply, to treat high intra-abdominal testes. Cortesi introduced the diagnostic laparoscopy and Jorden first did the laparoscopic orchiopexy for nonpalpable testes. We had done Fowler-Stephen staged orchiopexy for high intra-abdominal testes, in which both stages were done laparoscopically. In total, 17 testes of 13 patients had undergone laparoscopic staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy. The decision to perform a staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy was based on the distance of the testis from the deep inguinal ring on laparoscopy. If distance was more than 2.5 cm, then we proceeded to a laparoscopic staged Fowler-Stephen orchiopexy. In the first stage, testicular vessels were cauterized by bipolar diathermy. Laparoscopic second-stage Fowler-Stephen procedure was done 6 months after the first stage. Patients were regularly followed, and the success of the procedure was assessed by the size of the testes and the position in the scrotum. Testicular vascularity was assessed by color Doppler ultrasonography. There was no testicular atrophy on second stage and on follow-up. All testes were in the scrotum with good size on follow-up. There was no complication related to laparoscopy. In cases of high intra-abdominal testes, the staged Fowler-Stephen procedure should be the procedure of choice. This procedure yields a high success rate. Transaction of vessels by bipolar diathermy is a very safe, cost-effective method.
Background Ankle joint equinus, or restricted dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), has been linked to a range of pathologies of relevance to clinical practitioners. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the effects of conservative interventions on ankle joint ROM in healthy individuals and athletic populations. Methods Keyword searches of Embase, Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL databases were performed with the final search being run in August 2013. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the effect of a non-surgical intervention on ankle joint dorsiflexion in healthy populations. Studies were quality rated using a standard quality assessment scale. Standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and results were pooled where study methods were homogenous. Results Twenty-three studies met eligibility criteria, with a total of 734 study participants. Results suggest that there is some evidence to support the efficacy of static stretching alone (SMDs: range 0.70 to 1.69) and static stretching in combination with ultrasound (SMDs: range 0.91 to 0.95), diathermy (SMD 1.12), diathermy and ice (SMD 1.16), heel raise exercises (SMDs: range 0.70 to 0.77), superficial moist heat (SMDs: range 0.65 to 0.84) and warm up (SMD 0.87) in improving ankle joint dorsiflexion ROM. Conclusions Some evidence exists to support the efficacy of stretching alone and stretching in combination with other therapies in increasing ankle joint ROM in healthy individuals. There is a paucity of quality evidence to support the efficacy of other non-surgical interventions, thus further research in this area is warranted. PMID:24225348
Guo, Le; Zhang, Minghua; Zeng, Jizhang; Liang, Pengfei; Zhang, Pihong; Huang, Xiaoyuan
In the present study, we aimed to present our experience of an effective two-stage surgical approach using scrotal skin flap for patients with penile skin defects following severe burn injury. A total of 17 patients with penile skin defects underwent scheduled two-stage reconstruction using scrotal skin flap from January 2004 to October 2016. Patients, who were selected as eligible candidates for scrotal flap, exhibited a wide range of indications, including iatrogenic injuries (e.g., diathermy treatment after circumcision), scalding, flame injuries and electrical burns. During the first stage, the denuded penis secondary to debridement was temporally embedded in scrotal skin flap through an intrascrotal tunnel created between the skin and darto's fascia. During the second stage, the skin around the penis was separated and divided from the scrotum after incising the scrotal skin at the ventral penile base. After a mean follow-up of 30 months, the reconstructed penises yielded satisfactory aesthetic outcomes and maintained erectile function. The mean age of patients was 35 years (19-55 years), and the median follow-up was 30 months (12-60 months). No major perioperative complication occurred except for dehiscence of scrotal skin after 2nd stage in three patients, and split-thickness skin grafts were applied for recovery of scrotum. Of 17 cases, 15 patients (88.2%) were in satisfactory cosmetic appearance. All patients regained penile sensation and normal voiding function in standing position. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used to assess sexual function, with 13 patients (76.5%) reported normal erectile function, while the rest 4 reported mild erectile dysfunction. With regards to intercourse satisfaction domain, encouraging results indicated a total of 17 patients resumed sexual intercourse after surgery. In overall satisfaction domain, 11/17 (64.7%) reported a satisfaction from "very" to "moderately" with their overall sex life and
Abu Hashim, Hatem; Foda, Osama; Ghayaty, Essam
Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of metformin plus clomiphene citrate vs. gonadotrophins, laparoscopic ovarian diathermy, aromatase inhibitors, N-acetyl-cysteine and other insulin sensitizers+clomiphene for improving fertility outcomes in women with clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome. PubMed, SCOPUS and CENTRAL databases were searched until April 2014 with the key words: PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin, clomiphene citrate, ovulation induction and pregnancy. The search was limited to articles conducted with humans and published in English. The PRISMA statement was followed. Twelve randomized controlled trials (n = 1411 women) were included. Ovulation and clinical pregnancy rates per woman randomized. Compared with gonadotrophins, the metformin+clomiphene combination resulted in significantly fewer ovulations (odds ratio 0.25; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41; p < 0.00001, 3 trials, I(2) = 85%, n = 323) and pregnancies (odds ratio 0.45; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.75; p = 0.002, 3 trials, I(2) = 0%, n = 323). No significant differences were found when metformin+clomiphene was compared with laparoscopic ovarian diathermy (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.47; p = 0.62, 1 trial, n = 282; odds ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.54; p = 0.88, 2 trials, I(2) = 0%, n = 332, for ovulation and pregnancy rates, respectively). Likewise, no differences were observed in comparison with aromatase inhibitors (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval 0.58-1.34; p = 0.55, 3 trials, I(2) = 3%, n = 409; odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.53-1.36; p = 0.50, 2 trials, n = 309, for ovulation and pregnancy rates, respectively). There is evidence for the superiority of gonadotrophins, but the metformin+clomiphene combination is mainly relevant for clomiphene-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome patients and, if not effective, a next step could be gonadotrophins. More attempts with metformin+clomiphene are only relevant
Amucheazi, A O; Ajuzeiogu, V O; Ezike, H A; Odiakosa, M C; Nwoke, O M; Onyia, E
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To assess the practice of blood conservation. To determine the methods of blood conservation in use, to assess the lower limit for hemoglobin for elective procedures, to determine transfusion trigger point in practice, to find out limitations in practice and ways to improve clinical practice. This was conducted in February 2009. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among the surgeons and anesthetists in practice at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital and National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu. The data gathered was analyzed using the SPSS software. : Of participants who agreed to fill the questionnaires, more than 50% were males. The most prevalent specialty was general surgery (24.2%), followed by orthopedics (22.6%), obstetrics and gynecology (20.7%), and anesthesia (17.7%). The lowest hemoglobin limit before the patient was allowed into the theatre for elective procedures was 10 g/dl while individual transfusion trigger points ranged from hemoglobin of 6 to 10 g/dl. Majority of the doctors would avoid homologous blood transfusion in order to avoid transfusion-related diseases and reaction. Regarding knowledge of blood conservation methods and means of avoiding homologous blood, the use of diathermy was highest (12.33%), followed by preoperative blood donation (11.87%), use of hematinics (10.96%), and tourniquet 10.5%. Also, in practice, diathermy was the most frequently used (18.69%), followed by preoperative blood donation (16.16%), use of tourniquet (15.15%), while the Ovadje cell saver was least with 0.01%. Suggestions from respondents on the ways of limiting transfusion-related problems included optimization of patients (24.5%), improvement of standard of living (17.7%), and personnel training (13.3%). There is an agreement with the global trend geared toward minimizing the use of homologous blood by doctors in these hospitals. However
Jørgensen, L S; Raundahl, U; Knudsen, L L; Aksglaede, K; Søgaard, P
A new aseptic colon resection by an invagination technique is presented. The bowel to be resected is invaginated down into the healthy intestine, and the anastomosis is sutured in one layer of continuous suture before transection by a diathermy wire, placed in the intestinal lumen via the anus. Sections of bowel that cannot be invaginated, e.g., because of a tumor, are first removed by transection between pairs of cable ties, which close the lumen. Twenty dogs were operated on without receiving prophylactic antibiotics. In 10, the intestine was transected between cable ties. An imprint, taken from the anastomosis and subcutis, was cultured. The bacterial count at the anastomosis exceeded 100 in only three cases; in the subcutis, this was the case in one dog. One wound infection developed. Serial barium enemas at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks revealed no anastomotic leakage. One early death because of a total anastomotic dehiscence was encountered, and two dogs were killed because of wound dehiscence and anastomotic stricture, respectively. It is concluded that, in dogs, the method is easily and safely performed, but further experimental studies are needed.
Georgalas, Christos C; Tolley, Neil S; Narula, Anthony
The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein-Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy.
Joshi, HMN; Gosselink, MP; Adusumilli, S; Hompes, R; Cunningham, C; Lindsey, I
Introduction The advantages of single port surgery remain controversial. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of single incision glove port colon resections using a diathermy hook, reusable ports and standard laparoscopic straight instrumentation. Methods Between June 2012 and February 2014, 70 consecutive patients (30 women) underwent a colonic resection using a wound retractor and glove port. Forty patients underwent a right hemicolectomy through the umbilicus and thirty underwent attempted single port resection via an incision in the right rectus sheath (14 high anterior resection, 13 low anterior resection, 3 abdominoperineal resection). Results Sixty-two procedures (89%) were completed without conversion to open or multiport techniques. Four procedures had to be converted and additional ports were needed in four other patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 0%. Complications occurred in six patients (9%). Two cases were R1 while the remainder were R0 with a median nodal harvest of 20 (range: 9–48). The median length of hospital stay was 5 days (range: 3–25 days) (right hemicolectomy: 5 days (range: 3–12 days), left sided resection: 6 days (range: 4–25 days). At a median follow-up of 14 months, no port site hernias were observed. Conclusions Single incision glove port surgery is an appropriate technique for different colorectal cancer resections and has the advantage of being less expensive than surgery with commercial single incision ports. PMID:26263805
Goonewardene, S S; Cahill, D
The da Vinci Xi robot has been introduced as the successor to the Si platform. The promise of the Xi is to open the door to new surgical procedures. For robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)/pelvic surgery, the potential is better vision and longer instruments. How has the Xi impacted on operative and pathological parameters as indicators of surgical performance? This is a comparison of an initial series of 42 RARPs with the Xi system in 2015 with a series using the Si system immediately before Xi uptake in the same calendar year, and an Si series by the same surgeon synchronously as the Xi series using operative time, blood loss, and positive margins as surrogates of surgical performance. Subjectively and objectively, there is a learning curve to Xi uptake in longer operative times but no impact on T2 positive margins which are the most reflective single measure of RARP outcomes. Subjectively, the vision of the Xi is inferior to the Si system, and the integrated diathermy system and automated setup are quirky. All require experience to overcome. There is a learning curve to progress from the Si to Xi da Vinci surgical platforms, but this does not negatively impact the outcome.
Lin, James C.; Kantor, Gideon; Ghods, Abdolhamid
A class of new direct-contact microwave applicators has been developed for diathermy and hyperthermia applications. They consist of three concentric, circular, cylindrical tubes. The inner cylinder may serve as a port for circulating coolant to reduce surface temperature or as a port for introducing ionizing radiation in combination therapy for cancer. The coaxial waveguides formed by the inner and middle cylinders and by the middle and outer cylinders permit the propagation of TE11 and TE21 modes, respectively, for dual-beam, single-frequency use. The combinations give relatively uniform, circularly symmetric heating distributions in the tissue. Heating pattern and leakage level measurements obtained for a 10-cm-diameter dual-beam 2450±50-MHz applicator show that the maximum leakage level at a distance of 5 cm from the surface of the applicator in contact with planar fat-muscle phantoms is less than 4 mW/cm2 for a therapeutic specific absorption rate (SAR) of 235 W/kg. This value corresponds to a net forward power of 26 W. The measured VSWR is about 1.25. The width of the heating pattern is about 4 cm at a depth of 2.2 cm into the simulated muscle, where the SAR is half the maximum, and decreases slowly as the depth into the muscle increases, thus giving it a fairly uniform distribution.
Tan, T C; Black, P M
BEST REMEMBERED FOR his description of the dermatomes in man, Otfrid Foerster was also an adept neurosurgeon and an innovative experimental neurophysiologist. As a neurologist, his contributions included conceptualizing rhizotomy as a cure for spasticity, anterolateral cordotomy for pain, the hyperventilation test in epilepsy, Foerster's syndrome, and the first electrocorticogram of a brain tumor. As a neurosurgeon, Foerster was able to excise intraventricular, hypophyseal, and quadrigeminal lesions and to perform epilepsy surgery under primitive conditions without clips, diathermy, or suction. The results were good and reflected his consummate knowledge of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. As an investigator, Foerster emphasized clinically orientated neurophysiology and was able to forge a link between his observations and proposed methods of treatment. A prolific writer, he published more than 300 scientific monographs encompassing every aspect of the nervous system, including tabes, movement disorders, spasticity, extrapyramidal diseases, dermatomes, epilepsy, cortical localization, brain tumors, peripheral nerve injuries, and pain. Foerster's superb command of languages led to his popularity as a speaker in Europe and North America. Students who flocked to learn from his encyclopedic knowledge and skill were privy to Foerster's legendary hospitality and charm. A man of delicate constitution, he was single-minded in his quest to unravel the mysteries of the nervous system. The inscription "Patriae scientiae inserviendo" or "In the service of science and Fatherland" was chosen by Foerster for his Institute of Neurology and is a fitting memorial to this neurosurgical giant.
Carmignani, Luca; Macchi, Alberto; Ratti, Dario; Finkelberg, Elisabetta; Casellato, Stefano; Bozzini, Giorgio; Maruccia, Serena; Marenghi, Carlo; Picozzi, Stefano
We investigated if an adequate histological diagnosis can be made from tissue after Thulium laser vapo-enucleation of the prostate (ThuVEP) and whether it is comparable to transurethral prostate resection (TURP) tissue findings in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. We analyzed 350 ThuLEP and 100 matched TURP tissue specimens from patients who underwent one of the two procedures between January 2009 and June 2014. Thulium Laser Enucleation of Prostate (ThuVEP) was combined with mechanical morcellation of the resected lobe. Each histological specimen was reviewed by two pathologists. Preoperative prostate ultrasound volume, total serum prostatic specific antigen and postoperative tissue weight were evaluated. Microscopic histological diagnosis was assessed by standard histological techniques and immunohistochemical evaluation. Patients were comparable in terms of age and preoperative total serum prostate specific antigen. Incidental adenocarcinoma and high grade PIN of the prostate were diagnosed in a comparable percent of specimens in the 2 groups (2.5 % in the ThuVEP group versus 3 % in the TURP group). Tissue thermal artifacts induced by the Thulium laser are mostly due to coagulation as that of the conventional monopolar diathermy in TURP. Tissue quality was maintained in the ThuVEP histological specimens. Tissue maintain histological characteristics and proprieties without modification for successive immunoistochemical analysis. The pathologist ability to detect incidental prostate cancer and PIN was maintained even if there is a quoted of vaporized tissue.
Gallagher, A G; Richie, K; McClure, N; McGuigan, J
Objective assessment of psychomotor skills in surgery is now a priority; however, this assessment is difficult to achieve because of measurement difficulties associated with the reliability and validity of assessing surgical skills in vivo and in the laboratory. In this study virtual reality (VR) was used to overcome these problems in the objective psychomotor assessment of senior, junior, and novice laparoscopists. Twelve experienced laparoscopic surgeons (performed >50 Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) procedures), 12 inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons (<10 MAS procedures), and 12 laparoscopic novices (no MAS procedures) participated in the study. Each subject completed all six tasks of the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer; Virtual Reality (MIST VR). In comparison to the other groups, experienced laparoscopic surgeons performed the tasks significantly (p < 0.01) faster, had a lower error rate, were more economic in their movement of surgical instruments and in the use of diathermy. As a group they also showed greater consistency in their performance. MIST VR distinguished between the three groups of laparoscopists. VR provides a useful objective assessment tool for evaluating psychomotor skills for laparoscopic surgery.
Rodd, Caroline D; Velchuru, Vamsi R; Holly-Archer, Frances; Clark, Allan; Pereira, Jerome H
The unit was considering the routine use of diathermy scissors for standard mastectomy surgery. We therefore aimed to assess scientifically the outcome of patients following the use of this instrument in their operation before accepting it as a routine procedure. A single blind randomized control trial compared the outcome of patients undergoing simple mastectomy using either the standard scalpel blade technique or the bipolar cutting scissors technique. Each arm of the trial contained 30 patients. The two primary outcome measures were blood loss intraoperatively and the operating time. There was a significant difference between the two groups, with a statistically significant benefit in the scissors group in terms of the secondary outcome measures of chest wall clearance and skin flap development as assessments of surgical completeness of mastectomy. There is no evidence of any other secondary outcome measures differing between the treatment groups. There is strong evidence that using electric scissors reduces intraoperative blood loss and operating time. There is some evidence that the scissors may provide better surgical completeness of mastectomy.
Schwabe, Kerstin; Krüger, Marcus; Haverich, Axel; Krauss, Joachim K.; Alam, Mesbah
Background Although intercostal nerve injury is one of the major causes for post-thoracotomy pain, the exact mechanisms are still unclear. We sought to evaluate the electro-physiological changes of intercostal nerve injury after thoracotomy in a sheep model. Methods Adult sheep underwent thoracotomy in the sixth intercostal space by employing diathermy to superior border of the seventh rib. In two sheep, ribs were then spread using retractor spreading for a distance of 7 cm for 30 minutes. In the third sheep, thoracotomy was followed by harvesting intercostal muscles including the neurovascular bundle adjacent to inferior edge of the sixth rib. Thereafter, ribs were spread in the same way, but with the muscle flap dangled between the blades for intercostal nerve protection (dangling muscle flap technique). The nerve conduction velocity of the intercostal nerve was recorded before and after incision of intercostal muscles, immediately and 30 minutes after retractor placement and 30 minutes after removal of the retractor. Results In the sheep undergoing conventional thoracotomy, the physiological conductivity of intercostal nerve was completely blocked immediately after retractor placement using the same stimulation intensity or even the supra-threshold intensity. The conduction block persisted for 30 minutes during the retractor placement and further 30 minutes after removal of the retractor. In contrast, intercostal nerve conduction was not impaired throughout the experiment with the dangling muscle flap technique. Conclusions Our experiment provides electro-physiological evidence for intercostal nerve injury after thoracotomy. The injury is primarily attributed to mechanical compression caused by the rib retractor.
Hillman, S K; Delforge, G
The competitive athlete's motivation to return to activity following injury presents a challenge to the sports medicine specialist to utilize the most effective rehabilitation procedures available. Safe return to competition necessitates maximal restoration of those components of physical fitness affected by injury (such as muscular strength, power, endurance). Various forms of superficial heat and cold application, deep heat modalities, and electrical currents have been used to supplement therapeutic exercise in this process. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cold for the control of exercise-induced edema and as a prelude to performance of prescribed exercise have been widely recognized. Although short wave and microwave diathermy appear to have lost much of their appeal as deep tissue heating modalities, the thermal and mechanical effects of ultrasound continue to make it a widely used modality in sports medicine. Adaptation of alternating electrical currents for use in transcutaneous nerve stimulation has given the sports medicine clinician a useful modality for pain management. The more recently developed "Russian" electrical stimulator provides a promising modality for muscle re-education and restoration of muscular strength.
Chipchase, L S; Williams, M T; Robertson, V J
Electrophysical agents (EPAs) are a core part of physiotherapy practice and entry level education. With the increase in the number of EPAs over time, their availability and use in contemporary physiotherapy practice is an important consideration when determining entry level curricula. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain the current availability and usage of EPAs in Australian physiotherapy practice. A purpose-designed questionnaire was mailed to all registered physiotherapists in Australia. A response rate of 27% was obtained (n=3,538). Nonresponder analyses indicated that the results were representative of the total population of Australian physiotherapists. Over 70% of respondents had access to ultrasound, cold packs/ice, heat packs, electrical stimulation for sensory stimulation, and interferential therapy. Two main groups of EPAs were used relatively frequently. The first group was used daily or monthly by 60% of respondents (ultrasound, hot packs, and cold packs/ice), and a second group (electromyographic and pressure biofeedback, interferential therapy, and electrical stimulation for sensory stimulation) was used on a daily or monthly basis by between 30% and 45% of the sample. A group of EPAs, including ultraviolet light, microwave, and shortwave diathermy, was not used by over 90% of the sample. The study has provided contemporary national data on EPA availability and use in Australia.
D'Sylva, Jonathan; Miller, Jordan; Gross, Anita; Burnie, Stephen J; Goldsmith, Charles H; Graham, Nadine; Haines, Ted; Brønfort, Gert; Hoving, Jan L
Manual therapy interventions are often used with or without physical medicine modalities to treat neck pain. This review assessed the effect of 1) manipulation and mobilisation, 2) manipulation, mobilisation and soft tissue work, and 3) manual therapy with physical medicine modalities on pain, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life (QoL), and global perceived effect (GPE) in adults with neck pain. A computerised search for randomised trials was performed up to July 2009. Two or more authors independently selected studies, abstracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Pooled relative risk (RR) and standardised mean differences (SMD) were calculated when possible. We included 19 trials, 37% of which had a low risk of bias. Moderate quality evidence (1 trial, 221 participants) suggested mobilisation, manipulation and soft tissue techniques decrease pain and improved satisfaction when compared to short wave diathermy, and that this treatment combination paired with advice and exercise produces greater improvements in GPE and satisfaction than advice and exercise alone for acute neck pain. Low quality evidence suggests a clinically important benefit favouring mobilisation and manipulation in pain relief [1 meta-analysis, 112 participants: SMD -0.34(95% CI: -0.71, 0.03), improved function and GPE (1 trial, 94 participants) for participants with chronic cervicogenic headache when compared to a control at intermediate and long term follow-up; but no difference when used with various physical medicine modalities.
An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)
Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment). PMID:24089662
An assessment of hazards caused by electromagnetic interaction on humans present near short-wave physiotherapeutic devices of various types including hazards for users of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMD).
Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof
Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both-GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment).
Cresswell, AB; Nageswaran, H; Belgaumkar, A; Kumar, R; Menezes, N; Riga, A; Worthington, TR
Introduction Despite advances in surgery and critical care, severe pancreatitis continues to be associated with a high rate of mortality, which is increased significantly in the presence of infected pancreatic necrosis. Controversy persists around the optimal treatment for such cases, with specialist units variously advocating open necrosectomy, simple percutaneous drainage or one of several minimal access approaches. We describe our technique and outcomes with a two-port laparoscopic retroperitoneal necrosectomy (2P-LRN). Methods Thirteen consecutive patients with proven infected pancreatic necrosis were treated by 2P-LRN over a three-year period in the setting of a specialist hepatopancreatobiliary unit. The median patient age was 46 years (range: 28–87 years) and 10 of the patients were male. Results The median number of procedures required to clear the necrosis was 2 (range: 1–5), with a median time to discharge following the procedure of 44 days (range: 10–135 days). There was no 90-day mortality and the morbidity rate was 38%, consisting of pancreatic fistula (31%) and bleeding (23%). Conclusions Two-port laparoscopic retroperitoneal necrosectomy has been demonstrated to confer similar or better outcomes to other techniques for necrosectomy. It carries the additional advantages of better visualisation, leading to fewer procedures and the opportunity to deploy simple laparoscopic instruments such as diathermy or haemostatic clips. PMID:26264086
Aron, Monish; Goel, Rajiv; Kesarwani, Pawan K; Gupta, Narmada P
Tubeless PNL (percutaneous nephrolithotomy), in a highly selected group of patients, is a modification aimed at reducing the morbidity of PNL. We present a simple technique of achieving tract hemostasis as an adjunct to the safe performance of a tubeless PNL. Charts of 40 consecutive patients who underwent tubeless PNL at our center were reviewed. In the latter 20 consecutive patients, diathermy coagulation of the intrarenal bleeders and tract was done and these patients were compared with the earlier 20 patients in whom fulguration was not done. Drop in hemoglobin, postoperative analgesic requirement, operating time, length of hospitalization and postoperative complications were compared. No statistical difference was found between the operative times and drop in hemoglobin for both the groups. The length of hospitalization and postoperative analgesic requirement were significantly less in the fulguration group. No significant complications were noted in either of the two groups. Fulguration of visible intrarenal and tract bleeders is a simple, safe and effective hemostatic adjunct in patients undergoing tubeless PNL. copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Leaper, David; Ousey, Karen
Surgical site infection (SSI) is a common healthcare-associated infection and complicates up to 10-20% of operations with considerable strain on healthcare resources. Apart from the widely adopted use of appropriate hair removal, antibiotic prophylaxis, avoidance of hypothermia and perioperative glycaemic control to reduce SSIs, this review has considered new research and systematic reviews, and whether their findings should be included in guidelines. The efficacy of preoperative bathing/showering, antibiotic prophylaxis for clean surgery and perioperative oxygen supplementation to reduce the risk of SSI is still in doubt. By contrast, the use of 2% chlorhexidine in alcohol skin preparation, postoperative negative pressure wound therapy and antiseptic surgical dressings do show promise. Antimicrobial sutures in independent meta-analyses were found to reduce the risk of SSI after all classes of surgery (except dirty) whereas the use of wound guards, or diathermy skin incision (compared with scalpel incision), did not. The incidence of SSI after surgery is not falling. Based on this review of published trials and evidence-based systematic reviews some advances might be included into these care bundles. More research is needed together with improved compliance with care bundles.
McHugh, S M; Hill, A D K; Humphreys, H
Approximately five percent of patients who undergo surgery develop surgical site infections (SSIs) which are associated with an extra seven days as an inpatient and with increased postoperative mortality. The competence and technique of the surgeon is considered important in preventing SSI. We have reviewed the evidence on different aspects of surgical technique and its role in preventing SSI. The most recent guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the UK recommend avoiding diathermy for skin incision even though this reduces incision time and blood loss, both associated with lower infection rates. Studies comparing different closure techniques, i.e. continuous versus interrupted sutures, have not found a statistically significant difference in the SSI rate, but using continuous sutures is quicker. For contaminated wounds, the surgical site should be left open for four days to allow for treatment of local infection before subsequent healing by primary intention. Surgical drains should be placed through separate incisions, closed suction drains are preferable to open drains, and all drains should be removed as soon as possible. There are relatively few large studies on the impact of surgical techniques on SSI rates. Larger multicentre prospective studies are required to define what aspects of surgical technique impact on SSI, to better inform surgical practice and support education programmes for surgical trainees. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Is the bipolar vessel sealer device an effective tool in robotic surgery? A retrospective analysis of our experience and a meta-analysis of the literature about different robotic procedures by investigating operative data and post-operative course.
Ortenzi, Monica; Ghiselli, Roberto; Baldarelli, Maddalena; Cardinali, Luca; Guerrieri, Mario
The latest robotic bipolar vessel sealing tools have been described to be effective allowing to perform procedures with reduced blood loss and shorter operative times. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and reliability of these devices applied in different robotic procedures. All robotic operations, between 2014 and 2016, were performed using the EndoWrist One VesselSealer (EWO, Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), a bipolar fully wristed device. Data, including age, gender, body mass index (BMI), were collected. Robot docking time, intraoperative blood loss, robot malfunctioning and overall operative time were analyzed. A meta-analysis of the literature was carried out to point the attention to three different parameters (mean blood loss, operating time and hospital stay) trying to identify how different coagulation devices may affect them. In 73 robotic procedures, the mean operative time was 118.2 minutes (75-125 minutes). Mean hospital stay was four days (2-10 days). There were two post-operative complications (2.74%). The bipolar vessel sealer offers the efficacy of bipolar diathermy and the advantages of a fully wristed instrument. It does not require any change of instruments for coagulation or involvement of the bedside assistant surgeon. These characteristics lead to a reduction in operative time.
Lehmann, J.F.; McDougall, J.A.; Guy, A.W.; Chou, C.K.; Esselman, P.C.; Warren, C.G.
Tissue-substitute models consisting of layers of synthetic, electrically equivalent subcutaneous fat, muscle, and bone shaped in conformation with the normal anatomy are used for rapid determination of distribution of temperature and specific absorption rate throughout the tissues when exposed to electromagnetic radiation. The surfaces of the bisected models are approximated during a short exposure period, then separated and scanned with a thermograph. A method was developed to eliminate the electrical discontinuity at the bisected surfaces while allowing separation and subsequent thermographic scanning. A thin layer of silk screen wetted with propylene glycol saturated with sodium chloride was used at the fat interface and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution was used to wet the screen at the muscle interface to eliminate electrical discontinuity during exposure to 27.12-MHz diathermy. Tests showed that in the presence of an electrical discontinuity the heating pattern was grossly distorted. With the method used, the electrical discontinuity is minimized and the subsequent thermographic scanning reveals that the heating pattern is equivalent to that of an intact model.
Abraham, Cynthia; Seethappan, Vanitha
Introduction Ectopic pregnancy accounts for 1–2% of all pregnancies in the United States. The most common site of implantation for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube. We present the first case describing a recurrent ectopic pregnancy with a fetal heartbeat after ipsilateral salpingectomy that led to tubal rupture. Presentation of case The patient presented with abdominal pain approximately six weeks after her last menstrual period. Seven years prior to presentation, a laparoscopic partial right salpingectomy had been performed for a tubal ectopic pregnancy. Physical exam was significant for diffuse abdominal tenderness and guarding. Ultrasonography revealed a right tubal pregnancy with a fetal pole and a fetal heart rate that was calculated to be 108 beats per minute. Free fluid was also noted. 1.5 l of hemoperitoneum was subsequently evacuated and the right fallopian tube remnant with the ectopic pregnancy was removed. Pathology of the tubal remnant showed immature chorionic villi and fetal parts. Discussion The mechanism by which a recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral salpingectomy occurs is unclear, but is theorized to be secondary to contralateral fertilization and/or tubal recanalization that may occur due to inadequate diathermy. Conclusion Physicians should be aware that ectopic pregnancies may not only occur repeatedly but may also present a typically. We recommend when performing a salpingectomy that efforts be undertaken to minimize the length of the tubal remnant and to assure adequate coagulation of tissue so as to reduce the risk of recurrence. PMID:25594734
Nayak, Lipika; Nayak, Bhagabat; Sinha, Gautam; Khokhar, Sudarshan
An 11-month-old baby girl presented with white reflex in her left eye. On examination, there was a 6.5×5 mm(2)haemangioma present over her face involving on her lower lip. Systemic examinations were within normal limits. The left eye was small, with an axial length of 16.08 mm and had a cataract. Ultrasonography of the left eye was suggestive of the presence of a vascular stalk, persistent hyperplasia of a primary vitreous, or persistent fetal vasculature with vitreous haemorrhage. On MRI, the left eye was small with vitreous haemorrhage. Left eye lens aspiration was performed and the bleeding vascular stalk behind the lens was cauterised with diathermy. The right eye was normal. The patient was diagnosed as having PHACE syndrome (Posterior fossa malformations, Hemangiomas, Arterial anomalies, Coarctation of the aorta and other cardiac defects, and Eye abnormalities syndrome). On follow-up, she was able to follow light with her left eye. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Heimann, H; Jmor, F; Damato, B
The most common intraocular vascular tumours are choroidal haemangiomas, vasoproliferative tumours, and retinal haemangioblastomas. Rarer conditions include cavernous retinal angioma and arteriovenous malformations. Options for ablating the tumour include photodynamic therapy, argon laser photocoagulation, trans-scleral diathermy, cryotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, plaque radiotherapy, and proton beam radiotherapy. Secondary effects are common and include retinal exudates, macular oedema, epiretinal membranes, retinal fibrosis, as well as serous and tractional retinal detachment, which are treated using standard methods (ie, intravitreal anti-angiogenic agents or steroids as well as vitreoretinal procedures, such as epiretinal membrane peeling and release of retinal traction). The detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of vascular tumours and their complications have improved considerably thanks to advances in imaging. These include spectral domain and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT and EDI-OCT, respectively), wide-angle photography and angiography as well as wide-angle fundus autofluorescence. Such novel imaging has provided new diagnostic clues and has profoundly influenced therapeutic strategies so that vascular tumours and secondary effects are now treated concurrently instead of sequentially, enhancing any opportunities for conserving vision and the eye. In this review, we describe how SD-OCT, EDI-OCT, autofluorescence, wide-angle photography and wide-angle angiography have facilitated the evaluation of eyes with the more common vascular tumours, that is, choroidal haemangioma, retinal vasoproliferative tumours, and retinal haemangioblastoma. PMID:23196648
Schroeder, H W; Gaab, M R
The authors' intention is to reduce the invasiveness of intracranial procedures while avoiding traumatization of brain tissue, to decrease the risk of neurological and mental deficits. Intracranial endoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that provides rapid access to the target via small burr holes without the need for brain retraction. Craniotomy as well as microsurgical brain splitting and dissection can often be avoided. Furthermore, because obstructed cerebrospinal fluid pathways can be physiologically restored, the need for shunt placement is eliminated. The ventricular system and subarachnoid spaces provide ideal conditions for the use of an endoscope. Therefore, a variety of disorders, such as hydrocephalus, small intraventricular lesions, and arachnoid and parenchymal cysts can be effectively treated using endoscopic techniques. With the aid of special instruments, laser fibers, and bipolar diathermy, even highly vascularized lesions such as cavernomas may be treated. Moreover, during standard microsurgical procedures, the endoscopic view may provide valuable additional information ("looking around a corner") about the individual anatomy that is not visible with the microscope. In transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, transseptal dissection can be avoided if an endonasal approach is taken. In the depth of the intrasellar space, the extent of tumor removal can be more accurately controlled, especially in larger tumors with para- and suprasellar growth. The combined use of endoscopes and computerized neuronavigation systems increases the accuracy of the approach and provides real-time control of the endoscope tip position and approach trajectory. In the future, the indications for neuroendoscopy will certainly expand with improved technical equipment.
Tambasco, Damiano; Seccia, Annalisa; Bruno, Agostino; Seccia, Antonio
The epulis or giant cell granuloma is a benign tumor of the connective tissue of the gingival mucosa frequent in an advanced period of life but much more rare in its congenital form. We present the case of a female newborn, otherwise healthy, presenting with a giant swelling protruding from her mouth and originating from upper left alveolar ridge. The size of the mass has created great anxiety in parents and pediatricians, however this clinical presentation suggested us a diagnosis of congenital epulis with a differential diagnosis of teratoma. We perform surgical resection of the mass under general anesthesia, through diathermy. There wasn't blood loss and postoperative recovery was uneventful. A definite diagnosis of giant congenital epulis was disclosed by histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Although it has not been yet clarified the etiology of this tumor and the role of hormonal influences on its appearance and development and despite have been reported cases of spontaneous regression, the treatment of choice is the early surgical excision. Nevertheless, particularly in the small centers, due to the rarity and large size of presentation, the diagnosis is often delayed or wrong, exposing so the newborn parents to useless days of waiting and anxiety In our opinion all pediatricians and surgeons should be aware of this malformation and of its simple, safe and effective surgical treatment, considering the excellent prognosis of this rare disease.
Roy, Lisa A.; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S.; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence
Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet’s equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments. PMID:26967269
Crouzier, D; Selek, L; Martz, B-A; Dabouis, V; Arnaud, R; Debouzy, J-C
Metallic materials are well known to strongly interact with electromagnetic fields. While biological effects of such field have been extensively studied, only few works dealt with the interactions of electromagnetic waves with passive metallic device implanted in biological system. Hence only several numerical and phantom simulation studies were focusing on this aspect, whereas no in situ anatomic experiment has been previously performed. In this study the effect of electromagnetic waves on eight different orthopaedic medical devices (six plates from 55 to 318mm length, a total knee and a total hip prosthesis) were explored on six human cadavers. To mimic a random environmental exposure resulting from the most common frequencies band used in domestic environment and medical applications (TV and radio broadcasting, cell phone communication, MRI, diathermy treatment), a multifrequency generator emitting in VHF, UHF, GSM and GCS frequency bands was used. The different medical devices were exposed to an electromagnetic field at 50W/m(2) and 100W/m(2). After 6min exposure, the temperature was measured on three points close to each medical device, and the induced currents were estimated. No significant temperature increase (<0.2°C) was finally detected; beside, a slight induced tension (up to 1.1V) was recorded but would appear too low to induce any biological side effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hemorrhoids and varicose veins are common conditions seen by general practitioners. Both conditions have several treatment modalities for the physician to choose from. Varicose veins are treated with mechanical compression stockings. There are several over-the-counter topical agents available for hemorrhoids. Conservative therapies for both conditions include diet, lifestyle changes, and hydrotherapy which require a high degree of patient compliance to be effective. When conservative hemorrhoid therapy is ineffective, many physicians may choose other non-surgical modalities: injection sclerotherapy, cryotherapy, manual dilation of the anus, infrared photocoagulation, bipolar diathermy, direct current electrocoagulation, or rubber band ligation. Injection sclerotherapy is the non-surgical treatment for primary varicose veins. Non-surgical modalities require physicians to be specially trained, own specialized equipment, and assume associated risks. If a non-surgical approach fails, the patient is often referred to a surgeon. The costly and uncomfortable nature of treatment options often lead a patient to postpone evaluation until aggressive intervention is necessary. Oral dietary supplementation is an attractive addition to the traditional treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins. The loss of vascular integrity is associated with the pathogenesis of both hemorrhoids and varicose veins. Several botanical extracts have been shown to improve microcirculation, capillary flow, and vascular tone, and to strengthen the connective tissue of the perivascular amorphous substrate. Oral supplementation with Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus, Centella asiatica, Hamamelis virginiana, and bioflavonoids may prevent time-consuming, painful, and expensive complications of varicose veins and hemorrhoids.
Management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually spans a woman's reproductive years. While treatment of androgenic symptoms is often a primary concern, periodically, the regimen has to be modified because of a desire for pregnancy. At this time the couple should be evaluated for factors that may contribute to infertility and this should include semen analysis. However, for many, anovulation is likely to be the cause of infertility and ovulation induction is generally required. The premise on which ovulation induction in PCOS is based is two-fold: increasing ovarian exposure to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or correcting hormonal derangements. Potential differences in pathogenesis, evidenced clinically by phenotypic diversity, would suggest that treatment should be individualized. After a brief overview of factors relating to infertility, this paper outlines treatments available for ovulation induction in women with PCOS and provides a critical appraisal of management options. These options include the use of clomiphene citrate, insulin sensitizers, and the combination. Protocols for ovulation induction with FSH injections are outlined and the relative risks of multiple gestation and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome of these various protocols discussed. The use of aromatase inhibitors and the occasional use of glucocorticoids are briefly reviewed, and indications for in vitro fertilization and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy outlined. Pregnancy outcome in this patient population is also discussed.
Wayman, Christina; Duricki, Denise A; Roy, Lisa A; Haenzi, Barbara; Tsai, Shi-Yen; Kartje, Gwendolyn; Beech, John S; Cash, Diana; Moon, Lawrence
Stroke typically occurs in elderly people with a range of comorbidities including carotid (or other arterial) atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. Accordingly, when evaluating therapies for stroke in animals, it is important to select a model with excellent face validity. Ischemic stroke accounts for 80% of all strokes, and the majority of these occur in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), often inducing infarcts that affect the sensorimotor cortex, causing persistent plegia or paresis on the contralateral side of the body. We demonstrate in this video a method for producing ischemic stroke in elderly rats, which causes sustained sensorimotor disability and substantial cortical infarcts. Specifically, we induce permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in elderly female rats by using diathermy forceps to occlude a short segment of this artery. The carotid artery on the ipsilateral side to the lesion was then permanently occluded and the contralateral carotid artery was transiently occluded for 60 min. We measure the infarct size using structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 24 hr and 8 weeks after stroke. In this study, the mean infarct volume was 4.5% ± 2.0% (standard deviation) of the ipsilateral hemisphere at 24 hr (corrected for brain swelling using Gerriet's equation, n = 5). This model is feasible and clinically relevant as it permits the induction of sustained sensorimotor deficits, which is important for the elucidation of pathophysiological mechanisms and novel treatments.
Vilmann, P; Hancke, S; Pless, T; Schell-Hincke, J D; Henriksen, F W
We report here the first case of a one-step endosonography(EUS)-guided pseudocyst drainage. A prototype large channel curved array echo endoscope (Pentax FG-38 UX) and a prototype delivery system for placement of an endoprosthesis was used for the procedure. The delivery system (GIP MedicinTechnik GmbH/Medi-Globe Corporation) consists of a handle part with a piston, a metal ring sheath, a plastic catheter with a diathermy needle and a double pigtail endoprosthesis (8.5 Fr). When mounted on the endoscope the endoprosthesis can be advanced out of the distal end of the endoscope. The introduction of the stent as well as the stent release can be monitored entirely by ultrasound. The procedure was tested in a 76-year-old woman with a pseudocyst measuring 60 mm in diameter located in the tail of the pancreas. The procedure was well tolerated by the patient, and there were no procedural complications. The advantage of a large channel echo endoscope and our new prototype delivery system is that the endoprosthesis can be inserted in to a pancreatic cyst guided exclusively by EUS without exchange of endoscopes, catheters or guide wires. Further studies are warranted.
Steger, Bernhard; Romano, Vito; Kaye, Stephen B
To illustrate the role of corneal angiography in the clinical assessment and surgical treatment of patients with complex corneal neovascularization (CoNV). A case series of 3 patients with CoNV is presented whose management was guided by indocyanine green (ICG) and fluorescein corneal angiography. In the first case, there was recurrent lipid exudation into an intrastromal cleft from CoNV; in the second, there was progressive exudation from CoNV at the graft-host interface; in the third, CoNV was associated with rejection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. In the first case, angiography helped to identify and treat the feeder vessels and stop further leakage. In the second case, it was possible using angiography to differentiate CoNV arising from iris and limbal vasculature enabling angiographic-guided fine-needle diathermy with cessation of exudation. In the third case, angiography revealed the location of CoNV in the host-graft interface after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty, rather than within the corneal stroma. Corneal angiography is a useful diagnostic tool to guide medical and surgical management of CoNV by enabling the localization of vessel depth and topography.
Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Ciupa, R.; Neamtu, C.
Nowadays power microwave radiation is widely used in medical applications as hyperthermia, diathermy or ablation and for scientific applications such as plasma generation, digestion, or as a catalyst in green chemistry. Nevertheless, designing a suitably adapted microwave generator that meets both the scientific and the more restrictive medical criteria remains a difficult task. We present here a simplified approach in designing such a microwave generator, according to the IEC60601 medical standard. The generator, based on a continuous wave (CW) magnetron, is coupled via a TE10 waveguide to feed either a hyperthermia applicator or a reactor chamber. Microwave interactions with the probe (or the tissue) depend strongly on the magnetron's power supply parameters and the impedance match of the entire microwave circuit. Any unmatched elements (magnetron to waveguide, waveguide to applicator, applicator to patient) give rise to a large voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) which loads the generator with a surplus energy, converted to heat. Extra heating of the magnetron will deteriorate the amplitude of the generated microwave power field. We show here that, by using a proprietary patented temperature sensor sheet, we were able to detect and improve the impedance matching of the microwave circuit.
This is a double bind clinical trial which evaluated harmonic scalpel versus bipolar diathermy tonsillectomy The study was conducted at Diyarbakir government hospital, Diyarbakir, Turkey. The study population comprised 144 patients, aged 4-18 years (mean 9 years ± 4.12 SD). All patients underwent tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. The indications for tonsillectomy were obstructive sleep apnea (84 patients [58.3%]) and chronic tonsillitis (60 patients [41.7%]). All 144 patients were randomly divided into two groups: bipolar dissection (81 patients [56.2%] with mean age 8.98 years ± 4.22) and harmonic scalpel (63 patients [43.8%] with mean age 9 years ± 4.02). BD group showed statistically significantly less intraoperative bleeding (< 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference on postoperative day 1 but a statistically significant difference was determined on postoperative days 4, 7 and 14. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques with regard to immediate and delayed bleeding. The mean operative time was the same in both the groups. Bipolar dissection group showed statistically significant less intraoperative bleeding than harmonic scalpel group. An analysis of postoperative pain scores showed that the harmonic scalpel group pain scores are lower than the bipolar dissection group on all recorded days, and no statistically significant complications was seen in both groups. The results of this study indicate that the HS technique is associated with lower pain scores with the same complication rates as the BD technique.
Diathermy is used widely in neurosurgical procedures, mainly for subcutaneous and deeper layers dissection. The use on scalp and skin of other body parts has been precluded by the fear of scar formation and wound dehiscence. One-hundred-and-seventy-seven skin incisions for neurosurgical procedures have been performed using the micro-needle electrocautery scalpel (MES) and the steel scalpel. The elements in this study included: electrocautery generator unit, cutting mode, power, waveform, size and shape of the MES, depth of the incision, the speed of the electrode movement through tissue, amount of blood loss, physical inspection of the wound edges and wound complication. Patients tolerated the procedures well, with no increased risk from the use of the MES. Only two incisions had wound infection and dehiscence. All other patients had usual wound healing. Time taken during skin opening was significantly shorter when using the MES. Blood loss during skin opening was three to five times less when the micro-needle electrocautery scalpel was used. The MES is both safe and useful in neurosurgical procedures. The findings of this study recommend the use of the MES in all neurosurgical procedures, especially when blood loss has significant importance, such as in paediatric cases.
Gorski, P; Goetz, W
For the development of the therapy using electricity as agent two tracks can be identified. On the one side, the indication for applying this therapy was handled more careful, simultaneously the technical equipment was improved. The Polish noble man Alexander Sapieha (1773-1812), the leading natural scientist of the Granddukedom of Warsaw, cooperated with excellent European scientists in order to improve the galvanic battery technologically. Among these scientists were Alexander Volta (1745-1827), the inventor of the battery, and Johann Bartholomaeus Trommsdorff (1770-1837), who is considered as one of the founders of scientific pharmacy in Europe. A. Sapieha supported the publication of galvanic experiences, e.g. in the case of Alexander of Humboldt (1769-1859) by publishing his paper about electric fishes. Sapiehas connections with the scientific centers in Turin and Bologna, Erfurt, Warszaw and Paris accelerated the exchange of information about galvanism. Later the resulting mini-batteries were employed in diathermie, in defibrillators and pacemakers. Details about these connections are presented in the lecture resp. full paper.
Tuschl, H; Neubauer, G; Garn, H; Duftschmid, K; Winker, N; Brusl, H
The present study recorded a considerable excess of recommended exposure limits in the vicinity of shortwave diathermy devices used for medical treatment of patients. Different kinds of field probes were used to measure electric and magnetic field strength and the whole body exposure of medical personnel operating shortwave, decimeter wave and microwave units was calculated. To investigate the influence of chronic exposure on the immune system of operators, blood was sampled from physiotherapists working at the above mentioned devices. Eighteen exposed and thirteen control persons, matched by sex and age, were examined. Total leucocyte and lymphocyte counts were performed and leucocytic subpopulations determined by flow cytometry and monoclonal antibodies against surface antigens. In addition, to quantify subpopulations of immunocompetent cells, the activity of lymphocytes was measured. Lymphocytes were stimulated by mitogen phytohemagglutinin and their proliferation measured by a flow cytometric method. No statistically significant differences between the control and exposed persons were found. In both study groups all immune parameters were within normal ranges.
Dua, Rajan; Chakraborty, Suman
Knowledge of heat transfer in biological bodies has many therapeutic applications involving either raising or lowering of temperature, and often requires precise monitoring of the spatial distribution of thermal histories that are produced during a treatment protocol. Extremes of temperature into the freezing and burning ranges are useful in surgical procedures for selective killing and/or removal of target tissues. For example, the primary objective of hyperthermia is to raise the temperature of the diseased tissue to a therapeutic value, typically 41- 44 degrees C, and then thermally destroy it. The present paper therefore aims to develop a mathematical model for effective simulation of photo--thermal interactions between laser rays and biological tissues. In particular, damage of biological tissues when subjected to single point laser diathermy is numerically investigated using a unique enthalpy-based approach for modeling multiple phase change, (namely, melting of fat and vaporization of water content of the tissues) and the associated release/absorption of latent heat in conjunction with unsteady state heat conduction mechanisms. The governing equations of bio-heat transfer coupled with initial and boundary conditions are solved using a finite volume approach in conjunction with line by a line tri-diagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) solver. Temperature responses of tissues subject to laser heating are quantitatively investigated in detail using the present model, and the resultant solutions are expected to be immensely useful in a variety of Bio-thermal practices in medicine and surgery.
Taylor, M J; Fisk, N M
Fetal abnormality is more common in multiple than in singleton pregnancies. This, together with the requirement to consider the risks with at least two babies to sample correctly each fetus and to undertake accurately-targeted selective termination, amounts to a major challenge for obstetricians involved in prenatal diagnosis. Early determination of chorionicity should be routine, since this influences not only the genetic risks but also the invasive procedure chosen for karyotyping or genotyping. Assessment of nuchal translucency identifies individual fetuses at risk of trisomy. Contrary to expectation, invasive procedures in twins appear to have procedure-related miscarriage rates that are similar to those in singletons. Instead, contamination remains a concern at chorionic villus sampling. Elective late karyotyping of fetuses may have a role in some countries. Whereas management options for discordant fetal abnormality are relatively straightforward in dichorionic pregnancies, monochorionic pregnancies are at risk of co-twin sequelae after any single intrauterine death. Techniques have now been developed to occlude completely the cord vasculature by laser and/or ultrasound guided bipolar diathermy. Given the complexities associated with prenatal diagnosis, all invasive procedures in multiple pregnancies should be performed in tertiary referral centres. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
Magaña-Reyes, J; Domínguez-Gasca, L G; García-Luna, A; Domínguez-Carrillo, L G
Traumatic iliacus muscle injury is rare; it is usually caused by trauma or intense exercise involving the pelvic girdle; it can produce a hematoma with femoral nerve neuropathy. Spontaneous muscle hematomas occur in patients with coagulation disorders. A 45-year-old male with 18 days of evolution, with an intense pain in the right buttock, groin and iliac fossa, with an inability for hip flexion and ambulation caused by inadequate exercise (supine double leg lifts). On the physical examination: intense pain with bending and/or internal rotation of the right hip, positive Thomas maneuver, quadriceps rated 3/5; area of paresthesia in the right femoral nerve territory. Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed: right iliacus muscle tear with blood between its fibers. Initial treatment was rest and analgesics for eight days and gradual extension of the hip, axillary crutches with partial weight bearing and diathermy on the right abdominal lower quadrant, active hip exercises, bicycle and right quadriceps strengthening. The evolution was satisfactory, with full recovery in six weeks.
Abraham, Cynthia; Seethappan, Vanitha
Ectopic pregnancy accounts for 1-2% of all pregnancies in the United States. The most common site of implantation for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube. We present the first case describing a recurrent ectopic pregnancy with a fetal heartbeat after ipsilateral salpingectomy that led to tubal rupture. The patient presented with abdominal pain approximately six weeks after her last menstrual period. Seven years prior to presentation, a laparoscopic partial right salpingectomy had been performed for a tubal ectopic pregnancy. Physical exam was significant for diffuse abdominal tenderness and guarding. Ultrasonography revealed a right tubal pregnancy with a fetal pole and a fetal heart rate that was calculated to be 108 beats per minute. Free fluid was also noted. 1.5l of hemoperitoneum was subsequently evacuated and the right fallopian tube remnant with the ectopic pregnancy was removed. Pathology of the tubal remnant showed immature chorionic villi and fetal parts. The mechanism by which a recurrent ectopic pregnancy after ipsilateral salpingectomy occurs is unclear, but is theorized to be secondary to contralateral fertilization and/or tubal recanalization that may occur due to inadequate diathermy. Physicians should be aware that ectopic pregnancies may not only occur repeatedly but may also present a typically. We recommend when performing a salpingectomy that efforts be undertaken to minimize the length of the tubal remnant and to assure adequate coagulation of tissue so as to reduce the risk of recurrence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kociuga, Natalia; Kociuga, Jerzy; Woldańska-Okońska, Marta; Kubsik, Anna
Calcaneal spur is one of the most common disorders associated with foot pain. According to appearance of pain in each step during the day, it is important to find the most effective method of treatment. This article is a review of medical reports about non-operative treatment method. It shows that ultrasound therapy was the most common physical intervetion used so far, and mostly occurs to be effective. However one of the comparative studies improves higher efficiency of phonopheresis. Another comparative study, shows higher efficiency of combined ultrasound and laser therapy, than exclusive laser therapy. There haven't been found any articles that would evaluate efficacy of electrotherapy and short wave diathermy (electric field) in the treatment of mentioned disorder. Studies that describe the effect of ESWT treatment were also analyzed in this article, and all of them confirm its effectiveness in heel spur therapy, showing no side-effects. Cryotherapy also causes positive effect in treatment of this disorder. However Cryoultrasound therapy that uses the energy of two interconnected terapeutic techniques which is cryotherapy and ultrasounds, proved to be more effective.
Gray, R J; Quayle, A A; Hall, C A; Schofield, M A
Temporomandibular joint pain dysfunction syndrome (TMJPDS) comprises of a constellation of signs and symptoms including joint tenderness and pain on function, restricted jaw movement, clicking, jaw locking and tenderness in the muscles of mastication. Headache may also be a feature. Physiotherapy is commonly employed in the treatment of this condition but there is little published material reporting the relative efficacy of the different types of treatment currently available. Further, no attempt seems to have been made to compare the costs of physiotherapy with other forms of treatment of this disorder such as occlusal splint therapy. This paper reports a comparative evaluation of four different physiotherapy treatments and placebo in the management of TMJPDS and comments on their cost benefit aspects compared with that of splint therapy. The four methods of physiotherapy tested were short-wave diathermy, megapulse, ultrasound and soft laser. There was no statistically significant difference in success rate between any of the four tested (range 70.4-77.7%) although each individually was significantly better than placebo treatment. The time of improvement appeared to vary between the four methods.
Yener, Oktay; Demir, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Yıgıtbaşı, Rafet; Atak, Tuba
The aim of this study was to determine whether conventional hemostasis (CH) or the harmonic scalpel (HS) results in shorter operative times for thyroidectomy and to evaluate the incidence of postoperative complications with each approach. In this study, 85 consecutive patients undergone open thyroidectomy were randomized into two groups: group CH (conventional hemostasis with classic technique of tying and knots, resorbable ligature, bipolar diathermy) and group HS (harmonic scalpel). Demographics, pathological characteristics, thyroid size, operative time, blood loss, and complications using the Student's t-test and χ (2)-test. The two groups were similar regarding age and sex. There were no intraoperative complications. There was no difference between the two techniques regarding the amount of blood loss for different procedures. No significant differences were found between the two groups concerning mean thyroid weight and mean hospital stay (2.2 days in HS vs. 3.7 in CH; P > 0.05). The mean operative time was significantly shorter in the HS group (47.2 min vs. 79.2 min; P < 0.001). Two (4.7 %) transient recurrent laryngeal nerve palsies were observed in the CH group and no one (0 %) in the HS group. No patient developed permanent palsy. Postoperative transient hypocalcemia occurred more frequently in the CH group (21/43, 48 % vs. 7/42, 16 %). In patients undergoing thyroidectomy, HS is a reliable and safe tool. Comparing with CH techniques, its use reduces operative times, postoperative pain, drainage volume, and transient hypocalcemia.
Maschuw, K; Schlosser, K; Kupietz, E; Slater, E P; Weyers, P; Hassan, I
Virtual reality (VR) training in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is feasible in surgical residency and beneficial for the performance of MIS by surgical trainees. Research on stress-coping of surgical trainees indicates the additional impact of soft skills on VR performance in the surgical curriculum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of structured VR training and soft skills on VR performance of trainees. The study was designed as a single-center randomized controlled trial. Fifty first-year surgical residents with limited experience in MIS ("camera navigation" in laparoscopic cholecystectomy only) were randomized for either 3 months of VR training or no training. Basic VR performance and defined soft skills (self-efficacy, stress-coping, and motivation) were assessed prior to randomization using basic modules of the VR simulator LapSim(®) and standardized psychological questionnaires. Three months after randomization VR performance was reassessed. Outcome measurement was based on the results derived from the most complex of the basic VR modules ("diathermy cutting") as the primary end point. A correlation analysis of the VR end-point performance and the psychological scores was done in both groups. Structured VR training enhanced VR performance of surgical trainees. An additional correlation to high motivational states (P < 0.05) was found. Low levels of self-efficacy and negative stress-coping were related to poor VR performance in the untrained control group (P < 0.05). This correlation was absent in the trained intervention group (P > 0.05). Low self-efficacy and negative stress-coping strategies seem to predict poor VR performance. However, structured training along with high motivational states is likely to balance out this impairment.
Rosario, Jose Luis; Foletto, Álexis
A lack of muscle flexibility affects the functionality of the human body, making it difficult to carry out certain activities of daily living. The aim of the present study was to compare the technique of passive static stretching on hamstring muscles in isolation, or combined with heating techniques and different application times. Fifty women were randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 10 each): The Microwave Diathermy Group had the hamstrings heated by microwave before stretching; Treadmill Group, in which warm-up walking was performed before stretching; 30-Second Group, in which 30 s of stretching was performed; 10-Minute Group, which involved stretching for 10 min and Control Group. In all groups, the leg extension range of motion was assessed, and the flexibility by the third finger-ground test was performed before and after application. The individuals in the experimental groups performed three stretching sessions on three consecutive days. All statistical analysis was performed with p ≤ 0.05. The results showed that all treatments were effective compared to the control group. The Treadmill Group and the 10-Minute group were superior for an acute effect (soon after the stretch--related to a decreased muscular viscoelasticity). The 10-Minute Group was the most effective for the chronic effect (long lasting--related to increased numbers of sarcomeres). A 10-minute stretch, when performed over four subsequent days, is suggested for faster increase in flexibility. The results could suggest a systemic warming (such as the one provided by a treadmill workout) before stretching for an acute gain of flexibility in the same day. It was possible to identify the inefficiencies associated with the use of microwaves in terms of stretching to gain flexibility. In fact, the values recorded were similar to stretching without any heat at all.
Introduction The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein–Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 10 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy. PMID:21718574
Yu, Hainan; Côté, Pierre; Shearer, Heather M; Wong, Jessica J; Sutton, Deborah A; Randhawa, Kristi A; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Southerst, Danielle; Mior, Silvano A; Ameis, Arthur; Stupar, Maja; Nordin, Margareta; van der Velde, Gabreille M; Carroll, Linda; Jacobs, Craig L; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne L; Abdulla, Sean; Shergill, Yaadwinder
Shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal condition in the general population. Passive physical modalities are commonly used to treat shoulder pain. However, previous systematic reviews reported conflicting results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of passive physical modalities for the management of soft tissue injuries of the shoulder. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from January 1, 1990, to April 18, 2013. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort and case-control studies were eligible. Random pairs of independent reviewers screened 1,470 of 1,760 retrieved articles after removing 290 duplicates. Twenty-two articles were eligible for critical appraisal. Eligible studies were critically appraised using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Of those, 11 studies had a low risk of bias. The lead author extracted data from low risk of bias studies and built evidence tables. A second reviewer independently checked the extracted data. The findings of studies with a low risk of bias were synthesized according to principles of best evidence synthesis. Pretensioned tape, ultrasound, and interferential current were found to be noneffective for managing shoulder pain. However, diathermy and corticosteroid injections led to similar outcomes. Low-level laser therapy provided short-term pain reduction for subacromial impingement syndrome. Extracorporeal shock-wave therapy was not effective for subacromial impingement syndrome but provided benefits for persistent shoulder calcific tendinitis. Non-English studies were excluded. Most passive physical modalities do not benefit patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. However, low-level laser therapy is more effective than placebo or ultrasound for subacromial impingement syndrome. Similarly, shock-wave therapy is more effective than sham therapy for persistent shoulder calcific tendinitis. © 2015 American
Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Nishida, Toshirou; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Souma, Yoshihito; Hara, Johji; Yamada, Takuya; Yoshio, Toshiyuki; Tsutsui, Tateki; Yokoi, Takeshi; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro
Transvaginal endoscopic gastric surgery is one of the cutting edge procedures in the field of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). Its feasibility has been shown sporadically in bariatric cases but not in oncologic conditions. The authors report their early experience with hybrid transvaginal NOTES gastrectomy for gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs). Two female patients with SMTs in the distal stomach participated in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. Surgical indication was determined according to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) sarcoma guidelines, and the study adhered to the following oncologic principles: no direct handling of the lesion, full-thickness resection, and reasonable surgical margins. The study protocol required a minimum of two laparoscopic ports to ensure procedural safety and aforementioned oncologic appropriateness. Under laparoscopic guidance, a transvaginal route was created and secured with a 50-cm flexible overtube. A gastrointestinal endoscope was introduced, and the perigastric dissection was performed using an insulation-tipped diathermy knife (IT knife) and needle knife. This process was assisted with two laparoscopic graspers. After perigastric mobilization, the transvaginal endoscope was replaced with a digital stapling device, and partial gastrectomy was accomplished. The resected specimen was isolated and delivered through the vagina, and the vaginal wound was closed under direct vision. Outcomes measurements included surgical results, pain scoring, and clinical outcomes. Both operations were completed successfully in compliance with the aforementioned oncologic principles. The operating time was 365 and 170 min, respectively. The estimated blood loss was negligible. A minilaparotomy for specimen delivery was successfully avoided in both cases. A minimal vaginal incision was added for one patient at retrieval. Postoperatively, both patients reported no pain and recovered rapidly
Seow-En, I; Seow-Choen, F; Koh, P K
The aim of this retrospective study was to assess our experience of 41 patients with anal fistulae treated with video-assisted anal fistula treatment (VAAFT). Forty-one consecutive patients with cryptoglandular anal fistulae were included. Patients with low intersphincteric anal fistulae or those with gross perineal abscess were excluded. Eleven (27 %) patients had undergone prior fistula surgery with 5 (12 %) having had three or more previous operations. All patients underwent the diagnostic phase as well as diathermy and curettage of the fistula tracts during VAAFT. Primary healing rate was 70.7 % at a median follow-up of 34 months. Twelve patients recurred or did not heal and underwent a repeat VAAFT procedure utilising various methods of dealing with the internal opening. There was a secondary healing rate of 83 % with two recurrences. Overall, stapling of the internal opening had a 22 % recurrence rate, while anorectal advancement flap had a 75 % failure rate. There was no recurrence seen in six cases after using the over-the-scope-clip (OTSC(®)) system to secure the internal opening. VAAFT is useful in the identification of fistula tracts and enables closure of the internal opening. Adequate closure is essential with the method used to close large or fibrotic internal openings being the determining factor for success or failure. The OTSC system delivered the most consistent result without leaving a substantial perianal wound. Ensuring thorough curettage and drainage of the tract during VAAFT is also important to facilitate healing. We believe that this understanding will bring about a decrease in the high recurrence rates currently seen in many series of anal fistulae.
Rathinam, Sridhar; Nanjaiah, Prakash; Sivalingam, Sivakumar; Rajesh, Pala B
Background Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy (VATS) is an established minimally invasive procedure for thoracic sympathetic blockade in patients with hyperhidrosis, facial flushing and intractable angina. Various techniques using clips, diathermy and excision are used to perform sympathectomy. We present our technique of excision of the sympathetic chain with histological proof and the analysis of the early and late outcomes. Methods We evaluated 200 procedures in 100 consecutive patients, who underwent Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy by a single surgeon in our centre between September 1996 to March 2007. All patients had maximum medical therapy prior to surgery and were divided into 3 groups based on indications, Group 1(hyperhidrosis: 48 patients), Group 2 (facial flushing: 26 patients) and Group 3(intractable angina: 26 patients). The demography and severity of symptoms for each group were analysed. The endpoints were success rate, 30 day mortality, complications and patient's satisfaction. Results 99 patients had bilateral VATS sympathectomy and 1 had unilateral sympathectomy. The conversion rate to open was 1(1%). All patients had successful removal of ganglia proven histologically with no perioperative mortality in our series. The complications included pneumothorax (5%), acute coronary syndrome (2%), transient Horner's syndrome (1%), transient paraesthesia (1%), wound infection (4%), compensatory hyperhidrosis (18%), residual flushing (3%) and wound pain (5%). There were five late deaths in the intractable angina group at a mean follow up of 36.7 months. Overall success rates of abolishing the symptoms were 96.3%, 87.5% and 95.2% for Group 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Conclusion Excision of the sympathetic chain with histological confirmation during VATS sympathectomy is a safe and effective method in treating hyperhidrosis, facial flushing and intractable angina with good long term results and satisfaction. PMID:18700966
Black, SA; Taylor, FGM; Russell, MH; Ariga, R; Thomas, MH
INTRODUCTION Thorascopic sympathectomy is accepted as an effective treatment for palmar hyperhidrosis, facial blushing and to a lesser extent for digital ischaemia and axillary hyperhidrosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data were collected retrospectively on patients undergoing thorascopic sympathectomy at St Peter's Hospital between 1987 and 2006. Patients were followed up by telephone interview. RESULTS A total of 233 thorascopic sympathectomy procedures were performed by a single operator in 123 patients. Ages ranged from 9–71 years and 75 were women. In patients, 105 had a bilateral and 13 a unilateral procedure, 5 patients had a bilateral procedure performed in two stages. In 6 upper limbs, the procedure could not be done. Overall, 110 patients (90%) had the procedure performed for palmar hyperhidrosis, 8 (6%) for facial blushing and in 5 (4%) patients the operation was performed for digital ischaemia with tissue loss. There were no deaths and all patients were discharged on day 1 following the procedure. Complications included bleeding (2), pulmonary oedema (1) and failed procedure (2); however, no incidences of Horner's syndrome occurred. Only 40 of 123 (32.5%) patients gave follow-up information. Of this small group, 33 of 40 (83%) were cured, 4 of 40 (10%) were better, 2 of 40 (5%) were unchanged and 1 patient was worse. Only 22 out of 40 (55%) of these patients were troubled by compensatory sweating, with only 4 of 40 (10%) reporting this as a major problem. CONCLUSIONS Thorascopic sympathectomy is safe and can be carried out as a single bilateral procedure in the majority of cases. The laser allows the use of a single port, requires less dissection than surgical or clipping techniques, is more precise than diathermy and may be less likely to cause a Horner's syndrome. PMID:18325216
Haik, M N; Alburquerque-Sendín, F; Moreira, R F C; Pires, E D; Camargo, P R
To summarise the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of physical therapy on pain, function and range of motion in individuals with subacromial pain syndrome (SAPS). Systematic review. PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, Ibecs and Scielo databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating physical therapy modalities for SAPS on pain, function/disability or range of motion were included. 64 high-quality RCTs were included. Exercise therapy provided high evidence of being as effective as surgery intervention and better than no treatment or placebo treatment to improve pain, function and range of motion in the short, mid and long terms. The combination of mobilisation and exercises provided high evidence to decrease pain and improve function in the short term. There is limited evidence for improvements on the outcomes with the isolated application of manual therapy. High level of evidence was synthesised regarding the lack of beneficial effects of physical resources such as low-level laser, ultrasound and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on pain, function or range of motion in the treatment of SAPS. There is limited evidence for microwave diathermy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. There is moderate evidence to no benefits with taping in the short term. Effects of diacutaneous fibrolysis and acupuncture are not well established yet. Exercise therapy should be the first-line treatment to improve pain, function and range of motion. The addition of mobilisations to exercises may accelerate reduction of pain in the short term. Low-level laser therapy, PEMF and taping should not be recommended. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Ghaly, Ramsis F.; Tverdohleb, Tatiana; Candido, Kenneth D.; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick
Background: Spinal cord stimulation is currently approved to treat chronic intractable pain of the trunk and limbs. However, such implantable electronic devices are vulnerable to external electrical currents and magnetic fields. Within the hospitals and modern operating rooms (ORs), there is an abundance of electrical devices and other types of equipment that could interfere with such devices. Despite the increasing number of patients with neuromodulation implantable devices, there are no written guidelines available or consensus of cautions for such patients undergoing unrelated surgery. Case Descriptions: A 60-year-old female with a permanent St. Jude's spinal cord stimulator (SCS) presented for open total abdominal hysterectomy. Both the anesthesia and gynecology staffs were aware of the device presence, but were unaware of any precautions regarding intraoperative management. The device was found to be nonmagnetic resonance imaging compatible, and bipolar cautery was used instead of monopolar cautery. A 59-year-old female with a 9-year-old permanent Medtronic SCS, presented for right total hip arthroplasty. The device was switched off prior to entering the OR, bipolar cautery was used, and grounding pads were placed away from her battery site. In each case, the manufacturer's representative was contacted preoperative. Both surgeries proceeded uneventfully. Conclusions: The Food and Drug Administration safety information manual warns about the use of diathermy, concomitant implanted stimulation devices, lithotripsy, external defibrillation, radiation therapy, ultrasonic scanning, and high-output ultrasound, all of which can lead to permanent implant damage if not turned off prior to undertaking procedures. Lack of uniform guidelines makes intraoperative management, as well as remote anesthesia care of patients with previously implanted SCSs unsafe. PMID:26958424
Koenig, Yanyan; Bock, Felix; Kruse, Friedrich E; Stock, Katja; Cursiefen, Claus
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of combined feeder vessel coagulation and topical antiangiogenic therapy using bevacizumab in the treatment of mature corneal blood vessels. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with mature corneal neovascularization (NV) due to different underlying corneal diseases underwent fine-needle feeder vessel coagulation by diathermy and were treated postoperatively for up to 4 weeks with topical bevacizumab eye drops (containing 5 mg/mL bevacizumab) 5 times a day. Nine patients received an additional subconjunctival bevacizumab injection at the time of cautery. The mean duration of follow-up was 276 ± 147.3 days (range, 29-464 days). Regression of the feeder vessel was observed in 14 eyes. The vascularized area was reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Combined subconjunctival and eye drop antivascular endothelial growth factor treatment was significantly more effective in reducing the vascularized area compared with antivascular endothelial growth factor eye drop therapy alone (P < 0.05). Five patients (5 eyes) needed a second treatment. Thirteen patients (13 eyes) receiving topical bevacizumab treatment combined with feeder vessel coagulation showed stable visual acuity. Two patients had improved visual acuity. One patient had enlarged area of lipid keratopathy despite successful treatment of corneal NV and thus decreased visual acuity. Overall, there was a nonsignificant improvement of best-corrected visual acuity (P > 0.05). In this pilot study, fine-needle feeder vessel coagulation combined with topical bevacizumab application for treatment of mature corneal NV seemed to be a well-tolerated new treatment option to regress corneal NV. This may not only improve corneal transparency but also "preconditions" such a cornea for future keratoplasty.
Evers, Judith; Jones, James F X; O'Connell, P Ronan
Fecal incontinence is a common disorder, but its pathophysiology is not completely understood. The aim of this review is to present animal models that have a place in the study of fecal incontinence. A literature review following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines performed in August 2016 revealed 50 articles of interest. Search terms included fecal/faecal incontinence and animal model or specific species. Articles not describing an animal model, in vitro studies, veterinary literature, reviews, and non-English articles were excluded. The articles described models in rats (n = 31), dogs (n = 8), rabbits (n = 7), and pigs (n = 4). Different fecal incontinence etiologies were modeled, including anal sphincter lesions (33 articles) ranging from a single anal sphincter cut to destruction of 50% of the anal sphincter by sharp dissection, electrocautery, or diathermy. Neuropathic fecal incontinence (12 articles) was achieved by complete or incomplete pudendal, pelvic, or inferior rectal nerve damage. Mixed fecal incontinence (5 articles) was modeled either by the inflation of pelvic balloons or an array of several lesions including nervous and muscular damage. Anal fistulas (2 articles), anal sphincter resection (3 articles), and diabetic neuropathy (2 articles) were studied to a lesser extent. Bias may have arisen from the authors' own work on fecal incontinence and the absence of blinding to the origins of articles. Validated animal models representing the main etiologies of fecal incontinence exist, but no animal model to date represents the whole pathophysiology of fecal incontinence. Therefore, the individual research questions still dictate the choice of model and species.
Seymour, Neal E.; Gallagher, Anthony G.; Roman, Sanziana A.; O’Brien, Michael K.; Bansal, Vipin K.; Andersen, Dana K.; Satava, Richard M.
Objective To demonstrate that virtual reality (VR) training transfers technical skills to the operating room (OR) environment. Summary Background Data The use of VR surgical simulation to train skills and reduce error risk in the OR has never been demonstrated in a prospective, randomized, blinded study. Methods Sixteen surgical residents (PGY 1–4) had baseline psychomotor abilities assessed, then were randomized to either VR training (MIST VR simulator diathermy task) until expert criterion levels established by experienced laparoscopists were achieved (n = 8), or control non-VR-trained (n = 8). All subjects performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an attending surgeon blinded to training status. Videotapes of gallbladder dissection were reviewed independently by two investigators blinded to subject identity and training, and scored for eight predefined errors for each procedure minute (interrater reliability of error assessment r > 0.80). Results No differences in baseline assessments were found between groups. Gallbladder dissection was 29% faster for VR-trained residents. Non-VR-trained residents were nine times more likely to transiently fail to make progress (P < .007, Mann-Whitney test) and five times more likely to injure the gallbladder or burn nontarget tissue (chi-square = 4.27, P < .04). Mean errors were six times less likely to occur in the VR-trained group (1.19 vs. 7.38 errors per case;P < .008, Mann-Whitney test). Conclusions The use of VR surgical simulation to reach specific target criteria significantly improved the OR performance of residents during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This validation of transfer of training skills from VR to OR sets the stage for more sophisticated uses of VR in assessment, training, error reduction, and certification of surgeons. PMID:12368674
Theelen, Thomas; Go, Sioe Lie; Tilanus, Maurits A D; Klevering, B Jeroen; Deutman, August F; Cremers, Frans P M; Hoyng, Carel B
To study the clinical appearance and surgical results of autosomal dominantly inherited rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs). After prospective examination of all but two family members, the medical records of 16 affected patients (21 eyes) of two families from the Netherlands with autosomal dominantly inherited RRD were retrospectively evaluated. Special attention was paid to the age at onset, the ocular morphology and the clinical appearance of the RRD. The type and number of the various surgical procedures were analyzed with respect to preoperative appearance of the RRD, postoperative results and final visual acuity. The mean age at onset of RRD of affected individuals in families A and B was 37 +/- 18 years and 19 +/- 10 years, respectively. The mean ocular axial length in the two families was 24.7 mm and 26.7 mm. The mean number of retinal defects preoperatively found was 2.2 in family A and 7.1 in family B. Round, atrophic retinal holes predominated. Two of 21 affected eyes showed significant preoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Pars plana vitrectomy was the primary procedure in 4 cases; extra ocular buckling was the initial procedure in 15 cases. One eye received scleral folding with diathermy as primary surgery. Redetachment following surgery occurred in 5 of 10 cases in family A and 4 of 10 eyes in family B. Anatomical success could be achieved in 9 of 10 and 8 of 10 eyes in families A and B, respectively. In these families the prevalence of RRD is high. Most patients were affected at a relatively young age compared with non-genetically linked forms of RRD. Because of the low success rate of surgical intervention and, subsequently, the high number of operations necessary to achieve reattachment of the retina, the use of diagnostic genetic techniques to identify individuals at risk would be advisable. In these subjects measures to prevent RRD are an option, even when anatomical substrates of precursors of RRD are absent.
Hareuveny, R; Kavet, R; Shachar, A; Margaliot, M; Kheifets, L
Relatively high exposures to radiofrequency (RF) fields can occur in the broadcast, medical, and communications industries, as well in occupations that use RF emitting equipment (e.g. law enforcement). Information on exposure to workers employed in these industries and occupations is limited. We present results of an Israeli National Survey of occupational RF field levels at frequencies between ~100 kHz and 40 GHz, representing Industrial Heating, Communications, Radar, Research, and Medicine. Almost 4300 measurements from 900 sources across 25 occupations were recorded and categorised as 'routine', 'incidental', or 'unintended'. The occupation-specific geometric means (GMs) of the percentage of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs) for each of the three exposure scenarios are presented together with the geometric standard deviation (GSD). Additionally, we present estimates of occupation-specific annual personal exposures and collective exposures. The vast majority of the GM of routine exposures ranged from a fraction to less than 1% of ACGIH TLVs, except for Walkie-Talkie (GM 94% of ACGIH), Induction Heating (17%), Plastic Welding (11%), Industrial Heating (6%) and Diathermy (6%). The GM of incidental and unintended exposures exceeded the TLV for one and 14 occupations, respectively. In many cases, the within-occupation GSD was very large, and though the medians remained below TLV, variable fractions of these occupations were projected to exceed the TLV. In rank order, Walkie-Talkie, Plastic Welding, and Induction Heating workers had the highest annual cumulative personal exposure. For cumulative collective exposures within an occupation, Walkie-Talkie dominated with 96.3% of the total, reflecting both large population and high personal exposure. A brief exceedance of the TLV does not automatically translate to hazard as RF exposure limits (issued by various bodies, including ACGIH) include a 10
Motta, Alicia Beatriz
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine diseases that affects women in their reproductive age. PCOS has diverse clinical implications that include reproductive (infertility, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism), metabolic (insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases) and psychological features (increased anxiety, depression and worsened quality of life). The exact patho-physiology of PCOS is complex and remains largely unclear. The prevalence of PCOS is estimated at 4-18%, depending on diverse factors discussed ahead. The phenotype varies widely depending on life stage, genotype, ethnicity and environmental factors including lifestyle and body weight. During the last decades, obesity and excess weight are major chronic diseases all around the word. Obesity increases some features of PCOS such as hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy complications. Both obesity and insulin resistance increase diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, obesity impairs insulin resistance and exacerbates reproductive and metabolic features of PCOS. It is well known that obesity is associated with anovulation, pregnancy loss and late pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes). Obesity in PCOS is also linked to failure or delayed response to the various treatments including clomiphene citrate, gonadotropins and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. It has been reported that, after losing as little as 5 % of initial body weight obese women with PCOS improved spontaneous ovulation rates and spontaneous pregnancy. Therefore, the weight loss prior to conception improves live birth rate in obese women with or without PCOS. The treatment of obesity may include lifestyle therapy (diet and exercise), pharmacological treatment and bariatric surgery. In summary, weight loss is considered the first-line therapy in obese women with PCOS. In the present review, the consequence and
Voorhees, W D; Babbs, C F
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that vasodilator drugs can enhance selective heating of solid tumors by producing a favorable redistribution of blood flow between tumor and normal tissues. Subcutaneous transmissible venereal tumor implants were heated by inductive diathermy using Helmholtz coils in 8 dogs. The temperature rise in tumor and adjacent muscle was measured before and after giving hydralazine (0.5 mg/kg i.v.). Blood flow to the tumors and underlying muscle was measured with radioactive tracer microspheres. Before hydralazine treatment mean muscle blood flow was about one-third tumor blood flow (0.11 +/- 0.02 vs 0.28 +/- 0.09 ml/min/g), and tumor and normal muscle temperatures were not significantly different (40.0 +/- 0.6 vs 39.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C). After hydralazine tumor blood flow decreased and muscle blood flow increased in every dog, and selective heating of the tumors became possible. Muscle blood flow averaged 0.67 +/- 0.13 ml/min/g, 17 times greater than tumor blood flow, which decreased to 0.04 +/- 0.02 ml/min/g. Core tumor temperature was 48.0 +/- 0.9 vs 38.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C for underlying muscle. Blood pressure was maintained at 80 +/- 5.7 mmHg. These results demonstrate that adjuvant treatment with vasodilators is a promising technique to increase the temperature difference between tumors and surrounding normal tissues during local heat therapy.
Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin
The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including PAHs, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4,993 included respondents, 297 (5.9%) were identified as probably being exposed to PAHs in their current job [extrapolated to 6.7% of the Australian working population-677 000 (95% confidence interval 605 000-757 000) workers]. Most (81%) were male; about one-third were farmers and about one-quarter worked in technical and trades occupations. In the agriculture industry about half the workers were probably exposed to PAHs. The main exposure circumstances were exposure to smoke through burning, fighting fires or through maintaining mowers or other equipment; cleaning up ash after a fire; health workers exposed to diathermy smoke; cooking; and welding surfaces with a coating. Where information on control measures was available, their use was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to PAHs in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to PAHs, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to PAHs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British
Objective To compare the effectiveness and risk profile of newer methods for endoscopic ablation of the prostate against the current standard of transurethral resection. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Electronic and paper records in subject area up to March 2006. Review methods We searched for randomised controlled trials of endoscopic ablative interventions that included transurethral resection of prostate as one of the treatment arms. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality. Meta-analyses of prespecified outcomes were done using fixed and random effects models and reported using relative risk or weighted mean difference. Results We identified 45 randomised controlled trials meeting the inclusion criteria and reporting on 3970 participants. The reports were of moderate to poor quality, with small sample sizes. None of the newer technologies resulted in significantly greater improvement in symptoms than transurethral resection at 12 months, although a trend suggested a better outcome with holmium laser enucleation (random effects weighted mean difference −0.82, 95% confidence interval 1.76 to 0.12) and worse outcome with laser vaporisation (1.49, −0.40 to 3.39). Improvements in secondary measures, such as peak urine flow rate, were consistent with change in symptoms. Blood transfusion rates were higher for transurethral resection than for the newer methods (4.8% v 0.7%) and men undergoing laser vaporisation or diathermy vaporisation were more likely to experience urinary retention (6.7% v 2.3% and 3.6% v 1.1%). Hospital stay was up to one day shorter for the newer technologies. Conclusions Although men undergoing more modern methods of removing benign prostatic enlargement have similar outcomes to standard transurethral resection of prostate along with fewer requirements for blood transfusion and shorter hospital stay, the quality of current evidence is poor. The lack of any clearly more effective procedure
The rays destroy, partially destroy, or injure cells, especially the nucleus. The injured cells may recover, so that further radiation is usually advisable after eight weeks. In throat conditions, overdosage is the great danger, owing to insufficient body-fluid coverings, and to the presence of large air cavities, which prevent the proper diffusion of rays and the striking back of those which penetrate the growth. The use of glucose and the permeating of the growth with metals in minute subdivision in order to cause secondary radiations advised. The best method of all, if practicable, would be to fill the air cavities with fluids, after preliminary tracheotomy. The main advantages of deep therapy are the ease with which wide areas can be radiated and the flexibility of the method. By varying the voltage and the filters with the depth from the surface, one can get diffusion of the rays, because the softer the ray the greater its absorption. This method is extremely safe, even for out-patients. Surgery when possible is always advisable. Diathermy is best, followed within three days by radiation. In doubtful cases partial radiation immediately before operation is advisable, to be completed within ten days after operation. Formation of antibodies is considered to be a vital factor. These are formed as the result of the absorption of the destroyed cells. In all malignant conditions the same dosage is now administered. After-treatment of hospital cases is most important. Artificial sunlight is advised, also sending the patient to an institution or convalescent home. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:19986315
Dall’Oglio, Luigi; Caldaro, Tamara; Foschia, Francesca; Faraci, Simona; Federici di Abriola, Giovanni; Rea, Francesca; Romeo, Erminia; Torroni, Filippo; Angelino, Giulia; De Angelis, Paola
Post-esophageal atresia anastomotic strictures and post-corrosive esophagitis are the most frequent types of cicatricial esophageal stricture. Congenital esophageal stenosis has been reported to be a rare but typical disease in children; other pediatric conditions are peptic, eosinophilic esophagitis and dystrophic recessive epidermolysis bullosa strictures. The conservative treatment of esophageal stenosis and strictures (ES) rather than surgery is a well-known strategy for children. Before planning esophageal dilation, the esophageal morphology should be assessed in detail for its length, aspect, number and level, and different conservative strategies should be chosen accordingly. Endoscopic dilators and techniques that involve different adjuvant treatment strategies have been reported and depend on the stricture’s etiology, the availability of different tools and the operator’s experience and preferences. Balloon and semirigid dilators are the most frequently used tools. No high-quality studies have reported on the differences in the efficacies and rates of complications associated with these two types of dilators. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the frequency of dilations or the diameter that should be achieved. The use of adjuvant treatments has been reported in cases of recalcitrant stenosis or strictures with evidence of dysphagic symptoms. Corticosteroids (either systemically or locally injected), the local application of mitomycin C, diathermy and laser ES sectioning have been reported. Some authors have suggested that stenting can reduce both the number of dilations and the treatment length. In many cases, this strategy is effective when either metallic or plastic stents are utilized. Treatment complications, such esophageal perforations, can be conservatively managed, considering surgery only in cases with severe pleural cavity involvement. In cases of stricture relapse, even if such relapses occur following the execution of well
Hennus, Pauline M L; Hoenjet, Esther; Kieft, Jan H; de Jong, Tom P V M; de Kort, Laetitia M O
Superficial bladder neck incision (SBNI) is controversial at young age, with retrograde ejaculation after puberty as main concern. The aim of the study is to investigate the long-term effect of SBNI on ejaculation and incontinence in boys with primary and secondary bladder neck obstruction (BNO). In boys with infravesical obstruction, SBNI was performed in case of a persistent BNO after earlier desobstruction or in case of primary severely obstructive bladder neck. SBNI was performed with a diathermy hook, always superficially (2-3 mm) and unilaterally at 7 O'clock. Males that had SBNI during childhood after posterior urethral valve incision or relief of other obstruction between 1986 and 2003 were included. Evaluation was done by International Continence Society male sex questionnaire, International Prostate Symptom Score, developmental International Consultation Modular Questionnaire on Urinary Incontinence, frequency volume chart, and uroflowmetry. Of 79 traceable patients, 40 (50.6%) participated. Of these, 37 (92.5%) completed all questionnaires and 28 (70%) performed uroflowmetry. Median age at SBNI was 4.7 years [interquartile range (IQR) 0.6-8.5] and was 19.6 years (IQR 17.3-20.9) at follow-up. All men had antegrade ejaculation, 4/37 (10.8%) reported possibly reduced ejaculatory volume. Eight (22%) had moderate lower urinary tract symptoms and two (5.4%) had moderate incontinence. Median maximum flow rate was 30.1 mL/s (IQR 24.4-42.6). SBNI in boys with severe infravesical obstruction can be done safely with preservation of antegrade ejaculation and no additional lower urinary tract dysfunction.
Moumoulidis, I; Del Pero, Martinez M; Brennan, L; Jani, P
INTRODUCTION The aim of the study was to identify whether Trendelenburg position helps detect any further bleeding points following Valsalva manoeuvre in order to achieve adequate haemostasis in head and neck surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients undergoing major head and neck surgical procedures were included. The protocol consisted in performing Valsalva manoeuvre to check haemostasis and treated any bleeding points identified. The operating table was tilted 30° and haemostasis was checked again and treated accordingly. The number of vessels identified and the treatment was recorded. RESULTS Twelve male and 38 female patients were included. The median age was 53 years and 74% had an ASA of 1. Twelve patients had complicating features such as retrosternal extensions or raised T4 levels pre-operatively. Thyroid resections were the most common operations performed. The total number of bleeding vessels identified in Trendelenburg tilt was significantly greater than when using Valsalva manoeuvre (P < 0.0001). All bleeding points found on Valsalva manoeuvre were minor (< 2 mm) and dealt with using diathermy. In Trendelenburg position, 11% of bleeding vessels required ties or stitching. The time taken during Valsalva manoeuvre was 60 s on average and 360 s in Trendelenburg position. CONCLUSIONS The results show that the Trendelenburg position is vastly superior to the Valsalva manoeuvre in identifying bleeding vessels at haemostasis. It has become our practice to put patients in Trendelenburg tilt routinely (we have discontinued the Valsalva manoeuvre), to check its adequacy before closing the wound. We have not noticed any intracranial complications using a tilt angle of 30°. PMID:20501015
Introduction Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point in their lives. Acute low back pain can be self-limiting; however, 1 year after an initial episode, as many as 33% of people still have moderate-intensity pain and 15% have severe pain. Acute low back pain has a high recurrence rate; 75% of those with a first episode have a recurrence. Although acute episodes may resolve completely, they may increase in severity and duration over time. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of oral drug treatments for acute low back pain? What are the effects of local injections for acute low back pain? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for acute low back pain? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics (paracetamol, opioids), back exercises, back schools, bed rest, behavioural therapy, electromyographic biofeedback, epidural corticosteroid injections, lumbar supports, massage, multidisciplinary treatment programmes, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), spinal manipulation, temperature treatments (short-wave diathermy, ultrasound, ice, heat), traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
Said, Tamer Hanafy
To determine the safety and sustainability of operative laparoscopy in surgical management of cornual and interstitial ectopic pregnancy using a simple and practical method. Case series of five consecutive cases. Endoscopy unit in Alexandria University Hospital and Alexandria New Medical Center. Between July 2013 and May 2015, five women with interstitial and cornual ectopic pregnancies were admitted for laparoscopic surgical treatment. Full medical and surgical histories were taken. We explained all alternatives for both partners before informed. Patients underwent laparoscopy for management of the corneal ectopic. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon (T.S.) with different assistants. We gave different uterotonics drugs to devascularize the uterus. Two or more devascularization sutures were done on each end of the corneal ectopic. We used monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation when indicated. We did linear cut of the interstitial ectopic with evacuation of the fetus and placental tissues. Extraction of the conceptus was performed through 10 mm port. Follow-up of the beta-hCG was done weekly till negative results were obtained. The devascularization sutures together with uterotonics make the surgical treatment of interstitial ectopic easy and safe. This simple technique minimizes blood loss and decreases necrosis that follows excessive use of diathermy. This was demonstrated successfully in different types of interstitial ectopic. We did not remove any part of the uterus during surgery. Clinical criteria of the study cases were discussed. Type, size, blood loss and complications, and duration of the surgery were documented. Operative laparoscopy using sutures and uterotonics is safe and sustainable approach in treatment of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.
Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Melis, G B
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women in reproductive age. As for the treatment of this disease the lack of a clear etiology for PCOS has led to a symptom-orientated treatment. However, the overall aims of treatment are to induce ovulation for women desiring conception, to reduce androgen levels, to reduce body weight and to reduce long-term health risks of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clomiphene citrate (CC) is recommended as first line treatment for induction of ovulation in patients with PCOS by virtue of its efficacy, safety, and ease of administration. Alternatives for CC-resistant patients include gonadotrophin therapy (better with low-dose step-up protocol) and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy. Recently, recombinant FSH (rFSH) has been introduced in clinical practice and it seems more effective than urinary FSH as demonstrated by a significantly higher number of follicles recruited and embryos obtained with a shorter treatment period. The addition of GnRH-agonist to the stimulation protocol for women affected by PCOS could reduce premature luteinization and increase cycle fecundity. Other drugs under investigation are metformin and cabergoline. Hirsutism is the manifestation of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. The primary goal of the treatment of hirsutim is central or peripheral androgen suppression using 3 groups of drugs: inhibitors of androgen production (oral contraceptives, GnRH analogues), peripheral androgen blockers (cyproterone acetate, flutamide, finasteride and spironolactone), and insulin-sensitizing agents (metformin). Weight reduction and exercise could also improve not only menstrual disturbances and infertility, but also insulin resistance and its adverse metabolic con-sequences.
In this opinion piece, the author brings together and discusses the collective relevance of possible health effects of microwave or radar exposure in military, broadcasting, and occupational circumstances, with a view to assuring optimal protective practices. Sources of the information presented include 1) historical data, 2) experiences of Polish soldiers, 3) a study of U.S. naval personnel using radar in the Korean War, 4) preliminary findings of exposures to the Skrunda, Latvia, transmitter, 5) data obtained near Hawaiian broadcasting facilities, 6) occupational studies of electronic and electrical workers, including ham radio operators, 7) reproductive outcomes among physiotherapists using short-wave and microwave diathermy, and 8) U.S. foreign service personnel exposed at Embassies in Eastern Europe. Some of the data are available in the peer-reviewed literature, others in abstracts, reports, or other non-peer-reviewed forms. Some were obtained under Freedom of Information statutes and are incomplete. For some of these, there is reason to believe that further evidence desired by the investigator was not obtained. Some are case-referent studies, but most are not. Some are ecological, and all are retrospective. Few have reliable dose estimations, and none has accurate dosage information on each subject. None includes evidence of tissue heating or any short-term effect. Possible outcomes considered included 1) blood count changes, 2) evidence of somatic mutation, 3) impairment of reproductive outcomes, especially increased spontaneous abortion, and 4) increase in cancer incidence and mortality, especially of the hematopoietic system, brain, and breast. The author presents evidence that sufficient microwave exposures are associated with all four of these outcomes, concluding that the possible effects and their timings with respect to exposure are qualitatively similar to those on ionizing radiation. A prudent course of action would be to provide more protection
O'Connor, Zachary; Faniriko, Marco; Thelander, Keir; O'Connor, Jennifer; Thompson, David; Park, Adrian
Carbon dioxide is the standard insufflation gas for laparoscopy. However, in many areas of the world, bottled carbon dioxide is not available. Laparoscopy offers advantages over open surgery and has been practiced using filtered room air insufflation since 2006 at Bongolo Hospital in Gabon, Africa. Our primary goal was to evaluate the safety of room air insufflation related to intraoperative and postoperative complications. Our secondary aim was to review the types of cases performed laparoscopically at our institution. This retrospective review evaluates laparoscopic cases performed at Bongolo Hospital between January 2006 and December 2013. Demographic and perioperative information for patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures was collected. Insufflation was achieved using a standard, oil-free air compressor using filtered air and a standard insufflation regulator. A total of 368 laparoscopic procedures were identified within the time period. The majority of cases were gynecologic (43%). There was a 2% (8/368) complication rate with one perioperative death. The 2 complications related to insufflation were episodes of hypotension responsive to standard corrective measures. No intracorporeal combustion events were observed in any cases in which the use of diathermy and room air insufflation were combined. The other complications and the death were unrelated to the use of insufflation with air. Insufflation complications with room air occurred in our study. However, the complications related to insufflation with room air in our study were no different than those described in the literature using carbon dioxide. As room air is less costly than carbon dioxide and readily available, confirming the safety of room air insufflation in prospective studies is warranted. Room air appears to be safe for establishing and maintaining pneumoperitoneum, making laparoscopic surgery more accessible to patients in low-resource settings.
Ahsan, Syed Y; Saberwal, Bunny; Lambiase, Pier D; Koo, Chieh Y; Lee, Simon; Gopalamurugan, Aerokondal B; Rogers, Dominic P; Lowe, Martin D; Chow, Anthony W C
Device infection is a serious complication and is considered procedure-related if occurring within 12 months of an intervention. We analysed the effectiveness of a simple infection-control protocol (ICP) at reducing cardiac device infections (CDIs) in a tertiary referral centre. Prior to the introduction of a new ICP, we retrospectively analysed all simple and complex device implants, related procedures, and infections over a 3-year period. A new protocol was implemented from November 2007, including antibiotic prophylaxis determined by risk stratification, improved glycaemic control, specific skin preparation, and closure techniques, as well as different diathermy settings. Follow-up data for all patients were collected. Risk factors for infection were compared between pre- and post-intervention groups to ensure that the populations were comparable. A cost analysis of CDI and a review of the commonly identified micro-organisms were also undertaken. One thousand seven hundred and ninety-eight procedures were performed between November 2004 and November 2007 and 981 procedures between November 2007 and May 2009. There were no significant differences in the risk factors for infection between the two groups. Following the introduction of the ICP, there was a 54% reduction in the incidence of CDI from 1.3 to 0.6% (P < 0.03; CI 0.25, 1.36). Most patients with CDI had negative blood cultures or grew Staphylococcus sp. The average cost was £30 958.40 per infection incident and the cost of the new ICP was minimal. A significant reduction in CDI can be achieved with the introduction of a simple ICP with substantial cost savings. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Roje, Zeljka; Racic, Goran; Kardum, Goran; Selimovic, Mirnes
Investigate the influence of operative technique on post-operative morbidity and the systemic inflammatory response after tonsillectomy. In addition, our aim was to compare the systemic inflammatory reaction, post-operative pain severity, and required time before the resumption of normal physical activity between two groups of tonsillectomized children and to correlate characteristics of the systemic inflammatory reaction to post-operative morbidity. This prospective, randomized, and single-blind study included 100 children between the ages of 3-16 years and who were scheduled for a tonsillectomy at our department for chronic tonsillitis and/or respiratory obstruction. The children were randomly assigned into one of two groups: either a conventional tonsillectomy with bipolar diathermy coagulation or a radiofrequency tonsillectomy procedure; both groups had a 14-day follow-up. We investigated the severity and duration of postoperative pain (based on the use of analgesics during the postoperative period), the postoperative day that they resumed normal physical activity, and the rate of postoperative hemorrhage. In order to assess the systemic inflammatory response, serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured before the surgery and seven days after the procedure. After the surgery CRP levels increased to a statistically significant level (t = -4.7; p < 0.001) in conventional tonsillectomy group. There was a statistically significant correlation between increased blood CRP levels after the surgery and the level of post-operative analgesic consumption, which was based on an increased number of analgesic applications (r = 0.28; p < 0.01) and a greater number of days in which analgesics were consumed (r = 0.26; p < 0.01). There was also a correlation between increased blood CRP levels and a longer required time to resume normal physical activities (r = 0.30; p < 0.01). Post-operative morbidity after tonsillectomy appears to depend on the systemic inflammatory
Which interventions are cost-effective for the management of whiplash-associated and neck pain-associated disorders? A systematic review of the health economic literature by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.
van der Velde, Gabrielle; Yu, Hainan; Paulden, Mike; Côté, Pierre; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Shearer, Heather M; Wong, Jessica J; Randhawa, Kristi; Southerst, Danielle; Mior, Silvano; Sutton, Deborah; Jacobs, Craig; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne
Whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and neck pain and associated disorders (NAD) are prevalent conditions that impact society and impose a significant economic burden on health-care systems. Health economic evidence on WAD and NAD interventions has been sparse: only three economic evaluations of interventions for NAD were identified by the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders (NPTF). An updated overview is needed to inform health-care policy and guidelines. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of interventions for grades I-III WAD and NAD in children and adults. Systematic review of health economic literature, best-evidence synthesis. We systematically searched CINAHL, the Cochrane economic databases (Health Technology Assessment, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Tufts CEA Registry from 2000 to 2015 for economic evaluations of WAD and NAD interventions. We appraised relevant evaluations using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Methodology Criteria for Economic Evaluations. We extracted data, including mean costs (standardized to 2013 Canadian dollars [CAD]) and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), from studies with adequate methodological quality. We recalculated cost-effectiveness statistics based on the standardized currency using a willingness-to-pay of CAD $50,000 per additional QALY. Funding was provided by the Ministry of Finance. Our search identified 1,616 citations. Six studies fulfilled our selection criteria, including three studies previously reviewed by the NPTF. Structured education appears cost-effective for adults with WAD. For adults with NAD, acupuncture added to routine medical care; manual therapy; multimodal care that includes manual therapy; advice and exercise; and psychological care using cognitive-behavioral therapy appear cost-effective. In contrast, adding manual therapy or diathermy to advice and exercise; multimodal
Sapre, Nikhil; Bugeja, Pat; Hayes, Elizabeth; Corcoran, Niall M; Costello, Anthony; Anderson, Paul D
• To present our initial experience implementing a nurse-led flexible cystoscopy (NLFC) service in a Victorian tertiary hospital and our initial results from that service, as NLFC has developed over the past decade with reports suggesting that adequately trained nurses can undertake FC competently. • We describe the implementation of a NLFC service including approval, funding, nurses' training, and protocols. • Outcomes of all patients having a NLFC or subsequent interventions were recorded prospectively and analysed retrospectively. • To gauge patients' response to NLFC, an anonymous feedback questionnaire was administered to 60 consecutive participating patients in the recovery unit. • The effect of NLFC on waiting times was determined from surgical scheduling records. • In all, 272 patients had 720 NLFC done over a 2-year period. In all, 150 (21%) FCs had a suspected bladder cancer recurrence and were referred for a rigid cystoscopy. Of those, 83 (58%) revealed a recurrence comprising of 14 (17%) high-grade lesions, 45 (54%) low-grade lesions and 24 (29%) were diathermied without a biopsy. In all, 41 (27%) had benign pathology on biopsy and 21 (14%) had normal rigid cystoscopy. • There were two significant adverse events. • There was a 65% reduction in the waiting list for surveillance FC after introduction of the service. • Of 60 patients who completed the feedback questionnaire, 95% reported that they were given enough information by the nurses, 92% had all their questions answered satisfactorily and 97% had enough confidence and trust in the nurse. In all, 90% had a positive perception of the service overall and 93% were happy to have a FC performed by a nurse rather than a doctor. • Results from our NLFC audit compare favourably with other published reports. NLFC is a safe and feasible option when established alongside strong departmental support, comprehensive nurses' training according to established guidelines, service supervision by a
Shieh, J S; Fan, S Z; Chang, L W; Liu, C C
activity. The results showed that a hierarchical rule-based monitoring and fuzzy logic control architecture can provide stable control of neuromuscular block despite the considerable individual variation in neuromuscular block required among patients. Also, there was less variation in T1% error compared with that of previous study on mivacurium. Meanwhile, the consistent medium CV of the MIR of both rocuronium and mivacurium indicated a good controller activity which is able to withstand noise, diathermy effect, artifacts and surgical disturbances.
Jamjoom, A A B; Nikkar-Esfahani, A; Fitzgerald, J E F
Observing surgical procedures is a beneficial educational experience for medical students during their surgical placements. Anecdotal evidence suggests that operating theatre related syncope may have detrimental effects on students' views of this. Our study examines the frequency and causes of such syncope, together with effects on career intentions, and practical steps to avoid its occurrence. All penultimate and final year students at a large UK medical school were surveyed using the University IT system supplemented by personal approach. A 20-item anonymous questionnaire was distributed and results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 15.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Of the 630 clinical students surveyed, 77 responded with details of at least one near or actual operating theatre syncope (12%). A statistically significant gender difference existed for syncopal/near-syncopal episodes (male 12%; female 88%), p < 0.05. Twenty-two percent of those affected were graduate entry medical course students with the remaining 78% undergraduate. Mean age was 23-years (range 20 - 45). Of the 77 reactors, 44 (57%) reported an intention to pursue a surgical career. Of this group, 7 (9%) reported being discouraged by syncopal episodes in the operating theatre. The most prevalent contributory factors were reported as hot temperature (n = 61, 79%), prolonged standing (n = 56, 73%), wearing a surgical mask (n = 36, 47%) and the smell of diathermy (n = 18, 23%). The most frequently reported measures that students found helpful in reducing the occurrence of syncopal episodes were eating and drinking prior to attending theatre (n = 47, 61%), and moving their legs whilst standing (n = 14, 18%). Our study shows that operating theatre related syncope among medical students is common, and we establish useful risk factors and practical steps that have been used to prevent its occurrence. Our study also highlights the detrimental effect of this on the career
Eto, Ken; Omura, Nobuo; Haruki, Koichiro; Uno, Yoshiko; Ohkuma, Masahisa; Nakajima, Shintaro; Anan, Tadashi; Kosuge, Makoto; Fujita, Tetsuji; Yanaga, Katsuhiko
Advances in energy devices have played a major role in the rapid expansion of laparoscopic surgery. However, complications due to these energy devices are occasionally reported, and if the characteristics of these devices are not well understood, serious complications may occur. This study evaluated various typical energy devices and measured temperature rises in the adjacent tissue and in the devices themselves. We used the following 7 types of energy devices: AutoSonix (AU), SonoSurg (SS), Harmonic Scalpel (HS), LigaSure Atlas (LA), LigaSure Dolphin Tip (LD), monopolar diathermy (Mono), and bipolar scissors (Bi). Laparoscopy was performed under general anesthesia in pigs, and the mesentery was dissected using each energy device. Tissue temperature at a distance of 1 mm from the energy device blade before and after dissection was measured. Temperature of the device blade both before and after dissection, time required for dissection, and interval until the temperature fell to 100°C, 75°C, and 50°C were documented. Temperature of the surrounding tissue using each device rose the most with the Mono (50.5±8.0°C) and the least with the HS in full mode (6.2±0.7°C). Device temperature itself rose the highest with the AU in full mode (318.2±49.6°C), and the least with the Bi (61.9±4.8°C). All ultrasonic coagulation and cutting devices (AU, SS, and HS) had device temperatures increase up to ≥100°C, and even at 8 seconds after completing dissection, temperatures remained at ≥100°C. Because the adjacent tissue temperature peaked with the Mono, cautious use near the intestine and blood vessels is necessary. In addition, the active blades of all ultrasonic coagulation and cutting devices, regardless of model, developed high temperatures exceeding 100°C. Therefore, an adequate cooling period after using these devices is therefore necessary between applications.
ba-bai-ke-re, Ma-Mu-Ti-Jiang A; Huang, Hong-Guo; Re, Wen-Ni; Fan, Kai; Chu, Hui; Ai, Er-Ha-Ti; Li-Mu, Mai-Mai-Ti-Tu-Er-Xun KE; Wang, Yi-Rui; Wen, Hao
AIM: To demonstrate the value of Diosmin (flavonidic fraction) in the management of post-haemorhoidectomic symptoms. METHODS: Eighty-six consecutive patients with grades III and IV acute mixed hemorrhoids admitted to the Anorectal Surgical Department of First Affiliated Hospital, Xinjiang Medical University from April 2009 to April 2010, were enrolled in this study. An observer-blinded, randomized trial was conducted to compare post-haemorhoidectomic symptoms with use of Diosmin flavonidic fraction vs placebo. Eighty-six patients were randomly allocated to receive Diosmin flavonidic fraction 500 mg for 1 wk (n = 43) or placebo (n = 43). The Milligan-Morgan open haemorrhoidectomy was performed by a standardized diathermy excision method. Pain, bleeding, heaviness, pruritus, wound edema and mucosal discharge were observed after surgery. The postoperative symptoms and hospitalization time were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of the Diosmin group and controls was 53.2 and 51.3 years, respectively. In Diosmin group, haemorrhoid piles were of the third degree in 33 patients and the fourth degree in 10; and in the control group, 29 were of the third degree and 14 were of the fourth degree. There was no statistically significance in age, gender distribution, degree and number of excised haemorrhoid piles, and the mean duration of haemorrhoidal disease between the two groups. There was a statistically significant improvement in pain, heaviness, bleeding, pruritus from baseline to the 8th week after operation (P < 0.05). Patients taking Diosmin had a shorter hospitalization stay after surgery (P < 0.05). There was also a significant improvement on the proctoscopic appearance (P < 0.001). However, there was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of wound mucosal discharge. Two patients experienced minor bleeding at the 8th week in Diosmin group, and underwent surgery. CONCLUSION: Diosmin is effective in alleviating postoperational symptoms of haemorrhoids
Castellani, John W; Zambraski, Edward J; Sawka, Michael N; Urso, Maria L
Hyperthermia is suspected of accentuating skeletal muscle injury from novel exercise, but this has not been well studied. This study examined if high muscle temperatures alters skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric exercise (ECC). Eight volunteers (age, 22.5 ± 4.1 year; height, 169.5 ± 10.8 cm; body mass, 76.2 ± 12.6 kg), serving as their own control, and who were not heat acclimatized, completed two elbow flexor ECC trials; in one trial the biceps were heated >40°C (HEAT) and in the other trial there was no heating (NON). HEAT was applied with shortwave diathermy (100 W) for 15 min immediately before the first ECC bout and for 2 min in between each bout. Individuals were followed for 10 days after each ECC session, with a 6-week washout period between arms. The maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased by 41 ± 17% and 46 ± 20% in the NON and HEAT trials, respectively. Bicep circumference increased by 0.07 ± 0.08 mm (4%, P = 0.04) and relaxed range of motion decreased by 11.5 ± 8.2° (30%, P < 0.001) in both trials. Serum creatine kinase peaked 72-h following ECC (NON: 6289 ± 10407; HEAT: 5486 ± 6229 IU L(-1), 38-fold increase, P < 0.01) as did serum myoglobin (NON: 362 ± 483; HEAT: 355 ± 373 μg L(-1), 13-fold increase, P < 0.03). Plasma HSP 70 was higher (P < 0.02) in HEAT after 120-h of recovery. There were no differences between treatments for plasma HSP27 and interleukins 1β, 6, and 10. The results indicate that >40°C muscle temperature does not alter skeletal muscle injury or functional impairments induced by novel ECC.
Cunha-Vaz, J. G.; Maurice, D. M.
1. The movement of fluorescein across the retinal surface of the rabbit's eye was estimated by measuring the concentration gradient of the dye in the vitreous body. These measurements were made in vivo by means of a slit-lamp fluorophotometer, or were taken from frozen sections of enucleated eyes. 2. In the normal eye, fluorescein does not pass from the blood to the vitreous body across any part of the retina. When injected into the vitreous body it passes rapidly out across the entire retinal surface, even against a very large concentration gradient. 3. A variety of metabolic and competitive inhibitors, effective in blocking organic anion transport in the kidney and liver, tend to abolish this unidirectional movement of fluorescein across the retina. 4. The region occupied by the retinal vessels is more sensitive to inhibition than other areas of the retina. Occlusion of the vessels by diathermy prevents the exchange of fluorescein in this region. 5. It appears, then, that there is an active transport of organic anions out of the vitreous body, both by the retinal capillaries and by the retina itself. The latter system is probably located in the pigment epithelium and seems to be carried forward to the rear surface of the iris. 6. Since the walls of the retinal vessels of the rabbit are freely in contact with the vitreous body, the active transport must take place across the capillary endothelial cells themselves. These vessels have structural and permeability characteristics found only in the central nervous system and it is to be presumed that the anion transport system is shared by the capillaries of the brain. 7. The function of the transport in the retina may be to protect the nervous tissue from toxic materials by preventing their entry from the blood or by removing products of metabolism conjugated as organic anions. Alternatively, the mechanism may be concerned in maintaining the normal adhesion of the retina to the choroid, since retinal detachment was
Serra, H; Pista, A; Figueiredo, P; Urbano, A; Avilez, F; De Oliveira, C F
associated to high risk types (HPV 16 in 50% of these cases). On the other hand, it may be concluded that HPV detection in cervical biopsies, especially for low grade SIL lesions, which were evaluated in this study with a more conservative procedure (clinical evaluation only, punch biopsies, loop diathermy, CO2 laser vaporisation, cone biopsies), could identify women with high risk HPV types who might be at risk of developing dysplasia and cervical cancer.
Zindel, Joel; Inglin, Roman; Brügger, Lukas
Up to one third of the general population suffers from symptoms caused by hemorrhoids. Conservative treatment comes first unless the patient presents with an acute hemorrhoidal prolapse or a thrombosis. A fiber enriched diet is the primary treatment option, recommended in the perioperative period as well as a long-term prophylaxis. A timely limited application of topical ointments or suppositories and/or flavonoids are further treatment options. When symptoms persist interventional procedures for grade I-II hemorrhoids, and surgery for grade III-IV hemorrhoids should be considered. Rubber band ligation is the interventional treatment of choice. A comparable efficacy using sclerosing or infrared therapy has not yet been demonstrated. We therefore do not recommend these treatment options for the cure of hemorrhoids. Self-treatment by anal insertion of bougies is of lowrisk and may be successful, particularly in the setting of an elevated sphincter pressure. Anal dilation, sphincterotomy, cryosurgery, bipolar diathermy, galvanic electrotherapy, and heat therapy should be regarded as obsolete given the poor or missing data reported for these methods. For a long time, the classic excisional hemorrhoidectomy was considered to be the gold standard as far as surgical procedures are concerned. Primary closure (Ferguson) seems to be superior compared to the "open" version (Milligan Morgan) with respect to postoperative pain and wound healing. The more recently proposed stapled hemorrhoidopexy (Longo) is particularly advisable for circular hemorrhoids. Compared to excisional hemorrhoidectomy the Longo-operation is associated with reduced postoperative pain, shorter operation time and hospital stay as well as a faster recovery, with the disadvantage though of a higher recurrence rate. Data from Hemorrhoidal Artery Ligation (HAL)-, if appropriate in combination with a Recto-Anal Repair (HAL/RAR)-, demonstrates a similar trend towards a better tolerance of the procedure at the
Oak, S N; Dave, N M; Garasia, M B; Parelkar, S V
Surgical care is an essential component of health care of children worldwide. Incidences of congenital anomalies, trauma, cancers and acquired diseases continue to rise and along with that the impact of surgical intervention on public health system also increases. It then becomes essential that the surgical teams make the procedures safe and error proof. The World Health Organization (WHO) has instituted the surgical checklist as a global initiative to improve surgical safety. To assess the acceptance, application and adherence to the WHO Safe Surgery Checklist in Pediatric Surgery Practice at a university teaching hospital. In a prospective study, spanning 2 years, the checklist was implemented for all patients who underwent operative procedures under general anesthesia. The checklist identified three phases of an operation, each corresponding to a specific period in the normal flow of work: Before the induction of anesthesia ("sign in"), before the skin incision ("time out") and before the patient leaves the operating room ("sign out"). In each phase, an anesthesiologist,-"checklist coordinator," confirmed that the anesthesia, surgery and nursing teams have completed the listed tasks before proceeding with the operation and exit. The checklist was used for 3000 consecutive patients. No major perioperative errors were noted. In 54 (1.8%) patients, children had the same names and identical surgical procedure posted on the same operation list. The patient identification tag was missing in four (0.1%) patients. Mention of the side of procedures was missing in 108 (3.6%) cases. In 0.1% (3) of patients there was mix up of the mention of side of operation in the case papers and consent forms. In 78 (2.6%) patients, the consent form was not signed by parents/guardians or the side of the procedure was not quoted. Antibiotic orders were missing in five (0.2%) patients. In 12 (0.4%) cases, immobilization of the patients was suboptimal, which led to displacement of diathermy
Zubair, M; Habib, L; Mirza, M R; Channa, M A; Yousuf, M
18(35.29%) and Hartman's pouch in 12(23.53%) patients. In 27(52.94%) patients, diathermy hook was the cause of perforation followed by grasping forceps in 24(47.06%) patients. In 33(64.71%) patients perforations occurred during dissection of gall bladder from liver bed, in 2(3.92%) during adhesiolysis and in 16(31.37%) during retraction maneuvers. Perforation of gall bladder occurred in 25.5% of patients during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and acutely inflamed and over distended gall bladders were proved significant factor for this intraoperative event.
Gabriel, W. B.
The analysis is of 55 cases admitted into St. Mark's Hospital from 1922 to 1940. The incidence was 3.35% of all cases of cancer of the rectum, anal canal and anus admitted during this period. Sex distribution—27 males and 28 females. The average age (61.7 years) is higher than that of columnar-cell carcinoma of the rectum (57.4 years). Histology.—The cases have been graded into three grades of malignancy—low grade, medium grade, and high grade. Low grade squamous carcinoma is twice as frequent in men as in women, and generally originates at the anal margin. Medium grade squamous carcinoma is equally distributed between men and women; it may arise at the anus or in the anal canal. High grade squamous carcinoma is much more common in the female sex and is almost entirely limited to the anal canal. Quadrant affected—about one-third of the anal margin growths and one-half of the anal canal growths were situated anteriorly. Differential diagnosis from simple papilloma, simple ulcer, chronic inflammation, tuberculous ulcer, tuberculide, primary chancre, amœbic ulcer, basal-cell carcinoma, columnar-cell carcinoma. Biopsy and grading essential before treatment is decided upon. The results of treatment in the three grades of malignancy are described. The best results were obtained in the early low-grade cases treated by interstitial radium needling. In the medium and high grades only three five-year survivals can be reported and these followed excision of the rectum. The management of the inguinal glands is discussed and the importance of a very close post-operative supervision emphasized. Squamous carcinoma of the anal canal may cause lymphatic metastases in the superior hæmorrhoidal glands; there have been four such cases in this series. Diathermy perineal excision is indicated in these cases. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 5Fig. 6aFig. 6bFig. 7Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:19992316
Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle
with placebo plus exercise. The mean pain score at four weeks was 51 points with placebo plus exercise, while with LLLT plus exercise the mean pain score was 32 points on a 100 point scale (mean difference (MD) 19 points, 95% CI 15 to 23; absolute risk difference 19%, 95% CI 15% to 23%). The mean function impairment score was 48 points with placebo plus exercise, while with LLLT plus exercise the mean function impairment score was 36 points on a 100 point scale (MD 12 points, 95% CI 6 to 18; absolute risk difference 12%, 95% CI 6 to 18). Mean active abduction was 70 degrees with placebo plus exercise, while with LLLT plus exercise mean active abduction was 79 degrees (MD 9 degrees, 95% CI 2 to 16; absolute risk difference 5%, 95% CI 1% to 9%). No participants in either group reported adverse events. LLLT's benefits on function were maintained at four months.Based on very low quality evidence from six trials, we were uncertain whether therapeutic ultrasound, PEMF, continuous short wave diathermy, Iodex phonophoresis, a combination of Iodex iontophoresis with continuous short wave diathermy, or a combination of therapeutic ultrasound with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) were effective adjuncts to exercise. Based on low or very low quality evidence from 12 trials, we were uncertain whether a diverse range of electrotherapy modalities (delivered alone or in combination with manual therapy, exercise, or other active interventions) were more or less effective than other active interventions (for example glucocorticoid injection). Based upon low quality evidence from one trial, LLLT for six days may be more effective than placebo in terms of global treatment success at six days. Based upon moderate quality evidence from one trial, LLLT plus exercise for eight weeks may be more effective than exercise alone in terms of pain up to four weeks, and function up to four months. It is unclear whether PEMF is more or less effective than placebo, or whether other
Karamanou, M; Liappas, I; Antoniou, Ch; Androutsos, G; Lykouras, E
sulfate to terminate the malaria infection. It is worth mentioning that the above treatment was followed in hospital under strict monitoring of patients' vital signs and regular laboratory tests. In the following years of his discovery, artificial fever was induced by any one of the following methods: the introduction into the patient of a parasitic disease; the injection of a foreign protein; injections of chemical substances such as sulphur; electrical means such as the administration of diathermy or radiotherapy, or placing the patient in an electromagnetic field; and simple immersion of the individual in a hot bath, or placing him in a heat cabinet. Wagner Jauregg's therapy was highly admired and was used on neurosyphilis cases well onto the 1950's. However, with the introduction of penicillin in syphilis' treatment, fever therapy effectively ended. Wagner Jauregg's study led to all the methods of stress therapy used in psychiatry, as electric shock, and insulin.
Are manual therapies, passive physical modalities, or acupuncture effective for the management of patients with whiplash-associated disorders or neck pain and associated disorders? An update of the Bone and Joint Decade Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders by the OPTIMa collaboration.
Wong, Jessica J; Shearer, Heather M; Mior, Silvano; Jacobs, Craig; Côté, Pierre; Randhawa, Kristi; Yu, Hainan; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Sutton, Deborah; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Carroll, Linda J; Ameis, Arthur; Ammendolia, Carlo; Brison, Robert; Nordin, Margareta; Stupar, Maja; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne
suggests that (1) for recent NAD grades I-II, cervical and thoracic manipulation provides no additional benefit to high-dose supervised exercises, and Swedish or clinical massage adds benefit to self-care advice; (2) for persistent NAD grades I-II, home-based cupping massage has similar outcomes to home-based muscle relaxation, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) does not offer benefits, Western acupuncture provides similar outcomes to non-penetrating placebo electroacupuncture, and needle acupuncture provides similar outcomes to sham-penetrating acupuncture; (3) for WAD grades I-II, needle electroacupuncture offers similar outcomes as simulated electroacupuncture; and (4) for recent NAD grades III, a semi-rigid cervical collar with rest and graded strengthening exercises lead to similar outcomes, and LLLT does not offer benefits. Our review adds new evidence to the Neck Pain Task Force and suggests that mobilization, manipulation, and clinical massage are effective interventions for the management of neck pain. It also suggests that electroacupuncture, strain-counterstrain, relaxation massage, and some passive physical modalities (heat, cold, diathermy, hydrotherapy, and ultrasound) are not effective and should not be used to manage neck pain. Copyright Â© 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Côté, Pierre; Wong, Jessica J; Sutton, Deborah; Shearer, Heather M; Mior, Silvano; Randhawa, Kristi; Ameis, Arthur; Carroll, Linda J; Nordin, Margareta; Yu, Hainan; Lindsay, Gail M; Southerst, Danielle; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Jacobs, Craig; Stupar, Maja; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne; van der Velde, Gabrielle; Gross, Douglas P; Brison, Robert J; Paulden, Mike; Ammendolia, Carlo; David Cassidy, J; Loisel, Patrick; Marshall, Shawn; Bohay, Richard N; Stapleton, John; Lacerte, Michel; Krahn, Murray; Salhany, Roger
, clinicians should not offer strengthening exercises alone, strain-counterstrain therapy, relaxation massage, relaxation therapy for pain or disability, electrotherapy, shortwave diathermy, clinic-based heat, electroacupuncture, or botulinum toxin injections. For NAD grade III ≤3 months duration, clinicians may consider supervised strengthening exercises in addition to structured patient education. In view of evidence of no effectiveness, clinicians should not offer structured patient education alone, cervical collar, low-level laser therapy, or traction. RECOMMENDATION 7: For NAD grade III >3 months duration, clinicians should not offer a cervical collar. Patients who continue to experience neurological signs and disability more than 3 months after injury should be referred to a physician for investigation and management. RECOMMENDATION 8: Clinicians should reassess the patient at every visit to determine if additional care is necessary, the condition is worsening, or the patient has recovered. Patients reporting significant recovery should be discharged.
Upile, Tahwinder; Jerjes, Waseem; Sipaul, Fabian; El Maaytah, Mohammed; Nouraei, Seyed Ahmad Reza; Singh, Sandeep; Hopper, Colin; Wright, Anthony
requiring nasal packing were admitted. The type of nasal packing included Gauge impregnated Bismuth Iodoform Paraffin Paste, Nasal Tampon, and Vaseline gauge. Over the previous four year period (September to March) a mean of 28 patients were admitted per month, with a mean duration of in patient stay of 2.67 days. In the prospective audit the total number of admissions was significantly reduced, by over 70%, (χ2 = 25.05, df = 6, P < 0.0001), despite no significant change in the number of monthly epistaxis referrals (χ2 = 4.99, df = 6, P < 0.0001). There was also a significant increase in the mean age of admitted patients with epistaxis (χ2 = 22.71, df = 5, P < 0.0001), the admitted patients had a mean length of stay of 2.53 days. This policy results is an estimated saved 201.39 bed days per annum resulting in an estimated annual speciality saving of over £50,000, allowing resource re-allocation to other areas of need. Furthermore, bed usage could be optimised for other emergency or elective work. Conclusion Exclusion criteria have now been expanded to exclude traumatic nasal haemorrhage. New adjunctive therapies now include direct endoscopic bipolar diathermy of bleeding points, and the judicious use of topical pro-coagulant agents applied via the nasal tampon. Expansion of the audit protocols for use in general practice. This original audit informed clinical practice and had potential benefits for patients, clinicians, and provision of service. Systematic replication of this project, possibly on a regional and general practice basis, could result in further financial savings, which would allow development of improved patient services and delivery of care. PMID:17854499
Kuessel, Lorenz; Wenzl, René; Marschalek, Marie-Louise; Slavka, Georg; Doerfler, Daniela; Husslein, Heinrich
To provide a review of the literature regarding this technique as well as a step-by-step description with the goal of increasing its use as a safe surgical option. Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by vaginal agenesis and a variety of mullerian duct anomalies. To date, a variety of procedures have been described for creating a neovagina, but the best treatment remains debated. The Wharton-Sheares-George method, a minimally invasive surgical approach for the creation of a neovagina, is remarkably simple to perform. Surgical video tutorial. University hospital and referral center for pediatric and adolescent gynecology. A 20-year-old woman with MRKH syndrome who underwent Wharton-Sheares-George neovaginoplasty. With the Wharton-Sheares-George neovaginoplasty the rudimentary müllerian ducts are dilated incrementally by pushing Hegar dilators in the direction of the pelvic axis, and the resulting median raphe is then intersected using diathermy. Subsequently a vaginal mold is inserted into the newly created cavity and held in position by two sutures. Discussion of the surgical steps according to the Wharton-Sheares-George method and review of the anatomic and functional results. Reviewing the existing literature shows that a mean vaginal length and width of 8.3 and 3.3 cm, respectively, can be achieved, and so far no major intraoperative or postoperative complications or prolapse of the neovagina has been reported. Patients can achieve a high degree of general well-being as well as sexual and psychosocial functioning. However, as with most other methods, the presented method requires diligent patient compliance due to the lifelong need to actively avoid contraction of the neovagina. Also, as revealed by vaginal cultures and biopsies, the neovaginas remarkably resemble natural vaginas with regard to type of bacterial colonization and structure of epithelium. The process of spontaneous epithelialization of the neovagina is not fully
Gupta, Anita; Huettner, Daniel P; Dukewich, Matthew
Patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee and patients post total knee arthroplasty often develop refractory, disabling chronic knee pain. Radiofrequency ablation, including conventional, pulsed, and cooled, has recently become more accepted as an interventional technique to manage chronic knee pain in patients who have failed conservative treatment or who are not suitable candidates for surgical treatment. This systematic review aimed to analyze published studies on radiofrequency ablation to provide an overview of the current knowledge regarding variations in procedures, nerve targets, adverse events, and temporal extent of clinical benefit. A systematic review of published studies investigating conventional, pulsed, or cooled radiofrequency ablation in the setting of chronic knee pain. Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were reviewed for studies on radiofrequency ablation for patients with chronic knee pain through July 29, 2016. From the studies, the procedural details, outcomes after treatment, follow-up points, and complications were compiled and analyzed in this literature review. Included studies were analyzed for clinical relevance and strength of evidence was graded using either the NHLBI Quality assessment of controlled intervention studies or the NHLBI quality assessment for before-after (pre-post) studies with no control group. Seventeen total publications were identified in the search, including articles investigating conventional, pulsed, or cooled radiofrequency ablation. These studies primarily targeted either the genicular nerves or used an intraarticular approach. Of the studies, 5 were small-sized randomized controlled trials, although one involved diathermy radiofrequency ablation. There were 8 retrospective or prospective case series and 4 case reports. Utilizing the strength of evidence grading, there is a low level of certainty to suggest a superior benefit between
Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Mrocki, Marshall A; Surace, Stephen J; Deitch, Jessica; McBain, Brodwen; Lyttle, Nicolette; Buchbinder, Rachelle
% more). Between-group differences were not important at nine months. No participant reported adverse events.Therapeutic ultrasound produced no clinically important additional benefits when combined with other physical therapy interventions (eight clinically heterogeneous trials, low quality evidence). We are uncertain whether there are differences in patient-important outcomes between ultrasound and other active interventions (manual therapy, acupuncture, glucocorticoid injection, glucocorticoid injection plus oral tolmetin sodium, or exercise) because the quality of evidence is very low. Two placebo-controlled trials reported results favouring LLLT up to three weeks (low quality evidence), however combining LLLT with other physical therapy interventions produced few additional benefits (10 clinically heterogeneous trials, low quality evidence). We are uncertain whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is more or less effective than glucocorticoid injection with respect to pain, function, global treatment success and active range of motion because of the very low quality evidence from a single trial. In other single, small trials, no clinically important benefits of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF), microcurrent electrical stimulation (MENS), acetic acid iontophoresis and microwave diathermy were observed (low or very low quality evidence).No adverse events of therapeutic ultrasound, LLLT, TENS or microwave diathermy were reported by any participants. Adverse events were not measured in any trials investigating the effects of PEMF, MENS or acetic acid iontophoresis. Based on low quality evidence, therapeutic ultrasound may have short-term benefits over placebo in people with calcific tendinitis, and LLLT may have short-term benefits over placebo in people with rotator cuff disease. Further high quality placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm these results. In contrast, based on low quality evidence, PEMF may not provide clinically
Araujo, Sergio Eduardo Alonso; Horcel, Lucas de Araujo; Seid, Victor Edmond; Bertoncini, Alexandre Bruno; Klajner, Sidney
Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is associated with less postoperative pain and faster recovery. However, it may be associated with a greater risk of symptomatic recurrence. We hypothesized that undertaking a limited surgical excision of hemorrhoid disease after stapling may be a valid approach for selected patients. To compare long-term results after stapled hemorrhoidopexy with and without complementation with closed excisional technique. In a retrospective uni-institutional cohort study, sixty-five (29 men) patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy and 21 (13 men) underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy with excision. The same surgeons operated on all cases. Patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidectomy associated with excisional surgery if symptoms attributable to external hemorrhoid piles were observed preoperatively, or if residual prolapse or bulky external disease was observed after the firing of the stapler. A closed excisional diathermy hemorrhoidectomy without vascular ligation was utilized in all complemented cases. All clinical variables were obtained from a questionnaire evaluation obtained through e-mail, telephone interview, or office follow-up. The median duration of postoperative follow-up was 48.5 (6-40) months. Patients with grades 3 and 4 hemorrhoid disease were operated on more frequently using stapled hemorrhoidopexy complemented with excisional technique (95.2% vs. 55.4%, p=0.001). Regarding respectively stapled hemorrhoidopexy and stapled hemorrhoidopexy complemented with excision, there was no difference between the techniques in relation to symptom recurrence (43% and 33%, p=0.45) and median interval between surgery and symptom recurrence (30 (8-84) and 38.8 (8-65) months, p=0.80). Eight (12.3%) patients were re-operated after stapled hemorrhoidopexy and 2 (9.6%), after hemorrhoidopexy with excision (p=0.78). Patient distribution in both groups according to the degree of postoperative satisfaction was similar (p=0.97). Stapled hemorrhoidopexy combined