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Sample records for diazepam

  1. Diazepam

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve anxiety, muscle spasms, and seizures and to control agitation caused by alcohol withdrawal. ... sugar.If you are taking diazepam to control seizures and have an increase in their frequency or ...

  2. Rectal absorption of diazepam in epileptic children.

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, S; Ngwane, E; Richens, A

    1982-01-01

    The absorption of diazepam after rectal administration was studied in children with epilepsy. When given as a solution, diazepam was rapidly absorbed and produced serum diazepam concentrations above 200 ng/ml within 10 minutes in most children. However, a commercial suppository formulation was absorbed slowly and cannot be recommended for urgent treatment of fits. There is a need in the UK for a rapidly absorbed preparation of diazepam which is approved for rectal use. PMID:7082038

  3. Lorazepam v. diazepam for pediatric status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rovina Fiona; Turnbull, Jennifer

    2016-05-01

    Clinical question Is intravenous (IV) lorazepam superior to IV diazepam in the treatment of pediatric status epilepticus? Article chosen Chamberlain JM, Okada P, Holsti M, et al. Lorazepam v. diazepam for pediatric status epilepticus: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2014;311(16):1652-60. To determine whether lorazepam has better efficacy and safety than diazepam for treating pediatric status epilepticus.

  4. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Diazepam (Valium)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Diazepam (Valium) is among the most successful drugs from the onset of the psychopharmacological revolution that began during the 1950s. Efficacious in treating a wide-spectrum of CNS disorders, including anxiety and epilepsy, it set the standard for pharmacotherapy in terms of potency, onset of action, and safety. In this Review, the legacy of diazepam to chemical neuroscience will be considered along with its synthesis, pharmacology, drug metabolism, adverse events and dependence, clinical use, and regulatory issues. PMID:24552479

  5. Phenytoin intoxication during concurrent diazepam therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Howard J.; Haslam, Robert A.; Longstreth, James; Lietman, Paul S.

    1977-01-01

    Phenytoin elimination is a saturable process obeying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Plasma phenytoin levels are not related linearly to dose, and small changes in enzyme activity produced by concurrent drug therapy could alter plasma levels. Two cases of phenytoin intoxication associated with simultaneous administration of diazepam are reported. Intravenous phenytoin infusions were given and the apparent Km and Vmax computed from the resulting plasma phenytoin levels. In one case `Km' and `Vmax' were 0.8 μmol/1 and 1.3 μmol/1/hour respectively during concurrent diazepam administration, and 50.3 μmol/1 and 4.4 μmol/1/hour after discontinuation of diazepam. In the second case phenytoin infusion with diazepam gave `Km' and `Vmax' values of 0.012 μmol/1 and 0.95 μmol/1/hour. Without diazepam these were 28.8 μmol/1 and 0.92 μmol/1/hour respectively. PMID:599366

  6. Biosynthesis of human diazepam and clonazepam metabolites.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Núbia C; Araujo Cordeiro, Kelly C F; de Melo Souza, Paula L; Nogueira, Diogo F; da Silva e Sousa, Diego B; Costa, Maísa B; Noël, François; de Oliveira, Valéria

    2015-03-01

    A screening of fungal and microbial strains allowed to select the best microorganisms to produce in high yields some of the human metabolites of two benzodiazepine drugs, diazepam and clonazepam, in order to study new pharmacological activities and for chemical standard proposes. Among the microorganisms tested, Cunninghamella echinulata ATCC 9244 and Rhizopus arrhizus ATCC 11145 strains, were the most active producers of the mains metabolites of diazepam which included demethylated, hydroxylated derivatives. Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159 and Chaetomium indicum LCP 984200 produced the 7 amino-clonazepam metabolite and a product of acid hydrolysis of this benzodiazepine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Capgras syndrome related to diazepam treatment.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jonathan T

    2004-01-01

    Capgras syndrome, the delusion that identical-appearing impostors have replaced familiar people, is an unusual phenomenon usually seen in schizophrenia or dementia. We recently cared for a 78 year old man who seemed to develop Capgras syndrome as an adverse reaction to diazepam. An iatrogenic cause should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any new delusion, including Capgras syndrome.

  8. Reversal of oxycodone and hydrocodone tolerance by diazepam.

    PubMed

    Gonek, Maciej; Akbarali, Hamid I; Henderson, Graeme; Dewey, William L

    2017-11-01

    The Centers for Disease Control has declared opioid abuse to be an epidemic. Overdose deaths are largely assumed to be the result of excessive opioid consumption. In many of these cases, however, opioid abusers are often polydrug abusers. Benzodiazepines are one of the most commonly co-abused substances and pose a significant risk to opioid users. In 2016, the FDA required boxed warnings - the FDA's strongest warning - for prescription opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines about the serious risks associated with using these medications at the same time. The point of our studies was to evaluate the interactions between these two classes of drugs. We investigated whether diazepam adds to the depressant effects of opioids or do they alter the levels of tolerance to opioids. In the present study, we have found that the antinociceptive tolerance that developed to repeated administration of oxycodone was reversed by an acute dose of diazepam. Antinociceptive tolerance to hydrocodone was also reversed by acute injection of diazepam; however, a fourfold higher dose of diazepam was required when compared to reversal of oxycodone-induced tolerance. These doses of diazepam did not potentiate the acute antinociceptive effect of either opioid. The same dose of diazepam that reversed oxycodone antinociceptive tolerance also reversed oxycodone locomotor tolerance while having no potentiating effects. These studies show that diazepam does not potentiate the acute effect of prescription opioids but reverses the tolerance developed after chronic administration of the drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Interaction of diazepam with surfactants. Spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Guardia, M.; Rodilla, F.

    1986-03-01

    The interaction of diazepam with non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactants has been studied spectrophotometrically and fluorometrically. It has been verified that the absorption spectrum of diazepam is not modified in micellar medium. However, a dramatic five-fold increase in fluorescence sensitivity is observed in the presence of sodium lauryl sulphate (SDS). The experimental conditions, temperature, pH and surfactant concentration have been optimized to improve the fluorometric determination of diazepam and a detection limit of 0,04 ppmhas been obtained.

  10. Diazepam and halazepam in anxiety: some prognostic indicators.

    PubMed

    Rickels, K; Case, W G; Chung, H; Downing, R W; Vlahovich, J

    1978-01-01

    A multiple step-search regression procedure was applied to data obtained with 37 diazepam and 42 halazepam treated anxious outpatients. Good treatment outcome was predicted for those patients who reported a more adequate family adjustment, the presence of precipitating stress, and who either had no prior psychotropic drug treatment, or if they had received such treatment, had experienced a good response. Probably of greatest interest to the practicing clinician was the observation that patients high in initial anxiety but low in initial interpersonal problems improved the most with both medications. Differential drug effects indicated halazepam to do particularly poorly in less anxious patients and in those patients given a good prognosis by the doctor. Diazepam response was much less affected by these variables. It is speculated that the excessive sedating effect of the daily halazepam dosage (160 mg/d) used in this study may explain these differential drug effects. In the dosages employed, namely, diazepam 20 mg/d and halazepam 160 mg/d, diazepam produced the more consistent anti-anxiety effects. The indication that halazepam 160 mg/d was more effective than diazepam 20 mg/d in the initially sicker patients, while of interest, is probably simply a dose-related phenomenon, indicating that diazepam 20 mg/d was too low a daily dosage for severely anxious patients, a fact well known by most clinicians.

  11. Direct effects of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, S. E.; Downham, C.; Cowen, P. J.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale Pharmacological agents used in the treatment of anxiety have been reported to decrease threat relevant processing in patients and healthy controls, suggesting a potentially relevant mechanism of action. However, the effects of the anxiolytic diazepam have typically been examined at sedative doses, which do not allow the direct actions on emotional processing to be fully separated from global effects of the drug on cognition and alertness. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a lower, but still clinically effective, dose of diazepam on emotional processing in healthy volunteers. Materials and methods Twenty-four participants were randomised to receive a single dose of diazepam (5 mg) or placebo. Sixty minutes later, participants completed a battery of psychological tests, including measures of non-emotional cognitive performance (reaction time and sustained attention) and emotional processing (affective modulation of the startle reflex, attentional dot probe, facial expression recognition, and emotional memory). Mood and subjective experience were also measured. Results Diazepam significantly modulated attentional vigilance to masked emotional faces and significantly decreased overall startle reactivity. Diazepam did not significantly affect mood, alertness, response times, facial expression recognition, or sustained attention. Conclusions At non-sedating doses, diazepam produces effects on attentional vigilance and startle responsivity that are consistent with its anxiolytic action. This may be an underlying mechanism through which benzodiazepines exert their therapeutic effects in clinical anxiety. PMID:18581100

  12. Evaluation of plasma diazepam and nordiazepam concentrations following administration of diazepam intravenously or via suppository per rectum in dogs.

    PubMed

    Probst, Curtis W; Thomas, William B; Moyers, Tamberlyn D; Martin, Tomas; Cox, Sherry

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of diazepam administered per rectum via compounded (ie, not commercially available) suppositories and determine whether a dose of 2 mg/kg in this formulation would result in plasma concentrations shown to be effective for control of status epilepticus or cluster seizures (ie, 150 to 300 ng/mL) in dogs within a clinically useful interval (10 to 15 minutes). 6 healthy mixed-breed dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 3 dogs each in a crossover-design study. Diazepam (2 mg/kg) was administered IV or via suppository per rectum, and blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Following a 6- or 7-day washout period, each group received the alternate treatment. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam were analyzed via reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and nordiazepam exceeded the targeted range ≤ 3 minutes after IV administration in all dogs. After suppository administration, targeted concentrations of diazepam were not detected in any dogs, and targeted concentrations of nordiazepam were detected after 90 minutes (n = 2 dogs) or 120 minutes (3) or were not achieved (1). On the basis of these results, administration of 2 mg of diazepam/kg via the compounded suppositories used in the present study cannot be recommended for emergency treatment of seizures in dogs.

  13. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Public judgments of information in a diazepam patient package insert.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S; Mansbridge, B; Lankford, D A

    1982-06-01

    As part of a larger study of the effects of giving patients written take-home information with prescription medications, a "patient package insert" (PPI) for diazepam was prepared based on content determined by "experts." This report compares the experts' judgments of what information should be included with judgments obtained from the public. Information judged to be most important for inclusion in a PPI was identified by having subjects sort cards containing facts about diazepam. Subjects who had previously used diazepam were no different in their judgments than inexperienced subjects. In general, there was a high degree of concordance between public and expert judgments and also a remarkably strong consensus across very different demographic samples. In those few instances of disagreement, the public attached even greater importance to warnings and "bad news" about diazepam than to information providing reassurances, benign general education, and "good news." To what extent patients would effectively use this information--whether conveyed by PPIs or alternative educational routes--must await empirical evaluation.

  15. Pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P-450 substrates phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in healthy Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    KuKanich, Butch; Nauss, Jon L

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in six healthy Greyhound dogs. Additionally the pharmacokinetics of the diazepam metabolites oxazepam and nordiazepam after diazepam administration were determined. Phenytoin sodium (12 mg/kg), aminophylline (10 mg/kg), and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) were administered IV on separate occasions and blood obtained at predetermined time points for the quantification of plasma drug concentrations by florescence polarization immunoassay (phenytoin, theophylline) or mass spectrometry (diazepam, oxazepam, nordiazepam). The terminal half-life was 4.9, 9.2, and 1.0 hours, respectively for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam, and 6.2 and 2.4 hours for oxazepam and nordiazepam after IV diazepam. The clearance was of 2.37, 0.935, and 27.9 mL/min/kg respectively for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam. The CMAX was 44.7 and 305.2 ng/mL for oxazepam and nordiazepam, respectively, after diazepam administration. Temazepam was not detected above 5 ng/mL in any sample after IV diazepam. PMID:21692812

  16. Pharmacokinetics of the cytochrome P-450 substrates phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in healthy Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    KuKanich, B; Nauss, J L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam in six healthy Greyhound dogs. Additionally, the pharmacokinetics of the diazepam metabolites, oxazepam and nordiazepam, after diazepam administration was determined. Phenytoin sodium (12 mg/kg), aminophylline (10 mg/kg), and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) were administered IV on separate occasions, and blood was collected at predetermined time points for the quantification of plasma drug concentrations by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (phenytoin, theophylline) or mass spectrometry (diazepam, oxazepam, and nordiazepam). The terminal half-life was 4.9, 9.2, and 1.0 h, respectively, for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam, and 6.2 and 2.4 h for oxazepam and nordiazepam after IV diazepam. The clearance was of 2.37, 0.935, and 27.9 mL · min/kg, respectively, for phenytoin, theophylline, and diazepam. The C(MAX) was 44.7 and 305.2 ng/mL for oxazepam and nordiazepam, respectively, after diazepam administration. Temazepam was not detected above 5 ng/mL in any sample after IV diazepam. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Hypnosis versus diazepam for embryo transfer: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Catoire, Patrick; Delaunay, Laurent; Dannappel, Thomas; Baracchini, Dominique; Marcadet-Fredet, Sabine; Moreau, Olivier; Pacaud, Luc; Przyrowski, Daniel; Marret, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Levitas et al. (2006) showed in a cohort study that hypnosis during embryo transfer (ET) increased pregnancy ratio by 76%. In order to evaluate hypnosis during ET in a general population, the authors performed a randomized prospective controlled study comparing diazepam (usual premedication) administered before ET plus muscle relaxation versus hypnosis plus placebo in 94 patients. Additionally, the authors studied anxiety pre and post ET. Anxiety scores were not different in the two groups before and after ET. No difference in pregnancy and birth ratio was found in the two groups. Hypnosis during ET is as effective as diazepam in terms of pregnancy ratio and anxiolytic effects, but with fewer side effects and should be routinely available.

  18. Midazolam versus diazepam for combined esophogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, D E; Leventhal, R; Kumar, S; Berman, D; Kajani, M; Yoo, Y K; Carra, J; Tarter, R; Van Thiel, D H

    1989-08-01

    This study compares the effects of two different benzodiazepines used for conscious sedation during combined upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy. Subjects were assessed for their degree of analgesia and amnesia for the procedure, prior experience with endoscopy, and willingness to undergo another similar procedure should such be necessary. The patients were randomized single blind to receive either midazolam or diazepam for their preprocedure sedation. The amount of preprocedure sedation utilized was determined by titration of the dose to achieve slurring of speech. Prior to receiving either agent, the subjects were shown a standard card containing pictures of 10 common objects, were asked to name and remember them, and were told they would be "quizzed" (at 30 min and 24 hr) after being sedated for their recollection as to the objects pictured on the card. Each subject filled out a questionnaire addressing their perceived discomfort during the endoscopic procedure and their memory of the procedure 24 hr after the procedure. Sixty-three percent of the midazolam-sedated subjects reported total amnesia for their colonoscopy vs 20% of diazepam-sedated patients (P less than 0.001). Fifty-three percent of midazolam-sedated patients reported total amnesia of their upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vs only 23% of diazepam-sedated subjects (P less than 0.05). The midazolam-sedated subjects reported experiencing less pain with both upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (P less than 0.05) and colonoscopy (P less than 0.001) than did the diazepam-sedated group. Most importantly, the midazolam group was more willing to undergo another similar endoscopic procedure should they be asked to do so by their physician (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Diazepam and Its Effects on Psychophysiological Measures of Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    effects and outlines recent research using diazepam to induce performance decrements. Results of the experiment showed no generalized substan- tive effect...or aspect of the evoked response at a time. To change, for example, from studying the evoked response to patterned stimuli to an experiment designed...tions in terms of the clinical assessment of neurological integrity and diagnosis. In experimental /human engineering settings, it is possible to

  20. Interaction of propoxyphene with diazepam, alprazolam and lorazepam.

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, D R; Greenblatt, D J; Morse, D S; Shader, R I

    1985-01-01

    Healthy volunteers received single doses of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, 10 mg i.v.; alprazolam, 1.0 mg orally; lorazepam, 2 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence. One trial was a control; for the other, subjects ingested propoxyphene, 65 mg every 6 h, for the duration of the benzodiazepine study. The kinetics of each benzodiazepine were determined from multiple plasma concentrations measured following each dose. For diazepam, propoxyphene produced a small and statistically insignificant prolongation of elimination half-life (43 vs 38 h) and reduction of total clearance (0.41 vs 0.47 ml min-1 kg-1). Propoxyphene significantly prolonged alprazolam half-life (18 vs 12 h, P less than 0.005) and reduced total clearance (0.8 vs 1.3 ml min-1 kg-1, P less than 0.005). Propoxyphene had no apparent influence on lorazepam half-life (13.4 vs 13.5 h) or clearance (1.5 vs 1.4 ml min-1 kg-1). Thus propoxyphene significantly impairs the clearance of alprazolam, biotransformed mainly by the oxidative reaction of aliphatic hydroxylation. Propoxyphene has far less effect on the oxidation of diazepam by N-demethylation, and has no apparent influence on lorazepam conjugation. PMID:2858217

  1. Diazepam reduces excitability of amygdala and further influences auditory cortex following sodium salicylate treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Liu, Junxiu; Ma, Furong; Mao, Lanqun

    2016-12-01

    Diazepam can reduce the excitability of lateral amygdala and eventually suppress the excitability of the auditory cortex in rats following salicylate treatment, indicating the regulating effect of lateral amygdala to the auditory cortex in the tinnitus procedure. To study the spontaneous firing rates (SFR) of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala regulated by diazepam in the tinnitus rat model induced by sodium salicylate. This study first created a tinnitus rat modal induced by sodium salicylate, and recorded SFR of both auditory cortex and lateral amygdala. Then diazepam was intraperitoneally injected and the SFR changes of lateral amygdala recorded. Finally, diazepam was microinjected on lateral amygdala and the SFR changes of the auditory cortex recorded. Both SFRs of the auditory cortex and lateral amygdala increased after salicylate treatment. SFR of lateral amygdala decreased after intraperitoneal injection of diazepam. Microinjecting diazepam to lateral amygdala decreased SFR of the auditory cortex ipsilaterally and contralaterally.

  2. Midazolam or diazepam administration during electroencephalography helps to diagnose subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kutluhan; Sahin, Derya Aydin

    2010-08-01

    Although diagnostic contribution of intravenous diazepam administration during electroencephalography (EEG) recording in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis has been known, no another drug with less potential side effects has been studied in this procedure. In this study, diazepam is compared with midazolam in 25 subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-diagnosed children and 10 children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis-suggesting symptoms, normal EEG findings and no certain diagnosis. Neither midazolam nor diazepam affected typical periodic slow-wave complexes. However, in the patients with atypical EEG abnormalities, midazolam, like diazepam, attenuated sharp or sharp-and-slow waves, and therefore made the identification of periodic slow-wave paroxysms easier. In the patients with normal EEGs, both midazolam and diazepam revealed typical periodic complexes on EEG recording in the same 3 patients. Cerebrospinal fluid examination verified the diagnosis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. The findings suggest that midazolam or diazepam administration increases the contribution of EEG recording in atypical cases with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

  3. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Effect of a polyethylene-lined administration set on the availability of diazepam injection.

    PubMed

    Hancock, B G; Black, C D

    1985-02-01

    Delivery of diazepam through a polyethylene-lined i.v. administration set and through a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) set was compared. Diazepam was prepared in concentrations of 50 mg/500 mL and 100 mg/500 mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass containers. Diazepam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at 0 through 5 hours in samples collected simultaneously from the glass solution containers and from the distal ends of a PVC administration set and a polyethylene-lined (non-PVC) set. Flow rates of 50 and 100 mL/hr were tested. For the non-PVC sets, diazepam concentration in the infusate was not significantly different from concentration in the glass container at any sampling time. The overall percentage of diazepam recovered was 100.7 +/- 6.8%. For the PVC sets, diazepam concentration in the infusate was less than in the container at all sampling times, and the overall percentage of diazepam recovered was 65.4 +/- 13.3% (significantly different from delivery for the non-PVC sets). Delivery through the non-PVC sets was not affected by flow rate, type of solution, or concentration of diazepam. For infusion periods of up to five hours, delivery of diazepam through polyethylene-lined i.v. administration sets was superior to delivery through polyvinyl chloride sets.

  5. Rectal diazepam in the treatment of absence status: a pharmacodynamic study

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, Norman; Dhillon, Soraya; Richens, Alan; Oxley, Jolyon

    1981-01-01

    Rectal administration of diazepam is highly effective in terminating absence status as judged by reduction of spike-wave activity in the EEG. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that diazepam can have antiepileptic properties at serum levels well below those previously reported as being necessary to achieve a therapeutic effect. PMID:7310409

  6. Test drives in the Daimler-Benz driving simulator with drivers under diazepam

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-05-01

    The research project investigated the influence of diazepam on the driving performance measured in the Daimler-Benz Driving Simulator. Test subjects were male students; 20 received a medium, and 20 received a high dosage of diazepam. A third group of...

  7. A double-blind comparison of alprazolam, diazepam and placebo in the treatment of anxious out-patients

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K.; Farquharson, R. G.; Khan, M. C.; Majid, A.

    1985-01-01

    1 In a double-blind 28-day comparison of alprazolam, diazepam and placebo, alprazolam 1.5-3 mg/day was of equivalent anxiolytic effect to 15-30 mg diazepam/day and there was some evidence of antidepressant activity by alprazolam, but not diazepam, in neurotic depression. No serious side-effects or laboratory abnormalities were encountered. PMID:2859877

  8. The effect of a novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on development of tolerance and physical dependence following repeated administration of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Jelovac, N; Sikiric, P; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Perovic, D; Marovic, A; Anic, T; Seiwerth, S; Mise, S; Pigac, B; Duplancie, B; Turkovic, B; Dodig, G; Prkacin, I; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Zoricic, I; Aralica, G; Sebecic, B; Ziger, T; Slobodnjak, Z

    1999-09-30

    A novel gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 with different beneficial activities and anticonvulsant effect interacting with GABAergic system could improve diazepam efficacy coadministered (10 microg/kg, 10 ng/kg i.p.) with diazepam (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) twice daily for 10 days, since diazepam chronic medication would otherwise predispose for diazepam- tolerance/withdrawal development (shorter latency to convulsion after convulsant). In diazepam chronically treated mice, it attenuated diazepam tolerance (provoked by later acute administration of diazepam together with convulsant) and postponed physical dependence/withdrawal effects (provoked by later administration of isoniazid). In tolerance assay, at 42 h after the end of conditioning regimen, shorter preconvulsive latencies than in healthy (non-diazepam conditioned) mice following isoniazid (800 mg/kg i.p.) (as hallmark of tolerance) were observed if diazepam (5.0 mg/kg i.p.) was again given acutely to mice previously conditioned with diazepam alone (use of picrotoxin 3.0 mg/kg i.p., as convulsant, with acute application of diazepam in previously diazepam conditioned mice did not lead to tolerance hallmark). This was completely avoided in diazepam+BPC 157 10 microg or diazepam+BPC 157 10 ng chronically treated animals. In physical dependence assay (isoniazid challenge assessed at 6, 14, 42 and 72 h after conditioning medication), when compared to diazepam non-conditioned healthy mice, in diazepam conditioned mice residual anticonvulsive activity was not present already at the earliest post-conditioning interval (i.e., not different latency to isoniazid-convulsions), whereas shorter preconvulsive latencies (as physical dependence/withdrawal hallmark) were noted in diazepam conditioned mice following isoniazid challenge at 42 h and at 72 h after end of conditioning treatment. In diazepam+BPC 157 10 microg- conditioned mice, a residual anticonvulsive activity (i.e., longer latency to isoniazid convulsion) was noted at 6 h

  9. Intermittent diazepam prophylaxis in febrile convulsions. Pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, F U

    1991-01-01

    Major cohort studies document that the long-term prognosis for most children with febrile convulsions (FC) is excellent. The 2 main treatment alternatives so far have been long-term prophylaxis with phenobarbital or valproate or no prophylaxis at all. Phenobarbital at times of fever is ineffective and obsolete. Consensus has emerged that long-term prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is rarely justified in FC considering the side effects and the favourable prognosis. No treatment at all does not appear quite satisfactory either, as FC have a high recurrence rate, disrupt family life and may have emotional consequences for the family. Moreover, all FC children face a risk, although admittedly low, of subsequent long-lasting potentially central nervous system (CNS)-damaging seizures. However, 2 further options exist: treatment with rapid-acting benzodiazepines solely at times of greatest risk, i.e., at high fever or at renewed seizures. Several clinical trials have confirmed that intermittent diazepam prophylaxis by way of a few doses of the drug per year provides effective seizure control and reduces the recurrence rate by one half or two thirds. The treatment is feasible and cheap, well tolerated by the child and well accepted by the parents. Compliance problems are common and only partly abatable. Trivial side effects are frequent. Transient respiratory apnoea does occur, but 15 years' experience substantiates that serious side effects are remarkably rare. Acute anticonvulsant treatment with rectal diazepam in solution given by the parents to stop ongoing seizures and to prevent immediate recurrences is an attractive alternative. It is feasible, is probably effective and minimizes the use of drugs, but compliance problems are common and protracted seizures are not always controlled. The subsequent management should include a risk profile approach considering a combination of risk factors for new FC rather than a single factor. By means of a risk index, based on

  10. Comparison of intranasal midazolam with intravenous diazepam for treating febrile seizures in children: prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Eli; Goldman, Michael; Barr, Joseph; Bistritzer, Tzvi; Berkovitch, Matithyahu

    2000-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of midazolam given intranasally with diazepam given intravenously in the treatment of children with prolonged febrile seizures. Design Prospective randomised study. Setting Paediatric emergency department in a general hospital. Subjects 47 children aged six months to five years with prolonged febrile seizure (at least 10 minutes) during a 12 month period. Interventions Intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) and intravenous diazepam (0.3 mg/kg). Main outcome measures Time from arrival at hospital to starting treatment and cessation of seizures. Results Intranasal midazolam and intravenous diazepam were equally effective. Overall, 23 of 26 seizures were controlled with midazolam and 24 out of 26 with diazepam. The mean time from arrival at hospital to starting treatment was significantly shorter in the midazolam group (3.5 (SD 1.8) minutes, 95% confidence interval 3.3 to 3.7) than the diazepam group (5.5 (2.0), 5.3 to 5.7). The mean time to control of seizures was significantly sooner (6.1 (3.6), 6.3 to 6.7) in the midazolam group than the diazepam group (8.0 (0.5), 7.9 to 8.3). No significant side effects were observed in either group. Conclusion Seizures were controlled more quickly with intravenous diazepam than with intranasal midazolam, although midazolam was as safe and effective as diazepam. The overall time to cessation of seizures after arrival at hospital was faster with intranasal midazolam than with intravenous diazepam. The intranasal route can possibly be used not only in medical centres but in general practice and, with appropriate instructions, by families of children with recurrent febrile seizures at home. PMID:10884257

  11. Randomised Comparative Study on Propofol and Diazepam as a Sedating Agent in Day Care Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nirwan, Amit S; Jain, Neha; Pragasm, Micheal; Kamblimath, Deepashri; Bhargava, Anurag; Tiwari, Saba

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to assess the usefulness by qualitative comparison between the two intravenous sedative drugs, Diazepam and Propofol and to provide sedation in apprehensive and uncooperative patients undergoing day care oral surgical procedures. The present study was conducted on 20 adult patients, 10 in each group (Propofol and Diazepam) irrespective of age and sex. Intravenous sedation of Propofol compared with Diazepam in terms of onset of action, recovery, and anterograde amnesia, patient co-operation, surgeon's convenience and side effects and other parameters. Propofol was found to be the superior sedating agent compared to Diazepam, having rapid onset and predictability of action, profoundness of amnesia and a faster recovery period, offering advantages of early patient discharge and better patient compliance. Propofol was found to be an ideal sedating agent in day care oral surgical procedures.

  12. The efficacy of diazepam in enhancing motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Anna; Mathew, M C; Thomas, Molly; Antonisamy, B

    2005-04-01

    Muscle spasm and hypertonia limit mobility in children with spastic cerebral palsy. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled clinical trial studies the clinical efficacy of a low dose of diazepam in enhancing movement in children with spastic cerebral palsy. One hundred and eighty children fulfilled the criteria and were randomly allocated to receive one of two doses of diazepam or placebo at bedtime; 173 completed the study. There was a significant reduction of hypertonia, improvement in the range of passive movement, and an increase in spontaneous movement in the children who received diazepam. There was no report of daytime drowsiness. In developing countries, where cost factors often determine choice of drug, diazepam is a cheap and effective way of relieving spasm and stiffness, optimizing physical therapy and facilitating movement in children with spasticity.

  13. Diazepam and its metabolites in the mothers' and newborns' hair as a biomarker of prenatal exposure.

    PubMed

    Senczuk-Przybylowska, M; Florek, E; Piekoszewski, W; Merritt, T A; Lechowicz, E; Mazela, J; Kulza, M; Breborowicz, G H; Krzyscin, M; Markwitz, W; Miechowicz, I

    2013-08-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to benzodiazepines for therapeutic purposes during gestation. The goal of this study was to evaluate prenatal exposure to benzodiazepines. Time of exposure during course of pregnancy is a significant aspect of fetal exposure to drugs. Benzodiazepine concentration assay in hair of mothers and newborns exposed prenatally to these drugs was performed in the studies. Development, validation and evaluation of benzodiazepine determination method in mothers and their newborns enables assessment of health risks for the child and implementation of adequate therapeutic procedures. We used A LC-ESI-MS/MS method that allowed determination of diazepam (the main benzodiazepine used by pregnant women was diazepam) and its metabolites (nordazepam, oxazepam) in hair of mothers and newborns. LOQ 10 pg/mg of hair was used in the study. concentration of nordazepam was higher than parent drug (diazepam) and higher in newborns' hair when compared to mothers'. The mean concentrations of diazepam in mothers' hair were 31.6±36.0 and 34.1±42.4 pg/mg in the second and third trimester of pregnancy respectively. The mean concentration of diazepam in newborns' hair was higher and reached levels of 53.3±36.5 pg/mg. The mean concentration of nordazepam in the mothers' hair corresponding to the second and third trimester was 52.9±48.1 and 89.9±122.8 pg/mg, respectively. Nordazepam in the newborns' hair was detected at the mean level of 108.1±144.2 pg/mg. It was concluded that diazepam and nordazepam are permanently incorporated into the hair structure. Presence of diazepam and its metabolites in newborn's hair confirms that these benzodiazepines permeate placental barrier. Segmental analysis of mothers' hair enabled the assessment of drug administration time. Diazepam and its metabolites determined in hair of newborns may serve as biomarkers of prenatal exposure to these drugs. The performed LC-MS/MS analysis was accurate enough to determine even low concentrations

  14. Determination of minimal steady-state plasma level of diazepam causing seizure threshold elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Rogawski, Michael A

    2018-05-01

    Diazepam, administered by the intravenous, oral, or rectal routes, is widely used for the management of acute seizures. Dosage forms for delivery of diazepam by other routes of administration, including intranasal, intramuscular, and transbuccal, are under investigation. In predicting what dosages are necessary to terminate seizures, the minimal exposure required to confer seizure protection must be known. Here we administered diazepam by continuous intravenous infusion to obtain near-steady-state levels, which allowed an assessment of the minimal levels that elevate seizure threshold. The thresholds for various behavioral seizure signs (myoclonic jerk, clonus, and tonus) were determined with the timed intravenous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold test in rats. Diazepam was administered to freely moving animals by continuous intravenous infusion via an indwelling jugular vein cannula. Blood samples for assay of plasma levels of diazepam and metabolites were recovered via an indwelling cannula in the contralateral jugular vein. The pharmacokinetic parameters of diazepam following a single 80-μg/kg intravenous bolus injection were determined using a noncompartmental pharmacokinetic approach. The derived parameters V d , CL, t 1/2α (distribution half-life) and t 1/2β (terminal half-life) for diazepam were, respectively, 608 mL, 22.1 mL/min, 13.7 minutes, and 76.8 minutes, respectively. Various doses of diazepam were continuously infused without or with an initial loading dose. At the end of the infusions, the thresholds for various behavioral seizure signs were determined. The minimal plasma diazepam concentration associated with threshold elevations was estimated at approximately 70 ng/mL. The active metabolites nordiazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam achieved levels that are expected to make only minor contributions to the threshold elevations. Diazepam elevates seizure threshold at steady-state plasma concentrations lower than previously recognized. The

  15. Short-term and long-term effects of diazepam on the memory for discrimination and generalization of scopolamine.

    PubMed

    Casasola-Castro, C; Weissmann-Sánchez, L; Calixto-González, E; Aguayo-Del Castillo, A; Velázquez-Martínez, D N

    2017-10-01

    Benzodiazepines are among the most widely prescribed and misused psychopharmaceutical drugs. Although they are well-tolerated, they are also capable of producing amnestic effects similar to those observed after pharmacological or organic cholinergic dysfunction. To date, the effect of benzodiazepine diazepam on the memory for discrimination of anticholinergic drugs has not been reported. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate and long-term effects of diazepam on a drug discrimination task with scopolamine. Male Wistar rats were trained to discriminate between scopolamine and saline administration using a two-lever discrimination task. Once discrimination was acquired, the subjects were divided into three independent groups, (1) control, (2) diazepam, and (3) diazepam chronic administration (10 days). Subsequently, generalization curves for scopolamine were obtained. Additionally, the diazepam and control groups were revaluated after 90 days without having been given any other treatment. The results showed that diazepam produced a significant reduction in the generalization gradient for scopolamine, indicating an impairment of discrimination. The negative effect of diazepam persisted even 90 days after drug had been administered. Meanwhile, the previous administration of diazepam for 10 days totally abated the generalization curve and the general performance of the subjects. The results suggest that diazepam affects memory for the stimulus discrimination of anticholinergic drugs and does so persistently, which could be an important consideration during the treatment of amnesic patients with benzodiazepines.

  16. Diazepam-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: design and characterization.

    PubMed

    Abdelbary, Ghada; Fahmy, Rania H

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of the inclusion of a water-insoluble drug (diazepam, DZ) into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), which offer combined advantages of rapid onset and prolonged release of the drug. This work also describes a new approach to prepare suppositories containing DZ-loaded SLN dispersions, as potential drug carrier for the rectal route. Modified high-shear homogenization and ultrasound techniques were employed to prepare SLNs. The effect of incorporation of different concentrations of Compritol ATO 888 or Imwitor 900K and Poloxamer 188 or Tween 80 was investigated. Results showed that varying the type or concentration of lipid matrix or surfactant had a noticeable influence on the entrapment efficiencies, particle size, and release profiles of prepared SLNs. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the majority of SLNs possessed less ordered arrangements of crystals than the corresponding bulk lipids, which was favorable for increasing the drug loading capacity. Transmission electron microscopy and laser diffractometry studies revealed that the prepared nanoparticles were round and homogeneous and 60% of the formulations were less than 500 nm. Additionally, SLN formulations showed significant (P < 0.05) prolonged release than DZ solution. The subsequent step encompassed the preparation and evaluation of SLN-based suppositories utilizing SLN formulations that illustrated optimal release profiles. The in vitro release of DZ from the suppositories prepared using DZ-loaded SLN dispersions (equivalent to 2 mg DZ) was significantly (P < 0.05) extended compared to suppositories containing 2 mg DZ free drug.

  17. Detomidine-diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Pawde, A M; Amarpal; Kinjavdekar, P; Aithal, H P; Pratap, K; Bisht, G S

    2000-04-01

    Eight buffalo calves (8-12 months, 70-100 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups of four animals each. Animals of group I were given detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), whereas animals of group II received a mixture of detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), diazepam (100 micrograms/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) (DDK) intravenously. Various clinical parameters, such as weak time, down time, pedal and pinprick reflexes, muscle relaxation and extent of sedation, as well as heart and respiratory rates and electrocardiograms were measured before (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min after treatment. In all the animals of group II (DDK), the pedal reflex was completely abolished (score: 3.00 +/- 0.00) within 5 min, the pinprick response was either very weak or it was completely abolished at this interval. Muscle relaxation and sedation were excellent within 5 min of DDK administration. The depth of sedation and analgesia was maximum from 5 to 15 min postinjection. Detomidine alone, however, failed to produce appropriate depression of the pedal and pinprick reflexes, sedation was mild and muscle relaxation was inadequate. Heart rate showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in group I, but the decrease was non-significant in group II. A more pronounced increase in respiratory rate was observed in group I as compared to group II. Animals of both groups recovered within 90 min without any complication. Minimal changes in the cardiovascular system in the group given the DDK combination were an advantage over the group given detomidine. The results indicated that DDK combination is safe and suitable for 15 min of anaesthesia with excellent muscle relaxation and has only limited cardiorespiratory effects in buffaloes.

  18. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of diazepam by oxidation with N-bromosuccinimide.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Jia, Shize; Guo, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is described for the determination of diazepam based on its reaction with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in alkaline medium in the presence of dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as an effective energy-transfer agent. Under optimum conditions, the proposed method allowed the measurement of diazepam over the range of 2.0 × 10(-6) to 2.0 × 10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L. The relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 2.0 × 10(-5) mol/L diazepam was 2.1%. The method was applied satisfactorily for the determination of diazepam in pharmaceutical preparations, and the results agree well with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The use of the proposed system for the determination of diazepam in urine and plasma samples was also tested. The possible mechanism of the chemiluminescence reaction is discussed briefly. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of diazepam and clonazepam on the function of isolated rat platelet and neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Grazyna; Zółkowska, Dorota; Kleinrok, Zdzisław

    2002-04-01

    Benzodiazepine binding sites distinct from the GABA-receptor-chloride-complex in the central nervous system have been recognized in many peripheral tissues, but their physiological role remains unexplained. Our study was undertaken to examine the effects of diazepam, clonazepam, and PK 11195, a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, on the functional and biochemical responses of platelets and neutrophils stimulated by different physiological agonists. The experiments were conducted on isolated washed rat platelets activated by arachidonic acid (AA), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), or thrombin and on isolated rat neutrophils activated by a chemotactic peptide, formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP). The results showed that neither diazepam nor clonazepam nor PK 11195 alone augmented the response of resting platelets or modified neutrophil response, but diazepam and clonazepam in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited thrombin, ADP or AA-stimulated platelet aggregation and the thrombin-induced increase in free intracellular Ca2+. Both drugs also exerted an inhibitory effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. However, diazepam was about 10 times more effective than clonazepam. PK11195 did not influence platelet and neutrophil function stimulated by agonists, but reversed the inhibitory action of both benzodiazepines on platelet activation and ROS production. The results indicated that in vitro diazepam, and in a much smaller degree clonazepam, may down-regulate platelet activation and release of some proinflammatory mediators by stimulated neutrophils. These effects are probably exerted by a specific benzodiazepine binding sites.

  20. [Effects of diazepam on mixed anxiety/depression state in male mice].

    PubMed

    Galiamina, A G; Smagin, D A; Kovalenko, I L; Bondar', N P; Kudriavtseva, N N

    2013-11-01

    Chronic social defeat stress in daily agonistic interactions leads to the development of mixed anxiety/depression state in male mice. This paper aimed to study the effects of chronic diazepam treatment on the psychoemotional state of these animals. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, i/p, Polfa Tarchomin S. A.) or saline was chronically injected into male mice for two weeks on the background of continuing agonistic interactions (preventive treatment) or into male mice with mixed anxiety/depression state after stopping of social confrontations (therapeutic treatment). Then, the animals were studied in the partition, plus-maze and Porsolt' tests, estimating the levels of communicativeness, anxiety and depressiveness, respectively. Preventive diazepam treatment had a weak protective anxiolytic and pro-depressive effect. The therapeutic diazepam treatment didn't influence on the anxiety and depression-like state. Chronic diazepam was ineffective for the treatment of the mixed anxiety/depression state in male mice. Different effects ofdiazepam on anxiety and depression-like states under preventive treatment confirmed our conclusion shown earlier about the independent development of these pathologies at least in our experimental paradigm.

  1. Bioavailability of diazepam after intravenous, oral and rectal administration in adult epileptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, S; Oxley, J; Richens, A

    1982-01-01

    1 The absorption of single doses of diazepam in six adult epileptic subjects following intravenous, oral and rectal administration were studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the latter in emergency situations in the adult. 2 Diazepam tablets (Valium, Roche) and rectal solution (Valium solution for intravenous administration) produced similar peak serum concentrations after delays of 15-90 min. 3 Two suppository formulations showed statistically significant differences in absorption characteristics. 4 Serum diazepam levels above 400 ng ml-1 (suggested to be necessary for a satisfactory anticonvulsant effect) were reached in only a few subjects after rectal doses of 10-20 mg of solution, and then usually after a delay of over 2 h. PMID:7059446

  2. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of diazepam, phenytoin and phenobarbitone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Thilak Kumar, R.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2006-12-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool for the structural investigation of the organic molecules. In the present investigation, a normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on some anti-epileptic drugs, viz. diazepam, phenytoin and phenobarbitone. Diazepam is a derivative of benzodiazepine, phenytoin is a derivative of hydanation and pheonobarbitone is a barbiturate. The infrared spectra of the compounds are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm -1 and Raman spectra are recorded in the region 3500-50 cm -1. From the structural point of view, diazepam, phenytoin and phenobarbitone have been assumed to C s point group. A systematic set of symmetry coordinates has been constructed for these compounds and Wilson's FG matrix method has been applied for the normal coordinate analysis using general quadratic valance force field. The potential energy distribution is also calculated to check the vibrational band assignments.

  3. Vestibulo-ocular reflexes in rabbits: reduction by intravenous injection of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Barmack, N H; Pettorossi, V E

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the influence of intravenously administered diazepam on the horizontal (HVOR) and vertical (VVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflexes of the rabbit. The HVOR and VVOR were evoked by sinusoidal oscillation of rabbits on a rate table (0.01 to 0.8 Hz, +/- 10 degrees), and eye movements were measured with an infrared light-projection technique. The gains of the HVOR and VVOR (evoked eye velocity/head velocity) were reduced by diazepam injections of 5 microgram/kg. The dose required to produce a 50% reduction in HVOR gain was 500 microgram/kg. The time required to reduce the HVOR gain to 50% of its maximal reduction at dose of 400 microgram/kg (0.4 Hz +/- 10 degrees) was 60 s. These data suggest that diazepam might be effective as an anti-motion-sickness agent.

  4. Development of a Flow Injection System for Differential Pulse Amperometry and Its Application for Diazepam Determination

    PubMed Central

    Antunović, Vesna; Tešanović, Slavna; Perušković, Danica; Stevanović, Nikola; Baošić, Rada; Mandić, Snežana

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the development of a flow injection system for differential pulse amperometry (DPA) for diazepam determination in the presence of oxygen. The thin flow cell consisted of the bare glassy carbon electrode, reference silver/silver chloride, and stainless steel as the auxiliary electrode. Electrochemical reduction of diazepam (DZP) was characterised by cyclic voltammetry. Azomethine reduction peak was used for DZP quantification. The detector response was linear in the range 20–250 µmol/dm3 of diazepam, with a calculated detection limit of 3.83 µg/cm3. Intraday and interday precision were 1.53 and 10.8%, respectively. The method was applied on three beverage samples, energetic drink, and two different beer samples, and obtained recoveries were from 93.65 up to 104.96%. The throughoutput of the method was up to 90 analyses per hour. PMID:29744233

  5. Lack of Effect of Vortioxetine on the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Ethanol, Diazepam, and Lithium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Grace; Nomikos, George G; Affinito, John; Zhao, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    Because the multimodal antidepressant vortioxetine is likely to be coadministered with other central nervous system (CNS)-active drugs, potential drug-drug interactions warrant examination. These studies evaluated whether there are pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between vortioxetine and ethanol, diazepam, or lithium. This series of phase I studies included healthy men and women (only men in the lithium study) aged 18-45 years. The ethanol study was a randomized, double-blind, two-parallel group, four-period crossover study in which subjects received a single dose of vortioxetine (20 or 40 mg) or placebo with or without ethanol, and the diazepam study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-sequence, two-period crossover study in which subjects received a single dose of diazepam following multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg/day or placebo. These two studies evaluated the effect of coadministration on standardized psychomotor parameters and on selected pharmacokinetic parameters of each drug. The lithium study was a single-blind, single-sequence study evaluating the effect of multiple doses of vortioxetine 10 mg/day on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of lithium. Concomitant administration of vortioxetine and single doses of either ethanol or diazepam had no significant effect on the psychomotor performance of subjects compared with administration of ethanol or diazepam alone. Vortioxetine had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethanol, diazepam, or lithium, and ethanol had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of vortioxetine. Concomitant administration of these agents with vortioxetine was generally well tolerated, with no clinically relevant drug-drug pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions identified.

  6. The Lorazepam and Diazepam Protocol for Catatonia Due to General Medical Condition and Substance in Liaison Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-01-01

    The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance. Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria. The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists. Eighteen (85.7%) of 21 catatonic patients due to GMC or substance became free of catatonia after the lorazepam-diazepam protocol. Five (23.8%) of the 21 patients had passed away with various causes of death and wide range of time periods after catatonia. Our results showed that the lorazepam-diazepam protocol could rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia due to GMC and substance.

  7. Cognitive mechanisms of diazepam administration: a healthy volunteer model of emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Pringle, A; Warren, M; Gottwald, J; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2016-06-01

    Benzodiazepine drugs continue to be prescribed relatively frequently for anxiety disorders, especially where other treatments have failed or when rapid alleviation of anxiety is imperative. The neuropsychological mechanism by which these drugs act to relieve symptoms, however, remains underspecified. Cognitive accounts of anxiety disorders emphasise hypervigilance for threat in the maintenance of the disorders. The current study examined the effects of 7- or 8-day administration of diazepam in healthy participants (n = 36) on a well-validated battery of tasks measuring emotional processing, including measures of vigilance for threat and physiological responses to threat. Compared to placebo, diazepam reduced vigilant-avoidant patterns of emotional attention (p < 0.01) and reduced general startle responses (p < .05). Diazepam administration had limited effects on emotional processing, enhancing the response to positive vs negative words in the emotional categorisation task (p < .05), modulating emotional memory in terms of false accuracy (p < .05) and slowing the recognition of all facial expressions of emotion (p = .01). These results have implications for our understanding of the cognitive mechanisms of benzodiazepine treatment. The data reported here suggests that diazepam modulates emotional attention, an effect which may be involved in its therapeutic actions in anxiety.

  8. Formulation of diazepam containing rectal suppositories and experiences of their biopharmaceutical study.

    PubMed

    Regdon, G; Bácskay, I; Kata, M; Selmeczi, B; Szikszay, M; Sánta, A; Bálint, G S

    1994-05-01

    Methodology and the results of the in vitro membrane diffusion and in vivo bioavailability studies are presented. The results confirm a correlation between in vitro and in vivo findings. Hydrophilic macrogol-mixture with great molecular mass can be recommended as the optimal vehicle for formulation of diazepam suppositories.

  9. Diazepam dose-dependently increases or decreases implicit priming of alcohol associations in problem drinkers.

    PubMed

    Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X; Woodford, Tracy M

    2006-01-01

    Words denoting negative affect (NEG) have been found to prime alcohol-related words (ALC) on semantic priming tasks, and this effect is tied to severity of addiction. Previous research suggested that high doses of benzodiazepines may dampen NEG-ALC priming. The present study tested this possibility and the role of motivation for alcohol in this process. A placebo-controlled, double blind, between-within, counterbalanced design was employed. Two groups of male problem drinkers (n = 6/group) received a high (15-mg) or low (5-mg) dose of diazepam versus placebo on two identical test sessions. A lexical decision task assessed priming. Under placebo, significant NEG-->ALC priming emerged in each group. High-dose diazepam selectively reversed this effect, while low-dose selectively enhanced it. Correlations between NEG-->ALC priming and desire for alcohol provided further support that semantic priming of ALC concepts reflects a motivational process. The bi-directional effects found here parallel the effects of high- versus low-dose benzodiazepines on alcohol self-administration in animals. High-dose diazepam reduces prime-induced activation of ALC concepts in problem drinkers. Low-dose diazepam facilitates this process, and cross-priming of motivation for alcohol appears to explain this effect. Neurochemical modulation of the alcohol memory network may contribute to the motivational effects of benzodiazepines in problem drinkers.

  10. The effects of diazepam and zolpidem on cocaine- and amphetamine-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Meririnne, E; Kankaanpää, A; Lillsunde, P; Seppälä, T

    1999-01-01

    Drugs such as benzodiazepines, which enhance the effects of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), are known to modulate the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, which is considered to mediate the rewarding effects of psychostimulants. The effects of diazepam, a benzodiazepine that binds unspecifically to omega 1- (omega1-) and omega2-receptors, and zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine drug that binds preferentially to omega1-receptors, on cocaine- and amphetamine-induced place preference were evaluated in Wistar rats. In tests using the counterbalanced method, neither diazepam (0.2, 1, and 5 mg/kg) nor zolpidem (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) alone induced place preference or place aversion. Diazepam pretreatment prevented both cocaine- and amphetamine-induced (15 and 9 mg/kg, respectively) place preference; however, at doses that were earlier shown to cause sedation and amnesia, zolpidem failed to prevent either cocaine- or amphetamine-induced place preference. These results suggest that diazepam interferes with the rewarding properties of the psychostimulants, whereas zolpidem is less effective in this respect, possibly due to differential distribution of omega1- and omega2-receptors in the brain.

  11. Diazepam prophylaxis of contrast media-induced seizures during computed tomography of patients with brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Pagani, J.J.; Hayman, L.A.; Bigelow, R.H.

    1983-04-01

    The effect of 5 mg of intravenous diazepam (Valium) on contrast media-associated seizer incidence was studied in a randomized controlled trial involving 284 patients with known or suspected brain metastases undergoing cerebral computed tomography. Of these patients, 188 were found to have brain metastases, and it is estimated that for this subgroup prophylactic diazepam reduces the risk of contrast-assocated seizure by a factor of 0.26. Seizures occurred in three of 96 patients with metastases on diazepam and in 14 of 92 patients with metastases but without diazepam. Factors related to increased risk of contrast media-associated seizures are: (1) prior seizuremore » history due to brain metatases and/or prior contrast, (2) progressive cerebral metastases, and (3) prior or concurrent brain antineoplastic therapy. Factors not related to an increased risk of these seizures are: (1) contrast media dosage, chemical composition, or osmolarity, (2) computed tomographic appearance of metastases, and (3) type of primary malignancy. Concomitant therapeutic levels of diphenylhydantoin (Dilantin) do not protect completely against contrast media-associated seizures. Pathophysiology of contrast media-associated seizures is discussed in view of the risk factors determined by this study.« less

  12. Lorazepam vs diazepam for pediatric status epilepticus: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, James M; Okada, Pamela; Holsti, Maija; Mahajan, Prashant; Brown, Kathleen M; Vance, Cheryl; Gonzalez, Victor; Lichenstein, Richard; Stanley, Rachel; Brousseau, David C; Grubenhoff, Joseph; Zemek, Roger; Johnson, David W; Clemons, Traci E; Baren, Jill

    Benzodiazepines are considered first-line therapy for pediatric status epilepticus. Some studies suggest that lorazepam may be more effective or safer than diazepam, but lorazepam is not Food and Drug Administration approved for this indication. To test the hypothesis that lorazepam has better efficacy and safety than diazepam for treating pediatric status epilepticus. This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted from March 1, 2008, to March 14, 2012. Patients aged 3 months to younger than 18 years with convulsive status epilepticus presenting to 1 of 11 US academic pediatric emergency departments were eligible. There were 273 patients; 140 randomized to diazepam and 133 to lorazepam. Patients received either 0.2 mg/kg of diazepam or 0.1 mg/kg of lorazepam intravenously, with half this dose repeated at 5 minutes if necessary. If status epilepticus continued at 12 minutes, fosphenytoin was administered. The primary efficacy outcome was cessation of status epilepticus by 10 minutes without recurrence within 30 minutes. The primary safety outcome was the performance of assisted ventilation. Secondary outcomes included rates of seizure recurrence and sedation and times to cessation of status epilepticus and return to baseline mental status. Outcomes were measured 4 hours after study medication administration. Cessation of status epilepticus for 10 minutes without recurrence within 30 minutes occurred in 101 of 140 (72.1%) in the diazepam group and 97 of 133 (72.9%) in the lorazepam group, with an absolute efficacy difference of 0.8% (95% CI, -11.4% to 9.8%). Twenty-six patients in each group required assisted ventilation (16.0% given diazepam and 17.6% given lorazepam; absolute risk difference, 1.6%; 95% CI, -9.9% to 6.8%). There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes except that lorazepam patients were more likely to be sedated (66.9% vs 50%, respectively; absolute risk difference, 16.9%; 95% CI, 6.1% to 27.7%). Among

  13. The effect of variable-dose diazepam on dreaming and emergence phenomena in 400 cases of ketamine-fentanyl anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Grace, R F

    2003-09-01

    This randomised double-blind field study compared 400 anaesthetics using diazepam (0, 0.025, 0.5, 0.1, 0.175 mg.kg-1) with ketamine (1 mg.kg-1) and fentanyl (1 microg.kg-1) in Melanesian patients. Dreams were very common and generally positive in nature. A minimum of 0.1 mg.kg-1 of diazepam was needed to significantly reduce dreaming when compared with water (67.5% vs. 94.6%; p < 0.0001), and to significantly lower median (95% CI) emergence delirium scores (4 (3-4) vs. 6 (5-7)). Gender and age did not affect the rate of dreaming. Increasing the dose of diazepam did not improve the dream experience. Patient satisfaction scores were similar between groups. Increases in blood pressure and heart rate were greater in dreamers than in non-dreamers. All groups had high rate-pressure products but this was highest when diazepam was not used. Higher diazepam doses significantly reduced the increase in blood pressure and heart rate at 3 and 6 min postketamine. When used with ketamine and fentanyl, 0.1 mg.kg-1 of diazepam has favourable psychic and cardiovascular effects. Lower diazepam doses generally had little effect whereas larger doses did not enhance the benefits further.

  14. Two compartment model of diazepam biotransformation in an organotypical culture of primary human hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Acikgoez, Ali; Department of Surgery, Universitaet Leipzig, Liebig Str. 20, D-04103 Leipzig; Karim, Najibulla

    2009-01-15

    Drug biotransformation is one of the most important parameters of preclinical screening tests for the registration of new drug candidates. Conventional existing tests rely on nonhuman models which deliver an incomplete metabolic profile of drugs due to the lack of proper CYP450 expression as seen in human liver in vivo. In order to overcome this limitation, we used an organotypical model of human primary hepatocytes for the biotransformation of the drug diazepam with special reference to metabolites in both the cell matrix phase and supernatant and its interaction of three inducers (phenobarbital, dexamethasone, aroclor 1254) in different time responses (1,more » 2, 4, 8, 24 h). Phenobarbital showed the strongest inducing effect in generating desmethyldiazepam and induced up to a 150 fold increase in oxazepam-content which correlates with the increased availability of the precursor metabolites (temazepam and desmethyldiazepam). Aroclor 1254 and dexamethasone had the strongest inducing effect on temazepam and the second strongest on oxazepam. The strong and overlapping inductive role of phenobarbital strengthens the participation of CYP2B6 and CYP3A in diazepam N-demethylation and CYP3A in temazepam formation. Aroclor 1254 preferentially generated temazepam due to the interaction with CYP3A and potentially CYP2C19. In parallel we represented these data in the form of a mathematical model with two compartments explaining the dynamics of diazepam metabolism with the effect of these other inducers in human primary hepatocytes. The model consists of ten differential equations, with one for each concentration c{sub i,j} (i = diazepam, temazepam, desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam, other metabolites) and one for each compartment (j = cell matrix phase, supernatant), respectively. The parameters p{sub k} (k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 13) are rate constants describing the biotransformation of diazepam and its metabolites and the other parameters (k = 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15

  15. Medical management with diazepam for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children.

    PubMed

    Francois, Densley; Roberts, Jessica; Hess, Stephany; Probst, Luke; Eksioglu, Yaman

    2014-03-01

    Oral diazepam, administered in varying doses, is among the few proposed treatment options for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children. We sought to retrospectively evaluate the long-term efficacy of high-dose oral diazepam in reducing electrographic and clinical evidence of electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep in children. Additionally, we surveyed caregivers to assess safety and behavioral outcomes related to ongoing therapy. We collected demographic and clinical data on children treated for electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep between October 2010 and March 2013. We sought to identify the number of patients who achieved at least a 50% reduction in spike wave index on electroencephalograph after receiving high-dose oral diazepam. We also administered a questionnaire to caregivers to assess for behavioral problems and side effects. We identified 42 evaluable patients who received high-dose diazepam (range 0.23-2.02 mg/kg per day) to treat electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep. Twenty-six patients had spike reduction data and 18/26 (69.2%) children achieved a greater than 50% reduction in spike wave count from an average of 15.54 to 5.05 (P = 0.001). We received 28 responses to the questionnaire. Some patients experienced new onset of difficulties with problem-solving and speech and writing development. Sleep disturbances (50%) and irritability (57.1%) were the most frequent side effects reported. There did not appear to be a dose-related effect with electroencephalograph changes, behavioral effects, or side effects. High-dose oral diazepam significantly reduces the spike wave count on electroencephalograph in children with electrical status epilepticus during slow wave sleep. Although this therapy improves electroencephalograph-related findings, it can be associated with concerning neurological and behavioral side effects in some individuals, so further study is warranted. Copyright © 2014

  16. High-dose diazepam facilitates core cooling during cold saline infusion in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; Northington, William E; Callaway, Clifton W

    2009-08-01

    Studies have suggested that inducing mild hypothermia improves neurologic outcomes after traumatic brain injury, major stroke, cardiac arrest, or exertional heat illness. While infusion of cold normal saline is a simple and inexpensive method for reducing core temperature, human cold-defense mechanisms potentially make this route stressful or ineffective. We hypothesized that intravenous administration of diazepam during a rapid infusion of 30 mL.kg-1 of cold (4 degrees C) 0.9% saline to healthy subjects would be more comfortable and reduce core body temperature more than the administration of cold saline alone. Fifteen subjects received rapidly infused cold (4 degrees C) 0.9% saline. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive, intravenously, 20 mg diazepam (HIGH), 10 mg diazepam (LOW), or placebo (CON). Main outcomes were core temperature, skin temperature, and oxygen consumption. Data for the main outcomes were analyzed with generalized estimating equations to identify differences in group, time, or a group x time interaction. Core temperature decreased in all groups (CON, 1.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C; LOW, 1.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C; HIGH, 1.5 +/- 0.2 degrees C), while skin temperature was unchanged. Mean (95% CI) oxygen consumption was 315.3 (253.8, 376.9) mL.kg-1.min-1 in the CON group, 317.9 (275.5, 360.3) in the LOW group, and 226.1 (216.4, 235.9) in the HIGH group. Significant time and group x time interaction was observed for core temperature and oxygen consumption (p < 0.001). Administration of high-dose diazepam resulted in decreased oxygen consumption during cold saline infusion, suggesting that 20 mg of intravenous diazepam may reduce the shivering threshold without compromising respiratory or cardiovascular function.

  17. Rectal diazepam solution is as good as rectal administration of intravenous diazepam in the first-aid cessation of seizures in children with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Lin-Mei; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Shen, Hsin-Hsien; Deng, Shin-Tang; Tseng, Chi-Hao; Chen, Yu-In; Chou, Ming-Liang; Hung, Po-Cheng; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2011-02-01

    Acute seizures are readily recognizable episodes requiring urgent treatment. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of suppository use of rectal diazepam solution [Stesolid rectal tube (SRT), Alpharma, Inc., Lierskogen, Norway] with those of intravenous diazepam (IVD), Li Ta Pharma Co, Ltd., Taichung, Taiwan for control of acute seizures in children with intractable epilepsy. Subjects were patients, aged 1-18 years, with intractable epilepsy under at least three kinds of antiepileptic treatments. Caregivers were trained to rectally administer SRT or IVD (dosage varying from 0.2 to 0.5mg per kilogram of body weight) and to monitor respiration condition, seizure severity, and adverse drug effects. Among the 24 subjects, 9 males and 15 females, treated for a period of 3 months, the ages ranged from 2 to 18 years, with a mean of 9.1 years. Seizure types were generalized tonic and/or clonic. Seizure frequency varied from once per week to 20 times per day. Twenty-one (87.5%) of them had mental retardation and/or developmental delay, and 103 of the 127 (81.1%) IVD administrations and 90 of the 103 (87.3%) SRT administrations resulted in rapid cessation of seizures within 10 minutes. Each first dose failed to control seizures in 24 and 13 episodes, respectively. A second dose of IVD achieved cessation of seizure in 21 of the 24 episodes and a second dose of SRT in 12 of the 13 episodes within another 10 minutes. Four episodes (3 with rectal IVD and 1 with SRT) of prolonged seizure beyond 20 minutes needed IVD injection at our emergency room. Sedation occurred in 17% of patients, which was attributed to IVD in 8% and SRT in 9% of patients. No respiratory depression was attributable to IVD or SRT. There was no significant statistical difference in efficacy and safety between these two forms of diazepam. Rectal diazepam solution, administered by capable caregivers, is as effective and safe as rectal administration of IVD for children with intractable

  18. Minimizing E-factor in the continuous-flow synthesis of diazepam and atropine.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Anne-Catherine; Longstreet, Ashley R; Britton, Joshua; Wang, Yuran; Moriguchi, Hideki; Hicklin, Robert W; Green, William H; Jamison, Timothy F

    2017-12-01

    Minimizing the waste stream associated with the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and commodity chemicals is of high interest within the chemical industry from an economic and environmental perspective. In exploring solutions to this area, we herein report a highly optimized and environmentally conscious continuous-flow synthesis of two APIs identified as essential medicines by the World Health Organization, namely diazepam and atropine. Notably, these approaches significantly reduced the E-factor of previously published routes through the combination of continuous-flow chemistry techniques, computational calculations and solvent minimization. The E-factor associated with the synthesis of atropine was reduced by 94-fold (about two orders of magnitude), from 2245 to 24, while the E-factor for the synthesis of diazepam was reduced by 4-fold, from 36 to 9. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A 5-year follow-up study of users of benzodiazepine: starting with diazepam versus oxazepam.

    PubMed

    Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Bjørner, Trine; Skomedal, Tor

    2016-04-01

    Drug dependency may develop during long-term benzodiazepine use, indicated, for example, by dose escalation. The first benzodiazepine chosen may affect the risk of dose escalation. To detect possible differences in benzodiazepine use between new users of diazepam and oxazepam over time. This 5-year prescription database study included 19 747 new benzodiazepine users, inhabitants of Norway, aged 30-60 years, with first redemption for diazepam or oxazepam. Individuals starting on diazepam versus oxazepam were analysed by logistic regression with sex, age, other drug redemptions, prescriber's specialty, household income, education level, type of work, and vocational rehabilitation support as background variables. Time to reach a daily average intake of ≥1 defined daily doses (DDD) over a 3-month period was analysed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. New users of oxazepam had a higher risk for dose escalation compared with new users of diazepam. This was true even when accounting for differences in sociodemographic status and previous drug use (hazard ratio [HR] 1.33, 95% confidence interval = 1.17 to 1.51). Most doctors prescribed, according to recommendations, oxazepam to individuals they may have regarded as prone to and at risk of dependency. However, these individuals were at higher risk for dose escalation even when accounting for differences in sociodemographic status and previous drug use. Differences between the two user groups could be explained by different preferences for starting drug, DDD for oxazepam being possibly too low, and some unaccounted differences in illness. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  20. Lorazepam-diazepam protocol for catatonia in schizophrenia: a 21-case analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2013-11-01

    Catatonia is a unique clinical phenomenon characterized by concurrent motor, emotional, vegetative and behavioral signs. Benzodiazepines (BZD) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can rapidly relieve catatonic signs. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol presented here has been proven to relieve catatonia in schizophrenia within a day. From July 2002 to August 2011, schizophrenic patients requiring psychiatric intervention for catatonia in Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were studied by medical chart review. The study used the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). Patients receiving the lorazepam-diazepam protocol were identified. The survey included 21 patients (eight males and 13 females) with a mean age of 30.3 ± 12.6 years. Mean duration of schizophrenia was 4.7 ± 5.6 years. Thirteen (61.9%) patients responded within 2 h, 18 (85.7%) responded within one day, and all became catatonia-free within a week. Mean BFCRS score was 9.9 ± 3.0 before treatment. Patients that responded with a single intramuscular lorazepam injection had mean BFCRS score of 8.9 ± 2.8, significantly lower than the mean score (11.6 ± 2.5) of the rest of the patients (p = 0.034). The lorazepam-diazepam protocol can rapidly relieve retarded catatonia in schizophrenia. Most patients became catatonia-free within one day but some may require up to a week. ECT should be considered if the protocol fails. © 2013.

  1. Interaction between different extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. from Serbia and pentobarbital, diazepam and paracetamol.

    PubMed

    Rašković, Aleksandar; Cvejić, Jelena; Stilinović, Nebojša; Goločorbin-Kon, Svetlana; Vukmirović, Saša; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Mikov, Momir

    2014-03-28

    Herb-drug interactions are an important safety concern and this study was conducted regarding the interaction between the natural top-selling antidepressant remedy Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae) and conventional drugs. This study examined the influence of acute pretreatment with different extracts of Hypericum perforatum from Serbia on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, impairment of motor coordination caused by diazepam and paracetamol pharmacokinetics in mice. Ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, infusion, tablet and capsule of Hypericum perforatum were used in this experiment. The profile of Hypericum perforatum extracts as well as paracetamol plasma concentration was determined using RP-HPLC analysis. By quantitative HPLC analysis of active principles, it has been proven that Hypericum perforatum ethanolic extract has the largest content of naphtodianthrones: hypericin (57.77 µg/mL) and pseudohypericin (155.38 µg/mL). Pretreatment with ethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum potentiated the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital and impairment of motor coordination caused by diazepam to the greatest extent and also increased paracetamol plasma concentration in comparison to the control group. These results were in correlation with naphtodianthrone concentrations. The obtained results have shown a considerable influence of Hypericum perforatum on pentobarbital and diazepam pharmacodynamics and paracetamol pharmacokinetics.

  2. Effects of phencyclidine, secobarbital and diazepam on eye tracking in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ando, K; Johanson, C E; Levy, D L; Yasillo, N J; Holzman, P S; Schuster, C R

    1983-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained to track a moving disk using a procedure in which responses on a lever were reinforced with water delivery only when the disk, oscillating in a horizontal plane on a screen at a frequency of 0.4 Hz in a visual angle of 20 degrees, dimmed for a brief period. Pursuit eye movements were recorded by electrooculography (EOG). IM phencyclidine, secobarbital, and diazepam injections decreased the number of reinforced lever presses in a dose-related manner. Both secobarbital and diazepam produced episodic jerky-pursuit eye movements, while phencyclidine had no consistent effects on eye movements. Lever pressing was disrupted at doses which had little effect on the quality of smooth-pursuit eye movements in some monkeys. This separation was particularly pronounced with diazepam. The similarities of the drug effects on smooth-pursuit eye movements between the present study and human studies indicate that the present method using rhesus monkeys may be useful for predicting drug effects on eye tracking and oculomotor function in humans.

  3. Acute and subchronic effects of Org 2305 and diazepam on psychomotor performance in man.

    PubMed

    Mattila, M J; Koski, J; Strömberg, C

    1987-02-01

    Three doses (15, 30 and 60 mg) of Org 2305 (O 15, O 30 and O 60 respectively), a novel anxiolytic drug chemically related to mianserin, were compared with placebo and 15 mg diazepam (DZ) on human psychomotor performance in a double-blind, cross-over study with 15 healthy volunteers. Objective measurements (choice reaction, tracking, flicker fusion, Maddox wing, digit symbol substitution, memory recall) and subjective assessments (visual analogue scales) were done at baseline and 2 and 13 h after the first dose. This testing procedure was repeated on day 7 when administering the seventh consecutive daily night-time dose. After the first dose O 15 did not differ from placebo and O 30 rarely differed from placebo. O 60 impaired various objective functions similarly to, or less than DZ. Subjectively, DZ and O 60 were felt as sedative. During subchronic treatment, DZ caused some impairment of baseline due to accumulation of bioassayable benzodiazepines, but significant responses to the last DZ dose were less than those to the first dose. DZ but not O 60 was reported to have caused lethargy and clumsiness during subchronic treatment. In the doses used Org 2305 impaired psychomotor performance less than diazepam did. A dose of 60 mg Org 2305 may offer some advantage over 15 mg diazepam, provided that their anxiolytic effects are about similar.

  4. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  5. Oxidative metabolism of limbic structures after acute administration of diazepam, alprazolam and zolpidem.

    PubMed

    González-Pardo, Héctor; Conejo, Nélida M; Arias, Jorge L

    2006-08-30

    The effects of acute administration of two benzodiazepines and a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic on behavior and brain metabolism were evaluated in rats. After testing the behavioral action of the benzodiazepines on the open field and the elevated plus-maze, the effects of the three drugs on neuronal metabolism of particular limbic regions were measured using cytochrome c oxidase (CO) histochemistry. Diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p.) and alprazolam (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) induced clear anxiolytic effects and a decrease in locomotion, whereas zolpidem (2 mg/kg i.p.) caused an intense hypnotic effect. The anxiolytic effects of alprazolam were distinguishable from diazepam due to the pharmacological and clinical profile of this triazolobenzodiazepine. CO activity decreased significantly in almost all the limbic regions evaluated after zolpidem administration. However, significant prominent decreases in CO activity were found after diazepam treatment in the medial mammillary nucleus, anteroventral thalamus, cingulate cortex, dentate gyrus and basolateral amygdala. Alprazolam caused similar decreases in CO activity, with the exception of the prelimbic and cingulate cortices, where significant increases were detected. In agreement with previous studies using other functional mapping techniques, our results indicate that particular benzodiazepines and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics induce selective changes in brain oxidative metabolism.

  6. A clinical trial of single dose rectal and oral administration of diazepam for the prevention of serial seizures in adult epileptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, N M; Dhillon, S; Griffiths, A; Oxley, J; Richens, A

    1984-01-01

    The clinical anticonvulsant efficacy of single dose rectal and oral administration of diazepam 20 mg was examined in two double-blind placebo-controlled trials in adult epileptic patients. All subjects suffered from drug resistant epilepsy and frequently experienced serial seizures. Diazepam was administered rectally as a new experimental suppository formulation immediately after a seizure and was highly effective in preventing recurrent fits within a 24 h observation period (p less than 0.001). Pharmacokinetic studies revealed a wide range of serum diazepam concentrations 60 min after administration of the suppository (mean serum diazepam level 190 +/- 73 (SD ng/ml). In a similar study oral administration of diazepam 20 mg significantly reduced the incidence of serial seizures compared with a placebo (p less than 0.01) and the mean 60 min serum diazepam level was 273 +/- 190 (SD) ng/ml. PMID:6368753

  7. Lack of central 5-hydroxytryptamine influence on the anticonflict activity of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Kilts, C D; Commissaris, R L; Cordon, J J; Rech, R H

    1982-01-01

    This study examined the effects of various drug treatments (IP injections) proposed to modify central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) activity on a conditioned suppression of drinking behavior in water-deprived rats. The subjects were trained to drink their daily water requirement during a 10-min session. Intermittent tone periods of 7 s were then introduced, the last 5 s of which the drinking tube was electrified. The animals gradually suppressed tube contacts during the tone to a low constant level within 2 weeks of training. Diazepam increased punished responding dramatically. The 5-HT antagonists methysergide (1 - 18 mg/kg), cyproheptadine (1 - 18 mg/kg), metergoline (0.25 - 2.0 mg/kg) and cinanserin (10 - mg/kg) failed to induce large, reliable increases in punished responding. When a low dose of diazepam was combined with 5-HT antagonists, only one treatment, methysergide at 3 mg/kg, potentiated the anticonflict activity of diazepam. Acute or chronic treatment with PCPA increased behavior suppressed by punishment, but this effect was weak, brief, and poorly related to the depletion of brain 5-HT. LSD (0.3 - 100 microgram/kg) administered 1, 10, or 30 min before the test was ineffective in overcoming suppression by punishment. Mescaline (6 - 30 mg/kg) had no significant effect on punished responding. 5-HTP (18 mg/kg) decreased the number of shocks accepted, but not after pretreating with carbidopa. Pretreatment with carbidopa plus 5-HTP potentiated the anticonflict effect of diazepam. The 5-HT agonist mCPP (0.25 - 2.0 mg/kg) enhanced suppression due to punishment, but only in doses that interfered with unpunished responding. The 5-HT-releasing agent fenfluramine (0.25 - 1.0 mg/kg) did not affect this behavior. Amitriptyline pretreatment in a dose not affecting unpunished behavior (5.6 mg/kg) potentiated the diazepam-induced increase in punished responding. These results are difficult to reconcile with the proposal that suppression of behavior consequent to

  8. Diazepam Is No Better Than Placebo When Added to Naproxen for Acute Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Benjamin W; Irizarry, Eddie; Solorzano, Clemencia; Khankel, Nauman; Zapata, Jennifer; Zias, Eleftheria; Gallagher, E John

    2017-08-01

    Low back pain causes more than 2.5 million visits to US emergency departments (EDs) annually. Low back pain patients are often treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzodiazepines. The former is an evidence-based intervention, whereas the efficacy of the latter has not been established. We compare pain and functional outcomes 1 week and 3 months after ED discharge among patients randomized to a 1-week course of naproxen+diazepam versus naproxen+placebo. This was a randomized, double-blind, comparative efficacy clinical trial conducted in an urban health care system. Patients presenting with acute, nontraumatic, nonradicular low back pain of no more than a duration of 2 weeks were eligible for enrollment immediately before discharge from an ED if they had a score greater than 5 on the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, a validated 24-item inventory of functional impairment caused by low back pain. Higher scores on the questionnaire indicate greater functional disability. The primary outcome in the trial was improvement in the score between ED discharge and 1 week later. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity 1 week and 3 months after ED discharge, as measured on a 4-point descriptive scale (severe, moderate, mild, and none). All patients were given 20 tablets of naproxen 500 mg, to be taken twice a day as needed for low back pain. Additionally, patients were randomized to receive either 28 tablets of diazepam 5 mg or identical placebo, to be received as 1 or 2 tablets every 12 hours as needed for low back pain. All patients received a standardized 10-minute low back pain educational session before discharge. Using a between-group mean difference of 5 Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire points, a previously validated threshold for clinical significance, we calculated the need for at least 100 patients with primary outcome data. Enrollment began in June 2015 and continued for 9 months. Five hundred forty-five patients were screened for

  9. Mechanisms of tramadol-related neurotoxicity in the rat: Does diazepam/tramadol combination play a worsening role in overdose?

    SciTech Connect

    Lagard, Camille, E-mail: camille.lagard@gmail.com

    Poisoning with opioid analgesics including tramadol represents a challenge. Tramadol may induce respiratory depression, seizures and serotonin syndrome, possibly worsened when in combination to benzodiazepines. Our objectives were to investigate tramadol-related neurotoxicity, consequences of diazepam/tramadol combination, and mechanisms of drug-drug interactions in rats. Median lethal-doses were determined using Dixon–Bruce's up-and-down method. Sedation, seizures, electroencephalography and plethysmography parameters were studied. Concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites were measured using liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry. Plasma, platelet and brain monoamines were measured using liquid-chromatography coupled to fluorimetry. Median lethal-doses of tramadol and diazepam/tramadol combination did not significantly differ, although time-to-death was longer with combination (P =more » 0.04). Tramadol induced dose-dependent sedation (P < 0.05), early-onset seizures (P < 0.001) and increase in inspiratory (P < 0.01) and expiratory times (P < 0.05). The diazepam/tramadol combination abolished seizures but significantly enhanced sedation (P < 0.01) and respiratory depression (P < 0.05) by reducing tidal volume (P < 0.05) in addition to tramadol-related increase in respiratory times, suggesting a pharmacodynamic mechanism of interaction. Plasma M1 and M5 metabolites were mildly increased, contributing additionally to tramadol-related respiratory depression. Tramadol-induced early-onset increase in brain concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine was not significantly altered by the diazepam/tramadol combination. Interestingly neither pretreatment with cyproheptadine (a serotonin-receptor antagonist) nor a benserazide/5-hydroxytryptophane combination (enhancing brain serotonin) reduced tramadol-induced seizures. Our study shows that diazepam/tramadol combination does not worsen tramadol-induced fatality risk but alters its toxicity

  10. Possible involvement of dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in diazepam-induced hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Naruse, T; Amano, H; Koizumi, Y

    1991-01-01

    Possible involvement of dopamine receptors in diazepam-induced (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous (sc] hyperphagia was studied in nondeprived rats. Pretreatment with the selective D-1 antagonist, SCH23390 (0.03 mg/kg, sc) inhibited diazepam-induced hyperphagia. In addition, pretreatment with the preferential D-2 antagonists, haloperidol (0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg, sc) and clebopride (0.1 to 0.3 mg/kg, sc) inhibited diazepam-induced hyperphagia in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with co-administration of SCH23390 (0.1 mg/kg, sc) and clebopride (0.03 mg/kg, sc) completely inhibited this hyperphagia. The selective D-2 antagonist, sulpiride (40 mg/kg, sc) and the peripheral D-2 antagonist, domperidone (10 mg/kg, sc) did not affect diazepam-induced hyperphagia. However, sulpiride (10 micrograms, icv) or domperidone (2 micrograms, icv) administered centrally inhibited this hyperphagia. The highest dose of haloperidol (0.3 mg/kg, sc) or clebopride (0.3 mg/kg, sc) and higher doses of SCH23390 (0.01 and 0.03 mg/kg, sc) or SCH23390/clebopride (0.01/0.03 and 0.01/0.1 mg/kg, sc) tended to decrease spontaneous feeding in non-deprived rats. In addition, the highest dose of haloperidol, clebopride or SCH23390/clebopride inhibited spontaneous feeding in deprived rats. Interestingly, diazepam-induced hyperphagia was inhibited significantly by doses of haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, sc), clebopride (0.1 mg/kg, sc) and SCH23390/clebopride (0.003/0.03 and 0.003/0.1 mg/kg, sc) which did not affect spontaneous feeding in non-deprived or deprived rats. Pretreatment with alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (40 mg/kg, IP x 2, 6 and 2 h prior to diazepam administration) failed to inhibit this hyperphagia. Furthermore, pretreatment with a large dose of haloperidol (5 mg/kg, sc, 4 days before diazepam administration) augmented the sub-hyperphagic effect to diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, sc). Thus, these findings suggest that hyperphagia to diazepam is mediated in part by both dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in non-deprived rats.

  11. The Lorazepam and Diazepam Protocol for Catatonia Due to General Medical Condition and Substance in Liaison Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-01-01

    Objective The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance. Method Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria. The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists. Results Eighteen (85.7%) of 21 catatonic patients due to GMC or substance became free of catatonia after the lorazepam-diazepam protocol. Five (23.8%) of the 21 patients had passed away with various causes of death and wide range of time periods after catatonia. Conclusion Our results showed that the lorazepam-diazepam protocol could rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia due to GMC and substance. PMID:28114315

  12. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

    PubMed

    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress.

  13. Differential effects of diazepam and MPEP on habituation and neuro-behavioural processes in inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Amber R; Pinzon, Nathaly Espitia; Boleij, Hetty; Kirchhoff, Susanne; Arndt, Saskia S; Nordquist, Rebecca E; Lindemann, Lothar; Jaeschke, Georg; Spooren, Will; Ohl, Frauke

    2012-06-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated a profound lack of habituation in 129P3 mice compared to the habituating, but initially more anxious, BALB/c mice. The present study investigated whether this non-adaptive phenotype of 129P3 mice is primarily based on anxiety-related characteristics. To test this hypothesis and extend our knowledge on the behavioural profile of 129P3 mice, the effects of the anxiolyticdiazepam (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg) and the putative anxiolytic metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5R) antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) treatment on within-trial (intrasession) habituation, object recognition (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) and on the central-nervous expression of the immediate early gene c-Fos (diazepam: 1 mg/kg; MPEP 10 mg/kg) were investigated. Behavioural findings validated the initially high, but habituating phenotype of BALB/c mice, while 129P3 mice were characterized by impaired intrasession habituation. Diazepam had an anxiolytic effect in BALB/c mice, while in higher doses caused behavioural inactivity in 129P3 mice. MPEP revealed almost no anxiolytic effects on behaviour in both strains, but reduced stress-induced corticosterone responses only in 129P3 mice. These results were complemented by reduced expression of c-Fos after MPEP treatment in brain areas related to emotional processes, and increased c-Fos expression in higher integrating brain areas such as the prelimbic cortex compared to vehicle-treated 129P3 mice. These results suggest that the strain differences observed in (non)adaptive anxiety behaviour are at least in part mediated by differences in gamma-aminobutyric acid- A and mGluR5 mediated transmission.

  14. Hyperhaploid and tetraploid sperm detected in men who ingested ultra-high doses of diazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgartner, A.; Adler, I.D.; Schmid, T.E.

    Diazepam is widely administered as a sedative, muscle relaxant and anxiolytic drug. Five young non-smoking men who were hospitalized after their suicide attempt using diazepam, {approximately}1-7 mg/kg (oral intake), provided semen samples 40-50 days and {approximately}100 days after exposure to assess drug effects on meiotic cells and to evaluate persistence. Five healthy men served as local clinical controls. A multicolor FISH assay was applied to detect aneuploidy for chromosome X, Y, and 21 in sperm. Sex ratios were not significantly different from 1:1 among 133,143 cells analyzed. The 40-day samples showed an increase in several sperm aneuploidy groups: disomy 21more » (1.5 fold, p=0.04); disomy X (2.7 fold, p=0.0006), and XY aneuploidy (1.6 folk, p=0 0.017). The results for {approximately}100 days after exposure were similar to controls suggesting that hyperhaploidy effects may not persist. Phase contrast microscopy was used to identify flagellated tetraploid sperm, i.e., X-X-Y-Y-21-21-21-21. Tetraploid sperm were found among 8 semen samples provided by five patients (1.4 {+-} 1.2 per 10,000 cells; >80,000 cells) while none were detected among >50,000 cells from healthy men. Our findings are consistent with the possible aneuploidy-inducing effect of diazepam during male meiosis but further studies are needed before these results can be extrapolated to therapeutic dosing because suicide patients are a highly exposed cohort and other confounding factors (alcohol, drugs, antidotes) cannot be ruled out.« less

  15. Spectrophotometric and fluorimetric determination of diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam in pharmaceutical and urine samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, A. A.; Barsoum, B. N.; Izake, E. L.

    2004-03-01

    New spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods have been developed to determine diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam (1,4-benzodiazepines) in pure forms, pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluid. The new methods are based on measuring absorption or emission spectra in methanolic potassium hydroxide solution. Fluorimetric methods have proved selective with low detection limits, whereas photometric methods showed relatively high detection limits. Successive applications of developed methods for drugs determination in pharmaceutical preparations and urine samples were performed. Photometric methods gave linear calibration graphs in the ranges of 2.85-28.5, 0.316-3.16, and 0.316-3.16 μg ml -1 with detection limits of 1.27, 0.08 and 0.13 μg ml -1 for diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam, respectively. Corresponding average errors of 2.60, 5.26 and 3.93 and relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) of 2.79, 2.12 and 2.83, respectively, were obtained. Fluorimetric methods gave linear calibration graphs in the ranges of 0.03-0.34, 0.03-0.32 and 0.03-0.38 μg ml -1 with detection limits of 7.13, 5.67 and 16.47 ng ml -1 for diazepam, bromazepam and clonazepam, respectively. Corresponding average errors of 0.29, 4.33 and 5.42 and R.S.D.s of 1.27, 1.96 and 1.14 were obtained, respectively. Statistical Students t-test and F-test have been used and satisfactory results were obtained.

  16. Conditioned suppression of sexual behavior in stallions and reversal with diazepam.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S M; Kenney, R M; Meckley, P E; Garcia, M C

    1985-06-01

    Sexual behavior dysfunction unaccompanied by detectable physical or endocrine abnormality is an important cause of reproductive failure among domestic stallions. Several authors have suggested that such dysfunction may be psychogenic, related to negative experience associated with intense handling and training. An experimental model of experience-related dysfunction was developed by exposing pony stallions to erection-contingent aversive conditioning. This resulted in rapid, specific suppression of sexual arousal and response similar to spontaneously occurring dysfunction. Subsequently, treatment with a CNS-active benzodiazepine derivative (diazepam) reversed these effects.

  17. Diazepam-stress interactions in the rat: effects on autoanalgesia and a plus-maze model of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Taukulis, H K; Goggin, C E

    1990-03-01

    On six occasions spaced at least a week apart, two groups of rats were subjected to a variety of stressful conditions consisting of a restraint/bright light complex, either alone or in combination with a tail pinch, whole-body inversion, or partial immersion in cold water. One of these groups was injected with diazepam (2.0 mg/kg) 30 min prior to the stressors, while the other group experienced the drug in their home cages the following day. A third group also received the diazepam but was not exposed to the stressors. In three test sessions all animals were injected with either diazepam or saline and were then exposed to a novel stressor: a plus-maze used as a screening device for anxiolytic drugs. This was immediately followed by a tail-flick measure of analgesia. The longest tail-flick latencies, indicating stress-induced analgesia ("autoanalgesia"), were observed in the group that had not been exposed to stress prior to testing. The other two groups exhibited substantially shorter latencies but did not differ from one another, thus showing a "stress inoculation" effect that was uninfluenced by diazepam. In the plus-maze, diazepam tends to increase the amount of time rats will spend in the two exposed arms of the maze relative to the two enclosed arms. This effect was significantly attenuated in the group that had previously experienced the variety of stressors after a diazepam injection, suggesting a learned association between drug and stress that resulted in a diminution of the drug's anxiolytic property.

  18. Determination of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, carbamazepine, diazepam, simvastatin, and oxybenzone in fish livers.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong-Wook; Armbrust, Kevin L; Vidal-Dorsch, Doris; Bay, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed for the determination of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol in fish liver; a second method using LC/MS was developed for the determination of carbamazepine, diazepam, simvastatin, and oxybenzone in fish liver. The fish liver samples were extracted and cleaned up by using liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction before the extracts were analyzed by LC/MS or LC/MS/MS with electrospray negative and positive ionization. Recoveries of the 5 target compounds from spiked catfish liver ranged from 72 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3%. Limits of quantification for the 5 compounds were between 4.2 and 12.3 ng/g (wet weight). Ten turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis) liver samples were analyzed; levels of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol, carbamazepine, simvastatin, and oxybenzone were below the detection limits. Diazepam was detected in all 10 fish liver samples at concentrations ranging from 23 to 110 ng/g (wet weight).

  19. Effects of the benzodiazepine antagonists RO 15-1788, CGS-8216 and PK-11195 on amygdaloid kindled seizures and the anticonvulsant efficacy of diazepam.

    PubMed

    Albertson, T E; Walby, W F

    1986-11-01

    The anticonvulsant effectiveness of the benzodiazepine antagonists RO 15-1788, CGS-8216 and PK-11195 were evaluated against threshold and suprathreshold (400 microA) stimulation in fully amygdaloid-kindled rats. Pretreatment with either RO 15-1788 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg), CGS-8216 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) or PK-11195 (10 and 60 mg/kg) failed in this study to modify consistently either the afterdischarge thresholds or elicited suprathreshold seizures or duration of afterdischarge. Using a double injection paradigm, the effectiveness of these three benzodiazepine antagonists to reverse the anti-convulsant and behavioral effects of diazepam were studied. When diazepam (3 mg/kg) was injected 15 min before or after a second injection of the vehicle control DMSO (0.25 ml/kg), a significant reduction in the duration of afterdischarge and seizure rank, elicited by a suprathreshold stimulation in amygdaloid-kindled rats, occurred. When either CGS 8216 (10 mg/kg) or RO 15-1788 (10 mg/kg) were given 15 min before diazepam (3 mg/kg) prior to stimulation, the anticonvulsant properties of diazepam were blocked. When RO 15-1788 (10 mg/kg) was given 15 min after diazepam, antagonism of the anticonvulsant effects on diazepam was shown. However, when either CGS-8216 (10 mg/kg) or PK-11195 (10 and 60 mg/kg) were given 15 min after diazepam (3 mg/kg), the anticonvulsant properties of diazepam were not blocked. The anticonvulsant effects of diazepam were reversed when CGS-8216 (10 mg/kg) was given 5 min after diazepam (3 mg/kg) or when a larger dose (30 mg/kg) was given at the same 15 min interval.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Diazepam Rectal

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects. Do not drink alcohol or use street drugs during your treatment. ... cluster seizures (episodes of increased seizure activity) in people who are ... benzodiazepines. It works by calming abnormal overactivity in the brain.

  1. The effect of repeated diazepam administration on myocardial function in the ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Shackebaei, Dareuosh; Kayhani, Bijan; Godini, Aliashraf; Pourshanazari, Aliasghar; Reshadat, Sohyla

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate whether repeated diazepam administration affects the heart in ischemia-reperfusion. This study was performed at the Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah, Iran, from March to September 2008. Four groups of rats were subjected to a daily injection of diazepam (group 1 [0.5 mg/kg for 21 days], group II [2.5 mg/kg for 5 days], and group III [5 mg/kg for 5 days] intraperitoneally), and saline solution (21 days) in the control groups. Isolated, perfused hearts were subjected to 40 minutes global ischemia, and 45 minutes reperfusion. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), heart rate, and coronary flow were measured. Rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. In reperfusion, released lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme in effluent was measured. It was observed that the recovery of the RPP and LVDP in reperfusion significantly decreased in the test group III (n=9) in comparison to the control (n=8). During the reperfusion period, the released LDH significantly increased in test group II (n=8) and group III in comparison with the control. The results show that repeated administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg for 5 days) reduced the cardiac performance in reperfusion, and significantly exacerbated the ischemia-reperfusion injury. It is probably mediated by the changing of cardiac susceptibility in ischemia due to repeated administration of diazepam.

  2. Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Di; Wang, Qian; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beneficial effects of benzodiazepine diazepam on chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal structural plasticity and depression-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunan; Wang, Zhongli; Dai, Jianguo; Chen, Lin; Huang, Yufang; Zhan, Zhen

    2012-03-17

    Whether benzodiazepines (BZDs) have beneficial effects on the progress of chronic stress-induced impairment of hippocampal structural plasticity and major depression is uncertain. The present study designed four preclinical experiments to determine the effects of BZDs using chronic unpredictable stress model. In Experiment 1, several time course studies on behavior and hippocampus response to stress were conducted using the forced swim and tail suspension tests (FST and TST) as well as hippocampal structural plasticity markers. Chronic stress induced depression-like behavior in the FST and TST as well as decreased hippocampal structural plasticity that returned to normal within 3 wk. In Experiment 2, mice received p.o. administration of three diazepam dosages prior to each variate stress session for 4 wk. This treatment significantly antagonized the elevation of stress-induced corticosterone levels. Only low- (0.5mg/kg) and medium-dose (1mg/kg) diazepam blocked the detrimental effects of chronic stress. In Experiment 3, after 7 wk of stress sessions, daily p.o. diazepam administration during 1 wk recovery phase dose-dependently accelerated the recovery of stressed mice. In Experiment 4, 1 wk diazepam administration to control mice enhanced significantly hippocampal structural plasticity and induced an antidepressant-like behavioral effect, whereas 4 wk diazepam administration produced opposite effects. Hence, diazepam can slow the progress of chronic stress-induced detrimental consequences by normalizing glucocorticoid hormones. Considering the adverse effect of long-term diazepam administration on hippocampal plasticity, the preventive effects of diazepam may depend on the proper dose. Short-term diazepam treatment enhances hippocampal structural plasticity and is beneficial to recovery following chronic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Diazepam Binding Inhibitor Promotes Stem Cell Expansion Controlling Environment-Dependent Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Ionut; Neitz, Angela; Alfonso, Julieta; Monyer, Hannah

    2017-04-05

    Plasticity of adult neurogenesis supports adaptation to environmental changes. The identification of molecular mediators that signal these changes to neural progenitors in the niche has remained elusive. Here we report that diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) is crucial in supporting an adaptive mechanism in response to changes in the environment. We provide evidence that DBI is expressed in stem cells in all neurogenic niches of the postnatal brain. Focusing on the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) and employing multiple genetic manipulations in vivo, we demonstrate that DBI regulates the balance between preserving the stem cell pool and neurogenesis. Specifically, DBI dampens GABA activity in stem cells, thereby sustaining the proproliferative effect of physical exercise and enriched environment. Our data lend credence to the notion that the modulatory effect of DBI constitutes a general mechanism that regulates postnatal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: effect of inherent personality traits and premedication with diazepam.

    PubMed Central

    Webberley, M J; Cuschieri, A

    1982-01-01

    The influence of personality traits on the reaction of patients to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was studied prospectively in 86 patients. High N (neuroticism) scores on the Eysenck personality inventory were associated with poor tolerance to and future compliance with the procedure. Although premedication with diazepam did not affect the degree of discomfort and distress during the procedure, it guaranteed acceptance of repeat endoscopy by virtue of its strong amnesic effect. By contrast, not giving premedication to patients who were anxious and had high N scores jeopardized future compliance. These findings suggest that a version of the Eysenck personality inventory should be used to assess patients' neurotic phenotype and their need for premedication before endoscopy. Alternatively, all patients might be given premedication. PMID:6807436

  6. Repeated diazepam administration reversed working memory impairments and glucocorticoid alterations in the prefrontal cortex after short but not long alcohol-withdrawal periods.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, G; Henkous, N; Pierard, C; Belzung, C; Mons, N; Beracochea, Daniel

    2018-04-30

    The study was designed to assess whether repeated administration of diazepam (Valium®, Roche)-a benzodiazepine exerting an agonist action on GABA A receptors-may alleviate both the short (1 week, 1W) and long-term (6 weeks, 6W) deleterious effects of alcohol withdrawal occurring after chronic alcohol consumption (6 months; 12% v/v) in C57/BL6 male mice. More pointedly, we first evidenced that 1W and 6W alcohol-withdrawn mice exhibited working memory deficits in a sequential alternation task, associated with sustained exaggerated corticosterone rise and decreased pCREB levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In a subsequent experiment, diazepam was administered i.p. for 9 consecutive days (1 injection/day) during the alcohol withdrawal period at decreasing doses ranging from 1.0 mg/kg to 0.25 mg/kg. Diazepam was not detected in the blood of withdrawn mice at the time of memory testing, occurring 24 hours after the last diazepam injection. Repeated diazepam administration significantly improved alternation rates and normalized levels of glucocorticoids and pCREB activity in the PFC in 1W but not in 6W withdrawn mice. Thus, repeated diazepam administration during the alcohol-withdrawal period only transitorily canceled out the working memory impairments and glucocorticoid alterations in the PFC of alcohol-withdrawn animals.

  7. Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine-diazepam, ketamine-xylazine, and ketamine-acepromazine in Caspian Pond turtles (Mauremys caspica).

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Sadegh, Amin Bigham; Arizza, Vincenzo; Abbasi, Hossein; Inguglia, Luigi; Saravi, Hasan Nasrollahzadeh

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of different anesthetic drug combinations on the Caspian Pond turtles ( Mauremys caspica ). Three groups of the Caspian Pond turtles ( n = 6) were anesthetized with three different drug combinations. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to determine the best drug doses for the anesthetization of the turtles, and according to these results, ketamine-diazepam (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 2 mg/kg diazepam [5%]), ketamine-acepromazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg acepromazine [1%]), and ketamine-xylazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg xylazine [2%]) were injected intramuscularly. The onset times of anesthetization and the recovery time were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by t -tests, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. There were statistically significant differences in the mean of the onset times of anesthesia and recovery time among the three drug combinations depending on the treatment used. The onset of anesthesia of the animals treated with the ketamine-diazepam combination was 60% and 42% shorter, for male and female turtles, respectively, compared to that obtained with the ketamine-acepromazine combination and 64% (male turtles) and 50% (female turtles) shorter than that obtained with the ketamine-xylazine combination. Further, the recovery time, in male turtles, was 17% shorter in animals treated with the first drug combination than those treated with the ketamine-acepromazine combination and 37% shorter than those treated with the ketamine-xylazine combination. The recovery time, in female turtles, did not seem to be significantly different among treatments. The study showed that the ketamine-diazepam drug combination is the anesthetic combination with the fastest onset time and shortest recovery time.

  8. Anesthetic efficacy of ketamine–diazepam, ketamine–xylazine, and ketamine–acepromazine in Caspian Pond turtles (Mauremys caspica)

    PubMed Central

    Adel, Milad; Sadegh, Amin Bigham; Arizza, Vincenzo; Abbasi, Hossein; Inguglia, Luigi; Saravi, Hasan Nasrollahzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of different anesthetic drug combinations on the Caspian Pond turtles (Mauremys caspica). Subjects and Methods: Three groups of the Caspian Pond turtles (n = 6) were anesthetized with three different drug combinations. Initially, a pilot study was conducted to determine the best drug doses for the anesthetization of the turtles, and according to these results, ketamine–diazepam (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 2 mg/kg diazepam [5%]), ketamine–acepromazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg acepromazine [1%]), and ketamine–xylazine (120 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride [5%] and 1 mg/kg xylazine [2%]) were injected intramuscularly. The onset times of anesthetization and the recovery time were measured. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using one-way analysis of variance followed by t-tests, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the mean of the onset times of anesthesia and recovery time among the three drug combinations depending on the treatment used. The onset of anesthesia of the animals treated with the ketamine–diazepam combination was 60% and 42% shorter, for male and female turtles, respectively, compared to that obtained with the ketamine–acepromazine combination and 64% (male turtles) and 50% (female turtles) shorter than that obtained with the ketamine–xylazine combination. Further, the recovery time, in male turtles, was 17% shorter in animals treated with the first drug combination than those treated with the ketamine–acepromazine combination and 37% shorter than those treated with the ketamine–xylazine combination. The recovery time, in female turtles, did not seem to be significantly different among treatments. Conclusions: The study showed that the ketamine–diazepam drug combination is the anesthetic combination with the fastest onset time and shortest

  9. The effects of diazepam and oxprenolol on short term memory in individuals of high and low state anxiety.

    PubMed Central

    Desai, N; Taylor-Davies, A; Barnett, D B

    1983-01-01

    1 The effect of oral doses of diazepam (5 mg) and oxprenolol (80 mg) on short term memory of normal individuals stratified for 'state' anxiety levels has been investigated. 2 Normal student volunteers were stratified into high and low anxiety groups on the basis of responses to the Spielberger 'A-state' scale. Subjects were then randomly administered active drug or placebo and given a form of running memory test performed under a variety of conditions in which variable rate of item presentation and articulatory suppression were used. 3 Diazepam significantly reduced the errors of recall in the running memory test in the high anxiety group and produced a distinct separation of response from the low anxiety group under the test conditions of slow item presentation with articulatory suppression. Oxprenolol had no effect on the short term memory test in either high or low anxiety groups in any experimental test situation. 4 These results are compared to previous work in which generally a deleterious effect of diazepam on short term memory in normal volunteers has been reported. The implications of these findings are further discussed in relationship to possible models of memory function. PMID:6849754

  10. Solvent-modified solid-phase microextraction for the determination of diazepam in human plasma samples by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Krogh, M; Grefslie, H; Rasmussen, K E

    1997-02-21

    This paper describes microextraction and gas chromatographic analysis of diazepam from human plasma. The method was based on immobilisation of 1.5 microliters of 1-octanol on a polyacrylate-coated fiber designed for solid-phase microextraction. The solvent-modified fibre was used to extract diazepam from the samples. The plasma sample was pre-treated to release diazepam from the protein binding. The fibre was inserted into the modified plasma sample, adjusted to pH 5.5 an internal standard was added and the mixture was carefully stirred for 4 min. The fibre with the immobilised solvent and the enriched analytes was injected into the capillary gas chromatograph. The solvent and the extracted analytes were evaporated at 300 degrees C in the split-splitless injection port of the gas chromatograph, separated on a methylsilicon capillary column and detected with a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The method was shown to be reproducible with a detection limit of 0.10 nmol/ml in human plasma.

  11. Protracted ethanol withdrawal in rats: Tolerance to the anxiolytic effects of diazepam and pentobarbital but not phenobarbital

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Prather, P.L.

    1990-02-26

    Anxiety is a common symptom during ethanol withdrawal contributing to its continuous abuse and alcoholism. Ethanol withdrawal in rats produces an interoceptive discriminative stimulus (IDS) similar to that produced by the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This stimulus peaks at 12 hours after last dose of ethanol and thereafter the IDS is detected for several days (protracted withdrawal) by sensitization to a probe drug. previously, the authors have shown that during the protracted withdrawal, the IDS is enhanced by GABA receptor antagonists suggesting alteration of brain GABA systems. This report provides further evidence that chronic ethanol alters GABAergic systems. Rats weremore » trained to discriminate PTZ (20 mg/kg, ip) from saline. Diazepam, pentobarbital and phenobarbital blocked the PTZ-IDS dose dependently. Ethanol, 4.5% w/v, was then given in a nutritionally complete diet for a week. On termination of the ethanol diet, rats exhibited signs and symptoms of withdrawal which returned to baseline within 3 days. During the protracted withdrawal period, the authors then redetermined the blockade of the PTZ-IDS. Significant tolerance was observed to the effectiveness of diazepam and pentobarbital, but not to phenobarbital. Since diazepam and pentobarbital produce significantly more enhancement of GABAergic activity than does phenobarbital, these data further suggest alteration of brain GABAergic systems during protracted withdrawal from ethanol.« less

  12. Endogenous Positive Allosteric Modulation of GABAA Receptors by Diazepam binding inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Catherine A.; Herbert, Anne G.; Holt, Rebecca L.; Peng, Kathy; Sherwood, Kyla D.; Pangratz-Fuehrer, Susanne; Rudolph, Uwe; Huguenard, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Benzodiazepines (BZs) allosterically modulate γ-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs) to increase inhibitory synaptic strength. Diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) protein is a BZ site ligand expressed endogenously in the brain, but functional evidence for BZ-mimicking positive modulatory actions has been elusive. We demonstrate an endogenous potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission and responses to GABA uncaging in the thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) that is absent in both nm1054 mice, in which the Dbi gene is deleted, and mice in which BZ binding to α3 subunit-containing GABAARs is disrupted. Viral transduction of DBI into nRT is sufficient to rescue the endogenous potentiation of GABAergic transmission in nm1054 mice. Both mutations enhance thalamocortical spike-and-wave discharges characteristic of absence epilepsy. Together these results indicate that DBI mediates endogenous nucleus-specific BZ-mimicking (“endozepine”) roles to modulate nRT function and suppress thalamocortical oscillations. Enhanced DBI signaling might serve as a novel therapy for epilepsy and other neurological disorders. PMID:23727119

  13. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine (SCP) and diazepam (DZ) against soman-induced lethality in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, L.W.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    Diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP) are known to be beneficial when each is used in combination with atropine (AT) + oxime therapy against intoxication by soman, but the efficacy of each might be expected to vary with the dosage of AT. Thus, the therapeutic efficacy of SCP (5 doses; 0 - 0.86 mg/kg) versus DZ (5 doses; 0 - 5 mg/kg), when used in conjunction with AT (3 doses; 0.5 - S mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, was tested in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5 or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodologymore » was employed to describe the relationship between lethality and the AT/DZ or AT/SCP dosages. Results show that within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP is not dependent on the presence of AT, whereas AT is needed for DZ to maintain the lowest probability of death. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs SCP could supplement AT or replace DZ as therapy against nerve agent intoxication.« less

  14. Efficacy comparison of scopolamine and diazepam against soman-induced debilitation in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Gennings, C.; Carter, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    The efficacy of diazepam (DZ) and scopolamine (SCP), in combination with atropine (ATR) + oxime therapy, against soman-induced seizure/convulsive activity and associated brain damage has been demonstrated, but the efficacy of each against the incapacitating effects of soman has not been addressed. Thus, the therapeutic efficacies of SCP (5 doses; 0-0.86 mg/kg) and DZ (5 doses; 0-5 mg/kg), when each was used in conjunction with ATR (3 doses; 0.5-8 mg/kg) + 2-PAM (25 mg/kg) therapy, were compared in groups of pyridostigmine pretreated guinea pigs exposed to 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.2 LD5Os of soman. Response surface methodology was employed tomore » describe the relationship between soman-induced incapacitation and the ATR/DZ or ATRISCP dosages. Incapacitation was measured by toxicity scores assigned by three graders to test animals at 60 min postsoman. Results show that as the dosage of SCP increased, the mean toxicity scores decreased. Also, within the indicated dose ranges used, the efficacy of SCP was not dependent on the presence of ATR. In contrast, ATR alone was found to be more effective than when combined with DZ at any dose, and indicates that DZ might be temporarily contributing to soman-induced incapacitation. These findings suggest that in guinea pigs, SCP could replace ATR or DZ, or both, as therapy against soman-induced incapacitation.« less

  15. Reduced fasting plasma levels of diazepam-binding inhibitor in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Conti, Elisa; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Bomba, Monica; Uccellini, Orlando; Rossi, Maria Sara; Raggi, Maria Elisabetta; Neri, Francesca; Ferrarese, Carlo; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-09-01

    Altered expression and/or function, both peripherally and centrally, of various neuropeptides is involved in the neurophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is an interesting peptide for understanding this crosstalk. The aim of this work was to assess fasting plasma levels of DBI and leptin in patients with AN. Twenty-four AN adolescents were recruited together with 10 age-comparable healthy controls. Neuropeptide determinations were performed on plasma samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Patients with AN were further characterized for the presence of a depressive state or anxiety by using, respectively, the Children's Depression Inventory or the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y. Levels of both plasma DBI and leptin were reduced in patients with AN (∼40 and ∼70%, respectively). DBI levels displayed a tendency to increase in the presence of a depressive state, although not with anxiety, whereas leptin levels correlated exclusively with body mass index. These data further extend our knowledge of neuropeptide dysfunction in AN, and plasma DBI may represent a marker for this disease, in particular considering its correlation with comorbid mood disorders. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Differential expression of benzodiazepine anticonvulsant cross-tolerance according to time following flurazepam or diazepam treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, H C

    1995-01-01

    In previous studies in which the anti-pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) effect of benzodiazepines was used to measure tolerance, the results depended on the benzodiazepine used for chronic treatment as well as the benzodiazepine given acutely to test for tolerance. In this study, the time course of tolerance reversal was studied in rats given two treatments known to cause anticonvulsant tolerance, 1-week flurazepam (FZP), and 3-week diazepam (DZP). Neither treatment altered convulsive threshold for IV PTZ, but both treatments decreased the convulsive threshold for bicuculline. Withdrawing DZP, but not FZP, treatment resulted in a loss of body weight. Twelve hours after 1-week FZP treatment, all benzodiazepines were significantly less effective, showing tolerance. Forty-eight hours after the 1-week FZP treatment, tolerance was still observed with DZP, FZP, and zolpidem, but was no longer present with clonazepam or bretazenil. After the 3-week DZP treatment, rats were tolerant to all benzodiazepines tested at 12 h of withdrawal, but had lost tolerance to all the drugs except bretazenil by 48 h. The results suggest differences in the way these benzodiazepines interact with their receptors, allowing differential expression of tolerance, and that chronic DZP and FZP treatments affected interactions of the benzodiazepines with their receptors, but not in the same fashion.

  17. Selective labelling of diazepam-insensitive GABAA receptors in vivo using [3H]Ro 15-4513.

    PubMed

    Pym, Luanda J; Cook, Susan M; Rosahl, Thomas; McKernan, Ruth M; Atack, John R

    2005-11-01

    Classical benzodiazepines (BZs), such as diazepam, bind to GABAA receptors containing alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 or alpha5 subunits that are therefore described as diazepam-sensitive (DS) receptors. However, the corresponding binding site of GABAA receptors containing either an alpha4 or alpha6 subunit do not bind the classical BZs and are therefore diazepam-insensitive (DIS) receptors; a difference attributable to a single amino acid (histidine in alpha1, alpha2, alpha3 and alpha5 subunits and arginine in alpha4 and alpha6). Unlike classical BZs, the imidazobenzodiazepines Ro 15-4513 and bretazenil bind to both DS and DIS populations of GABAA receptors. In the present study, an in vivo assay was developed using lorazepam to fully occupy DS receptors such that [3H]Ro 15-4513 was then only able to bind to DIS receptors. When dosed i.v., [3H]Ro 15-4513 rapidly entered and was cleared from the brain, with approximately 70% of brain radioactivity being membrane-bound. Essentially all membrane binding to DS+DIS receptors could be displaced by unlabelled Ro 15-4513 or bretazenil, with respective ID50 values of 0.35 and 1.2 mg kg(-1). A dose of 30 mg kg(-1) lorazepam was used to block all DS receptors in a [3H]Ro 15-1788 in vivo binding assay. When predosed in a [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding assay, lorazepam blocked [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding to DS receptors, with the remaining binding to DIS receptors accounting for 5 and 23% of the total (DS plus DIS) receptors in the forebrain and cerebellum, respectively. The in vivo binding of [3H]Ro 15-4513 to DIS receptors in the presence of lorazepam was confirmed using alpha1H101R knock-in mice, in which alpha1-containing GABAA receptors are rendered diazepam insensitive by mutation of the histidine that confers diazepam sensitivity to arginine. In these mice, and in the presence of lorazepam, there was an increase of in vivo [3H]Ro 15-4513 binding in the forebrain and cerebellum from 4 and 15% to 36 and 59% of the total (i.e. DS plus DIS) [3H

  18. Diabetes and hypertension increase the placental and transcellular permeation of the lipophilic drug diazepam in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies carried out in our laboratories have demonstrated impaired drug permeation in diabetic animals. In this study the permeation of diazepam (after a single dose of 5 mg/day, administered intramuscularly) will be investigated in diabetic and hypertensive pregnant women. Methods A total 75 pregnant women were divided into three groups: group 1 (healthy control, n = 31), group 2 (diabetic, n = 14) and group 3 (hypertensive, n = 30). Two sets of diazepam plasma concentrations were collected and measured (after the administration of the same dose of diazepam), before, during and after delivery. The first set of blood samples was taken from the mother (maternal venous plasma). The second set of samples was taken from the fetus (fetal umbilical venous and arterial plasma). In order to assess the effect of diabetes and hypertension on diazepam placental-permeation, the ratios of fetal to maternal blood concentrations were determined. Differences were considered statistically significant if p ≤ 0.05. Results The diabetes and hypertension groups have 2-fold increase in the fetal umbilical-venous concentrations, compared to the maternal venous concentrations. Feto: maternal plasma-concentrations ratios were higher in diabetes (2.01 ± 1.10) and hypertension (2.26 ± 1.23) groups compared with control (1.30 ± 0.48) while, there was no difference in ratios between the diabetes and hypertension groups. Umbilical-cord arterial: venous ratios (within each group) were similar among all groups (control: 0.97 ± 0.32; hypertension: 1.08 ± 0.60 and diabetes: 1.02 ± 0.77). Conclusions On line with our previous findings which demonstrate disturbed transcellular trafficking of lipophilic drugs in diabetes, this study shows significant increase in diazepam placental-permeation in diabetic and hypertensive pregnant women suggesting poor transcellular control of drug permeation and flux, and bigger exposure of the fetus

  19. Determination of flumazenil in serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Application to kinetics study in acute diazepam overdose.

    PubMed

    Djordjević, Snezana; Jović-Stosić, Jasmina; Kilibarda, Vesna; Segrt, Zoran; Perković-Vukcević, Natasa

    2016-02-01

    Flumazenil is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. It has been studied for a various indications, including reversal of sedation after surgery or diagnostic procedures, awakening of comatose patients in benzodiazepine overdose, or for symptomatic treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Some drugs, like theophylline, may prolong its elimination half-life. Considering the long half-life of diazepam and its metabolites, concomitant use of theophylline may reduce the need for repeated dosing of flumazenil in patients with acute diazepam poisoning. The aim of this study was to introduce a reliable and accurate method for determining the concentration of flumazenil after therapeutic application in patients with acute poisoning, and using that method to assess whether the kinetics of flumazenil change in the presence of aminophylline (combination of theophylline and ethylenediamine in a 2:1 ratio) applied as concomitant therapy. Blood samples from patients with acute diazepam poisoning that received flumazenil at the dose of 0.5 mg, or the same dose with 3 mg/kg of body weight of aminophylline, were collected 1, 3, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min after its intravenous administration. Samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction on Oasis HLB cartridges with ethylacetate as extracting agens. Flumazenil was determined by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in single ionmonitoring mode at m/z 304. Separation of flumazenil from matrix compound was performed on Lichrospher RP-8 column usingthe mixture of acidic acetonitrile and 20 mM of ammonium acetatein water (55 : 45) as a mobile phase. The applied analitycal method showed excellent recovery (94.65%). The obtained extracts were much cleaner than the extracts obtained by the sameextractant in the process of liquid-liquid extraction. The limit ofdetection of the LC-MS method described in this paper was 0.5 ng/mL and the limit of quantitation was 1 ng/mL. In the patientstreated with both flumazenil and aminophylline

  20. Mechanisms of tramadol-related neurotoxicity in the rat: Does diazepam/tramadol combination play a worsening role in overdose?

    PubMed

    Lagard, Camille; Chevillard, Lucie; Malissin, Isabelle; Risède, Patricia; Callebert, Jacques; Labat, Laurence; Launay, Jean-Marie; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Mégarbane, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Poisoning with opioid analgesics including tramadol represents a challenge. Tramadol may induce respiratory depression, seizures and serotonin syndrome, possibly worsened when in combination to benzodiazepines. Our objectives were to investigate tramadol-related neurotoxicity, consequences of diazepam/tramadol combination, and mechanisms of drug-drug interactions in rats. Median lethal-doses were determined using Dixon-Bruce's up-and-down method. Sedation, seizures, electroencephalography and plethysmography parameters were studied. Concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites were measured using liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry. Plasma, platelet and brain monoamines were measured using liquid-chromatography coupled to fluorimetry. Median lethal-doses of tramadol and diazepam/tramadol combination did not significantly differ, although time-to-death was longer with combination (P=0.04). Tramadol induced dose-dependent sedation (P<0.05), early-onset seizures (P<0.001) and increase in inspiratory (P<0.01) and expiratory times (P<0.05). The diazepam/tramadol combination abolished seizures but significantly enhanced sedation (P<0.01) and respiratory depression (P<0.05) by reducing tidal volume (P<0.05) in addition to tramadol-related increase in respiratory times, suggesting a pharmacodynamic mechanism of interaction. Plasma M1 and M5 metabolites were mildly increased, contributing additionally to tramadol-related respiratory depression. Tramadol-induced early-onset increase in brain concentrations of serotonin and norepinephrine was not significantly altered by the diazepam/tramadol combination. Interestingly neither pretreatment with cyproheptadine (a serotonin-receptor antagonist) nor a benserazide/5-hydroxytryptophane combination (enhancing brain serotonin) reduced tramadol-induced seizures. Our study shows that diazepam/tramadol combination does not worsen tramadol-induced fatality risk but alters its toxicity pattern with enhanced

  1. Protection against soman-induced neuropathology and respiratory failure: a comparison of the efficacy of diazepam and avizafone in guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Taysse, L; Daulon, S; Delamanche, S; Bellier, B; Breton, P

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of diazepam and the pro-diazepam avizafone in preventing the severity of soman-induced pathology in guinea pig. Survival, respiration and seizures of experimental animals were investigated with on-line monitoring of respiratory and EEG parameters. Guinea pigs were pretreated with pyridostigmine (0.1mg/kg i.m.) and 30 min later challenged with 1 or 2 LD50 soman. One minute after intoxication they were treated with atropine (3 or 33.8 mg/kg), pralidoxime chloride (32 mg/kg) and either diazepam (2 mg/kg), avizafone (3.5 mg/kg) or saline solution. The highest dose of atropine (33.8 mg/kg) gave a protective effect in groups treated without anticonvulsants by reducing the severity of clinical signs and death within 24 h but also by decreasing seizure occurrence and brain injuries. When injected at the similar molar dose of 7 micromoles/kg, the protection of anticonvulsants against soman neurotoxicity was higher with the atropine/pralidoxime/avizafone combination than with atropine/pralidoxime/diazepam. Indeed, when atropine was used at the lowest dose, avizafone was found to prevent early mortality and seizures occurrence with better efficacy than diazepam. On the other hand, when added to the therapy, the both anticonvulsants did not prevent the moderate EEG depression (reduction of amplitude by 30-52%) observed under 2 LD50 soman. Moreover, the number of animals suffering from respiratory distress (defined as a decrease of minute ventilation of more than 20% from the baseline value) was enhanced when diazepam or avizafone were used in the therapy. This effect was dependent on the atropine dose and the nature of the anticonvulsant. The beneficial effects of the different therapeutics tested were assessed and compared to the previous data obtained with the same therapies against sarin and from the pharmacokinetics properties of the atropine/diazepam mixture.

  2. Comparing the Antiseizure and Neuroprotective Efficacy of LY293558, Diazepam, Caramiphen, and LY293558-Caramiphen Combination against Soman in a Rat Model Relevant to the Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Apland, James P.; Aroniadou-Anderjaska, Vassiliki; Figueiredo, Taiza H.; Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Rossetti, Katia

    2018-01-01

    The currently Food and Drug Administration–approved anticonvulsant for the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) induced by nerve agents is the benzodiazepine diazepam; however, diazepam does not appear to offer neuroprotective benefits. This is of particular concern with respect to the protection of children because, in the developing brain, synaptic transmission mediated via GABAA receptors, the target of diazepam, is weak. In the present study, we exposed 21-day-old male rats to 1.2 × LD50 soman and compared the antiseizure, antilethality, and neuroprotective efficacy of diazepam (10 mg/kg), LY293558 (an AMPA/GluK1 receptor antagonist; 15 mg/kg), caramiphen (CRM, an antimuscarinic with NMDA receptor-antagonistic properties; 50 mg/kg), and LY293558 (15 mg/kg) + CRM (50 mg/kg), administered 1 hour after exposure. Diazepam, LY293558, and LY293558 + CRM, but not CRM alone, terminated SE; LY293558 + CRM treatment acted significantly faster and produced a survival rate greater than 85%. Thirty days after soman exposure, neurodegeneration in limbic regions was most severe in the CRM-treated group, minimal to severe—depending on the region—in the diazepam group, absent to moderate in the LY293558-treated group, and totally absent in the LY293558 + CRM group. Amygdala and hippocampal atrophy, a severe reduction in spontaneous inhibitory activity in the basolateral amygdala, and increased anxiety-like behavior in the open-field and acoustic startle response tests were present in the diazepam and CRM groups, whereas the LY293558 and LY293558 + CRM groups did not differ from controls. The combined administration of LY293558 and CRM, by blocking mainly AMPA, GluK1, and NMDA receptors, is a very effective anticonvulsant and neuroprotective therapy against soman in young rats. PMID:29467308

  3. Genetic loss of diazepam binding inhibitor in mice impairs social interest.

    PubMed

    Ujjainwala, A L; Courtney, C D; Rhoads, S G; Rhodes, J S; Christian, C A

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders in which reduced social interest is a common symptom, such as autism, depression, and anxiety, are frequently associated with genetic mutations affecting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic transmission. Benzodiazepine treatment, acting via GABA type-A receptors, improves social interaction in male mouse models with autism-like features. The protein diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) can act as an endogenous benzodiazepine, but a role for DBI in social behavior has not been described. Here, we investigated the role of DBI in the social interest and recognition behavior of mice. The responses of DBI wild-type and knockout male and female mice to ovariectomized female wild-type mice (a neutral social stimulus) were evaluated in a habituation/dishabituation task. Both male and female knockout mice exhibited reduced social interest, and DBI knockout mice lacked the sex difference in social interest levels observed in wild-type mice, in which males showed higher social interest levels than females. The ability to discriminate between familiar and novel stimulus mice (social recognition) was not impaired in DBI-deficient mice of either sex. DBI knockouts could learn a rotarod motor task, and could discriminate between social and nonsocial odors. Both sexes of DBI knockout mice showed increased repetitive grooming behavior, but not in a manner that would account for the decrease in social investigation time. Genetic loss of DBI did not alter seminal vesicle weight, indicating that the social interest phenotype of males lacking DBI is not due to reduced circulating testosterone. Together, these studies show a novel role of DBI in driving social interest and motivation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Differential effects of MPEP and diazepam in tests of conditioned emotional response and Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer suggests 'anxiolytic' effects are mediated by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    George, S A; Hutson, P H; Stephens, D N

    2009-06-01

    The selective mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) is reported to be anxiolytic in several animal models of anxiety, including the conditioned emotional response (CER) paradigm. Suppression of responding during conditioned stimulus (CS) presentation in CER may reflect behavioural competition between lever pressing and adopting a shock-avoidance posture, or it may alternatively reflect altered value of the food reward following its association with a footshock, thus reducing its ability to motivate responding. If this is the case, then drugs that reduce the CER may interfere with the mechanism by which CSs are able to motivate responding, rather than by reducing anxiety. The standard test of the ability of Pavlovian cues to motivate responding is the Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) paradigm and it has recently been suggested that CER may be 'negative PIT'. We compared the effect of MPEP (0, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) and diazepam (0, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) in CER and PIT. Both MPEP and diazepam significantly reduced conditioned suppression in the CER paradigm. MPEP, but not diazepam, significantly reduced PIT. The findings support the hypothesis that MPEP may reduce expression of anxiety in the CER paradigm by interfering with the way in which emotionally salient cues are able to affect behaviour, but do not support such an analysis of the effect of diazepam. Diazepam and MPEP may therefore achieve their effects in CER by influencing different psychological processes.

  5. Behavioral effects of diazepam in the murine plus-maze: flumazenil antagonism of enhanced head dipping but not the disinhibition of open-arm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dalvi, A; Rodgers, R J

    1999-04-01

    Although it is widely believed that benzodiazepines reduce anxiety through positive allosteric modulation of the GABA(A)-chloride channel complex, this is not the only mechanism through which agents of this class can modify CNS function. Furthermore, a significant number of reports of apparent flumazenil blockade of diazepam anxiolysis in animal models have paid limited attention to possible intrinsic behavioral actions of the antagonist per se. In the present study, ethological methods were employed to assess in detail the effects of diazepam, flumazenil, and their combination on the behavior of male DBA/2 mice in the elevated plus-maze paradigm. In two experiments, diazepam (1.5 mg/kg) alone reduced open-arm avoidance and increased head dipping, whereas flumazenil (10-40 mg/kg) alone was without significant behavioral effect. However, with the sole exception of head dipping, prior administration of flumazenil (10 and 40 mg/kg) failed to block the behavioral effects of diazepam under present test conditions. These findings imply that the anxiolytic effects of diazepam in the mouse plus-maze are not mediated through flumazenil-sensitive benzodiazepine receptors and that alternate mechanisms must be considered.

  6. Аnticonvulsant effects of citicoline and diazepam at their combined application on model of the acute generalized convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazole in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L V; Karpova, M N; Zinkovski, K A; Klishina, N Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying of efficiency of the combined application of the citicoline possessing nootropic and anticonvulsive action and antiepileptic drug of diazepam on the acute generalized convulsions (AGC) caused by a convulsant pentylentetrazole (PTZ). Experiments are executed on the male Wistar rats (n = 68) weighing 160-190 g on the AGС model caused by of PTZ in a dose of 80 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.). For studying of efficiency of the combined use of drugs determined the minimum anticonvulsive action of a citicoline (Tserakson, «Nicomed Ferrer Internacional, S.A.») and diazepam (Relanium, Warsaw pharmaceutical plant of Polf AO, Warsaw, Poland). For this citicoline were administered i.p. in doses 500 and 300 mg/kg 1 hour before the PTZ and diazepam - in doses of 0,5 and 0,25 mg/kg 30 min before administration of PTZ. Control animals were injected with saline to the same extent and under the same experimental conditions. It is shown that the combined administration of a citicoline and diazepam in minimum active doses (300 and 0.25 mg/kg respectively), increases anticonvulsive properties of both drugs. The combined administration of citicoline with diazepam in minimally active doses enhances anticonvulsant properties of both drugs, thereby reducing the risk of development of side effects. In addition, the research may serve as experimental justification for the use of drugs in case of convulsions for the purpose beneficial effect on cognitive function and delays of progressing of neurodegenerative processes.

  7. Endogenous benzodiazepine-like compounds and diazepam binding inhibitor in serum of patients with liver cirrhosis with and without overt encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Avallone, R; Zeneroli, M; Venturini, I; Corsi, L; Schreier, P; Kleinschnitz, M; Ferrarese, C; Farina, F; Baraldi, C; Pecora, N; Frigo, M; Baraldi, M

    1998-01-01

    Background/Aim—Despite some controversy, it has been suggested that endogenous benzodiazepine plays a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the concentrations of endogenous benzodiazepines and the peptide, diazepam binding inhibitor, in the blood of patients with liver cirrhosis with and without overt encephalopathy, and to compare these levels with those of consumers of commercial benzodiazepines. 
Subjects—Normal subjects (90), benzodiazepine consumers (14), and cirrhotic patients (113) were studied. 
Methods—Endogenous benzodiazepines were measured by the radioligand binding technique after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification. The presence of diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam was assayed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Diazepam binding inhibitor was studied in serum by radioimmunoassay. 
Results—Endogenous benzodiazepines were below the limit of detection in 7% of patients with encephalopathy. When detectable, their levels were at least comparable with those of benzodiazepine consumers and correlated with the liver dysfunction but not the stage of encephalopathy. Serum levels of diazepam binding inhibitor tended to decrease when endogenous benzodiazepines levels increased. 
Conclusions—Endogenous benzodiazepines may accumulate in patients with liver cirrhosis during the course of the disease, and the phenomenon appears to be independent of the presence or absence of encephalopathy. 

 Keywords: benzodiazepine consumers; diazepam binding inhibitor; endogenous benzodiazepines; liver cirrhosis; overt hepatic encephalopathy PMID:9691927

  8. Effects of buspirone, diazepam, and zolpidem on open field behavior, and brain [3H]muscimol binding after buspirone pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Siemiatkowski, M; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, H; Członkowska, A I; Bidziński, A; Płaźnik, A

    2000-07-01

    The effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist buspirone, a nonselective (diazepam), and a selective (zolpidem) GABA(A) receptor agonist were compared in the open field test of neophobia. Unhabituated rats were pretreated with the drugs once, prior to a first exposure to the open field, and their behavior was recorded both during this test and during a second trial 24 h later. It has been hypothesized that the decrease in exploratory activity observed during the second test session may be considered an adaptive reaction to the first day aversive experience (neophobia). If so, a selective modulation of 5-HT and GABA systems activity during the test could bring about significant changes in animal behavior on the retest. Buspirone at the lowest dose of 0.3 mg/kg revealed anxiolytic-like properties on the first day, whereas the action of diazepam and zolpidem was modulated by the dose-related sedative effect. At the dose of 2.4 mg/kg buspirone elicited delayed in time anxiolytic-like action, i.e., produced the antithigmotactic effect during the retrial 24 h later. Diazepam and zolpidem failed to exhibit similar profile of action. Autoradiography of [3H]muscimol binding after pretreatment of rats with buspirone showed a significant increase in the selective radioligand binding within the frontal cortex and a similar, near-significant tendency in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The behavioral data validate buspirone as important drug for the treatment of anxiety disorders, devoid of disruptive influence on motor and cognitive processes. The open field test, as modified by us, appeared sensitive in distinguishing the behavioral profiles of action of different anxiolytic compounds, including 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist. The present results support the assumption that reduced turnover of 5-HT due to stimulation of 5-HT(1A) autoreceptors, may bring about changes in GABA(A) receptor system activity, in some brain structures, leading to the anxiolytic effect.

  9. Risk of fractures requiring hospitalization after an initial prescription for zolpidem, alprazolam, lorazepam, or diazepam in older adults.

    PubMed

    Finkle, William D; Der, Jane S; Greenland, Sander; Adams, John L; Ridgeway, Gregory; Blaschke, Terrance; Wang, Zixia; Dell, Richard M; VanRiper, Kurt B

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether zolpidem is a safer alternative to benzodiazepines. Retrospective cohort study. Community based. Health maintenance organization members with an initial prescription for zolpidem (n = 43,343), alprazolam (n = 103,790), lorazepam (n = 150,858), or diazepam (n = 93,618). Zolpidem and benzodiazepine prescriptions were identified from pharmacy databases. Rates of nonvertebral fractures and hip fractures requiring hospitalization were compared before and after an initial prescription for each treatment, adjusting for confounders using doubly robust estimation. In patients aged 65 and older, the rates of nonvertebral fractures and dislocations were similar in the pre- treatment intervals. The rate ratios (RRs) for the 90-day posttreatment interval relative to the pretreatment interval were 2.55 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.78-3.65; P < .001) for zolpidem, 1.14 (95% CI = 0.80-1.64; P = .42) for alprazolam, 1.53 (95% CI = 1.23-1.91; P < .001) for lorazepam, and 1.97 (95% CI = 1.22-3.18; P = .01) for diazepam. The ratio of RRs (RRR)-the RR in the posttreatment period adjusted for the corresponding RR in the pretreatment period-were 2.23 (95% CI = 1.36-3.66; P = .006) for zolpidem relative to alprazolam, 1.68 (95% CI = 1.12-2.53; P = .02) for zolpidem relative to lorazepam, and 1.29 (95% CI = 0.72-2.30; P = .32) for zolpidem relative to diazepam. The RRs decreased with time from the initial prescription (trend P < .001), as would be expected if the association is causal. In older adults, the risk of injury with zolpidem exceeded that with alprazolam and lorazepam and was similar to that with diazepam. If the associations are causal, then the high incidence of these fractures implies that these treatment induce a substantial number of fractures and consequential costs. Further study of the association is imperative. © 2011, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Silexan, an essential oil from flowers of Lavandula angustifolia, is not recognized as benzodiazepine-like in rats trained to discriminate a diazepam cue.

    PubMed

    Silenieks, Leo B; Koch, Egon; Higgins, Guy A

    2013-01-15

    Recently, an essential oil of selected quality produced from the flowering tops of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. by steam distillation (Silexan) has been approved in Germany for the treatment of restlessness in case of anxious mood. Based on the observed clinical effects, it has been speculated that lavender oil may exert benzodiazepine-like action including the known dependence and abuse potential of this class of drugs. Although no evidence for such an activity was generated during the long-standing medicinal use of lavender oil, further preclinical investigations were now conducted to evaluate this potential side effect in more detail. Twelve adult, male, Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate the benzodiazepine drug diazepam (2 mg/kg i.p.) from saline using a two-lever operant procedure. After approximately 40 training sessions the majority of rats learned the discrimination and pre-treatment with ascending doses of diazepam (0.3-2 mg/kg i.p.) produced a dose related generalization to the diazepam cue. In these same animals Silexan was administered to see if animals recognized the drug as "diazepam-like" i.e. generalized to diazepam or "saline-like". Silexan tested at doses 3-30 mg/kg i.p. produced almost exclusively (>90%) saline-like responding. Also there was no effect of Silexan on response rate, i.e. rate of lever pressing, at any dose suggesting that the test article is well tolerated and does not exert a sedating effect. In sum, Silexan has no diazepam-like interoceptive property in adult, male rats. This suggests that Silexan does not share the potential of benzodiazepines to induce the development of tolerance, dependence and addiction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of xylazine, medetomidine, detomidine, and diazepam on sedation, heart and respiratory rates, and cloacal temperature in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca).

    PubMed

    Uzun, Metehan; Onder, Feyyaz; Atalan, Gultekin; Cenesiz, Metin; Kaya, Mehmet; Yildiz, Sedat

    2006-06-01

    In this study, heart and respiratory rates, cloacal temperature, and quality of sedation were evaluated before (0 min) and after (10, 20, and 30 min) i.m. administration of xylazine (10 mg/kg; n = 7), medetomidine (75 li; n = 6), detcmidine (0.3 mg/kg; n = 6), or diazepam (6 mg/kg; n = 7) in rock partridges (Alectoris graeca). All partridges recovered from sedation without any disturbance. Xylazine and diazepam administration did not induce significant changes in heart rate, which did decrease significantly after medetomidine and detomidine administration (P < 0.001). Mean respiratory rate was decreased dramatically at 20 and 30 min after xylazine (P < 0.001) and medetomidine (P < 0.005) administration, and at all stages of sedation after detomidine injection (P < 0.001), whereas there was not any significant change after diazepam injection. In all groups, cloacal temperature measured at 10, 20, and 30 min tended to decrease compared with baseline values. Sedative effects of the drugs started within 2.1+/-0.2 min for detomidine, 2.6 +/- 0.4 min for diazepam, 3.1 -+/-.4 min for xylazine, and 4.8+/-0.8 min for medetomidine application. There was an extreme variability in time to recovery for each drug: 205 +/-22.2 min for xylazine, 95 -12.2 min for medetomidine, 260+/-17.6 min for detomidine, and 149 + 8.3 min for diazepam. In conclusion, xylazine, medetomidine, detomidine, and diazepam produced sedation, which could permit some clinical procedures such as handling and radiographic examination of partridges to occur. Of the four drugs, xylazine produced stronger and more efficient sedation compared to the others, which could permit only minor procedures to be performed. However, depending on the drug used, monitoring of heart and respiratory rates and cloacal temperature might be required.

  12. Diazepam and Meclizine Are Equally Effective in the Treatment of Vertigo: An Emergency Department Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shih, Richard D; Walsh, Brian; Eskin, Barnet; Allegra, John; Fiesseler, Frederick W; Salo, Dave; Silverman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Vertigo is a debilitating disease that is commonly encountered in the emergency department (ED). Diazepam and meclizine are oral medications that are commonly used to alleviate symptoms. We sought to determine whether meclizine or diazepam is superior in the treatment of patients with peripheral vertigo in the ED. We performed a double-blind clinical trial at a suburban, teaching ED. We randomized a convenience sample of adult patients with acute peripheral vertigo (APV) to diazepam 5 mg or meclizine 25 mg orally. Demographic and historical features were recorded on a standardized data form. Patients recorded their initial level (t0) of vertigo on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) and after 30 min (t30) and 60 min (t60). The primary outcome parameter was the mean change in VAS score from t0 to t60. Differences between groups and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Our a priori power calculation estimated that a sample size of 20 patients in each group was required to have an 80% power to detect a difference of 20 mm between treatment groups. There were 20 patients in the diazepam group and 20 in the meclizine group. The two groups were similar with respect to patient demographics and presenting signs and symptoms. At t60, the mean improvements in the diazepam and meclizine groups were 36 and 40, respectively (difference -4; 95% confidence interval -20 to 12; p = 0.60). We found no difference between oral diazepam and oral meclizine for the treatment of ED patients with acute peripheral vertigo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-invasive in situ identification and band assignments of diazepam, flunitrazepam and methadone hydrochloride with FT-near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Refat H

    2011-03-20

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) has evolved into an important rapid, direct and non-invasive technique in drugs analysis. In this study, the suitability of NIR spectroscopy to identify two benzodiazepine derivatives, diazepam and flunitrazepam, and a synthetic opiate, methadone hydrochloride, inside USP vials and probe the solid-state form of diazepam presents in tablets has been explored. The results show the potential of NIR spectroscopy for rapid, in situ and non-destructive identification of drugs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of romifidine and xylazine when used with diazepam/ketamine for short duration anesthesia in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, C L; McDonell, W N; Young, S S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate sedation with intravenous xylazine (1.1 mg/kg bodyweight [BW]) versus intravenous romifidine (100 micrograms/kg BW) followed by induction of anesthesia with intravenous diazepam (0.04 mg/kg BW) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg BW). Twelve healthy horses were used in a blinded, randomized, cross-over design. Heart rate, presence of 2nd degree atrioventricular heart blocks (2 degrees AVB), respiratory rate, arterial blood pressures, blood gases, packed cell volume, total serum proteins, and duration of anesthesia and recumbency were recorded. Induction and recovery quality was evaluated using a 0 to 4 score. Response to stimulation with noise, pressure, and cutaneous electrical stimulation was assessed at 5 minute intervals during recumbency to evaluate the depth of anesthesia. Heart rate was lower and 2 degrees AVB more frequent in the romifidine group, while blood pressure was lower in the xylazine group. Duration of anesthesia was longer in the romifidine group (mean 20.8, s mean 2.3 min) versus the xylazine group (mean 15.8, s mean 1.6 min), while induction and recovery were excellent in both groups. Respiratory rates, blood gas values, packed cell volumes, and total protein levels did not differ between groups. The results indicate that romifidine premedication followed by diazepam and ketamine is a very satisfactory regime for short duration intravenous anesthesia in horses. PMID:8896874

  15. Amniotic Fluid or Its Fatty Acids Produce Actions Similar to Diazepam on Lateral Septal Neurons Firing Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G.; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana Idania

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid (AF) contains eight fatty acids (FATs), and both produce anxiolytic-like effects in adult rats and appetitive responses in human newborns. The medial amygdala and lateral septal nucleus function are related to social behavior, but the action of AF or its FATs in this circuit is known. We obtained 267 single-unit extracellular recordings in Wistar rats treated with vehicle (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), human AF (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), a FAT mixture (1 mL, s.c.; n = 13), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 11), and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, p.o.; n = 12). Compared with the vehicle group, the spontaneous septal firing rate in the AF, FAT mixture, and diazepam groups was the lowest and in the fluoxetine group the highest. Cumulative peristimulus histograms indicated that the significant change in septal firing occurred only in the AF and FAT mixture groups and exclusively in those neurons that increased their firing rate during amygdala stimulation. We conclude that human AF and its FATs produce actions comparable to anxiolytic drugs and are able to modify the responsivity of a circuit involved in social behavior, suggesting facilitation of social recognition processes by maternal-fetal fluids. PMID:23864826

  16. Methodological considerations for the evaluation of EEG mapping data: a practical example based on a placebo/diazepam crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Jähnig, P; Jobert, M

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative EEG is a sensitive method for measuring pharmacological effects on the central nervous system. Nowadays, computers enable EEG data to be stored and spectral parameters to be computed for signals obtained from a large number of electrode locations. However, the statistical analysis of such vast amounts of EEG data is complicated due to the limited number of subjects usually involved in pharmacological studies. In the present study, data from a trial aimed at comparing diazepam and placebo were used to investigate different properties of EEG mapping data and to compare different methods of data analysis. Both the topography and the temporal changes of EEG activity were investigated using descriptive data analysis, which is based on an inspection of patterns of pd values (descriptive p values) assessed for all pair-wise tests for differences in time or treatment. An empirical measure (tri-mean) for the computation of group maps is suggested, allowing a better description of group effects with skewed data of small samples size. Finally, both the investigation of maps based on principal component analysis and the notion of distance between maps are discussed and applied to the analysis of the data collected under diazepam treatment, exemplifying the evaluation of pharmacodynamic drug effects.

  17. The effects of repeated administration of diazepam, MK-801 and CGP 37849 on rat behavior in two models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Jessa, M; Nazar, M; Bidzinski, A; Plaznik, A

    1996-03-01

    The effects of repeated administration of diazepam, MK-801 and CGP 37849 on rat behavior in the Vogel conflict test, and in the open field test of neophobia, were studied in rats. The drugs were given at doses active acutely, for 5 days, the last dose was administered 30 or 60 min prior to testing. It appeared that diazepam and MK-801 treated animals showed clear-cut signs of behavioral tolerance and motor sensitization, respectively. CGP 37849 was characterized by the best pharmacological profile, in that on repeated administration the drug not only retained its anxiolytic-like potency in the Vogel test, but even enhanced rat exploratory behavior in a new environment, independently of changes in animal motor activity. Repeated injections of the examined agents did not cause any significant modifications in monoamine levels and their turnover rates, in the striatum and limbic forebrain. It is concluded that the new class of competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, exemplified by CGP 37849, is the most promising candidate for clinical trials in anxiety disorders.

  18. Super-high-affinity binding site for [3H]diazepam in the presence of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, S; Ogawa, N; Mori, A

    1982-12-01

    Chloride salts of Li+, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ had no effect on [3H]diazepam binding. Chloride salts of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ increased [3H]diazepam binding by 34 to 68% in a concentration-dependent fashion. Since these divalent cations potentiated the GABA-enhanced [3H]diazepam binding and the effect of each divalent cation was nearly additive with GABA, these cations probably act at a site different from the GABA recognition site in the benzodiazepine-receptor complex. Scatchard plots of [3H]diazepam binding without an effective divalent cation showed a single class of binding, with a Kd value of 5.3 nM. In the presence of 1 mM Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, or Zn2+, two distinct binding sites were evident with apparent Kd values of 1.0 nM and 5.7 nM. The higher-affinity binding was not detected in the absence of an effective divalent cation and is probably a novel, super-high-affinity binding site.

  19. Separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ⁹-THC in humans discriminating Δ⁹-THC.

    PubMed

    Lile, Joshua A; Kelly, Thomas H; Hays, Lon R

    2014-10-01

    Our previous research suggested the involvement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in particular the GABAB receptor subtype, in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). The aim of the present study was to determine the potential involvement of the GABAA receptor subtype by assessing the separate and combined effects of the GABAA positive allosteric modulator diazepam and Δ(9)-THC using pharmacologically selective drug-discrimination procedures. Ten cannabis users learned to discriminate 30 mg oral Δ(9)-THC from placebo and then received diazepam (5 and 10mg), Δ(9)-THC (5, 15 and 30 mg) and placebo, alone and in combination. Self-report, task performance and physiological measures were also collected. Δ(9)-THC functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced subjective effects typically associated with cannabinoids (e.g., High, Stoned, Like Drug) and elevated heart rate. Diazepam alone impaired performance on psychomotor performance tasks and increased ratings on a limited number of self-report questionnaire items (e.g., Any Effect, Sedated), but did not substitute for the Δ(9)-THC discriminative stimulus or alter the Δ(9)-THC discrimination dose-response function. Similarly, diazepam had limited impact on the other behavioral effects of Δ(9)-THC. These results suggest that the GABAA receptor subtype has minimal involvement in the interoceptive effects of Δ(9)-THC, and by extension cannabis, in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of surgical conditions following premedication with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery: A randomized, double-blinded study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat Pai, Rohini V; Badiger, Santhoshi; Sachidananda, Roopa; Basappaji, Santhosh Mysore Chandramouli; Shanbhag, Raghunath; Rao, Raghavendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) provides a challenge and an opportunity to the anesthesiologists to prove their mettle and give the surgeons a surgical field which can make their delicate surgery safer,more precise and faster. The aim of the study was to evaluate the surgical field and the rate of blood loss in patients premedicated with oral clonidine versus oral diazepam for endoscopic sinus surgery. Material and Methods: ASA I or II patients who were scheduled to undergo ESS were randomly allocated to group D (n = 30) or group C (n = 30). The patients' vital parameters, propofol infusion rate, and rate of blood loss were observed and calculated. The surgeon, who was blinded, rated the visibility of the surgical field from grade 0-5. Results: In the clonidine group, the rate of blood loss, the surgical time, propofol infusion rate was found to be statistically lower as compared to the diazepam group. Also a higher number of patients in the clonidine group had a better surgical score (better surgical field) than the diazepam group and vice versa. Conclusions: Premedication with clonidine as compared to diazepam, provides a better surgical field with less blood loss in patients undergoing ESS. PMID:27275059

  1. Comparison of intravenous ethanol versus diazepam for alcohol withdrawal prophylaxis in the trauma ICU: results of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Jordan A; Magnotti, Louis J; Fischer, Peter E; Edwards, Norma M; Schroeppel, Thomas; Fabian, Timothy C; Croce, Martin A

    2008-01-01

    Although benzodiazepines are the recommended first-line therapy for the prevention of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), the administration of intravenous ethanol as an alternative prophylactic agent persists in many surgical ICUs. Advocates of this therapy argue that ethanol provides effective prophylaxis against AWS without the excessive sedation observed with benzodiazepine therapy. No study to date, however, has compared the two therapies with regard to their sedative effects. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of intravenous ethanol compared with benzodiazepines for the prevention of AWS with particular emphasis on the sedative effects of each therapy. During a 15-month period, trauma patients admitted to the ICU with a history of chronic daily alcohol consumption greater than or equal to five beverage equivalents per day were prospectively randomized to one of two 4-day prophylactic regimens: intravenous ethanol infusion (EtOH) versus scheduled-dose diazepam (BENZO). Patients were evaluated with the Riker sedation-agitation scale, a 7-point instrument for the subjective assessment of both sedation (1 = unarousable) and agitation (7 = dangerous agitation). According to protocol, regimens were titrated to achieve and maintain a Riker score of 4 (calm and cooperative). Deviation from a score of 4 during the course of treatment was compared between groups. Fifty patients met study criteria and were randomized after obtainment of informed consent (EtOH, n = 26; BENZO, n = 24). Overall, the EtOH group had a significantly greater proportion of patients who deviated from a score of 4 during the course of treatment (p = 0.020). In both groups, the majority of deviation from a score of 4 reflected periods of under-sedation rather than over-sedation. One patient in the EtOH group failed treatment, requiring diazepam and haloperidol for control of AWS symptoms as per protocol, whereas no patient in the BENZO group failed treatment (p

  2. The effect of premedication with ketamine, alone or with diazepam, on anaesthesia with sevoflurane in parrots (Amazona aestiva)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Premedication is rarely used in avian species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of premedication on the quality of sevoflurane induction and anaesthesia in parrots. We hypothesised that premedication would facilitate handling and decrease the minimum anaesthetic dose (MAD). Thirty-six adult parrots were randomly distributed in three groups: group S (n = 12) was premedicated with NaCl 0.9%; group KS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine; and group KDS (n = 12) was premedicated with 10 mg.kg-1 ketamine and 0.5 mg.kg-1 diazepam, delivered intramuscularly. After induction using 4.5% sevoflurane introduced through a facemask, the MAD was determined for each animal. The heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and cloacal temperature (CT) were recorded before premedication (T0), 15 minutes after premedication (T1), and after MAD determination (T2). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at T0 and T2. The quality of anaesthesia was evaluated using subjective scales based on animal behaviour and handling during induction, maintenance, and recovery. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Tukey’s or Dunn’s tests. Results The minimal anaesthetic doses obtained were 2.4 ± 0.37%, 1.7 ± 0.39%, and 1.3 ± 0.32% for groups S, KS, and KDS, respectively. There were no differences in HR, RR, or CT among groups, but SAP was significantly lower in group S. Sedation was observed in both the premedicated S-KS and S-KDS groups. There were no differences in the quality of intubation and recovery from anaesthesia among the three groups, although the induction time was significantly shorter in the pre-medicated groups, and the KS group showed less muscle relaxation. Conclusions Ketamine alone or the ketamine/diazepam combination decreased the MAD of sevoflurane in parrots (Amazona aestiva). Ketamine alone or in

  3. Reaction of diazepam and related benzodiazepines with chlorine. Kinetics, transformation products and in-silico toxicological assessment.

    PubMed

    Carpinteiro, Inmaculada; Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the reaction of four benzodiazepines (diazepam, oxazepam, nordazepam and temazepam) during water chlorination was studied by means of liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). For those compounds that showed a significant degradation, i.e. diazepam, oxazepam and nordazepam, parameters affecting to the reaction kinetics (pH, chlorine and bromide level) were studied in detail and transformation products were tentatively identified. The oxidation reactions followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with rate constants in the range of 1.8-42.5 M -1  s -1 , 0.13-1.16 M -1  s -1 and 0.04-20.4 M -1  s -1 corresponding to half-life values in the range of 1.9-146 min, 1.8-87 h and 2.5-637 h for oxazepam, nordazepam and diazepam, respectively, depending of the levels of studied parameters. Chlorine and pH affected significantly the reaction kinetics, where an increase of the pH resulted into a decrease of the reaction rate, whereas higher chlorine dosages led to faster kinetics, as expected in this case. The transformation of the studied benzodiazepines occurs mainly at the 1,4-diazepine 7-membered-ring, resulting in ring opening to form benzophenone derivatives or the formation of a 6-membered pyrimidine ring, leading to quinazoline derivatives. The formation of these by-products was also tested in real surface water samples observing kinetics of oxazepam degradation slower in river than in creek water, while the degradation of the two other benzodiazepines occurred only in the simpler sample (creek water). Finally, the acute and chronical toxicity and mutagenicity of precursors and transformation products were estimated using quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) software tools: Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) and Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (TEST), finding that some transformation products could be more toxic/mutagenic than the precursor drug, but additional test would be needed

  4. Duration of treatment and activation of α1-containing GABAA receptors variably affect the level of anxiety and seizure susceptibility after diazepam withdrawal in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kovačević, Jovana; Timić, Tamara; Tiruveedhula, Veera V.; Batinić, Bojan; Namjoshi, Ojas A.; Milić, Marija; Joksimović, Srđan; Cook, James M.; Savić, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term use of benzodiazepine-type drugs may lead to physical dependence, manifested by withdrawal syndrome after abrupt cessation of treatment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of duration of treatment, as well as the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors, in development of physical dependence to diazepam, assessed through the level of anxiety and susceptibility to pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, 24 h after withdrawal from protracted treatment in rats. Withdrawal of 2 mg/kg diazepam after 28, but not after 14 or 21 days of administration led to an anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Antagonism of the diazepam effects at α1-containing GABAA receptors, achieved by daily administration of the neutral modulator βCCt (5 mg/kg), did not affect the anxiety level during withdrawal. An increased susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was observed during diazepam withdrawal after 21 and 28 days of treatment. Daily co-administration of βCCt further decreased the PTZ-seizure threshold after 21 days of treatment, whilst it prevented the diazepam withdrawal-elicited decrease of the PTZ threshold after 28 days of treatment. In conclusion, the current study suggests that the role of α1-containing GABAA receptors in mediating the development of physical dependence may vary based on the effect being studied and duration of protracted treatment. Moreover, the present data supports previous findings that the lack of activity at α1-containing GABAA receptors is not sufficient to eliminate physical dependence liability of ligands of the benzodiazepine type. PMID:24695241

  5. Preparation of a novel sorptive stir bar based on vinylpyrrolidone-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate monolithic polymer for the simultaneous extraction of diazepam and nordazepam from human plasma.

    PubMed

    Torabizadeh, Mahsa; Talebpour, Zahra; Adib, Nuoshin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2016-04-01

    A new monolithic coating based on vinylpyrrolidone-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate polymer was introduced for stir bar sorptive extraction. The polymerization step was performed using different contents of monomer, cross-linker and porogenic solvent, and the best formulation was selected. The quality of the prepared vinylpyrrolidone-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate stir bars was satisfactory, demonstrating good repeatability within batch (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) and acceptable reproducibility between batches (relative standard deviation < 6.0%). The prepared stir bar was utilized in combination with ultrasound-assisted liquid desorption, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection for the simultaneous determination of diazepam and nordazepam in human plasma samples. To optimize the extraction step, a three-level, four-factor, three-block Box-Behnken design was applied. Under the optimum conditions, the analytical performance of the proposed method displayed excellent linear dynamic ranges for diazepam (36-1200 ng/mL) and nordazepam (25-1200 ng/mL), with correlation coefficients of 0.9986 and 0.9968 and detection limits of 12 and 10 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday recovery ranged from 93 to 106%, and the relative standard deviations were less than 6%. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of diazepam and nordazepam at their therapeutic levels in human plasma. The novelty of this study is the improved polarity of the stir bar coating and its application for the simultaneous extraction of diazepam and its active metabolite, nordazepam in human plasma sample. The method was more rapid than previously reported stir bar sorptive extraction techniques based on monolithic coatings, and exhibited lower detection limits in comparison with similar methods for the determination of diazepam and nordazepam in biological fluids. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Chromatographic method for the determination of diazepam, pyridostigmine bromide, and their metabolites in rat plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2001-04-25

    This study describes a chromatographic method for the determination of diazepam, an anxiolytic drug that is also used as an antidote against nerve agent seizures, its metabolites N-desmethyldiazepam, and temazepam, the anti-nerve agent drug pyridostigmine bromide (PB; 3-dimethylaminocarbonyloxy-N-methyl pyridinium bromide) and its metabolite N-methyl-3-hydroxypyridinium bromide in rat plasma and urine. The compounds were extracted using C18 Sep-Pak Vac 3cc (500 mg) cartridges and separated using isocratic mobile phase of methanol, acetonitrile and water (pH 3.2) (10:40:50) at a flow-rate of 0.5 ml/min in a period of 12 min, and UV detection ranging between 240 and 280 nm. The limits of detection for all analytes ranged between 20 and 50 ng/ml, while limits of quantitation were 100 ng/ml. Average percentage extraction recoveries of five spiked plasma samples were 79.1+/-7.7, 83.5+/-6.4, 83.9+/-5.9, 71.3+/-6.0 and 77.7+/-5.6, and from urine 79.4+/-7.9, 83.1+/-6.9, 73.6+/-7.7, 74.3+/-7.1 and 77.6+/-5.9 for diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, temazepam, pyridostigmine bromide, and N-methyl-3-hydroxypyridinium bromide, respectively. The relationship between peak areas and concentration was linear over the range between 100 and 1000 ng/ml. This method was applied to determine the above analytes following a single oral administration in rats as a tool to study the pharmacokinetic profile of each compound, alone and in combination.

  7. Piracetam and TRH analogues antagonise inhibition by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and galanin of human erythrocyte D-glucose transport

    PubMed Central

    Naftalin, Richard J; Cunningham, Philip; Afzal-Ahmed, Iram

    2004-01-01

    Nootropic drugs increase glucose uptake into anaesthetised brain and into Alzheimer's diseased brain. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH, which has a chemical structure similar to nootropics increases cerebellar uptake of glucose in murine rolling ataxia. This paper shows that nootropic drugs like piracetam (2-oxo 1 pyrrolidine acetamide) and levetiracetam and neuropeptides like TRH antagonise the inhibition of glucose transport by barbiturates, diazepam, melatonin and endogenous neuropeptide galanin in human erythrocytes in vitro. The potencies of nootropic drugs in opposing scopolamine-induced memory loss correlate with their potencies in antagonising pentobarbital inhibition of erythrocyte glucose transport in vitro (P<0.01). Less potent nootropics, D-levetiracetam and D-pyroglutamate, have higher antagonist Ki's against pentobarbital inhibition of glucose transport than more potent L-stereoisomers (P<0.001). Piracetam and TRH have no direct effects on net glucose transport, but competitively antagonise hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport. Other nootropics, like aniracetam and levetiracetam, while antagonising pentobarbital action, also inhibit glucose transport. Analeptics like bemigride and methamphetamine are more potent inhibitors of glucose transport than antagonists of hypnotic action on glucose transport. There are similarities between amino-acid sequences in human glucose transport protein isoform 1 (GLUT1) and the benzodiazepine-binding domains of GABAA (gamma amino butyric acid) receptor subunits. Mapped on a 3D template of GLUT1, these homologies suggest that the site of diazepam and piracetam interaction is a pocket outside the central hydrophilic pore region. Nootropic pyrrolidone antagonism of hypnotic drug inhibition of glucose transport in vitro may be an analogue of TRH antagonism of galanin-induced narcosis. PMID:15148255

  8. ηηDiazepam-induced loss of inhibitory synapses mediated by PLCδ/ Ca 2+ /calcineurin signalling downstream of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Martin W; Sweeney, Aaron; Pekle, Eva; Alam, Sabina; Ali, Afia B; Duchen, Michael; Jovanovic, Jasmina N

    2018-06-14

    Benzodiazepines facilitate the inhibitory actions of GABA by binding to γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA A Rs), GABA-gated chloride/bicarbonate channels, which are the key mediators of transmission at inhibitory synapses in the brain. This activity underpins potent anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines in patients. However, extended benzodiazepine treatments lead to development of tolerance, a process which, despite its important therapeutic implications, remains poorly characterised. Here we report that prolonged exposure to diazepam, the most widely used benzodiazepine in clinic, leads to a gradual disruption of neuronal inhibitory GABAergic synapses. The loss of synapses and the preceding, time- and dose-dependent decrease in surface levels of GABA A Rs, mediated by dynamin-dependent internalisation, were blocked by Ro 15-1788, a competitive benzodiazepine antagonist, and bicuculline, a competitive GABA antagonist, indicating that prolonged enhancement of GABA A R activity by diazepam is integral to the underlying molecular mechanism. Characterisation of this mechanism has revealed a metabotropic-type signalling downstream of GABA A Rs, involving mobilisation of Ca 2+ from the intracellular stores and activation of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, which, in turn, dephosphorylates GABA A Rs and promotes their endocytosis, leading to disassembly of inhibitory synapses. Furthermore, functional coupling between GABA A Rs and Ca 2+ stores was sensitive to phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition by U73122, and regulated by PLCδ, a PLC isoform found in direct association with GABA A Rs. Thus, a PLCδ/Ca 2+ /calcineurin signalling cascade converts the initial enhancement of GABA A Rs by benzodiazepines to a long-term downregulation of GABAergic synapses, this potentially underpinning the development of pharmacological and behavioural tolerance to these widely prescribed drugs.

  9. Influence of a Double-Lumen Extension Tube on Drug Delivery: Examples of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Diazepam

    PubMed Central

    Maiguy-Foinard, Aurélie; Blanchemain, Nicolas; Barthélémy, Christine; Odou, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Plastic materials such as polyurethane (PUR), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) are widely used in double-lumen extension tubing. The purposes of our study were to 1) compare in vitro drug delivery through the double extension tubes available on the market 2) assess the plastic properties of PUR in infusion devices and their impact on drug delivery. Methods The study compared eight double-lumen extension tubes in PUR, co-extruded (PE/PVC) plastic and plasticised PVC from different manufacturers. Isosorbide dinitrate and diazepam were used as model compounds to evaluate their sorption on the internal surface of the infusion device. Control experiments were performed using norepinephrine known not to absorb to plastics. Drug concentrations delivered at the egress of extension tubes were determined over time by an analytical spectrophotometric UV-Vis method. The main characteristics of plastics were also determined. Results Significant differences in the sorption phenomenon were observed among the eight double-lumen extension tubes and between pairs of extension tubes. Mean concentrations of isosorbide dinitrate delivered at the egress of double-lumen extension tubes after a 150-minute infusion (mean values ± standard deviation in percentage of the initial concentrations in the prepared syringes) ranged between 80.53 ± 1.66 (one of the PUR tubes) and 92.84 ± 2.73 (PE/PVC tube). The same parameters measured during diazepam infusion ranged between 48.58 ± 2.88 (one of the PUR tubes) and 85.06 ± 3.94 (PE/PVC tube). The double-lumen extension tubes in PUR were either thermosetting (resin) or thermoplastic according to reference. Conclusions Clinicians must be aware of potential drug interactions with extension tube materials and so must consider their nature as well as the sterilisation method used before selecting an infusion device. PMID:27153224

  10. The redox behaviour of diazepam (Valium®) using a disposable screen-printed sensor and its determination in drinks using a novel adsorptive stripping voltammetric assay.

    PubMed

    Honeychurch, Kevin C; Crew, Adrian; Northall, Hannah; Radbourne, Stuart; Davies, Owian; Newman, Sam; Hart, John P

    2013-11-15

    In this study we investigated the possibility of applying disposable electrochemical screen-printed carbon sensors for the rapid identification and quantitative determination of diazepam in beverages. This was achieved utilising a previously unreported oxidation peak. The origin of this peak was investigated further by cyclic voltammetry and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. At pH 6 the voltammetric behaviour of this oxidation process was found to involve adsorption of the drug allowing for the development of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric assay. Experimental conditions were then optimised for the determination of diazepam in a beverage sample using a medium exchange technique. It was shown that no elaborate extraction procedures were required as the calibration plots obtained in the absence and presence of the beverage were very similar. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Acid-base and biochemical stabilization and quality of recovery in male cats with urethral obstruction and anesthetized with propofol or a combination of ketamine and diazepam

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Gabrielle C.; Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, Marina G.; Gomes, Kleber; Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, João P.; Togni, Monique; Pippi, Ney L.; Carregaro, Adriano B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared acid-base and biochemical changes and quality of recovery in male cats with experimentally induced urethral obstruction and anesthetized with either propofol or a combination of ketamine and diazepam for urethral catheterization. Ten male cats with urethral obstruction were enrolled for urethral catheterization and anesthetized with either ketamine-diazepam (KD) or propofol (P). Lactated Ringer’s solution was administered by intravenous (IV) beginning 15 min before and continuing for 48 h after relief of urethral obstruction. Quality of recovery and time to standing were evaluated. The urethral catheter was maintained to measure urinary output. Hematocrit (Hct), total plasma protein (TPP), albumin, total protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, pH, bicarbonate (HCO3−), chloride, base excess, anion gap, sodium, potassium, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in mixed venous blood (pvCO2) were measured before urethral obstruction, at start of fluid therapy (0 h), and at subsequent intervals. The quality of recovery and time to standing were respectively 4 and 75 min in the KD group and 5 and 16 min in the P group. The blood urea nitrogen values were increased at 0, 2, and 8 h in both groups. Serum creatinine increased at 0 and 2 h in cats administered KD and at 0, 2, and 8 h in cats receiving P, although the values were above the reference range in both groups until 8 h. Acidosis occurred for up to 2 h in both groups. Acid-base and biochemical stabilization were similar in cats anesthetized with propofol or with ketamine-diazepam. Cats that received propofol recovered much faster, but the ketamine-diazepam combination was shown to be more advantageous when treating uncooperative cats as it can be administered by intramuscular (IM) injection. PMID:23277699

  12. The Limitations of Diazepam as a Treatment for Nerve Agent-Induced Seizures and Neuropathology in Rats: Comparison with UBP302

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    to nerve agents induces prolonged status epilepticus (SE), causing brain damage or death. Diazepam (DZP) is the cur- rent US Food and Drug... status epilepticus (SE), which are initiated by the excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. If immediate death is prevented by adequate...5-yl)ethyl] decahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; SE, status epilepticus ; UBP302, (S)-3-(2-carboxybenzyl

  13. Making Sense of a Negative Clinical Trial Result: A Bayesian Analysis of a Clinical Trial of Lorazepam and Diazepam for Pediatric Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Daniel B; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of a Bayesian approach to a recent negative clinical trial result. A Bayesian analysis of such a trial can provide a more useful interpretation of results and can incorporate previous evidence. This was a secondary analysis of the efficacy and safety results of the Pediatric Seizure Study, a randomized clinical trial of lorazepam versus diazepam for pediatric status epilepticus. We included the published results from the only prospective pediatric study of status in a Bayesian hierarchic model, and we performed sensitivity analyses on the amount of pooling between studies. We evaluated 3 summary analyses for the results: superiority, noninferiority (margin <-10%), and practical equivalence (within ±10%). Consistent with the original study's classic analysis of study results, we did not demonstrate superiority of lorazepam over diazepam. There is a 95% probability that the true efficacy of lorazepam is in the range of 66% to 80%. For both the efficacy and safety outcomes, there was greater than 95% probability that lorazepam is noninferior to diazepam, and there was greater than 90% probability that the 2 medications are practically equivalent. The results were largely driven by the current study because of the sample sizes of our study (n=273) and the previous pediatric study (n=61). Because Bayesian analysis estimates the probability of one or more hypotheses, such an approach can provide more useful information about the meaning of the results of a negative trial outcome. In the case of pediatric status epilepticus, it is highly likely that lorazepam is noninferior and practically equivalent to diazepam. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Centrosome structure and function is altered by chloral hydrate and diazepam during the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper explores the mode of action of the tranquillizers chloral hydrate and diazepam during fertilization and mitosis of the first reproductive cell cycles in sea urchin eggs. Most striking effects of these drugs are the alteration of centrosomal material and the abnormal microtubule configurations during exposure and after recovery from the drugs. This finding is utilized to study the mechanisms of centrosome compaction and decompaction and the dynamic configurational changes of centrosomal material and its interactions with microtubules. When 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam is applied at specific phases during the first cell cycle of sea urchin eggs, expanded centrosomal material compacts at distinct regions and super-compacts into dense spheres while microtubules disassemble. When eggs are treated before pronuclear fusion, centrosomal material aggregates around each of the two pronuclei while microtubules disappear. Upon recovery, atypical asters oftentimes with multiple foci are formed from centrosomal material surrounding the pronuclei which indicates that the drugs have affected centrosomal material and prevent it from functioning normally. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies with antibodies that routinely stain centrosomes in sea urchin eggs (4D2; and Ah-6) depict centrosomal material that is altered when compared to control cells. This centrosomal material is not able to reform normal microtubule patterns upon recovery but will form multiple asters around the two pronuclei. When cells are treated with 0.1% chloral hydrate or 350-750 microM diazepam during mitosis, the bipolar centrosomal material becomes compacted and aggregates into multiple dense spheres while spindle and polar microtubules disassemble. With increased incubation time, the smaller dense centrosome particles aggregate into bigger and fewer spheres. Upon recovery, unusual irregular microtubule configurations are formed from centrosomes that have lost their

  15. Sex matters: females in proestrus show greater diazepam anxiolysis and brain-derived neurotrophin factor- and parvalbumin-positive neurons than males.

    PubMed

    Ravenelle, Rebecca; Berman, Ariel K; La, Jeffrey; Mason, Briana; Asumadu, Evans; Yelleswarapu, Chandra; Donaldson, S Tiffany

    2018-04-01

    In humans and animal models, sex differences are reported for anxiety-like behavior and response to anxiogenic stimuli. In the current work, we studied anxiety-like behavior and response to the prototypical anti-anxiety drug, diazepam. We used 6th generation outbred lines of adult Long Evans rats with high and low anxiety-like behavior phenotypes to investigate the impact of proestrus on the baseline and diazepam-induced behavior. At three doses of diazepam (0, 0.1, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), we measured anxiogenic responses on the elevated plus maze of adult male and female rats. We assessed parvalbumin and brain-derived neurotrophin protein levels in forebrain and limbic structures implicated in anxiety/stress using immunohistochemistry. At baseline, we saw significant differences between anxiety lines, with high anxiety lines displaying less time on the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and less open arm entries, regardless of sex. During proestrus, high anxiety females showed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 mg/kg, while low anxiety females displayed less anxiety-like behavior at 0.1 and 1.0 doses, relative to males. Brain-derived neurotrophin protein was elevated in females in the medial prefrontal cortex and central amygdala, while parvalbumin-immunoreactive cells were greater in males in the medial prefrontal cortex. Parvalbumin-positive cells in high anxiety females were higher in CA2 and dentate gyrus relative to males from the same line. In sum, when tested in proestrus, females showed greater anxiolytic effects of diazepam relative to males, and this correlated with increases in neurotrophin and parvalbumin neuron density in corticolimbic structures. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The anticholinergic and antiglutamatergic drug caramiphen reduces seizure duration in soman-exposed rats: Synergism with the benzodiazepine diazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, M.K.; Wright, L.K.M.; Stone, M.F.

    2012-03-15

    Therapy of seizure activity following exposure to the nerve agent soman (GD) includes treatment with the anticonvulsant diazepam (DZP), an allosteric modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA{sub A}) receptors. However, seizure activity itself causes the endocytosis of GABA{sub A} receptors and diminishes the inhibitory effects of GABA, thereby reducing the efficacy of DZP. Treatment with an N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist prevents this reduction in GABAergic inhibition. We examined the efficacy of the NMDA receptor antagonist caramiphen edisylate (CED; 20 mg/kg, im) and DZP (10 mg/kg, sc), administered both separately and in combination, at 10, 20 or 30 min followingmore » seizure onset for attenuation of the deleterious effects associated with GD exposure (1.2 LD{sub 50}; 132 μg/kg, sc) in rats. Outcomes evaluated were seizure duration, neuropathology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, body weight, and temperature. We also examined the use of the reversible AChE inhibitor physostigmine (PHY; 0.2 mg/kg, im) as a therapy for GD exposure. We found that the combination of CED and DZP yielded a synergistic effect, shortening seizure durations and reducing neuropathology compared to DZP alone, when treatment was delayed 20–30 min after seizure onset. PHY reduced the number of animals that developed seizures, protected a fraction of AChE from GD inhibition, and attenuated post-exposure body weight and temperature loss independent of CED and/or DZP treatment. We conclude that: 1) CED and DZP treatment offers considerable protection against the effects of GD and 2) PHY is a potential therapeutic option following GD exposure, albeit with a limited window of opportunity. -- Highlights: ► Soman (GD) produced seizure activity resulting in neuropathology in rats. ► Tx: caramiphen (CED) and/or diazepam (DZP) @ 10, 20 or 30 min after seizure onset. ► CED/DZP showed superior anticonvulsant and neuroprotective capacity. ► Physostigmine (PHY

  17. Barriers to publishing in biomedical journals perceived by a sample of French researchers: results of the DIAzePAM study.

    PubMed

    Duracinsky, Martin; Lalanne, Christophe; Rous, Laurence; Dara, Aichata Fofana; Baudoin, Lesya; Pellet, Claire; Descamps, Alexandre; Péretz, Fabienne; Chassany, Olivier

    2017-07-10

    As publishing is essential but competitive for researchers, difficulties in writing and submitting medical articles to biomedical journals are disabling. The DIAzePAM (Difficultés des Auteurs à la Publication d'Articles Médicaux) survey aimed to assess the difficulties experienced by researchers in the AP-HP (Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, i.e., Paris Hospitals Board, France), the largest public health institution in Europe, when preparing articles for biomedical journals. The survey also aimed to assess researchers' satisfaction and perceived needs. A 39-item electronic questionnaire based on qualitative interviews was addressed by e-mail to all researchers registered in the AP-HP SIGAPS (Système d'Interrogation, de Gestion et d'Analyse des Publications Scientifiques) bibliometric database. Between 28 May and 15 June 2015, 7766 researchers should have received and read the e-mail, and 1191 anonymously completed the questionnaire (<45 years of age: 63%; women: 55%; physician: 81%; with PhD or Habilitation à Diriger des recherches--accreditation to direct research--: 45%). 94% of respondents had published at least one article in the previous 2 years. 76% of respondents felt they were not publishing enough, mainly because of lack of time to write (79%) or submit (27%), limited skills in English (40%) or in writing (32%), and difficulty in starting writing (35%). 87% of respondents would accept technical support, especially in English reediting (79%), critical reediting (63%), formatting (52%), and/or writing (41%), to save time (92%) and increase high-impact-factor journal submission and acceptance (75%). 79% of respondents would appreciate funding support for their future publications, for English reediting (56%), medical writing (21%), or publication (38%) fees. They considered that this funding support could be covered by AP-HP (73%) and/or by the added financial value obtained by their department from previous publications (56%). The DIAzePAM

  18. Influence of diazepam on blood glucose levels in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects under dental treatment with local anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Schaira, Vanessa Rocha Lima; Ranali, José; Saad, Mário José Abdalla; de Oliveira, Patrícia Cristine; Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria Bovi; Volpato, Maria Cristina

    2004-01-01

    The effect of diazepam on blood glucose concentration (BGC) was investigated in a double-blind cross-over study in 10 healthy and 10 non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taking oral hypoglycemic drugs. In the first session, fasting blood samples were taken for blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin estimation and at 60, 80, 95, 125, and 155 minutes thereafter for glucose estimation. In another 2 sessions, a venous sample was taken immediately before premedication (5 mg diazepam or placebo randomly given during breakfast). One hour later a blood sample was taken, and the volunteers were submitted to periodontal treatment after injection of 1.8 mL of 2% mepivacaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline. Venous blood samples were taken at 15, 30, 60, and 90 minutes after injection. The changes in BGC were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures; the means were compared using Tukey test (P = .05). Statistically significant differences in the BGC were observed between diabetic and nondiabetic groups (P = .00003). However, there were no significant differences among the sessions of the same group (P = .29). The results of this study show that a single dose of 5 mg diazepam before dental treatment does not influence BGC in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. PMID:15106685

  19. Effects of acute administration of nicotine, amphetamine, diazepam, morphine, and ethanol on risky decision-making in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Vokes, Colin M.; Blankenship, Amy L.; Simon, Nicholas W.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Most individuals can accurately assess the risks and rewards associated with choice alternatives and decide accordingly; however, drug users often display maladaptive decision-making, such that choices are biased toward excessively risky options. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a range of drugs of abuse on risky decision-making. Methods Male Long–Evans rats were trained in the Risky Decision-Making Task, in which they chose between two levers, one which produced a small, “safe” food reward and the other which produced a large, “risky” food reward. The large reward was accompanied by the risk of a mild footshock, the probability of which increased over the course of each test session (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%). Results Nicotine (0.6 mg/kg) and amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in choice of the large risky reward (decreased risk taking). Diazepam (1.0 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in choice of the large risky reward (increased risk taking), whereas morphine (3.0 mg/kg) caused only a trend toward increased choice of the large risky reward. Ethanol had no effect on choice behavior. Conclusions These results show that acute administration of drugs of abuse can modulate risk taking in a drug-specific manner, either increasing or decreasing preference for highly rewarding, but risky, options. PMID:21638222

  20. Detection Times of Diazepam, Clonazepam, and Alprazolam in Oral Fluid Collected From Patients Admitted to Detoxification, After High and Repeated Drug Intake.

    PubMed

    Nordal, Kristin; Øiestad, Elisabeth L; Enger, Asle; Christophersen, Asbjorg S; Vindenes, Vigdis

    2015-08-01

    Clonazepam, diazepam, and alprazolam are benzodiazepines with sedative, anticonvulsant, and anxiolytic effects, but their prevalence in drug abuse and drug overdoses has long been recognized. When detection times for psychoactive drugs in oral fluid are reported, they are most often based on therapeutic doses administered in clinical studies. Repeated ingestions of high doses, as seen after drug abuse, are however likely to cause positive samples for extended time periods. Findings of drugs of abuse in oral fluid collected from imprisoned persons might lead to negative sanctions, and the knowledge of detection times of these drugs is thus important to ensure correct interpretation. The aim of this study was to investigate the time window of detection for diazepam, clonazepam, and alprazolam in oral fluid from drug addicts admitted to detoxification. Twenty-five patients with a history of heavy drug abuse admitted to a detoxification ward were included. Oral fluid was collected daily in the morning and the evening and urine samples every morning for 10 days, using the Intercept device. Whole blood samples were collected if the patient accepted. The cutoff levels in oral fluid were 1.3 ng/mL for diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, and 7-aminoclonazepam and 1 ng/mL for clonazepam and alprazolam. In urine, the cutoff levels for quantifications were 30 ng/mL for alprazolam, alpha-OH-alprazolam, and 7-aminoclonazepam, 135 ng/mL for N-desmethyldizepam, and 150 ng/mL for 3-OH-diazepam and for all the compounds, the cutoff for the screening analyses were 200 ng/mL. The maximum detection times for diazepam and N-desmethyldiazepam in oral fluid were 7 and 9 days, respectively. For clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam, the maximum detection times in oral fluid were 5 and 6 days, respectively. The maximum detection time for alprazolam in oral fluid was 2.5 days. New ingestions were not suspected in any of the cases, because the corresponding concentrations in urine were decreasing

  1. Post-exposure administration of diazepam combined with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition stops seizures and modulates neuroinflammation in a murine model of acute TETS intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vito, Stephen T., E-mail: stvito@ucdavis.edu; Austin, Adam T., E-mail: aaustin@ucdavis.edu; Banks, Christopher N., E-mail: Christopher.Banks@oehha.ca.gov

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABA{sub A}R) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects of post-exposure administration of diazepam, a GABA{sub A}R positive allosteric modulator, on seizure activity, death and neuroinflammation in adult male Swiss mice injected with a lethal dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip). Administration of a high dose of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) immediately following the second clonic seizure (approximately 20 min post-TETS injection) effectively prevented progression to tonic seizuresmore » and death. However, this treatment did not prevent persistent reactive astrogliosis and microglial activation, as determined by GFAP and Iba-1 immunoreactivity and microglial cell morphology. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to increase survival in mice intoxicated with other GABA{sub A}R antagonists. The sEH inhibitor TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip) administered immediately after the second clonic seizure did not protect TETS-intoxicated animals from tonic seizures or death. Combined administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) and TUPS (1 mg/kg, ip, starting 1 h after diazepam and repeated every 24 h) prevented TETS-induced lethality and influenced signs of neuroinflammation in some brain regions. Significantly decreased microglial activation and enhanced reactive astrogliosis were observed in the hippocampus, with no changes in the cortex. Combining an agent that targets specific anti-inflammatory mechanisms with a traditional antiseizure drug may enhance treatment outcome in TETS intoxication. - Highlights: • Acute TETS intoxication causes delayed and persistent neuroinflammation. • Diazepam given post-TETS prevents lethal tonic seizures but not neuroinflammation. • A soluble epoxide

  2. Postmortem Brain and Blood Reference Concentrations of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Diazepam, and their Metabolites and a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Skov, Louise; Holm, Karen Marie Dollerup; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-09-01

    To interpret postmortem toxicology results, reference concentrations for non-toxic and toxic levels are needed. Usually, measurements are performed in blood, but because of postmortem redistribution phenomena this may not be optimal. Rather, measurement in the target organ of psychoactive drugs, the brain, might be considered. Here we present reference concentrations of femoral blood and brain tissue of selected benzodiazepines (BZDs). Using LC-MS/MS, we quantified alprazolam, bromazepam, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and the metabolites desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in postmortem femoral blood and brain tissue in 104 cases. BZDs were judged to be unrelated to the cause of death in 88 cases and contributing to death in 16 cases. No cases were found with cause of death solely attributed to BZD poisoning. All BZDs investigated tended to have higher concentrations in brain than in blood with median brain-blood ratios ranging from 1.1 to 2.3. A positive correlation between brain and blood concentrations was found with R(2) values from 0.51 to 0.95. Our reported femoral blood concentrations concur with literature values, but sparse information on brain concentration was available. Drug-metabolite ratios were similar in brain and blood for most compounds. Duplicate measurements of brain samples showed that the pre-analytical variation in brain (5.9%) was relatively low, supporting the notion that brain tissue is a suitable postmortem specimen. The reported concentrations in both brain and blood can be used as reference values when evaluating postmortem cases. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Scopolamine- and diazepam-induced amnesia are blocked by systemic and intraseptal administration of substance P and choline chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joseane Carvalho; Costa, Kauê Machado; do Nascimento, José Luiz Martins

    2010-09-01

    Systemic (IP) and/or intraseptal (IS) administration of scopolamine (SCP) and diazepam (DZP) induce amnesia, whereas IP injection of the neuropeptide substance P (SP) and choline chloride (ChCl) produce memory facilitation. The septohippocampal cholinergic system has been pointed out as a possible site of SCP and DZP-induced amnesia as well as for the mnemonic effects induced by SP and ChCl. We performed a series of experiments in order to investigate the interactions between cholinergic and GABA/benzodiazepine (GABA/BZD) systems with the SPergic system on inhibitory avoidance retention. Male Wistar rats were trained and tested in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (1.0 mA footshock). Animals received, pre-training, IP (1.0 mg/kg) or IS (1.0 nM/0.5 microl) injection of DZP, SCP (SCP; 1.0 mg/kg - IP or 0.5 microM/0.5 microl--IS) or vehicle (VEH). Immediately after training they received an IP or IS injections of SP 1-11 (50 microg/kg--IP or 1.0 nM/0.5 microl--IS), SP 1-7 (167 microg/kg--IP or 1.0 nM/0.5 microl--IS), ChCl (20 mg/kg--IP or 0.3 microM/0.5 microl--IS) or VEH. Rats pretreated with SCP and DZP showed amnesia. Post-trial treatments with SP 1-11, SP 1-7 or ChCl blocked the amnesic effects of SCP and DZP. These findings suggest an interaction between SPergic and cholinergic mechanisms with GABAergic systems in the modulation of inhibitory avoidance retention and that the effects of these treatments are mediated, at least in part, by interactions in the septohippocampal pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intramuscular midazolam versus intravenous diazepam for treatment of seizures in the pediatric emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Portela, J L; Garcia, P C R; Piva, J P; Barcelos, A; Bruno, F; Branco, R; Tasker, R C

    2015-04-01

    To compare the therapeutic efficacy of intramuscular midazolam (MDZ-IM) with that of intravenous diazepam (DZP-IV) for seizures in children. Randomized clinical trial. Pediatric emergency department. Children aged 2 months to 14 years admitted to the study facility with seizures. Patients were randomized to receive DZP-IV or MDZ-IM. Groups were compared with respect to time to treatment start (min), time from drug administration to seizure cessation (min), time to seizure cessation (min), and rate of treatment failure. Treatment was considered successful when seizure cessation was achieved within 5min of drug administration. Overall, 32 children (16 per group) completed the study. Intravenous access could not be obtained within 5min in four patients (25%) in the DZP-IV group. Time from admission to active treatment and time to seizure cessation was shorter in the MDZ-IM group (2.8 versus 7.4min; p<0.001 and 7.3 versus 10.6min; p=0.006, respectively). In two children per group (12.5%), seizures continued after 10min of treatment, and additional medications were required. There were no between-group differences in physiological parameters or adverse events (p=0.171); one child (6.3%) developed hypotension in the MDZ-IM group and five (31%) developed hyperactivity or vomiting in the DZP-IV group. Given its efficacy and ease and speed of administration, intramuscular midazolam is an excellent option for treatment of childhood seizures, enabling earlier treatment and shortening overall seizure duration. There were no differences in complications when applying MDZ-IM or DZP-IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing the effects of oxazepam and diazepam in actual highway driving and neurocognitive test performance: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2018-04-01

    Screening of drug-induced performance impairment is needed to provide meaningful information for users and prescribers regarding the impact of drugs on driving. The main objective was to assess the effects of oxazepam 10 mg (OXA10), oxazepam 30 mg (OXA30), and diazepam 10 mg (DIA10) on standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) in a highway driving test in actual traffic and to determine the ability of eight neurocognitive tests to detect comparable effects. Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in a four-way double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. The highway driving test was conducted between 4 and 5 h after drug intake. A range of neurocognitive tests was conducted before and after driving, 2 and 6 h post-treatment, respectively. Mean SDLP increased by 1.83, 3.03, and 7.57 cm after OXA10, DIA10, and OXA30, respectively. At 2 h post-treatment, all neurocognitive tests, except the useful field of view, showed performance impairment in all active treatments. Effect sizes (ES) were moderate for OXA10, large ES for DIA10, and largest ES for OXA30. Modest correlations were found between changes in SDLP and performance in the attention network test (ANT), the divided attention test (DAT), and the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). OXA10 caused minor, DIA10 moderate, and OXA30 severe driving impairment. No neurocognitive test was both dose dependently sensitive and able to be associated with driving impairment. No neurocognitive test can replace the on-the-road highway driving test.

  6. Region-, age-, and sex-specific effects of fetal diazepam exposure on the postnatal development of neurosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Carol K.; Kenjarski, Thomas P.; Pleger, Gloria L.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2013-01-01

    Fetal exposure to diazepam (DZ), a positive modulator of GABAA receptors and an agonist at mitochondrial benzodiazine receptors, induces long-term neural and behavioral effects. This study evaluated whether the early manipulation influenced the normal development of brain levels of neurosteroids or altered steroid action at GABAA receptors. Pregnant dams were injected over gestation days 14 through 20 with DZ (2.5 mg/kg) or the vehicle. Male and female offspring were analyzed at five postnatal ages. The levels of progesterone (P), dihydroprogesterone (DHP), 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP), testosterone (T), dihydrotestosterone, and 5α-androstan-3α,17β diol were measured in the cerebral cortex and diencephalon. The results indicated that development of brain steroid levels and the impact of fetal DZ exposure were region- and sex-specific. Age-related changes in brain steroids did not mirror associated changes in circulating P and T. Age regulated the levels of all 3 progestins in the cerebral cortex, and fetal DZ exposure interacted with the development of P and DHP. The development of 3α,5α-THP in the cortex was markedly influenced by sex, with levels in males decreasing over postnatal development whereas they increased over postpubertal development in females. An adolescent surge in T levels was observed in male cortex and fetal DZ exposure prevented that surge. Steroid levels in the diencephalon were altered by age mainly in females, and DZ exposure had little effect in this region. The data support region-specific regulation of brain steroid synthesis. Only in the cerebral cortex are relevant mechanisms readily modifiable by fetal DZ exposure. However, neither sex nor fetal DZ exposure altered the response of GABAA receptors in adult cortex to neurosteroid. PMID:16376310

  7. Intranasal Midazolam versus Rectal Diazepam for the Management of Canine Status Epilepticus: A Multicenter Randomized Parallel-Group Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, M; Bhatti, S F M; Van Ham, L; Platt, S; Jeffery, N D; Tipold, A; Siedenburg, J; Volk, H A; Hasegawa, D; Gallucci, A; Gandini, G; Musteata, M; Ives, E; Vanhaesebrouck, A E

    2017-07-01

    Intranasal administration of benzodiazepines has shown superiority over rectal administration for terminating emergency epileptic seizures in human trials. No such clinical trials have been performed in dogs. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intranasal midazolam (IN-MDZ), via a mucosal atomization device, as a first-line management option for canine status epilepticus and compare it to rectal administration of diazepam (R-DZP) for controlling status epilepticus before intravenous access is available. Client-owned dogs with idiopathic or structural epilepsy manifesting status epilepticus within a hospital environment were used. Dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with IN-MDZ (n = 20) or R-DZP (n = 15). Randomized parallel-group clinical trial. Seizure cessation time and adverse effects were recorded. For each dog, treatment was considered successful if the seizure ceased within 5 minutes and did not recur within 10 minutes after administration. The 95% confidence interval was used to detect the true population of dogs that were successfully treated. The Fisher's 2-tailed exact test was used to compare the 2 groups, and the results were considered statistically significant if P < .05. IN-MDZ and R-DZP terminated status epilepticus in 70% (14/20) and 20% (3/15) of cases, respectively (P = .0059). All dogs showed sedation and ataxia. IN-MDZ is a quick, safe and effective first-line medication for controlling status epilepticus in dogs and appears superior to R-DZP. IN-MDZ might be a valuable treatment option when intravenous access is not available and for treatment of status epilepticus in dogs at home. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Decreased serum protein binding of diazepam and its major metabolite in the neonate during the first postnatal week relate to increased free fatty acid levels.

    PubMed Central

    Nau, H; Luck, W; Kuhnz, W

    1984-01-01

    The protein binding of diazepam (D) and its major active metabolite N-desmethyl diazepam (DD) was investigated in vitro in the serum of 14 mothers at birth, 21 foetuses at birth, in 100 neonates between 1 and 11 days of age and in 16 control subjects. The free (unbound) fractions of D and DD in the foetus were similar to those in the controls, but lower than those in the mothers. During the first day of life the free fractions of D and DD doubled in the neonates and subsequently declined slowly to reach near control levels at 1 week of age. The sharp increase and slow decrease of the free fractions of D and DD during the first postnatal week was closely paralleled by sharply increasing and decreasing free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations. Bilirubin and albumin levels were of lower importance in regard to the protein binding of D and DD. These results indicate that the greatly increased FFA levels shortly after birth result in increased free fractions of D and DD. Because of the known immaturity of the neonatal hepatic elimination capacity, these elevated free fractions may result in elevated free concentrations of the two compounds, which may help to explain the adverse effects observed clinically in some D-exposed neonates. PMID:6419763

  9. A microPET comparison of the effects of etifoxine and diazepam on [(11)C]flumazenil uptake in rat brains.

    PubMed

    Bouillot, Caroline; Bonnefoi, Frédéric; Liger, François; Zimmer, Luc

    2016-01-26

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), the present study assessed the binding of [(11)C]flumazenil to GABA-A receptors in anesthetized rats following a single intravenous injection of an active dose of either etifoxine (25mg/kg) or diazepam (1mg/kg), which are both anxiolytic drugs. [(11)C]flumazenil binding was measured in five discrete brain structures, namely the caudate putamen, hippocampus, cerebellum, occipital cortex and parietal cortex. As expected, diazepam injection produced a significant decrease in [(11)C]flumazenil binding, which was interpreted as benzodiazepine GABA-A receptor occupancy, whereas etifoxine increased the binding of [(11)C]flumazenil. This first use of in vivo imaging after etifoxine administration revealed the activated binding pattern of [(11)C]flumazenil and highlighted the pharmacological differences between etifoxine and benzodiazepines. Using the same [(11)C]flumazenil radiotracer, PET neuroimaging could be applied to larger animals and, ultimately, to human subjects, thus providing new perspectives for better defining the molecular pharmacology of etifoxine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. NMDA and D1 receptors are involved in one-trial tolerance to the anxiolytic-like effects of diazepam in the elevated plus maze test in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Heng; Yu, Cheng-Long; Wang, Li-Ping; Yang, Yue-Xiong; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Xu, Lin

    2015-08-01

    The elevated plus maze (EPM) test is used to examine anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. One interesting phenomenon in the EPM test is one-trial tolerance (OTT), which refers to the reduction in the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines when rodents are re-exposed to the EPM. However, the underlying mechanism of OTT is still unclear. In this study, we reported that OTT occurred when re-exposure to the EPM (trial 2) only depended on the prior experience of the EPM (trial 1) rather than diazepam treatment. This process was memory-dependent, as it was prevented by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors antagonist MK-801 1.5h before trial 2. In addition, OTT was maintained for at least one week but was partially abolished after an interval of 28 days. Furthermore, the administration of the D1-like receptors agonist SKF38393 to the bilateral dorsal hippocampus largely prevented OTT, as demonstrated by the ability of the diazepam treatment to produce significant anxiolytic-like effects in trial 2 after a one-day interval. These findings suggest that OTT to the EPM test may occur via the activation of NMDA receptors and the inactivation of D1-like receptors in certain brain regions, including the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The differential role of α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors in mediating diazepam effects on spontaneous locomotor activity and water-maze learning and memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Savić, Miroslav M.; Milinković, Marija M.; Rallapalli, Sundari; Clayton, Terry; Joksimović, Srðan; Van Linn, Michael; Cook, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The clinical use of benzodiazepines (BZs) is hampered by sedation and cognitive deterioration. Although genetic and pharmacological studies suggest that α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors mediate and/or modulate these effects, their molecular substrate is not fully elucidated. By the use of two selective ligands : the α1-subunit affinity-selective antagonist β-CCt, and the α5-subunit affinity- and efficacy-selective antagonist XLi093, we examined the mechanisms of behavioural effects of diazepam in the tests of spontaneous locomotor activity and water-maze acquisition and recall, the two paradigms indicative of sedative- and cognition-impairing effects of BZs, respectively. The locomotor-activity decreasing propensity of diazepam (significant at 1.5 and 5 mg/kg) was antagonized by β-CCt (5 and 15 mg/kg), while it tended to be potentiated by XLi093 in doses of 10 mg/kg, and especially 20 mg/kg. Diazepam decreased acquisition and recall in the water maze, with a minimum effective dose of 1.5 mg/kg. Both antagonists reversed the thigmotaxis induced by 2 mg/kg diazepam throughout the test, suggesting that both GABAA receptor subtypes participate in BZ effects on the procedural component of the task. Diazepam-induced impairment in the declarative component of the task, as assessed by path efficiency, the latency and distance before finding the platform across acquisition trials, and also by the spatial parameters in the probe trial, was partially prevented by both, 15 mg/kg β-CCt and 10 mg/kg XLi093. Combining a BZ with β-CCt results in the near to control level of performance of a cognitive task, without sedation, and may be worth testing on human subjects. PMID:19265570

  12. Decreased sensitivity to thermal pain in rats bred for high anxiety-related behaviour is attenuated by citalopram or diazepam treatment.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael Karl; Wigger, Alexandra; Beiderbeck, Daniela; Neumann, Inga D; Landgraf, Rainer; Sauer, Heinrich; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    Complex interactions between pain perception, anxiety and depressive symptoms have repeatedly been described. However, pathophysiological or biochemical mechanisms underlying the alterations of pain perception in patients suffering from anxiety or depression still remain a matter of debate. Thus, we aimed to perform an investigation on pain perception in an animal model of extremes in anxiety-related behaviour, which might provide a tool for future studies. Here, thermal pain thresholds were obtained from rats with a genetic predisposition to high anxiety-related behaviour (HAB), including signs of comorbid depression-like behaviour and from controls (low-anxiety rats (LAB); cross-bred HAB and LAB rats; Wistar rats). Furthermore, the effect of eight-week antidepressive treatment using citalopram and of short-term anxiolytic treatment with diazepam on pain-related behaviour was assessed. Simultaneously, anxiety-related behaviour was monitored. At baseline, HAB animals showed 35% higher thresholds for thermal pain than controls. These were normalized to control levels after eight weeks of continuous citalopram treatment paralleled by a reduction of anxiety-related behaviour, but also acutely after diazepam administration. Overall, thermal pain thresholds in HAB animals are shifted in a similar fashion as seen in patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Antidepressive, as well as anxiolytic treatments, attenuated these differences. As the relative importance of the factors anxiety and depression cannot be derived from this study with certainty, extending these investigations to additional animal models might represent a valuable tool for future investigations concerning the interrelations between anxiety, depression, and pain at a molecular level.

  13. Participation of mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptors in the anticonflict, antineophobic and anticonvulsant action of 2-aryl-3-indoleacetamide and imidazopyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Auta, J; Romeo, E; Kozikowski, A; Ma, D; Costa, E; Guidotti, A

    1993-05-01

    The 2-hexyl-indoleacetamide derivative, FGIN-1-27 [N,N-di-n-hexyl-2- (4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide], and the imidazopyridine derivative, alpidem, both bind with high affinity to glial mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptors (MDR) and increase mitochondrial steroidogenesis. Although FGIN-1-27 is selective for the MDR, alpidem also binds to the allosteric modulatory site of the gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor where the benzodiazepines bind. FGIN-1-27 and alpidem, like the neurosteroid 3 alpha,21-dehydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-20-one (THDOC), clonazepam and zolpidem (the direct allosteric modulators of gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors) delay the onset of isoniazid and metrazol-induced convulsions. The anti-isoniazid convulsant action of FGIN-1-27 and alpidem, but not that of THDOC, is blocked by PK 11195. In contrast, flumazenil blocked completely the anticonvulsant action of clonazepam and zolpidem and partially blocked that of alpidem, but it did not affect the anticonvulsant action of THDOC and FGIN-1-27. Alpidem, like clonazepam, zolpidem and diazepam, but not THDOC or FGIN-1-27, delay the onset of bicuculline-induced convulsions. In two animal models of anxiety, the neophobic behavior in the elevated plus maze test and the conflict-punishment behavior in the Vogel conflict test, THDOC and FGIN-1-27 elicited anxiolytic-like effects in a manner that is flumazenil insensitive, whereas alpidem elicited a similar anxiolytic effect, but is partially blocked by flumazenil. Whereas PK 11195 blocked the effect of FGIN-1-27 and partially blocked alpidem, it did not affect THDOC in both animal models of anxiety.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. ( sup 3 H)RO15-4513 binding to cerebellar diazepam-sensitive and insensitive GABAA receptors is unchanged by one week of ethanol intake

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.W.; Chen, J.P.; Wallis, C.

    1992-02-26

    ({sup 3}H)RO15-4513, a partial inverse agonist at GABAA receptors, binds to two sites in cerebellar membranes, one sensitive (DZ-S) and one insensitive (DZ-IS) to inhibition by diazepam. These binding sites may represent different isoforms of the GABAA receptor and may play a role in ethanol (EtOH) dependence. The authors tested the hypothesis that chronic intake of EtOH induces changes in the binding properties of one or both of these putative GABBA receptors. Rats were fed a liquid diet of 4.5% EtOH for 7 d, gavaged with a 3g/kg dose of EtOH, and then sacrificed after 2 h, 12 h, ormore » 4.5 d. Binding of ({sup 3}H)RO15-4513 to cerebellar membranes was performed in the absence or presence of 10{mu}M diazepam (DZ-IS binding); DZ-S binding was calculated as the difference between total and DZ-IS. Nonlinear regression analysis showed that each class of binding site fit a model of mass action binding to a single, noninteractive population of sites. No significant difference was observed between any of the treatment groups in the apparent affinity (Kd) for ({sup 3}H)RO15-4513 at total, DZ-S, or DZ-IS sites following chronic EtOH intake or withdrawal. In addition, no significant difference was observed in the apparent number of DZ-S or DZ-IS binding sites or the ratio of DZ-S to DZ-IS.« less

  15. [Antidotal effects of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate sodium (DMPS) and combined with diazepam on acute poisoning caused by sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-propano-1,3-dithiosulfate monohydrate (SCD)].

    PubMed

    Lu, Z Q; Hu, G X; Chen, Z K

    1992-07-01

    In mice, DMPS (250 mg/kg, i.v.) combined with diazepam (1.25 mg/kg, i.p.) could increase LD50 of p. o. SCD 5.3 times. DMPS (62.5 mg/kg, i.v.) antagonized completely the respiratory depression and neuromuscular blockade caused by SCD(7.5 mg/kg, i.v.) in rabbits. SCD (15 mg/kg, i.v.) caused tremor, tonic convulsion and the abnormal paroxysmal discharges in EEG in rabbits. DMPS (0.5 mg/kg, i.c.v) could not eliminate the abnormal paroxysmal discharges in EEG of rabbits. DMPS (62.5 mg/kg, i.v.) combined with diazepam (5 mg/kg, i.v.) completely and rapidly antagonize these toxic symptoms and the abnormal changes in EEG.

  16. A silica fiber coated with a ZnO-graphene oxide nanocomposite with high specific surface for use in solid phase microextraction of the antiepileptic drugs diazepam and oxazepam.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Reza; Salami, Maryam; Seidi, Shahram

    2018-06-02

    A novel ZnO-graphene oxide nanocomposite was prepared and is shown to be a viable coating on fused silica fibers for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME) of diazepam and oxazepam from urine, this followed by thermal desorption and gas chromatographic quantitation using a flame ionization detector. A central composite design was used to optimize extraction time, salt percentage, sample pH and desorption time. Limits of detection are 0.5 μg·L -1 for diazepam and 1.0 μg·L -1 for oxazepam. Repeatability and reproducibility for one fiber (n = 4), expressed as the relative standard deviation at a concentration of 50 μg·L -1 , are 8.3 and 11.3% for diazepam, and 6.7 and 10.1% for oxazepam. The fiber-to-fiber reproducibility is <17.6%. The calibration plots are linear in the 5.0-1000 μg·L -1 diazepam concentration range, and from 1.0-1000 μg·L -1 in case of oxazepam. The fiber for SPME has high chemical and thermal stability (even at 280 °C) after 50 extractions, and does not suffer from a reduction in the sorption capacity. Graphical abstract A hydrothermal method was introduced for preparation of ZnO- GO nano composite on a fused silica fiber as solid phase microextraction with high mechanical, chemical stability and long service life.

  17. Effects of d-amphetamine, diazepam and buspirone on schedule-induced polydipsia suppressed by response-dependent and response-independent shock.

    PubMed

    Flores, P; Pellón, R

    1998-03-01

    Food deprived Wistar rats were exposed to a fixed time 60 s food schedule until they developed schedule-induced polydipsia. Rats were matched in pairs according to their licking rate, being designated experimental or yoked control at random. Every fifth lick by experimental rats was then followed by an electric shock (0.05, 0.1, or 0.2 mA) while the food schedule continued in operation. Yoked-control rats received the same shocks as experimental rats, but independently of their own licking. Drugs were then tested on the suppressed rates of licking. Diazepam (0.5-2.0 mg/kg) increased punished schedule-induced polydipsia, a result not observed in yoked controls. No increases in the licks per minute of experimental or control animals were found after d-amphetamine (0.25-4.0 mg/kg) or buspirone (0.5-8.0 mg/kg). In comparison with previous results it is concluded that the antipunishment effects of drugs on schedule-induced behaviour depend on the type of punishment contingency.

  18. Dependence of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters on hydrophilic-lipophilic character of alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, doxepin and haloperidol in alkaline environment.

    PubMed

    Maślanka, Anna; Krzek, Jan; Szlósarczyk, Marek; Żmudzki, Paweł; Wach, Katarzyna

    2013-10-15

    Examination of the stability of clonazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, haloperidol, and doxepin in basic solutions was performed, together with an assessment of the kinetic (k, t0.1i t0.5) and thermodynamic (Ea, ΔH(++)i ΔS(++)) stability-indicating parameters, which were compared with the lipophilicity (logP) of the studied drugs. It was observed that the calculated values of Ea, ΔH(++) and ΔS(++) for the studied drugs increased from 41.04 kJ/mol to 125.50 kJ/mol, from 37.82 kJ/mol to 122.24 kJ/mol and from -167.09 J/Kmol to 53.02 J/Kmol, respectively, along with an increase of lipophilicity (logP) from 2.12 to 4.30 for the most hydrophilic alprazolam to the most lipophilic haloperidol. The degradation products were identified using UPLC/MS/MS method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): effects of diazepam, chlorpromazine, pentobarbital and d-amphetamine.

    PubMed

    D'Mello, G D; Duffy, E A; Miles, S S

    1985-01-01

    A conveyor belt task for assessing visuo-motor coordination in the marmoset is described. Animals are motivated by apple, a preferred food, under a state of minimal food deprivation. The apparatus used was designed to test animals within their home cages and not restrained in any way, thus avoiding possible confounding factors associated with restraint stress. Stable baseline levels of performance were reached by all animals in a median of 24 sessions. Performance was shown to be differentially sensitive to the effects of four psychoactive drugs. Moderate doses of diazepam, chlorpromazine and pentobarbital disrupted visuo-motor coordination in a dose-related manner. The possibility that disruption of performance observed at higher doses may have resulted from non-specific actions of these drugs such as decreases in feeding motivation were not supported by results from ancillary experiments. Changes in performance characteristic of high dose effects were similar in nature to changes observed when the degree of task difficulty was increased. Doses of d-amphetamine up to and including those reported to produce signs of stereotypy failed to influence performance. The potential of the conveyor belt task for measuring visuo-motor coordination in both primate and rodent species is discussed.

  20. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of a pseudogene related to the human Acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam binding inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gersuk, V.H.; Rose, T.M.; Todaro, G.J.

    The acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) and the diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) or endozepine are independent isolates of a single 86-amino-acid, 10-kDa protein. ACBP/DBI is highly conserved between species and has been identified in several diverse organisms, including human, cow, rat, frog, duck, insects, plants, and yeast. Although the genomic locus has not yet been cloned in humans, complementary DNA clones with different 5{prime} ends have been isolated and characterized. These cDNA clones appear to be encoded by a single gene. However, Southern blot analyses, in situ hybridizations, and somatic cell hybrid chromosomal mapping all suggest that there are multiple ACBP/DBI-relatedmore » sequences in the genome. To identify potential members of this gene family, degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to highly conserved regions of ACBP/DBI were used to screen a human genomic DNA library using the polymerase chain reaction. A novel gene, DBIP1, that is closely related to ACBP/DBI but is clearly distinct was identified. DBIP1 bears extensive sequence homology to ACBP/DBI but lacks the introns predicted by rat and duck genomic sequence studies. A 1-base deletion in the coding region results in a frameshift and, along with the absence of introns and the lack of a detectable transcript, suggests that DBIP1 is a pseudogene. ACBP/DBI has previously been mapped to chromosome 2, although this was recently disputed, and a chromosome 6 location was suggested. We show that ACBP/DBI is correctly placed on chromosome 2 and that the gene identified on chromosome 6 is DBIP1. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  1. Comparative effects of melatonin, zolpidem and diazepam on sleep, body temperature, blood pressure and heart rate measured by radiotelemetry in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Mailliet, F; Galloux, P; Poisson, D

    2001-08-01

    The role of melatonin (MLT) in mediating the sleep-wake cycle has been previously suspected of indicating that this substance could be a candidate for a new generation of hypnotics. We investigated whether MLT acted as a sleep promoter or a modulator of sleep temporal timing related to cardiovascular and body temperature (Tb) adaptations to sleep induction. The pharmacological effects of MLT on sleep were compared with zolpidem (ZP) and diazepam (DZ). The radiotelemetry system was used to record the electrocorticogram [slow wave sleep (SWS), paradoxical sleep (PS)], Tb, blood pressure and heart rate in six Wistar rats. DZ (3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg), ZP (1, 3, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and MLT (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) were delivered intraperitoneally during light (L) and dark (D) periods. MLT increased the number of sleep cycles (L: 30%, D: 110%) and total duration (P<0.05) of PS (L: 70%, D: 150%). In return, ZP (10 mg/kg) presented no effect during L but increased total (40%) and mean duration (37%) of SWS during the D period. DZ modified mean duration of SWS (L: -27%, D: +26%) and increased total duration of SWS (+47%). ZP and DZ induced a more pronounced decrease in Tb than MLT but only DZ induced tachycardia and hypertension. We showed that MLT could not promote sleep and its cardiovascular adaptations despite hypothermia, but modulated the period of ultradian sleep cycles. DZ and ZP promoted sleep and induced hypothermia during the D period. Only DZ disrupted sleep architecture and induced adverse effects on cardiovascular parameters.

  2. The effect of Coriandrum sativum seed extract on the learning of newborn mice by electric shock: interaction with caffeine and diazepam

    PubMed Central

    Zargar-Nattaj, Seyed Sadegh; Tayyebi, Pooya; Zangoori, Vahid; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Roodgari, Hasan; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholamali; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2011-01-01

    Coriander has been recommended for the relief of pain, anxiety, flatulence, and loss of appetite. In traditional medicine, it is believed that coriander can induce some degree of amnesia in a child when his/her mother uses coriander during the pregnancy. We evaluated the effect of Coriandrum sativum seed extract on learning in second-generation mice. Ethanolic extract (2%) of coriander (100 mg/kg intraperitoneal) was dissolved in sunflower oil (oil) as a vehicle and injected into the control group mother mice during breastfeeding for 25 days at 5-day intervals. After feeding the newborn mice, their learning was evaluated using a step-through passive avoidance task with 0.4 mA electric shock for 2 or 4 seconds. While coriander extract showed a negative effect in the short term (1 hour) after the training session, it potentiated the mice’s learning in later assessments (24 hours post-training [P = 0.022] and 1 week post-training [P = 0.002] by a 4-second shock). Low-dose caffeine (25 mg/kg ip after training) improved the learning after 1 hour (P = 0.024); while diazepam (1 mg/kg ip) suppressed learning at all time points after the 4-second shock training (1 hour, P = 0.022; 24 hours, P = 0.002; and 1 week, P = 0.008). No modification in the pain threshold was elicited by electric stimuli both in coriander and control groups. In conclusion, coriander does not improve learning within a short period of time after training; however, learning after coriander administration can be improved in the long term. PMID:22114531

  3. Combined Diazepam and MK-801 Therapy Provides Synergistic Protection from Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures and Lethality in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shakarjian, Michael P.; Ali, Mahil S.; Velíšková, Jana; Stanton, Patric K.; Heck, Diane E.; Velíšek, Libor

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic rodenticide, tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT), is a persistent and highly lethal GABA-gated Cl− channel blocker. TMDT is clandestinely produced, remains popular in mainland China, and causes numerous unintentional and deliberate poisonings worldwide. TMDT is odorless, tasteless, and easy to manufacture, features that make it a potential weapon of terrorism. There is no effective treatment. We previously characterized the effects of TMDT in C57BL/6 mice and surveyed efficacies of GABAergic and glutamatergic anticonvulsant treatments. At 0.4 mg/kg i.p., TMDT produced neurotoxic symptomatology consisting of twitches, clonic and tonic-clonic seizures, often progressing to status epilepticus and death. If administered immediately after the occurrence of the first clonic seizure, the benzodiazepine diazepam (DZP) effectively prevented all subsequent seizure symptoms, whereas the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801) primarily prevented tonic-clonic seizures. The latter agent, however, appeared to be more effective at preventing delayed death. The present study further explored these phenomena, and characterized the therapeutic actions of DZP and MK-801 as combinations. Joint treatment with both DZP and MK-801 displayed synergistic protection against tonic-clonic seizures and 24 hour lethality as determined by isobolographic analysis. Clonic seizures, however, remained poorly controlled. A modification of the treatment regimen, where DZP was followed 10 min later by MK-801, yielded a reduction in both types of seizures and improved overall outcome. Simultaneous monitoring of subjects via EEG and videography confirmed effectiveness of this sequential regimen. We conclude that TMDT blockage at GABAA receptors involves early activation of NMDA receptors, which contribute to persistent ictogenic activity. Our data predict that a sequential combination treatment with DZP followed by MK-801 will be superior to either individual therapy with, or

  4. The role of GABA-A and mitochondrial diazepam-binding inhibitor receptors on the effects of neurosteroids on food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D S; Kulkarni, S K

    1998-06-01

    The present studies were undertaken to investigate the neuroactive steroidal modulation of feeding behavior and possible involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABA-A) and mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) receptors (MDR) in food-deprived male mice. Allopregnanolone (0.5-2 mg/kg), a neurosteroid, progesterone (1-10 mg/kg), a neurosteroid precursor, and 4'-chlordiazepam (0.25-1 mg/kg), a specific high affinity MDR agonist, produced a dose-dependent hyperphagic effects. In contrast, neurosteroids pregnenolone sulfate (PS) (1-10 mg/kg) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) (1-10 mg/kg) produced a hypophagic effect, in a dose-dependent manner. The allopregnanolone-, progesterone- and 4'-chlordiazepam-induced hyperphagic effect was blocked by picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a GABA-A chloride channel antagonist, but not by flumazenil (2 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine (BZD) antagonist. The 4'-chlordiazepam-induced hyperphagic effect was prevented by pretreatment with PK11195 (2 mg/kg), a selective partial MDR antagonist. The hypophagic effect of DHEAS (10 mg/kg) was reversed by dizocilpine (10 microg/kg), an NMDA receptor antagonist, but resistant to muscimol (0.1 mg/kg), a selective GABA-A receptor agonist. In contrast, the PS (10 mg/kg)-induced hypophagic response was resistant to dizocilpine, but sensitive to muscimol (0.1 mg/kg). Both the sulfated neurosteroids PS and DHEAS also reversed the hyperphagic effect of allopregnanolone. In addition, the BZD agonist triazolam (0.05-0.25 mg/kg) also produced a flumazenil- and picrotoxin-sensitive hyperphagic effects, thereby suggesting the changes in feeding behavior by neurosteroids represent GABA-A receptor mediated hyperphagic action. Although the possible antistress or anxiolytic actions of neurosteroids may confound the hyperphagia, behavioral effects observed were specific to food because the mice were adopted to the test environment and diet, and of a possible variation between various neurosteroids in the

  5. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF THE TRANSLOCATOR PROTEIN (18 KDA), VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT ANION CHANNEL, AND DIAZEPAM BINDING INHIBITOR IN THE GONAD OF LARGEMOUTH BASS (MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES) ACROSS THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE

    PubMed Central

    Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Martyniuk, Christopher J.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Barber, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in vertebrates. Previous studies in fish have characterized expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, however the function and regulation of other genes and proteins involved in piscine cholesterol transport have not been evaluated. In the current study, mRNA sequences of the 18 kDa translocator protein (tspo; formerly peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac), and diazepam binding inhibitor (dbi; also acyl-CoA binding protein) were cloned from largemouth bass. Gonadal expression was examined across reproductive stages to determine if expression is correlated with changes in steroid levels and with indicators of reproductive maturation. In testis, transcript abundance of tspo and dbi increased with reproductive maturation (6- and 23-fold maximal increase, respectively) and expression of tspo and dbi was positively correlated with reproductive stage, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and circulating levels of testosterone. Testis vdac expression was positively correlated with reproductive stage and GSI. In females, gonadal tspo and vdac expression was negatively correlated with GSI and levels of plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Ovarian dbi expression was not correlated with indicators of reproductive maturation. These studies represent the first investigation of the steroidogenic role of tspo, vdac, and dbi in fish. Findings suggest that cholesterol transport in largemouth bass testis, but not ovary, may be transcriptionally-regulated, however further investigation will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of these genes in largemouth bass steroidogenesis. PMID:21600210

  6. Cloning and expression of the translocator protein (18 kDa), voltage-dependent anion channel, and diazepam binding inhibitor in the gonad of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) across the reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Doperalski, Nicholas J; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Prucha, Melinda S; Kroll, Kevin J; Denslow, Nancy D; Barber, David S

    2011-08-01

    Cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membrane is rate-limiting for steroidogenesis in vertebrates. Previous studies in fish have characterized expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, however the function and regulation of other genes and proteins involved in piscine cholesterol transport have not been evaluated. In the current study, mRNA sequences of the 18 kDa translocator protein (tspo; formerly peripheral benzodiazepine receptor), voltage-dependent anion channel (vdac), and diazepam binding inhibitor (dbi; also acyl-CoA binding protein) were cloned from largemouth bass. Gonadal expression was examined across reproductive stages to determine if expression is correlated with changes in steroid levels and with indicators of reproductive maturation. In testis, transcript abundance of tspo and dbi increased with reproductive maturation (6- and 23-fold maximal increase, respectively) and expression of tspo and dbi was positively correlated with reproductive stage, gonadosomatic index (GSI), and circulating levels of testosterone. Testis vdac expression was positively correlated with reproductive stage and GSI. In females, gonadal tspo and vdac expression was negatively correlated with GSI and levels of plasma testosterone and 17β-estradiol. Ovarian dbi expression was not correlated with indicators of reproductive maturation. These studies represent the first investigation of the steroidogenic role of tspo, vdac, and dbi in fish. Findings suggest that cholesterol transport in largemouth bass testis, but not in ovary, may be transcriptionally-regulated, however further investigation will be necessary to fully elucidate the role of these genes in largemouth bass steroidogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Simultaneous detection and quantification of amphetamines, diazepam and its metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, and opiates in hair by LC-ESI-MS-MS using a single extraction method.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eleanor I; Wylie, Fiona M; Oliver, John S

    2008-09-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamines, diazepam and its metabolites, cocaine and its metabolites, and opiates from hair using a single extraction method. As part of the method development, Gemini C18, Synergi Hydro RP, and Zorbax Stablebond-Phenyl LC columns were tested with three different mobile phases. Analyte recovery and limit of detection were evaluated for two different solid-phase extraction methods that used Bond Elut Certify and Clean Screen cartridges. Phosphate buffer (pH 5.0) was chosen as the optimum hair incubation medium because of the high stability of cocaine and 6-monoacetylmorphine using this method and faster sample preparation. The optimized method was fully validated. Linearity was established over the concentration range 0.2-10 ng/mg hair, and the correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.99. Total extraction recoveries were greater than 76%, detection limits were between 0.02 and 0.09 ng/mg, and the intra- and interday imprecisions were generally less than 20% in spiked hair. The intra- and interbatch imprecision of the method for a pooled authentic hair sample ranged from 1.4 to 23.4% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 8.3 to 25.4% RSD, respectively, for representative analytes from the different drug groups. The percent matrix effect ranged from 63.5 to 135.6%, with most analytes demonstrating ion suppression. Sixteen postmortem samples collected from suspected drug-related deaths were analyzed for the 17 drugs of abuse and metabolites included in the method. The method was sufficiently sensitive and specific for the analysis of drugs and metabolites in postmortem hair samples. There is scope for the inclusion of other target drugs and metabolites in the method.

  8. 75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... effectiveness. This determination will allow FDA to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for... effectiveness, or if FDA determines that the listed drug was withdrawn from sale for reasons of safety or...

  9. A Laboratory Experiment in Pharmaceutical Analysis: Analysis of Diazepam Tablets by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    The experiment described was developed for the third-year course in inorganic and analytical pharmaceutical chemistry to provide students with "hands-on" experience with high pressure liquid chromatography. Assay procedures are given along with experimental parameters and student results. (LBH)

  10. Episodic epileptic verbal auditory agnosia in Landau Kleffner syndrome treated with combination diazepam and corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Goldberg, Rina; Miles, Daniel; Bojko, Aviva; Riviello, James

    2014-10-01

    We report 2 pediatric patients who presented initially with seizures followed by subacute language regression characterized by a verbal auditory agnosia. These previously normal children had no evidence of expressive aphasia during their symptomatic periods. Further, in both cases, auditory agnosia was associated with sleep-activated electroencephalographic (EEG) epileptiform activity, consistent with Landau-Kleffner syndrome. However, both cases are unique since the episodic auditory agnosia and sleep-activated EEG epileptiform activity rapidly responded to combination therapy with pulse benzodiazepine and corticosteroids. Further, in each case, recurrences were characterized by similar symptoms, EEG findings, and beneficial responses to the pulse benzodiazepine and corticosteroid therapy. These observations suggest that pulse combination high-dose corticosteroid and benzodiazepine therapy may be especially effective in Landau-Kleffner syndrome. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Diazepam and its Effects on Psychophysiological and Behavioral Measures of Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    evoked response to patterned stimuli to an experiment designed to analyze the P300 response to a memory task requires disconnecting equipment...diagnosis. In experimental or human engineering settings, it is possible to conceive of the battery being 8 used as a standardized measure of fatigue...20mg dosage with significant effects centering pri- marily in the 15-20mg range. Since, in the current experiment , we intended to measure several of the

  12. An Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Dose of Diazepam That Will Reduce the Incidence of Convulsions in Indian Rhesus Monkeys Pretreated with Pyridostigmine Bromide, Challenged with Soman, and Treated with Atropine and Pralidoxime Chloride with the Diazepam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    benzophenone (Aldrich 23:985-2), tetrabutylammonium nitrate (Kodak 9664), sodium lauryl sulfate (dodecyl sulfide, sodium salt) (Aldrich 86-201-0), helium gas...phase buffer for the initial identity confirmation using a Supelco LC-I column by dissolving 6.0 g of sodium lauryl sulfate and 1.0 g of...water, glacial acetic acid (Baker Reagent’Grade), tetrabutylammonium chloride (Aldrich g8. percent), sodium lauryl sulfate (Aldrich 98 percent), sodium

  13. The Anticholinergic and Antiglutamatergic Drug Caramiphen Reduces Seizure Duration in Soman-Exposed Rats: Synergism with the Benzodiazepine Diazepam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    progress to self-sustained seizures ( status epilepticus , SE) and result in extensive neuropathology as seen in rats (de Araujo Furtado et al., 2009, 2010...physostigmineOP organophosphorus BuChE butyrylcholinesterase ChE cholinesterase SE status epilepticus ATR atropine sulfate 2-PAM 2-pralidoxime NMDA N...L.C., Lichtenstein, S., Yourick, D.L., 2010. Spontaneous recurrent seizures after status epilepticus induced by soman in Sprague-Dawley rats

  14. "Diazepam loading": ¿Can a strategy for preventing alcohol withdrawal be used to treat benzodiazepine use disorder?

    PubMed

    Oliveras, Clara; Fortea, Adriana; Espinosa, Laura; Barrio, Pablo; Lligoña, Anna; Balcells-Olivero, Mercè

    2018-04-15

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are central nervous system (CNS) depressants which are widely used to treat insomnia and anxiety, despite having long-term adverse side effects. (Fortea González, Oriolo, Balcells Oliveró, Sánchez Del Valle & Castellvi, 2017). As with alcohol, continued use can lead to tolerance and dependence phenomena. Discontinuation in such cases can produce abstinence symptoms such as tremors, anxiety, seizures and, occasionally, death (Brett y Murnion, 2015).

  15. Comparison of Baseline Behavior and the Developmental Effects of Diazepam on Locomotor Activity in 3 Strains of Larval Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Choice of strain is an important consideration in zebrafish husbandry and research. In the scientific literature there is concern that zebrafish strains may behave and respond differently to toxicants. A few studies have compared the baseline behavior of various strains of larv...

  16. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the drugs carbidopa/levodopa, diazepam, phenobarbital, or haloperidol. × Treatment Treatment for LNS is symptomatic. Gout can ... with the drugs carbidopa/levodopa, diazepam, phenobarbital, or haloperidol. View Full Treatment Information Definition Lesch-Nyhan syndrome ( ...

  17. Characterization of the molecular distribution of drugs in glassy solid dispersions at the nano-meter scale, using differential scanning calorimetry and gravimetric water vapour sorption techniques.

    PubMed

    van Drooge, D J; Hinrichs, W L J; Visser, M R; Frijlink, H W

    2006-03-09

    The molecular distribution in fully amorphous solid dispersions consisting of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-diazepam and inulin-diazepam was studied. One glass transition temperature (T(g)), as determined by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC), was observed in PVP-diazepam solid dispersions prepared by fusion for all drug loads tested (10-80 wt.%). The T(g) of these solid dispersions gradually changed with composition and decreased from 177 degrees C for pure PVP to 46 degrees C for diazepam. These observations indicate that diazepam was dispersed in PVP on a molecular level. However, in PVP-diazepam solid dispersions prepared by freeze drying, two T(g)'s were observed for drug loads above 35 wt.% indicating phase separation. One T(g) indicated the presence of amorphous diazepam clusters, the other T(g) was attributed to a PVP-rich phase in which diazepam was dispersed on a molecular level. With both the value of the latter T(g) and the DeltaC(p) of the diazepam glass transition the concentrations of molecular dispersed diazepam could be calculated (27-35 wt.%). Both methods gave similar results. Water vapour sorption (DVS) experiments revealed that the PVP-matrix was hydrophobised by the incorporated diazepam. TMDSC and DVS results were used to estimate the size of diazepam clusters in freeze dried PVP-diazepam solid dispersions, which appeared to be in the nano-meter range. The inulin-diazepam solid dispersions prepared by spray freeze drying showed one T(g) for drug loads up to 35 wt.% indicating homogeneous distribution on a molecular level. However, this T(g) was independent of the drug load, which is unexpected because diazepam has a lower T(g) than inulin (46 and 155 degrees C, respectively). For higher drug loads, a T(g) of diazepam as well as a T(g) of the inulin-rich phase was observed, indicating the formation of amorphous diazepam clusters. From the DeltaC(p) of the diazepam glass transition the amount of molecularly dispersed

  18. Stereospecificity of Antidotes and Their Mechanism of Action in Intoxications with Organophosphorus Anticholinesterases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    hyoscyamine prevented oxotremorine (OT)-induced tremor, confirming Its physiological relevance *WICLASSIFIEDRJNUMM1D 03 SAME AS RPT. (3oDTIC USERS Enlas rie...us to believe that the effect is specific. Diazepam prevented oxotremorine (OT)-induced tremor when injected both before and after the OT admini...diazepam and I-hyoscyamine on oxotremorine -induced hypothermia 23 Table 2. Influence of diazepam on specific binding of I-hyoscyamine 24 Table 3

  19. The Role of Pituitary Beta-Endorphin in the Attenuation of Nociception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-28

    204 X TABLES Table # Title 1 Effects of naloxone, fentanyl , diazepam and placebo on plasma norepinephrine levels (pgjml). 2 Lack of...the clinical CRH study. 4 Experimental design and sampling schedule for the clinical dexamethasone study. 5 Effects of naloxone (NAL), fentanyl ...FEN), diazepam (DZP) and placebo (PLBO) on circulating levels of iB-END. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Effects of naloxone (NAL), fentanyl (FEN), diazepam

  20. Benzodiazepine Use in Pilots of Civil Aviation Accidents: 1990-2008 Toxicology and Autopsy Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    are.analyzed.for.a.number.of.benzodi- azepines,.including.diazepam,.nordiazepam,.triazolam,. alprazolam ,.temazepam,.α-hydroxyalprazolam,.oxazepam...hydroxyalprazolam.(13),.midazolam.(12),. alprazolam . (9),.and.chlordiazepoxide.(4) ..Along.with.the.detected. benzodiazepines,.ethanol.was.found.in.21.(~22...in.which.it. was.determined.that.diazepam,.nordiazepam,. alprazolam ,. temazepam,. and. chlordiazepoxide. were. the. most. fre

  1. Psychoacoustic and Electrophysiologic Studies of Hearing under Hyperbaric Pressure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    and diazepam has been proposed as a supplementary drug . The interaction of ketamine and pressure with and without diazepam as premedication was...eye tracking and angular acceleration exercises. Angular accelerations were administered with a Barany chair arrangement utilizing the Contrave -Goerz... interactions than are characteristic of the narcotized state, where a general depression of transynaptic conduction in peripheral (retinal) and central

  2. The relationship between peak velocity of saccadic eye movements and serum benzodiazepine concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, P R; Wade, P; Smith, A T; Richens, A

    1981-01-01

    1 Six healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of 10 mg diazepam, 20 mg temazepam, 15 mg flurazepam, 5 mg nitrazepam, 10 mg desmethyl-diazepam and placebo in a double-blind randomized fashion. 2 Peak velocity of saccadic eye movements, serum benzodiazepine concentration, and subjective ratings of wakefulness and co-ordination were measured at intervals up to 12 h after drug administration. 3 All active treatments produced a statistically significant decrease in peak saccadic velocity. The effect of temazepam and diazepam was generally more pronounced than that of flurazepam, nitrazepam and desmethyl-diazepam. 4 There were log-linear correlations between peak saccadic velocity and serum benzodiazepine concentration after ingestion of temazepam, diazepam and nitrazepam. 5 These results demonstrate a clear relationship between serum benzodiazepine concentration and its effect on a convenient measure of brainstem reticular formation function. PMID:6794587

  3. Benzodiazepine sensitivity in normal human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hommer, D W; Matsuo, V; Wolkowitz, O; Chrousos, G; Greenblatt, D J; Weingartner, H; Paul, S M

    1986-06-01

    Increasing intravenous doses of diazepam or placebo were administered to ten healthy normal volunteers, and the changes in saccadic eye velocity, self-rated sedation and anxiety, and plasma cortisol and growth hormone concentrations were measured. Diazepam administration (4.4 to 140 micrograms/kg, cumulative dose) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in saccadic eye velocity and plasma cortisol level as well as a dose-dependent increase in self-rated sedation and plasma growth hormone level. Self-rated anxiety was unaffected in these relatively nonanxious subjects. The diazepam-induced changes in saccadic eye velocity, sedation, and growth hormone and cortisol levels were highly correlated with each other and with increasing plasma diazepam concentration. These results are consistent with a benzodiazepine receptor-mediated action of diazepam. The highly quantifiable and dose-dependent decrease in saccadic eye velocity by benzodiazepines should make this a useful measure of benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity in humans.

  4. THE ROLE OF DELTA OPIOID RECEPTORS IN THE ANXIOLYTIC ACTIONS OF BENZODIAZEPINES

    PubMed Central

    Primeaux, Stefany D.; Wilson, Steven P.; McDonald, Alexander J.; Mascagni, Franco; Wilson, Marlene A.

    2007-01-01

    The anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines appear to involve opioid processes in the amygdala. In previous experiments, overexpression of enkephalin in the amygdala enhanced the anxiolytic actions of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in the elevated plus maze. The effects of systemically administered diazepam are also blocked by injections of naltrexone into the central nucleus of the amygdala. The current studies investigated the role of delta opioid receptors in the anxiety-related effects of diazepam. Three days following bilateral stereotaxic injections of viral vectors containing cDNA encoding proenkephalin or β-galactosidase (control vector), the delta opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (10 mg/kg, s.c.) attenuated the enhanced anxiolytic effects of 1–2 mg/kg diazepam in rats overexpressing preproenkephalin in the amygdala. Despite this effect, naltrindole failed to attenuate the anxiolytic action of higher diazepam doses (3 mg/kg) in animals with normal amygdalar enkephalin expression. Similarly, the mu opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine (20mg/kg, sc), had no effect on the anxiolytic effect of diazepam alone. These data support a role for delta opioid receptors in the opioid-enhanced anxiolytic effects of diazepam. PMID:17109943

  5. [Effects of a benzodiazepine derivative, MS4101, on emotional behaviour of untamed cats].

    PubMed

    Anezaki, K; Sakurada, S; Ando, R; Kisara, K; Nakahama, H

    1976-09-01

    Effects of MS4101 on emotional behaviour in untamed cats were studied and compared with those of diazepam. Offensive behaviour, i.e., whine response to a rod presented in front of the snout and blowing air on back hair was markedly observed, and whine, attacking and biting responses to tapping with a rod on the back in these cats were marked. Defensive behaviour, i.e., hissing, crouching body, ear flattening to blowing air on back hair, a rod presented and tapping was markedly observed. From 30 min after MS4101 and diazepam in doses of 2 approximately 4 mg/kg i.p., offensive behaviour in untamed cats was depressed. ID50 (50% of inhibition dose) of offensive behaviour for MS4101 and diazepam was 2.40 (1.95 approximately 2.95) mg/kg i.p. and 0.96 (0.69 approximately 1.34) mg/kg i.p., respectively. MS4101 and diazepam in doses of 2 approximately 4 mg/kg i.p. decreased the offensive behaviour. ID50 of defensive behaviour for MS4101 and diazepam was 3.00 (2.46 approximately 3.66) mg/kg i.p. and 1.45 (1.14 approximately 1.84) mg/kg i.p., respectively. Both MS4101 and diazepam exhibited muscle relaxant effects. Here, diazepam was more effective than MS4101. ED50 of muscle relaxant activity for MS4101 and diazepam was 4.30 (3.03 approximately 6.11) mg/kg i.p., 7.40 (5.04 approximately 10.66) mg/kg i.p., respectively. A single administration of MS4101 and of diazepam in doses 2 mg/kg i.p. enhanced food intake.

  6. Feasibility assessment of chemical testing for drug impairment : final summary report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-09-27

    An evaluation was made of existing data on concentrations of marijuana, secobarbital, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and methaqualone in blood, saliva and urine to assess the feasibility of establishing chemical tests for police use in detecting drug-imp...

  7. Feasibility assessment of chemical testing for drug impairment : final report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-09-27

    An evaluation was made of existing data on concentrations of marijuana, secobarbital, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and methaqualone in blood, saliva and urine to assess the feasibility of establishing chemical teats for detecting drug-impaired driving....

  8. Prescribing of benzodiazepines by casualty officers.

    PubMed Central

    Nazareth, I D; King, M B

    1989-01-01

    The prescribing of benzodiazepines by casualty officers in a busy district hospital over a three month period was examined by a retrospective review of case notes. Benzodiazepines, mainly diazepam, were given to 1.1% of attenders, the majority of whom had disorders involving minor muscle spasm. The efficacy of diazepam in these conditions, as well as its potential for dependence, is discussed. PMID:2569040

  9. Anxiolytic effect of BPC-157, a gastric pentadecapeptide: shock probe/burying test and light/dark test.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Jelovac, N; Jelovac-Gjeldum, A; Dodig, G; Staresinic, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Ferovic, D; Aralica, G; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Lovric-Bencic, M; Separovic, J; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Ziger, T

    2001-03-01

    To study anxiolytic effect of a gastric pentadecapeptide, BPC-157. In shock probe/burying test, pentadecapeptide BPC-157 (10 microg/kg, 10 ng/kg, ip), diazepam (0.075, 0.0375 mg/kg, ip), and an equivolume of saline (5 mL/kg, ip) were given at 30 min prior test. In light/dark test, the same dosage of diazepam, BPC-157, and saline were given at 45 min prior procedure. Shock probe/burying test: rats treated with either diazepam or pentadecapeptide BPC-157 were much less afraid after the shock: almost not burying and the total time spent in burying was clearly less than in controls. However, while in the diazepam treated rats the number of shocks received increased over control values, in pentadecapeptide BPC-157 treated groups the number of shocks remained not modified compared with the control values. Light/dark test: after exposure to the intense light, diazepam treated mice had longer latencies of crossing to the dark compartment, a greater number of crossing and a greater number of exploratory rearing, and spent longer time in the light compartment, as compared to the control mice, while BPC-157 mice had a similar behavior to that of the control mice. In contrast with the effect in light area, in dark zone diazepam produced no change with respect to controls, while BPC-157 (10 microg/kg) mice had a greater number of crossing and a greater number of exploratory rearing. Both diazepam and BPC-157 displayed a bidirectional effect, but the activity of pentadecapeptide BPC-157 was particular, and different from diazepam.

  10. Biochemical Markers for Exposure to Low Doses of Organophosphorus Insecticides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Rodriguez OP, Muth GW, Berkman CE, Kim K and Thompson CM (1997) Inhibition of various cholinesterases with the enantiomers of malaoxon. Bull Environ Contain...including diazepam (Fehskc et aL., phylated human butyrylcholinesterase. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 15, 582-590. 1979; Peters, 1996) and ibuprofen , bind to the...dose of diazepam or ibuprofen . Or conver- Hui, D. M., and Minami, M. (2000). Monitoring of fluorine in urine samples ofpatients involved in the Tokyo

  11. Dandy-Walker syndrome presenting as opisthotonus: proposed pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ondo, W G; Delong, G R

    1996-02-01

    A patient with radiographically confirmed Dandy-Walker syndrome who presented with opisthotonus, a rarely reported clinical manifestation, is reported. From four separate pharmacologic trials (baclofen, diazepam, levodopa/carbidopa, and trihexyphenidyl), combination baclofen and diazepam therapy was determined to be most efficacious. Opisthotonus and extensor posturing remain only rudimentarily understood. We review the subject and propose a specific mechanism relating our patient's anatomic and physiologic conditions.

  12. Acute effects of bergamot oil on anxiety-related behaviour and corticosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Saiyudthong, Somrudee; Marsden, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO), Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia (Risso) Wright & Arn. (Rutaceae), is used widely in aromatherapy to reduce stress and anxiety despite limited scientific evidence. A previous study showed that BEO significantly increased gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in rat hippocampus, suggesting potential anxiolytic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of BEO (1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w) administered to rats on both anxiety-related behaviours (the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and hole-board tests) and stress-induced levels of plasma corticosterone in comparison with the effects of diazepam. Inhalation of BEO (1% and 2.5%) and injection of diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries on the EPM. The percentage time spent in the open arms was also significantly enhanced following administration of either BEO (2.5% and 5%) or diazepam. Total arm entries were significantly increased with the highest dose (5%), suggesting an increase in locomotor activity. In the hole-board test, 2.5% BEO and diazepam significantly increased the number of head dips. 2.5% BEO and diazepam attenuated the corticosterone response to acute stress caused by exposure to the EPM. In conclusion, both BEO and diazepam exhibited anxiolytic-like behaviours and attenuated HPA axis activity by reducing the corticosterone response to stress. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Innovative Approach for Interstitial Cystitis: Vaginal Pessaries Loaded Diazepam—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Capra, P.; Perugini, P.; Bleve, M.; Pavanetto, P.; Musitelli, G.; Rovereto, B.; Porru, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bladder pain is a characteristic disorder of interstitial cystitis. Diazepam is well known for its antispasmodic activity in the treatment of muscular hypertonus. The aim of this work was to develop and characterize vaginal pessaries as an intravaginal delivery system of diazepam for the treatment of interstitial cystitis. In particular, the performance of two types of formulations, with and without beta-glucan, was compared. In particular, the preparation of pessaries, according to the modified Pharmacopeia protocol, the setup of the analytical method to determine diazepam, pH evaluation, dissolution profile, and photostability assay were reported. Results showed that the modified protocol permitted obtaining optimal vaginal pessaries, without air bubbles, with good consistency and handling and with good pH profiles. In order to determine the diazepam amount, calibration curves with good correlation coefficients were obtained, by the spectrophotometric method, using placebo pessaries as matrix with the addition of diazepam standard solution. This method was demonstrated sensible and accurate to determine the amount of drug in batches. Dissolution profiles showed a complete diazepam release just after 15 minutes, even if beta-glucan pessaries released drug more gradually. Finally, a possible drug photodegradation after exacerbated UV-visible exposition was evaluated. PMID:26555976

  14. Functional changes in cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in the mouse induced by anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, D; Gorrod, J W; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Reynolds, E H

    1978-01-01

    1 Acute administration of clonazepam, diazepam, and diphenylhydantoin to mice elevated cerebral 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA); chronic administration had less effect. 2 Acute administration of clonazepam and diazepam but not diphenylhydantoin raised cerebral trytophan levels; chronic administration of clonazepam caused a smaller elevation of cerebral tryptophan but chronic administration of diazepam still caused a large rise in cerebral tryptophan. 3 Neither clonazepam nor diazepam caused induction of drug metabolizing enzymes on chronic administration but diphenylhydantoin had a marked effect. 4 These data suggest that the altered 5-HT metabolism caused by these compounds is unrelated to a common action on tryptophan levels, and that the reduced effect of clonazepam and diazepam on chronic administration cannot be attributed to increased metabolism of these compounds. 5 Clonazepam induced abnormal head movements in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of animals with tranylcypromine increased the intensity of movement, although pargyline was without effect. Similar effects were observed with diazepam and diphenylhydantoin, suggesting that the increase in cerebral 5-HT caused by these compounds is of functional significance in stimulating 5-HT receptors. PMID:620092

  15. Anxiolytic effect of saponins from Panax quinquefolium in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiu-Yan; Yang, Jing-Yu; Wang, Jin-Hui; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2007-05-22

    The anxiolytic effect of the saponins from Aniliaeea Panax quinquefolium L. (PQS) was studied in male mice by using a number of experimental paradigms of anxiety and compared with that of the known anxiolytic compound diazepam. Use of the elevated plus-maze test revealed that PQS (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the percentage of time and entries spent in open arms. In the light/dark test, PQS (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) prolonged the time spent in the light area. In the hole-board test, PQS (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased both head-dip counts and head-dip duration. Both PQS (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased the total fighting time in the isolation-induced aggressive test. Since PQS, in contrast to diazepam, had no effect on locomotion in these tests, its side-effect profile might be considered superior to the benzodiazepines. Thus, the present findings suggest that PQS might be a potential candidate for use as an anxiolytic drug.

  16. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found. This effect has been confirmed with two CYP3A4 substrates, testosterone (formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone) and diazepam (temazepam formation). CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were inhibited down to 75-80% (at the same rocuronium concentration). Activities of other microsomal CYPs have not been inhibited by rocuronium. To prove the possibility of rocuronium interaction with other drugs (diazepam), the effect of rocuronium on formation of main diazepam metabolites, temazepam (by CYP3A4) and desmethyldiazepam, (also known as nordiazepam; formed by CYP2C19) in primary culture of human hepatocytes has been examined. Rocuronium has caused inhibition of both reactions by 20 and 15%, respectively. The results open a possibility that interactions of rocuronium with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 (and possibly also CYP2C19) may be observed. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Capacio, B.R.; Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepan, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. AH compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (micrometer ol/kg) values and peak effect tunes were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepwn,more » 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMET)). I serve agents, anticonvulsants, diazepam, accelerating rotarod, motor performance.« less

  18. Is chlordiazepoxide the rational choice among benzodiazepines?

    PubMed

    Baskin, S I; Esdale, A

    1982-01-01

    Diazepam is frequently the subject of review by various agencies and institutions charged with determining whether or not to substitute another, more economical drug--in most instances, chlordiazepoxide. A review of the comparative literature has shown that, on clinical and pharmacokinetic grounds, chlordiazepoxide is not the drug of choice for all clinical indications recommended for the benzodiazepines as a class, particularly for use as an antianxiety agent. There is evidence that the antianxiety effect of chlordiazepoxide is related to the appearance of its two active metabolites, which may explain the observed delay in its onset of action. When chlordiazepoxide's reduced clearance in the elderly and in patients with liver disease is considered along with its limited range of indications, substitution of diazepam with chlordiazepoxide is clearly not reasonable. Diazepam and lorazepam are preferred choices in acute anxiety because they are themselves active anxiolytics. Oxazepam is recommended in alcoholic cirrhotics because its plasma clearance does not seem to be significantly affected by liver disease. Diazepam is recommended for chronic anxiety because of the rapid onset of action of diazepam itself and the smooth transition to the nondrug state via its longer-acting active metabolite.

  19. Reduced benzodiazepine sensitivity in patients with panic disorder: comparison with patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Roy-Byrne, P; Wingerson, D K; Radant, A; Greenblatt, D J; Cowley, D S

    1996-11-01

    The authors sought to replicate their previous finding of reduced response to diazepam in patients with panic disorder, to test whether this effect was specific for panic disorder, and to determine whether this reduced response was merely an artifact of resistance to sedation from anxiety-related overarousal. The effects of four increasing intravenous doses of diazepam on saccadic eye movement velocity and accuracy (the latter being a saccadic variable that is unaffected by sedation), short-term memory, and self- and observer-rated sedation were assessed in 18 patients with panic disorder, 15 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 14 normal comparison subjects. The ratios of effect to blood level areas under the curve for both ascending and descending limbs of the effect/blood level curves were compared for each variable. Patients with panic disorder showed significantly less diazepam effect on saccadic velocity and accuracy for the ascending limb of the blood level curve than comparison subjects. Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed similar differences from comparison subjects but only for saccadic velocity. There were no group differences in diazepam effects on memory and sedation. Patients with panic disorder are less sensitive than comparison subjects to diazepam. Although this difference is not an artifact of resistance to sedation, it may not be specific for panic disorder but rather may reflect a more nonspecific aspect of anxiety disorders.

  20. Chemical anesthesia of Northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris): Results of past field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monson, Daniel H.; McCormick, C.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1997, we chemically immobilized 597 wild sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Alaska for the collection of biological samples or for surgical instrumentation. One drug-related sea otter fatality occurred during this time. Fentanyl in combination with diazepam produced consistent, smooth inductions with minimal need for supplemental anesthetics during procedures lasting 30-40 min. Antagonism with naltrexone or naloxone was rapid and complete, although we observed narcotic recycling in sea otters treated with naloxone. For surgical procedures, we recommend a fentanyl target dose of 0.33 mg/kg of body mass and diazepam at 0.11 mg/kg. For nonsurgical biological sample collection procedures, we recommend fentanyl at 0.22 mg/kg and diazepam at 0.07 mg/kg. We advise the use of the opioid antagonist naltrexone at a ratio of 2:1 to the total fentanyl administered during processing.

  1. Benzodiazepines impair smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, P R; Wade, P; Smith, A T; Richens, A

    1983-01-01

    Five healthy male volunteers received single oral doses of 10 mg diazepam, 20 mg temazepam and placebo, in a double-blind, randomised fashion. Smooth pursuit eye movement velocity and serum benzodiazepine concentration were measured before and after at 0.5,1,1.5,2,3,4,6,9 and 12 h after administration of the treatments. Significant decrease in smooth pursuit eye movement velocity as compared to placebo was observed between 0.5-2 h after temazepam, and between 1-2 h after diazepam. Smooth pursuit eye movement velocity was log-linearly correlated with serum temazepam and diazepam concentration. The results demonstrate the relationship between serum benzodiazepine concentration and its effect on an objective measure of oculomotor performance. PMID:6133544

  2. Preclinical pharmacology of midazolam.

    PubMed

    Pieri, L

    1983-01-01

    Midazolam, a new imidazobenzodiazepine, forms salts that are stable in water solution, and has an overall pharmacological potency similar to that of diazepam but a much shorter duration of action. It produces all the characteristic effects of the benzodiazepine class. Its metabolites account for only a negligible part, if any, of its pharmacological effects observed in the mouse. The time course of its anticonvulsant activity, studied with different experimental protocols and by different routes of administration, revealed an almost immediate onset of action. Midazolam was slightly more potent, and its duration of action was shorter than diazepam, in enhancing presynaptic inhibition in the spinal cord of cats and in depressing spontaneous activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells in the rat. Midazolam decreased spontaneous multiunit activity (MUA) in different nuclei of the brain in 'encéphale isolé' rats. This depression was reversed by Ro 15-1788, a recently discovered selective benzodiazepine antagonist. Midazolam and diazepam decreased the cyclic GMP level in the cerebellum of rats with about the same potency; the effect of midazolam was of much shorter duration than that of diazepam. Midazolam had one-third the potency of diazepam in displacing 3H-flunitrazepam in mouse brain in vivo, and also in this case the effect of midazolam was of brief duration, as compared with diazepam. Midazolam in therapeutic doses was virtually ineffective in the cardiovascular system of conscious dogs after p.o. or i.v. administration. No direct effects of the drug on autonomic functions were found. The animal data suggest the usefulness of midazolam as an oral sleep-inducer, as an agent for i.v. induction of anaesthesia and as an i.v. or i.m. anticonvulsant in status epilepticus or tetanus, because of its rapid onset of action and its excellent local tolerance as water-soluble injection form.

  3. The effect of some anti-epilepsy drugs on enhancement of the monoamine-mediated behavioural responses following the administration of electroconvulsive shocks to rats.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, V H; Dhumal, V R; Kelkar, V V

    1981-09-11

    Daily administration of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) to rats for 10 days resulted in enhanced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA)-mediated behavioural responses. 5-HT and NA-mediated responses were still enhanced after 21 shock-free days. The three types of behavioural responses were also studied in rats given phenytoin sodium, carbamazepine and diazepam every day, alone, or 1 h after ECS administration. Phenytoin did not alter the ECS-induced enhancement of any of the three behaviours. Carbamazepine and diazepam significantly retarded the enhancement in 5-HT and DA-mediated behaviours, although they did not alter the enhancement in NA-mediated behaviour.

  4. Synthesis, anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities of novel annulated pyrrolo[1,4]benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Sorra, Kumaraswamy; Chen, Chien-Shu; Chang, Chi-Fen; Pusuluri, Srinivas; Mukkanti, Khagga; Wu, Chi-Rei; Chuang, Ta-Hsien

    2014-09-18

    Four new pentacyclic benzodiazepine derivatives (PBDTs 13-16) were synthesized by conventional thermal heating and microwave-assisted intramolecular cyclocondensation. Their anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic activities were evaluated by drug-induced convulsion models, a pentobarbital-induced hypnotic model and an elevated plus maze in mice. PBDT 13, a triazolopyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepin-8-one fused with a thiadiazolone ring, exhibited the best anticonvulsant, sedative and anxiolytic effects in our tests. There was no significant difference in potency between PBDT 13 and diazepam, and we proposed that the action mechanism of PBDT 13 could be similar to that of diazepam via benzodiazepine receptors.

  5. Relapses and recurrences of catatonia: 30-case analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Chuen; Hung, Yi-Yung; Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-04-01

    Relieving catatonia helps identify the underlying etiology and its treatment. However, catatonia may reemerge after some time, but there are few data on the relapses and recurrences of catatonia. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of patients with relapses or recurrences of catatonia as well as the efficacy of the lorazepam-diazepam protocol on them. Patients with catatonia who had more than one episode of catatonia and were treated with the lorazepam-diazepam protocol were identified. Their medical charts were reviewed, and interview was conducted. Thirty patients were identified. Nineteen (63.3%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, five (16.7%) with major depressive disorder, two (6.7%) with bipolar disorder, and four (13.3%) with general medical conditions. In the 68 relapses and relapses the lorazepam-diazepam protocol was used, full response was reported in 54 (79.4%) of them. Twelve of 19 (63.2%) patients with schizophrenia were treated with clozapine. Twenty (66.7%) out of 30 patients were maintained on oral lorazepam by the time of discharge. Literature review showed similar prevalence of schizophrenia in patients with more than one episode of catatonia, and a wide variety of treatment options. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol was mostly effective in managing relapses and recurrences of catatonia. Maintenance clozapine and oral lorazepam were beneficial in a significant number of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 73678 - Robert M. Brodkin, D.P.M.; Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Demerol 50 mg/ml (meperidine, a schedule II narcotic); 1200 tablets of diazepam (a schedule IV benzodiazepine); 1500 tablets of hydrocodone/acetaminophen 10/500 mg and 1700 tablets of hydrocodone...); 200 tablets of propoxyphene (a schedule IV narcotic); and four bottles of testosterone cypionate 10 ml...

  7. Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. Vol. 47/No. RR-4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-17

    antihista- mines (e.g., astemizole or terfenadine); sedative-hypnotics (e.g., alprazolam , midazolam, or triazolam); calcium channel blockers (e.g...acetate, propafenone, or quinidine); ergot alkaloid derivatives; cisapride; sedative-hypnotics (e.g., alprazolam , clorazepate, diazepam, estazo- lam

  8. Febrile seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... proper care. Occasionally, a provider will prescribe a medicine called diazepam to prevent or treat febrile seizures that occur more than once. However, no drug is completely effective in preventing febrile seizures. Alternative Names Seizure - fever induced; Febrile convulsions Patient Instructions ...

  9. Community Use of Intranasal Midazolam for Managing Prolonged Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrkou, Margaret; Harbord, Michael; Kyrkou, Nicole; Kay, Debra; Coulthard, Kingsley

    2006-01-01

    Background: Until a few years ago, rectal diazepam (RD) was the only option available to parents and carers managing prolonged seizures. However, its use in the community was limited due to the requirement for privacy, and because education staff in South Australia are not permitted to carry out invasive procedures. Method: Following a literature…

  10. Chemical structure and biological activity of the diazepines

    PubMed Central

    Danneberg, P.; Weber, K. H.

    1983-01-01

    1 Since the introduction of chlordiazepoxide and diazepam many diazepines have been developed. Use of these drugs is increasing and considerable knowledge has accumulated about their mechanisms of action. 2 The structural and pharmacological properties of these drugs are surveyed briefly. PMID:6140944

  11. [Modifications in treatment of tetanus and prognosis--observations from the Cracow Department of Infectious Diseases].

    PubMed

    Garlicki, A; Caban, J; Bociaga-Jasik, M; Kluba-Wojewoda, U; Krukowiecki, J

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of modifications in the tetanus treatment, which included using metronidazol and midazolam instead penicillin and diazepam, was presented. According to our own observations and previous investigations, mentioned above changes in the tetanus therapy improve survival rate, reduce psychiatric disturbances and shorten hospitalisation time.

  12. A KCNQ channel opener for experimental neonatal seizures and status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Raol, YogendraSinh H.; Lapides, David A.; Keating, Jeffery; Brooks-Kayal, Amy R.; Cooper, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neonatal seizures occur frequently, are often refractory to anticonvulsants, and are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Genetic and electrophysiological evidence indicates that KCNQ voltage-gated potassium channels are critical regulators of neonatal brain excitability. This study tests the hypothesis that selective openers of KCNQ channels may be effective for treatment of neonatal seizures. Methods We induced seizures in postnatal day 10 rats with either kainic acid or flurothyl. We measured seizure activity using quantified behavioral rating and electrocorticography. We compared the efficacy of flupirtine, a selective KCNQ channel opener, with phenobarbital and diazepam, two drugs in current use for neonatal seizures. Results Unlike phenobarbital or diazepam, flupirtine prevented animals from developing status epilepticus (SE) when administered prior to kainate. In the flurothyl model, phenobarbital and diazepam increased latency to seizure onset, but flupirtine completely prevented seizures throughout the experiment. Flupirtine was also effective in arresting electrographic and behavioral seizures when administered after animals had developed continuous kainate-induced SE. Flupirtine caused dose-related sedation and suppressed EEG activity, but did not result in respiratory suppression or result in any mortality. Interpretation Flupirtine appears more effective than either of two commonly used anti-epileptic drugs, phenobarbital and diazepam, in preventing and suppressing seizures in both the kainic acid and flurothyl models of symptomatic neonatal seizures. KCNQ channel openers merit further study as potential treatments for seizures in infants and children. PMID:19334075

  13. Manual control analysis of drug effects on driving performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smiley, A.; Ziedman, K.; Moskowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of secobarbital, diazepam, alcohol, and marihuana on car-driver transfer functions obtained using a driving simulator were studied. The first three substances, all CNS depressants, reduced gain, crossover frequency, and coherence which resulted in poorer tracking performance. Marihuana also impaired tracking performance but the only effect on the transfer function parameters was to reduce coherence.

  14. Unreported Medications Used in Incapacitating Medical Conditions Found in Fatal Civil Aviation Accidents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Carbamazepine 62 = Verapamil 21 = Diazepam 13 = Lidocaine 96 = Fluoxetine 72 = Propranolol 113 = Trazodone 30 = Metoprolol 116 = Sertraline 41 = Procainamid...examined by an aviation medi- Lopressor ( Metoprolol ) for the treatment of high cal examiner, the majority of the cardiovascular drugs blood pressure. In

  15. Enhancement of GABAergic transmission by zolpidem, an imidazopyridine with preferential affinity for type I benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Biggio, G; Concas, A; Corda, M G; Serra, M

    1989-02-28

    The effect of zolpidem, an imidazopyridine derivative with high affinity at the type I benzodiazepine recognition site, on the function of the GABAA/ionophore receptor complex was studied in vitro. Zolpidem, mimicking the action of diazepam, increased [3H]GABA binding, enhanced muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake and reduced [35S]TBPS binding in rat cortical membrane preparations. Zolpidem was less effective than diazepam on the above parameters. Zolpidem induced a lower increase of [3H]GABA binding (23 vs. 35%) and muscimol-stimulated 36Cl- uptake (22 vs. 40%) and a smaller decrease of [35S]TBPS binding (47 vs. 77%) than diazepam. The finding that zolpidem enhanced the function of GABAergic synapses with an efficacy qualitatively and quantitatively different from that of diazepam suggests that this compound is a partial agonist at the benzodiazepine recognition site. Thus, our results are consistent with the view that the biochemical and pharmacological profile of a benzodiazepine recognition site ligand reflects its efficacy to enhance GABAergic transmission. Whether the preferential affinity of zolpidem at the type I site is involved in its atypical biochemical and pharmacological profile remains to be clarified.

  16. 78 FR 62676 - Anthony E. Wicks, M.D. Decision and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... registration BW7987184, while listing his address as Pain Management of Winter Springs, 165 W. SR 434, Winter... practice address. Id. at 2, ] 5. \\2\\ Documentary evidence, which the Government acquired through... prescriptions for oxycodone,\\4\\ diazepam, and lorazepam.\\5\\ GX 15, at 2, ] 7; GX 13. \\3\\ The documentary...

  17. Acute psychotropic effects of oral cannabis extract with a defined content of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R M; Kraft, B; Frey, R; Winkler, D; Weiszenbichler, S; Bäcker, C; Kasper, S; Kress, H G

    2010-01-01

    The medical use of cannabinoids is limited mainly by their undesirable effects. With respect to acute psychotropic effects, the aim of this study is the comparison of an oral cannabis extract and low-dose diazepam in a cross-over experiment in drug-naïve healthy women. Sixteen healthy females participated in this randomized, double-blind, active comparator-controlled, single-dose, balanced 2-way cross-over study. Cannabis extract with standardised Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content (20 mg) or active placebo (5 mg diazepam) was administered orally. Subjects were assessed by self- and observer-rated visual analogue scales (VAS), the BRIEF PSYCHIATRIC RATING SCALE (BPRS) and three psychomotor tests up to 6 h after administration. VAS showed significantly elevated fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, and "feeling high" after cannabis as compared to baseline and diazepam. BPRS scores were significantly higher after cannabis intake. Only in one psychomotor test a decrease of psychomotor activity after cannabis was evident. One subject in the cannabis condition experienced severe transient psychotic symptoms. Orally administered cannabis produced significant central depressant side-effects compared to diazepam, mostly subjective effects (VAS) but marginal effects in psychomotor performance in 15 healthy females. Regarding the medical use of cannabis, a rigorous benefit-risk analysis and an exact psychiatric assessment before and during treatment are necessary. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  18. Effect of anesthetics on the radiosensitivity of a murine tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, P.W.; Chu, A.M.

    The effect of four anesthetics on the single dose of x rays required to locally control 50% of implanted MT tumors was investigated. Compared with unanesthetized animals, no change in radiosensitivity was observed if mice were irradiated under either tribromoethanol or fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam anesthesia. However, a small but significant degree of radioprotection was observed under chloral hydrate or pentobarbital anesthesia. Hypothermia or increased hypoxia are considered unlikely mechanisms for the protection, a direct chemical action being most probable. The preferred method for immobilizing the mice in order to locally irradiate the tumors was by simple physical restraint (with care taken tomore » minimize physiological stress). However, if anesthesia was a necessity, the present work suggests that for the MT tumor at least the nonprotecting tribromoethanol and fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam are preferable to the protecting chloral hydrate and pentobarbital. Tribromoethanol is preferable to fetanyl-fluanisone-diazepam in that it produces a smaller drop in temperature. However, it is only a short-acting anesthetic, and prolongation of the state of anesthesia by repeated doses simply prolongs the temperature decline so that there may be no real benefit over fentanyl-fluanisone-diazepam.« less

  19. Exploring diazepam’s effect on hemodynamic responses of mouse brain tissue by optical spectroscopic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Abookasis, David; Shochat, Ariel; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a simple duel-optical spectroscopic imaging apparatus capable of simultaneously determining relative changes in brain oxy-and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations was used following administration of the anxiolytic compound diazepam in mice with strong dominant (Dom) and submissive (Sub) behavioral traits. Three month old mice (n = 30) were anesthetized and after 10 min of baseline imaging, diazepam (1.5 mg/kg) was administered and measurements were taken for 80 min. The mouse head was illuminated by white light based LED's and diffused reflected light passing through different channels, consisting of a bandpass filter and a CCD camera, respectively, was collected and analyzed to measure the hemodynamic response. This work’s major findings are threefold: first, Dom and Sub animals showed statistically significant differences in hemodynamic response to diazepam administration. Secondly, diazepam was found to more strongly affect the Sub group. Thirdly, different time-series profiles were observed post-injection, which can serve as a possible marker for the groups’ differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of an anxiolytic drug on brain hemodynamic responses in mice using diffused light optical imaging. PMID:25071958

  20. Differences in the Language and Design of Four PPIs for Valium. Technical Assistance Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redish, Janice C.

    As part of the evaluation of four different versions of a patient package insert (PPI) for diazepam (Valium) created by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the content, organization, language, and design of the PPIs were compared. One PPI was a short prose piece with clear organization that did not particularly highlight warnings or, indeed,…

  1. The anxiolitic effects of BTG1640 and BTG1675A on ultrasonic isolation calls and locomotor activity of rat pups.

    PubMed

    Niculescu, M; Cagiano, R; Caprio, M; Damian, S; Boia, E; Vermesan, D; Tattoli, M; Haragus, H

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic properties of the new isoxazoline compounds BTG1640 and BTG1675A in comparison with diazepam. We evaluated the ultrasonic distress emission in both sexes of neonatal rat pups (which seems to be a sensitive indicator of the rat emotional reactivity and represents a valuable tool to screen compounds with expected anxiolytic properties) and the locomotor activity in 30-day old rat pups. We found a significant reduction in the number of emitted ultrasonic calls only after i.p. administration of diazepam 1 mg/kg, while no significant reduction have been detected after i.p. administration of BTG 1640 and BTG 1675A. Furthermore, we found a significant reduction of locomotor activity in the first 10' of the test, only in the group treated with diazepam 0.1 mg. The tests validating the supposed anxiolytic properties of the new isoxazoline compounds BTG1640 and BTG1675A, in comparison with diazepam, gave negative results.

  2. Transport of a GABAA receptor modulator and its derivatives from Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. across an in vitro cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Winfried; Trauner, Gabriele; Gruber, Daniela; Oelzant, Silvester; Klepal, Waltraud; Kopp, Brigitte; Noe, Christian R

    2008-09-01

    The roots and rhizome of Valeriana officinalis L . s. l. are therapeutically used for their sedative and sleep-enhancing effects. Some of the active compounds found in commonly used extracts are the sesquiterpenic acids, especially valerenic acid, which was recently identified as a GABA (A) receptor modulator. To interact with this receptor in the brain, substances such as valerenic acid and its derivatives acetoxyvalerenic acid and hydroxyvalerenic acid have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of our study was to obtain BBB permeability data of these compounds for the first time and to elucidate possible transport pathways across our BBB in vitro model. Transport of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and hydroxyvalerenic acid was compared with the permeability of the GABA (A) modulator diazepam, which is known to penetrate into the central nervous system transcellularly by passive diffusion. Experiments were carried out with an established Transwell in vitro model based on the human cell line ECV304. Results indicated clearly that all three acids permeated significantly slower than diazepam. The ranking was confirmed in group studies as well as in single-substance studies after normalization to diazepam. Valerenic acid (1.06 +/- 0.29 microm/min, factor 0.03 related to diazepam) was the slowest to permeate in the group study, followed by hydroxyvalerenic acid (2.72 +/- 0.63 microm/min, factor 0.07 related to diazepam) and acetoxyvalerenic acid (3.54 +/- 0.58 microm/min, factor 0.09 related to diazepam). To elucidate the contribution of the paracellular transport, studies were performed at different tightness status of the cell layers reflected by different transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values. Results showed an exponential correlation between transport and TEER for all three acids, whereas diazepam permeated TEER independently. In summary, it is hypothesized that the investigated compounds from Valeriana officinalis L. S. L. can

  3. Behavioral properties of Balanites aegyptiaca in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ya'u, J; Abdulmalik, U N; Yaro, A H; Chindo, B A; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2011-06-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca is a native plant from the dry tropical areas of Africa and Arabia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat psychoses, epilepsy, rheumatism and for the management of cough, liver and spleen conditions for many years. The plant is also used as antihelmintic and molluscicide. The present studies aimed at investigating the behavioral properties of ethanol extract of the root of this medicinal plant, which is already in common applications in the Nigerian traditional medicine. The intraperitoneal and oral mean lethal dose (LD(50)) of the extract was determined using the Lorke's method. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out to identify the secondary metabolites in the extract. Furthermore, the behavioral properties of the extract were evaluated using diazepam-induced sleep, open field test, staircase test and beam walking assay all in mice. The extract significantly (p<0.001) prolonged the duration diazepam (20mg/kg i.p)-induced sleep in mice dose dependently. However, the extract showed no significant effect on the onset of diazepam-induced sleep. In the open field test, the extract (150 and 300 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.05 mg/kg) produced a significant (p<0.05, p<0.005 and p<0.001) decrease in the number of square crossings. There was no significant effect on the number of centre square crossing following the administration of the extract. The extract (75 and 150 mg/kg) and diazepam (0.05 mg/kg) produced a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the number of rearing suggestive of sedation. In the staircase experiment there was a decrease in the number of upward step climbing as well as number of rearing suggesting anxiolytic and sedative properties of the extract. In the beam walking assay the extract did not produce any significant increase in the time taken to complete task as compared to diazepam 1mg/kg which was significant at p<0.05. Furthermore, 30 mg/kg of the extract and diazepam 1mg/kg showed significant

  4. Role of α1- and α2-GABAA receptors in mediating the respiratory changes associated with benzodiazepine sedation

    PubMed Central

    Masneuf, S; Buetler, J; Koester, C; Crestani, F

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The molecular substrates underlying the respiratory changes associated with benzodiazepine sedation are unknown. We examined the effects of different doses of diazepam and alprazolam on resting breathing in wild-type (WT) mice and clarified the contribution of α1- and α2-GABAA receptors, which mediate the sedative and muscle relaxant action of diazepam, respectively, to these drug effects using point-mutated mice possessing either α1H101R- or α2H101R-GABAA receptors insensitive to benzodiazepine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Room air breathing was monitored using whole-body plethysmography. Different groups of WT mice were injected i.p. with diazepam (1–100 mg·kg−1), alprazolam (0.3, 1 or 3 mg·kg−1) or vehicle. α1H101R and α2H101R mice received 1 or 10 mg·kg−1 diazepam or 0.3 or 3 mg·kg−1 alprazolam. Respiratory frequency, tidal volume, time of expiration and time of inspiration before and 20 min after drug injection were analysed. KEY RESULTS Diazepam (10 mg·kg−1) decreased the time of expiration, thereby increasing the resting respiratory frequency, in WT and α2H101R mice, but not in α1H101R mice. The time of inspiration was shortened in WT and α1H101R mice, but not in α2H101R mice. Alprazolam (1–3 mg·kg−1) stimulated the respiratory frequency by shortening expiration and inspiration duration in WT mice. This tachypnoeic effect was partially conserved in α1H101R mice while absent in α2H101R mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results identify a specific role for α1-GABAA receptors and α2-GABAA receptors in mediating the shortening by benzodiazepines of the expiratory and inspiratory phase of resting breathing respectively. PMID:22044283

  5. Benzodiazepines: rat pinealocyte binding sites and augmentation of norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew, E.; Parfitt, A.G.; Sugden, D.

    1984-02-01

    Studies of (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to intact rat pineal cells were carried out in tissue culture preparations. The binding was saturable, reversible and proportional to the number of cells used. Scatchard analysis resulted in a linear plot (Kd . 23 nM, maximum binding sites (Bmax) . 1.56 pmol/mg of protein for cells in monolayer culture; Kd . 7 nM, Bmax . 1.3 pmol/mg of protein for cells in suspension culture). Inhibition constants (Ki) for clonazepam (500 nM), flunitrazepam (38 nM) and Ro-5-4864 (5 nM) indicated that the binding sites were probably of the ''peripheral'' type. In addition, the effects ofmore » diazepam on norepinephrine-stimulated N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity were studied in organ culture and dissociated cell culture. Diazepam (10-50 microM) both prolonged and increased the magnitude of the norepinephrine-induced increase in NAT activity but did not affect the initial rate of rise of enzyme activity. The effect was dose-dependent and was also seen with clonazepam, flunitrazepam and Ro-5-4864, but not with Ro-15-1788. Diazepam, by itself, at these concentrations, had no effect on NAT, but enzyme activity was increased by higher concentrations (0.1-1 mM). Although a relationship between the (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding sites described here and the effect of benzodiazepines on NAT cannot be established from these studies, the data suggest that the benzodiazepines may alter melatonin levels through their action on NAT.« less

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial Shows Biofeedback to be Superior to Alternative Treatments for Patients with Pelvic Floor Dyssynergia-type Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Heymen, Steve; Scarlett, Yolanda; Jones, Kenneth; Ringel, Yehuda; Drossman, Douglas; Whitehead, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether biofeedback is more effective than diazepam or placebo in a randomized controlled trial for patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia-type constipation, and whether instrumented biofeedback is necessary for successful training. Methods One hundred seventeen patients participated in a 4-week run-in (education and medical management). The 84 who remained constipated were randomized to Biofeedback (n=30); Diazepam (n=30); or Placebo (n=24). All patients were trained to do pelvic floor muscle exercises to correct pelvic floor dyssynergia during 6 biweekly 1-hour sessions, but only Biofeedback patients received electromyography feedback. All other patients received pills 1-2 hours before attempting defecation. Diary data on cathartic use, straining, incomplete bowel movements, Bristol stool scores, and compliance with homework were reviewed biweekly. Results Before treatment, the groups did not differ on demographic (average age 50, 85 percent females), physiologic or psychologic characteristics, severity of constipation, or expectation of benefit. Biofeedback was superior to diazepam by intention to treat analysis (70 percent vs. 23 percent reported adequate relief of constipation 3 months after treatment, χ2 = 13.1, p < 0.001), and also superior to placebo (38 percent successful, χ2 = 5.7, p = 0.017). Biofeedback patients had significantly more unassisted bowel movements at follow-up compared to Placebo (p = .005), with a trend favoring biofeedback over diazepam (p = .067). Biofeedback patients reduced pelvic floor electromyography during straining significantly more than diazepam patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions This investigation provides definitive support for the efficacy of biofeedback for pelvic floor dyssynergia and shows that instrumented biofeedback is essential to successful treatment. PMID:19966605

  7. Isolation, characterization, and purification to homogeneity of an endogenous polypeptide with agonistic action on benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Guidotti, A; Forchetti, C M; Corda, M G; Konkel, D; Bennett, C D; Costa, E

    1983-01-01

    A brain polypeptide termed diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) and thought to be chemically and functionally related to the endogenous effector of the benzodiazepine recognition site was purified to homogeneity. This peptide gives a single band of protein on NaDodSO4 and acidic urea gel electrophoresis. A single UV-absorbing peak was obtained by HPLC using three different columns and solvent systems. DBI has a molecular mass of approximately equal to 11,000 daltons. Carboxyl-terminus analysis shows that tyrosine is the only residue while the amino-terminus was blocked. Cyanogen bromide treatment of DBI yields three polypeptide fragments, and the sequences of two of them have been determined for a total of 45 amino acids. DBI is a competitive inhibitor for the binding of [3H]diazepam, [3H]flunitrazepam, beta-[3H]carboline propyl esters, and 3H-labeled Ro 15-1788. The Ki for [3H]-diazepam and beta-[3H]carboline binding were 4 and 1 microM, respectively. Doses of DBI that inhibited [3H]diazepam binding by greater than 50% fail to change [3H]etorphine, gamma-amino[3H]butyric acid, [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, [3H]dihydroalprenolol, [3H]adenosine, and [3H]imipramine binding tested at their respective Kd values. DBI injected intraventricularly at doses of 5-10 nmol completely reversed the anticonflict action of diazepam on unpunished drinking and, similar to the anxiety-inducing beta-carboline derivative FG 7142 (beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester), facilitated the shock-induced suppression of drinking by lowering the threshold for this response. Images PMID:6304714

  8. Acute soman poisoning in primates neither pretreated nor receiving immediate therapy: value of gacyclidine (GK-11) in delayed medical support.

    PubMed

    Lallement, G; Clarençon, D; Galonnier, M; Baubichon, D; Burckhart, M F; Peoc'h, M

    1999-03-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are still used as warfare and terrorism compounds. Classical delayed treatment of victims of organophosphate poisoning includes combined i.v. administration of a cholinesterase reactivator (an oxime), a muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist (atropine) and a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant (diazepam). The objective of this study was to evaluate, in a realistic setting, the therapeutic benefit of administration of GK-11 (gacyclidine), an antiglutamatergic compound, as a complement to the above therapy against organophosphate poisoning. Gacyclidine was injected (i.v.) in combination with atropine/diazepam/pralidoxime at man-equivalent doses after a 45- or 30-min latency period to intoxicated primates (2 LD50). The effects of gacyclidine on the animals' survival, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, signs of toxicity, recovery after challenge and central nervous system histology were examined. The present data demonstrated that atropine/diazepam/pralidoxime alone or combined with gacyclidine did not prevent signs of soman toxicity when treatment was delayed 45 min after poisoning. Atropine/diazepam/pralidoxime also did not control seizures or prevent neuropathology in primates exhibiting severe signs of poisoning when treatment was commenced 30 min after intoxication. However, in this latter case, EEG recordings revealed that additional treatment with gacyclidine was able to stop soman-induced seizures and restore normal EEG activity. This drug also totally prevented the neuropathology observed 5 weeks after soman exposure in animals treated with atropine/diazepam/pralidoxime alone. Overall, in the case of severe OP-poisoning, gacyclidine represents a promising adjuvant therapy to the currently available polymedication to ensure optimal management of organophosphate poisoning in man. This drug is presently being evaluated in a human clinical trial for a different neuroprotective indication. However, it should always be kept in

  9. Degradation of benzodiazepines after 120 days of EMS deployment.

    PubMed

    McMullan, Jason T; Jones, Elizabeth; Barnhart, Bruce; Denninghoff, Kurt; Spaite, Daniel; Zaleski, Erin; Silbergleit, Robert

    2014-01-01

    EMS treatment of status epilepticus improves outcomes, but the benzodiazepine best suited for EMS use is unclear, given potential high environmental temperature exposures. To describe the degradation of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam as a function of temperature exposure and time over 120 days of storage on active EMS units. Study boxes containing vials of diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam were distributed to 4 active EMS units in each of 2 EMS systems in the southwestern United States during May-August 2011. The boxes logged temperature every minute and were stored in EMS units per local agency policy. Two vials of each drug were removed from each box at 30-day intervals and underwent high-performance liquid chromatography to determine drug concentration. Concentration was analyzed as mean (and 95%CI) percent of initial labeled concentration as a function of time and mean kinetic temperature (MKT). 192 samples were collected (2 samples of each drug from each of 4 units per city at 4 time-points). After 120 days, the mean relative concentration (95%CI) of diazepam was 97.0% (95.7-98.2%) and of midazolam was 99.0% (97.7-100.2%). Lorazepam experienced modest degradation by 60 days (95.6% [91.6-99.5%]) and substantial degradation at 90 days (90.3% [85.2-95.4%]) and 120 days (86.5% [80.7-92.3%]). Mean MKT was 31.6°C (95%CI 27.1-36.1). Increasing MKT was associated with greater degradation of lorazepam, but not midazolam or diazepam. Midazolam and diazepam experienced minimal degradation throughout 120 days of EMS deployment in high-heat environments. Lorazepam experienced significant degradation over 120 days and appeared especially sensitive to higher MKT exposure.

  10. Development of a laboratory model to assess fear and anxiety in cats.

    PubMed

    de Rivera, Christina; Ley, Jacqui; Milgram, Bill; Landsberg, Gary

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a laboratory-based model to assess fear and anxiety in cats using the feline open-field test (OFT) and the feline human interaction test (HIT); and (2) to validate the model using diazepam, a known anxiolytic. Methods Laboratory-housed cats (n = 41) were first classified as fearful, mildly fearful or non-fearful by a technician familiar with the cats and also by veterinary behaviorists (GL, JL), by assessing the cats' behavior in their home rooms. In experiment 1, each cat's behavior was assessed in an OFT and an HIT. In experiment 2, after administration of the anxiolytic diazepam, a subset of the cats was re-tested. Results In experiment 1, the OFT revealed significant group effects on two measures: duration of inactivity, and vocalization. Fearful animals had significantly longer periods of inactivity than non-fearful animals. Non-fearful and mildly fearful cats vocalized more frequently than fearful cats. In the HIT, fearful cats travelled less than non-fearful and mildly fearful cats. Fearful and mildly fearful animals had significantly longer durations of inactivity, and non-fearful and mildly fearful cats had a significantly higher frequency of vocalization compared with fearful cats. In experiment 2, in the OFT, treatment with diazepam caused an increase in distance travelled, shorter durations of inactivity, and more frequent inactivity and vocalization. In the HIT, diazepam increased distance travelled and decreased duration of inactivity. Fearful cats spent significantly less time near the human compared with non-fearful cats, and this persisted under diazepam. Conclusions and relevance The feline OFT and feline HIT can be used jointly to assess the effects of medications or other therapies on fear and anxiety in the domestic cat.

  11. Benzodiazepine sensitivity in panic disorder: effects of chronic alprazolam treatment.

    PubMed

    Cowley, D S; Roy-Byrne, P P; Radant, A; Ritchie, J C; Greenblatt, D J; Nemeroff, C B; Hommer, D W

    1995-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the degree to which patients with panic disorder develop tolerance to subjective and physiological effects of benzodiazepine after chronic treatment with alprazolam. Response to acute administration of diazepam was assessed in 19 panic disorder patients receiving chronic treatment with alprazolam and 23 untreated panic disorder patients. At baseline in the laboratory, the two groups did not differ in peak saccadic eye movement velocity, saccade latency, short-term memory, plasma cortisol and growth hormone concentrations, heart rate, and self-rated levels of sedation and anxiety. Compared with untreated patients, alprazolam-treated patients displayed significantly less diazepam-induced change in peak saccadic velocity, saccade latency, growth hormone secretion, memory, and self-rated levels of sedation. There was no difference between groups in diazepam effects on plasma cortisol concentrations or self-rated anxiety. Within alprazolam-treated patients, diazepam-induced slowing of peak saccade velocity was significantly inversely correlated with illness severity, as measured by reported panic attacks per week and severity of phobic avoidance, but not with alprazolam dose, blood level, or duration of treatment. Because the alprazolam-treated group reported more panic attacks per week than the untreated panic patients, treated patients were divided into those who were asymptomatic versus those with continuing panic attacks. The subgroup of nine alprazolam-treated subjects who were asymptomatic also showed significantly less diazepam effects than the group of untreated panic disorder patients, suggesting that overall group differences were at least partially attributable to the development of tolerance to selected benzodiazepine effects with chronic alprazolam treatment.

  12. Nonintravenous rescue medications for pediatric status epilepticus: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Gaínza-Lein, Marina; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the cost-effectiveness of rescue medications for pediatric status epilepticus: rectal diazepam, nasal midazolam, buccal midazolam, intramuscular midazolam, and nasal lorazepam. Decision analysis model populated with effectiveness data from the literature and cost data from publicly available market prices. The primary outcome was cost per seizure stopped ($/SS). One-way sensitivity analyses and second-order Monte Carlo simulations evaluated the robustness of the results across wide variations of the input parameters. The most cost-effective rescue medication was buccal midazolam (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ([ICER]: $13.16/SS) followed by nasal midazolam (ICER: $38.19/SS). Nasal lorazepam (ICER: -$3.8/SS), intramuscular midazolam (ICER: -$64/SS), and rectal diazepam (ICER: -$2,246.21/SS) are never more cost-effective than the other options at any willingness to pay. One-way sensitivity analysis showed the following: (1) at its current effectiveness, rectal diazepam would become the most cost-effective option only if its cost was $6 or less, and (2) at its current cost, rectal diazepam would become the most cost-effective option only if effectiveness was higher than 0.89 (and only with very high willingness to pay of $2,859/SS to $31,447/SS). Second-order Monte Carlo simulations showed the following: (1) nasal midazolam and intramuscular midazolam were the more effective options; (2) the more cost-effective option was buccal midazolam for a willingness to pay from $14/SS to $41/SS and nasal midazolam for a willingness to pay above $41/SS; (3) cost-effectiveness overlapped for buccal midazolam, nasal lorazepam, intramuscular midazolam, and nasal midazolam; and (4) rectal diazepam was not cost-effective at any willingness to pay, and this conclusion remained extremely robust to wide variations of the input parameters. For pediatric status epilepticus, buccal midazolam and nasal midazolam are the most cost-effective nonintravenous rescue

  13. Clozapine in schizophrenia patients with recurrent catatonia: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yi-Yung; Yang, Ping-Suen; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2006-04-01

    Prolonged catatonia can be a source of extremely serious morbidity and mortality. Lorazepam is effective in rapidly relieving most cases of catatonia. Reports have also shown that second-generation antipsychotic drugs are also efficacious in relieving catatonia. This report describes two schizophrenia patients who demonstrated recurrent catatonic features mutism and stupor. Both patients were treated with lorazepam, diazepam or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Patient 1 responded well and rapidly to lorazepam each time catatonia happened; but catatonia recurred once a year under treatment with many antipsychotic drugs. Patient 2 had catatonia features associated with discontinuing or decreasing clozapine. With each recurrent episode, the duration of catatonia increased, requiring an increased dosage of benzodiazepine. The patient's response to lorazepam and ECT gradually decreased, until the patient had almost no response to lorazepam, diazepam or ECT. Both patients had no recurrence during a period of 2-year follow up with continuous clozapine therapy.

  14. Uptake and depuration of pharmaceuticals in aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Williams, Melanie; Carter, Laura J; Fussell, Richard; Raffaelli, David; Ashauer, Roman; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2012-06-01

    The uptake and depuration of a range of pharmaceuticals in the freshwater shrimp (Gammarus pulex) and the water boatman (Notonecta glauca) was studied. For one compound, studies were also done using the freshwater snail Planobarius corneus. In G. pulex, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) ranged from 4.6 to 185,900 and increased in the order moclobemide < 5-fluoruracil < carbamazepine < diazepam < carvedilol < fluoxetine. In N. glauca BCFs ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 and increased in the order 5-fluorouracil < carbamazepine < moclobemide < diazepam < fluoxetine < carvedilol. For P. corneus, the BCF for carvedilol was 57.3. The differences in degree of uptake across the three organisms may be due to differences in mode of respiration, behaviour and the pH of the test system. BCFs of the pharmaceuticals for each organism were correlated to the pH-corrected liposome-water partition coefficient of the pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice.

    PubMed

    Umezu, T

    2000-06-01

    The present study was conducted to further explore plant-derived essential oils that possess an anticonflict effect using the Geller type conflict test in ICR mice. The benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam increased the response (lever pressing) rate during the alarm period (i.e., an anticonflict effect), but the 5-HT1A partial agonist buspirone did not. Oils of juniper, cypress, geranium and jasmine did not produce any effect in this test. Frankincense oil decreased the response rate during the safe period at 1600 mg/kg, but did not exhibit any effect on the response rate during the alarm period. In contrast, lavender oil increased the response rate during the alarm period in a dose-dependent manner in the same manner as diazepam. These results indicate that not only rose oil but also lavender oil possess an anticonflict effect in mice.

  16. Evidence for involvement of the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor in the mechanism of action of convulsant and anticonvulsant drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, A.S.; Hertz, L.

    1988-01-01

    The anticonvulsant drugs carbamazepine, phenobarbital, trimethadione, valproic acid and ethosuximide at pharmacologically relevant concentrations inhibit (/sup 3/H)diazepam binding to astrocytes in primary cultures but have much less effect on a corresponding preparation of neurons. Phenytoin as well as pentobarbital (which is not used chronically as an anticonvulsant) are equipotent in the two cell types. The convulsants picrotoxinin and pentylenetetrazol, the convulsant benzodiazepine RO 5-3663 and the two convulsant barbiturates DMBB and CHEB similarly inhibit diazepam binding to astrocytes but have little effect on neurons. On the basis of these findings it is suggested that these convulsants and anticonvulsants owe atmore » least part of their effect to an interaction with the astrocytic benzodiazepine receptor, perhaps by interference with a calcium channel.« less

  17. Something old, something new: a successful case of meprobamate withdrawal.

    PubMed

    James, Alexander Owen; Nicholson, Timothy R; Hill, Robert; Bearn, Jennifer

    2016-02-29

    Meprobamate, a benzodiazepine-like drug, was commonly prescribed for anxiety in the 1960s and 1970s, but fell out of favour, at least in part, due to the risk of dependence, for which there is little published evidence to guide clinical management. We discuss a 70-year-old man with a 45-year history of meprobamate dependency and multiple failed previous withdrawal attempts who was successfully withdrawn from meprobamate using diazepam during a 2-week inpatient stay on a specialist Addictions ward. An appropriate diazepam dose was established using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment scale for benzodiazepines (CIWA-B). This dose was then slowly reduced over 12 days. Multidisciplinary input, especially psychological therapy tackling his underlying anxiety disorder during his admission, was thought to be particularly helpful. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Studies of the biotransformation and pharmacology of ketamine and its metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The first part of the research is concerned with the synthesis, resolution and metabolism of norketamine, the primary metabolite of ketamine. Incubations of racemic norketamine, individual enantiomers of norketamine and the pseudoracemates in rat liver microsomes revealed stereoselectivity and enantiomeric interactions during the metabolism of norketamine. The second part of the research describes the synthesis of 6-OH-norketamine, the major secondary metabolite of ketamine, and reports on its pharmacological activity and cerebral distribution in the rat. Primary deuterium isotope effects associated with the metabolism and pharmacological activity of ketamine-N-CD/sub 3/ were examined in the third part of this research. The lastmore » part of the research deals with the effect of diazepam on the metabolic transformation of ketamine to norketamine in the rat. The fractions of ketamine metabolized to norketamine were found not to be different in the presence or the absence of diazepam.« less

  19. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on (/sup 3/H)-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render itmore » unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.« less

  20. Removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in nitrifying-denitrifying plants.

    PubMed

    Suárez, S; Ramil, M; Omil, F; Lema, J M

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of nine pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) of different diagnostic groups is studied during a nitrifying-denitrifying process in an activated sludge system. The compounds selected cover a wide range of frequently used substances such as anti-epileptics (carbamazepine), tranquillisers (diazepam), anti-depressants (fluoxetine and citalopram), anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac) and estrogens (estradiol and ethinylestradiol). The main objective of this research is to investigate the effect of acclimation of biomass on the removal rates of these compounds, either by maintaining a high sludge retention time or at long-term operation. The removal rates achieved for nitrogen and carbon in the experimental unit exceed 90% and were not affected by the addition of PhACs. Carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac were only removed to a small extent. On the other hand, higher removal rates have been observed for naproxen and ibuprofen (68% and 82%), respectively.

  1. Repeated seizures induce long-term increase in hippocampal benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, J O; Peper, A M; Patrone, V

    1980-01-01

    Repeated seizures, whether induced by kindling or electroshock, caused a long-lasting (at least 24 hr) increase of [3H]diazepam binding in hippocampal membranes of Sprague-Dawley rats. Scatchard analyses demonstrated that increased numbers of binding sites accounted for the increase. Neither repeated hypoxia nor repeated administration of electrical current without inducing seizures caused an increase of [3H]diazepam binding. Regardless of the method used for seizure induction, the response was graded in that large numbers of seizures were required to induce significant increases, whereas fewer seizures induced only slight increases. We suggest that the receptor increases imply a heightened response to benzodiazepines and more powerful hippocampal recurrent inhibition. PMID:6930682

  2. Involvement of opioid and other systems in ethanol abstinence audiogenic seizures in the rat?

    PubMed

    Kotlińska, J; Langwiński, R

    1985-01-01

    The action of opiate receptor agonists: (D-Ala2)-methionine enkephalinamide (D-MEA), morphine, heroin, etorphine, and antagonists: naloxone and diprenorphine on audiogenic seizures was tested during ethanol abstinence. The action of diazepam and clonidine was also tested Morphine (5 and 20 mg/kg), but not heroin and etorphine, given intraperitoneally inhibited the seizures, similarly as intraventricularly administered D-MEA did. However, morphine given by this route was ineffective. Diazepam and clonidine inhibited audiogenic seizures: the action of clonidine was counteracted by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. The results may be considered as supporting the hypothesis on the participation of opioid system in ethanol abstinence. However, the participation of gabergic and noradrenergic systems cannot be ruled out: these systems may possibly interact with the opioid system in evoking the symptoms of ethanol abstinence.

  3. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulated benzodiazepine binding sites in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Lummis, S.C.R.; Johnston, G.A.R.; Nicoletti, G.

    1991-01-01

    Benzodiazepine binding sites, which were once considered to exist only in higher vertebrates, are here demonstrated in the bacteria E. coli. The bacterial ({sup 3}H)diazepam binding sites are modulated by GABA; the modulation is dose dependent and is reduced at high concentrations. The most potent competitors of E.Coli ({sup 3}H)diazepam binding are those that are active in displacing ({sup 3}H)benzodiazepines from vertebrate peripheral benzodiazepine binding sites. These vertebrate sites are not modulated by GABA, in contrast to vertebrate neuronal benzodiazepine binding sites. The E.coli benzodiazepine binding sites therefore differ from both classes of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites; however the ligandmore » spectrum and GABA-modulatory properties of the E.coli sites are similar to those found in insects. This intermediate type of receptor in lower species suggests a precursor for at least one class of vertebrate benzodiazepine binding sites may have existed.« less

  4. Downbeating nystagmus and muscle spasms in a patient with glutamic-acid decarboxylase antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ances, Beau M; Dalmau, Josep O; Tsai, Jean; Hasbani, M Josh; Galetta, Steven L

    2005-07-01

    To report the ophthalmic findings and response to treatment in a patient with glutamic-acid decarboxylase antibodies. Case report. A 55-year-old woman developed progressive, painful, low back muscle spasms, vertical diplopia, downbeating nystagmus, and asymmetric appendicular ataxia. Downbeating nystagmus was present in primary gaze with an alternating skew deviation in lateral gaze. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid GAD antibodies were detected. Treatment with diazepam led to resolution of spasticity, whereas repeated courses of intravenous immunoglobulin improved cerebellar function, including appendicular ataxia and downbeating nystagmus. Patients with GAD antibodies may have elements of both Stiff-person syndrome (muscle rigidity and spasms) and prominent cerebellar dysfunction. Treatment with diazepam rapidly improved Stiff-person symptoms, whereas IVIg was partially effective at the early stage of cerebellar dysfunction.

  5. Allosteric modulation by benzodiazepines of GABA-gated chloride channels of an identified insect motor neurone.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Steven D; Higashino, Yoshiaki; Sattelle, David B

    2009-11-01

    The actions of benzodiazepines were studied on the responses to GABA of the fast coxal depressor (D(f)) motor neurone of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Ro5-4864, diazepam and clonazepam were investigated. Responses to GABA receptors were enhanced by both Ro5-4864 and diazepam, whereas clonazepam, a potent-positive allosteric modulator of human GABA(A) receptors, was ineffective on the native insect GABA receptors of the D(f) motor neurone. Thus, clear pharmacological differences exist between insect and mammalian native GABA-gated chloride channels with respect to the actions of benzodiazepines. The results enhance our understanding of invertebrate GABA-gated chloride channels which have recently proved important in (a) comparative studies aimed at identifying human allosteric drug-binding sites and (b) understanding the actions of compounds used to control ectoparasites and insect crop pests.

  6. Fatal case of a 27-year-old male after taking iboga in withdrawal treatment: GC-MS/MS determination of ibogaine and ibogamine in iboga roots and postmortem biological material.

    PubMed

    Mazoyer, Cédric; Carlier, Jérémy; Boucher, Alexandra; Péoc'h, Michel; Lemeur, Catherine; Gaillard, Yvan

    2013-11-01

    We report the case of a man who died twelve hours after ingesting powdered iboga root, commonly taken for its stimulant and hallucinogenic properties. Ibogaine and ibogamine were quantified in the powder ingested and the victim's body fluids by GC-MS/MS after liquid-liquid extraction (Toxi-tubes A(®)). The concentrations of ibogaine measured in the blood samples taken at the scene and in the peripheral blood, urine, and gastric fluid samples taken during the autopsy were 0.65, 1.27, 1.7, and 53.5 μg/mL, while the iboga content in the powder was 7.2%. Moreover, systematic toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of diazepam and methadone in therapeutic concentrations. Death was attributed to the ingestion of a substantial quantity of iboga in the context of simultaneous methadone and diazepam consumption. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Chloral hydrate in intractable status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Lampl, Y; Eshel, Y; Gilad, R; Sarova-Pinchas, I

    1990-06-01

    Five adult patients were admitted to the neurological department in a state of status epilepticus. All were treated unsuccessfully with IV diazepam and diphenylhydantoin. Administration of sodium valporate or phenobarbital also was ineffective. However, after treatment with intrarectal chloral hydrate, all seizures ceased. The excellent effect of this drug was proved both clinically and electrodiagnostically. Discussed is the possibility of using chloral hydrate to treat patients with status epilepticus in whom conventional treatment has failed.

  8. Acute Toxicity and Efficacy of Current Medical Countermeasures against VM in Guinea Pigs: A Comparison to VX and VR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    and diazepam with and without pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide . The 24 hr median lethal dose (MLD) of VM was determined using a sequential... pyridostigmine bromide . The 24 hr median lethal dose (MLD) of VM was determined using a sequential stage approach. The efficacy of medical...with and without pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pretreatment against lethal intoxication with VM, VR or VX. Methods Animals: Adult male Hartley

  9. Triazolam: An Abstracted Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    A 420 AUTHORS: Gall, M., Kamdar, B., and Collins, R.J. TITLE: Pharmacology of Some Metabolites of Triazolam, Alprazolam , and Diazepam Prepared...Psychology - Human 4 1130 AUTHORS: Sethy, V.H. and Harris, D.W. TITLE: Determination of Biological Activity of Alprazolam , Triazolam and Their...Metabolites REFERENCE: Journal of Pharmaceutical Pharmacology, Vol. 34, pp. 115-116, DRUGS: Triazolam (TM) Alprazolam (AM) Flunitrazepam (FM) SUBJECTS: Rats

  10. Human iPSC-Derived GABA Ergic Precursor Cell Therapy for Chronic Epilepsy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    1) Induction of status epilepticus (SE) in young rats through kainic acid injections to generate rats exhibiting chronic TLE typified by SRS. (2...of status epilepticus (SE) via graded kainic acid injections, termination of acute seizures 2 hours after SE onset via diazepam injections and...injections to these rats to induce acute seizures or status epilepticus (SE) in 11 separate experimental sessions (n=8-12/session). These experiments

  11. Efficacy of the GluK1/AMPA Receptor Antagonist LY293558 Against Seizures and Neuropathology in a Soman-Exposure Model without Pretreatment and its Pharmacokinetics after Intramuscular Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Introduction: 519 Number of words in the Discussion: 1,175 Non-standard abbreviations: SE, status epilepticus ; BLA, basolateral amygdala; GluK1Rs...cardiorespiratory depression and intense seizure activity ( status epilepticus , SE), which are due to the elevated acetylcholine in the peripheral and central nervous...2010) Diazepam administration after prolonged status epilepticus reduces neurodegeneration in the amygdala but not in the hippocampus during

  12. After Action Report: Black Sea Initiative Table Top Exercise Albatross 2007 Batumi, Georgia, 12-15 February 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has a reference website which identifies and provides characteristics of many hazardous...dosages of atropine and pralidoxime chloride may be needed to protect victims. Additionally, diazepam is administered to stop or prevent seizures among ...Nuclear,andHighYieldExplosive CDC1 Center for Disease Control and Prevention (United States) CEP Civil Emergency Planning CEPD

  13. Targeted deletion of the GABRA2 gene encoding alpha2-subunits of GABA(A) receptors facilitates performance of a conditioned emotional response, and abolishes anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and barbiturates.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C I; Rosahl, T W; Stephens, D N

    2008-07-01

    Mice with point-mutated alpha2 GABA(A) receptor subunits (rendering them diazepam insensitive) are resistant to the anxiolytic-like effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) in the conditioned emotional response (CER) test, but show normal anxiolytic effects of a barbiturate. We investigated the consequence of deleting the alpha2-subunit on acquisition of the CER with increasing intensity of footshock, and on the anxiolytic efficacy of a benzodiazepine, diazepam, and a barbiturate, pentobarbital. alpha2 knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) mice were trained in a conditioned emotional response (CER) task, in which lever pressing for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule was suppressed during the presentation of a compound light/tone conditioned stimulus (CS+) that predicted footshock. The ability of diazepam and of pentobarbital to reduce suppression during the CS+ was interpreted as an anxiolytic response. There were no differences between the genotypes in shock sensitivity, as assessed by their flinch responses to increasing levels of shock. However, alpha2 KO mice showed a greater suppression of lever pressing than WT littermates in the presence of a compound cue signalling footshock. Diazepam (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) induced a dose-dependent anxiolytic-like effect in WT mice but no such effect was seen in KO mice. Similarly, although pentobarbital (20 mg/kg) reduced the ability of the CS+ to reduce lever pressing rates in WT mice, this effect was not seen in the KO. These findings suggest that alpha2-containing GABA(A) receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects of barbiturates, as well as benzodiazepines, and that they may be involved in neuronal circuits underlying conditioned anxiety.

  14. Pharmacological aspects of metaldehyde poisoning in mice.

    PubMed

    Homeida, A M; Cooke, R G

    1982-03-01

    Metaldehyde, when administered orally to mice at a dose of 1 g kg-1, produced convulsions and death within 2 h. Brain concentrations of noradrenaline (NA) 5-hydroxytryptamie (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were significantly reduced in these animals relative to controls. Treatment with either intraperitoneal clonidine or diazepam 20 min after administration of metaldehyde reduced the mortality rate and in mice surviving for 5 h, the decrease in brain NA and 5-HT concentrations were significantly reduced.

  15. Severe pruritus and myoclonus following intrathecal morphine administration in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Iff, Isabelle; Valeskini, Karin; Mosing, Martina

    2012-01-01

    During epidural needle placement in a 32-kg dog the subarachnoid space was punctured and half the intended dose of lidocaine, bupivacaine, and morphine was injected. After recovery from anesthesia the dog showed signs of severe pruritus of the tail base and limbs and myoclonus of the tail and hind limbs. Methadone, acepromazine, ketamine, buprenorphine, and butorphanol were administered to control myoclonus and pruritus, but were unsuccessful. Diazepam was used to control myoclonus until the effects of morphine abated. PMID:23450863

  16. The Efficacy of LY293558 in Blocking Seizures and Associated Morphological, and Behavioral Alterations Induced by Soman in Immature Male Rats and the Role of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor in Organophosphate Induced Seizures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-30

    Neurology 48:1363-7 140. Koliatsos VE, Martin LJ, Walker LC, Richardson RT, DeLong MR, Price DL. 1988. Topographic, non-collateralized basal...297-323 169. Martin LJ, Doebler JA, Shih TM, Anthony A. 1985. Protective effect of diazepam pretreatment on soman-induced brain lesion formation...G, Watson C. 2005. The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. Amsterdam ; Boston: Elsevier Academic Press 216. Petras JM. 1994. Neurology and

  17. Effects of single and combined gabapentin use in elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Fatma Sultan; Ismailoglu, Sule; Kaygisiz, Bilgin; Oner, Setenay

    2014-10-01

    Gabapentin, a third-generation antiepileptic drug, is a structural analogue of γ-aminobutyric acid, which is an important mediator of central nervous system. There is clinical data indicating its effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. We aimed to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects and mechanisms of gabapentin in rats. Female Spraque-Dawley rats weighing 250±20 g were used. A total of 13 groups were formed, each containing 8 rats: gabapentin (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg), ketamine (10 mg/kg), gabapentin 20 mg/kg was also combined with amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg). All the drugs were used intraperitoneally as single dose. Saline was administered to the control group. Elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests were used as experimental models of anxiety and depression, respectively. It was observed that gabapentin showed an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effect in all doses in rats. Its antidepressant effect was found to be the same as the antidepressant effects of amitriptyline and sertraline. There was no change in the antidepressant effect when gabapentin was combined with amitriptyline and ketamine, but there was an increase when combined with sertraline and diazepam. Gabapentin and amitriptyline showed similar anxiolytic effect, whereas ketamine and diazepam had more potent anxiolytic effect compared with them. These data suggest that gabapentin may possess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects.

  18. The Effects of CW (Chemical Warfare)-Related Chemicals on Social Behavior and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Tlerformance; Stress ; Diazepam; 0 I Pyridostigmine; Caffeine, . 󈧊 15 * 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number...from the animals for assay of plasma stress hormones; this was done both to provide training .-nd experience for the project personnel and to give a...restraining device used to hold the animals while blood is drawn for assay for stress hormones. This adaptation process was begun in mid-November, 1983

  19. GABAA Receptor Regulation of Voluntary Ethanol Drinking Requires PKCε

    PubMed Central

    Besheer, Joyce; Lepoutre, Veronique; Mole, Beth; Hodge, Clyde W.

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) regulates a variety of neural functions, including ion channel activity, neurotransmitter release, receptor desensitization and differentiation. We have shown previously that mice lacking the ε-isoform of PKC (PKCε) self-administer 75% less ethanol and exhibit supersensitivity to acute ethanol and allosteric positive modulators of GABAA receptors when compared with wild-type controls. The purpose of the present study was to examine involvement of PKCε in GABAA receptor regulation of voluntary ethanol drinking. To address this question, PKCε null-mutant and wild-type control mice were allowed to drink ethanol (10% v/v) vs. water on a two-bottle continuous access protocol. The effects of diazepam (nonselective GABAA BZ positive modulator), zolpidem (GABAA α1 agonist), L-655,708 (BZ-sensitive GABAA α5 inverse agonist), and flumazenil (BZ antagonist) were then tested on ethanol drinking. Ethanol intake (grams/kg/day) by wild-type mice decreased significantly after diazepam or zolpidem but increased after L-655,708 administration. Flumazenil antagonized diazepam-induced reductions in ethanol drinking in wild-type mice. However, ethanol intake by PKCε null mice was not altered by any of the GABAergic compounds even though effects were seen on water drinking in these mice. Increased acute sensitivity to ethanol and diazepam, which was previously reported, was confirmed in PKCε null mice. Thus, results of the present study show that PKCε null mice do not respond to doses of GABAA BZ receptor ligands that regulate ethanol drinking by wild-type control mice. This suggests that PKCε may be required for GABAA receptor regulation of chronic ethanol drinking. PMID:16881070

  20. Clinical Mimics: An Emergency Medicine Focused Review of Anxiety Mimics: Journal of Emergency Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-09

    acutely agitated or moderately anxious patient, therapies that possess quick onset of action are the most useful. Benzodiazepines are the recommended...lorazepam 0.50mg or diazepam and midazolam in 1-2 mg increments.7 These medications should be used for acute treatment in the ED, with few pills provided...http://www.epilepsy.com/ learn/types-epilepsy- syndromes /temporal-lobe-epilepsy 13. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Myasthenia Gravis. Available from: http

  1. Anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and discriminative effects of the AMPA antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX).

    PubMed

    Swedberg, M D; Jacobsen, P; Honoré, T

    1995-09-01

    The anticonvulsant effects of 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), phencyclidine (PCP) and diazepam against audiogenic seizures in DBA/2 mice and against seizures induced by methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) in NMRI mice were compared. Motor impairment was assessed in a rotarod apparatus in DBA/2 as well as NMRI mice. At 30 min after i.p. administration, NBQX was as effective as PCP and diazepam in protecting against audiogenic seizures and had a therapeutic ratio slightly higher than diazepam's and 7-fold higher than PCP's. Whereas diazepam was fully effective, NBQX and PCP were both ineffective against seizures induced by DMCM 30 min after i.p. administration. The anticonvulsant potential and motor-impairing effects of NBQX were evaluated further by the i.p. and the i.v. routes at different time points after administration. At all pretreatment intervals, NBQX protected against audiogenic seizures more potently than it produced motor impairment. NBQX administered i.p. protected against DMCM-induced seizures when given 15 min but not 5 min before testing, whereas after i.v. administration NBQX produced anticonvulsant and motor-impairing effects in the same dose range. NBQX only slightly and non-dose-dependently attenuated the discriminative effects of pentylenetetrazole in rats, showing a limited anxiolytic potential. NBQX produced no PCP-like or morphine-like discriminative effects in rats, suggesting lack of PCP or opiate-like subjective effects. These data demonstrate that NBQX has anticonvulsant effects, has limited anxiolytic effects, and does not produce subjective effects of PCP or opiate type.

  2. Tetrazepam: a benzodiazepine which dissociates sedation from other benzodiazepine activities. II. In vitro and in vivo interactions with benzodiazepine binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, P.E.; Bachy, A.; Morre, M.

    1988-05-01

    Tetrazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine (BZD) derivative which, in rodents, appears to have very little sedative and ataxic effects. In an attempt to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying this particular pharmacological profile we examined the interaction of tetrazepam with BZD binding sites. Tetrazepam interacted competitively with central and peripheral BZD binding sites and exhibited comparable affinities for both sites. Tetrazepam was approximately one-seventh as potent as diazepam at the central receptor and as potent as diazepam at the peripheral binding site. Tetrazepam did not distinguish type I from type II central BZD receptors, as evidenced by comparable affinities for the cerebellarmore » and hippocampal receptors. In vitro autoradiographic studies showed that tetrazepam displaced (3H)flunitrazepam from rat brain membranes without any clear regional specificity. Like all BZD receptor agonists, tetrazepam exhibited a gamma-aminobutyric acid shift, a photoaffinity shift and potentiated the binding of 35S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate to rat brain membranes. However, the latter effect was observed at relatively high concentrations of tetrazepam. In vivo, tetrazepam displaced specifically bound (3H)flunitrazepam from mouse brain (ID50, 37 mg/kg p.o. vs 3.5 mg/kg p.o. for diazepam) and from mouse kidney (ID50, 38 mg/kg p.o. vs. 21 mg/kg p.o. for diazepam). It is concluded that tetrazepam is a BZD receptor agonist; the molecular mechanisms which underly the low sedative potential of the drug cannot at present be explained by a particular interaction with either central or peripheral BZD binding sites, but may be related to the drug's relatively weak effect on 35S-t-butyl-bicyclophosphorothionate binding.« less

  3. Stress and suicide in the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Feskanich, D; Hastrup, J L; Marshall, J R; Colditz, G A; Stampfer, M J; Willett, W C; Kawachi, I

    2002-02-01

    Although stress is thought to be a risk factor for suicide, most research has been retrospective or has focused on attempted suicides or suicide ideation. This study examined prospectively the associations between self perceived stress, diazepam use, and death from suicide among adult women. A cohort study was conducted with 14 years of follow up. Stress at home and at work were assessed by questionnaire and scored on a four point scale: minimal, light, moderate, or severe. Eleven states within the United States. Female nurses (n=94 110) who were 36 to 61 years of age when they answered questions on stress and diazepam use in 1982. During 1 272 000 person years of observation 73 suicides were identified. After adjustment for age, smoking, coffee consumption, alcohol intake, and marital status, the relation between self reported stress and suicide remained U shaped. Compared with the light home and work stress categories, which had the lowest incidences of suicide, risks were increased among women reporting either severe (relative risk (RR) = 3.7, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.7 to 8.3) or minimal (RR=2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.5) home stress and either severe (RR=1.9, 95% CI 0.8 to 4.7) or minimal (RR=2.4, 95% CI 0.9 to 6.1) work stress. When responses to home and work stress were combined, there was an almost fivefold increase in risk of suicide among women in the high stress category. Risk of suicide was over eightfold among women reporting high stress or diazepam use compared with those reporting low stress and no diazepam use. The relation between self reported stress and suicide seems to be U shaped among adult women. The excess risk for those reporting minimal stress may reflect denial or undiagnosed depression or an association with some other unmeasured risk factor for suicide.

  4. Occurrence and fate of psychiatric pharmaceuticals in the urban water system of Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghong; Xiang, Jiajia; Que, Chenjing; Chen, Fenfen; Xu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric pharmaceuticals are the most prescribed active substances throughout the world and their presence in the environment raised concerns. The occurrence and fate of 15 selected psychiatric pharmaceuticals, including eight benzodiazepines, four antidepressants, one antiepileptic and two metabolites of benzodiazepines were investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents, surface water, and final drinking water in Shanghai. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals were in WWTPs influents ranging from low ng L(-1) to 68.2 ng L(-1), dominated by carbamazepine, doxepin, diazepam and lorazepam. Target analytes were still detected in effluents from low ng L(-1) range to 47.3 ng L(-1), with carbamazepine, diazepam, and oxazepam as most prevalent. WWTPs were low effective (<50%) in removing most of them, excluding amitriptyline (mean 60%), doxepin (mean 70%), temazepam (mean 78%) and lorazepam (mean 93%). In addition, carbamazepine, diazepam, oxazepam and lorazepam were detected in low ng L(-1) to 75.5 ng L(-1) in the surface water of Huang Pu Rive. The pattern of contaminants in surface water is similar to the effluent wastewater, which suggested the main source of organic trace pollutants might be WWTPs. Furthermore, carbamazepine (0.8-2.5 ng L(-1)), diazepam (0.5-3.2 ng L(-1)) and alprazolam (2.3 ng L(-1)) were also detected in drinking water and the concentrations were below the health based precautionary value. The investigation was within the range of those results reported in other countries. Our results indicate ubiquity of the investigated compounds in the aquatic system. These pollutants may potentially reach drinking water via WWTP effluents and/or surface waters and require constant attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a high-fat meal on absorption and disposition of lipophilic compounds: the importance of degree of association with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gershkovich, Pavel; Hoffman, Amnon

    2007-09-01

    Following a high-fat meal, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) are assembled in the gut and absorbed via the lymph into the blood circulation, producing a temporal hyperlipidemia. The purpose of this study is to verify the hypothesis that this transient acute postprandial hyperlipidemia affects the pharmacokinetics of lipophilic drugs on both absorption and disposition levels by the same underlying mechanism, namely the association of active lipophilic compounds with TRL in the plasma (disposition) or within the enterocyte (lymphatic transport). This concept was assessed in rats using two model compounds, DDT with high affinity to chylomicrons and diazepam which does not bind to chylomicrons. Oral administration of peanut oil significantly increased the AUC of plasma DDT concentrations following its IV bolus administration in comparison to a water treated group. On the other hand, the AUC of diazepam following IV bolus administration was the same in oil and water treated rats. While DDT is known to have significant lymphatic bioavailability, diazepam has negligible intestinal lymphatic transport (0.014+/-0.004% of a given dose). In conclusion, lipophilic molecules that bind extensively to TRL will be prone to both intestinal lymphatic transport and to post-absorptive changes in disposition (decrease in clearance and volume of distribution) following a high-fat meal.

  6. Motivational drive and alprazolam misuse: A recipe for aggression?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Bonnie; Staiger, Petra K; Hall, Kate; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Best, David

    2016-06-30

    Benzodiazepine-related aggression has received insufficient research attention, in particular little is known about the motivational factors which may contribute to the development of this paradoxical response. The revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides a theoretical framework from which to understand the relevant underlying motivational processes. The current study aimed to identify the role of approach and avoidance motivational tendencies in the occurrence of benzodiazepine-related aggression. Data regarding benzodiazepine and other substance use, approach and avoidance motivation, and general and physical aggressive behaviour were collected via self-report questionnaires. Participants were a convenience sample (n=204) who reported using benzodiazepines in the previous year. Participants were primarily male (62.7%), aged 18-51 years old. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that general and physical aggression were predicted by alprazolam use and Drive, a facet of approach motivation. Overall, lower diazepam use significantly predicted higher levels of general aggression. However, when diazepam-preferring participants were examined in isolation of the larger sample (23.5% of sample), problematic (dependent) diazepam use was associated with greater aggression scores, as was dependence risk for alprazolam-preferring participants (39.7% of sample). The findings highlight the importance of motivational factors and benzodiazepine use patterns in understanding benzodiazepine-related aggression, with implications for violent offender rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Uptake, biotransformation and elimination of selected pharmaceuticals in a freshwater invertebrate measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H; Bury, Nicolas R; Owen, Stewart F; Barron, Leon P

    2017-09-01

    Methods were developed to assess uptake and elimination kinetics in Gammarus pulex of nine pharmaceuticals (sulfamethazine, carbamazepine, diazepam, temazepam, trimethoprim, warfarin, metoprolol, nifedipine and propranolol) using targeted LC-MS/MS to determine bioconcentration factors (BCFs) using a 96 h toxicokinetic exposure and depuration period. The derived BCFs for these pharmaceuticals did not trigger any regulatory thresholds and ranged from 0 to 73 L kg -1 (sulfamethazine showed no bioconcentration). Metabolism of chemicals can affect accurate BCF determination through parameterisation of the kinetic models. The added selectivity of LC-MS/MS allowed us to develop confirmatory methods to monitor the biotransformation of propranolol, carbamazepine and diazepam in G. pulex. Varying concentrations of the biotransformed products; 4-hydroxypropranolol sulphate, carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide, nordiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam were measured following exposure of the precursor compounds. For diazepam, the biotransformation product nordiazepam was present at higher concentrations than the parent compound at 94 ng g -1 dw. Overall, the results indicate that pharmaceutical accumulation is low in these freshwater amphipods, which can potentially be explained by the rapid biotransformation and excretion. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Inflammatory Tooth Pain on Anxiety in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Ebrahimnejad, Hamed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Amirkhosravi, Ladan; Raoof, Ramin; Esmaeili Mahani, Saeed; Ramazani, Mohsen; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to examine the effects of induced inflammatory tooth pain on anxiety level in adult male rats. Methods: The mandibular incisors of 56 adult male rats were cut off and prefabricated crowns were fixed on the teeth. Formalin and capsaicin were injected intradentally to induce inflammatory tooth pain. Diazepam treated group received diazepam 30 minutes before intradental injection. The anxiety-related behavior was evaluated with elevated plus maze test. Results: Intradental application of chemical noxious stimuli, capsaicin and formalin, significantly affected nociceptive behaviors (P<0.001). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) significantly increased the anxiety levels in rats by decrease in the duration of time spent in open arm and increase in the duration of time spent in closed arm. Rats that received capsaicin made fewer open arm entries compared to the control animals (P<0.05). Capsaicin (P<0.001) and formalin (P<0.01) treated rats showed more stretch attend postures compared to the control and sham operated animals. In diazepampretreated rats, capsaicin induced algesic effect was prevented (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inflammatory pulpal pain has anxiogenic effect on rats, whereas diazepam premedication showed both anxiolytic and pain reducing effects. PMID:27563419

  9. Comparison of the efficacy of HI6 and 2-PAM against soman, tabun, sarin, and VX in the rabbit

    SciTech Connect

    Koplovitz, I.; Stewart, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    This study compared the efficacy of H16 and 2-PAM against nerve agent (soman tabun sarin and VX) -induced lethality in the atropinesterase-free rabbits pretreated with vehicle (controls) or pyridostigmine. Treatment was administered at signs or 2 min after agent challenge and consisted ofoxime (l00umol/lkg) + atropine 13 mg(kg) (alone or together with diazepam). Twenty-four-h LD50 values were calculated for soman- and tabun-intoxicated animals, whereas 24-h survival was noted in animals given 10 LD50s of sarin or VX. In pyridostigmine and control rabbits intoxicated with soman and treated with oxime + atropine (alone or together with diazepam), HI6 was 35 timesmore » more effective than 2-PAM. In contrast 1116 was less effective than 2-PAM against tabun poisoning. In pyridostigmine-pretreated animals exposed to tabun, efficacy was increased more than 3-fold when compare to tabun-challenged animals treated with atropine + H16 alone. Both oximes were highly effective against satin and VX. These findings suggest that Hifi could replace 2-PAM as therapy for nerve agent poisoning because it is superior to 2-PAM against soman, and when used in pyridostigmine-pretreated animals it affords excellent protection against all four nerve agents when used in combination with atropine (alone or together with diazepam) therapy.« less

  10. GABA homeostasis contributes to the developmental programming of anxiety-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Depino, Amaicha Mara; Tsetsenis, Theodoros; Gross, Cornelius

    2008-05-19

    During development, when inhibitory and excitatory synapses are formed and refined, homeostatic mechanisms act to adjust inhibitory input in order to maintain neural activity within a normal range. As the brain matures, synaptogenesis slows and a relatively stable level of inhibition is achieved. Deficits in inhibitory neurotransmission are associated with increased anxiety-related behavior and drugs that potentiate GABA function, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, are effective anxiolytics. These observations raise the possibility that transient perturbations in the activity of neural circuits during development might induce compensatory changes in inhibition that could persist into adulthood and contribute to changes in anxiety-related behavior. To test this hypothesis, we treated mice continuously during the major period of forebrain synaptogenesis (P14-28) with the GABA-A receptor positive modulator diazepam and assessed anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. Control experiments confirmed anxiolytic effects of the drug following one day of treatment and the development of tolerance following two weeks of treatment. When tested in adulthood, one month after the end of treatment, diazepam-treated mice exhibited significantly increased behavioral inhibition in the open-field, elevated-plus maze, and novel object behavioral paradigms. Levels of benzodiazepine binding sites in amygdala and frontal cortex were specifically decreased in diazepam-treated mice demonstrating that homeostatic adjustments in GABA function persist into adulthood. Our results show that increased GABAergic activity can affect the developmental programming of anxiety-related behavior.

  11. Antioxidant effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus after open field test.

    PubMed

    Nogueira Neto, José Damasceno; de Almeida, Antonia Amanda Cardoso; da Silva Oliveira, Johanssy; Dos Santos, Pauline Sousa; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Freitas, Rivelilson Mendes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of nerolidol in mice hippocampus against oxidative stress in neuronal cells compared to ascorbic acid (positive control) as well as evaluated the nerolidol sedative effects by open field test compared to diazepam (positive control). Thirty minutes prior to behavioral observation on open field test, mice were intraperitoneally treated with vehicle, nerolidol (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (250 mg/kg). To clarify the action mechanism of of nerolidol on oxidative stress in animals subjected to the open field test, Western blot analysis of Mn-superoxide dismutase and catalase in mice hippocampus were performed. In nerolidol group, there was a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels when compared to negative control (vehicle). However, a significant increase was observed in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in this group when compared to the other groups. Vehicle, diazepam, ascorbic acid and nerolidol groups did not affected Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase mRNA or protein levels. Our findings strongly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress occurs in hippocampus. Nerolidol showed sedative effects in animals subjected to the open field test. Oxidative process plays a crucial role on neuronal pathological consequence, and implies that antioxidant effects could be achieved using this sesquiterpene.

  12. Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora extracts reduce anxiety-like behavior during the metestrus-diestrus phase of the ovarian cycle in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Vicente-Serna, Julio; Rodríguez-Blanco, Luis Alfredo; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, the anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa tomentosa and Montanoa frutescens were reported in male rats, but the potential anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa plants during the different phases of the ovarian cycle in rats remain to be explored. The anxiolytic-like effects of the aqueous crude extracts of M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg) and M. grandiflora (25 and 50 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze were investigated in Wistar rats during the estrous cycle and compared with 2 mg/kg diazepam as a reference anxiolytic drug. To investigate any motor effect (i.e., hyperactivity, no changes, or hypoactivity) associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated in the open field test. The M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg) and M. grandiflora (50 mg/kg) extracts exerted anxiolytic-like effects during the metestrus-diestrus phase, similar to diazepam, without disrupting spontaneous motor activity. No significant effects of the extracts were detected in either behavioral test during the proestrus-estrus phase, whereas diazepam produced motor hypoactivity in the open field test. These results indicate that the M. frutescens and M. grandiflora extracts possess anxiolytic-like effects that depend on the ovarian cycle phase, supporting the Mexican ancient medicinal use of these plants to ameliorate anxiety disorders.

  13. Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora Extracts Reduce Anxiety-Like Behavior during the Metestrus-Diestrus Phase of the Ovarian Cycle in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Landa, Juan Francisco; Vicente-Serna, Julio; Rodríguez-Blanco, Luis Alfredo; Rovirosa-Hernández, María de Jesús; García-Orduña, Francisco; Carro-Juárez, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, the anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa tomentosa and Montanoa frutescens were reported in male rats, but the potential anxiolytic-like effects of Montanoa plants during the different phases of the ovarian cycle in rats remain to be explored. The anxiolytic-like effects of the aqueous crude extracts of M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg) and M. grandiflora (25 and 50 mg/kg) in the elevated plus maze were investigated in Wistar rats during the estrous cycle and compared with 2 mg/kg diazepam as a reference anxiolytic drug. To investigate any motor effect (i.e., hyperactivity, no changes, or hypoactivity) associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated in the open field test. The M. frutescens (25 and 50 mg/kg) and M. grandiflora (50 mg/kg) extracts exerted anxiolytic-like effects during the metestrus-diestrus phase, similar to diazepam, without disrupting spontaneous motor activity. No significant effects of the extracts were detected in either behavioral test during the proestrus-estrus phase, whereas diazepam produced motor hypoactivity in the open field test. These results indicate that the M. frutescens and M. grandiflora extracts possess anxiolytic-like effects that depend on the ovarian cycle phase, supporting the Mexican ancient medicinal use of these plants to ameliorate anxiety disorders. PMID:24800255

  14. Parent and Metabolite Opioid Drug Concentrations in Unintentional Deaths Involving Opioid and Benzodiazepine Combinations*†‡

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Marcia D.; Abate, Marie A.; Hu, Lan; Long, D. Leann; Blommel, Matthew L.; Haikal, Nabila A.; Kraner, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of benzodiazepines on postmortem opioid parent and parent/metabolite blood concentration ratios were determined for fentanyl-, hydrocodone-, methadone-, or oxycodone-related accidental deaths. These opioids are partially metabolized by the CYP3A4 enzyme system, which is also affected by diazepam and alprazolam. Opioid/metabolite combinations examined were as follows: fentanyl/norfentanyl, hydrocodone/dihydrocodeine, methadone/EDDP, and oxycodone/oxymorphone. Parent opioid concentrations were analyzed for 877 deaths. Parent/metabolite concentration ratios were analyzed for 349 deaths, excluding cases with co-intoxicants present known to interfere with opioid elimination. Alprazolam in combination with diazepam significantly decreased median hydrocodone concentrations by 48% (p = 0.01) compared to hydrocodone alone. The methadone parent/metabolite concentration ratio was reduced by 35% in the presence of diazepam compared to methadone alone (p = 0.03). Benzodiazepines did not statistically significantly affect fentanyl or oxycodone concentrations. Possible factors affecting opioid concentrations and possible toxicity development, including any differential effects on specific opioids, should continue to be explored. PMID:26223761

  15. Anti-Alzheimer activity of isolated karanjin from Pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre and embelin from Embelia ribes Burm.f.

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Prachi; Lakshmayya, L.; Bisht, Vinod Singh

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to find out the anti-Alzheimer’s activity of isolated karanjin and embelin. Materials and Methods: Karanjin isolated from Pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre and embelin from Embelia ribes Burm.f. and their purity was confirmed by ultraviolet spectrophotometric and Thin layer chromatography based study. Anti-Alzheimer’s activity of isolated compounds were evaluated through elevated plus maze and Morris water maze model on Swiss albino mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was used for the induction of Alzheimer’s like effects (amnesia) on Swiss albino mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg body weight, oral) used as a standard treatment. Results: In EPM, embelin and karanjin decrease the transfer latency time in dose dependent manner and escape latency time in MWM method. A significant (P < 0.01) reduction in amnesia with an anti-Alzheimer’s effect found when results of isolated compounds were compared with standard and vehicle control. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) treated group showed significant increase in escape latency and transfer latency when compared with vehicle control; which indicates impairment in learning and memory. Conclusion: Both isolated compounds and standard significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam and improved learning and memory of mice in dose and time dependent manner. This study supports the ethnobotanical use of these two plants in India for the management of nerve or brain related problems. PMID:29861598

  16. Anti-Alzheimer activity of isolated karanjin from Pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre and embelin from Embelia ribes Burm.f.

    PubMed

    Saini, Prachi; Lakshmayya, L; Bisht, Vinod Singh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out the anti-Alzheimer's activity of isolated karanjin and embelin. Karanjin isolated from Pongamia pinnata (L.) pierre and embelin from Embelia ribes Burm.f. and their purity was confirmed by ultraviolet spectrophotometric and Thin layer chromatography based study. Anti-Alzheimer's activity of isolated compounds were evaluated through elevated plus maze and Morris water maze model on Swiss albino mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) was used for the induction of Alzheimer's like effects (amnesia) on Swiss albino mice and piracetam (200 mg/kg body weight, oral) used as a standard treatment. In EPM, embelin and karanjin decrease the transfer latency time in dose dependent manner and escape latency time in MWM method. A significant ( P < 0.01) reduction in amnesia with an anti-Alzheimer's effect found when results of isolated compounds were compared with standard and vehicle control. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) treated group showed significant increase in escape latency and transfer latency when compared with vehicle control; which indicates impairment in learning and memory. Both isolated compounds and standard significantly reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam and improved learning and memory of mice in dose and time dependent manner. This study supports the ethnobotanical use of these two plants in India for the management of nerve or brain related problems.

  17. Do not overlook acute isoniazid poisoning in children with status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Caksen, Hüseyin; Odabas, Dursun; Erol, Mehmet; Anlar, Omer; Tuncer, Oguz; Atas, Bülent

    2003-02-01

    A previously healthy 2-year-old girl was admitted with generalized convulsive status epilepticus. She was in a stupor and could respond only to painful stimuli. She also had severe metabolic acidosis. Although initial liver function tests were normal, they were found to be moderately high on the fifth day of admission; however, they dropped to their normal ranges on the twelfth day of admission. Initially, the patient was diagnosed as having idiopathic status epilepticus, and classic anticonvulsant agents, including diazepam, phenytoin, and then phenobarbital, were given. However, her seizures did not subside, and diazepam infusion was initiated. After initiation of diazepam infusion, the seizures were completely controlled. On the fourth day of admission, her parents said that she had accidentally received 20 tablets (a total dose of 2000 mg) of isoniazid just before admission to our hospital. Later, we injected 200 mg of pyridoxine intravenously. During follow-up, her general condition improved, and anticonvulsant agents were discontinued because an electroencephalogram was found to be norma. She was discharged from the hospital on the twelfth day of admission. At the fourth month of follow-up, she was seizure free. Because of this case, we would like to re-emphasize that acute isoniazid poisoning should also be considered in a child with unexplained status epilepticus.

  18. Evaluation of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails and their stability after prolonged exposure to chlorinated water.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Matteo; Andrello, Luisa; Visonà, Silvia; Vignali, Claudia; Groppi, Angelo; Freni, Francesca; Osculati, Antonio; Tajana, Luca; Morini, Luca

    2018-04-15

    The study aims the development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of benzodiazepines and zolpidem in nails as alternative keratinized matrix to hair in long-term monitoring of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs. Both fingernail and toenail samples (1-2 mm) were collected by clipping the excess overhang of the nail from volunteers and from postmortem cases. They were washed twice with organic solvents, dried under nitrogen stream, pulverized, immersed in a methanol solution (internal standard: diazepam-D5) and sonicated up to two hours. The solution was then direct injected in the LC-MS/MS system. Mass spectrometry was set in MRM mode, selecting two transitions for each substance. 32 analytes among benzodiazepines, metabolites and hypnotics were included in the list. The method fulfilled the internationally required criteria for validation. Limits of detection ranged from 0.03 pg/mg (zolpidem) to 13.1 pg/mg (bromazepam). 9 subjects under therapy were positive at 7 different benzodiazepines and/or metabolites (lorazepam, desalkylflurazepam, bromazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, lormetazepam and prazepam), while 5 molecules were measured in 4 postmortem cases (diazepam, desmethyldiazepam, delorazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam and zolpidem). In vitro experiments on eight authentic samples suggested that benzodiazepines in nails are influenced by the prolonged exposure to chlorinated water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Benzodiazepines modulate the A2 adenosine binding sites on 108CC15 neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, C. R.; Snell, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    We have demonstrated high affinity diazepam binding sites of the Ro5-4864 benzodiazepine receptor subtype on 108CC15 neuroblastoma X glioma hybrid cells. These cells were previously shown to have purinoceptors of the A2 adenosine subtype and we have now found that [3H]-adenosine can be displaced from this binding site by the benzodiazepines and related compounds that can also bind to the Ro5-4864 site. Diazepam was found to have no intrinsic activity at the A2-receptor as measured by the stimulation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) production in this cell line. At concentrations sufficient to compete for the A2-receptor, diazepam was shown to facilitate, by approximately 2 fold, the stimulation of cyclic AMP by adenosine. These effects are not due to inhibition of adenosine uptake or phosphodiesterase activity, but are probably a consequence of modulation of the coupling of the A2-receptor to cyclic AMP production in this hybrid cell line. PMID:6150742

  20. Attention bias to threat indicates anxiety differences in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Caroline; Verbeek, Else; Doyle, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals show increased attention towards threatening stimuli when they are in increased states of anxiety. The few animal studies that have examined this phenomenon, known as attention bias, have applied environmental manipulations to induce anxiety but the effects of drug-induced anxiety levels on attention bias have not been demonstrated. Here, we present an attention bias test to identify high and low anxiety states in sheep using pharmacological manipulation. Increased anxiety was induced using 1-methyl-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) and decreased anxiety with diazepam, and then we examined the behaviour of sheep in response to the presence of a dog as a threat. Increased attention towards the threat and increased vigilance were shown in sheep that received the m-CPP and reduced in sheep receiving the diazepam. The modulated attention towards a threat displayed by the m-CPP and diazepam animals suggests that attention bias can assess different levels of anxiety in sheep. Measuring attention bias has the potential to improve animal welfare assessment protocols. PMID:27277950

  1. Anesthesia and anesthetic action mechanism of essential oils of Aloysia triphylla and Cymbopogon flexuosus in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alessandro C; Junior, Guerino B; Zago, Daniane C; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; da Silva, Daniela T; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; da Cunha, Mauro A

    2017-01-01

    To document the time for anesthesia induction and recovery using different concentrations of essential oils (EOs) of Cymbopogon flexuosus and Aloysia triphylla in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen), and to determine whether the mechanism of action of either EO involves the benzodiazepine (BDZ) site of the GABA A receptor. Experimental study. A total of 144 silver catfish, length 7.5 ± 1.1 cm, weighing 3.95 ± 0.85 g. Essential oils were evaluated at concentrations of 25, 150 and 300 μL L -1 , and also ethanol alone (seven groups, n = 6 per group). Induction of sedation or anesthesia and recovery were assessed. In a further six groups (n = 6 per group), fish were exposed to both EOs (25, 150 or 300 μL L -1 ) with diazepam 150 μm, and also diazepam (10 μm) alone. Flumazenil (5 or 10 μm) was added to the recovery water of fish exposed to diazepam (150 μm) or both EOs (150 and 300 μL L -1 ) (total of 10 groups = 60 fish). Both EOs induced anesthesia at concentrations of 150 and 300 μL L -1 , and sedation at 25 μL L -1 . There was no significant difference between EOs for reaching deep anesthesia; there was a significantly longer recovery time for the EO of C. flexuosus. The addition of diazepam (150 μm) resulted in faster induction of anesthesia with both EOs, with no significant change in recovery times. Flumazenil (10 μm) reversed the diazepam-induced anesthesia, but not the anesthesia induced by EOs. The EO of C. flexuosus induced effective sedation (25 μL L -1 ) and anesthesia (150 and 300 μL L -1 ) without short-term mortality. The modulation of the BDZ site of the GABA A receptor in the anesthetic action mechanism of both EOs was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze.

    PubMed

    Hatano, V Y; Torricelli, A S; Giassi, A C C; Coslope, L A; Viana, M B

    2012-03-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer.

  3. Anxiolytic effects of repeated treatment with an essential oil from Lippia alba and (R)-(-)-carvone in the elevated T-maze

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, V.Y.; Torricelli, A.S.; Giassi, A.C.C.; Coslope, L.A.; Viana, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) is widely used in different regions of Central and South America as a tranquilizer. The plant's anxiolytic properties, however, merit investigation. The present study evaluated the effects of repeated daily (14 days) intraperitoneal (ip) treatment with an essential oil (EO) from a chemotype of L. alba (LA, chemotype II, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg; N = 6-8) and (R)-(-)-carvone (25 mg/kg; N = 8-12), the main constituent of this chemotype, on male Wistar rats (weighing 250 g at the beginning of the experiments) submitted to the elevated T-maze (ETM). The ETM allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape. In terms of psychopathology, these responses have been related to generalized anxiety and panic disorder, respectively. Treatment with the EO impaired ETM avoidance latencies, without altering escape, in a way similar to the reference drug diazepam (P < 0.05) (avoidance 2: control = 84.6 ± 35.2; EO 12.5 mg/kg = 11.8 ± 3.8; EO 25 mg/kg = 14.6 ± 2.7; diazepam = 7 ± 2.1). (R)-(-)-carvone also significantly altered this same response (P < 0.05; avoidance 1: control = 91.9 ± 31.5; carvone = 11.6 ± 1.8; diazepam = 8.1 ± 3.3). These results were not due to motor changes since no significant effects were detected in an open field. These observations suggest that LA exerts anxiolytic-like effects on a specific subset of defensive behaviors that have been implicated in generalized anxiety disorder, and suggest that carvone is one of the constituents of LA responsible for its action as a tranquilizer. PMID:22358424

  4. Participation of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Heldwein, C.G.; Silva, L.L.; Reckziegel, P.; Barros, F.M.C.; Bürger, M.E.; Baldisserotto, B.; Mallmann, C.A.; Schmidt, D.; Caron, B.O.; Heinzmann, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the possible involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of Lippia alba essential oil (EO). We propose a new animal model using silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to an anesthetic bath to study the mechanism of action of EO. To observe the induction and potentiation of the anesthetic effect of EO, juvenile silver catfish (9.30 ± 1.85 g; 10.15 ± 0.95 cm; N = 6) were exposed to various concentrations of L. alba EO in the presence or absence of diazepam [an agonist of high-affinity binding sites for benzodiazepinic (BDZ) sites coupled to the GABAA receptor complex]. In another experiment, fish (N = 6) were initially anesthetized with the EO and then transferred to an anesthetic-free aquarium containing flumazenil (a selective antagonist of binding sites for BDZ coupled to the GABAA receptor complex) or water to assess recovery time from the anesthesia. In this case, flumazenil was used to observe the involvement of the GABA-BDZ receptor in the EO mechanism of action. The results showed that diazepam potentiates the anesthetic effect of EO at all concentrations tested. Fish exposed to diazepam and EO showed faster recovery from anesthesia when flumazenil was added to the recovery bath (12.0 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.7, respectively) than those exposed to water (9.2 ± 0.2 and 3.5 ± 0.3, respectively). In conclusion, the results demonstrated the involvement of the GABAergic system in the anesthetic effect of L. alba EO on silver catfish. PMID:22473320

  5. Beneficial effects of fluoxetine, reboxetine, venlafaxine, and voluntary running exercise in stressed male rats with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-08-01

    Rodents exposed to mild but repetitive stress may develop anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Whether this stress response could be alleviated by pharmacological treatments or exercise interventions, such as wheel running, was unknown. Herein, we determined anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in restraint stressed rats (2h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) subjected to acute diazepam treatment (30min prior to behavioral test), chronic treatment with fluoxetine, reboxetine or venlafaxine (10mg/kg/day for 4 weeks), and/or 4-week voluntary wheel running. In elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced swimming tests (FST), stressed rats spent less time in the open arms and had less swimming duration than the control rats, respectively, indicating the presence of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. Stressed rats also developed learned fear as evaluated by elevated T-maze test (ETM). Although wheel running could reduce anxiety-like behaviors in both EPM and ETM, only diazepam was effective in the EPM, while fluoxetine, reboxetine, and venlafaxine were effective in the ETM. Fluoxetine, reboxetine, and wheel running, but not diazepam and venlafaxine, also reduced depression-like behavior in FST. Combined pharmacological treatment and exercise did not further reduce anxiety-like behavior in stressed rats. However, stressed rats treated with wheel running plus reboxetine or venlafaxine showed an increase in climbing duration in FST. In conclusion, regular exercise (voluntary wheel running) and pharmacological treatments, especially fluoxetine and reboxetine, could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed male rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of reference analgesics and psychoactive drugs on the noxious heat threshold of mice measured by an increasing-temperature water bath.

    PubMed

    Boros, Melinda; Benkó, Rita; Bölcskei, Kata; Szolcsányi, János; Barthó, Loránd; Pethő, Gábor

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed at validating an increasing-temperature water bath suitable for determining the noxious heat threshold for use in mice. The noxious heat threshold was determined by immersing the tail of the gently held awake mouse into a water container whose temperature was near-linearly increased at a rate of 24°C/min. until the animal withdrew its tail, that is, heating attained the noxious threshold. The effects of standard analgesic, neuroleptic and anxiolytic drugs were investigated in a parallel way on both the noxious heat threshold and the psychomotor activity assessed by the open field test. Morphine, diclofenac and metamizol (dipyrone) elevated the heat threshold of mice with minimum effective doses of 6, 30 and 1000 mg/kg i.p., respectively. These doses of morphine and diclofenac failed to induce any remarkable effect on psychomotor activity in the open field test while that of metamizol exerted a profound inhibition. The anxiolytic diazepam and the neuroleptic droperidol at doses evoking a mild and moderate, respectively, psychomotor inhibition failed to alter the heat threshold. Combination of a subliminal dose of morphine (regarding both antinociceptive and psychomotor inhibitory action) with diclofenac, metamizol, diazepam or droperidol at doses also subliminal regarding the thermal antinociceptive effect elevated the noxious heat threshold without major additional effects in the open field test. It is concluded that the increasing-temperature water bath is suitable for studying the thermal antinociceptive effects of morphine and diclofenac as well as the morphine-sparing action of diclofenac, metamizol, droperidol and diazepam. Behavioural testing is recommended when testing analgesics. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The flavone hispidulin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand with positive allosteric properties, traverses the blood–brain barrier and exhibits anticonvulsive effects

    PubMed Central

    Kavvadias, Dominique; Sand, Philipp; Youdim, Kuresh A; Qaiser, M Zeeshan; Rice-Evans, Catherine; Baur, Roland; Sigel, Erwin; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The functional characterization of hispidulin (4′,5,7-trihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone), a potent benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligand, was initiated to determine its potential as a modulator of central nervous system activity. After chemical synthesis, hispidulin was investigated at recombinant GABAA/BZD receptors expressed by Xenopus laevis oocytes. Concentrations of 50 nM and higher stimulated the GABA-induced chloride currents at tested receptor subtypes (α1−3,5,6β2γ2S) indicating positive allosteric properties. Maximal stimulation at α1β2γ2S was observed with 10 μM hispidulin. In contrast to diazepam, hispidulin modulated the α6β2γ2S-GABAA receptor subtype. When fed to seizure-prone Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) in a model of epilepsy, hispidulin (10 mg kg−1 body weight (BW) per day) and diazepam (2 mg kg−1 BW per day) markedly reduced the number of animals suffering from seizures after 7 days of treatment (30 and 25% of animals in the respective treatment groups, vs 80% in the vehicle group). Permeability across the blood–brain barrier for the chemically synthesized, 14C-labelled hispidulin was confirmed by a rat in situ perfusion model. With an uptake rate (Kin) of 1.14 ml min−1 g−1, measurements approached the values obtained with highly penetrating compounds such as diazepam. Experiments with Caco-2 cells predict that orally administered hispidulin enters circulation in its intact form. At a concentration of 30 μM, the flavone crossed the monolayer without degradation as verified by the absence of glucuronidated metabolites. PMID:15231642

  8. Intra-hippocampal microinjection of oxytocin produced antiepileptic effect on the pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepsy in rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanparast, Amir; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Henareh-Chareh, Farzin

    2017-08-01

    In addition to its role as a circulating hormone, oxytocin can also act as a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator within the brain. In this study, we investigated the intra-hippocampal effect of oxytocin on an experimental seizure model induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in rats. We also used atosiban (oxytocin antagonist), diazepam and flumazenil (gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA-benzodiazepine receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively) to clarify the involved mechanism. In ketamine-xylazine anesthetized rats, the right and left sides of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) were implanted with two guide cannulas. Epileptic behaviors were induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of PTZ (60mg/kg), and the latency time to onset of first myoclonic jerk, and the duration of epileptic seizures were determined for 30min. Intra-hippocampal microinjections of oxytocin at doses of 10 and 20ng/site, diazepam (100 and 200ng/site) and co-administration of their ineffective doses significantly (p<0.01) increased the onset of first myoclonic jerk and decreased duration of epileptic seizure. Antiepileptic effects of oxytocin (20ng/site) were inhibited by atosiban (20 and 40ng/site) and flumazenil (100 and 200ng/site) pretreatments. On the other hand, prior administration of flumazenil (100 and 200ng/site) and atosiban (20 and 40ng/site) prevented the antiepileptic effects induced by diazepam (100 and 200ng/site). The results of the present study showed that at the level of the hippocampus oxytocin suppressed the severity of epileptic behaviors. A hippocampal GABA-benzodiazepine receptor mechanism may be involved in antiepileptic effect of oxytocin. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. SH-I-048A, AN IN VITRO NONSELECTIVE SUPER-AGONIST AT THE BENZODIAZEPINE SITE OF GABAA RECEPTORS: THE APPROXIMATED ACTIVATION OF RECEPTOR SUBTYPES MAY EXPLAIN BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Aleksandar Lj.; Joksimović, Srđan; Poe, Michael M.; Ramerstorfer, Joachim; Varagic, Zdravko; Namjoshi, Ojas; Batinić, Bojan; Radulović, Tamara; Marković, Bojan; Roth, Brian; Sieghart, Werner; Cook, James M.; Savić, Miroslav M.

    2014-01-01

    Enormous progress in understanding the role of four populations of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABAA receptors was paralleled by the puzzling findings suggesting that substantial separation of behavioral effects may be accomplished by apparently non-selective modulators. We report on SH-I-048A, a newly-synthesized chiral positive modulator of GABAA receptors characterized by exceptional subnanomolar affinity, high efficacy and non-selectivity. Its influence on behavior was assessed in Wistar rats and contrasted to that obtained with 2 mg/kg diazepam. SH-I-048A reached micromolar concentrations in brain tissue, while the unbound fraction in brain homogenate was around 1.5%. The approximated electrophysiological responses, which estimated free concentrations of SH-I-048A or diazepam are able to elicit, suggested a similarity between the 10 mg/kg dose of the novel ligand and 2 mg/kg diazepam; however, SH-I-048A was relatively more active at α1- and α5-containing GABAA receptors. Behaviorally, SH-I-048A induced sedative, muscle relaxant and ataxic effects, reversed mechanical hyperalgesia 24 hours after injury, while it was devoid of clear anxiolytic actions and did not affect water-maze performance. While lack of clear anxiolytic actions may be connected with an enhanced potentiation at α1-containing GABAA receptors, the observed behavior in the rotarod, water maze and peripheral nerve injury tests was possibly affected by its prominent action at receptors containing the α5 subunit. The current results encourage further innovative approaches aimed at linking in vitro and in vivo data in order to help define fine-tuning mechanisms at four sensitive receptor populations that underlie subtle differences in behavioral profiles of benzodiazepine site ligands. PMID:24472579

  10. [Status of the medical management of convulsive seizures at regular schools].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yuki; Takada, Satoshi

    2010-09-01

    The nurse-teachers have important roles in health care of the students in Japanese schools. Usually one nurse-teacher works in each regular primary and junior high school in order to manage health care of the students. We surveyed the medical care of the students who had a history of convulsions by the questionnaires to 319 nurse-teachers. One hundred thirty nine nurse-teachers (93%) of 150 responders replied that they were taking care of at least one student with a history of convulsion. In 26 (17.4%) of the schools surveyed, more than one convulsion occurred between the first of April 2006 and the 31st of March 2007. More than 65% of nurse-teachers had witnessed convulsions at school. Results of the present study show 59 nurse-teachers were asked by parents to keep the rectal diazepam to administer to their children in the event of a convulsion. However, only 16 nurse-teachers received the instructions from a doctor on the indication of rectal diazepam. Sixty eight per cent of nurse-teachers felt that they had no or little support from doctors. Although most of the nurse-teachers felt reluctant to administer rectal diazepam at school, they considered the administration was unavoidable for student's safety and comfort. Clear instructions and detailed consultation by the doctors and prompt response in case of emergency were desired by the nurse-teachers. The establishment of the support system for the students with a history of convulsions is required to maintain safe and comfortable school life.

  11. Prevention of status epilepticus-induced brain edema and neuronal cell loss by repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Kouichi; Inamine, Moriyoshi; Oshima, Wataru; Kotani, Masaharu; Chiba, Yoichi; Ueno, Masaki; Ishihara, Yasuhiro

    2015-05-22

    The management of status epilepticus (SE) is important to prevent mortality and the development of post-SE symptomatic epilepsy. Acquired epilepsy after an initial brain insult by SE can be experimentally reproduced in the murine model of SE induced by pilocarpine. In the present study, we evaluated the possibility of treatment with a high-dose of levetiracetam in this model. Repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after termination of SE by diazepam significantly prevented the incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures and mortality for at least 28 days. To determine the brain alterations after SE, magnetic resonance imaging was performed. Both T2-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging showed changes in the limbic regions. These changes in the limbic regions demonstrated the development of cytotoxic edema three hours after SE, followed by the development of vasogenic edema two days after SE. In the pilocarpine-SE model, the incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after SE was strongly associated with neuronal damage within a few hours to days after SE by the development of vasogenic edema via the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in the limbic regions. High-dose levetiracetam significantly suppressed the parameters in the limbic areas. These data indicate that repeated treatment with high-dose levetiracetam for at least two days after SE termination by diazepam is important for controlling the neuronal damage by preventing brain edema. Therefore, these findings suggest that early treatment with high-dose levetiracetam after SE termination by diazepam may protect against adverse sequelae via the inhibition of neurotoxicity induced by brain edema events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors on maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Furuya, Yoshiaki; Sawada, Kohei; Asada, Takashi

    2015-01-05

    Several studies have shown that glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) inhibitors have anxiolytic actions. There are two types of glycine receptor: the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyA) and the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor (GlyB); however, which receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors is yet to be determined. Here, we clarified which glycine receptor is the main contributor to the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors by using maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) by rat pups as an index of anxiety. We confirmed that administration of the benzodiazepine diazepam or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitaloplam, which are both clinically proven anxiolytics, or the GlyT1 inhibitor SSR504734 (2-chloro-N-[(S)-phenyl[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl] methyl]-3-trifluoromethyl benzamide), decreases USV in rat pups. In addition, we showed that another GlyT1 inhibitor, ALX5407 ((R)-N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine) also decreases USV in rat pups. SSR504734- or ALX5407-induced decreases in USV were dose-dependently reversed by administration of the GlyA antagonist strychnine, whereas the diazepam- or escitalopram-induced decreases in USV were not. Furthermore, GlyT1-induced decreases in USV were not reversed by administration of the GlyB antagonist L-687,414. Together, these results suggest that GlyA activation is the main contributor to the anxiolytic actions of GlyT1 inhibitors and that the anxiolytic actions of diazepam and escitalopram cannot be attributed to GlyA activation. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of the activation of GlyA in the anxiolytic effects of GlyT1 inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Blockade of central vasopressin receptors reduces the cardiovascular response to acute stress in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Stojicić, S; Milutinović-Smiljanić, S; Sarenac, O; Milosavljević, S; Paton, J F R; Murphy, D; Japundzić-Zigon, N

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the contribution of central vasopressin receptors to blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) response to stress we injected non-peptide selective V(1a) (SR49059), V(1b) (SSR149415), V(2) (SR121463) receptor antagonists, diazepam or vehicle in the lateral cerebral ventricle of conscious freely moving rats stressed by blowing air on their heads for 2 min. Cardiovascular effects of stress were evaluated by analyzing maximum increase of BP and HR (MAX), latency of maximum response (LAT), integral under BP and HR curve (integral), duration of their recovery and spectral parameters of BP and HR indicative of increased sympathetic outflow (LF(BP) and LF/HF(HR)). Moreover, the increase of serum corticosterone was measured. Exposure to air-jet stress induced simultaneous increase in BP and HR followed by gradual decline during recovery while LF(BP) oscillation remained increased as well as serum corticosterone level. Rats pre-treated with vasopressin receptor antagonists were not sedated while diazepam induced sedation that persisted during exposure to stress. V(1a), V(1b) and V(2) receptor antagonists applied separately did not modify basal values of cardiovascular parameters but prevented the increase in integral(BP). In addition, V(1b) and V(2) receptor antagonists reduced BP(MAX) whereas V(1a), V(1b) antagonist and diazepam reduced HR(MAX) induced by exposure to air-jet stress. All drugs shortened the recovery period, prevented the increase of LF(BP) without affecting the increase in serum corticosterone levels. Results indicate that vasopressin receptors located within the central nervous system mediate, in part, the cardiovascular response to air-jet stress without affecting either the neuroendocrine component or inducing sedation. They support the view that the V(1b) receptor antagonist may be of potential therapeutic value in reducing arterial pressure induced by stress-related disorders.

  14. Assessment of reinforcement enhancing effects of toluene vapor and nitrous oxide in intracranial self-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Matthew E.; Slavova-Hernandez, Galina G.; Shelton, Keith L.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Despite widespread abuse there are few validated methods to study the rewarding effects of inhalants. One model that that may have utility for this purpose is intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Objectives We wished to compare and contrast the ICSS reward-facilitating effects of abused inhalants to other classes of abused drugs. Compounds were examined using two different ICSS procedures in mice to determine the generality of each drug's effects on ICSS and the sensitivity of the procedures. Methods Male C57BL/6J mice with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained under a three component rate-frequency as well as a progressive ratio (PR) ICSS procedure. The effects of nitrous oxide, toluene vapor, cocaine and diazepam on ICSS were then examined. Results Concentrations of 1360-2900 ppm inhaled toluene vapor significantly facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 1360 ppm increased PR breakpoint. A concentration of 40% nitrous oxide facilitated ICSS in the rate-frequency procedure but reduced PR breakpoint. Doses of 3-18 mg/kg cocaine facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 10 and 18 mg/kg increased PR breakpoint. Doses of 1 and 3 mg/kg diazepam facilitated ICSS in the rate frequency procedure and 3 mg/kg increased PR breakpoint. Conclusions The reinforcement facilitating effect of toluene in ICSS is at least as great as diazepam. In contrast, nitrous oxide weakly enhances ICSS in only the rate frequency procedure. The data suggest that the rate frequency procedure may be more sensitive than the PR schedule to the reward facilitating effects of abused inhalants. PMID:24186077

  15. Localized delivery of chemotherapy to the cervix for radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Lucy S; Downs, Levi S; Chura, Justin C; Thomas, Sajeena G; Callery, Patrick S; Soisson, A Patrick; Kramer, Paul; Wolfe, Stephen S; Tracy, Timothy S

    2012-10-01

    Chemoradiation is the mainstay of therapy for advanced cervical cancer, with the most effective treatment regimens involving combinations of radiosensitizing agents. However, administration of radiosensitizing chemotherapeutics concurrently with pelvic radiation is not without side effects. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of localized drug delivery as a means of improving drug targeting of radiosensitizing chemotherapeutics to the cervix while limiting systemic toxicities. An initial proof-of-concept study was performed in 14 healthy women following local administration of diazepam utilizing a novel cervical delivery device (CerviPrep™). Uterine vein and peripheral blood samples were collected and diazepam was measured using a GC-MS method. In the follow-up study, gemcitabine was applied to the cervix in 17 women undergoing hysterectomy for various gynecological malignancies. Cervical tissue, uterine vein blood samples, and peripheral plasma were collected, and gemcitabine and its deaminated metabolite 2',2'-difluorodeoxyuridine (dFdU) were measured using HPLC-UV and LC/MS methods. Targeted delivery of diazepam to the cervix was consistent with parent drug detectable in the uterine vein of 13 of 14 women. In the second study, pharmacologically relevant concentrations of gemcitabine (0.01-6.6 nmol/g tissue) were detected in the cervical tissue of 11 of 16 available specimens with dFdU measureable in 15 samples (0.04-8.8 nmol/g tissue). Neither gemcitabine nor its metabolites were detected in the peripheral plasma of any subject. Localized drug delivery to the cervix is possible and may be useful in limiting toxicity associated with intravenous administration of chemotherapeutics for radiosensitization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional characterization of GABAA receptor-mediated modulation of cortical neuron network activity in microelectrode array recordings.

    PubMed

    Bader, Benjamin M; Steder, Anne; Klein, Anders Bue; Frølund, Bente; Schroeder, Olaf H U; Jensen, Anders A

    2017-01-01

    The numerous γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subtypes are differentially expressed and mediate distinct functions at neuronal level. In this study we have investigated GABAAR-mediated modulation of the spontaneous activity patterns of primary neuronal networks from murine frontal cortex by characterizing the effects induced by a wide selection of pharmacological tools at a plethora of activity parameters in microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. The basic characteristics of the primary cortical neurons used in the recordings were studied in some detail, and the expression levels of various GABAAR subunits were investigated by western blotting and RT-qPCR. In the MEA recordings, the pan-GABAAR agonist muscimol and the GABABR agonist baclofen were observed to mediate phenotypically distinct changes in cortical network activity. Selective augmentation of αβγ GABAAR signaling by diazepam and of δ-containing GABAAR (δ-GABAAR) signaling by DS1 produced pronounced changes in the majority of the activity parameters, both drugs mediating similar patterns of activity changes as muscimol. The apparent importance of δ-GABAAR signaling for network activity was largely corroborated by the effects induced by the functionally selective δ-GABAAR agonists THIP and Thio-THIP, whereas the δ-GABAAR selective potentiator DS2 only mediated modest effects on network activity, even when co-applied with low THIP concentrations. Interestingly, diazepam exhibited dramatically right-shifted concentration-response relationships at many of the activity parameters when co-applied with a trace concentration of DS1 compared to when applied alone. In contrast, the potencies and efficacies displayed by DS1 at the networks were not substantially altered by the concomitant presence of diazepam. In conclusion, the holistic nature of the information extractable from the MEA recordings offers interesting insights into the contributions of various GABAAR subtypes/subgroups to cortical

  17. Dose-response effects of atropine and HI-6 treatment of organophosphorus poisoning in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Koplovitz, I.; Menton, R.; Matthews, C.

    1995-12-31

    H1-6 (1-2-hydrnxyiminomethyl-1 pyridino-3-(4-carbameyl- 1--pyddino)-2- oxaprnpane dichioride) has been evaluated as an oxime alternative to pralidoxime, and toxogonin in the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning. The dose response effects of atropine (ATR) and HI-6 were investigated to more fully explore the interaction of these compounds in the treatment of OP poisoning. ATR, HI-6 and various combinations of the two drugs were evaluated against lethal poisoning by soman (GD) and tabun (GA) in guinea pigs. The effect of adjunctive diazepam treatment on the efficacy of atropine and HI-6 against soman was also investigated. Animals of either sex were challenged s.c. with OPmore » and treated i.m. 1 min later with ATR and/or HI-6. When used, diazepam was injected immediately after ATR+HI6. LD50s of each treatment were calculated from probit models based on 24-hour survival against 5 levels of nerve agent and 6 animals per challenge level. A protective index (PI) was calculated by dividing the nerve agent LD50 in the presence of treatment by the LD50 in the absence of treatment. Treatment with HI-6 alone had little effect on the toxicity of either OP. Treatment with ATR alone was more effective than HI-6 alone and was significantly more effective against soman than against tabun. When used in combination atropine and HI-6 had a strong synergistic effect against both agents. The dose of atropine used with HI-6 was critical in determining the efficacy of HI-6 against either agent. The slopes of the dose-lethality curves were minimally affected by the dose of ATR or HI-6. Adjunctive treatment with diazepam enhanced the efficacy of HI-6 and atropine against soman.« less

  18. PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON THE BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF LEONOTIS NEPETIFOLIA LINN STEM IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Ayanwuyi, Lydia O.; Kwanashie, Helen O.; Hussaini, Isa M.; Yaro, Abdullahi H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leonotis nepetifolia Linn (Lamiaceae) is used in traditional medicine for its calming (tranquilizing) effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any scientific justification for this use. To achieve this purpose, we investigated the behavioural effects of the methanol extract of Leonotis nepetifolia stem (37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg) in mice. Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out on the methanol stem extract of Leonotis nepetifolia to determine the LD50. The behavioural tests employed were diazepam-induced sleep onset and duration, hole board assay for exploratory activity, mouse beam walk assay for motor coordination, and the staircase test for the detection of anxiolytic compounds. Preliminary phytochemical screening was also carried out on the extract. Results: The intraperitoneal LD50 value was found to be 3.8 g/kg. The results showed that the extract significantly prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep at the highest dose (150 mg/kg). There was no observable effect on exploratory activity and motor coordination at the doses tested (37.5, 75 and 150 mg/kg). The extract, however, at 150 mg/kg elicited a significant decrease in the number of rearings in the staircase test, an effect also observed in the group of mice injected with an anxiolytic dose of diazepam. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that the crude methanol extract of Leonotis nepetifolia stem possesses some biologically active constituents with potential anxiolytic activity and thus may justify its traditional use as a tranquilizer. PMID:28852715

  19. Effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Paryani, Mohammad Reza; Williams, David L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of diurnal variation and anesthetic agents on intraocular pressure (IOP) in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). ANIMALS 90 healthy adult Syrian hamsters (45 males and 45 females). PROCEDURES IOP was measured with a rebound tonometer. In phase 1, IOP was measured in all hamsters 3 times during a 24-hour period (7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm). In phase 2, hamsters were assigned to 5 groups (18 animals [9 males and 9 females]/group). Each group received an anesthetic agent or combination of anesthetic agents (ketamine hydrochloride, xylazine hydrochloride, diazepam, ketamine-diazepam [KD], or ketamine-xylazine [KX] groups) administered via the IP route. The IOP was measured before (time 0 [baseline]) and 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes after administration of drugs. RESULTS Mean ± SD IOP values were 2.58 ± 0.87 mm Hg, 4.46 ± 1.58 mm Hg, and 5.96 ± 1.23 mm Hg at 7 am, 3 pm, and 11 pm, respectively. Mean baseline IOP was 6.25 ± 0.28 mm Hg, 6.12 ± 0.23 mm Hg, 5.75 ± 0.64 mm Hg, 5.12 ± 1.40 mm Hg, and 4.50 ± 1.30 mm Hg for the ketamine, xylazine, diazepam, KD, and KX groups, respectively. A significant decrease in IOP, compared with baseline IOP, was detected in only the KX group at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after drug administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum IOP in Syrian hamsters was detected at night. The ketamine-xylazine anesthetic combination significantly decreased IOP in Syrian hamsters.

  20. Hippocampal Expression of Connexin36 and Connexin43 during Epileptogenesis in Pilocarpine Model of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Motaghi, Sahel; Sayyah, Mohammad; Babapour, Vahab; Mahdian, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gap junctions (GJs) provide direct intercellular communications that are formed by hexameric protein subunits, called connexin (Cx). The role of Cxs in epileptogenesis has not received sufficient attention. Hippocampus with a critical function in epileptogenesis has a wide network of GJs. We examined the protein expression levels of hippocampal Cx36 (the prominent Cx present between GABAergic interneurons) and Cx43 (the main Cx expressed by astrocytes) during epileptogenesis in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Methods: Male Wistar rats received scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c.). Pilocarpine (380 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 30 min thereafter to induce status epilepticus (SE). SE was stopped 2 h later by diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Cx36 and Cx43 protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis in the hippocampus of SE-experienced rats, after injection of diazepam (F0 subgroup), after acquisition of focal seizures (F3 subgroup), and after development of generalized seizures (F5 subgroup). The control subgroups, C0, C3, and C5, were aged-matched rats, which received saline (1 ml/kg, i.p.) instead of pilocarpine. Injection of scopolamine and diazepam, and dissection of hippocampi were carried out at the same time interval as the test subgroups. Results: SE emerged in 67.1% of pilocarpine-treated animals. Focal and generalized seizures developed 3.8±0.4 and 7.0±0.5 days after SE, respectively. Cx36 protein abundance was not significantly different between test and control groups in the three time points. However, Cx43 protein level showed 40% increase in F3 subgroup (P<0.05 compared to C3, P<0.01 compared to F0 and F5). Conclusion: Hippocampal Cx43 is overexpressed in pilocarpine model of epileptogenesis after acquisition of focal seizures. PMID:28042145

  1. Noninvasive assessment of altered activity following restraint in mice using an automated physiological monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Steyn, Frederik J; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Woodruff, Trent M; Lee, John D

    2017-01-01

    In the laboratory setting, typical endocrine and targeted behavioral tests are limited in their ability to provide a direct assessment of stress in animals housed in undisturbed conditions. We hypothesized that an automated phenotyping system would allow the detection of subtle stress-related behavioral changes well beyond the time-frames examined using conventional methods. In this study, we have utilized the TSE PhenoMaster system to continuously record basal behaviors and physiological parameters including activity, body weight, food intake and oxygen consumption in undisturbed and stressed C57Bl/6J male mice (n = 12/group), with a pharmacological intervention using the conventional anxiolytic, diazepam (5 mg kg -1 i.p.; n = 8/group). We observed significant 20-30% reductions in locomotor activity in the dark phase, with subtle reductions in light phase activity for up to 96 h following a single 2 h episode of restraint stress. A single administration of diazepam reduced plasma corticosterone concentrations by 30-35% during stress exposure when compared to mice treated with vehicle. This treatment did not result in significantly different locomotor activity compared to vehicle within the first 48 h following restraint stress. However, diazepam treatment facilitated restoration of locomotor activity at 72 and 96 h after restraint stress exposure in comparison to vehicle-treated mice. Hence, the use of an automated phenotyping system allows a real time assessment of basal behaviors and empirical metabolism following exposure to restraint stress and demonstrates major and subtle changes in activity persist for several days after stress exposure.

  2. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam.

  3. Effects of diphenhydramine on human eye movements.

    PubMed

    Hopfenbeck, J R; Cowley, D S; Radant, A; Greenblatt, D J; Roy-Byrne, P P

    1995-04-01

    Peak saccadic eye movement velocity (SEV) and average smooth pursuit gain (SP) are reduced in a dose-dependent manner by diazepam and provide reliable, quantitative measures of benzodiazepine agonist effects. To evaluate the specificity of these eye movement effects for agents acting at the central GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and the role of sedation in benzodiazepine effects, we studied eye movement effects of diphenhydramine, a sedating drug which does not act at the GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex. Ten healthy males, aged 19-28 years, with no history of axis I psychiatric disorders or substance abuse, received 50 mg/70 kg intravenous diphenhydramine or a similar volume of saline on separate days 1 week apart. SEV, saccade latency and accuracy, SP, self-rated sedation, and short-term memory were assessed at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after drug administration. Compared with placebo, diphenhydramine produced significant SEV slowing, and increases in saccade latency and self-rated sedation. There was no significant effect of diphenhydramine on smooth pursuit gain, saccade accuracy, or short-term memory. These results suggest that, like diazepam, diphenhydramine causes sedation, SEV slowing, and an increase in saccade latency. Since the degree of diphenhydramine-induced sedation was not correlated with changes in SEV or saccade latency, slowing of saccadic eye movements is unlikely to be attributable to sedation alone. Unlike diazepam, diphenhydramine does not impair smooth pursuit gain, saccadic accuracy, or memory. Different neurotransmitter systems may influence the neural pathways involved in SEV and smooth pursuit again.

  4. Controls Over Wholesale Drug Inventories at the Defense Logistics Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-30

    1,062 (6) 0 0 0 0 22. Diphenoxylate Q BX 2.20 1,548 1,544 4 0 0 0 0 23. Alprazolam Tablets Q BT 24.68 3,023 2,939 84 84 0 $2,073 0 24. Thiopental...0 0 0 0 38. Fluoxymesterione Ta Q BT 80.95 756 744 12 0 0 0 0 39. Alprazolam Tablets Q BT 24.68 8 0 8 0 0 0 0 40. Codeine Phosphate U R BT 52 68... Alprazolam Tab. 2 Hydromorphone Hydro 3. Codeine Phosphate 4. Diazepam Injection 5. Fentanyl Citrate 6. Alcohol, Dehydrated 7. Merperidine

  5. Evidence-Based Guideline: Treatment of Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Children and Adults: Report of the Guideline Committee of the American Epilepsy Society

    PubMed Central

    Shinnar, Shlomo; Gloss, David; Alldredge, Brian; Arya, Ravindra; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn; Bare, Mary; Bleck, Thomas; Dodson, W. Edwin; Garrity, Lisa; Jagoda, Andy; Lowenstein, Daniel; Pellock, John; Riviello, James; Sloan, Edward; Treiman, David M.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: The optimal pharmacologic treatment for early convulsive status epilepticus is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To analyze efficacy, tolerability and safety data for anticonvulsant treatment of children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus and use this analysis to develop an evidence-based treatment algorithm. DATA SOURCES: Structured literature review using MEDLINE, Embase, Current Contents, and Cochrane library supplemented with article reference lists. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials of anticonvulsant treatment for seizures lasting longer than 5 minutes. DATA EXTRACTION: Individual studies were rated using predefined criteria and these results were used to form recommendations, conclusions, and an evidence-based treatment algorithm. RESULTS: A total of 38 randomized controlled trials were identified, rated and contributed to the assessment. Only four trials were considered to have class I evidence of efficacy. Two studies were rated as class II and the remaining 32 were judged to have class III evidence. In adults with convulsive status epilepticus, intramuscular midazolam, intravenous lorazepam, intravenous diazepam and intravenous phenobarbital are established as efficacious as initial therapy (Level A). Intramuscular midazolam has superior effectiveness compared to intravenous lorazepam in adults with convulsive status epilepticus without established intravenous access (Level A). In children, intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam are established as efficacious at stopping seizures lasting at least 5 minutes (Level A) while rectal diazepam, intramuscular midazolam, intranasal midazolam, and buccal midazolam are probably effective (Level B). No significant difference in effectiveness has been demonstrated between intravenous lorazepam and intravenous diazepam in adults or children with convulsive status epilepticus (Level A). Respiratory and cardiac symptoms are the most commonly encountered treatment-emergent adverse events

  6. Dynamic Changes in Spectral and Spatial Signatures of High Frequency Oscillations in Rat Hippocampi during Epileptogenesis in Acute and Chronic Stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Pan-Pan; Xiang, Jing; Jiang, Li; Chen, Heng-Sheng; Liu, Ben-Ke; Hu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    To analyze spectral and spatial signatures of high frequency oscillations (HFOs), which include ripples and fast ripples (FRs, >200 Hz) by quantitatively assessing average and peak spectral power in a rat model of different stages of epileptogenesis. The lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy was used. The acute phase of epilepsy was assessed by recording intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) activity for 1 day after status epilepticus (SE). The chronic phase of epilepsy, including spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), was assessed by recording EEG activity for 28 days after SE. Average and peak spectral power of five frequency bands of EEG signals in CA1, CA3, and DG regions of the hippocampus were analyzed with wavelet and digital filter. FRs occurred in the hippocampus in the animal model. Significant dynamic changes in the spectral power of FRS were identified in CA1 and CA3. The average spectral power of ripples increased at 20 min before SE ( p  < 0.05), peaked at 10 min before diazepam injection. It decreased at 10 min after diazepam ( p  < 0.05) and returned to baseline after 1 h. The average spectral power of FRs increased at 30 min before SE ( p  < 0.05) and peaked at 10 min before diazepam. It decreased at 10 min after diazepam ( p  < 0.05) and returned to baseline at 2 h after injection. The dynamic changes were similar between average and peak spectral power of FRs. Average and peak spectral power of both ripples and FRs in the chronic phase showed a gradual downward trend compared with normal rats 14 days after SE. The spectral power of HFOs may be utilized to distinguish between normal and pathologic HFOs. Ictal average and peak spectral power of FRs were two parameters for predicting acute epileptic seizures, which could be used as a new quantitative biomarker and early warning marker of seizure. Changes in interictal HFOs power in the hippocampus at the chronic stage may be not related to

  7. Stiff-person syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Egwuonwu, Steve; Chedebeau, Fernando

    2010-12-01

    We report a case of stiff-person syndrome associated with several autoimmune diseases. A 49-year-old male with type 1 diabetes presented with a 6-month history of muscle rigidity and spasms of his upper and lower extremities. Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 antibody was elevated at 609 nmol/L. Electromyography revealed continuous motor unit activity in agonist and antagonist muscles. He responded favorably to diazepam, baclofen, and intravenous immunoglobulin infusions. This case report describes stiff-person syndrome in association with pernicious anemia and diabetes mellitus. A review of the literature discusses the diagnosis and treatment of this rare entity.

  8. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  9. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  10. Drug-Drug Interactions Between the Anti-Hepatitis C Virus 3D Regimen of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir and Eight Commonly Used Medications in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Polepally, Akshanth R; King, Jennifer R; Ding, Bifeng; Shuster, Diana L; Dumas, Emily O; Khatri, Amit; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Podsadecki, Thomas J; Menon, Rajeev M

    2016-08-01

    The three direct-acting antiviral regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D regimen) is approved for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies of the 3D regimen and commonly used medications were conducted in healthy volunteers to provide information on coadministering these medications with or without dose adjustments. Three phase I studies evaluated DDIs between the 3D regimen (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once daily + dasabuvir 250 mg twice daily) and hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen (5/300 mg), metformin hydrochloride (500 mg), diazepam (2 mg), cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (5 mg), carisoprodol (250 mg), or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) (800/160 mg twice daily), all administered orally. DDI magnitude was determined using geometric mean ratios and 90 % confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Changes in exposures (C max and AUC geometric mean ratios) of acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and diazepam were ≤25 % upon coadministration with the 3D regimen. The C max and AUC of nordiazepam, an active metabolite of diazepam, increased by 10 % and decreased by 44 %, respectively. Exposures of cyclobenzaprine and carisoprodol decreased by ≤40 and ≤46 %, respectively, whereas exposures of hydrocodone increased up to 90 %. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir exposures changed by ≤25 %, except for a 37 % decrease in paritaprevir C max with metformin and a 33 % increase in dasabuvir AUC with SMZ/TMP. Acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim can be coadministered with the 3D regimen without dose adjustment. Higher doses may be needed for diazepam, cyclobenzaprine, and carisoprodol based on clinical monitoring. A 50 % lower dose and/or clinical monitoring should be considered for hydrocodone. No dose

  11. Differential antagonism of tetramethylenedisulfotetramine-induced seizures by agents acting at NMDA and GABA{sub A} receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Shakarjian, Michael P., E-mail: michael_shakarjian@nymc.edu; Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Velíšková, Jana, E-mail: jana_veliskova@nymc.edu

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TMDT) is a highly lethal neuroactive rodenticide responsible for many accidental and intentional poisonings in mainland China. Ease of synthesis, water solubility, potency, and difficulty to treat make TMDT a potential weapon for terrorist activity. We characterized TMDT-induced convulsions and mortality in male C57BL/6 mice. TMDT (ip) produced a continuum of twitches, clonic, and tonic–clonic seizures decreasing in onset latency and increasing in severity with increasing dose; 0.4 mg/kg was 100% lethal. The NMDA antagonist, ketamine (35 mg/kg) injected ip immediately after the first TMDT-induced seizure, did not change number of tonic–clonic seizures or lethality, but increased the numbermore » of clonic seizures. Doubling the ketamine dose decreased tonic–clonic seizures and eliminated lethality through a 60 min observation period. Treating mice with another NMDA antagonist, MK-801, 0.5 or 1 mg/kg ip, showed similar effects as low and high doses of ketamine, respectively, and prevented lethality, converting status epilepticus EEG activity to isolated interictal discharges. Treatment with these agents 15 min prior to TMDT administration did not increase their effectiveness. Post-treatment with the GABA{sub A} receptor allosteric enhancer diazepam (5 mg/kg) greatly reduced seizure manifestations and prevented lethality 60 min post-TMDT, but ictal events were evident in EEG recordings and, hours post-treatment, mice experienced status epilepticus and died. Thus, TMDT is a highly potent and lethal convulsant for which single-dose benzodiazepine treatment is inadequate in managing electrographic seizures or lethality. Repeated benzodiazepine dosing or combined application of benzodiazepines and NMDA receptor antagonists is more likely to be effective in treating TMDT poisoning. -- Highlights: ► TMDT produces convulsions and lethality at low doses in mice. ► Diazepam pre- or post-treatments inhibit TMDT-induced convulsions

  12. Intramuscular and rectal therapies of acute seizures.

    PubMed

    Leppik, Ilo E; Patel, Sima I

    2015-08-01

    The intramuscular (IM) and rectal routes are alternative routes of delivery for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when the intravenous route is not practical or possible. For treatment of acute seizures, the AED used should have a short time to maximum concentration (Tmax). Some AEDs have preparations that may be given intramuscularly. These include the benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, and midazolam) and others (fosphenytoin, levetiracetam). Although phenytoin and valproate have parenteral preparations, these should not be given intramuscularly. A recent study of prehospital treatment of status epilepticus evaluated a midazolam (MDZ) autoinjector delivering IM drug compared to IV lorazepam (LZP). Seizures were absent on arrival to the emergency department in 73.4% of the IM MDZ compared to a 63.4% response in LZP-treated subjects (p < 0.001 for superiority). Almost all AEDs have been evaluated for rectal administration as solutions, gels, and suppositories. In a placebo-controlled study, diazepam (DZP) was administered at home by caregivers in doses that ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg. Diazepam was superior to placebo in reduced seizure frequency in children (p < 0.001) and in adults (p = 0.02) and time to recurrent seizures after an initial treatment (p < 0.001). Thus, at this time, only MZD given intramuscularly and DZP given rectally appear to have the properties required for rapid enough absorption to be useful when intravenous routes are not possible. Some drugs cannot be administered rectally owing to factors such as poor absorption or poor solubility in aqueous solutions. The relative rectal bioavailability of gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin is so low that the current formulations are not considered to be suitable for administration by this route. When administered as a solution, diazepam is rapidly absorbed rectally, reaching the Tmax within 5-20 min in children. By contrast, rectal administration of lorazepam is relatively slow, with a Tmax of 1-2h

  13. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  14. Esophageal dilatation using the Eder Puestow dilators.

    PubMed

    Royston, C M; Dowling, B L; Gear, M W

    1976-06-01

    We have performed fifty-one dilatations in twenty-six patients using an end-viewing fiberoptic endoscope and Eder Puestow dilators. All (except two) were performed using intravenous diazepam, the majority on an outpatient basis. The only complication has been a single case of aspiration pneumonia. We have found this method of esophageal dilatation particularly useful in the preoperative dilatation of benign strictures, and in those elderly frail patients who are unsuitable for surgery. Transthoracic resection of the stricture is avoided and thus transabdominal repair of the hiatus hernia may be undertaken.

  15. The cost effectiveness of licensed oromucosal midazolam (Buccolam(®)) for the treatment of children experiencing acute epileptic seizures: an approach when trial evidence is limited.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dawn; Gladwell, Daniel; Batty, Anthony J; Brereton, Nic; Tate, Elaine

    2013-04-01

    In the UK, two treatment options are used for acute epileptic seizures in the community-rectal diazepam and unlicensed buccal midazolam. In practice, the former is rarely used, with unlicensed buccal midazolam being widely recommended and prescribed by physicians. In September 2011, Buccolam(®) (licensed midazolam oromucosal solution) became the first medicine to receive a Paediatric-Use Marketing Authorization (PUMA) and it is indicated for the treatment of prolonged, acute, convulsive seizures by caregivers in the community for children (aged 6 months to <18 years) diagnosed with epilepsy. The approval process for a PUMA product differs from other marketing authorization processes and may be based upon small population subsets and may not, in some cases, require new safety or efficacy data to be generated; a similar situation to that seen for orphan drugs. This can lead to challenges when conducting economic evaluations. The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of Buccolam(®) for children with a diagnosis of epilepsy suffering prolonged, acute, convulsive seizures occurring in the UK community setting. DESIGN AND PERSPECTIVE: A hybrid model was developed according to a UK payer perspective. The model included a time-to-event simulation for the frequency and location of occurrence of seizures, along with a decision-tree model that assessed the treatment pathway when a seizure occured. The model compared treatment with Buccolam(®) with standard care in the community (95 % unlicensed buccal midazolam and 5 % rectal diazepam) or either treatment alone. The model was informed by data from a variety of sources, including clinical effectiveness estimates, and costs based on published UK data, using 2012-13 prices, where possible. To determine current practice and real-world effectiveness, a Delphi panel and a survey of parents of children with epilepsy were conducted. Buccolam(®) showed a reduction in costs of £2,939 compared with standard care,

  16. Department of the Army Supply Bulletin, Army Medical Department Supply Information, SB8-75-11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-20

    SULFATE INJECTION USP 10MG 1ML CARTRIDGE-NEEDLE UNIT10S MFR: SANOFI LOT/SER NO: C790PD NSN: 6505-00-812-2596 NOM: MORPHINE SULFATE INJECTION...100 TABLETS PER BOTTLE MFR: SANOFI LOT/SER NO: SP344 NSN: 6505-01-178-7903 NOM: PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE TABLETS USP 30MG I.S. 210 TABS...ML 2ML SYRINGE WITH NEEDLE 10/PACKAGE MFR: SANOFI LOT/SER NO: C740RL NSN: 6505-01-274-0951 NOM: DIAZEPAM INJECTION USP 5MG/ML 2ML SYRINGE

  17. Comparison of anesthetic agents in the sea otter

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.D.; Kocher, F.H.

    Five anesthetic agents (CI744, etorphine, fentanyl, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane) were tested to establish the dosage of a safe, effective, short-acting anesthetic for use in the sea otter. Etorphine, at a dosage of 0.75 mg per adult otter and used in conjunction with diazepam, at a dosage of 1.25 mg per adult otter, met most of the requirements for use under field conditions. Halothane, administered through an anesthetic machine, proved to be effective for use in a veterinary hospital.

  18. 17α-ethinyl estradiol attenuates depressive-like behavior through GABAA receptor activation/nitrergic pathway blockade in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Arefidoust, Alireza; Yaftian, Rahele; Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and the possible role of nitrergic and gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic pathways in this paradigm. Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in female mice, and different doses of EE2 were intraperitoneally injected either alone or combined with GABAA agonist, diazepam, GABAA antagonist, flumazenil, non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), specific nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a nitric oxide (NO) precursor, L-arginine, and selective PDE5I, sildenafil. After locomotion assessment, immobility times were recorded in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Moreover, hippocampal nitrite concentrations were measured in the examined groups. Ten days after ovariectomy, a significant prolonged immobility times were observed. EE2 (0.3 and 1μg/kg and 0.03, 0.1, and 1mg/kg) caused antidepressant-like activity in OVX mice in FST and TST. Diazepam (1 and 5mg/kg), L-NAME (30mg/kg), and 7-NI (100mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility times. Co-administration of minimal and sub-effective doses of EE2 and diazepam (0.3μg/kg and 0.5mg/kg, respectively) exerted a significant antidepressant-like effect. The same effect was observed in combination of minimal and sub-effective doses of EE2 and either L-NAME or 7-NI. Moreover, combination of minimal and sub-effective doses of EE2, diazepam either L-NAME, or 7-NI emphasized the significant robust antidepressant-like activity. The study has demonstrated that lowest dose of EE2 exerts a significant antidepressant-like behavior. It is suggested that suppression of NO system, as well as GABAA activation, may be responsible for antidepressant-like activity of EE2 in OVX mice. Moreover, GABAA activation may inhibit nitrergic pathway.

  19. Binge drinking and anxiety at the end of the nocturnal period in alcohol-preferring sP rats.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Giancarlo; Lobina, Carla; Lorrai, Irene; Acciaro, Carla; Maccioni, Paola; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that exposure of Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats to daily drinking sessions of 1 h, during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle, with multiple alcohol concentrations, and unpredictable access to alcohol, resulted in exceptionally high intakes of alcohol when the drinking session occurred over the last hours of the dark phase. Additionally, higher levels of anxiety-related behaviors were observed at the 12th, rather than 1st, hour of the dark phase, suggesting that uncertainty of time of alcohol access and expectation of alcohol availability produced an emotional "distress". The present study was designed to provide pharmacological support to the hypothesis that high alcohol intake under this drinking procedure is secondary to exacerbation of the anxiety-like state of sP rats. To this end, sP rats were initially exposed to daily 1-h drinking sessions during the dark phase and with multiple alcohol concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%; v/v); time of alcohol exposure was changed each day and was unpredictable to rats. Rats were then treated acutely with non-sedative doses of diazepam (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg; intraperitoneally [i.p.]) before two drinking sessions occurring at the 1st and 12th hour of the dark phase, respectively. Treatment with diazepam was ineffective at the 1st hour; conversely, it selectively reduced alcohol intake (up to 50% at the dose of 3 mg/kg) at the 12th hour. The preferential effectiveness of diazepam in reducing alcohol intake when the drinking session occurred at the 12th hour of the dark phase is consistent with the hypothesis that uncertainty of time of alcohol access and expectation of alcohol availability generated an emotional "distress" that rats counterbalanced with high alcohol drinking; the results of the present study are interpreted as the anxiolytic effects of diazepam substituting for those of alcohol, resulting in the observed reduction in alcohol intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  20. Central depressant activity of butanol fraction of Securinega virosa root bark in mice.

    PubMed

    Magaji, Mohammed Garba; Yaro, Abdullahi Hamza; Musa, Aliyu Muhammad; Anuka, Joseph Akponso; Abdu-Aguye, Ibrahim; Hussaini, Isa Marte

    2012-05-07

    Securinega virosa is a commonly used medicinal plant in African traditional medicine in the management of epilepsy and mental illness. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the crude methanol root bark extract of the plant possesses significant behavioral effect in laboratory animals. In an attempt to isolate and characterize the biological principles responsible for the observed activity, this study is aimed at evaluating the central depressant activity of the butanol fraction of the methanol root bark extract of Securinega virosa. The medial lethal dose of the butanol fraction was estimated using the method of Lorke. Preliminary phytochemical screening was conducted on the butanol fraction using standard protocol. The behavioral effect of the butanol fraction (75, 150 and 300mg/kg) was evaluated using diazepam induced sleep test, hole-board test, beam walking assay, staircase test, open field test and elevated plus maze assay, all in mice. The median lethal dose of the butanol fraction was estimated to be 1256.9mg/kg. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, similar to those found in the crude methanol extract. The butanol fraction significantly (P<0.001) reduced the mean onset of sleep in mice and doubled the mean duration of sleep in mice at the dose of 75mg/kg. The butanol fraction and diazepam (0.5mg/kg) significantly (P<0.01-0.001) reduced the number of head dips in the hole-board test suggesting sedative effect. The sedative effect of the butanol fraction was further corroborated by its significant (P<0.01-0.001) reduction of the number of step climbed and rearing in the staircase test. The butanol fraction did not significantly increase the time taken to complete the task and number of foot slips in the beam walking assay, suggesting that it does not induce significant motor coordination deficit. Diazepam (2mg/kg), the standard agent used significantly (P<0

  1. Opioid receptor mediated anticonvulsant effect of pentazocine.

    PubMed

    Khanna, N; Khosla, R; Kohli, J

    1998-01-01

    Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of (+/-) pentazocine (10, 30 & 50 mg/kg), a Sigma opioid agonist, resulted in a dose dependent anticonvulsant action against maximal electroshock seizures in mice. This anticonvulsant effect of pentazocine was not antagonized by both the doses of naloxone (1 and 10 mg/kg) suggesting thereby that its anticonvulsant action is probably mediated by Sigma opiate binding sites. Its anticonvulsant effect was potentiated by both the anticonvulsant drugs viz. diazepam and diphenylhydantoin. Morphine, mu opioid agonist, on the other hand, failed to protect the animals against maximal electroshock seizures when it was given in doses of 10-40 mg/kg body wt.

  2. Development of a home cage locomotor tracking system capable of detecting the stimulant and sedative properties of drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Fergal; O'Halloran, Ambrose; Kelly, John P

    2007-10-01

    The advent of automated locomotor activity methodologies has been extremely useful in removing the subjectivity and bias out of measuring this parameter in rodents. However, many of these behavioural studies are still conducted in novel environments, rather than in ones that the animals are familiar with, such as their home cage. The purpose of the present series of experiments was to develop an automated home cage tracking (HCT) profile using EthoVision software and assessing the acute effects of stimulant (amphetamine and methamphetamine, 0-5 mg/kg, sc) and sedative (diazepam, 0-20 mg/kg, sc and chlordiazepoxide, 0-50 mg/kg sc) drugs in this apparatus. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and the home cage locomotor activity was recorded for 11-60 min following administration (n=4 per group). For amphetamine and methamphetamine, a dose-dependent increase in home cage activity was evident for both drugs, with a plateau, followed by reduction at higher doses. Methamphetamine was more potent, whereas amphetamine produced greater maximal responses. Both diazepam and chlordiazepoxide dose-dependently reduced locomotor activity, with diazepam exhibiting a greater potency and having stronger sedative effects than chlordiazepoxide. Three doses of each drug were selected at the 31-40 min time period following administration, and compared to open field responses. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and amphetamine did not produce significant changes in the open field, whilst methamphetamine produced a significant increase in the 2.5 mg/kg group. In conclusion, these studies have successfully developed a sensitive HCT methodology that has been validated using drugs with stimulant and sedative properties in the same test conditions, with relatively small numbers of animals required to produce statistically significant results. It has proven superior to the open field investigations in allowing dose-response effects to be observed over a relatively short observation period

  3. [Drug-induced gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    Hugues, F C; Gourlot, C; Le Jeunne, C

    2000-02-01

    Drugs are a very common cause of gynecomastia and should always be entertained as the possible causal agent of such a condition. This drug side-effect is due to an impaired balance in the serum estrogen/serum androgen ratio, whatever the mechanism, or a rise in prolactin level. Sex hormones, antiandrogens, are frequently involved as well as spironolactone, cimetidine, verapamil and cancer chemotherapy (especially alkylating agents). Diazepam, tricyclic antidepressants, neuroleptics, calcium channel blockers, captopril, digitalis glycosides, omeprazole, some antibiotics and growth hormone are all possibly, but less often, the responsible agent. Criteria of the French method for determining drug causality are discussed.

  4. Management of tetanus complication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somia, I. K. A.

    2018-03-01

    The mortality rate of tetanus is still high; it is because of various complications due to muscle spasms, autonomic dysfunction, as well as due to prolonged critical care. Management of tetanus with its complications is in intensive care facilities. Management goals include stopping toxin production, neutralization of unbound toxin, management of the airway, muscle spasm control, treatment of autonomic dysfunction and general supportive management. Currently, diazepam is still an effective medication to control of muscle spasm and rigidity. Therapy for autonomic dysfunction that supported by evidence is MgSO4. Also, general supportive management for long-term care remains necessary to prevent other complications such as thromboembolism, infection, malnutrition, and others.

  5. Drug use among Nigerian university students: prevalence of self-reported use and attitudes to use.

    PubMed

    Nevadomsky, J J

    1985-01-01

    Based on a sample of nearly 300 university students in Benin City, Nigeria, the present study shows that, although a wide range of various drugs are readily available and known, the substances most frequently used by university students are coffee, cola nuts, alcohol, spirits and cigarettes. Diazepam and diazepoxide are also used with some frequency. Students tend to use stimulants and depressants sequentially, mainly during and after sessional examinations. The stimulants keep them alert while they are studying for an examination, and the depressants help them to rest after an examination is over. Cannabis is well-known and has been tried by many students.

  6. Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop Materiel Solutions for the U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Evacuation In-Flight Kit (FFQDM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-07

    Ibuprofen 800-mg tablet. Because of several negative side effects, Chlorpromazine HCL INJ can be replaced with Haloperidol HCL INJ or Promethazine HCL...CART 10S EA 6505013548591 FLUMAZENIL INJ 0.1MG/ML 10ML VI 10S VI 6505002688530 HALOPERIDOL INJ 5MG/ML 1ML AMPUL 10S AM 6505001538480 HYDROGEN...DIAZEPAM TAB 5MG INDIVIDUALLY SEALED 100S TB 6505013548591 FLUMAZENIL INJ 0.1MG/ML 10ML VI 10S VI 6505002688530 HALOPERIDOL INJ 5MG/ML 1ML AMP 10S AM

  7. Effects of the brain-penetrant and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB-399885 in animal models of anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Wesołowska, Anna; Nikiforuk, Agnieszka

    2007-04-01

    The effects of a selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist, SB-399885 (N-[3,5-dichloro-2-(methoxy)phenyl]-4-(methoxy)-3-(1-piperazinyl)benzenesulfonamide), were evaluated in behavioural tests sensitive to clinically effective anxiolytic- and antidepressant-compounds using diazepam and imipramine as reference drugs. In the Vogel conflict drinking test in rats, SB-399885 (1-3mg/kg i.p.) caused an anxiolytic-like activity comparable to that of diazepam (2.5-5mg/kg i.p.). An anxiolytic-like effect was also seen in the elevated plus-maze test in rats, where SB-399885 (0.3-3mg/kg i.p.) was slightly weaker than diazepam (2.5-5mg/kg i.p.). In the four-plate test in mice, SB-399885 (3-20mg/kg i.p.) showed an anxiolytic-like effect which was weaker than that produced by diazepam (2.5-5mg/kg i.p.). In the forced swim test in rats, SB-399885 (10mg/kg i.p.) significantly shortened the immobility time and the effect was stronger than that of imipramine (30mg/kg i.p.). In the forced swim test in mice, SB-399885 (20-30mg/kg i.p.) had an anti-immobility action, comparable to imipramine (30mg/kg i.p.) and also in the tail suspension test in mice, SB-399885 (10-30mg/kg i.p.) had an antidepressant-like effect, though was weaker than imipramine (10-20mg/kg i.p.). The tested 5-HT(6) antagonist (3-20mg/kg i.p.) shortened the walking time of rats in the open field test and, at a dose of 30mg/kg i.p. reduced the locomotor activity of mice. SB-399885 (in doses up to 30mg/kg i.p.) did not affect motor coordination in mice and rats tested in the rota-rod test. Such data indicate that the selective 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885had specific effects, indicative of this compound's anxiolytic and antidepressant potential.

  8. Atypical clinical course subacute sclerosing panencephalitis presenting as acute Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Komur, Mustafa; Arslankoylu, Ali E; Okuyaz, Cetin; Kuyucu, Necdet

    2012-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with loss of consciousness and gait instability. The electroencephalogram (EEG) showed generalized slowing with irregular activity and cerebral magnetic imaging revealed asymmetrical nonspecific signals on basal ganglia. His second electroencephalogram revealed periodical generalized high-voltage slow wave complexes which did not disappear with diazepam induction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings show that SSPE should be in mind in the differential diagnosis of meningoencephalitis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and highlight the significance of EEG in the diagnosis of unidentified cases. PMID:23248691

  9. Periodic catatonia with long-term treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruei-An; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2017-09-29

    Periodic catatonia has long been a challenging diagnosis and there are no absolute guidelines for treatment when precipitating factors are also unclear. We report a schizophrenia patient with periodic catatonia with a 15-year treatment course. A possible correlation between decreased daylight exposure and periodic attacks has been observed. We describe a 49-year-old woman with periodic catatonia associated with schizophrenia with 15 years of follow-up. The patient was treated with the antipsychotics risperidone, haloperidol, loxapine and quetiapine, but catatonia still relapsed once per year during the first few years of her disease course. The treatment was consequently been switched to clozapine due to fluctuated psychotic illness, and a longer duration of remittance was achieved. Lorazepam-diazepam protocol was used for rapid relief of catatonic symptoms, and was able to significantly shorten the duration of the symptoms. In addition, we observed a possible correlation between catatonic episodes and decreased daylight exposure during the 15-year duration. Successful treatment of acute periodic catatonia was achieved with a lorazepam-diazepam protocol, and the patient remained in remission for a longer duration under clozapine treatment. Besides, the possibility of decreased daylight exposure acting as a precipitating factor was observed during our 15 years of follow-up.

  10. Evaluation of nootropic potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. in mice.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-02-01

    Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Certain drugs like diazepam, barbiturates and alcohol disrupt learning and memory in animals and man. However, a new class of drugs known as nootropic agents is now used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of O. sanctum extract as a nootropic and anti-amnesic agent in mice. Aqueous extract of dried whole plant of O. sanctum ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg), diazepam (1 mg/kg) and aging induced memory deficits in mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral models. O. sanctum extract decreased transfer latency and increased step down latency, when compared to control (piracetam treated), scopolamine and aged groups of mice significantly. O. sanctum preparations could of beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  11. Acamprosate attenuates the handling induced convulsions during alcohol withdrawal in Swiss Webster mice

    PubMed Central

    Farook, Justin M.; Krazem, Ali; Littleton, John M.; Barron, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of acamprosate for its ability to reduce handling induced convulsions (HICs) during alcohol withdrawal. Diazepam was used as a positive control. Swiss Webster male mice received three daily IP injections of alcohol (2.5 g/kg) or alcohol (2.5 g/kg) + methylpyrazole (4-MP) (9 mg/kg). (4-MP, being an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor slows down the breakdown of alcohol. 4-MP in combination with alcohol exhibits a dramatic increase in blood alcohol level compared to alcohol alone). Ten hours following the last alcohol injection, the mice were picked up by the tail and examined for their seizure susceptibility (HICs). Diazepam, a benzodiazepine known to reduce seizures during alcohol withdrawal, significantly reduced these HICs at doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/kg (p’s < 0.001). Acamprosate, an anti-relapse compound used clinically in newly abstinent alcoholics, also reduced these HICs at doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg (p’s < 0.05). This study supports the use of acamprosate during periods of alcohol withdrawal as well as during abstinence. PMID:18577392

  12. A comparison of the effects of a beta-adrenergic blocker and a benzodiazepine upon the recognition of human facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Zangara, Andrea; Blair, R J R; Curran, H Valerie

    2002-08-01

    Accumulating evidence from neuropsychological and neuroimaging research suggests that facial expressions are processed by at least partially separable neurocognitive systems. Recent evidence implies that the processing of different facial expressions may also be dissociable pharmacologically by GABAergic and noradrenergic compounds, although no study has directly compared the two types of drugs. The present study therefore directly compared the effects of a benzodiazepine with those of a beta-adrenergic blocker on the ability to recognise emotional expressions. A double-blind, independent group design was used with 45 volunteers to compare the effects of diazepam (15 mg) and metoprolol (50 mg) with matched placebo. Participants were presented with morphed facial expression stimuli and asked to identify which of the six basic emotions (sadness, happiness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise) were portrayed. Control measures of mood, pulse rate and word recall were also taken. Diazepam selectively impaired participants' ability to recognise expressions of both anger and fear but not other emotional expressions. Errors were mainly mistaking fear for surprise and disgust for anger. Metoprolol did not significantly affect facial expression recognition. These findings are interpreted as providing further support for the suggestion that there are dissociable systems responsible for processing emotional expressions. The results may have implications for understanding why 'paradoxical' aggression is sometimes elicited by benzodiazepines and for extending our psychological understanding of the anxiolytic effects of these drugs.

  13. Anxiolytic effect of Kami-Shoyo-San (TJ-24) in mice: possible mediation of neurosteroid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mizowaki, M; Toriizuka, K; Hanawa, T

    2001-09-21

    We assessed the anxiolytic effect of Kami-Shoyo-San (Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san; TJ-24), one of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of menopausal anxiety, by the social interaction (SI) test in male mice. Acute administration of TJ-24 (25-100 mg/kg, p.o.), as well as the gamma-amino-butyric acidA/benzodiazepine (GABA(A)/BZP) receptor agonist diazepam (1-3 mg/kg, i.p.), dose dependently increased the SI time, respectively. The GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin blocked the effects of TJ-24 and diazepam. TJ-24-induced SI behavior was significantly blocked by the GABA(A)/BZP receptor inverse agonist Ro 15-4513 and the GABA(A)/BZP receptor antagonist flumazenil. In addition, 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride potently blocked the effect of TJ-24 without attenuating the basal level by itself. These findings suggest that TJ-24 shows the anxiolytic effect through the neurosteroid synthesis followed by GABA(A)/BDZ receptor stimulations.

  14. The Constraints, Construction, and Verification of a Strain-Specific Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Musther, Helen; Harwood, Matthew D; Yang, Jiansong; Turner, David B; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Jamei, Masoud

    2017-09-01

    The use of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) techniques, mechanistically incorporated within physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models, can harness in vitro drug data and enhance understanding of in vivo pharmacokinetics. This study's objective was to develop a user-friendly rat (250 g, male Sprague-Dawley) IVIVE-linked PBPK model. A 13-compartment PBPK model including mechanistic absorption models was developed, with required system data (anatomical, physiological, and relevant IVIVE scaling factors) collated from literature and analyzed. Overall, 178 system parameter values for the model are provided. This study also highlights gaps in available system data required for strain-specific rat PBPK model development. The model's functionality and performance were assessed using previous literature-sourced in vitro properties for diazepam, metoprolol, and midazolam. The results of simulations were compared against observed pharmacokinetic rat data. Predicted and observed concentration profiles in 10 tissues for diazepam after a single intravenous (i.v.) dose making use of either observed i.v. clearance (CL iv ) or in vitro hepatocyte intrinsic clearance (CL int ) for simulations generally led to good predictions in various tissue compartments. Overall, all i.v. plasma concentration profiles were successfully predicted. However, there were challenges in predicting oral plasma concentration profiles for metoprolol and midazolam, and the potential reasons and according solutions are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of particle size of parenteral suspensions on in vitro muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Brazeau, Gayle; Sauberan, Shauna L; Gatlin, Larry; Wisniecki, Peter; Shah, Jaymin

    2011-01-01

    Suspension particle size plays a key role in the release and stability of drugs for oral and parenteral formulations. However, the role of particle size in suspension formulations on tissue damage (myotoxicity) following intramuscular (IM) injection has not been systematically investigated. Myotoxicity was assessed by the release of cumulative creatine kinase (CCK) from the isolated extensor digitorium longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) rat muscles for selected suspensions of phenytoin, bupivicane and diazepam. Particle size effects on myotoxicity, independent of any specific drug, were also investigated using characterized non-dissolving polystyrene beads. Myotoxicity was quantitated by the cumulative release of creatine kinase (CCK) from these isolated muscles over 90 or 120 min. The relationship between particle size and myotoxicity was dependent upon the drug in these suspensions. Diazepam and phenytoin suspensions were found to be less myotoxic than bupivicaine. Using unmodified and carboxy modified polystyrene beads, an optimal particle size for reduced myotoxicity following IM injection ranges from approx. 500 nm to 1 µM. The relationship between myotoxicity of IM suspensions and particle size is dependent upon the particular drug and suspension particle size.

  16. Influence of benzodiazepines on body weight and food intake in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Blasi, C

    2000-05-01

    1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which is functionally altered in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system. 2. GABA receptors seem to be involved in the dysfunction of the hypothalamic energy homeostasis-controlling mechanisms in these animals due to a genetically-induced defect of the leptin-neuropeptide Y system. 3. To shed further light on the possible role played by the GABA system in the pathogenesis of this rat model, two benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor agonists (diazepam and clonazepam) and one BDZ antagonist (flumazenil) were administered intraperitoneally in obese and lean Zucker rats. 4. Body weight gain was reduced by the BDZ agonists in both phenotypes, and one receptor-agonist (diazepam) lowered insulin concentration in obese rats. In GABA-antagonist-treated obese rats, the daily amount of body weight gain and food intake acquired an oscillatory rhythm similar to that of normal rodents. 5. By demonstrating the role of BDZ receptors, these findings may help clarify the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance in fatty Zucker rats.

  17. Nonconvulsive status epilepticus due to ifosfamide.

    PubMed

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Cakar, Mustafa; Onal, Ibrahim K; Tufan, Abdurrahman; Akoglu, Hadim; Aksoy, Sercan; Erman, Mustafa; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2006-02-01

    To report 2 cases of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) following infusion of ifosfamide. Two patients who received ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy developed NCSE. One woman received ifosfamide 1000 mg/m2 (1 h infusion on days 1-5); confusion, lethargy, and speech deterioration developed on day 3. The second patient developed similar symptoms on day 3 of treatment with 2500 mg/m2. Both patients responded to intravenous administration of diazepam 10 mg and were given levetiracetam as maintenance therapy. The severity and presentation of central nervous system toxicity due to ifosfamide varies greatly and involves a spectrum ranging from subclinical electroencephalogram changes to coma. NCSE, an epileptic disorder in which typical convulsive activity is absent, has previously been reported in only 4 patients receiving ifosfamide. Levetiracetam may be used for maintenance antiepileptic therapy after diazepam administration. Among the many presentations of ifosfamide neurotoxicity, clinicians should consider NCSE as a possible explanation for changes in consciousness in a patient receiving this agent. An objective causality assessment by use of the Naranjo probability scale revealed that NCSE due to ifosfamide was probable.

  18. Levetiracetam for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christoph; Hinzpeter, Axel; Schmidt, Folkhard; Kienast, Thorsten; Preuss, Ulrich W; Plenge, Thomas; Heinz, Andreas; Schaefer, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) with benzodiazepines is limited by risk of abuse, intoxication, respiratory problems, and liver toxicity. Alternatives such as carbamazepine and valproate may also have safety problems, such as hepatotoxicity or central nervous adverse effects. We therefore investigated the safety and efficacy of levetiracetam (LV), a newer antiepileptic with a potentially favorable adverse-effect profile, for the treatment of AWS. One hundred six patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Levetiracetam was administered in a fixed dose schedule over 6 days. Diazepam was added when symptom triggered as rescue medication. Severity of the AWS was measured with the AWS and Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment Scale. Although tolerability and safety data were similar in the LV group when compared with placebo, the total daily and weekly dose of diazepam as rescue medication and the severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms did not differ significantly between groups. Our data so far do not support an additional effect of LV on the reduction of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

  19. Convulsions induced by centrally administered NMDA in mice: effects of NMDA antagonists, benzodiazepines, minor tranquilizers and anticonvulsants.

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J. L.; Pieri, L.; Prud'hon, B.

    1989-01-01

    1. Convulsions were induced reproducibly by intracerebroventricular injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) to conscious mice. 2. Competitive (carboxypiperazine-propylphosphonic acid, CPP; 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid, AP7) and non-competitive (MK801; phencyclidine, PCP; thienylcyclohexylpiperidine, TCP; dextrorphan; dextromethorphan) NMDA antagonists prevented NMDA-induced convulsions. 3. Benzodiazepine receptor agonists and partial agonists (triazolam, diazepam, clonazepam, Ro 16-6028), classical anticonvulsants (diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbitone, sodium valproate) and meprobamate were also found to prevent NMDA-induced convulsions. 4. Flumazenil (a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist) and the GABA agonists THIP and muscimol (up to subtoxic doses) were without effect. 5. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant action of diazepam, but not that of MK801. 6. Results obtained in this model differ somewhat from those described in a seizure model with systemic administration of NMDA. An explanation for this discrepancy is offered. 7. This model is a simple test for assessing the in vivo activity of NMDA antagonists and also expands the battery of chemically-induced seizure models for characterizing anticonvulsants not acting at NMDA receptors. PMID:2574061

  20. Pediatric status epilepticus: improved management with new drug therapies?

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Ambrosi, Michela; Pavone, Piero; Striano, Pasquale

    2017-06-01

    Status Epilepticus (SE) is the most common neurological emergency of childhood. It requires prompt administration of appropriately selected anti-seizure medications. Areas covered: Following a distinction between estabilished and emergent drugs, we present pharmacological treatment options and their clinical utility in children, with a short mention on alternatives to drug treatment. We also propose an algorithm for the management of pediatric SE. For this review a Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was performed. Expert opinion: In early SE in children, in the prehospital setting, rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam are efficacious drugs; whereas in the hospital setting, intravenous lorazepam or diazepam are indicated. As regard estabilished stage of SE, in addition to the 'classic' compounds, such as phenytoin and phenobarbital, other drugs such as valproic acid, levetiracetam and lacosamide have been demonstrated efficacious. Treatment recommendations of refractory SE depend on retrospective case series and uncontrolled studies. We reported experiences about the use of midazolam, propofol, ketamine and lidocaine. They could be a valid option, but further prospective studies are necessary. Over the last few decades, important advances in basic mechanisms underlying refractory SE have been achieved, but few data are available regarding management of these stages.

  1. Blonanserin - A Novel Antianxiety and Antidepressant Drug? An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Limaye, Ramchandra Prabhakar; Patil, Aditi Nitin

    2016-09-01

    Many psychiatric disorders show signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression. A drug with both, effects and lesser adverse effects is always desired. Blonanserin is a novel drug with postulated effect on anxiety and depression. The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Blonanserin on anxiety and depression in animal models. By using elevated plus maze test and forced swimming test, the antianxiety and antidepressant effects were evaluated. Animal ethics protocols were followed strictly. Total 50 rats (10 rats per group) were used for each test. As a control drug diazepam and imipramine were used in elevated plus maze and forced swimming test respectively. Blonanserin was tested for 3 doses 0.075, 0.2 and 0.8mg. These doses were selected from previous references as well as by extrapolating human doses. This study showed an antianxiety effect of Blonanserin comparable to diazepam, which was statistically significant. Optimal effect was observed with 0.075mg, followed by 0.2 and 0.8mg. It also showed an antidepressant effect which was statistically significant. Optimal effect was observed at 0.2mg dose. The results showed that at a dose range of 0.075 and 0.2mg Blonanserin has potential to exert an adjuvant antianxiety and antidepressant activity in animal models. In order to extrapolate this in patient, longer clinical studies with comparable doses should be planned. The present study underlines potential of Blonanserin as a novel drug for such studies.

  2. Benzodiazepine antagonism by harmane and other beta-carbolines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rommelspacher, H; Nanz, C; Borbe, H O; Fehske, K J; Müller, W E; Wollert, U

    1981-03-26

    Harmane and other related beta-carbolines are putative endogenous ligands of the benzodiazepine receptor. Since the compounds are potent convulsants they may have agonist activities at the benzodiazepine receptor while the benzodiazepines may be antagonists. This hypothesis was proved by comparing the in vivo and in vitro antagonism of benzodiazepines by harmane and other beta-carbolines. Harmane is clearly a competitive inhibitor of benzodiazepine receptor binding in vitro. Moreover, harmane-induced convulsions can be inhibited reversibly by diazepam in a manner which is consistent with the assumption of competitive antagonism in vivo. For some beta-carboline derivatives a correlation was found between the affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor in vitro and the convulsive potency in vivo. Thus, the data reported suggest that harmane or other related beta-carbolines are putative endogenous agonists of the benzodiazepine receptor. This suggestion is further supported by the observation that diazepam is equally potent in inhibiting harmane- or picrotoxin-induced convulsions, indicating a convulsive mechanism within the GABA receptor-benzodiazepine receptor system.

  3. Pharmacology of midazolam.

    PubMed

    Pieri, L; Schaffner, R; Scherschlicht, R; Polc, P; Sepinwall, J; Davidson, A; Möhler, H; Cumin, R; Da Prada, M; Burkard, W P; Keller, H H; Müller, R K; Gerold, M; Pieri, M; Cook, L; Haefely, W

    1981-01-01

    8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine (midazolam, Ro 21-3981, Dormicum) is an imidazobenzodiazepine whose salts are soluble and stable in aqueous solution. It has a quick onset and, due to rapid metabolic inactivation, a rather short duration of action in all species studied. Midazolam has a similar pharmacologic potency and broad therapeutic range as diazepam. It produces all the characteristic effects of the benzodiazepine class, i.e., anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sleep-inducing, muscle relaxant, and "sedative" effects. The magnitude of the anticonflict effect of midazolam is smaller than that of diazepam in rats and squirrel monkeys, probably because a more pronounced sedative component interferes with the increase of punished responses. In rodents, surgical anaesthesia is not attained with midazolam alone even in high i.v. doses, whereas this state is obtained in monkeys. The drug potentiates the effect of various central depressant agents. Midazolam is virtually free of effects on the cardiovascular system in conscious animals and produces only slight decreases in cardiac performance in dogs anaesthetized with barbiturates. No direct effects of the drugs on autonomic functions were found, however, stress-induced autonomic disturbances are prevented, probably by an effect on central regulatory systems. All animal data suggest the usefulness of midazolam as a sleep-inducer and i.v. anaesthetic of rapid onset and short duration.

  4. Anxiolytic-like effect of Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) in mice: involvement with GABAergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisca Helvira Cavalcante; Venâncio, Edith Teles; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2010-08-01

    Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) is a monoterpenic phenol present in the essencial oil of many plants. It is the major component of the essential oil fraction of oregano and thyme. This work presents the behavioral effects of carvacrol in animal models of elevated plus maze (EPM), open field, Rotarod and barbiturate-induced sleeping time tests in mice. Carvacrol (CVC) was administered orally, in male mice, at single doses of 12.5; 25 and 50 mg/kg while diazepam 1 or 2 mg/kg was used as standard drug and flumazenil (2.5 mg/kg) was used to elucidate the possible anxiolytic mechanism of CVC on the plus maze test. The results showed that CVC, at three doses, had no effect on the spontaneous motor activity in the Rotarod test nor in the number of squares crossed in the open-field test. However, CVC decreased the number of groomings in the open-field test. In the plus maze test, CVC, at three doses significantly increased all the observed parameters in the EPM test and flumazenil was able to reverse the effects of diazepam and CVC. Therefore, CVC did not alter the sleep latency and sleeping time in the barbiturate-induced sleeping time test. These results show that CVC presents anxiolytic effects in the plus maze test which are not influenced by the locomotor activity in the open-field test.

  5. Effects of repeated asenapine in a battery of tests for anxiety-like behaviours in mice.

    PubMed

    Ene, Hila M; Kara, Nirit Z; Barak, Noa; Reshef Ben-Mordechai, Tal; Einat, Haim

    2016-04-01

    A number of atypical antipsychotic drugs were demonstrated to have anxiolytic effects in patients and in animal models. These effects were mostly suggested to be the consequence of the drugs' affinity to the serotonin system and its receptors. Asenapine is a relatively new atypical antipsychotic that is prescribed for schizophrenia and for bipolar mania. Asenapine has a broad pharmacological profile with significant effects on serotonergic receptors, hence it is reasonable to expect that asenapine may have some anxiolytic effects. The present study was therefore designed to examine possible effects of asenapine on anxiety-like behaviour of mice. Male ICR mice were repeatedly treated with 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg injections of asenapine and then tested in a battery of behavioural tests related to anxiety including the open-field test, elevated plus-maze (EPM), defensive marble burying and hyponeophagia tests. In an adjunct experiment, we tested the effects of acute diazepam in the same test battery. The results show that diazepam reduced anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM, the defensive marble burying test and the hyponeophagia test but not in the open field. Asenapine has anxiolytic-like effects in the EPM and the defensive marble burying tests but had no effects in the open-field or the hyponeophagia tests. Asenapine had no effects on locomotor activity. The results suggest that asenapine may have anxiolytic-like properties and recommends that clinical trials examining such effects should be performed.

  6. Role of lidocaine (lignocaine) in managing status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; Ciudad, J; Berciano, J

    1992-01-01

    Lidocaine (lignocaine) was given in 42 episodes of status epilepticus (SE) in 36 patients either because of limited pulmonary reserve (22 patients) or because of lack of response to diazepam (14 patients). Lidocaine (1.5-2 mg/kg) was given intravenously in two minutes. A further identical bolus was infused if no response had occurred or if seizures recurred. With the first bolus 11 episodes of SE did not stop, but 31 responded, always in less than one minute. In 19 episodes, however, this response lasted less than 30 minutes. Twelve episodes did not recur, but 30 needed a second bolus because of recurrence. Of these, 19 episodes responded at once but SE reappeared in seven. In these seven episodes the mean control time with the second dose was 102 minutes. Five of these subsequently responded to a continuous infusion of lidocaine. Eleven patients, who had not responded to the first bolus, had no response to the second. Lidocaine is a drug that may be epileptogenic at high doses. At the doses used here, however, lidocaine seems to be a rapid acting anticonvulsant, useful in the short term management of SE and may be indicated in patients in whom respiratory or consciousness depression is undesirable and in those with no response to diazepam. The absence of response to lidocaine indicates SE resistant to treatment and poor prognosis. These data show that prompt lidocaine administration may be worthwhile when management of respiratory depression is not possible.

  7. Role of lidocaine (lignocaine) in managing status epilepticus.

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, J; Ciudad, J; Berciano, J

    1992-01-01

    Lidocaine (lignocaine) was given in 42 episodes of status epilepticus (SE) in 36 patients either because of limited pulmonary reserve (22 patients) or because of lack of response to diazepam (14 patients). Lidocaine (1.5-2 mg/kg) was given intravenously in two minutes. A further identical bolus was infused if no response had occurred or if seizures recurred. With the first bolus 11 episodes of SE did not stop, but 31 responded, always in less than one minute. In 19 episodes, however, this response lasted less than 30 minutes. Twelve episodes did not recur, but 30 needed a second bolus because of recurrence. Of these, 19 episodes responded at once but SE reappeared in seven. In these seven episodes the mean control time with the second dose was 102 minutes. Five of these subsequently responded to a continuous infusion of lidocaine. Eleven patients, who had not responded to the first bolus, had no response to the second. Lidocaine is a drug that may be epileptogenic at high doses. At the doses used here, however, lidocaine seems to be a rapid acting anticonvulsant, useful in the short term management of SE and may be indicated in patients in whom respiratory or consciousness depression is undesirable and in those with no response to diazepam. The absence of response to lidocaine indicates SE resistant to treatment and poor prognosis. These data show that prompt lidocaine administration may be worthwhile when management of respiratory depression is not possible. PMID:1548499

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and nootropic activities of Tiliacora racemosa Colebr. leaves: In vitro and in vivo approach.

    PubMed

    T, Vivek Kumar; M, Vishalakshi; M, Gangaraju; Das, Parijat; Roy, Pratiti; Banerjee, Anindita; Dutta Gupta, Sayan

    2017-02-01

    The antibacterial and antioxidant potential of Tiliacora racemosa leaf extracts in various solvents (methanolic, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate) was determined. Additionally, the presence of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids in the plant prompted us to evaluate the nootropic activity of the methanolic extract in mice. Further, we seek to verify the nootropic effect by examining the anticholinesterase inhibition potential of the methanolic extract. The leaf extracts in various solvents were evaluated for their antibacterial and antioxidant activity by agar diffusion technique and α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, respectively. The ex vivo acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extract was carried out by Ellman's method in male Wistar rats. The nootropic capacity of the methanolic extract was examined in Swiss albino mice by utilizing the diazepam induced acute amnesic model. The chloroform/n-hexane and ethyl acetate fraction showed promising antioxidant and antibacterial (Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria) property, respectively. The methanolic extract was able to diminish the amnesic effect induced by diazepam (1mg/kg i.p.) in mice. The extract also showed significant acetyl cholinesterase inhibition in rats. The findings prove that the memory enhancing capability is due to increased acetyl choline level at the nerve endings. The strong antioxidant nature and potential nootropic activity shown by the extract suggests its future usage in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing subjective and psychomotor effects of the herbal medication valerian in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Sandra; Ang-Lee, Michael K; Walker, Diana J; Zacny, James P

    2004-05-01

    Valerian is the common name given to the genus Valeriana, an odiferous, herbaceous perennial plant widely distributed in the temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and North America. It is among the most widely used herbal medicines in the world. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated valerian's ability to improve sleep; however, to the best of our knowledge, no study has systematically assessed subjective and psychomotor/cognitive effects of valerian in young healthy adults across a range of doses. In the present study, we sought to determine whether valerian extract (Valeriana officinalis) altered mood and/or impaired psychomotor/cognitive performance in young healthy volunteers. We examined the effects of valerian extract (600, 1200, and 1800 mg) and 10 mg diazepam (positive control) compared to placebo in 10 young healthy volunteers. Dependent measures included subjective and psychomotor variables. The valerian extract had no significant effects on any of the dependent measures. Diazepam, though, produced subjective effects as measured by four different rating scales, and impaired psychomotor/cognitive performance. The data suggest that acute administration of valerian does not have mood-altering or psychomotor/cognitive effects in young healthy volunteers.

  10. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

    2010-07-01

    Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Further Characterization of the Predictive Validity of the Brattleboro Rat Model for Antipsychotic Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Feifel, D.; Shilling, P. D.; Melendez, G.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory and others have reported that Brattleboro (BRAT) rats, a Long Evans (LE) strain with a single gene mutation, have inherent deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) homologous to those observed in schizophrenia patients and that these deficits are reversed by antipsychotic drugs (APDs). To further evaluate the potential predictive validity of BRAT rat PPI for APDs, we compared the effects of acute subcutaneous administration of the typical APD chlorpromazine to that of three psychotropic drugs without antipsychotic efficacy, the antidepressant imipramine, the anxiolytic diazepam and the anticonvulsant mood stabilizer valproic acid on male and female BRAT rat PPI. Male and female BRAT rats exhibited baseline (saline treatment) PPI that was not different from each other (21.1 % and 21.3 %, respectively) and low compared to those historically exhibited by LE rats (approximately 59 %). Chlorpromazine facilitated PPI in male and female BRAT rats, whereas imipramine, diazepam, and valproic acid had no significant effect on PPI. These results suggest that PPI in the BRAT rat responds specifically to drugs with APD efficacy but not psychotropic drugs of different therapeutic families. PMID:21106605

  12. Stress-induced hyperlocomotion as a confounding factor in anxiety and depression models in mice.

    PubMed

    Strekalova, T; Spanagel, R; Dolgov, O; Bartsch, D

    2005-05-01

    Chronic stress is broadly used to model anxiety and depression. However, in chronic stress models, anxiety- and depression-like behaviors might be masked by unspecific effects of stress. We tested whether chronic stress in mice can induce unspecific changes in locomotion, and whether these changes interfere with the measurement of anxiety and forced-swimming behaviors. Also, we studied these latter behaviors in relation to the duration of stress, the lighting conditions during testing, and after the injection of diazepam. We employed a 4-week chronic stress paradigm, adopted from a model of stress-induced anhedonia and a 1-week subchronic stress, both consisting of rat exposure, restraint stress and tail suspension. Chronically stressed mice, tested under bright and moderate illumination, exhibited 'anxiolytic-like' behavior along with prolonged swimming and hyperactivity. These behaviors were not detectable under weak illumination or after the injection of diazepam (0.25 mg/kg). Instead, normal locomotion, increased anxiety and inhibited swimming were revealed under these conditions. Thus, chronic stress can induce hyperlocomotion in mice, which is triggered by acute stressors such as light, and interferes with the evaluation of anxiety and forced swimming. One week of stress did not change locomotion and forced swimming, and increased anxiety irrespective of illumination applied during testing. Our data can possibly explain previously reported contradictions in the behavioral testing of mice with chronic stress models of anxiety and depression.

  13. The mouse beam walking assay offers improved sensitivity over the mouse rotarod in determining motor coordination deficits induced by benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Joanna L; Lincoln, Rachael J; Brown, Terry A; McDonald, Louise M; Dawson, Gerard R; Reynolds, David S

    2005-05-01

    The mouse rotarod test of motor coordination/sedation is commonly used to predict clinical sedation caused by novel drugs. However, past experience suggests that it lacks the desired degree of sensitivity to be predictive of effects in humans. For example, the benzodiazepine, bretazenil, showed little impairment of mouse rotarod performance, but marked sedation in humans. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the mouse beam walking assay demonstrates: (i) an increased sensitivity over the rotarod and (ii) an increased ability to predict clinically sedative doses of benzodiazepines. The study compared the effects of the full benzodiazepine agonists, diazepam and lorazepam, and the partial agonist, bretazenil, on the mouse rotarod and beam walking assays. Diazepam and lorazepam significantly impaired rotarod performance, although relatively high GABA-A receptor occupancy was required (72% and 93%, respectively), whereas beam walking performance was significantly affected at approximately 30% receptor occupancy. Bretazenil produced significant deficits at 90% and 53% receptor occupancy on the rotarod and beam walking assays, respectively. The results suggest that the mouse beam walking assay is a more sensitive tool for determining benzodiazepine-induced motor coordination deficits than the rotarod. Furthermore, the GABA-A receptor occupancy values at which significant deficits were determined in the beam walking assay are comparable with those observed in clinical positron emission tomography studies using sedative doses of benzodiazepines. These data suggest that the beam walking assay may be able to more accurately predict the clinically sedative doses of novel benzodiazepine-like drugs.

  14. Psychopharmacological properties of saponins from Randia nilotica stem bark.

    PubMed

    Danjuma, N M; Chindo, B A; Abdu-Aguye, I; Anuka, J A; Hussaini, I M

    2014-01-01

    Decoctions of Randia nilotica Stapf. (Rubiaceae) have been used in the Nigerian traditional medicine for the management of epilepsy, anxiety, depression and psychosis for many years and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of Northern Nigeria. The aim of this study is to establish whether the saponins present in R. nilotica are responsible for its acclaimed beneficial effects in Nigerian traditional medicine. The behavioural properties of the saponin-rich fraction (SFRN) of R. nilotica stem bark were studied on hole-board, diazepam-induced sleep, rota-rod and beam-walking in mice. The anticonvulsant properties of SFRN were also examined on maximal electroshock, pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal LD₅₀ of SFRN in mice and rats were estimated to be 11.1 and 70.7 mg/kg, respectively. SFRN significantly prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep; diminished head dip counts in the hole-board test and protected mice against maximal electroshock seizures. SFRN failed to protect mice against pentylenetetrazole- and strychnine-induced seizures; and had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill at the doses tested. SFRN significantly decreased the number of foot slips in the beam-walking assay in mice with no effect on time to reach the goal box. This study provides evidence of the psychopharmacological effects of SFRN, thus supporting further development of the psychoactive components as remedies for epilepsy.

  15. Antianxiety effect of cannabis: involvement of central benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Sethi, B B; Trivedi, J K; Kumar, P; Gulati, A; Agarwal, A K; Sethi, N

    1986-01-01

    The present work, involving clinical, behavioral, and biochemical studies, was undertaken to elucidate the probable mechanism of the observed antianxiety effects of cannabis. The population for the clinical study consisted of 50 male chronic cannabis users who were otherwise healthy and 50 matched controls. When evaluated on Taylor's Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMA), these subjects had low anxiety scores as compared with the controls. To explore the possible interaction of cannabis with the benzodiazepine receptors, behavioral and biochemical studies in mice were devised, involving acute and chronic cannabis administration. Behavioral study revealed that mice under chronic cannabis treatment scored significantly higher on foot shock-induced aggression, but this was significantly blocked by benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Furthermore, chronic cannabis treatment significantly (p less than 0.001) increased the frequency of licking response periodically punished by shocks. This confirms the antianxiety effect of cannabis, which also appears to be mediated through a benzodiazepine receptor, as it was reduced significantly (p less than 0.001) by a benzodiazepine receptor blocker. Specific 3H-diazepam binding was carried out in frontal cortex to assess both the population and affinity of benzodiazepine receptors. Our results indicate that acute cannabis treatment has no significant effect, whereas chronic cannabis treatment significantly increased 3H-diazepam binding as compared with controls. Scatchard analysis further reveals that increased affinity is responsible for increased binding to these receptors. It is therefore our contention that the antianxiety effect of cannabis is mediated through central benzodiazepine receptors.

  16. Translating Benzodiazepine Utilization Data into Meaningful Population Exposure: Integration of Two Metrics for Improved Reporting.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jaden; Alkabanni, Wajd; Alessi-Severini, Silvia; Leong, Christine

    2018-04-04

    Drug utilization research on benzodiazepines remains important for measuring trends in consumption within and across borders over time for the sake of monitoring prescribing patterns and identifying potential population safety concerns. The defined daily dose (DDD) system by the World Health Organization (WHO) remains the internationally accepted standard for measuring drug consumption; however, beyond consumption, DDD-based results are difficult to interpret when individual agents are compared with one another or are pooled into a total class-based estimate. The diazepam milligram equivalent (DME) system provides approximate conversions between benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (i.e. zopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon) based on their pharmacologic potency. Despite this, conversion of total dispensed benzodiazepine quantities into DME values retains diazepam milligrams as the total unit of measurement, which is also impractical for population-level interpretation. In this paper, we propose the use of an integrated DME-DDD metric to obviate the limitations encountered when the component metrics are used in isolation. Through a case example, we demonstrate significant change in results between the DDD and DME-DDD method. Unlike the DDD method, the integrated DME-DDD metric offers estimation of population pharmacologic exposure, and enables superior interpretation of drug utilization results, especially for drug class summary reporting.

  17. Diagnostic performance of the EMIT-tox benzodiazepine immunoassay, FPIA serum benzodiazepine immunoassay, and radioreceptor assay in suspected acute poisoning.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, A G; Belpaire, F M; Leroux-Roels, G G

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the EMIT-tox serum benzodiazepine assay adapted to a Hitachi 717 analyzer (EMIT), the Abbott ADx serum benzodiazepine fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA), and a radioreceptor assay (RRA) in 113 patients with suspected acute poisoning. The reference method was high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection after solid-phase extraction. For the discrimination between negative and positive samples, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were 0.976, 0.991, and 0.991 for EMIT (cutoff, 50-ng/mL diazepam), FPIA (cutoff, 12-ng/mL nordiazepam), and RRA (cutoff, 50-ng/mL diazepam), respectively. For the discrimination between non-toxic and toxic concentrations, the areas under the ROC curves were 0.896, 0.893, and 0.933, respectively. EMIT (with the cutoff lowered to 50 ng/mL), FPIA, and RRA can be reliably used to screen for the presence of benzodiazepines in serum, but in many cases they cannot discriminate between toxic and nontoxic concentrations.

  18. Ethanol-induced dopamine elevation in the rat--modulatory effects by subchronic treatment with nicotinic drugs.

    PubMed

    Löf, Elin; Chau, Pei Pei; Stomberg, Rosita; Söderpalm, Bo

    2007-01-26

    Chronic nicotine administration is associated with increased ethanol consumption in laboratory animals and in humans. Some smokers report less sedation during acute ethanol intoxication after nicotine administration and the sedative effects from ethanol are mediated by inhibitory GABA(A)-receptors. In a series of in vivo microdialysis experiments we investigated whether subchronic pre-treatment with nicotinic drugs known to enhance ethanol consumption in the rat (nicotine or the peripheral nicotinic antagonist hexamethonium) could modulate the alterations in extracellular dopamine observed in response to administration of ethanol or the sedative GABA(A)-agonist diazepam. In the nucleus accumbens and the dorsal striatum, systemic and/or local ethanol administration resulted in transient increases in extracellular dopamine levels that returned to baseline before the local levels of ethanol started to decline. In hexamethonium pre-treated rats, however, the nucleus accumbens dopamine levels were time-locked to the ethanol levels in the same area after systemic or local ethanol administration. Perfusion of diazepam into the nucleus accumbens produced a significant reduction in nucleus accumbens dopamine in controls. Prior subchronic treatment with nicotine or hexamethonium abolished this effect. The present results suggest that subchronic treatment with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist hexamethonium reduces a GABA(A)-R mediated counteraction of the nucleus accumbens dopamine response to ethanol. Additionally, we demonstrate that modulation of nicotinic receptors may reduce the sensitivity of GABA(A) receptors to benzodiazepines. These phenomena may offer a novel explanation to why nicotine and alcohol are often co-abused.

  19. Massive intoxication involving unusual high concentration of amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Margalho, Cláudia; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia; Monsanto, Paula; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-01

    Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant widely used in the treatment of depression. Antidepressant drugs are among the most commonly encountered causes of self-poisoning, as illustrated by several published cases in the literature. This investigation reports a case of massive amitriptyline intoxication, involving a 44-year old female found dead in bed. The presence of this tricyclic antidepressant was revealed by a routine screening procedure. The concentration was calculated by gas chromatography/ electron ionization-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode after solid-phase extraction using proadifen as internal standard and was in the post-mortem whole blood sample 85.9 mug/mL. This value was much higher than the reported toxic values ever found in the literature, and may therefore have caused the victim's death. Nortriptyline was also detected in the toxic concentration range, as well as therapeutic levels of diazepam and nor-diazepam. Taking into account both the available circumstantial information and toxicological results, it is very likely that death was caused by self-poisoning. Human & Experimental Toxicology (2007) 26, 667-670.

  20. Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models

    PubMed Central

    Mahendra, Poonam; Bisht, Shradha

    2011-01-01

    Interest in alternative medicine and plant-derived medications that affect the “mind” is growing. The aim of present study was to explore the anti-anxiety activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Coriandrum sativum (Linn.) using different animal models (elevated plus maze, open field test, light and dark test and social interaction test) of anxiety in mice. Diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) was used as the standard and dose of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum fruit (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) was selected as per OECD guidelines. Results suggested that extract of C. sativum at 100 and 200 mg/kg dose produced anti-anxiety effects almost similar to diazepam, and at 50 mg/kg dose did not produce anti-anxiety activity on any of the paradigm used. Further studies are needed to identify the anxiolytic mechanism(s) and the phytoconstituents responsible for the observed central effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativum. PMID:22022003

  1. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. in mice: A preliminary experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Latha, K.; Rammohan, B.; Sunanda, B. P. V.; Maheswari, M. S. Uma; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the anxiolytic effect of Coriandrum sativum (CS) aqueous extract in mice. To compare the antianxiety activity of CS against standard drug diazepam (3 mg/kg). Materials and Methods: After obtaining Institutional Animal Ethics Committee approval, Swiss albino mice (18–25 g) of either sex were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Dried powder of CS leaves was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on a hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. The control group, test group, and standard drugs group received saline, CS extract (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), diazepam (3 mg/kg), respectively, by oral feeding. The antianxiety effect was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) in mice. Results: In EPM, it implied that CS 50 mg/kg (Group III), 100 mg/kg (Group IV), and 200 mg/kg (Group V) significantly (P < 0.001) increases the number of entries in open arms compared to control. The time spent in open arms also increased in all the doses of CS extract significantly. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates statistically significant dose-dependent antianxiety activity of CS leaves. PMID:26109787

  2. Reinforced spatial alternation as an animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): investigation of 5-HT2C and 5-HT1D receptor involvement in OCD pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Tsaltas, Eleftheria; Kontis, Dimitris; Chrysikakou, Sofia; Giannou, Haralambos; Biba, Angeliki; Pallidi, Stella; Christodoulou, Angeliki; Maillis, Antonis; Rabavilas, Andreas

    2005-05-15

    This study introduces a laboratory model of compulsive behavior based on persistence in the context of rewarded spatial alternation. Rats were screened for spontaneous persistence during T-maze reinforced alternation. Experiment 1: One high and one low spontaneous persistence group (n = 8) received 20 injections of fluoxetine, a matched pair saline, both followed by 4 days of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) challenge. Experiment 2: Five matched groups of rats (n = 9) received pretreatment (20 injections) with fluoxetine, mCPP, desipramine, diazepam or saline, followed by 4 days of mCPP challenge (fluoxetine in mCPP group). After washout, animals received 2 days of naratriptan, followed by another 2-day mCPP challenge. In both experiments mCPP significantly increased persistence in saline controls. Fluoxetine also acutely increased persistence scores: after a gradual return to baseline, these scores showed tolerance to mCPP. Experiment 1: This pattern was significant in high but not low initial persistence groups. Experiment 2: Fluoxetine and mCPP showed cross-tolerance. Neither desipramine nor diazepam protected against mCPP challenge. Persistence scores returned to baseline during washout and naratriptan and were thereafter increased by another mCPP challenge in all but the fluoxetine and mCPP groups, suggesting 5-HT2C receptor mediation. This model is based on spontaneous persistence behavior showing pharmacological responses concordant with those of compulsive symptomatology.

  3. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

    PubMed

    Vanova, Nela; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Herman, David; Dlabkova, Alzbeta; Jun, Daniel

    2018-08-01

    Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP-induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP-mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches (including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs) in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Detection and quantification of benzodiazepines in hair by ToF-SIMS: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audinot, J.-N.; Yegles, M.; Labarthe, A.; Ruch, D.; Wennig, R.; Migeon, H.-N.

    2003-01-01

    Successful results have been obtained in detection and quantification of buprenorphine in urine and hemolysed blood by time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The present work is focused on four molecules of the benzodiazepine's family: nordiazepam, aminoflunitrozepam, diazepam and oxazepam. These drugs remain difficult to analyse in routine clinical and forensic toxicology because of their thermal instability and low therapeutic range (0.5-5 ng/ml). Internal standards are prepared by means of deuterated molecules. The benzadiazepine and their deuterated form (nordiazepam-D5, amino-flunitrazepam-D3, diazepam-D5 and oxazepam-D5) were added, in known concentration, in urine. These molecules were then extracted with several methods (pH, solvent, etc.) and, after adsorption on a noble metal, analysed by ToF-SIMS. The paper will focus for the different molecules on the comparison of the different preparation procedures, the optimisation of the SIMS conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification.

  5. Water-soluble benzodiazepine prodrug/enzyme combinations for intranasal rescue therapies.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Ronald A; Kapoor, Mamta; Cheryala, Narsihmulu; Georg, Gunda I; Cloyd, James C

    2015-08-01

    Benzodiazepines (BZDs), including diazepam (DZP) and midazolam (MDZ), are drugs of choice for rapid treatment of seizure emergencies. Current approved use of these drugs involves administration via either intravenous or rectal routes. The former requires trained medical personnel, while the latter is socially unacceptable for many patients and caregivers. In recent years, efforts have been made to formulate BZDs for nasal administration. Because of the low solubility of these molecules, organic vehicles have been used to solubilize the drugs in the nasal products under development. However, organic solvents are irritating, potentially resulting in injury to nasal tissue. Here we report preliminary studies supporting a strategy in which water-soluble BZD prodrugs and a suitable converting enzyme are coadministered in an aqueous vehicle. Diazepam and midazolam prodrugs were synthesized and were readily converted to their active forms by a protease from Aspergillus oryzae. Using a permeation assay based on monolayers of Madin-Darby canine kidney II-wild type cells, we found that enzymatically produced BZDs could be maintained at high degrees of supersaturation, enabling faster transport across the membrane than can be achieved using saturated solutions. This strategy not only obviates the need for organic solvents, but it also suggests more rapid absorption and earlier peak concentrations than can be otherwise achieved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anxiety does not contribute to social withdrawal in the subchronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Seillier, Alexandre; Giuffrida, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Social withdrawal should not be considered a direct measure of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia as it may result not only from asociality (primary negative symptom) but also from other altered processes such as anxiety. To understand the contribution of these two factors to social deficit, we investigated whether the social withdrawal observed in the subchronic phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia could be attributed to increased anxiety. Compared to saline controls, PCP-treated rats (5 mg/kg, twice daily for 7 days, followed by a washout period) spent significantly less time in social interaction, but did not show anxiety-like behaviors in different relevant behavioral paradigms. In addition, their social deficit was not affected by a behavioral procedure known to reduce anxiety-like behavior (repeated exposure to the same partner) nor by systemic administration of the classical anxiolytic diazepam. In contrast, PCP-induced social withdrawal was reversed by the cannabinoid agonist CP55,940, a drug with known anxiogenic properties. Furthermore, when using the social approach task, PCP-treated animals performed similarly to control animals treated with diazepam, but not to those treated with the anxiogenic compound pentylenetetrazole. Taken together, our results indicate that PCP-induced social withdrawal cannot be attributed to increased anxiety. These data are discussed in the context of primary versus secondary negative symptoms and the deficit syndrome of schizophrenia.

  7. Women with PTSD have a changed sensitivity to GABA-A receptor active substances.

    PubMed

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Nyberg, Sigrid; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2016-06-01

    The use of benzodiazepines in treating anxiety symptoms in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been debated. Studies on other anxiety disorders have indicated changed sensitivity to GABA-A receptor active substances. In the present study, we investigated the GABA receptor sensitivity in PTSD patients. Injections of allopreganolone, diazepam, and flumazenil were carried out, each on separate occasions, in 10 drug naïve patients with PTSD compared to 10 healthy controls. Effects were measured in saccadic eye velocity (SEV) and in subjective ratings of sedation. The PTSD patients were less sensitive to allopregnanolone compared with healthy controls. This was seen as a significant difference in SEV between the groups (p = 0.047). Further, the patients were less sensitive to diazepam, with a significant less increase in sedation compared to controls (p = 0.027). After flumazenil injection, both patients and controls had a significant agonistic effect on SEV, leading to decreased SEV after injection. The patients also responded with an increase in sedation after flumazenil injection, while this was not seen in the controls. Patients with PTSD have a changed sensitivity to GABA-A receptor active substances. As a consequence of this, benzodiazepines and other GABA-A receptor active compounds such as sleeping pills will be less useful for this group of patients.

  8. Relationship between a GABAA alpha 6 Pro385Ser substitution and benzodiazepine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Iwata, N; Cowley, D S; Radel, M; Roy-Byrne, P P; Goldman, D

    1999-09-01

    In humans, interindividual variation in sensitivity to benzodiazepine drugs may correlate with behavioral variation, including vulnerability to disease states such as alcoholism. In the rat, variation in alcohol and benzodiazepine sensitivity has been correlated with an inherited variant of the GABAA alpha 6 receptor. The authors detected a Pro385Ser [1236C > T] amino acid substitution in the human GABAA alpha 6 that may influence alcohol sensitivity. In this pilot study, they evaluated the contribution of this polymorphism to benzodiazepine sensitivity. Sensitivity to diazepam was assessed in 51 children of alcoholics by using two eye movement measures: peak saccadic velocity and average smooth pursuit gain. Association analysis was performed with saccadic velocity and smooth pursuit gain as dependent variables and comparing Pro385/Ser385 heterozygotes and Pro385/Pro385 homozygotes. The Pro385Ser genotype was associated with less diazepam-induced impairment of saccadic velocity but not with smooth pursuit gain. The Pro385Ser genotype may play a role in benzodiazepine sensitivity and conditions, such as alcoholism, that may be correlated with this trait.

  9. Relative positioning of classical benzodiazepines to the γ2-subunit of GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Middendorp, Simon J; Hurni, Evelyn; Schönberger, Matthias; Stein, Marco; Pangerl, Michael; Trauner, Dirk; Sigel, Erwin

    2014-08-15

    GABAA receptors are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. Benzodiazepine exert their action via a high affinity-binding site at the α/γ subunit interface on some of these receptors. Diazepam has sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant effects. It acts by potentiating the current evoked by the agonist GABA. Understanding specific interaction of benzodiazepines in the binding pocket of different GABAA receptor isoforms might help to separate these divergent effects. As a first step, we characterized the interaction between diazepam and the major GABAA receptor isoform α1β2γ2. We mutated several amino acid residues on the γ2-subunit assumed to be located near or in the benzodiazepine binding pocket individually to cysteine and studied the interaction with three ligands that are modified with a cysteine-reactive isothiocyanate group (-NCS). When the reactive NCS group is in apposition to the cysteine residue this leads to a covalent reaction. In this way, three amino acid residues, γ2Tyr58, γ2Asn60, and γ2Val190 were located relative to classical benzodiazepines in their binding pocket on GABAA receptors.

  10. Behavioural profiles in the mouse defence test battery suggest anxiolytic potential of 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Griebel, G; Rodgers, R J; Perrault, G; Sanger, D J

    1999-05-01

    Compounds varying in selectivity as 5-HT1A receptor antagonists have recently been reported to produce anxiolytic-like effects comparable to those of benzodiazepines in the mouse elevated plus-maze procedure. In view of the potential clinical significance of these findings, the present experiments compared the behavioural effects of diazepam (0.5-3.0 mg/kg) with those of several non-selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists [NAN-190, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg, MM-77, 0.03-1.0 mg/kg, (S)-UH-301, 0.3-3.0 mg/kg and pindobind-5-HT1A, 0.03-1.0 mg/kg], and three selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists (WAY100635, 0.01-3.0 mg/kg, p-MPPI, 0.1-3.0 mg/kg and SL88.0338, 0.3-3.0 mg/kg) in the mouse defence test battery (MDTB). In this well-validated anxiolytic screening test, Swiss mice are directly confronted with a natural threat (a rat) as well as situations associated with this threat. Primary measures taken during and after rat confrontation were flight, risk assessment (RA), defensive threat/attack and escape attempts. Diazepam significantly decreased flight reactions after the rat was introduced into the runway, reduced RA activities of mice chased by the rat, increased RA responses displayed when subjects were constrained in a straight alley and reduced defensive upright postures and biting upon forced contact. All the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists and NAN-190 also reduced flight, RA in the chase test, and defensive threat and attack behaviours. (S)-UH-301 and pindobind-5-HT1A reduced RA in the chase test, but only partially modified defensive threat and attack. Unlike the other drugs tested, MM-77 produced significant effects only at doses which also markedly reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, suggesting a behaviourally non-specific action. In contrast to diazepam, the 5-HT1A receptor ligands failed to affect RA in the straight alley test. Following removal of the rat from the test area, only diazepam and (S)-UH-301 reduced escape behaviour (contextual defence) at doses

  11. Effects of protein restriction, melatonin administration, and short daylength on brain benzodiazepine receptors in prepubertal male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kennaway, D.J.; Royles, P.; Webb, H.

    The possibility that there are changes in brain benzodiazepine binding sites controlled by photoperiod was investigated in two strains of male rats. The hypothesis was tested by 3H-diazepam binding studies in various brain regions of prepubertal rats maintained in 14 or 10 h of light or treated with late-afternoon injections of melatonin (50 micrograms/day). Protein restriction was applied during the experiment to sensitize the animals to the treatments. Under the conditions employed, rats kept in short daylength throughout or kept on long photoperiod and given late-afternoon melatonin injections showed evidence of delayed puberty (seminal vesicle, ventral prostate, and testis weightmore » decreased by 45%, 55%, and 60% respectively, compared to control rats). Binding measurements were made 1 h before and 2 and 5 h after the onset of darkness in the pubertal (42-day-old) or experimentally prepubertal rats. In the rats of the Porton strain (for which protein restriction was obligatory for the gonadal response) there was no consistent treatment or time effects on specific binding of 3H-diazepam to washed membranes of the hypothalamus, midbrain, or striatum. Similarly, there were no differences in the stimulation of 3H-diazepam binding by 100 microM GABA or the inhibition of binding by 50 microM N-acetyl 5 methoxy kynurenamine. By contrast, in Wistar rats, specific binding to midbrain membranes was reduced 5 h after dark compared to 2 h (37% saline; 20% melatonin) and the extent of stimulation by GABA in the hypothalamus was increased 5 h after darkness (35.6% to 46.7% saline; 37.4% to 50% melatonin). Melatonin treatment resulted in significantly higher specific binding in the hypothalamus 2 h after dark (10%, control fed; 20%, protein restricted) but reduced the GABA induced stimulation of binding in the midbrain (35.5% to 25%, control fed; 33.7% to 23.5%, protein restricted).« less

  12. Behavioral Assessment of NIH Swiss Mice Acutely Intoxicated with Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Brenna M.; Silverman, Jill L.; Bruun, Donald A.; Puhger, Kyle R.; McCoy, Mark R.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is thought to trigger seizures by inhibiting the function of the type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR). Acute intoxication with TETS can cause vomiting, convulsions, status epilepticus (SE) and even death. Clinical case reports indicate that individuals who survive poisoning may exhibit long-term neuropsychological issues and cognitive deficits. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine whether a recently described mouse model of acute TETS intoxication exhibits persistent behavioral deficits. Young adult male NIH Swiss mice received a seizure-inducing dose of TETS (0.15 mg/kg, ip) and then were rescued from lethality by administration of diazepam (5 mg/kg, ip) approximately 20 min post-TETS-exposure. TETS-intoxicated mice typically exhibited 2 clonic seizures prior to administration of diazepam with no subsequent seizures post-diazepam injection as assessed using behavioral criteria. Seizures lasted an average of 72 seconds. Locomotor activity, anxiety-like and depression-relevant behaviors and cognition were assessed at 1 week, 1 month and 2 months post-TETS exposure using open field, elevated-plus maze, light↔dark transitions, tail suspension, forced swim and novel object recognition tasks. Interestingly, preliminary validation tests indicated that NIH Swiss mice do not respond to the shock in fear conditioning tasks. Subsequent evaluation of hot plate and tail flick nociception tasks revealed that this strain exhibits significantly decreased pain sensitivity relative to age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice, which displayed normal contextual fear conditioning. NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with TETS exhibited no significant anxiety-related, depression-relevant, learning or memory deficits relative to vehicle controls at any of the time points assessed with the exception of significantly increased locomotor activity at 2 months post-TETS intoxication. The

  13. Acute orexigenic effect of agmatine involves interaction between central α2-adrenergic and GABAergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Brijesh Gulabrao; Sharma, Omi; Aglawe, Manish Manohar; Kale, Mayur Bhimrao; Gawande, Dinesh Yugraj; Umekar, Milind Janraoji; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2017-09-01

    Agmatine and GABA have been abundantly expressed in brain nuclei involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and promoting stimulation of food intake in rodents. However, their mutual interaction, if any, in the elicitation of feeding behavior is largely remains unclear. The current study provides experimental evidence for the possible interaction of agmatine, adrenergic and GABAergic systems in stimulation of feeding in satiated rats. Satiated rats fitted with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae and were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (a) GABA A receptor agonist, muscimol, diazepam or antagonist bicuculline and flumazenil, GABA A positive modulator, allopregnanolone or negative modulator of GABA A receptor, dehydroepiandrosterone (b) In view of the high affinity of agmatine for α 2 -adrenoceptors and the close association between α 2 -adrenoceptors and GABAergic system, the effect of their modulators on feeding elicited by agmatine/GABAergic agonists were also examined. I.c.v. administration of agmatine (40-80μg/rat) induces the significant orexigenic effect in satiated rats. The orexigenic effect of agmatine was potentiated by muscimol (25ng/rat, i.c.v.); diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.); allopregnanolone (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and blocked by bicuculline (1mg/kg, i.p.) and dehydroepiandrosterone (4mg/kg,s.c.). However, it remained unaffected in presence of flumazenil (25ng/rat, i.c.v.). The orexigenic effect of agmatine and GABAergic agonists was potentiated by a α 2 -adrenoceptors agonist, clonidine (10ng/rat, i.c.v.) and blocked by its antagonist, yohimbine (5μg/rat, i.c.v.). Yohimbine also blocked the hyperphagic effect elicited by ineffective dose combination of agmatine (5μg/rat, i.c.v.) with muscimol (25ng/rat, i.c.v.) or diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) or allopregnanolone (0.5mg/kg,s.c.). The results of the present study suggest that agmatine induced α 2 -adrenoceptors activation might facilitate GABAergic activity to stimulate food intake in

  14. Bidirectional Control of Social Behavior by Activity within Basolateral and Central Amygdala of Primates.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Laurie L; Forcelli, Patrick A; Aguilar, Brittany L; Malkova, Ludise

    2016-08-17

    Both hypoactivity and hyperactivity in the amygdala are associated with perturbations in social behavior. While >60 years of experimental manipulations of the amygdala in animal models have shown that amygdala is critical for social behavior, many of these studies contradict one another. Moreover, several questions remain unaddressed. (1) What effect does activation of amygdala have on social behavior? (2) What is the effect of transient silencing, rather than permanent damage? (3) Is there a dissociation between the roles of the central (CeA) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in regulating social behavior? (4) Can the prosocial effects of amygdala manipulations be explained by anxiolytic effects? We focally manipulated activity within the CeA or BLA in macaques by intracerebral microinjection of muscimol (to inactivate) or bicuculline (to activate) to these amygdaloid subregions. Social interactions were observed in pairs of highly familiar monkeys. We compared these effects to those achieved with systemic diazepam. Activation of the BLA but not CeA suppressed social behavior. Inhibition of either structure increased social behavior, although the effect was greater following inhibition of the BLA. Systemic diazepam was without effect. These studies, which are the first to bidirectionally manipulate the primate amygdala for effects on social behavior, revealed that (1) the amygdala, as a critical regulator of the social network, is bidirectionally sensitive to perturbations in activity, and (2) increased sociability after amygdala inactivation cannot be solely explained by decreased fear. Many previous studies reported loss of social interactions following permanent damage to the amygdala in nonhuman primates. In contrast, we report that transient inhibition of the basolateral amygdala triggered a profound increase in social interactions in dyads of monkeys highly familiar with each other. We compared these effects to those of systemic diazepam, which failed to

  15. Prevention and management of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An evidence-based strategy exists to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality associated with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E), but it may be difficult to implement in low-resource settings. This study examines whether facilities that provide emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in Afghanistan have the capacity to manage severe PE/E cases. Methods A further analysis was conducted of the 2009–10 Afghanistan EmONC Needs Assessment. Assessors observed equipment and supplies available, and services provided at 78 of the 127 facilities offering comprehensive EmONC services and interviewed 224 providers. The providers also completed a written case scenario on severe PE/E. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize facility and provider characteristics. Student t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were significant differences between facility types, doctors and midwives, and trained and untrained providers. Results The median number of severe PE/E cases in the past year was just 5 (range 0–42) at comprehensive health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals, compared with 44 (range 0–130) at provincial hospitals and 108 (range 32–540) at regional and specialized hospitals (p < 0.001). Most facilities had the drugs and supplies needed to treat severe PE/E, including the preferred anticonvulsant, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). One-third of the smallest facilities and half of larger facilities reported administering a second-line drug, diazepam, in some cases. In the case scenario, 96% of doctors and 89% of midwives recognized that MgSO4 should be used to manage severe PE/E, but 42% of doctors and 58% of midwives also thought diazepam had a role to play. Providers who were trained on the use of MgSO4 scored significantly higher than untrained providers on six of 20 items in the case scenario. Providers at larger facilities significantly outscored those at smaller facilities on five items. There

  16. Modulation of Ethanol Withdrawal–Induced Anxiety-Like Behavior During Later Withdrawals by Treatment of Early Withdrawals With Benzodiazepine/γ-Aminobutyric Acid Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Darin J.; Overstreet, David H.; Breese, George R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety states, including those arising during acute or protracted withdrawal periods, may be precipitating factors in alcoholic relapse. Given the cyclical nature of ethanol withdrawal associated with repeated cycles of ethanol intake and abstinence in a pattern that often spans years, meaningful attempts to model ethanol withdrawal–associated anxiety should incorporate cycled ethanol treatments. The studies reported herein examined the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid–modulating drugs on social interaction behavior—an established model of anxiety—in rats exposed to repeated cycles of ethanol treatment and withdrawal. Methods Rats were exposed to 8 to 12 g/kg/day ethanol during three 7-day dietary cycles (5 days on ethanol diet followed by 2 days on control diet). Ethanol was administered either at hour 4 of withdrawal after cessation of each of the first 2 ethanol cycles or during the final withdrawal only. In other groups, the early withdrawals were treated with alphaxalone, diazepam, PK11159, or flumazenil to block anxiety-like behavior during an untreated later (third) withdrawal. The benzodiazepine inverse agonist DMCM (methyl–6, 7–dymerhoxy–4–ethyl–beta–carboline–3–carboxylate) was also given repeatedly to determine whether it would sensitize anxiety-like behavior during a future withdrawal. Finally, the effects of all drugs on deficits in locomotor behavior were assessed. Results Pretreatment of earlier withdrawals with alphaxalone, diazepam, ethanol, or flumazenil reduced social interaction deficits during a later withdrawal, but pretreatment with PK11195 did not. In contrast, DMCM administered in lieu of early withdrawals increased social interaction deficits during an untreated later withdrawal. Locomotor deficits were significantly reversed only by the acute ethanol and diazepam treatment during the final withdrawal. Conclusions Single-dose administration of drugs that enhance or diminish activity at benzodiazepine

  17. Modulation of ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behavior during later withdrawals by treatment of early withdrawals with benzodiazepine/gamma-aminobutyric acid ligands.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Darin J; Overstreet, David H; Breese, George R

    2005-04-01

    Anxiety states, including those arising during acute or protracted withdrawal periods, may be precipitating factors in alcoholic relapse. Given the cyclical nature of ethanol withdrawal associated with repeated cycles of ethanol intake and abstinence in a pattern that often spans years, meaningful attempts to model ethanol withdrawal-associated anxiety should incorporate cycled ethanol treatments. The studies reported herein examined the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid-modulating drugs on social interaction behavior-an established model of anxiety-in rats exposed to repeated cycles of ethanol treatment and withdrawal. Rats were exposed to 8 to 12 g/kg/day ethanol during three 7-day dietary cycles (5 days on ethanol diet followed by 2 days on control diet). Ethanol was administered either at hour 4 of withdrawal after cessation of each of the first 2 ethanol cycles or during the final withdrawal only. In other groups, the early withdrawals were treated with alphaxalone, diazepam, PK11159, or flumazenil to block anxiety-like behavior during an untreated later (third) withdrawal. The benzodiazepine inverse agonist DMCM (methyl-6, 7-dymerhoxy-4-ethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate) was also given repeatedly to determine whether it would sensitize anxiety-like behavior during a future withdrawal. Finally, the effects of all drugs on deficits in locomotor behavior were assessed. Pretreatment of earlier withdrawals with alphaxalone, diazepam, ethanol, or flumazenil reduced social interaction deficits during a later withdrawal, but pretreatment with PK11195 did not. In contrast, DMCM administered in lieu of early withdrawals increased social interaction deficits during an untreated later withdrawal. Locomotor deficits were significantly reversed only by the acute ethanol and diazepam treatment during the final withdrawal. Single-dose administration of drugs that enhance or diminish activity at benzodiazepine-gamma-aminobutyric acid- receptors during earlier withdrawals

  18. Prevention and management of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Mi; Ansari, Nasratullah; Kols, Adrienne; Tappis, Hannah; Currie, Sheena; Zainullah, Partamin; Bailey, Patricia; van Roosmalen, Jos; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2013-10-12

    An evidence-based strategy exists to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality associated with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E), but it may be difficult to implement in low-resource settings. This study examines whether facilities that provide emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in Afghanistan have the capacity to manage severe PE/E cases. A further analysis was conducted of the 2009-10 Afghanistan EmONC Needs Assessment. Assessors observed equipment and supplies available, and services provided at 78 of the 127 facilities offering comprehensive EmONC services and interviewed 224 providers. The providers also completed a written case scenario on severe PE/E. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize facility and provider characteristics. Student t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-square tests were performed to determine whether there were significant differences between facility types, doctors and midwives, and trained and untrained providers. The median number of severe PE/E cases in the past year was just 5 (range 0-42) at comprehensive health centers (CHCs) and district hospitals, compared with 44 (range 0-130) at provincial hospitals and 108 (range 32-540) at regional and specialized hospitals (p < 0.001). Most facilities had the drugs and supplies needed to treat severe PE/E, including the preferred anticonvulsant, magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). One-third of the smallest facilities and half of larger facilities reported administering a second-line drug, diazepam, in some cases. In the case scenario, 96% of doctors and 89% of midwives recognized that MgSO4 should be used to manage severe PE/E, but 42% of doctors and 58% of midwives also thought diazepam had a role to play. Providers who were trained on the use of MgSO4 scored significantly higher than untrained providers on six of 20 items in the case scenario. Providers at larger facilities significantly outscored those at smaller facilities on five items. There was a significant difference between

  19. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  20. The stiff-man syndrome: new pathophysiological aspects from abnormal exteroceptive reflexes and the response to clomipramine, clonidine, and tizanidine.

    PubMed Central

    Meinck, H M; Ricker, K; Conrad, B

    1984-01-01

    Neurophysiological investigations of a patient suffering from the stiff-man syndrome revealed that exteroceptive reflexes, in particular those elicited from the skin, were excessively enhanced. In contrast, no abnormalities were found within the monosynaptic reflex arc. Clomipramine injection severely aggravated the clinical symptoms whereas diazepam, clonidine, and tizanidine decreased both muscular stiffness and abnormal exteroceptive reflexes. The hypothesis is put forward that the stiff-man syndrome is a disorder of descending brain-stem systems which exert a net inhibitory control on axial and limb girdle muscle tone as well as on exteroceptive reflex transmission. Detection of abnormal exteroceptive reflex activity in conjunction with neuropharmacological testing might help in the diagnosis of this rare disease. PMID:6707674

  1. Imidazenil prevention of alprazolam-induced acquisition deficit in patas monkeys is devoid of tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Auta, James; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2000-01-01

    The partial allosteric modulators (PAMs) of γ-aminobutyric acid-gated Cl− current intensities at γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors have high affinity but low intrinsic efficacy on benzodiazepine recognition sites. Unlike the full allosteric modulators (FAM), like alprazolam, triazolam, and diazepam, PAMs are virtually devoid of unwanted side effects, including tolerance. Imidazenil (IMD) is a PAM that elicits potent anxiolytic and anticonvulsant actions in rodents and nonhuman primates and retains its anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects, even in rodents that are tolerant to FAMs. IMD antagonizes the side effects of FAMs in rodents and nonhuman primates. Using patas monkeys and a multiple schedule with repeated acquisition and performance of chain responses, we report that IMD administration for 17 days antagonized without showing tolerance ALP-induced disruption of acquisition. PMID:10696114

  2. Isolation of compound and CNS depressant activities of Mikania scandens Willd with special emphasis to brain biogenic amines in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti

    2014-12-01

    Mikania scandens, a twining herb that grows as a weed in India and Bangladesh is used as vegetables and is a good source of vitamin A, C, B complex, mikanin, sesquiterpenes, betasitosterin, stigmasterol and friedelin. The present communication reports CNS depressant activities with special emphasis to brain biogenic amines in mice. Ethanol extract of leaves of M. scandens (EEMS) was prepared by Soxhalation and analyzed chemically. EEMS potentiated sleeping time induced by pentobarbitone, diazepam and meprobamate and showed significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches. EEMS caused significant protection against pentylene tetrazole-induced convulsion and increased catecholamines and brain amino acids level significantly. Results showed that EEMS produced good CNS depressant effects in mice.

  3. Two hundred and thirteen cases of marijuana toxicoses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Janczyk, Pawel; Donaldson, Caroline W; Gwaltney, Sharon

    2004-02-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is a commonly used recreational drug among humans; animals may be exposed following ingestion or accidental inhalation of smoke. From January 1998 to January 2002, 213 incidences were recorded of dogs that developed clinical signs following oral exposure to marijuana, with 99% having neurologic signs, and 30% exhibiting gastrointestional signs. The marijuana ingested ranged from 1/2 to 90 g. The lowest dose at which signs occurred was 84.7 mg/kg and the highest reported dose was 26.8 g/kg. Onset of signs ranged from 5 min to 96 h, with most signs occurring within 1 to 3 h after ingestion. The signs lasted from 30 min to 96 h. Management consisted of decontamination, sedation (with diazepam as drug of choice), fluid therapy, thermoregulation and general supportive care. All followed animals made full recoveries.

  4. Nalbuphine and pentazocine in an opioid-benzodiazepine sedative technique: a double-blind comparison.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, J. L.; McCaughey, W.; Bell, P. F.

    1988-01-01

    Sedation by a combination of an opioid drug such as pentazocine with a benzodiazepine is commonly used for minor surgical and investigative procedures. Nalbuphine is a newer drug which, like pentazocine, is an opioid agonist-antagonist. Its actions are similar, but it has theoretical advantages in its profile of cardiovascular side effects. Nalbuphine or pentazocine in combination with diazepam were compared as components of a sedative technique for invasive radiology. The doses used were in the ratio of 2.5:1--ie nalbuphine 0.2 mg kg-1 and pentazocine 0.5 mg kg-1. Both regimens gave satisfactory results, and no difference could be detected between them in terms of sedation, analgesic efficacy, cardiovascular or respiratory changes, or recovery. Nalbuphine provides a safe and effective alternative to pentazocine in this situation. The study confirmed the need for caution because of the respiratory depressant effects of both drugs. PMID:3046465

  5. Oral versus intravenous premedication for small bowel biopsy in children: effect on procedure and fluoroscopy times.

    PubMed

    Stenhammar, L; Wärngård, O; Lewander, P; Nordvall, M

    1993-01-01

    Oral alimemazine and cisapride, or diazepam and cisapride, or iv midazolam and metoclopramide were given as premedication for small bowel biopsy to three groups of children from a total population of 185 individuals. The biopsy procedures were performed under intermittent fluoroscopy and times for both were recorded. The median biopsy procedure time was significantly shorter in children given iv midazolam and metoclopramide (6 min) compared to those given oral premedication (10 min) (p < 0.001). The median fluoroscopy time was very short in all groups, ranging between 3 and 6 s. It is concluded that iv premedication is superior to oral premedication for small bowel biopsy in children because more effective sedation is obtained.

  6. Pharmacological validation of a novel nonhuman primate measure of thermal responsivity with utility for predicting analgesic effects.

    PubMed

    Vardigan, Joshua D; Houghton, Andrea K; Lange, Henry S; Adarayan, Emily D; Pall, Parul S; Ballard, Jeanine E; Henze, Darrell A; Uslaner, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    The development of novel analgesics to treat acute or chronic pain has been a challenge due to a lack of translatable measurements. Preclinical end points with improved translatability are necessary to more accurately inform clinical testing paradigms, which may help guide selection of viable drug candidates. In this study, a nonhuman primate biomarker which is sensitive to standard analgesics at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, can differentiate analgesia from sedation and utilizes a protocol very similar to that which can be employed in human clinical studies is described. Specifically, acute heat stimuli were delivered to the volar forearm using a contact heat thermode in the same manner as the clinical setting. Clinically efficacious exposures of morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol produced robust analgesic effects, whereas doses of diazepam that produce sedation had no effect. We propose that this assay has predictive utility that can help improve the probability of success for developing novel analgesics.

  7. BUPRENORPHINE ABUSE IN INDIA : AN UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Yogesh; Mattoo, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    This study reviews the available Indian literature on buprenorphine abuse. Buprenorphine was introduced in 1986; the abuse, first noticed in 1987, increased rapidly till 1994, and then decreased gradually. Initiated through other addicts and medical practitioners, the abuse was mostly as a cheap, easily and legally available substitute for opioids. The typical young adult male abuser used an intravenous cocktail with diazepam, pheneramine or promethazine for a better kick. The withdrawal syndrome was typical of the opioids and without an expected delayed onset. Complications of pseudoaneurysm and recurrent koro in repeated withdrawal were reported. Buprenorphine as a detoxifying agent for opioids reportedly gave better symptom control in the first week but high rates of dependence induction were reported. The Indian data tends to caution against the Western enthusiasm to use buprenorphine for detoxification or maintenance of opioid abusers. PMID:21455379

  8. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  9. Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J. A.; Richter, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of several anticonvulsant drugs on sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes was investigated. HACU was measured in vitro after in vivo administration of the drug to mice. HACU was inhibited by drugs which have in common the ability to facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone, barbitone, diazepam, chloridiazepoxide, and valproic acid. Dose-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the drugs' potencies at inhibiting HACU correlated well with their anticonvulsant potencies. Clonazepam, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, and barbituric acid had no effect on HACU in the doses used while phenytoin and trimethadione stimulated HACU. These results suggest that certain anticonvulsants may elicit a part of their anticonvulsant activity by modulating cholinergic neurones. This effect may be mediated through a GABA mechanism. PMID:3978310

  10. Identification by CI-mass spectrometry of an unexpected benzodiazepine degradation product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buret, D.; Breton, D.; Clair, P.; Lafosse, M.

    2006-01-01

    The French Military Health Service (SSA) has developed an innovative drug product, as a treatment against neurotoxic organophosphate poisoning (NOP). It contains three drug substances: an anticholinergic, an anticonvulsant and a cholinesterase reactivator. Testing stability study, in normal conditions, over 18 months, for this speciality, has given unexpected results. Indeed, one of the drug substances, avizafone (pro-drug of diazepam), breaks down partially into a compound which migrates into the plastic container where this degradation product is demethylated after absorption. Mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionisation (negative CI-MS) was used, to monitor decomposition of the drug substance. This method first showed migration of the degradation product and has been used to monitor its evolution during the stability testing study. The demethylation seems to be due to an additive product present in the plastic. The degradation products remain trapped in the container holding the pharmaceutical formulation.

  11. [Palliative sedation].

    PubMed

    Verhagen, E H; Hesselmann, G M; Besse, T C; de Graeff, A

    2005-02-26

    Palliative sedation is the intentional lowering of the level of consciousness ofa patient in the last phase of life by means of the administration of sedatives. The objective of palliative sedation is to relieve severe physical or psychological suffering that is otherwise untreatable. Sedation is used in 12% of all patients dying in the Netherlands. Refractory delirium, dyspnoea or pain are the most common indications. If deep palliative sedation is used, the estimated life expectancy should be a few days to at most one week. Midazolam is used most often for continuous sedation, usually by subcutaneous infusion; if the response is insufficient, a combination of midazolam with levomepromazine or phenobarbital or monotreatment with propofol may be used. If continuous infusion is not desired or feasible, intermittent administration of midazolam, diazepam, lorazepam or chlorpromazine may be considered. Provided that it is used under the right circumstances, palliative sedation does not shorten life.

  12. Modulation of anxiety and fear via distinct intrahippocampal circuits.

    PubMed

    Engin, Elif; Smith, Kiersten S; Gao, Yudong; Nagy, David; Foster, Rachel A; Tsvetkov, Evgeny; Keist, Ruth; Crestani, Florence; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Bolshakov, Vadim Y; Hajos, Mihaly; Heldt, Scott A; Rudolph, Uwe

    2016-03-14

    Recent findings indicate a high level of specialization at the level of microcircuits and cell populations within brain structures with regards to the control of fear and anxiety. The hippocampus, however, has been treated as a unitary structure in anxiety and fear research despite mounting evidence that different hippocampal subregions have specialized roles in other cognitive domains. Using novel cell-type- and region-specific conditional knockouts of the GABAA receptor α2 subunit, we demonstrate that inhibition of the principal neurons of the dentate gyrus or CA3 via α2-containing GABAA receptors (α2GABAARs) is required to suppress anxiety, while the inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons is required to suppress fear responses. We further show that the diazepam-modulation of hippocampal theta activity shows certain parallels with our behavioral findings, suggesting a possible mechanism for the observed behavioral effects. Thus, our findings demonstrate a double dissociation in the regulation of anxiety versus fear by hippocampal microcircuitry.

  13. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub μg/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  14. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar

    2008-01-01

    The dried extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Graminae) were evaluated for CNS activities in mice. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon (EECD) was found to cause significant depression in general behavioral profiles in mice. EECD significantly potentiated the sleeping time in mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependant manner. EECD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. EECD inhibited the onset and the incidence of convulsion in a dose dependent manner against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. The present study indicates that EECD has significant CNS depressant activities.

  15. Bupropion (Zyban) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tracey, J A; Cassidy, N; Casey, P B; Ali, I

    2002-01-01

    Bupropion is a monocyclic antidepressant structurally related to amphetamine. Zyban, a sustained-release formulation of bupropion hydrochloride, was recently released in Ireland, as a smoking cessation aid. In the initial 6 months since it's introduction, 12 overdose cases have been reported to The National Poisons Information Centre. 8 patients developed symptoms of toxicity. Common features included tachycardia, drowsiness, hallucinations and convulsions. Two patients developed severe cardiac arrhythmias, including one patient who was resuscitated following a cardiac arrest. All patients recovered without sequelae. We report a case of a 31 year old female who required admission to the Intensive Care Unit for ventilation and full supportive therapy, following ingestion of 13.5g bupropion. Recurrent seizures were treated with diazepam and broad complex tachycardia was successfully treated with adenosine. Zyban caused significant neurological and cardiovascular toxicity in overdose. The potential toxic effects should be considered when prescribing it as a smoking cessation aid.

  16. Oximes: Inhibitors of Human Recombinant Acetylcholinesterase. A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) Study

    PubMed Central

    Sepsova, Vendula; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Korabecny, Jan; Dolezal, Rafael; Zemek, Filip; Bennion, Brian J.; Kuca, Kamil

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivators were developed for the treatment of organophosphate intoxication. Standard care involves the use of anticonvulsants (e.g., diazepam), parasympatolytics (e.g., atropine) and oximes that restore AChE activity. However, oximes also bind to the active site of AChE, simultaneously acting as reversible inhibitors. The goal of the present study is to determine how oxime structure influences the inhibition of human recombinant AChE (hrAChE). Therefore, 24 structurally different oximes were tested and the results compared to the previous eel AChE (EeAChE) experiments. Structural factors that were tested included the number of pyridinium rings, the length and structural features of the linker, and the number and position of the oxime group on the pyridinium ring. PMID:23959117

  17. Lafora's-like disease in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    PubMed

    Honnold, Shelley P; Schulman, F Yvonne; Bauman, Karen; Nelson, Kevin

    2010-09-01

    A 6-yr-old captive-born female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) had a history of multiple seizures and was treated with diazepam and phenobarbital therapy. Despite medical treatment, the seizures continued. They were intermittent and progressive, resulting in neurologic deficits and death of the animal within 6 mo of onset of the clinical signs. At necropsy, the animal was in good nutritional condition, and no gross lesions were noted in the brain. Histologically, amphophilic to basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, diastase-resistant inclusions were present in the brain, heart, and liver. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions were variably electron dense, fibrillary to occasionally granular, and non-membrane bound. The clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural findings were consistent with Lafora's disease, which in humans is a rare, fatal, autosomal recessive hereditary neurometabolic disorder characterized by progressive myoclonic epilepsy. This is the first report of Lafora's-like disease in a fennec fox.

  18. Continuous involuntary hand movements and schizencephaly: epilepsia partialis continua or dystonia?

    PubMed

    Marinelli, Lucio; Bonzano, Laura; Saitta, Laura; Trompetto, Carlo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni

    2012-04-01

    Schizencephaly is regarded as a malformation of cortical development (due to abnormal neuronal organization) and may be associated with continuous involuntary hand movements. The mechanisms underlying these movements are not clear and both dystonia and epilepsia partialis continua have been considered in previously reported cases. We describe a young patient affected by schizencephaly and continuous involuntary movements of the contralateral hand. Functional MRI showed bilateral cerebral activation, while the subject performed tapping movements with the affected hand and no significant difference in the activation pattern after diazepam infusion. Standard and back-averaged EEG showed no alterations. The results obtained from these investigations and the clinical features of the involuntary movements are not in favor of an epileptic genesis, while support the diagnosis of secondary dystonia.

  19. Prevalence of seizures in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Samia, Pauline; Petersen, Reneva; Walker, Kathleen G; Eley, Brian; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2013-03-01

    A retrospective study of 354 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients identified a subgroup of 27 children with seizures (7.6%, 95% confidence interval: 5.1%-10.9%). Of the total group, 13% (n = 46) had identifiable neurologic deficits and 30% (n = 107) had developmental delay. Both observations were significantly more frequent in the subgroup of patients with seizures (P < .001). The median age of patients with seizures was 20 months (range, 8-87 months) and the median baseline CD4 percentage was 13.5% (interquartile range, 8%-23%). Seizures were treated with sodium valproate (n = 11), phenobarbital (n = 3), diazepam (n = 2), lamotrigine (n = 1), and carbamazepine (n = 1). Combination therapy was required for 5 children. Suboptimal valproic acid levels were recorded for 3 patients. When resources are available, antiepileptic drug level monitoring is advised for children who require both antiepileptic and antiretroviral medications to facilitate optimal seizure management.

  20. Neurosteroids for the potential protection of humans against organophosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the therapeutic potential of neurosteroids as anticonvulsant antidotes for chemical intoxication caused by organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents or gases like sarin and soman. Toxic manifestations following nerve agent exposure, as evident in chemical attacks in Japan and Syria, include hypersecretion, respiratory distress, tremors, convulsions leading to status epilepticus (SE), and death. Benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, are the current anticonvulsants of choice for controlling nerve agent-induced life-threatening seizures, SE, and brain injury. Benzodiazepines can control acute seizures when given early, but they are less effective for delayed treatment of SE, which is characterized by rapid desensitization of synaptic GABA A receptors, benzodiazepine resistance, and brain injury. Neurosteroid-sensitive extrasynaptic GABA A receptors, however, remain unaffected by such events. Thus, anticonvulsant neurosteroids may produce more effective protection than benzodiazepines against a broad spectrum of chemical agents, even when given late after nerve agent exposure. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy: case report with a review of disease pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Michael Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Delayed post-hypoxic leukoencephalopathy is a rare clinical phenomenon usually observed in a small number of carbon monoxide poisoning survivors. A similar phenomenon is reported here in a patient who successfully recovered from a large overdose of diazepam and methadone, but then abruptly declined 3 weeks after the initial event. Magnetic resnance revealed confluent white matter hyperintensity on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T2 weighted sequences, and spectroscopy revealed elevated peaks in choline, creatinine, and lactate. Analysis and review of the literature suggests this phenomenon occurs on average about 19 days after the initial event. Although the pathophysiology remains obscure, it is noted here that the mean lucid interval coincides approximately with the replacement half-life for myelin related lipids and proteins.

  2. Neonatal tetanus associated with skin infection.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, M; Dungwa, N

    2016-08-03

    A 1-week-old infant was brought to a regional hospital with a history of recurrent seizures following lower abdominal septic skin infection. She was found to have neonatal tetanus, and a spatula test was positive. The tetanus infection was associated with a superficial skin infection, common in neonates. Treatment included sedatives (diazepam, chlorpromazine, phenobarbitone and morphine), muscle relaxants, antibiotics and ventilation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Intrathecal and intramuscular immunoglobulin were given, and the wound was treated. The infant recovered, with no seizures by the 16th day from admission, and was off the ventilator by the 18th day. This was shorter than the usual 3 - 4 weeks for neonates with tetanus at the hospital. The question arises whether tetanus immunisation should be considered in infants with skin infections, which frequently occur in the neonatal period.

  3. Caring for patients with rabies in developing countries - the neglected importance of palliative care.

    PubMed

    Tarantola, Arnaud; Crabol, Yoann; Mahendra, Bangalore Jayakrishnappa; In, Sotheary; Barennes, Hubert; Bourhy, Hervé; Peng, Yiksing; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Although limited publications address clinical management of symptomatic patients with rabies in intensive care units, the overwhelming majority of human rabies cases occur in the rural setting of developing countries where healthcare workers are few, lack training and drugs. Based on our experience, we suggest how clinicians in resource-limited settings can make best use of essential drugs to provide assistance to patients with rabies and their families, at no risk to themselves. Comprehensive and compassionate patient management of furious rabies should aim to alleviate thirst, anxiety and epileptic fits using infusions, diazepam or midazolam and antipyretic drugs via intravenous or intrarectal routes. Although the patient is dying, respiratory failure must be avoided especially if the family, after being informed, wish to take the patient home alive for funereal rites to be observed. Healthcare staff should be trained and clinical guidelines should be updated to include palliative care for rabies in endemic countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Increased thermolability of benzodiazepine receptors in cerebral cortex of a baboon with spontaneous seizures: a case report.

    PubMed

    Squires, R; Naquet, R; Riche, D; Braestrup, C

    1979-06-01

    The benzodiazepine receptor in the cortex of 1 spontaneously epileptic baboon exhibited an increased rate of thermal inactivation at 65 degrees C when compared with those from 3 other baboons. In other respects (receptor concentration, affinities for flunitrazepam and diazepam, and response to changing pH), the benzodiazepine receptor from this animal was very similar to the receptors in the cortex of 3 other baboons. The 3H-QNB (muscarinic) and 3H-naloxone (opiate) binding sites in the brain of all 4 baboons appeared very similar with respect to all parameters studied (thermal stability, concentration, regional distribution, and affinities for respective ligands). An endogenous factor stabilizing the benzodiazepine receptor could be lacking in the spontaneously epileptic baboon.

  5. Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K; Gerada, C; Greenough, A

    2003-01-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is suffered by infants withdrawing from substances on which they have become physically dependent after in utero exposure. They may require prolonged treatment and spend weeks or even months in hospital. A wide range of drugs have been used to treat NAS. The efficacy of few, however, have been adequately investigated. Evidence suggests that opioids are the most appropriate, at least in infants exposed to diamorphine or methadone. In all "head to head" trials, diazepam has been shown to be ineffective. Morphine and methadone are currently the most commonly prescribed opioids to treat NAS, but randomised trials have not been undertaken to determine which is the more beneficial. Many infants with NAS have been exposed to multiple substances in utero. Further research is required into whether a single opiate or a multiple drug regimen is the best option for such patients.

  6. Use of sodium nitroprusside in neurosurgical cases during anesthesia with enflurane.

    PubMed

    Vandesteene, A; Mouawad, E; Noterman, J; Deloof, T; Ewalenko, P; Genette, F

    1980-01-01

    In patients operated for cerebral aneurysm or angioma, the same basic method of anesthesia has been used. Premedication consisted of Thalamonal or diazepam. After induction with thiopentone, curarisation with pancuronium and tracheal intubation, anesthesia was maintained with N2O 70%, O2 30% and enflurane 1%. Small doses of fentanyl or Thalamonal were given at the beginning of anesthesia, but no more within 30 minutes before starting controlled hypotension. Adjuvant drugs and methods to reduce intracranial pressure were also used, such as dexamethasone, mannitol and cerebro-spinal fluid subtraction. The approach and dissection of the vascular lesion was done under controlled hypotension with sodium nitroprusside 0.01% solution. The mean dose of sodium nitroprusside to maintain a mean blood pressure at about 50 Torr was 1.37 mcg/kg/min.

  7. Effect of the Leaf Essential Oil from Cinnamosma madagascariensis Danguy on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rakotosaona, Rianasoambolanoro; Randrianarivo, Emmanuel; Rasoanaivo, Philippe; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-10-01

    In the Malagasy traditional practices, the smoke from burning leaves of Cinnamosma madagascariensis Danguy is inhaled to treat brain disorders such as dementia, epilepsy, and headache. In the present work, we have evaluated the in vivo anticonvulsant effects of the essential oil from leaves of C. madagascariensis (CMEO). CMEO was isolated by steam distillation. The anticonvulsant activity of CMEO (0.4 and 0.8 ml/kg bw) administered subcutaneously was evaluated on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures in Wistar rats; diazepam was used as positive control. Linalool, limonene, and myrcene were the major CMEO constituents. At the dose of 0.8 ml/kg, CMEO completely arrested the PTZ-induced convulsions with moderate sedative effects. The traditional anticonvulsant use of C. madagascariensis was confirmed allowing us to candidate molecules from CMEO as potential drugs to treat convulsions associated with strong agitation. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  8. Use of Propofol for Induction and Maintenance of Anesthesia in a King Penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bigby, Sarah E; Carter, Jennifer E; Bauquier, Sébastien; Beths, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Anesthesia protocols for patients with intracranial lesions need to provide hemodynamic stability, preserve cerebrovascular autoregulation, avoid increases in intracranial pressure, and facilitate a rapid recovery. Propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) maintains cerebral blood flow autoregulation and is considered superior to inhalant agents as an anesthetic protocol for patients with intracranial lesions. A propofol-based TIVA subsequent to premedication with medetomidine and diazepam was used in a king penguin ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ) undergoing magnetic resonance imaging of the brain after a new onset of seizures. This protocol provided a rapid and smooth induction and calm recovery in the penguin. When ventilation control is possible, propofol TIVA may be a superior choice to inhalant agents for anesthesia of birds with potential intracranial lesions.

  9. New model of pharmacoresistant seizures induced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Enrique, Andrea; Goicoechea, Sofía; Castaño, Rocío; Taborda, Facundo; Rocha, Luisa; Orozco, Sandra; Girardi, Elena; Bruno Blanch, Luis

    2017-01-01

    About 30% of the patients with epilepsy do not respond to clinically established anticonvulsants, despite having effective concentrations of the antiepileptic drug in plasma. Therefore, new preclinical models of epilepsy are needed to identify more efficacious treatments. We describe here a new drug-resistant seizure model in mice to be used at the early stages of pre-clinical trials. This model consists in inducing daily generalized seizures for 23 consecutive days by administration of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MP). As a result, 100% of animals become resistant to phenytoin and 80% to phenobarbital. Such resistance is strongly associated with the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), observed in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum while resistance to Pgp nonsubstrate drugs such as carbamazepine, diazepam and levetiracetam is not observed. This model could be useful for screening novel anticonvulsant drugs with a potential effect on pharmacoresistant seizures treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Choosing the correct benzodiazepine: mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics].

    PubMed

    Vinkers, Christiaan H; Tijdink, Joeri K; Luykx, Jurjen J; Vis, Roeland

    2012-01-01

    There is a discrepancy between the recommendation for caution and daily practice in the prescription of benzodiazepines. Although there is heterogeneity in the registered indications, all benzodiazepine agonists have almost the same mechanism of action. There are, however, substantial pharmacokinetic differences between individual benzodiazepine agonists. During short-term use of benzodiazepines, the elimination half-life is no measure of duration of action. Benzodiazepine lipophilicity determines the speed of action. If a rapid effect is desired, for instance in acute anxiety or agitation, then regarding oral medication the use of a lipophilic benzodiazepine such as diazepam is a rational choice. An accumulation factor can be used to estimate benzodiazepine accumulation during chronic use. In theory, accumulation does not occur with once-daily dosage of benzodiazepines that have an elimination half-life markedly shorter than 24 h, such as oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam.

  11. Double-blind cross-over investigation of the effectiveness and safety of two doses of indoprofen compared with an ASA preparation and placebo in patients suffering from osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, E; Bergamini, N; Groppi, W; Mandelli, V

    1981-01-01

    Eighty patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the large joints were admitted to the study and randomly allocated to a 4-treatment sequence, according to a multiple replication of a 4 x 4 Latin square design, with proper balancing of treatments, of periods and of the residual effects of drugs. Each treatment (indoprofen 300 or 600 mg/day, ASA 1500 + diazepam 6 mg/day, and matching placebo) was administered for 7 days. Examinations were carried out on admission, after a 3-4 day wash-out period, and then repeated at the end of each treatment period. Treatment with active drugs was significantly better than placebo in relieving overall pain, and in patient's and investigator's opinion on effectiveness. Treatment with indoprofen, at both dosages, was preferred more frequently than others. The incidence of adverse events during each period did not seem to depend either on the treatment being given during that period or on the previous one.

  12. Prescribing benzodiazepines for noninstitutionalized elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, M.; Smith, W. A.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe benzodiazepine prescribing for elderly people living in the community in British Columbia, and to compare such prescribing with an indicator of current guidelines. DESIGN: Descriptive analysis of pharmacy billing data. SETTING: Province of British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: All elderly persons (age 65 and older) dispensed benzodiazepines by community pharmacies in British Columbia during 1990. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Potentially inappropriate prescriptions were defined by a maximum 2-month limit of 20 diazepam equivalents daily, as determined by the BC Drug Usage Review Program in consultation with experts in the field. Physicians' rates of potentially inappropriate prescribing were determined per 100 benzodiazepine prescriptions written. RESULTS: Almost 24% of elderly people in British Columbia were prescribed benzodiazepines at least once during 1990. Of these, 17.1% were given potentially inappropriate prescriptions. Physicians who prescribed benzodiazepines most frequently had the highest rates of potentially inappropriate prescriptions. CONCLUSION: Prescribing practice does not correspond with our indicator of current guidelines. PMID:7756916

  13. Voltammetric analysis of N-containing drugs using the hanging galinstan drop electrode (HGDE).

    PubMed

    Channaa, H; Surmann, P

    2009-03-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of several N-containing voltammetric active drugs such as 1,4-benzodiazepines (chlordiazepoxide, nitrazepam and diazepam) as well as one nitro-compound (nitrofurantoin) and one azo-compound (phenazopyridine) is described using a new kind of liquid electrode, the hanging galinstan drop electrode. Concentrations of 10(-5) - 10(-8) mol L(-1) are generally measurable. Differential pulse and adsorptive stripping voltammograms are recorded in different supporting electrolytes, like 0.1 M KNO3, acetate buffer solution pH = 4.6 and phosphate buffer solution pH = 7.0. The effects of varying the starting potentials, U(start) for DPV and accumulation times, t(acc) for AdSV are considered. Briefly, it is shown that the novel galinstan electrode is suitable for reducing several functional groups in organic substances, here presented for N-oxide-, azomethine-, nitro- and azo-groups.

  14. Pharmacological validation of a novel nonhuman primate measure of thermal responsivity with utility for predicting analgesic effects

    PubMed Central

    Vardigan, Joshua D; Houghton, Andrea K; Lange, Henry S; Adarayan, Emily D; Pall, Parul S; Ballard, Jeanine E; Henze, Darrell A; Uslaner, Jason M

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The development of novel analgesics to treat acute or chronic pain has been a challenge due to a lack of translatable measurements. Preclinical end points with improved translatability are necessary to more accurately inform clinical testing paradigms, which may help guide selection of viable drug candidates. Methods In this study, a nonhuman primate biomarker which is sensitive to standard analgesics at clinically relevant plasma concentrations, can differentiate analgesia from sedation and utilizes a protocol very similar to that which can be employed in human clinical studies is described. Specifically, acute heat stimuli were delivered to the volar forearm using a contact heat thermode in the same manner as the clinical setting. Results Clinically efficacious exposures of morphine, fentanyl, and tramadol produced robust analgesic effects, whereas doses of diazepam that produce sedation had no effect. Conclusion We propose that this assay has predictive utility that can help improve the probability of success for developing novel analgesics. PMID:29692626

  15. Biotransformation of pharmaceuticals under nitrification, nitratation and heterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fontaina, E; Gomes, I B; Aga, D S; Omil, F; Lema, J M; Carballa, M

    2016-01-15

    The effect of nitrification, nitratation and heterotrophic conditions on the biotransformation of several pharmaceuticals in a highly enriched nitrifying activated sludge was evaluated in this study by selective activation of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and heterotrophic bacteria. Nitrifiers displayed a noticeable capacity to process ibuprofen due to hydroxylation by ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) to produce 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen. Naproxen was also biotransformed under nitrifying conditions. On the other hand, heterotrophic bacteria present in the nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) biotransformed sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, both nitrifying and heterotrophic activities were ineffective against diclofenac, diazepam, carbamazepine and trimethoprim. Similar biotransformation rates of erythromycin, roxithromycin and fluoxetine were observed under all conditions tested. Overall, results from this study give more evidence on the role of the different microbial communities present in activated sludge reactors on the biological removal of pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diagnosis and management of tetanus outside the intensive care unit: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, T. E.; Siregar, M. L.; Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    Tetanus is an acute, toxin-mediated disease caused by Clostridium tetani infection. Under favorable anaerobic conditions, such as in the unclean environment, necrotic wounds, this ubiquitous bacillus may produce tetanospasmin, an extremely potent neurotoxin. A 38-year-old man was admitted to an emergency room, at Zainoel Abidin General Hospital, with the main complaint of back-muscle stiffness. Based on physical examination, he was fully alert with a slightly rapid breathing, trismus with the maximum oral cavity opening was only about one finger width, but rhisus sardonicus was not evident. Ten days before admission, while gardening, his left foot accidentally stabbed by wooden tree stake. We immediately started a single dose of tetanus immunoglobulin followed by intravenous metronidazole, penicillin G, and intravenous diazepam. Tetanus diagnosed by physical clinical finding. The management of tetanus patients including the use of immunoglobulin and antibiotic therapy, analgesia, sedation and neuromuscular blockade management and mechanical ventilation, the care was delivered outside the Intensive care unit.

  17. The liberal state and the rogue agency: FDA’s regulation of drugs for mood disorders, 1950s–1970s☆

    PubMed Central

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The theory of the liberal state does not generally contemplate the possibility that regulatory agencies will turn into “rogues,” regulating against the interests of their clients and, indeed, the public interest. In the years between circa 1955 and 1975 this seems to have happened to one of the prime regulatory agencies of the US federal government: the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Intent upon transforming itself from a traditional “cop” agency to a regulatory giant, the FDA campaigned systematically to bring down some safe and effective drugs. This article concentrates on hearings in the area of psychopharmacology regarding several antianxiety drugs, namely meprobamate (Miltown), chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and diazepam (Valium). In addition, from 1967 to 1973 this regulatory vengefulness occurred on a broad scale in the Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI), an administrative exercise that removed from the market almost half of the psychopharmacopoeia. The article explores possible bureaucratic motives for these actions. PMID:18343498

  18. Caudal anesthesia in pediatric surgical practice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S; Siddiqui, M A; Haque, M; Majumder, S K; Ali, M S; Majid, M A; Hasan, M R

    2006-07-01

    Prospective study was carried out on 100 patients since May 2005 in my private practice and in the department of pediatric surgery of MMCH. Under caudal anesthesia along with or without ketaminie induction and gas inhalation all the patients underwent different surgical procedure namely anorectal surgery (eg. anoplasty, rectal polyp), urogenital surgery (Circumcision, hypospadias, meatotomy), groin surgery (hernia, hydrocele) and foot & leg surgery. Calculated dose schedule of drugs used in anesthesia and volume were maintained. Time of giving anesthesia and time of starting analgesia were recorded. Per-operative and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. Every parent was explained regarding the merit of caudal anesthesia calculated and compared with that of general anesthesia. Application of caudal anesthesia with or without ketamine & diazepam induction can be used safely and cost effectively and may be put into protocol in many of the pediatric surgical practice both in institute and also in private practice.

  19. Interaction of injectable neurotropic drugs with the red cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Walter H; Lubszky, Szabina; Thöny, Sandra; Schulzki, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The normal red blood cell (RBC) shape is a biconcave discocyte. An intercalation of a drug in the outer half of the membrane lipid bilayer leads to echinocytosis, an intercalation in the inner half to stomatocytosis. We have used the shape transforming capacity of RBCs as a model to analyse the membrane interaction potential of various neurotropic drugs. Chlorpromazine, clomipramine, citalopram, clonazepam, and diazepam induced a reversible stomatocytosis, phenytoin induced echinocytosis, while the anticonvulsants levetiracetam, valproic acid and phenobarbital had no effect. This diversity of RBC shape transformations suggests that the pharmacological action is not linked to the membrane interaction. We conclude that this simple RBC shape transformation assay could be a useful tool to screen for potential drug interactions with cell membranes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Potential intravenous drug incompatibilities in a pediatric unit.

    PubMed

    Leal, Karla Dalliane Batista; Leopoldino, Ramon Weyler Duarte; Martins, Rand Randall; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential intravenous drug incompatibilities and related risk factors in a pediatric unit. A cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the pediatric unit of a university hospital in Brazil. Data on prescriptions given to children aged 0-15 years from June to October 2014 were collected. Prescriptions that did not include intravenous drugs and prescriptions with incomplete dosage regimen or written in poor handwriting were excluded. Associations between variables and the risk of potential incompatibility were investigated using the Student's t test and ANOVA; the level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Relative risks were calculated for each drug involved in potential incompatibility with 95% confidence interval. A total of 222 children participated in the study; 132 (59.5%) children were male and 118 (53.2%) were aged between 0 and 2 years. The mean length of stay was 7.7±2.3 days. Dipyrone, penicillin G and ceftriaxona were the most commonly prescribed drugs. At least one potential incompatibility was detected in about 85% of children (1.2 incompatibility/patient ratio). Most incompatibilities detected fell into the non-tested (93.4%), precipitation (5.5%), turbidity (0.7%) or chemical decomposition (0.4%) categories. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibility. Most pediatric prescriptions involved potential incompatibilities, with higher prevalence of non-tested incompatibilities. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibilities. Avaliar o potencial de incompatibilidade dos medicamentos intravenosos, identificando possíveis fatores de risco em uma unidade pediátrica. Trata-se de um estudo observacional analítico do tipo transversal realizado na unidade de pediatria de um hospital de ensino no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados de junho a outubro de

  1. Self-reported drug use among secondary school students in two rapidly developing Nigerian towns.

    PubMed

    Nevadomsky, J

    1982-01-01

    A 32-item standardized multiple-choice and open-ended questionnaire was completed by nearly 500 male and female secondary school students in two rapidly developing Nigerian towns. About two thirds of the students reported some exposure to alcohol, and about one quarter reported some experience with tobacco. There was much less use of caffeine, methaqualone in combination with diphenhydramine, 2-ethylamino-3-phenylorcamphane in combination with vitamins, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, cannabis and dexamphetamine. Many students fell into the "past use" category. Parents were extremely disapproving of the use of almost any drug. Many students supported stronger penalties for the use of cannabis. Non-users claimed that drugs were dangerous to health. In addition, religious beliefs were associated with abstinence from drugs.

  2. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis with parkinsonian features in a child: A case report.

    PubMed

    Bozlu, Gulcin; Cobanogullari Direk, Meltem; Okuyaz, Cetin

    2015-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) can present with atypical clinical signs which may result in delayed diagnosis and treatment. We present a child with SSPE whose initial manifestation was parkinsonism. This 12-year-old boy presented with the complaint of difficulty in standing up and walking for 2 months. Neurological examination revealed generalized rigidity, bradykinesia, impaired postural reflexes, and a mask-like facies. The initial diagnosis of Juvenile Parkinson Disease was made. He had no improvement with levodopa, trihexyphenidyl, tetrabenazine and clonazepam. The EEG showed irregular background activity with generalized slow waves which were not suppressed with diazepam injection. SSPE was considered and the diagnosis was confirmed with the identification of measles antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid. SSPE should be considered in children and adolescents with parkinsonian symptoms, particularly in the absence of a history of vaccination against measles. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Strychnine poisoning].

    PubMed

    Scheffold, N; Heinz, B; Albrecht, H; Pickert, A; Cyran, J

    2004-10-15

    A 46-year-old man presented two hours after ingestion of about 250 mg strychnine with severe violent, generalized convulsions, triggered by external stimuli. During the convulsion-free periods there were no abnormal signs in the physical examination. The presence of strychnine was confirmed by urine analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Because diazepam as anticonvulsant of choice was not effective in abating the convulsions the patient was intubated. A combination with midazolam, fentanyl and pancuronium was effective in controlling the convulsions. The patient was discharged from ICU on day three. Fatal outcome of strychnine poisoning demands an aggressive management with early intubation, control of muscle tremors and prevention of rhabdomyolisis and renal failure.

  4. Bergamot Essential Oil Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behaviour in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Laura; Tridico, Laura; Scuteri, Damiana; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Sakurada, Shinobu; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Avato, Pinarosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio

    2017-04-11

    Preclinical studies have recently highlighted that bergamot essential oil (BEO) is endowed with remarkable neurobiolological effects. BEO can affect synaptic transmission, modulate electroencephalographic activity and it showed neuroprotective and analgesic properties. The phytocomplex, along with other essential oils, is also widely used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders. However, only limited preclinical evidences are actually available. This study examined the anxiolytic/sedative-like effects of BEO using an open field task (OFT), an elevated plus-maze task (EPM), and a forced swimming task (FST) in rats. This study further compared behavioural effects of BEO to those of the benzodiazepine diazepam. Analysis of data suggests that BEO induces anxiolytic-like/relaxant effects in animal behavioural tasks not superimposable to those of the DZP. The present observations provide further insight to the pharmacological profile of BEO and support its rational use in aromatherapy.

  5. Anxiolytic-like effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, S; Zhelyazkova-Savova, M

    2009-12-01

    The main biologically active constituents of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) are polyphenolics, amongst them flavonoids, mainly anthocyanins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of AMFJ (5 and 10 mL/kg) on anxiety using the social interaction test, on locomotor activity in the open field test and on working memory in the object recognition test in rats. AMFJ showed an anxiolytic-like effect which was demonstrated by a dose-dependent increase in the time of active social contacts between the test partners. The effects of both AMFJ doses were comparable to the effect of diazepam (1 mg/kg). AMFJ neither changed significantly horizontal and vertical locomotor activity, nor did it adversely affect working memory. Copyright 2009 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  6. 5-HT1A receptor blockade reverses GABAA receptor α3 subunit-mediated anxiolytic effects on stress-induced hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    van Oorschot, Ruud; Korte, S. Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Groenink, Lucianne

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Stress-related disorders are associated with dysfunction of both serotonergic and GABAergic pathways, and clinically effective anxiolytics act via both neurotransmitter systems. As there is evidence that the GABAA and the serotonin receptor system interact, a serotonergic component in the anxiolytic actions of benzodiazepines could be present. Objectives The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether the anxiolytic effects of (non-)selective α subunit GABAA receptor agonists could be reversed with 5-HT1A receptor blockade using the stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) paradigm. Results The 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.1–1 mg/kg) reversed the SIH-reducing effects of the non-α-subunit selective GABAA receptor agonist diazepam (1–4 mg/kg) and the GABAA receptor α3-subunit selective agonist TP003 (1 mg/kg), whereas WAY-100635 alone was without effect on the SIH response or basal body temperature. At the same time, co-administration of WAY-100635 with diazepam or TP003 reduced basal body temperature. WAY-100635 did not affect the SIH response when combined with the preferential α1-subunit GABAA receptor agonist zolpidem (10 mg/kg), although zolpidem markedly reduced basal body temperature. Conclusions The present study suggests an interaction between GABAA receptor α-subunits and 5-HT1A receptor activation in the SIH response. Specifically, our data indicate that benzodiazepines affect serotonergic signaling via GABAA receptor α3-subunits. Further understanding of the interactions between the GABAA and serotonin system in reaction to stress may be valuable in the search for novel anxiolytic drugs. PMID:20535452

  7. Interaction between Antagonist of Cannabinoid Receptor and Antagonist of Adrenergic Receptor on Anxiety in Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Alireza; Abdollahzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Shahidi, Siamak; Salehi, Iraj

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is among the most common and treatable mental disorders. Adrenergic and cannabinoid systems have an important role in the neurobiology of anxiety. The elevated plus-maze (EPM) has broadly been used to investigate anxiolytic and anxiogenic compounds. The present study investigated the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) injection of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist (AM251) in the presence of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist (Prazosin) on rat behavior in the EPM. In this study, the data were obtained from male Wistar rat, which weighing 200- 250 g. Animal behavior in EPM were videotaped and saved in computer for 10 min after IP injection of saline, AM251 (0.3 mg/kg), Prazosin (0.3 mg/kg) and AM251 + Prazosin, subsequently scored for conventional indices of anxiety. During the test period, the number of open and closed arms entries, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, and the spent time in open and closed arms were recorded. Diazepam was considered as a positive control drug with anxiolytic effect (0.3, 0.6, 1.2 mg/kg). Diazepam increased the number of open arm entries and the percentage of spent time on the open arms. IP injection of AM251 before EPM trial decreased open arms exploration and open arm entry. Whereas, Prazosin increased open arms exploration and open arm entry. This study showed that both substances in simultaneous injection have conflicting effects on the responses of each of these two compounds in a single injection. Injection of CB1 receptor antagonist may have an anxiogenic profile in rat, whereas adrenergic antagonist has an anxiolytic effect. Further investigations are essential for better understanding of anxiolytic and anxiogenic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of action and probable interactions of the two systems.

  8. Involvement of the GABAergic system in the anxiolytic-like effect of the flavonoid ellagic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Girish, Chandrashekaran; Raj, Vishnu; Arya, Jayasree; Balakrishnan, Sadasivam

    2013-06-15

    Anxiolytic-like effects of dietary flavonoids are relatively well known. Ellagic acid is a naturally occurring flavonoid compound which is abundant in many plants and fruits. The present study was designed to investigate the antianxiety-like effect of ellagic acid in mice using an elevated plus-maze test. The involvement of the GABAergic and serotonergic systems in the antianxiety-like activity of ellagic acid was also studied. Our results showed that ellagic acid treatment (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), produced a significant increase in the percentage of time spent and entry into the open arms, with a profile comparable to that of diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Unlike diazepam, the anxiolytic doses of ellagic acid did not prolong the duration of sodium thiopental-induced loss of righting reflex, indicating that this flavonoid is non-hypnotic. The anxiolytic effect observed with ellagic acid treatment (25 mg/kg, p.o.) was antagonized by pretreatment with picrotoxin (a non-competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) and flumazenil (a benzodiazepine site antagonist, 1 mg/kg, i.p.) but not with p-chlorophenylalanine (a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) and pindolol (a β-adrenoceptors blocker/5-HT1A/1B receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg, i.p.). Taken together, the data demonstrated that acute and chronic administration of ellagic acid to mice has produced antianxiety-like effect when tested in the elevated plus-maze. The experiments with different receptor blockers suggest an involvement of GABAergic system in the anxiolytic action of this bioflavonoid. However, this action is not seems to be mediated through serotonergic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Alprazolam is relatively more toxic than other benzodiazepines in overdose

    PubMed Central

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; O'Regan, Luke; Sibbritt, David; Whyte, Ian M

    2004-01-01

    Aims To describe alprazolam poisoning and the relative toxicity of alprazolam compared with other benzodiazepines. Methods A database of consecutive poisoning admissions to a regional toxicology service was searched to identify consecutive benzodiazepine deliberate self poisonings, which were coded as alprazolam, diazepam or other benzodiazepine. Major outcomes used were length of stay (LOS), intensive care (ICU) admission, coma (GCS < 9), flumazenil administration and requirement for mechanical ventilation. Prescription data were obtained for benzodiazepines for the study period. Results There were 2063 single benzodiazepine overdose admissions: 131 alprazolam overdoses, 823 diazepam overdoses and 1109 other benzodiazepine overdoses. The median LOS for alprazolam overdoses was 19 h which was 1.27 (95% CI 1.04, 1.54) times longer compared with other benzodiazepines by multiple linear regression. For patients with alprazolam overdoses, 22% were admitted to ICU which was 2.06 (95% CI 1.27, 3.33) times more likely compared with other benzodiazepines after multivariate analysis adjusting for age, dose, gender, time to ingestion and co-ingested drugs. Flumazenil was administered to 14% of alprazolam patients and 16% were ventilated, which was significantly more than for other benzodiazepine overdoses (8% and 11%, respectively). Twelve percent of alprazolam overdoses had a GCS < 9 compared with 10% for other benzodiazepines. From benzodiazepine prescription data, total alprazolam prescriptions in Australia increased from 0.13 million in 1992 to 0.41 million in 2001. Eighty five percent of prescriptions were for panic disorder, anxiety, depression or mixed anxiety/depression. Conclusions Alprazolam was significantly more toxic than other benzodiazepines. The increased prescription of alprazolam to groups with an increased risk of deliberate self poisoning is concerning and needs review. PMID:15206998

  10. Bioisosteres of ethyl 8-ethynyl-6-(pyridin-2-yl)-4H-benzo[f]imidazo [1,5-a][1,4]diazepine-3-carboxylate (HZ-166) as novel alpha 2,3 selective potentiators of GABAA receptors: Improved bioavailability enhances anticonvulsant efficacy.

    PubMed

    Witkin, J M; Smith, J L; Ping, X; Gleason, S D; Poe, M M; Li, G; Jin, X; Hobbs, J; Schkeryantz, J M; McDermott, J S; Alatorre, A I; Siemian, J N; Cramer, J W; Airey, D C; Methuku, K R; Tiruveedhula, V V N P B; Jones, T M; Crawford, J; Krambis, M J; Fisher, J L; Cook, J M; Cerne, R

    2018-05-03

    HZ-166 has previously been characterized as an α2,3-selective GABA A receptor modulator with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anti-nociceptive properties but reduced motor effects. We discovered a series of ester bioisosteres with reduced metabolic liabilities, leading to improved efficacy as anxiolytic-like compounds in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the anticonvulsant effects KRM-II-81 across several rodent models. In some models we also evaluated key structural analogs. KRM-II-81 suppressed hyper-excitation in a network of cultured cortical neurons without affecting the basal neuronal activity. KRM-II-81 was active against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in rats, elevations in PTZ-seizure thresholds, and amygdala-kindled seizures in rats with efficacies greater than that of diazepam. KRM-II-81 was also active in the 6 Hz seizure model in mice. Structural analogs of KRM-II-81 but not the ester, HZ-166, were active in all models in which they were evaluated. We further evaluated KRM-II-81 in human cortical epileptic tissue where it was found to significantly-attenuate picrotoxin- and AP-4-induced increases in firing rate across an electrode array. These molecules generally had a wider margin of separation in potencies to produce anticonvulsant effects vs. motor impairment on an inverted screen test than did diazepam. Ester bioisosters of HZ-166 are thus presented as novel agents for the potential treatment of epilepsy acting via selective positive allosteric amplification of GABA A signaling through α2/α3-containing GABA receptors. The in vivo data from the present study can serve as a guide to dosing parameters that predict engagement of central GABA A receptors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of human metabolites by gastrointestinal bacteria as a potential source of post-mortem alteration of antemortem drug/metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed

    Martindale, Stephanie M; Powers, Robert H; Bell, Suzanne C

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bacterial species are capable of transforming complex chemical substances. Several of these species, native to the human gastrointestinal tract, are active in postmortem decomposition. They have potential to cause biotransformations affecting compound-to-metabolite ratios within the human body, especially after death. Investigation of postmortem effects could supply valuable information, especially concerning compound identification and confirmation. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium perfringens on diazepam and flunitrazepam in Reinforced Clostridial Medium, and to compare bacterial biotransformation products to those of human metabolism. A decrease in diazepam concentration between pre- and post-incubation was observed for samples inoculated with Escherichia coli (14.7-20.2%) as well as Bacteroides fragilis (13.9-25.7%); however there was no corresponding increase in concentration for the monitored human metabolites. Flunitrazepam demonstrated a greater concentration loss when incubated with individual bacterial species as well as mixed culture (79.2-100.0%). Samples incubated with Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and mixed culture resulted in nearly complete conversion of flunitrazepam. Increased 7-aminoflunitrazepam concentrations accounted for the majority of the conversion; however discrepancies in the mass balance of the reaction suggested the possibility of a minor metabolite that was not monitored in the current analysis. These experiments served as a pilot study and proof of concept that can be adapted and applied to a realm of possibilities. Ultimately, this methodology would be ideal to study compounds that are too toxic or lethal for animal and human metabolic investigations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Blonanserin – A Novel Antianxiety and Antidepressant Drug? An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Limaye, Ramchandra Prabhakar; Patil, Aditi Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many psychiatric disorders show signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression. A drug with both, effects and lesser adverse effects is always desired. Blonanserin is a novel drug with postulated effect on anxiety and depression. Aim The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Blonanserin on anxiety and depression in animal models. Materials and Methods By using elevated plus maze test and forced swimming test, the antianxiety and antidepressant effects were evaluated. Animal ethics protocols were followed strictly. Total 50 rats (10 rats per group) were used for each test. As a control drug diazepam and imipramine were used in elevated plus maze and forced swimming test respectively. Blonanserin was tested for 3 doses 0.075, 0.2 and 0.8mg. These doses were selected from previous references as well as by extrapolating human doses. Results This study showed an antianxiety effect of Blonanserin comparable to diazepam, which was statistically significant. Optimal effect was observed with 0.075mg, followed by 0.2 and 0.8mg. It also showed an antidepressant effect which was statistically significant. Optimal effect was observed at 0.2mg dose. Conclusion The results showed that at a dose range of 0.075 and 0.2mg Blonanserin has potential to exert an adjuvant antianxiety and antidepressant activity in animal models. In order to extrapolate this in patient, longer clinical studies with comparable doses should be planned. The present study underlines potential of Blonanserin as a novel drug for such studies. PMID:27790460

  13. The effect of neonatal handling on adult feeding behavior is not an anxiety-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Silveira, P P; Portella, A K; Clemente, Z; Gamaro, G D; Dalmaz, C

    2005-02-01

    Brief periods of handling during the neonatal period have been shown to have profound and long-lasting physiological consequences. Previous studies performed in our laboratory have demonstrated that handling the pups during the neonatal period leads to increased sweet food ingestion in adult life. The objective of this study is to verify if this effect could be explained by the enhanced anxiety levels in these animals. Litters were divided in: (1) intact; (2) handled (10 min in an incubator/day) and (3) handled + tactile stimulation (10 min/day). Procedures were performed on days 1-10 after birth. When adults, rats were tested in the elevated plus maze apparatus, light dark exploration test and open field test. They were also tested for sweet food ingestion, being injected with 2 mg/kg diazepam or vehicle 60 min before the test. Handling and handling + tactile stimulation do not alter performance in the plus maze test, but handled rats presented more crossings in the light/dark exploration test and open field (two-way ANOVA). Females also spent more % time in the open arms in the plus maze and more time in the lit compartment in the light/dark test, presenting more crossings in both tests. Both treated rats (handled and handled + tactile stimulation groups) consumed more sweet food than intact ones (two-way ANOVA). When diazepam was injected prior to the measurement of sweet food ingestion, there was no effect of the drug. We suggest that handling during the neonatal period leads to plastic alterations in the central nervous system of these animals, causing an increased ingestion of palatable food in adult life, and this alteration does not express an anxiety-like behavior.

  14. Metabolomic Analysis of Anti-Hypoxia and Anti-anxiety Effects of Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Shuhong; Feng, Ruihong; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qiuhong; Sun, Peng; Lin, Donghai; Zhang, Naixia; Shen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Herba Rhodiolae is a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Tibetan people for treating hypoxia related diseases such as anxiety. Based on the previous work, we developed and patented an anti-anxiety herbal formula Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid (FJJOL) with Herba Rhodiolae as a chief ingredient. In this study, the anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of FJJOL in a high altitude forced-swimming mouse model with anxiety symptoms will be elucidated by NMR-based metabolomics. Methods In our experiments, the mice were divided randomly into four groups as flatland group, high altitude saline-treated group, high altitude FJJOL-treated group, and high altitude diazepam-treated group. To cause anxiety effects and hypoxic defects, a combination use of oxygen level decreasing (hypobaric cabin) and oxygen consumption increasing (exhaustive swimming) were applied to mice. After a three-day experimental handling, aqueous metabolites of mouse brain tissues were extracted and then subjected to NMR analysis. The therapeutic effects of FJJOL on the hypobaric hypoxia mice with anxiety symptoms were verified. Results Upon hypoxic exposure, both energy metabolism defects and disorders of functional metabolites in brain tissues of mice were observed. PCA, PLS-DA and OPLS-DA scatter plots revealed a clear group clustering for metabolic profiles in the hypoxia versus normoxia samples. After a three-day treatment with FJJOL, significant rescue effects on energy metabolism were detected, and levels of ATP, fumarate, malate and lactate in brain tissues of hypoxic mice recovered. Meanwhile, FJJOL also up-regulated the neurotransmitter GABA, and the improvement of anxiety symptoms was highly related to this effect. Conclusions FJJOL ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia effects by regulating energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and improving the symptoms of anxiety. The anti-anxiety therapeutic effects of FJJOL were comparable to the conventional anti-anxiety drug diazepam on the

  15. Intracerebroventricular injection of the antibiotic cefoselis produces convulsion in mice via inhibition of GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shunji; Mochizuki, Yoshitaka; Terai, Takao; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Uchida, Ichiro; Matsuoka, Nobuya; Mutoh, Seitaro

    2002-12-01

    A majority of beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins and penicillins) have convulsive activity to a greater or lesser extent. (6R,7R)-3-[[3-Amino-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2H-pyrazol-1-ium-1-yl]methyl]-7-[(Z)-2-(2-aminothiazol-4-yl)-2-methoxyiminoacetylamino]-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate monosulfate (cefoselis), a newly developed injectable beta-lactam antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), might induce convulsions if cerebral concentrations become highly elevated. In the present study, we examined whether or not cefoselis had convulsive activity after direct brain administration, and we attempted to clarify the pharmacological mechanism of action. When cefoselis was injected into the lateral ventricle of the mouse brain at doses higher than 20 microg/animal, it produced convulsions dose-dependently. Cefoselis (50 microg/animal)-induced convulsions were prevented by pretreatment with 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine (MK-801), diazepam and phenobarbital (ED(50) values (mg/kg) of 0.78, 1.59 and 33.0, respectively), but not by carbamazepine or phenytoin. When the effects of these anticonvulsants on the convulsions induced by intracerebral injection of bicuculline methiodide (BMI) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) were investigated, the inhibitory profile of anticonvulsants on cefoselis-induced convulsions was similar to those induced by BMI (125 ng/animal) but differed markedly in their inhibitory activity on NMDA (100 ng/animal)-induced convulsions, which were not inhibited by diazepam. These results suggest that cefoselis may be convulsive at higher concentrations through a mechanism involving inhibition of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors.

  16. Drug facilitated sexual assault: detection and stability of benzodiazepines in spiked drinks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Lata; Sharratt, Sarah D; Cole, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are detected in a significant number of drug facilitated sexual assaults (DFSA). Whilst blood and urine from the victim are routinely analysed, due to the delay in reporting DFSA cases and the short half lives of most of these drugs in blood and urine, drug detection in such samples is problematic. Consideration of the drinks involved and analysis for drugs may start to address this. Here we have reconstructed the 'spiking' of three benzodiazepines (diazepam, flunitrazepam and temazepam) into five drinks, an alcopop (flavoured alcoholic drink), a beer, a white wine, a spirit, and a fruit based non-alcoholic drink (J2O) chosen as representative of those drinks commonly used by women in 16-24 year old age group. Using a validated GC-MS method for the simultaneous detection of these drugs in the drinks we have studied the storage stability of the benzodiazepines under two different storage conditions, uncontrolled room temperature and refrigerator (4°C) over a 25 day period. All drugs could be detected in all beverages over this time period. Diazepam was found to be stable in all of the beverages, except the J2O, under both storage conditions. Flunitrazepam and temazepam were found not to be stable but were detectable (97% loss of temazepam and 39% loss of flunitrazepam from J2O). The recommendations from this study are that there should be a policy change and that drinks thought to be involved in DFSA cases should be collected and analysed wherever possible to support other evidence types.

  17. Ritualistic chewing behavior induced by mCPP in the rat is an animal model of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Deborah S; Coffman, Catherine F; Fiacco, Nicholas R; Granger, Jason C; Helton, Bernadette M; Jackson, Jennifer C; Kim, Leonid V; Mistry, Rishi S; Mizer, Tammie M; Palmer, Lolita V; Vacca, Jay A; Winkler, Stuart S; Zimmer, Benjamin A

    2013-03-01

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent, anxiety-producing thoughts accompanied by unwanted, overwhelming urges to perform ritualistic behaviors. Pharmacological treatments for this disorder (serotonin uptake inhibitors) are problematic because there is a 6-8 week delayed onset and half of the patients do not adequately respond. The present study evaluated whether Ritualistic Chewing Behaviors (RCBs) induced by the serotonin agonist mCPP in the rat is a behavioral model for OCD. The effects upon the RCBs induced by mCPP (1 mg/kg) were evaluated following treatments with either the serotonin antagonist mianserin (3 mg/kg), the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (1 mg/kg), the GABA modulator diazepam (10 mg/kg), or the serotonin uptake inhibitors clomipramine and fluvoxamine (15 mg/kg). The response to mCPP was blocked by acute treatment with mianserin, but not with acute haloperidol or diazepam. Further experiments revealed that the effects of mCPP were blocked by chronic, but not acute, treatment with clomipramine and fluvoxamine. A time-course demonstrated that 14 days of chronic treatment were required for blockade of the mCPP-evoked response. The current study demonstrates that mCPP-evoked RCBs may be a rodent model for OCD that can be used to predict the clinical efficacy and time course of novel OCD treatment. Future investigations may be able to use the current model as a tool for bench-marking corresponding changes in other measures of neurological activity that may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying OCD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Magnesium deficiency induces anxiety and HPA axis dysregulation: Modulation by therapeutic drug treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, S.B.; Whittle, N.; Hetzenauer, A.; Singewald, N.

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical and some clinical studies suggest a relationship between perturbation in magnesium (Mg2+) homeostasis and pathological anxiety, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Since there is evidence that Mg2+ modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, we tested whether enhanced anxiety-like behaviour can be reliably elicited by dietary Mg2+ deficiency and whether Mg2+ deficiency is associated with altered HPA axis function. Compared with controls, Mg2+ deficient mice did indeed display enhanced anxiety-related behaviour in a battery of established anxiety tests. The enhanced anxiety-related behaviour of Mg2+ deficient mice was sensitive to chronic desipramine treatment in the hyponeophagia test and to acute diazepam treatment in the open arm exposure test. Mg2+ deficiency caused an increase in the transcription of the corticotropin releasing hormone in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), and elevated ACTH plasma levels, pointing to an enhanced set-point of the HPA axis. Chronic treatment with desipramine reversed the identified abnormalities of the stress axis. Functional mapping of neuronal activity using c-Fos revealed hyper-excitability in the PVN of anxious Mg2+ deficient mice and its normalisation through diazepam treatment. Overall, the present findings demonstrate the robustness and validity of the Mg2+ deficiency model as a mouse model of enhanced anxiety, showing sensitivity to treatment with anxiolytics and antidepressants. It is further suggested that dysregulations in the HPA axis may contribute to the hyper-emotionality in response to dietary induced hypomagnesaemia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘Anxiety and Depression’. PMID:21835188

  19. Validation and pharmacological characterisation of MK-801-induced locomotor hyperactivity in BALB/C mice as an assay for detection of novel antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrea M; Savage, Kevin M; Jones, Declan N C; Kalinichev, Mikhail

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated locomotor hyperactivity induced in BALB/C mice by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 as an assay for the detection of antipsychotic drugs. We assessed the effects of antipsychotic drugs to validate the assay (study 1), selective dopamine and serotonin ligands for pharmacological characterisation of the model (study 2) and a number of compounds with efficacy in models of schizophrenia to understand the predictive validity of the model (study 3). Adult males (n  = 9/group) were pretreated with a test compound, habituated to locomotor activity cages before receiving MK-801 (0.32 mg/kg) and activity recorded for a further 75 or 120 min. In study 1, we tested haloperidol, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, sertindole and quetiapine. In study 2, we tested SCH23390 (D(1) antagonist), sulpiride (D(2)/D(3) antagonist), raclopride (D(2)/D(3) antagonist), SB-277011 (D(3) antagonist), L-745,870 (D(4) antagonist), WAY100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT(1A) agonist), ketanserin (5-HT(2A)/5-HT(2C) antagonist) and SB-242084 (5-HT(2C) antagonist). In study 3, we tested xanomeline (M(1)/M(4) receptor agonist), LY379268 (mGluR2/3 receptor agonist), diazepam (GABA(A) modulator) and thioperamide (H(3) receptor antagonist). All antipsychotics suppressed MK-801-induced hyperactivity in a dose-dependent and specific manner. The effects of antipsychotics appear to be mediated via dopamine D(1), D(2) and 5-HT(2) receptors. Xanomeline, LY379268 and diazepam were active in this assay while thioperamide was not. MK-801-induced hyperactivity in BALB/C mice model of positive symptoms has shown predictive validity with novel compounds acing at M(1)/M(4), mGluR2/3 and GABA(A) receptors and can be used as a screening assay for detection of novel pharmacotherapies targeting those receptors.

  20. Psychotropics and weak opioid analgesics in plasma samples of older hip fracture patients - detection frequencies and consistency with drug records.

    PubMed

    Waade, Ragnhild Birkeland; Molden, Espen; Martinsen, Mette Irene; Hermann, Monica; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-07-01

    To determine use of psychotropic drugs and weak opioids in hip fracture patients by analysing plasma samples at admission, and compare detected drug frequencies with prescription registry data and drug records. Plasma from 250 hip fracture patients aged ≥65 years sampled at hospital admission were analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods for detection of psychotropic drugs and weak opioid analgesics (alcohol also determined). Odds ratios for drugs detected in plasma of hip fracture patients vs. prescription frequencies of the same drugs in an age-, time- and region-matched reference population were calculated. Moreover, recorded and measured drugs were compared. Psychotropic drugs and/or weak opioid analgesics were detected in 158 (63%) of the patients (median age 84 years; 76% females), while alcohol was found in 19 patients (7.6%). The occurrence of diazepam (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.4), nitrazepam (2.3; 1.3-4.1), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (1.9; 1.3-2.9) and mirtazapine (2.3; 1.2-4.3) was significantly higher in plasma samples of hip fracture patients than in prescription data from the reference population. Poor consistency between recorded and measured drugs was disclosed for z-hypnotics and benzodiazepines; e.g. diazepam was detected in 29 (11.6%), but only recorded in six (2.4%) of the patients. Plasma analysis shows that use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines in hip fracture patients is significantly more frequent than respective prescription frequencies in the general elderly population. Moreover, consistency between recorded and actual use of psychotropic fall-risk drugs is poor at hospital admission of hip fracture patients. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. Nociception-specific blink reflex: pharmacology in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Marin, J C A; Gantenbein, A R; Paemeleire, K; Kaube, H; Goadsby, P J

    2015-01-01

    The physiology and pharmacology of activation or perception of activation of pain-coding trigeminovascular afferents in humans is fundamental to understanding the biology of headache and developing new treatments. The blink reflex was elicited using a concentric electrode and recorded in four separate sessions, at baseline and two minutes after administration of ramped doses of diazepam (final dose 0.07 mg/kg), fentanyl (final dose 1.11 μg/kg), ketamine (final dose 0.084 mg/kg) and 0.9 % saline solution. The AUC (area under the curve, μV*ms) and the latency (ms) of the ipsi- and contralateral R2 component of the blink reflex were calculated by PC-based offline analysis. Immediately after each block of blink reflex recordings certain psychometric parameters were assessed. There was an effect due to DRUG on the ipsilateral (F 3,60 = 7.3, P < 0.001) AUC as well as on the contralateral (F 3,60 = 6.02, P < 0.001) AUC across the study. A significant decrement in comparison to placebo was observed only for diazepam, affecting the ipsilateral AUC. The scores of alertness, calmness, contentedness, reaction time and precision were not affected by the DRUG across the sessions. Previous studies suggest central, rather than peripheral changes in nociceptive trigeminal transmission in migraine. This study demonstrates a robust effect of benzodiazepine receptor modulation of the nociception specific blink reflex (nBR) without any μ-opiate or glutamate NMDA receptor component. The nociception specific blink reflex offers a reproducible, quantifiable method of assessment of trigeminal nociceptive system in humans that can be used to dissect pharmacology relevant to primary headache disorders.

  2. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.

    1990-05-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose,more » a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time.« less

  3. K+ channel TASK-1 knockout mice show enhanced sensitivities to ataxic and hypnotic effects of GABA(A) receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Linden, Anni-Maija; Aller, M Isabel; Leppä, Elli; Rosenberg, Per H; Wisden, William; Korpi, Esa R

    2008-10-01

    TASK two-pore-domain leak K(+) channels occur throughout the brain. However, TASK-1 and TASK-3 knockout (KO) mice have few neurological impairments and only mildly reduced sensitivities to inhalational anesthetics, contrasting with the anticipated functions and importance of these channels. TASK-1/-3 channel expression can compensate for the absence of GABA(A) receptors in GABA(A) alpha6 KO mice. To investigate the converse, we analyzed the behavior of TASK-1 and -3 KO mice after administering drugs with preferential efficacies at GABA(A) receptor subtypes: benzodiazepines (diazepam and flurazepam, active at alpha1betagamma2, alpha2betagamma2, alpha3betagamma2, and alpha5betagamma2 subtypes), zolpidem (alpha1betagamma2 subtype), propofol (beta2-3-containing receptors), gaboxadol (alpha4betadelta and alpha6betadelta subtypes), pregnanolone, and pentobarbital (many subtypes). TASK-1 KO mice showed increased motor impairment in rotarod and beam-walking tests after diazepam and flurazepam administration but not after zolpidem. They also showed prolonged loss of righting reflex induced by propofol and pentobarbital. Autoradiography indicated no change in GABA(A) receptor ligand binding levels. These altered behavioral responses to GABAergic drugs suggest functional up-regulation of alpha2beta2/3gamma2 and alpha3beta2/3gamma2 receptor subtypes in TASK-1 KO mice. In addition, female, but not male, TASK-1 KO mice were more sensitive to gaboxadol, suggesting an increased influence of alpha4betadelta or alpha6betadelta subtypes. The benzodiazepine sensitivity of TASK-3 KO mice was marginally increased. Our results underline that TASK-1 channels perform such key functions in the brain that compensation is needed for their absence. Furthermore, because inhalation anesthetics act partially through GABA(A) receptors, the up-regulation of GABA(A) receptor function in TASK-1 KO mice might mask TASK-1 channel's significance as a target for inhalation anesthetics.

  4. Physical and Chemical Compatibility of Injectable Acetaminophen During Simulated Y-Site Administration

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Collin; Boehme, Sabrina; Ouellette, Jacquelyn; Stidham, Chanelle; MacKay, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The physical and chemical compatibility of intravenous acetaminophen with commonly administered injectable medications was evaluated. Methods: Simulated Y-site evaluation was accomplished by mixing 2 mL of acetaminophen (10 mg/mL) with 2 mL of an alternative intravenous medication and subsequently storing the mixture in a polypropylene syringe for 4 hours. The aliquot solutions were visually inspected and evaluated for crystal content at 4 hours by infusing 4 mL of the medication mixture through a 0.45-μm nitrocellulose filter disc. Medication mixtures that were selected for chemical stability testing were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at 0, 1, and 4 hours using a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18, 4.6 x 100 mm, 3.5-μm column for separation of analytes with subsequent diode-array detection. Medications were considered chemically compatible if the concentrations of all components were >90% of the original concentrations during the 4 hour simulated Y-site compatibility test. Results: U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP) standards for physical particle counts were met for acetaminophen injection (10 mg/mL) when combined with cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, clindamycin, dexamethasone, diphenhydramine, dolasetron, fentanyl, granisetron, hydrocortisone, hydromorphone, ketorolac, meperidine, methylprednisolone, midazolam, morphine, nalbuphine, ondansetron, piperacillin/tazobactam, ranitidine, and vancomycin. Injectable acetaminophen is incompatible with acyclovir and diazepam and therefore should not be administered concomitantly with either of these products. Further testing confirmed the chemical compatibility of acetaminophen with ceftriaxone, diphenhydramine, granisetron, ketorolac, nalbuphine, ondansetron, piperacillin/tazobactam, and vancomycin. Conclusion: All medications tested with acetaminophen were physically compatible except for acyclovir and diazepam. All 8 medications tested for chemical compatibility with acetaminophen were stable over the 4

  5. Anxiolytic-like effects of ursolic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Colla, André R S; Rosa, Julia M; Cunha, Mauricio P; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2015-07-05

    Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that possesses several biological and neuropharmacological effects including antidepressant-like activity. Anxiety disorders represent common and disability psychiatric conditions that are often associated with depressive symptoms. This work investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of ursolic acid administration in different behavioral paradigms that evaluate anxiety in mice: open field test, elevated plus maze test, light/dark box test and marble burying test. To this end, mice were administered with ursolic acid (0.1, 1 and 10mg/kg, p.o.) or diazepam (2mg/kg, p.o.), positive control, and submitted to the behavioral tests. The results show that ursolic acid (10mg/kg) elicited an anxiolytic-like effect observed by the increased total time in the center and decreased number of rearings responses in the open field test and an increased percentage of entries and total time spent in the open arms of elevated plus maze, similarly to diazepam. No significant effects of ursolic acid were shown in the light/dark box and marble burying test. These data indicate that ursolic acid exhibits anxiolytic-like effects in the open field and elevated plus maze test, but not in the light/dark box and marble burying test, showing the relevance of testing several behavioral paradigms in the evaluation of anxiolytic-like actions. Of note, the results extend the understanding on the effects of ursolic acid in the central nervous system and suggest that it may be a novel approach for the management of anxiety-related disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings

    PubMed Central

    Balali-Mood, Mahdi; Saber, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous compounds have been employed as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Toxicity of organophosphorous compounds is a result of excessive cholinergic stimulation through inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous system and cardiovascular disorders. Organophosphorous pesticide poisonings are common in developing worlds including Iran and Sri Lanka. Nerve agents were used during the Iraq-Iran war in 1983-1988 and in a terrorist attack in Japan in 1994-1995. Following decontamination, depending on the severity of intoxication the administration of atropine to counteract muscarinic over-stimulation, and an oxime to reactivate acetyl cholinesterase are indicated. Supportive and intensive care therapy including diazepam to control convulsions and mechanical respiration may be required. Recent investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective. Gacyclidine; an antiglutamatergic compound, was also proved to be beneficial in conjunction with atropine, pralidoxime, and diazepam in nerve agent poisoning. Intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning. Bio-scavengers including fresh frozen plasma or albumin have recently been suggested as a useful therapy through clearing of free organophosphates. Hemofiltration and antioxidants are also suggested for organophosphorous poisoning. Recombinant bacterial phosphotriesterases and hydrolases that are able to transfer organophosphorous-degrading enzymes are very promising in delayed treatment of organophosphorous poisoning. Recently, encapsulation of drugs or enzymes in nanocarriers has also been proposed. Given the signs and symptoms of organophosphorous poisoning, health professionals should remain updated about the recent advances in treatment of organophosphorous poisoning

  7. Exogenous daytime melatonin modulates response of adolescent mice in a repeated unpredictable stress paradigm.

    PubMed

    Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde; Adebayo, Ajibola Nurudeen; Onaolapo, Olakunle James

    2017-02-01

    The immediate and short-term behavioural and physiological implications of exposure to stressful scenarios in the adolescent period are largely unknown; however, increases in occurrence of stress-related physiological and psychological disorders during puberty highlight the need to study substances that may modulate stress reactivity during a crucial stage of maturation. Seven groups of mice (12-15 g each) were administered distilled water (DW) (non-stressed and stressed controls), sertraline (10 mg/kg), diazepam (2 mg/kg) or one of three doses of melatonin (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg). Mice were exposed to 30 min of chronic mild stress (25 min of cage shaking, cage tilting, handling and 5 min of forced swimming in tepid warm water at 25 °C, in a random order) after administration of DW or drugs, daily for 21 days. Behavioural assessments were conducted on day 1 and day 21 (after which mice were sacrificed, blood taken for estimation of corticosterone levels and brain homogenates used for estimation of antioxidant activities). Administration of melatonin resulted in an increase in horizontal locomotion and self-grooming, while rearing showed a time-dependent increase, compared to non-stress and stress controls. Working memory improved with increasing doses of melatonin (compared to controls and diazepam); in comparison to setraline however, working memory decreased. A dose-related anxiolytic effect is seen when melatonin is compared to non-stressed and stressed controls. Melatonin administration reduced the systemic/oxidant response to repeated stress. Administration of melatonin in repeatedly stressed adolescent mice was associated with improved central excitation, enhancement of working memory, anxiolysis and reduced systemic response to stress.

  8. Assessment of abuse of tianeptine from a reimbursement database using 'doctor-shopping' as an indicator.

    PubMed

    Rouby, Frank; Pradel, Vincent; Frauger, Elisabeth; Pauly, Vanessa; Natali, François; Reggio, Patrick; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2012-04-01

    Doctor-shopping is a patient behaviour characterized by simultaneous consultations of several physicians during the same period. Some case reports have described an abuse of tianeptine, an atypical antidepressant. Our objective was to assess the extent of abuse of this drug with a method quantifying doctor-shopping in comparison with other antidepressants and benzodiazepines (BZD). All dispensations of antidepressants and BZD during the year 2005 in a French area of 4.5 million inhabitants were extracted from a reimbursement database. For each patient, two quantities were computed: quantity dispensed and obtained by doctor-shopping. Tianeptine and other drugs were compared using their doctor-shopping indicator (DSI), defined as the percentage of drug obtained by doctor-shopping among dispensed quantity; 410 525 patients received at least one antidepressant dispensation during the year 2005. Tianeptine was the sixth most dispensed antidepressant. The DSI of tianeptine was 2.0%, ranking it first among antidepressant (the second being mianserine with a DSI of 1%). Flunitrazepam has the highest DSI (30.2%), the DSI of the five following BZD (clonazepam, zolpidem, oxazepam, diazepam, bromazepam) range from 3.0% to 2.0%. Tianeptine is associated with higher DSI, compared with other antidepressants, suggesting that it may be subject to abuse in the population. Moreover, its DSI as a measure of diversion is similar to the DSI of diazepam or bromazepam. © 2011 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  9. Efficacy of levetiracetam versus fosphenytoin for the recurrence of seizures after status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Inokuchi, Ryota; Daidoji, Hiroaki; Naraba, Hiromu; Sonoo, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Hideki; Tokunaga, Kurato; Hiruma, Takahiro; Doi, Kent; Morimura, Naoto

    2017-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are used as first-line treatments for status epilepticus. Fosphenytoin (FPHT) is recommended for second-line therapy; however, intravenous injection of levetiracetam (LEV) may also be effective against status epilepticus. Herein, we compared the efficacy and safety of LEV as a second-line treatment for status epilepticus with FPHT in Japanese patients.Patients with status epilepticus were selected from the database of the Emergency and Critical Care Center of Hitachi General Hospital. The subjects were patients whose status epilepticus was successfully stopped by diazepam, and in whom FPHT or LEV was administered after diazepam. As LEV injections recently became clinically available in Japan, the choice of drug was determined by the treatment period. Thus, 21 patients who were intravenously injected with LEV as a second-line therapy and 42 matched patients (historical controls) who were treated with FPHT (1:2) were selected.The subjects had a mean age of 64.0 ± 2.2 years, and included 48 males and 15 females. The status epilepticus control rates of the FPHT and LEV groups did not differ significantly (81.0% [34/42] vs 85.1% [18/21], respectively; P  =  .69). As for serious adverse events, a reduction in blood pressure was observed in the FPHT group, but not in the LEV group. The oral anticonvulsant switching rates of the 2 groups were similar, but the same-drug switching rates of the FPHT and LEV groups were 8.1% and 77.8%, respectively.The efficacy of intravenous LEV injections after status epilepticus was equivalent to that of FPHT, and the incidence of adverse events was lower in the LEV group. LEV is effective and safe at preventing recurrent seizures after status epilepticus following benzodiazepine treatment.

  10. Occurrence and distribution of psychoactive compounds and their metabolites in the urban water cycle of Berlin (Germany).

    PubMed

    Hass, Ulrike; Duennbier, Uwe; Massmann, Gudrun

    2012-11-15

    The occurrence and distribution of six psychoactive compounds (primidone, phenobarbital, oxazepam, diazepam, meprobamate, and pyrithyldione) and a metabolite of primidone (phenylethylmalonamide) were investigated in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, surface water, groundwater of a bank filtration site, raw and final drinking water, and in groundwater affected by former sewage irrigation. Primidone and its metabolite phenylethylmalonamide were found to be ubiquitous in environmental water samples in Berlin. Maximum concentrations of 0.87 and 0.42 μg/L, respectively, were encountered in WWTP effluents. Both compounds are apparently not removed when passaging through the different compartments of the water cycle and concentrations are only reduced by dilution. Phenobarbital was present at nearly every stage of the Berlin water cycle with the exception of raw and final drinking water. The highest concentrations of phenobarbital (up to 0.96 μg/L) were measured in groundwater influenced by former sewage irrigation. Oxazepam was only present in WWTP effluents and surface waters (up to 0.18 μg/L), while diazepam was not detected in any matrix. Due to their withdrawal from the German market years ago, the pharmaceuticals meprobamate and pyrithyldione were only found in sewage farm groundwater (up to 0.50 and 0.04 μg/L, respectively) and, in case of meprobamate, also in decade old bank filtrate (0.03 μg/L). Our results indicate a high persistence of some of the investigated compounds in the aquatic system. As a consequence, these pollutants may potentially reach drinking water resources via bank filtration if present in WWTP effluents and/or surface waters in partly closed water cycles such as Berlin's. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimum conditions for detecting hepatic micronuclei caused by numerical chromosome aberration inducers in mice.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miyuki; Setoguchi, Mayumi; Takada, Sanae; Itoh, Satoru; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2007-08-15

    To ascertain an optimum condition for detecting micronuclei in the liver caused by numerical aberration inducers, either carbendazim (125-1000mg/kg, p.o.), colchicine (0.375-1.5mg/kg, i.v.), cytochalasin B (2.5-20mg/kg, i.v.), diazepam (3.13-25mg/kg, i.v.), noscapine (7.8-62.5mg/kg, i.v.), paclitaxel (1-100mg/kg, i.v.) or trichlorfon (18.75-150mg/kg, i.v.) was administered once to male Slc:ddY mice 1 day before or after partial hepatectomy (PH, Day 1). Five days after PH (on Day 6), hepatic micronuclei were determined in conjunction with classifications of the main nuclei and relative liver weights as a proliferative indicator or a dysfunction marker of cell division. Additionally, hepatocyte proliferation index (HPI) was calculated by using mono-, bi- and multinucleated cell counts. Treatment of mice with six compounds, except for colchicine, after PH showed higher incidence of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNH) than that before PH, and also increases in binucleated and multinucleated cells. Especially for carbendazim, diazepam, noscapine and trichlorfon, the dosing after PH was essential for the detecting numerical aberration. Colchicine evidently increased HPI and decreased relative liver weights without MNH induction on Day 6. On Day 8 when HPI and relative liver weights almost returned to the basal range, a significant increase in MNH was noted. This implied that the strong inhibition of colchicine on hepatocyte proliferation may obstruct the induction of MNH on Day 6. In conclusion, to detect the potential numerical aberration, exposure of mice to test chemicals should be performed 1 day after PH, during which enhanced proliferation of hepatocytes was seen, and it would be better to analyze the liver specimens on Day 6 or more post-PH.

  12. Benzodiazepine-induced anxiolysis and reduction of conditioned fear are mediated by distinct GABAA receptor subtypes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Engin, Elif; Meloni, Edward G.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    GABAA receptor modulating drugs such as benzodiazepines (BZs) have been used to treat anxiety disorders for over five decades. In order to determine whether the same or different GABAA receptor subtypes are necessary for the anxiolytic-like action of BZs in unconditioned anxiety and conditioned fear models, we investigated the role of different GABAA receptor subtypes by challenging wild type, α1(H101R), α2(H101R) and α3(H126R) mice bred on the C57BL/6J background with diazepam or chlordiazepoxide in the elevated plus maze and the fear-potentiated startle paradigms. Both drugs significantly increased open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze in wild type, α1(H101R) and α3(H126R), but this effect was abolished in α2(H101R) mice; these were expected results based on previous published results. In contrast, while administration of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide significantly attenuated fear-potentiated startle (FPS) in wild type mice and α3(H126R) mice, the fear-reducing effects of these drugs were absent in both α1(H101R) and α2(H101R) point mutants, indicating that both α1- and α2-containing GABAA receptors are necessary for BZs to exert their effects on conditioned fear responses.. Our findings illustrate both an overlap and a divergence between the GABAA receptor subtype requirements for the impact of BZs, specifically that both α1- and α2-containing GABAA receptors are necessary for BZs to reduce conditioned fear whereas only α2-containing GABAA receptors are needed for BZ-induced anxiolysis in unconditioned tests of anxiety. This raises the possibility that GABAergic pharmacological interventions for specific anxiety disorders can be differentially tailored. PMID:22465203

  13. Chronic dietary chlorpyrifos causes long-term spatial memory impairment and thigmotaxic behavior.

    PubMed

    López-Granero, Caridad; Ruiz-Muñoz, Ana M; Nieto-Escámez, Francisco A; Colomina, María T; Aschner, Michael; Sánchez-Santed, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low-level organophosphate (OP) pesticides, and the role of neurotransmitter systems, other than the cholinergic system, in mediating OP neurotoxicity. In this study, rats were administered 5mg/kg/day of chlorpyrifos (CPF) for 6 months commencing at 3-months-of-age. The animals were examined 7 months later (at 16-months-of-age) for spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and locomotor activity. In addition, we assessed the chronic effects of CPF on glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) function using pharmacological challenges with dizocilpine (MK801) and diazepam. Impaired performance related to altered search patterns, including thigmotaxis and long-term spatial memory was noted in the MWM in animals exposed to CPF, pointing to dietary CPF-induced behavioral disturbances, such as anxiety. Twenty-four hours after the 31st session of repeated acquisition task, 0.1mg/kg MK801, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist was intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected for 4 consecutive days. Decreased latencies in the MWM in the control group were noted after two sessions with MK801 treatment. Once the MWM assessment was completed, animals were administered 0.1 or 0.2mg/kg of MK801 and 1 or 3mg/kg of diazepam i.p., and tested for locomotor activity. Both groups, the CPF dietary and control, displayed analogous performance in motor activity. In conclusion, our data point to a connection between the long-term spatial memory, thigmotaxic response and CPF long after the exposure ended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Age-related susceptibility to epileptogenesis and neuronal loss in male Fischer rats exposed to soman and treated with medical countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Marrero-Rosado, Brenda; Rossetti, Franco; Rice, Matthew W; Moffett, Mark C; Lee, Robyn; Stone, Michael F; Lumley, Lucille A

    2018-03-27

    Elderly individuals compose a large percentage of the world population; however, few studies have addressed the efficacy of current medical countermeasures (MCM) against the effects of chemical warfare nerve agent exposure in aged populations. We evaluated the efficacy of the anticonvulsant diazepam in an old adult rat model of soman (GD) poisoning and compared the toxic effects to those observed in young adult rats when anticonvulsant treatment is delayed. After determining their respective median lethal dose (LD50) of GD, we exposed young adult and old adult rats to an equitoxic 1.2 LD50 dose of GD followed by treatment with atropine sulfate and the oxime HI-6 at one minute after exposure, and diazepam at 30 minutes after seizure onset. Old adult rats that presented with status epilepticus were more susceptible to developing spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS). Neuropathological analysis revealed that in rats of both age groups that developed SRS, there was a significant reduction in the density of mature neurons in the piriform cortex, thalamus, and amygdala, with more pronounced neuronal loss in the thalamus of old adult rats compared to young adult rats. Furthermore, old adult rats displayed a reduced density of cells expressing glutamic acid decarboxylase 67, a marker of GABAergic interneurons, in the basolateral amygdala and piriform cortex, and a reduction of astrocyte activation in the piriform cortex. Our observations demonstrate the reduced effectiveness of current MCM in an old adult animal model of GD exposure and strongly suggest the need for countermeasures that are more tailored to the vulnerabilities of an aging population.

  15. Pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of substance P (NK(1)) receptors attenuates neonatal vocalisation in guinea-pigs and mice.

    PubMed

    Rupniak, N M; Carlson, E C; Harrison, T; Oates, B; Seward, E; Owen, S; de Felipe, C; Hunt, S; Wheeldon, A

    2000-06-08

    The regulation of stress-induced vocalisations by central NK(1) receptors was investigated using pharmacological antagonists in guinea-pigs, a species with human-like NK(1) receptors, and transgenic NK1R-/- mice. In guinea-pigs, i.c.v. infusion of the selective substance P agonist GR73632 (0.1 nmol) elicited a pronounced vocalisation response that was blocked enantioselectively by the NK(1) receptor antagonists CP-99,994 and L-733,060 (0.1-10 mg/kg). GR73632-induced vocalisations were also markedly attenuated by the antidepressant drugs imipramine and fluoxetine (30 mg/kg), but not by the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (3 mg/kg) or the 5-HT(1A) agonist buspirone (10 mg/kg). Similarly, vocalisations in guinea-pig pups separated from their mothers were blocked enantioselectively by the highly brain-penetrant NK(1) receptor antagonists L-733,060 and GR205171 (ID(50) 3 mg/kg), but not by the poorly brain-penetrant compounds LY303870 and CGP49823 (30 mg/kg). Separation-induced vocalisations were also blocked by the anxiolytic drugs diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and buspirone (ID(50) 0.5-1 mg/kg), and by the antidepressant drugs phenelzine, imipramine, fluoxetine and venlafaxine (ID(50) 3-8 mg/kg). In normal mouse pups, GR205171 attenuated neonatal vocalisations when administered at a high dose (30 mg/kg) only, consistent with its lower affinity for the rat than the guinea-pig NK(1) receptor. Ultrasound calls in NK1R-/- mouse pups were markedly reduced compared with those in WT pups, confirming the specific involvement of NK(1) receptors in the regulation of vocalisation. These observations suggest that centrally-acting NK(1) receptor antagonists may have clinical utility in the treatment of a range of anxiety and mood disorders.

  16. Benzodiazepine-site pharmacology on GABAA receptors in histaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    May, A C; Fleischer, W; Kletke, O; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2013-09-01

    The histaminergic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) of the posterior hypothalamus controls the cognitive aspects of vigilance which is reduced by common sedatives and anxiolytics. The receptors targeted by these drugs in histaminergic neurons are unknown. TMN neurons express nine different subunits of the GABAA receptor (GABAA R) with three α- (α1, α2 and α5) and two γ- (γ1, γ 2) subunits, which confer different pharmacologies of the benzodiazepine-binding site. We investigated the actions of zolpidem, midazolam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, flumazenil (Ro15-1788) and methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-4-ethyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate (DMCM) in TMN neurons using mouse genetics, electrophysiological and molecular biological methods. We find the sensitivity of GABAA R to zolpidem, midazolam and DMCM significantly reduced in TMN neurons from γ2F77I mice, but modulatory activities of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide and flumazenil not affected. Potencies and efficacies of these compounds are in line with the dominance of α2- and α1-subunit containing receptors associated with γ2- or γ1-subunits. Functional expression of the γ1-subunit is supported by siRNA-based knock-down experiments in γ2F77I mice. GABAA R of TMN neurons respond to a variety of common sedatives with a high affinity binding site (γ2F77I) involved. The γ1-subunit likely contributes to the action of common sedatives in TMN neurons. This study is relevant for understanding the role of neuronal histamine and benzodiazepines in disorders of sleep and metabolism. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Extinction of avoidance behavior by safety learning depends on endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Micale, Vincenzo; Stepan, Jens; Jurik, Angela; Pamplona, Fabricio A; Marsch, Rudolph; Drago, Filippo; Eder, Matthias; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2017-07-01

    The development of exaggerated avoidance behavior is largely responsible for the decreased quality of life in patients suffering from anxiety disorders. Studies using animal models have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the acquisition of avoidance responses. However, much less is known about its extinction. Here we provide evidence in mice that learning about the safety of an environment (i.e., safety learning) rather than repeated execution of the avoided response in absence of negative consequences (i.e., response extinction) allowed the animals to overcome their avoidance behavior in a step-down avoidance task. This process was context-dependent and could be blocked by pharmacological (3 mg/kg, s.c.; SR141716) or genetic (lack of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors) inactivation of CB1 receptors. In turn, the endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM404 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) facilitated safety learning in a CB1-dependent manner and attenuated the relapse of avoidance behavior 28 days after conditioning. Safety learning crucially depended on endocannabinoid signaling at level of the hippocampus, since intrahippocampal SR141716 treatment impaired, whereas AM404 facilitated safety learning. Other than AM404, treatment with diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.) impaired safety learning. Drug effects on behavior were directly mirrored by drug effects on evoked activity propagation through the hippocampal trisynaptic circuit in brain slices: As revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging, diazepam impaired whereas AM404 facilitated activity propagation to CA1 in a CB1-dependent manner. In line with this, systemic AM404 enhanced safety learning-induced expression of Egr1 at level of CA1. Together, our data render it likely that AM404 promotes safety learning by enhancing information flow through the trisynaptic circuit to CA1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Discriminative stimulus properties of intragastrically administered d-amphetamine and pentobarbital in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    de la Garza, R; Johanson, C E

    1987-12-01

    Rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate intragastrically administered d-amphetamine (AMPH) or pentobarbital (PENTO) from saline using a signaled shock-avoidance trail procedure. All monkeys maintained criterion levels (greater than 90% drug-appropriate responding) throughout the duration of the study during training sessions. In the AMPH experiment, the anorectics diethylpropion, mazindol, phendimetrazine, phenmetrazine and phentermine completely substituted for the training dose of AMPH. The atypical antidepressant bupropion and the psychomotor stimulant methylphenidate also completely substituted for AMPH. Other anorectics including benzphetamine, clortermine, fenetylline, mefenorex and the psychomotor stimulant pemoline that share some pharmacological properties with AMPH substituted for AMPH in some, but not all, of the monkeys tested. The anorectics fenfluramine and chlorphentermine failed to substitute for AMPH. Drugs from other pharmacological classes such as morphine, diazepam, nortripyline and PENTO also failed to substitute for AMPH, indicating pharmacological specificity. In the PENTO experiment, the benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, diazepam, flurazepam, halazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, temazepam and triazolam and the sedatives methaqualone and phenobarbital completely substituted for the training dose of PENTO. The nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic CL 218,872 only partially substituted for PENTO. In addition, morphine and AMPH failed to substitute for PENTO, indicating pharmacological specificity. In summary, drugs delivered intragastrically functioned as discriminative stimuli in a drug-class specific manner. The ability to use drugs delivered by this route as discriminative stimuli provides a way to compare anorectic drugs to AMPH or sedative drugs to PENTO under conditions that resemble the mode of human consumption to determine whether these drugs are likely to be associated with AMPH-like or PENTO-like drug dependence.

  19. The effect of GABAmimetics on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in albino mice.

    PubMed

    El Zahaf, Najwa Ahmed; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in depression are conflicting. Therefore, it was decided to examine the effect of different drugs that enhance the GABA system on the time of immobility induced by the forced swim test (FST). Materials and methods Adult albino mice were divided into several groups of six animals. Each group received an intraperitoneal injection of either imipramine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), vigabatrin (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), zolpidem (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), or alprazolam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg). Control groups received the appropriate vehicle. One hour after injection, the duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST. The percentage change in the duration of immobility from the control was calculated for each group. The statistical test of the difference between the treated and the control groups was calculated using unpaired Student's t-test. Results Imipramine produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility (78, 74, and 56%, respectively). Different doses of diazepam, vigabatrin, and zolpidem produced a significant increase in the duration of immobility (119, 126, and 128%), (116, 124, and 128%), and (108, 109, and 119%), respectively. The two low doses of alprazolam produced a significant increase (115 and 120%), while the high dose produced a significant decrease in the duration of immobility (74%). Conclusion Increasing central GABAergic activity by different mechanisms has resulted in a depressant-like activity measured as an increase in the duration of immobility in the FST model of depression.

  20. The effect of GABAmimetics on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in albino mice.

    PubMed

    El Zahaf, Najwa Ahmed; Salem Elhwuegi, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Studies regarding the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in depression are conflicting. Therefore, it was decided to examine the effect of different drugs that enhance the GABA system on the time of immobility induced by the forced swim test (FST). Adult albino mice were divided into several groups of six animals. Each group received an intraperitoneal injection of either imipramine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), vigabatrin (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), zolpidem (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), or alprazolam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg). Control groups received the appropriate vehicle. One hour after injection, the duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST. The percentage change in the duration of immobility from the control was calculated for each group. The statistical test of the difference between the treated and the control groups was calculated using unpaired Student's t-test. Imipramine produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility (78, 74, and 56%, respectively). Different doses of diazepam, vigabatrin, and zolpidem produced a significant increase in the duration of immobility (119, 126, and 128%), (116, 124, and 128%), and (108, 109, and 119%), respectively. The two low doses of alprazolam produced a significant increase (115 and 120%), while the high dose produced a significant decrease in the duration of immobility (74%). Increasing central GABAergic activity by different mechanisms has resulted in a depressant-like activity measured as an increase in the duration of immobility in the FST model of depression.

  1. An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of alectinib in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiang-Xin; Li, Yun-Xuan; Li, Xiang-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Xia; Tang, Peng-Fei; Hu, Guo-Xin

    2017-01-05

    Currently, crizotinib is the first generation drug, which has been used in the treatment of ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, more and more patients are found in crizotinib-resistance. In the last year, alectinib has been approved for treatment of patients with crizotinib-resistance. In this study, we aim to develop and validate a simple, rapid and sensitive tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of alectinib in rat plasma. Diazepam was chosen as an internal standard (IS). Protein precipitation by acetonitrile was utilized to prepare plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a RRHD Eclipse Plus C18 (2.1×50mm, 1.8μ) column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid). The analytes were detected by an electrospray ionization (ESI) source in positive mode. A dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was developed to detect specific precursor and product ions. The target fragment ions were m/z 483.2→396.1 for alectinib and m/z 285.0→192.9 for diazepam (IS). Linear calibration plots were achieved in the range of 1-500ng/ml for alectinib (R 2 =0.997) in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of alectinib in rat plasma ranged from 84.2% to 92.2%. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 9.3% and accuracy was from -1.4% to 12.1%. No obvious matrix effect was found. This method shows a good performance: accuracy, precision and stability. It has been fully validated and successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of alectinib. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Management and complications of anaesthesia during balloon valvuloplasty for pulmonic stenosis in dogs: 39 cases (2000 to 2012).

    PubMed

    Ramos, R V; Monteiro-Steagall, B P; Steagall, P V M

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to report the management and complications of anaesthesia in dogs undergoing balloon valvuloplasty. A retrospective review of medical records of dogs that were diagnosed with pulmonic stenosis and undergoing balloon valvuloplasty between 2000 and 2012. Thirty-nine cases were identified (28 males and 11 females). Median (range) age and bodyweight was 6 (4 to 48) months and 11·5 (2·0 to 30·3) kg, respectively. The most commonly represented breeds included mixed breed (n = 7, 17·9%) and English bulldog (n = 6, 15·3%). Anaesthesia was induced most commonly with intravenous administration of ketamine-diazepam (n = 8, 20·5%), propofol-diazepam (n = 8, 20·5%), or propofol-midazolam-lidocaine (n = 6, 15·4%), and maintained with isoflurane in combination with fentanyl or lidocaine. Anaesthetic and surgery times (mean ± sd) were 268·5 ±54 minutes and 193·2 ±50 minutes, respectively. The most common intraoperative complications were hypotension (n = 19, 48·7%), bradycardia (n = 8, 20·5%) and desaturation (n = 7, 17·9%). Cardiac arrhythmias were observed in 21 (53·8%) dogs. Death occurred in one (2·6%) dog due to severe hypotension after ballooning followed by cardiac arrest. Successful anaesthesia can be performed in young dogs with pulmonic stenosis undergoing balloon valvuloplasty. Management of anaesthesia requires intense monitoring and immediate treatment of complications. Anaesthetic risk increases during ballooning and may result in cardiac arrest. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  3. Orthosiphon stamineus Leaf Extract Affects TNF-α and Seizures in a Zebrafish Model

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Brandon Kar Meng; Kundap, Uday P.; Kumari, Yatinesh; Hue, Seow-Mun; Othman, Iekhsan; Shaikh, Mohd Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Epileptic seizures result from abnormal brain activity and can affect motor, autonomic and sensory function; as well as, memory, cognition, behavior, or emotional state. Effective anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are available but have tolerability issues due to their side effects. The Malaysian herb Orthosiphon stamineus, is a traditional epilepsy remedy and possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging abilities, all of which are known to protect against seizures. This experiment thus aimed to explore if an ethanolic leaf extract of O. stamineus has the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures in a zebrafish model; and the effects of the extract on the expression levels of several genes in the zebrafish brain which are associated with seizures. The results of this study indicate that O. stamineus has the potential to be a novel symptomatic treatment for epileptic seizures as it is pharmacologically active against seizures in a zebrafish model. The anti-convulsive effect of this extract is also comparable to that of diazepam at higher doses and can surpass diazepam in certain cases. Treatment with the extract also counteracts the upregulation of NF-κB, NPY and TNF-α as a result of a Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) treated seizure. The anti-convulsive action for this extract could be at least partially due to its downregulation of TNF-α. Future work could include the discovery of the active anti-convulsive compound, as well as determine if the extract does not cause cognitive impairment in zebrafish. PMID:29527169

  4. Metabolomic analysis of anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xia; Zhu, Wei; Guan, Shuhong; Feng, Ruihong; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Qiuhong; Sun, Peng; Lin, Donghai; Zhang, Naixia; Shen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Herba Rhodiolae is a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Tibetan people for treating hypoxia related diseases such as anxiety. Based on the previous work, we developed and patented an anti-anxiety herbal formula Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid (FJJOL) with Herba Rhodiolae as a chief ingredient. In this study, the anti-hypoxia and anti-anxiety effects of FJJOL in a high altitude forced-swimming mouse model with anxiety symptoms will be elucidated by NMR-based metabolomics. In our experiments, the mice were divided randomly into four groups as flatland group, high altitude saline-treated group, high altitude FJJOL-treated group, and high altitude diazepam-treated group. To cause anxiety effects and hypoxic defects, a combination use of oxygen level decreasing (hypobaric cabin) and oxygen consumption increasing (exhaustive swimming) were applied to mice. After a three-day experimental handling, aqueous metabolites of mouse brain tissues were extracted and then subjected to NMR analysis. The therapeutic effects of FJJOL on the hypobaric hypoxia mice with anxiety symptoms were verified. Upon hypoxic exposure, both energy metabolism defects and disorders of functional metabolites in brain tissues of mice were observed. PCA, PLS-DA and OPLS-DA scatter plots revealed a clear group clustering for metabolic profiles in the hypoxia versus normoxia samples. After a three-day treatment with FJJOL, significant rescue effects on energy metabolism were detected, and levels of ATP, fumarate, malate and lactate in brain tissues of hypoxic mice recovered. Meanwhile, FJJOL also up-regulated the neurotransmitter GABA, and the improvement of anxiety symptoms was highly related to this effect. FJJOL ameliorated hypobaric hypoxia effects by regulating energy metabolism, choline metabolism, and improving the symptoms of anxiety. The anti-anxiety therapeutic effects of FJJOL were comparable to the conventional anti-anxiety drug diazepam on the hypobaric hypoxia mice. FJJOL might serve as

  5. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice.

    PubMed

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug.

  6. Hypnotic Effect of Ocimum basilicum on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Vahid Reza; Baradaran Rahimi, Vafa; Ghorbani, Ahmad; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders are accompanied by several complications, and currently used soporific drugs can induce unwanted effects such as psychomotor impairment, tolerance, amnesia, and rebound insomnia. Objectives The present study was carried out to investigate if Ocimum basilicum has a sleep-prolonging effect. Materials and Methods This work was an experimental study on 72 mice which were randomly divided into 9 groups: saline (control); diazepam (3 mg/kg, positive control); hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE) of Ocimum basilicum (25, 50, or 100 mg/kg); ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, 50 mg/kg); n-butanol fraction (NBF, 50 mg/kg); water fraction (WF, 50 mg/kg); and saline containing 10% DMSO (vehicle for EAF and NBF). All the test compounds were injected intraperitoneally (IP) 30 minutes before pentobarbital administration (30 mg/kg). Duration and latency of pentobarbital-induced sleep were recorded. Also, LD50 of HAE was determined and the cytotoxicity of HAE was tested on neural and fibroblast cells using the MTT assay. Results HAE increased the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg (P < 0.001). The hypnotic effect of HAE was comparable to that induced by diazepam. Similarly, WF, EAF, and NBF at 50 mg/kg could increase sleep duration. The sleep latency was decreased by HAE (P < 0.01 - P < 0.001) and NBF (P < 0.001), but not by WF and EAF. The LD50 value for HAE was found to be 2.4 g/kg. HAE had no effect on the viability of neuronal PC12 cells and L929 fibroblast cells. Conclusions The present data demonstrated that Ocimum basilicum potentiates sleeping behaviors without any cytotoxicity. The main component (s) responsible for the hypnotic effects of this plant is most likely a non-polar agent (s) which is found in NBF. Isolation of the active constituents may yield a novel sedative drug. PMID:27651944

  7. THE ROLE OF AMYGDALAR MU OPIOID RECEPTORS IN ANXIETY-RELATED RESPONSES IN TWO RAT MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Marlene A.; Junor, Lorain

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala opioids such as enkephalin appear to play some role in the control of anxiety and the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines, although the opioid receptor subtypes mediating such effects are unclear. This study compared the influences of mu opioid receptor (MOR) activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) on unconditioned fear or anxiety-like responses in two models, the elevated plus maze and the defensive burying test. The role of MOR in the anxiolytic actions of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam was also examined using both models. Either the MOR agonist [D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO) or the MOR antagonists Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Arg-Thr-Pen-Thr-NH2 (CTAP) or β-funaltrexamine (FNA) were bilaterally infused into the CEA of rats prior to testing. The results show that microinjection of DAMGO in the CEA decreased open arm time in the plus maze, while CTAP increased open arm behaviors. In contrast, DAMGO injections in the CEA reduced burying behaviors and increased rearing following exposure to a predator odor, suggesting a shift in the behavioral response in this context. Amygdala injections of the MOR agonist DAMGO or the MOR antagonist CTAP failed to change the anxiolytic effects of diazepam in either test. Our results demonstrate that MOR activation in the central amygdala exerts distinctive effects in two different models of unconditioned fear or anxiety-like responses, and suggest that opioids may exert context-specific regulation of amygdala output circuits and behavioral responses during exposure to potential threats (open arms of the maze) versus discrete threats (predator odor). PMID:18216773

  8. Validation of a motor activity system by a robotically controlled vehicle and using standard reference compounds.

    PubMed

    Patterson, John P; Markgraf, Carrie G; Cirino, Maria; Bass, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken to evaluate the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of an automated, infrared photo beam-based open field motor activity system, the MotorMonitor v. 4.01, Hamilton-Kinder, LLC, for use in a good laboratory practices (GLP) Safety Pharmacology laboratory. This evaluation consisted of two phases: (1) system validation, employing known inputs using the EM-100 Controller Photo Beam Validation System, a robotically controlled vehicle representing a rodent and (2) biologic validation, employing groups of rats treated with the standard pharmacologic agents diazepam or D-amphetamine. The MotorMonitor's parameters that described the open-field activity of a subject were: basic movements, total distance, fine movements, x/y horizontal ambulations, rearing, and total rest time. These measurements were evaluated over a number of zones within each enclosure. System validation with the EM-100 Controller Photo Beam Validation System showed that all the parameters accurately and precisely measured what they were intended to measure, with the exception of fine movements and x/y ambulations. Biologic validation using the central nervous system depressant diazepam at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg, i.p. produced the expected dose-dependent reduction in rat motor activity. In contrast, the central nervous system stimulant D-amphetamine produced the expected increases in rat motor activity at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p, demonstrating the specificity and sensitivity of the system. Taken together, these studies of the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity show the importance of both system and biologic validation in the evaluation of an automated open field motor activity system for use in a GLP compliant laboratory.

  9. Mapping the availability, price, and affordability of antiepileptic drugs in 46 countries.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Alexandra; Bansal, Amit; Dua, Tarun; Hill, Suzanne R; Moshe, Solomon L; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Saxena, Shekhar

    2012-06-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), a large proportion of people with epilepsy do not receive treatment. An analysis of the availability, price, and affordability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) was conducted to evaluate whether these factors contribute to the treatment gap. Data for five AEDs (phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and diazepam) were obtained from facility-based surveys conducted in 46 countries using the World Health Organization/Health Action International (WHO/HAI) methodology. Outcome measures were percentage availability, ratios of local prices to international reference prices, and number of days' wages needed by the lowest-paid unskilled government worker to purchase treatment. Prices were adjusted for inflation/deflation and purchasing power parity. The average availability of generic AEDs in the public sector was <50% for all medicines except diazepam injection. Private sector availability of generic oral AEDs ranged from 42.2% for phenytoin to 69.6% for phenobarbital. Public sector patient prices for generic carbamazepine and phenytoin were 4.95 and 17.50 times higher than international reference prices, respectively, whereas private sector patient prices were 11.27 and 24.77 times higher, respectively. For both medicines, originator brand prices were about 30 times higher. The highest prices were observed in the lowest income countries. The lowest-paid government worker would need wages from 1-2.6 days' to purchase a month's supply of phenytoin, whereas carbamazepine would cost 2.7-16.2 days' wages. Despite its widespread use in LMICs, WHO/HAI survey data for phenobarbital was only available from a small number of countries. In LMICs, availability and affordability of AEDs are poor and may be acting as a barrier to accessing treatment for epilepsy. Ensuring a consistent supply of AEDs at an affordable price should be a priority. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine binding sites in vitro.

    PubMed

    Horton, R W; Lowther, S; Chivers, J; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Testa, B

    1988-08-01

    1. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites was examined by their ability to displace [3H]-flunitrazepam ([3H]-FNM) from specific binding sites in bovine cortical membranes in vitro. 2. Clebopride, Delagrange 2674, Delagrange 2335 and BRL 20627 displayed concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]-FNM with IC50 values of 73 nM, 132 nM, 7.7 microM and 5.9 microM, respectively. Other substituted benzamides including metoclopramide, sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and cisapride were inactive at 10(-5) M. 3. Inhibition by clebopride and Delagrange 2674 of [3H]-FNM binding was apparently competitive and readily reversible. 4. In the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the ability of diazepam and Delagrange 2674 to displace [3H]-Ro 15-1788 binding was increased 3.6 and 1.6 fold respectively, compared to the absence of GABA, while ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCE) and clebopride were less potent in the presence of GABA. 5. Diazepam was 30 fold less potent at displacing [3H]-Ro 15-1788 in membranes that had been photoaffinity labelled with FNM than in control membranes, whereas the potency of beta CCE did not differ. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 showed a less than two fold loss of potency in photoaffinity labelled membranes. 6. The pattern of binding of clebopride and Delagrange 2674 in these in vitro tests is similar to that found previously with partial agonists or antagonists at BDZ binding sites. 7. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 inhibited [3H]-FNM binding with similar potency in rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes, suggesting they have no selectivity for BDZ1 and BDZ2 binding sites. 8. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 are structurally dissimilar to other BDZ ligands and represent another chemical structure to probe brain BDZ binding sites.

  11. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine binding sites in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, R. W.; Lowther, S.; Chivers, J.; Jenner, P.; Marsden, C. D.; Testa, B.

    1988-01-01

    1. The interaction of substituted benzamides with brain benzodiazepine (BDZ) binding sites was examined by their ability to displace [3H]-flunitrazepam ([3H]-FNM) from specific binding sites in bovine cortical membranes in vitro. 2. Clebopride, Delagrange 2674, Delagrange 2335 and BRL 20627 displayed concentration-dependent displacement of [3H]-FNM with IC50 values of 73 nM, 132 nM, 7.7 microM and 5.9 microM, respectively. Other substituted benzamides including metoclopramide, sulpiride, tiapride, sultopride and cisapride were inactive at 10(-5) M. 3. Inhibition by clebopride and Delagrange 2674 of [3H]-FNM binding was apparently competitive and readily reversible. 4. In the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the ability of diazepam and Delagrange 2674 to displace [3H]-Ro 15-1788 binding was increased 3.6 and 1.6 fold respectively, compared to the absence of GABA, while ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta CCE) and clebopride were less potent in the presence of GABA. 5. Diazepam was 30 fold less potent at displacing [3H]-Ro 15-1788 in membranes that had been photoaffinity labelled with FNM than in control membranes, whereas the potency of beta CCE did not differ. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 showed a less than two fold loss of potency in photoaffinity labelled membranes. 6. The pattern of binding of clebopride and Delagrange 2674 in these in vitro tests is similar to that found previously with partial agonists or antagonists at BDZ binding sites. 7. Clebopride and Delagrange 2674 inhibited [3H]-FNM binding with similar potency in rat cerebellar and hippocampal membranes, suggesting they have no selectivity for BDZ1 and BDZ2 binding sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2850059

  12. Dissociating anxiolytic and sedative effects of GABAAergic drugs using temperature and locomotor responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Klanker, Marianne; Groenink, Lucianne; Korte, S. Mechiel; Cook, James M.; Van Linn, Michael L.; Hopkins, Seth C.; Olivier, Berend

    2009-01-01

    Rationale The stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) model is an anxiety model that uses the transient rise in body temperature in response to acute stress. Benzodiazepines produce anxiolytic as well as sedative side effects through nonselective binding to GABAA receptor subunits. The GABAA receptor α1 subunit is associated with sedation, whereas the GABAA receptor α2 and α3 subunits are involved in anxiolytic effects. Objectives We therefore examined the effects of (non) subunit-selective GABAA receptor agonists on temperature and locomotor responses to novel cage stress. Results Using telemetric monitoring of temperature and locomotor activity, we found that nonsubunit-selective GABAA receptor agonist diazepam as well as the α3 subunit-selective receptor agonist TP003 dose-dependently attenuated SIH and locomotor responses. Administration of GABAA receptor α1-selective agonist zolpidem resulted in profound hypothermia and locomotor sedation. The GABAA receptor α1-selective antagonist βCCt antagonized the hypothermia, but did not reverse the SIH response attenuation caused by diazepam and zolpidem. These results suggest an important regulating role for the α1 subunit in thermoregulation and sedation. Ligands of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors such as alcohol and nonbenzodiazepine THIP attenuated the SIH response only at high doses. Conclusions The present study confirms a putative role for the GABAA receptor α1 subunit in hypothermia and sedation and supports a role for α2/3 subunit GABAA receptor agonists in anxiety processes. In conclusion, we show that home cage temperature and locomotor responses to novel home cage stress provide an excellent tool to assess both anxiolytic and sedative effects of various (subunit-selective) GABAAergic compounds. PMID:19169673

  13. Genetic markers of a Munc13 protein family member, BAIAP3, are gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine abuse in mice and humans.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Sonja M; Tantra, Martesa; Stepniak, Beata; Man, Kwun-Nok M; Müller-Ribbe, Katja; Begemann, Martin; Ju, Anes; Papiol, Sergi; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gurvich, Artem; Shin, Yong; Augustin, Iris; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2013-07-24

    Anxiety disorders and substance abuse, including benzodiazepine use disorder, frequently occur together. Unfortunately, treatment of anxiety disorders still includes benzodiazepines, and patients with an existing comorbid benzodiazepine use disorder or a genetic susceptibility for benzodiazepine use disorder may be at risk of adverse treatment outcomes. The identification of genetic predictors for anxiety disorders, and especially for benzodiazepine use disorder, could aid the selection of the best treatment option and improve clinical outcomes. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor I-associated protein 3 (Baiap3) is a member of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13) protein family of synaptic regulators of neurotransmitter exocytosis, with a striking expression pattern in amygdalae, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. Deletion of Baiap3 in mice leads to enhanced seizure propensity and increased anxiety, with the latter being more pronounced in female than in male animals. We hypothesized that genetic variation in human BAIAP3 may also be associated with anxiety. By using a phenotype-based genetic association study, we identified two human BAIAP3 single-nucleotide polymorphism risk genotypes (AA for rs2235632, TT for rs1132358) that show a significant association with anxiety in women and, surprisingly, with benzodiazepine abuse in men. Returning to mice, we found that male, but not female, Baiap3 knockout (KO) mice develop tolerance to diazepam more quickly than control animals. Analysis of cultured Baiap3 KO hypothalamus slices revealed an increase in basal network activity and an altered response to diazepam withdrawal. Thus, Baiap3/BAIAP3 is gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine use disorder, and the analysis of Baiap3/BAIAP3-related functions may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the development of both disorders.

  14. Genetic Markers of a Munc13 Protein Family Member, BAIAP3, Are Gender Specifically Associated with Anxiety and Benzodiazepine Abuse in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Wojcik, Sonja M; Tantra, Martesa; Stepniak, Beata; Man, Kwun-nok M; Müller-Ribbe, Katja; Begemann, Martin; Ju, Anes; Papiol, Sergi; Ronnenberg, Anja; Gurvich, Artem; Shin, Yong; Augustin, Iris; Brose, Nils; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and substance abuse, including benzodiazepine use disorder, frequently occur together. Unfortunately, treatment of anxiety disorders still includes benzodiazepines, and patients with an existing comorbid benzodiazepine use disorder or a genetic susceptibility for benzodiazepine use disorder may be at risk of adverse treatment outcomes. The identification of genetic predictors for anxiety disorders, and especially for benzodiazepine use disorder, could aid the selection of the best treatment option and improve clinical outcomes. The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor I–associated protein 3 (Baiap3) is a member of the mammalian uncoordinated 13 (Munc13) protein family of synaptic regulators of neurotransmitter exocytosis, with a striking expression pattern in amygdalae, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray. Deletion of Baiap3 in mice leads to enhanced seizure propensity and increased anxiety, with the latter being more pronounced in female than in male animals. We hypothesized that genetic variation in human BAIAP3 may also be associated with anxiety. By using a phenotype-based genetic association study, we identified two human BAIAP3 single-nucleotide polymorphism risk genotypes (AA for rs2235632, TT for rs1132358) that show a significant association with anxiety in women and, surprisingly, with benzodiazepine abuse in men. Returning to mice, we found that male, but not female, Baiap3 knockout (KO) mice develop tolerance to diazepam more quickly than control animals. Analysis of cultured Baiap3 KO hypothalamus slices revealed an increase in basal network activity and an altered response to diazepam withdrawal. Thus, Baiap3/BAIAP3 is gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine use disorder, and the analysis of Baiap3/BAIAP3-related functions may help elucidate mechanisms underlying the development of both disorders. PMID:23698091

  15. Effect of root-extracts of Ficus benghalensis (Banyan) in memory, anxiety, muscle co-ordination and seizure in animal models.

    PubMed

    Panday, Dipesh Raj; Rauniar, G P

    2016-11-03

    Ficus benghalensis L. (Banyan) is a commonly found tree in Eastern Nepal. Its different plant parts are used for various neurological ailments. This study was performed in mice to see its effects in various neuropharmacological parameters. Passive-avoidance (memory), Open-field (anxiety), Pentobarbital-induced Sleep potentiation (sleep), Rota-rod (muscle-co-ordination), Pentylenetetrazol-Induced and Maximal Electroshock Seizure Tests were performed. Sample size was calculated using G*Power 3.1.9.2. Aqueous root extracts (Soxhlet method) of Ficus benghalensis 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg with negative and positive controls were used. The experimental results were represented as Mean ± SD. P-value was set at <0.05. Oneway analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Mann-Whitney U test was appropriately used. Passive-avoidance test showed 200 mg/kg group spent significantly less. Time (0.00s + 0.00s) in shock-zone than Normal Saline-group (9.67 s + 14.36 s, P = 0.000) or Diazepam-group (41.07 s + 88.24 s, P = 0.000). Open-field test showed 200 mg/kg group spent significantly longer Time (24.77 s + 12.23 s) in central-square than either Normal Saline group (15.08 s + 6.81 s, P = 0.000) or Diazepam-group (15.32 s + 5.12 s, P = 0.000). In Rota-rod test, 200 mg/kg group fell off the rod significantly (P = 0.000) earlier (33.01 s + 43.61 s) than both Normal Saline (>120 s) and Diazepam (62.07 s + 43.83 s) PTZ model showed that 100 mg/kg significantly (P = 0.004) delayed seizure-onset (184.40s + 36.36 s) compared to Normal Saline (101.79 s + 22.81 s), however, in MES model 200 mg/kg significantly (P = 0.000) prolonged tonic hind-limb extension (17.57 s + 2.15 s) compared to Normal Saline (13.55 s + 2.75 s) or Phenytoin (00.00s + 00.00s). Aerial roots of Ficus benghalensis have memory-enhancing, anxiolytic, musclerelaxant, and seizure-modifying effect.

  16. Sedatives for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Osborn, D A; Jeffery, H E; Cole, M J

    2002-01-01

    duration of supportive care required to be given to infants each day was significantly reduced (MD -162.1 minutes/day, 95% CI -249.2, -75.1). Comparing phenobarbital to diazepam, meta-analysis of two studies found that phenobarbital produced a significant reduction in treatment failure (typical RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24, 0.62). There was no significant difference in duration of treatment or duration of hospital stay. Comparing phenobarbital with chlorpromazine, one study found no significant difference in treatment failure rate. No data for neurodevelopment were available, reported by treatment group as allocated. No trials were eligible that assessed clonidine for NAS. In newborn infants with NAS, there is no evidence that phenobarbital, compared with supportive care alone, reduces treatment failure; however, phenobarbital may reduce the daily duration of supportive care needed. Phenobarbital, compared to diazepam, reduces treatment failure. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of chlorpromazine or clonidine in newborn infants with NAS. Clonidine and chlorpromazine should only be used in the context of a randomised clinical trial. The results of this review, taken in conjunction with the related review, Opiate treatment for opiate withdrawal in newborn infants (Osborn 2002), indicate that treatment with opiates is the preferred initial therapy for NAS. It is hypothesised that this is particularly true for infants whose mothers have used only opiates during pregnancy. If a sedative is used, phenobarbital is preferred to diazepam. The results of an ongoing trial of the addition of phenobarbital to an opiate are awaited.

  17. Abnormal turning behaviour, GABAergic inhibition and the degeneration of astrocytes in ovine Tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease.

    PubMed

    Bourke, C A

    2006-01-01

    To observe the clinical signs of sheep affected by Tribulus terrestris motor neuron disease, to ascertain their response to striatal dopamine reducing drugs, and to examine their brains and spinal cords for microscopic changes. Twenty-eight sheep displaying well developed clinical signs of the disorder were observed. Twenty-two of these and 22 normal sheep were then randomly allocated to three groups and treated with diazepam, chlorpromazine, or xylazine. The time that it took an animal to return to a standing position following drug administration was recorded. The brain and complete spinal cord were removed from each of the other six affected sheep and fixed in formalin. Brains were sectioned throughout at 5 mm intervals and spinal cords at 10 mm intervals. All tissues were paraffin embedded and examined by light microscopy. A few samples were examined by electron microscopy. Clinical signs included postural asymmetry with a right:left body-side dominance within the group of 50:50, unequal flaccid paresis in the pelvic limbs, extensor muscle atrophy and adduction of the weaker pelvic limb, and concurrent abduction of the stronger. Forward motion followed either a fixed left or right hand curved trajectory, the sheep no longer being able to choose which. Twelve animals intermittently displayed rotational behaviour that involved loss of postural balance without locomotor activation. The administration of diazepam, chlorpromazine, or xylazine caused limb paresis and sedation, with affected sheep being slower than normal sheep by factors of 8, 3 and 2 respectively, to return to a standing position. There were scattered areas of mild Wallerian degeneration throughout the spinal cord, and in both the brain and the cord there were small numbers of degenerate astrocytes containing novel cytoplasmic pigment granules. Affected sheep had a dysfunction in the control of directional change and this provides a new insight into the normal mechanism for 'turning' in quadrupeds

  18. Catatonic syndrome: From detection to therapy.

    PubMed

    Madigand, J; Lebain, P; Callery, G; Dollfus, S

    2016-08-01

    Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome which can include motor, mental, behavioral and vegetative symptoms. Exclusively associated with schizophrenia until the 1970s, catatonia still remains an under-diagnosed syndrome with significant morbidity and mortality. As a result of its different forms and developments, catatonic syndrome can be associated with many organic and psychiatric etiologies and confused with a variety of diagnoses. In addition to its organic complications, malignant catatonia can also be extremely severe. Several diagnostic scales are described, those of Bush and Peralta being the most widely used. Despite the recent development of the DSM-5, we can regret the lack of progress in the international classifications concerning both the recognition of the etiological diversity of this syndrome and in the clinical and therapeutic approaches to it. The diagnosis is based solely on clinical data, and needs to be completed by information from paraclinical settings, particularly with respect to detecting organic etiology. The first-line treatment is still based on the use of certain benzodiazepines or benzodiazepine-like agents such as lorazepam, diazepam and zolpidem. If the first or second line fails, or in case of malignant catatonia, electroconvulsive therapy is recommended. For the periodic form, no large-sample study has been performed on long-term treatment. A few case reports suggest the use of lithium in periodic catatonia, specifically to prevent recurrent episodes or at least to extend the inter-episode intervals. Other studies are in favor of the use of benzodiazepines, with disagreement between gradual discontinuation and long-term treatment. Concerning the management of catatonia in patients with schizophrenia, for whom first-line benzodiazepines are often insufficient, certain atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine or quetiapine appear efficient. These data are also applicable to children and adolescents. Often neglected by practitioners

  19. Response to benzodiazepines and the clinical course in malignant catatonia associated with schizophrenia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Kuwata, Aki; Shimada, Takamitsu; Yasuyama, Toshiki; Nitta, Yusuke; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Malignant catatonia (MC) is a disorder consisting of catatonic symptoms, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and altered mental status. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) caused by antipsychotics is considered a variant of MC. Benzodiazepine (BZD) medications are safe and effective treatments providing rapid relief from MC. This case study reports a detailed clinical course