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Sample records for dibenzo-p-dioxine und dibenzofurane

  1. KEY PARAMETERS FOR DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    De novo formation of polychlorinated- dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas- phase environment...

  2. Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins/ Dibenzofurans; Testing and Reporting Requirements; Final Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document promulgates regulations under sections 4 and 8 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). 15 U.S.C. 2603 and 2607 for chemicals which may be contaminated with chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs)

  3. The toxicity of brominated and mixed-halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.W.D. |; Greim, H.

    1997-02-21

    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans can be formed under laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of flame retardants based on polybrominated biphenyls and biphenyl ethers. Their occurrence in the environment, however, is due to combustion processes such as municipal waste incineration and internal combustion engines. As these processes generally take place in the presence of an excess of chlorine, predominantly mixed brominated and chlorinated compounds have been identified so far in environmental samples. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor about as avidly as their chlorinated congeners and induce hepatic microsomal enzymes with comparable potency. The same holds true for mixed brominated-chlorinated compounds. Gross pathologic symptoms-hypothyroidism, thymic atrophy, wasting of body mass, lethality-also occur at doses that, on a molar concentration basis, are virtually identical to those seen with the chlorinated compounds. Their potency to induce malformations in mice following prenatal exposure is equivalent to that of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Possible activities as (co)carcinogens and endocrine disrupters have not been evaluated, but are likely to exist. Considering the overall similarity in action of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, environmental and health assessment should be based on molar body burdens without discrimination for the nature of the halogen. 107 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  4. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  5. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  6. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  7. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  8. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  9. EFFECT OF COFIRING COAL ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of cofiring coal with municipal waste on formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was examined by cofiring minor amounts (<7% by wt) of high (3.4% by wt) or low (0.7% by wt) sulfur (S) coal in a municipal waste co...

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  11. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  12. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen F; Gaus, Caroline; Prange, Joelle A; Päpke, Olaf; Poon, Ka Fai; Lam, M H W; Lam, Paul K

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in 14 sediment samples collected from four sites in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve (within a RAMSAR Site) and from another six sites in Victoria Harbour and along the Hong Kong coastline. Elevated levels of PCDDs, and particularly OCDD, were detectable in all samples collected from the Mai Po Marshes and five of the six sites. In contrast to PCDDs, PCDFs were mainly found in sediment samples collected from industrial areas (Kwun Tong and To Kwa Wan) in Victoria Harbour. PCDD/ F levels and congener profiles in the samples from the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve in particular show strong similarities to those reported in studies which have attributed similar elevated PCDD concentrations to nonanthropogenic PCDD sources.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans formed from sucralose at high temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Shujun; Liu, Guorui; Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a widely-used artificial high-intensity sweetener. Although doubts have been raised about the safety of sucralose by several researchers, it can still be found in a broad range of foods and beverages worldwide, including in baked goods. Sucralose may decompose at high temperatures, and participate in chlorination reactions, generating highly toxic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that heating sucralose at high temperatures in stainless steel or other metal utensils in the presence of rust (Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CuO) produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs were found in smoke generated during the heating of sucralose and in the residues after heating. CuO enhanced the PCDD/F yield in comparison with Al2O3 and Fe2O3. PMID:24126490

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans formed from sucralose at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shujun; Liu, Guorui; Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    Sucralose is a widely-used artificial high-intensity sweetener. Although doubts have been raised about the safety of sucralose by several researchers, it can still be found in a broad range of foods and beverages worldwide, including in baked goods. Sucralose may decompose at high temperatures, and participate in chlorination reactions, generating highly toxic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that heating sucralose at high temperatures in stainless steel or other metal utensils in the presence of rust (Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CuO) produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs were found in smoke generated during the heating of sucralose and in the residues after heating. CuO enhanced the PCDD/F yield in comparison with Al2O3 and Fe2O3.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Great Barrier Reef (Australia) dugongs (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Haynes, D; Müller, J F; McLachlan, M S

    1999-01-01

    Fat tissue samples from dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded at three sites along the Great Barrier Reef were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Relatively high levels of PCDDs were determined in all three dugongs. In particular OCDD, the PCDD/F congener that is usually considered the least bioavailable of all 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners, was found at levels higher than reported for other marine mammals. Tissue accumulation of PCDDs by dugongs may be a consequence of sediment and/or seagrass ingestion during feeding, microbial biotransformation of PCDD precursors in the animal's hindgut or, alternatively, the possession of a selective degradation capability for PCDFs.

  17. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-02

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively.

  18. ROLE OF COMBUSTION AND SORBENT PARAMETERS IN PREVENTION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN FORMATION DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research uses experimental data and a statistical approach to determine the effect of combustion- and sorbent-injection-related parameters on the mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF, respectively) formation and preven...

  19. Environmental applications for the analysis of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, E.J.; Schellenberg, D.H.; Taguchi, V.Y. )

    1991-01-01

    A mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry-multiple reaction monitoring (MS/MS-MRM) technique for the analysis of all tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Cl{sub x}DD, x = 4-8) and dibenzofurans (Cl{sub x}DF, x = 4-8) has been developed at the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) utilizing a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Optimization of instrumental parameters using the analyte of interest in a direct insertion probe (DIP) resulted in sensitivities approaching those obtainable by high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) methods. All congeners of dioxins and furans were detected in the femtogram range. Results on selected samples indicated that for some matrices, fewer chemical interferences were observed by MS/MS than by HRMS. The technique used to optimize the instrument for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) analysis is adaptable to other analytes.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  1. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Stach, J; Pekárek, V; Grabic, R; Lojkásek, M; Pacáková, V

    2000-12-01

    Dechlorination of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) on extracted and non-extracted fly ash obtained from municipal waste incinerator (MWI) was studied in closed systems under nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures of 260 degrees C and 340 degrees C. Decomposition results (given as the difference between PCB or PCDD/F molar amounts before and after the experiment (in %) due predominantly to dechlorination reactions) and detoxification data (expressed similarly but related to toxic PCB and PCDD/F congeners only and given in I-TEQ units) are reported. Detoxification of Delor 105/80T at 260 degrees C and 340 degrees C at a loading of 0.65 wt%, was 99.48% and 100%, respectively. The decomposition of Delor 103 at 340 degrees C and for the loading of 0.75 wt%, corresponded to 99.99%. The detoxification capability of PCDD/Fs on extracted and non-extracted fly ash for loading of 130 and 264 ng/0.4 g of fly ash at 340 degrees C made 96 and 98%, respectively.

  2. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane.

  3. Accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in livers of young sheep.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Stark, Marie Luise; Spolders, Markus; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Traag, Wim A; Ten Dam, Guillaume; Schafft, Helmut A

    2015-03-01

    A major part of sheep livers contains levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the former but to some extent also the new maximum levels (MLs) in the EU. In order to investigate the relationship between the intake of these contaminants and their accumulation in livers, kidney fat and meat, young blackhead sheep were fed with grass pellets containing PCDD/Fs at 2.5 times the maximum level. Levels of PCDD/Fs in livers were already quite high at the start of the exposure but increased 3-fold within 56d, exceeding the new product based MLs. Levels in meat and fat also increased but did not exceed the MLs. Although less elevated in the grass, both dl- and ndl-PCB levels also increased in liver and fat. Their kinetics in the tissues was less clear, potentially caused by increased levels in the straw given to the sheep during the whole experimental period. There was a clear difference in the behavior of the various congeners, the PCDFs and especially the higher chlorinated PCDFs and PCDDs showing a higher accumulation in the liver. In the case of the PCBs, this was particularly true for PCB 126. When switched to clean grass after 56d, the levels in livers and other tissues decreased to about the levels in the control sheep within 56d. This offers a potential solution for decreasing the intake of consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental toxicology of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Heuvel, J P; Lucier, G

    1993-01-01

    Few environmental compounds have generated as much interest and controversy within the scientific community and in the lay public as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the risk of accidental exposure has raised concern over a possible threat of PCDDs or PCDFs to human health. The most extensively studied and potent isomer is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin). Dioxin is a multisite toxicant in laboratory rodents resulting in a number of tissue-, species-, and sex-dependent responses. Much has been learned about the mechanism of dioxin's effects, especially for the induction of cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Binding of PCDDs and PCDFs to a receptor protein, termed the dioxin or Ah receptor, is necessary for most biological and toxic responses. The most common toxic response used for evaluating the human health risk posed by PCDDs and PCDFs is the hepatocarcinogenic response observed primarily in rodents. Despite extensive research efforts, the effects of PCDDs and PCDFs on humans are not well characterized. However, available data indicate there is good agreement between known effects of dioxin in laboratory animals and those described in epidemiological studies for effects in humans. The sequence in events initiated by the Ah receptor interacting with dioxin-responsive genes and ending with altered patterns of differentiation and growth must be sought in order to understand tissue, species, sex, and interindividual variation in biological responses and the health risk posed by PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:8394802

  5. Photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ng, How-Yong

    2008-03-01

    This study employed direct photolysis to treat mixed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) solutions. The solutions included a synthetic standard 17 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners solution and a practical liquid extracted from the bag filter ash of an electric arc furnace. Additionally, this work utilized a coupled catalyst (ZnO/SnO2) under UV irradiation for photocatalytic degradation of 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD and OCDD. The direct photolysis rate of PCDFs was faster than that of PCDDs. The degradation rate of international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) for PCDDs and PCDFs in the synthetic standard solution was 1.369 and 1.472 h(-1), respectively, and that in the ash-extracted solution was 0.061 and 0.117 h(-1), respectively. The rate of photocatalytic degradation declined as the number of chlorine atoms increased. No 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners were identified during photocatalytic degradation; additionally, the photolytic rate of the UV/coupled catalyst was higher than that of UV/single catalyst system. Experimental results suggested that the primary degradation pathway for direct photolysis and photocatalysis of PCDD/Fs was the CCl cleavage and CO cleavage, respectively.

  6. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from incineration of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vejerano, Eric P; Holder, Amara L; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-05-07

    Disposal of some nanomaterial-laden waste through incineration is inevitable, and nanomaterials' influence on combustion byproduct formation under high-temperature, oxidative conditions is not well understood. This work reports the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from incineration of paper and plastic waste containing various nanomaterials, including titania, nickel oxide, silver, ceria, iron oxide, quantum dots, and C60-fullerene, in a laboratory-scale furnace. The presence of nanomaterials in the waste stream resulted in higher emissions of some PAH species and lower emissions of others, depending on the type of waste. The major PAH species formed were phenanthrene and anthracene, and emissions were sensitive to the amount of nanomaterials in the waste. Generally, there were no significant differences in emission factors for the larger PAH species when nanomaterials were added to the waste. The total PAH emission factors were on average ~6 times higher for waste spiked with nanomaterials v. their bulk counterparts. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) waste were not detected; however, chlorinated furans were formed at elevated concentrations with wastes containing silver and titania nanomaterials, and toxicity was attributable mainly to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. The combination of high specific surface area and catalytic, including electrocatalytic, properties of nanomaterials might be responsible for affecting the formation of toxic pollutants during incineration.

  7. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Brazilian cow milk.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Dayse A M; Torres, João P M; Reichel, Klaus; Novotny, Etelvino H; Estrella, Leonardo F; Medeiros, Rebeca O; Netto, Annibal D Pereira

    2016-12-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in raw cow milks have never been reported in Brazil. Since the consumption of food of animal origin, including milk and dairy products, is the major source of human exposure to these compounds, this study aimed to establish the levels and profile of seven PCDDs and ten PCDFs in raw cow milk samples collected in eight Brazilian states which among the major milk producer states. Raw milk samples were collected in 34 different dairy cattle farms during the summer of 2013. All PCDD/Fs congeners were found at least in some of the 34 samples studied. The octa-chlorinated congeners (OCDD and OCDF) were ubiquitous and also present in high concentrations. The mean values of WHO-TEQ1998;2005 were respectively 1.66 and 1.36pgTEQg(-1) fat and samples taken in São Paulo showed the highest WHO-TEQ values (2.46 TEQ1998g(-1) fat and 2.10pgTEQ2005g(-1) fat). Although all samples showed some contamination level, all values were below the limit established by European Union for total PCDD/Fs in cow milk (3pgWHO-TEQ1998g(-1) fat). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that OCDD and OCDF were responsible for 73% and 20% of the total data variance, respectively and they presented an independent behavior, probably as a result of distinct origins. The use of TEQ as weights in the PCA, revealed the importance of the penta-chloro congeners and it was possible to identify sample distribution patterns probably associated with the main PeCDD and PeCDF. The importance of local sources to PCDD/Fs concentrations is still to be evaluated and determined.

  8. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls during salmonid early development

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the lethal potency and signs of toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) during salmonid early development. Metabolism, elimination, and toxicity of 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during lake trout early life stage development was investigated following waterborne exposure of lake trout eggs to ({sup 3}H)TCDD. TCDD was not metabolized or eliminated by eggs or sac fry, but was rapidly eliminated from fry. TCDD toxicity was manifested by some hatching mortality, but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with subcutaneous yolk sac edema and hemorrhages, resembling blue-sac disease. Based on the egg TCDD concentration, the no-observable-adverse-effect level for mortality was 34 pg TCDD/g egg and the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level for mortality was 40 pg/g. LD{sub 50} was 65 pg/g. An injection method was developed to administer graded doses of non-radiolabeled PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners to lake trout and rainbow trout eggs. Following TCDD egg injection, lake trout were more sensitive than rainbow trout to the lethal effect of TCDD with LD{sub 50}S of 47 and 402 pg/g, respectively; however, TCDD toxicity in both species was manifested by sac fry mortality and blue-sac disease. Toxicity of TCDD was assessed during lake trout early life stage development following TCDD maternal-deposition, TCDD egg injection, and TCDD waterborne egg exposure. The lethal potency of TCDD and signs of toxicity during lake trout early development following all three routes of egg exposure were essentially the same.

  10. An occupational exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Guo, How-Ran; Wang, Hsueh Wen; Liao, Chin-Kun; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2011-05-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are unintentional byproducts of combustion and industrial processes. Firefighters face the risk of occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/Fs were performed on 20 serum samples collected from firefighters and fire scene investigators, and four soot samples that had deposited on the surfaces of the fire helmets and were collected after the firefighters had fought fires. The PCDD/F concentrations on the helmets that were contaminated by being worn at the fire scenes were 63-285 times higher than those on a clean helmet. The median serum PCDD/F concentration of the 16 firefighters (12 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1)lipid) was not different from those of the males from the general Taiwanese population (9.4 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid). However, the median PCDD/F level in the four fire scene investigators (15 pg WHO(2005)-TEQ g(-1) lipid) was higher than those in the male from the general Taiwanese population (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.01). Furthermore, the serum samples from the firefighters and fire scene investigators, and the soot samples from the fire scenes presented similarly distinctive PCDD/F profiles that had elevated proportions for 10 PCDF congeners. Limited data indicated that the fire scene investigators were occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes. We suggested that the firefighters were not occupationally exposed to PCDD/Fs at the fire scenes due to appropriate protection. However, the fire scene investigators may have had more occupational exposure to PCDD/Fs due to poor protection, and further research must be performed to confirm this. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing-Wang Li; Yee-Lin Wu; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2007-09-15

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall. 20 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p < 0.01). The mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p < 0.01) and length (n = 11, R = 0.618, p < 0.05) of the species. The fish likely accumulated the contaminants through ingestion of other organisms or the sediment. However, after the pollutants entered a fish, they exhibited distinct accumulation patterns because of their differing chemical properties. Specifically, the mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  13. Fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a fly ash treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Wu, Yee-Lin; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-09-01

    To understand the fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant that used the Waelz rotary kiln process (hereafter the Waelz process), the samples of input and output media were collected and analyzed. The most important PCDD/F source in input mass was electric arc furnace (EAF) fly ash, which had a mean PCDD/F content of 18.51 ng/g and contributed more than 99% of PCDD/F input mass, whereas the PCDD/F input mass fractions contributed by the coke, sand, and ambient air were only 0.04%, 0.02%, and 0.000002%, respectively. For the PCDD/F output mass in the Waelz process, the major total PCDD/F contents of 43.73 and 10.78 ng/g were in bag-filter and cyclone ashes, which accounted for approximately 69% and 17%, respectively, whereas those of stack flue gas and slag were 14% and 0.423%, respectively. The Waelz process has a dechlorination mechanism for higher chlorinated congeners, but it is difficult to decompose the aromatic rings of PCDD/Fs. Therefore, this resulted in the accumulation of lower chlorinated congeners. The output/input ratio of total PCDD/F mass and total PCDD/F international toxicity equivalence (I-TEQ) was 0.62 and 1.19, respectively. Thus, the Waelz process for the depletion effect of total PCDD/F mass was positive but minor, whereas the effect for total PCDD/F I-TEQ was adverse overall.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in fishermen in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Kiviranta, Hannu; Vartiainen, Terttu; Tuomisto, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishermen from the Finnish Baltic Sea area and fishermen fishing in inland lakes. The concentrations clearly correlated with the frequency of fish meals and consumption of Baltic fatty fish. The body burden of PCDD/Fs reached the median level of 170 pg/g toxic equivalents (I-TEq) in fat for Baltic Sea fishermen, with the maximum being 420 pg/g. Results for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (range = 4.9-110 pg/g fat) showed that lifetime exposure in a population consuming much Baltic fatty fish can reach the levels of exposures seen in Seveso, Italy, in 1976. After we summed the PCB-TEqs, the total median exposure of Baltic Sea fishermen increased to 290 pg/g TEq in fat, and the highest concentration was 880 pg/g. There was a noted individual variation in fishermen's PCDD/F congener patterns, and it was possible to associate this variation with congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in the fish species that the fisherman reported they had consumed. Linear regression models for ln WHO(PCDD/F)-TEq, ln WHO(PCB)-TEq, and ln total WHO-TEq, from the World Health Organization, explained 48%, 60%, and 53% of the variability, respectively. Age was the only significant predictor of ln WHO(PCDD/F)-TEq, whereas age, amount of fish eaten, and place of residence were significant predictors of ln WHO(PCB)-TEq, and ln total WHO-TEq. PMID:11940453

  15. Particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the atmosphere of Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liping; Mai, Bixian; Meng, Xiangzhou; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    A short-term sampling scheme was devised to determine the levels of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Guangzhou atmosphere and to evaluate the impact of PCDD/Fs on the lives of the inhabitants in Guangzhou. Samples were collected from four different districts of Guangzhou City, and the results indicated that industrial activities had tremendous influence on the levels of atmospheric PCDD/Fs in these districts. The mean PCDD/Fs concentrations (mean I-TEQ values) for Huadu, Liwan, Tianhe and Huangpu districts were 3815 fg m -3 (104.6 fg I-TEQ m -3), 12 777 fg m -3 (430.5 fg I-TEQ m -3), 6963 fg m -3 (163.7 fg I-TEQ m -3) and 10 953 fg m -3 (769.3 fg I-TEQ m -3), respectively, which were higher than the concentration ranges for other cities in the world. The mean concentrations of particulate organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 17.61±0.94 and 3.17±0.21 μg m -3 for Huadu district, 44.18±2.29 and 13.32±0.75 μg m -3 for Liwan district, 33.53±1.72 and 9.89±0.56 μg m -3 for Tianhe district, and 29.52±1.53 and 8.87±0.53 μg m -3 for Huangpu district, respectively. The relationship between PCDD/Fs concentrations and OC and EC concentrations demonstrated that EC could be a better predictor for the concentration of PCDD/Fs. Detailed source analysis indicated that the PCDD/Fs in Guangzhou were derived from small diffuse combustion sources, e.g., traffic sources, domestic burning of fossil fuels, non-industrial combustion sources and industrial combustion sources. Results of daily intake of PCDD/Fs by inhaling air suggested that the inhalation exposure of PCDD/Fs by the inhabitants in Liwan district is relatively high.

  16. Atmospheric concentrations, deposition and modeling of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, Oscar E.

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans are two groups of chlorinated aromatic toxics that are highly persistent and widespread in the environment. These compounds have been the subject of much concern and debate due to their proven carcinogenic and bioaccumulative properties even at ultra-trace levels. In this research, ambient air concentrations and deposition rates of dioxins were monitored at a number of locations in the Houston area. Ambient concentrations were measured using high-volume air samplers while deposition rates were quantified using modified automated B1C samplers. Results indicated that all the 17 congeners are present in the ambient air of Houston. The most toxic congener, 2,3,7,8-TODD, was detected at concentrations between 0 and 2 fg/m3. While OCDD was the most prevalent congener in terms of dioxin mass in ambient air, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the main constituent of the total toxic concentration, I-TEQ. Statistical analysis confirmed temporal and spatial trends in the gathered ambient data. Higher ambient air concentrations were measured during the colder months. The collected data at the five monitoring sites also suggested a potential contribution from traffic. The particle size distribution data collected in this research showed that the dioxin congeners preferentially associated with particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <0.95 mum. The distribution between the vapor/particle phases in the atmosphere indicated a correlation with the level of chlorination and ambient temperature. Properties such as the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°) and octanol-air partitioning coefficient (Koa) were used to describe the vapor-particle partitioning of the dioxins. Ambient air data were correlated to routinely measured air quality pollutants. NOx was found positively and consistently correlated to ambient air concentrations of dioxins. The deposition results showed that while dry deposition flux was governed by the higher chlorinated

  17. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments from Masan Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Matsuda, Muneaki; Giesy, John P; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) were measured in sediments collected from Masan Bay, Korea. Almost all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs were identified, including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in sediments ranged from 102 to 6,493 pg/g dry weight. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEQs) in sediments estimated based on I-TEFs were in the range of 1 to 76 pg/g dry weight. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in Masan Bay sediments were comparable to those reported for the Rhine and Humber Rivers on the North Sea, the Housatonic River in the United States, and some rivers and lakes in Japan and the United Kingdom. A spatial gradient of total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs decreased toward the open sea. Two of the 11 sampling sites near the coastal zone contained relatively great concentrations, suggesting the presence of point sources. The homologue composition of PCDFs in sediments from two highly contaminated locations in Masan Bay was correlated with that of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) preparations, such as Kanechlors 300, 400, or 500. The wide range of PCDD isomers and greater concentrations of PCDDs than of PCDFs at certain locations suggest that, in addition to technical PCB preparations such as Kanechlors, other sources, like solid waste incineration, uncontrolled trash burning, and pentachlorophenol, have contributed to the contamination.

  18. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d(-1)) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to <6 ng kg(-1) and the detoxification rate was ⩾97% after treatment for 1 h at 400 °C under oxygen-deficient conditions. About 8.49% of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) of the original fly ash were desorbed or regenerated. The extreme high polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran levels and dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congener profiles in the dust of the flue gas showed that desorption was the main reason, rather than de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the exhaust pipe. Degradation furnace flue gas was introduced to the municipal solid waste incinerator economiser, and then co-processed in the air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  20. FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS OVER FLY ASH: INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To offer a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) parameter for plant operation control, the on-line estimation of PCDD/Fs emissions by surrogates like chlorophenols is useful. Formation of PCDD/Fs over fly ash was studied in an isothermal (310 degree...

  1. BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND DIBENZOFURANS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chroma tography/high-resolution ma...

  2. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  3. FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS OVER FLY ASH: INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To offer a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) parameter for plant operation control, the on-line estimation of PCDD/Fs emissions by surrogates like chlorophenols is useful. Formation of PCDD/Fs over fly ash was studied in an isothermal (310 degree...

  4. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  5. BIOTA-SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS, DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND DIBENZOFURANS IN SOUTHERN LAKE MICHIGAN LAKE TROUT (SALVELINUS NAMAYCUSH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chroma tography/high-resolution ma...

  6. Understanding the role of iron chlorides in the de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Shawn P; Altwicker, Elmar R

    2004-03-15

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) was investigated for mixtures of carbon black and iron chloride supported on a ceramic glass powder matrix in a low (2%) oxygen environment. Three iron chloride types (iron(II) chloride tetrahydrate, iron(III) chloride hexahydrate, and iron(II) oxychloride) were studied to gain some insights into their role in de novo formation. The importance of iron(II) and iron(III) chlorides both as chlorinating agents and promoters of low-temperature carbon gasification was observed. Iron(III) oxychloride was shown to be a very effective promoter at 325 degrees C and above; its conversion to iron(III) chloride was suggested as a key step. The predominant product was octachlorodibenzofuran. The oxide support matrix was found to be an important parameter.

  7. Mechanistic evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and naphthalene isomer fingerprints in microwave pyrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiuju; Cieplik, Mariusz K; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Gronnow, Mark; Jansson, Stina

    2016-05-01

    Isomer distribution patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and naphthalenes (PCNs) were investigated in microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) products of woody biomass. The feedstocks included bark and impregnated wood. The results indicated that isomer distributions in MAP are more selective compared to those reported from wood burning and waste incineration. Favored formation of 4-MoCDF and highly selective chlorine substitution at the 2,4-position observed during MAP suggested a preferred formation pathway of PCDFs involving (chloro)phenol precursors followed by subsequent chlorination. The PCDD distribution was dominated by isomers typically formed from chlorophenol condensation at relatively low temperature. The PCN isomer distributions showed a tendency for sequential chlorination from non-substituted naphthalene at successive positions. The presence of isomers such as 1-MoCDD, 4-MoCDF, 1,2,3-TriCN with low thermodynamic stability indicates that kinetic factors may be important in the MAP process.

  8. Estimation of polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin contamination of a coastal region using isomer profiles in crabs

    SciTech Connect

    Oehme, M.; Bartonova, A.; Knutzen, J. )

    1990-12-01

    Compared to other marine biota such as fish, crabs lack the ability to metabolize most of the polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) isomers. Therefore, they preserve nearly undisturbed the characteristic isomer profiles found in the wastewater from a magnesium production plant in southern Norway. The isomer pattern of this process shows significant differences compared to other PCDF/PCDD sources such as combustion or the pulp industry. The isomer distribution and concentration levels were determined in pooled samples of stationary male crabs, which were collected within a distance of a few kilometers and more than 100 km from the source. Two main isomer distributions could be identified, one belonging to the Mg process and one more similar to that earlier reported from the Skagerrak region. When statistical methods such as discriminant or variance analyses were employed, the coastal area contaminated by the factor could be estimated to {approximately} 50 km downstream the source.

  9. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  10. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, O; Babayemi, J O; Tysklind, M; Osibanjo, O; Weber, R; Watson, A; Schlummer, M; Lundstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings were sampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content. PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected in BFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentration of 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels were highest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels of PBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levels reported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequently exceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levels are likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEs during production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processes responsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE) were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPE content. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrations around 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated with TBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities-probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics. It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiled in Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The total PBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historic PBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQ values of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention's provisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Due to the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs, more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fs in stockpiles are needed.

  11. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  12. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  13. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K S; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-03-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p<0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in common fish species in the Pearl River Delta area, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqing; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Yousheng; Jiang, Jie; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yongning

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations in 31 fish samples from 19 commonly consumed freshwater and saltwater species from the Pearl River Delta Area were analyzed. The PCDD/Fs dietary intake from fish for the local population was evaluated to provide a database for setting the national PCDD/F limits in fish for the People's Republic of China. The median concentration from the 31 fish samples was 1.27 pg/g wet weight for the total of PCDD/Fs, and the median WHO-TEQ was 0.26 pg/g wet weight, and ranged from 0.063 to 1.30 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight. The dominant contributors to the WHO-TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, which accounted for 38% and 28%, respectively. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs from fish for local people was estimated to be 0.47 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw x day. In view of the findings, the dietary of PCDD/Fs from other foods of animal origins in China should be studied in more detail as soon as possible in order that standards can be put forward to protect human health.

  15. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  16. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-05-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p<0.05) at the bayou sites compared with the reference site, and egg TCDD-EQs were inversely correlated (p<0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. The threshold range of toxicity, where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks (based on TCDD-EQs), was >20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons around a thermal desorption plant in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    This study was launched to establish comprehensive environmental monitoring on the levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both in soil and ambient air around a thermal desorption plant in China. All 209 congeners of PCBs, 136 congeners of PCDD/Fs (P = 4 to 8) and 16 EPA priority PAHs were analyzed. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 20.0 to 536 ng g(-1) (or 0.077-5.27 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in soil and from 972 to 991 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.245-0.374 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)) in air samples, much higher than the levels in cities. A single soil sampling point could have been affected by some transfer of PCBs from the untreated soil by the fingerprint characteristics and the statistical analysis. Establishing blank values prior to the start-up of new plant is a safe and sure method to establish subsequent impacts on the environment. During the treatment of hazardous waste, strict control of all waste materials and all emissions is required.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration profiles in sediment and fish tissue of the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are highly hydrophobic compounds that have been implicated as carcinogens and, more recently, as estrogen disrupters. An occurrence and distribution study of these compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Bed sediment was collected from 22 sites; fish tissue was collected from eight sites. PCDD/F were found to be ubiquitous in Willamette Basin sediment. A distinct homolog profile, dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, was observed in sediment throughout the basin. The PCDD homolog profile was consistent at all sites, regardless of total PCDD/F concentration, presence of point sources, subbasin size, geographic location or land use. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient among the homolog profiles that showed increasing dominance of highly chlorinated congeners where human and industrial activity increased. Tissue and bed sediment obtained from the same site did not have similar PCDD/F concentrations or homolog profiles. Fish tissue showed enrichment in less chlorinated congeners and congeners with chlorine substitutions in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions.

  19. Pilot study of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans level in agricultural soil in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Rong, Zhiyi; Li, Kang; Yin, Haowen

    2010-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in agricultural soil samples from Shanghai to determine levels and to identify possible dioxin sources. The dioxin level was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method, US EPA 4025 (modified), which provides results as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents. The Method 4025m results obtained from 60 soil samples displayed a normal distribution, ranging from 2.8 to 23.4 pg/g 2378-TCDD-equvalents, with an average of 11.0 pg/g. The result also revealed a similar PCDD/Fs concentration among crop usage patterns, but differences by geographic region, low in the southwest of Shanghai and considerably higher in the northwest region. In contrast, the dioxin concentrations on Chongming Island were fairly homogeneous, with a range 10-15 pg/g. This immunoassay method is an effective high throughput screening tool which helps to minimize the need for more expensive analyses.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively.

  1. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis.

  2. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas.

    PubMed

    White, D H; Hoffman, D J

    1995-05-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p < 0.05) at the bayou sites compared with the reference site, and egg TCDD-EQs were inversely correlated (p < 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. The threshold range of toxicity, where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks (based on TCDD-EQs), was > 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  3. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas.

    PubMed Central

    White, D H; Hoffman, D J

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p < 0.05) at the bayou sites compared with the reference site, and egg TCDD-EQs were inversely correlated (p < 0.001) with productivity in corresponding nests. The threshold range of toxicity, where reduced productivity was evident in wood ducks (based on TCDD-EQs), was > 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants. PMID:7556022

  4. Mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in stack gas emissions from industrial thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Du, Bing; Zheng, Minghui; Huang, Yeru; Liu, Aimin; Tian, Honghai; Li, Lingling; Li, Nan; Ba, Te; Li, Yuwu; Dong, Shuping; Liu, Wenbin; Su, Guijin

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/F) in industrial thermal processes. In this study, the occurrences and characteristics of PBCDD/F from various incineration and metallurgical processes were investigated. In addition, PBCDD/F analytical protocols based on HRGC/HRMS were developed and optimized. The sum of isomer group concentrations ranged from 1.7-3740 pmol Nm(-3) for PBCDF and 0.2-582 pmol Nm(-3) for PBCDD. For some metallurgical industries, the amounts of PBDD/F and PBCDD/F emitted were similar to or even higher than the amounts of PCDD/F. The sources of bromine and brominated-precursors in these processes should be evaluated. The PBCDD/F characteristics investigated included isomer group patterns, ratio of bromine and chlorine incorporated in PBCDD/F, and ratio of halogenated furans to dioxins. Lower brominated PBCDD/F were binomially distributed. But in some cases, the concentrations of higher brominated PBCDD/F were much higher than predicted from the binomial distribution. The formation mechanisms of PBDD/F, PBCDD/F, and PCDD/F in these processes were also evaluated.

  5. [Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in newsprints and copy papers by HRGC/HRMS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yang, Zhijun; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Wenzhong; Liang, Xinmiao; Lu, Peizhang

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in newsprints and copy papers which included blank and printed paper samples were determined by isotope dilution and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). All of the paper samples collected at random were extracted with organic solvents and the extracts were cleaned up successively by three different chromatographic columns. The results indicated that the total concentrations of PCDD/ Fs in newsprints were higher than those in copy papers, but the total toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values of newsprint samples were lower than those in copy paper samples. In addition, for both papers, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in printed papers were higher than the blank papers. Moreover, the patterns of PCDD/Fs in newsprint samples and copy paper samples were different. The total international TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in newsprints and printed newsprints were 0.48 ng/kg and 0.61 ng/kg, respectively. Moreover, the total TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in copy paper and printed copy paper samples were 0.74 ng/kg and 0.79 ng/kg, respectively. The recoveries of 13C labeled 2, 3 ,7, 8-substituted PCDD/Fs spiked before extraction into all paper samples were between 49.82% and 131.34%.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emissions from open burning of crop residues in China between 1997 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang

    2008-01-01

    Annual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from open burning of crop residues in each province of China mainland between 1997 and 2004 were estimated to be ranged from 1.38x10(3) to 1.52x10(3) g I-TEQ/yr, with the average of 1.50+/-0.08x10(3) g I-TEQ/yr, which contributed to approximately 10% approximately 20% of the total emissions in China. The PCDD/F emissions mainly occurred in the largest crop-producing provinces, especially in those of higher economic levels. The major sources of PCDD/F emissions from open burning in China were found to be cereal residues (i.e. rice, wheat, and corn), which accounted about 70% of the total emissions. Moreover, the first-order one-variable grey differential equation model (GM (1,1) model) for annual emissions of PCDD/Fs was established based on grey system theory. The GM (1,1) model was proved to be robust to predict the annual PCDD/F emissions from crop residue field burning in forthcoming years.

  7. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Bogatzki, Corinna; Hiester, Ernst

    2016-10-14

    During this study a high throughout selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil. To that end, extraction rates of PCBs from soil utilizing different extraction solvents and different extraction temperatures were investigated whereas extraction rates were comparable for toluene, n-hexane and dichloromethane (extraction conditions for all utilized solvents: 33mL PLE extraction cell, extraction temperature: 110°C, static extraction time: 5min, flush volume: 60%, purge 90s). Ratios of native PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs congener concentrations after Soxhlet and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) showed that SPLE is an alternative sample preparation step for the simultaneous determination of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil. Additional clean-up steps for the separation of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs utilizing alumina were performed in order to avoid interferences between the component classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Formation Pathways of Mono- to Octa-Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Main Organochemical Industries.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Pan, Wenxiao; Wang, Pu; Tian, Zhenyu; Zhao, Yuyang; Wang, Mengjing; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-15

    The concentrations and formation pathways of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in main organochemical industries. High levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were detected. The total concentrations of 27 PCDD/F congeners in chloranil, 2,4-D, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene were 5302397 ± 8944449, 20963 ± 15908, and 242 ± 67 pg g(-1), respectively, and the less-chlorinated PCDD/F levels were 12006 ± 20155, 9536 ± 5594, and 195 ± 94 pg g(-1), respectively. The distribution trends of less and more chlorinated PCDD/Fs were similar in different chemical plants because of their similar formation pathways, which may also be related to the degree of chlorination of chemical products and purification processes. 1,2,3,4-TeCDF and 2,4,8-TrCDF were selected as model molecules to calculate the bond dissociation energy, showing that 2-MCDF, 3-MCDF, and 2,8-DCDF are more easily formatted as shown by the analytical results. The formation pathways of less to more chlorinated PCDFs are proposed to explain why 2-MoCDF, 2,8-DiCDF, 2,4,8-TrCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF are the dominant congeners and to explain why 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor of I-TEQs in most studies.

  9. Congener-distribution patterns and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in Korean human milk.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yoon-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Byung-Hoon; Shin, Dong-Chun; Ikonomou, Michael G

    2002-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry in human milk samples from an urban and an industrial area in Korea. All PCB congeners were analyzed to characterize the congener distribution as well as to evaluate the toxic equivalent quotient (TEQ) values and the total concentration. In homologue distributions of PCBs, two distinct patterns were found. The mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were 15.13 and 5.64 TEQ pg/g fat (based on WHO TEF, 1997), respectively. The contamination in Korean human milk is comparable to that found in other countries. From these results a daily intake of 60 TEQ pg/kg/day for an infant was estimated. The assumptions were that the infant breast feeds for 1 year, has an average body weight of 10 kg during this period, and ingests 800 g/day of human milk containing a mean concentration of 20.84 TEQ (PCDD/Fs) pg/g fat (based on primipara mothers).

  10. Declining trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and non-ortho PCBs in Canadian Arctic seabirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as the non-ortho PCBs (nPCBs) persist in the environment despite international measures to ban their emissions. We determined congener patterns and temporal trends for PCDDs, PCDFs, nPCBs as well as their toxic equivalents (TEQs) in eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) sampled from Prince Leopold Island in the Canadian Arctic between 1975 and 2014. The dominant PCDD congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, and the dominant PCDF congener was 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF. The nPCB profile was dominated by PCB-126. The TEQ profile in the murre eggs was dominated by nPCB-TEQ whereas in the fulmar eggs, the PCDF-TEQ contribution to ΣTEQ was slightly greater than that of nPCB-TEQ. Concentrations of ΣPCDD, ΣPCDF, ΣnPCB and ΣTEQ declined between 1975 and 2014 in both murre and fulmar eggs. Based on TEQ thresholds in the literature for other species, and taking into account the trend towards declining TEQ levels, it is unlikely that current levels of PCDDs, PCDFs or nPCBs are affecting the reproductive success of thick-billed murres or northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic.

  11. Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls: Inclusion in the Toxicity Equivalency Factor Concept for Dioxin-Like Compounds

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  12. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Li, Haifeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Li, Changliang

    2013-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are usually considered to be important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). To examine the influence of PCDD/Fs emissions from a MSWI on the surrounding environment, 21 soil samples were collected from various sampling sites distributed at distances of 300-1,700 m away from the stack of a MSWI. International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.07 pg I-TEQ g(-1), with average and median concentrations of 1.08 and 1.05 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. Comparison of the results presented herein with other worldwide studies suggested that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the ambient soil were relatively low, indicating a limited impact on the surrounding environment. The emission concentrations from the incinerator were the critical factor in generating an environmental impact on the surrounding environment. An exponential function was developed, indicating a slight decline in TEQs of PCDD/Fs with increasing distance from the MSWI stack. The ordinary kriging interpolation technique was selected to create a contour map, which intuitively showed that a limited surrounding area (≤1,000 m from the stack) was obviously influenced by the MSWI.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in home-produced eggs.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Ten Dam, Guillaume; van Bruggen, Mark; Jeurissen, Suzanne M F; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Theelen, Rob M C; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2016-05-01

    Home produced eggs from 62 addresses in the Netherlands were investigated for the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), both dioxin-like (dl) and non-dioxin-like (ndl). Compared to commercial eggs, levels were relatively high with a median of 4.6 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and a highest level of 18.9 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. A number of samples showed clearly elevated ndl-PCB levels with a median of 13 ng g(-1) fat and a highest level of 80 ng g(-1) fat. There were no clear regional differences, even though part of the samples were derived from the rather industrial Rotterdam/Rijnmond area. Based on the congener patterns, former backyard burning of waste seems the most likely source for most eggs, with two exceptions where other sources contributed to the contamination. Similar is true for the ndl-PCBs. The study shows that average levels are about ten-fold higher than commercial eggs and may substantially contribute to the intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs by consumers. Intervention measures to reduce the intake of these contaminants by laying hens are advised. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Natural formation of chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in soil of a Douglas fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, E.J.; De Weerd, H. ); De Leer, E.W.B. ); Brinkman, U.A.T. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1999-08-01

    The natural formation of 4-MCP, 24/25- and 26-DCP, and 245-TrCP was detected in four selected areas of a rural Douglas fir forest where the humic layer was spiked in situ with a solution of Na[sup 37]Cl and covered by an enclosure, after 1 year of incubation. Chlorinated phenols (CP) can be formed naturally from organic matter and inorganic chloride by either de novo synthesis or chloroperoxidase (CPO)-catalyzed chlorination. The natural CP congeners were found to be present in high concentrations in soil compared to the other congeners, except for the 245-TrCP which was present in a relatively low concentration. This study did not reveal which source, natural or anthropogenic, caused the observed concentrations. Some 20 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) were found to be formed naturally in soil of the Douglas fir forest; the formation of three 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, 2378-TeCDD, 12378-PeCDD, and 123789-HxCDD, deserves special attention. A formation mechanism has been proposed which starts from naturally formed CP congeners and which probably involves peroxidase mediation. Chlorination of CDD/F congeners by the CPO-mediated reaction cannot be ruled out, but seems to be less likely due to the absence of several predicted congeners.

  15. Patterns and dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in food products in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) to human being should be assessed regularly. To evaluate the contamination levels in various food products in the Chinese market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Chinese population, 11 varieties of food groups totaling 634 samples including beef and mutton, chicken and duck, pork, fish and seafood, milk and dairy products were evaluated. The average concentrations of PCDD/Fs in all groups ranged from 0.291 to 8.468pg/g whole weight (w.w.). The average toxic equivalency concentrations were from 0.012pg TEQ/g w.w. for cereal to 0.367pg TEQ/g fat for marine oil. OCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF were the dominant congeners in foodstuffs. The dietary estimated mean intake for the Chinese rural and urban populations were 0.656 and 0.514pg TEQ/kg body weight/day, respectively, however, the cereal group exposure were higher to the estimate daily intake and contributed 81% for rural and 48% for urban population, followed by fish and seafood which contributed 4% and 16% to the estimate daily intake. The estimated dietary intakes were compared with the toxicological reference values and showed that both rural and urban populations were well below those values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  17. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners as markers of toxic equivalents of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A W; Atuma, S; Aune, M; Darnerud, P O; Cnattingius, S

    2001-07-01

    In breast milk, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), making PCB analyses less time-consuming and expensive. We searched for PCB "markers" of PCDD/DF concentrations, by studying associations between concentrations of PCB and PCDD/DFs (expressed as toxic equivalents, TEQs) in breast milk from 27 women (primiparas, 22-35 years). These women donated breast milk in 1996-1999 together with 183 other primiparas from Uppsala County, Sweden. Regression analyses showed that both dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like penta- to hepta-chlorinated PCBs could be used as markers of TEQ concentrations in this group of women, in some cases after age adjustment of the regressions. The strong positive association between concentrations of dioxin-like PCB/DD/DFs and non-dioxin-like PCBs will in future epidemiological studies make it difficult to separate Ah receptor-dependent effects from non-Ah receptor-dependent effects. With the use of regression equations and concentrations in breast milk samples collected in 1994, TEQ concentrations were estimated in the 1994 samples. Comparisons between estimated and measured concentrations indicated that associations between concentrations of marker substances and TEQs should be determined separately within each study population, in order to obtain reliable TEQ exposure assessments from PCB markers.

  19. [Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish from Shenzhen over the past decade].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangying; Zhang, Jianqing; Jiang, Yousheng; Zhou Jian; Li, Shengnong

    2015-11-01

    To analyze the contamination levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in fish samples in Shenzhen areas of China, and to reveal the status of PCDD/Fs pollution for fish samples in a decade. The fish samples including freshwater and saltwater fishes, were collected and analyzed from 2004 to 2013, and PCDD/Fs were detected by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS using multiple ion detection mode (MID), which was an advanced and authority technique referenced US EPA1613 method. The average concentration of PCDD/Fs in fish was 0.90 pg/(g wet weight), and the average total toxicity equivalency factor (TEQ) calculated on the basis of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2005 was 0.088 pg WHO-TEQ/(g, wet weight). PCDD/Fs levels in fishes varied widely depending on the species. The PCDD/Fs average contamination levels of fish in 10 years did not exceeded the limit standards of European Commission. The evaluation dietary intake of PCDD/Fs from fish for local residents was 4.80 pg WHO-TEQ/(kg · BW · m). The PCDD/Fs levels in fish in a decade was less than the maximum limit standards set by European Commission 2011.

  20. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  1. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  2. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  3. Semi-automated disk-type solid-phase extraction method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aqueous samples and its application to natural water.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Lee, J H; Moon, B S; Baek, K H

    2007-07-20

    A disk-type solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was used for the extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in natural water and tap water. Since this SPE system comprised airtight glass covers with a decompression pump, it enabled continuous extraction with semi-automation. The disk-type SPE method was validated by comparing its recovery rates of spiked internal standards with those of the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The recovery ranges of both methods were similar in terms of (13)C-labeled internal standards: 64.3-99.2% for the LLE and 52.4-93.6% for the SPE. For the native spike of 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), the recoveries in the SPE were in the normal range of 77.9-101.1%. However, in the LLE, the recoveries of 1,3,6,8-TCDD decreased significantly. One of the reasons for the low recovery is that the solubility of this congener is high. The semi-automated SPE method was applied to the analysis of different types of water: river water, snow, sea water, raw water for drinking purposes, and tap water. PCDD/F congeners were found in some sea water and snow samples, while their concentrations in the other samples were below the limits of detection (LODs). This SPE system is appropriate for the routine analysis of water samples below 50L.

  4. Characteritization of, and health risks from, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans from incense burned in a temple.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Tsan; Chen, Shen-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Lee, Jia-Twu; Chiu, Chuen-Huey

    2009-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may cause adverse health effects. However, PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in temples have rarely been addressed. This study investigates PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in a temple. The mean total PCDD/F concentrations were 72.4-82.2 pg Nm(-3) at two indoor sites; their corresponding mean total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentrations (0.24-0.27 pg I-TEQ Nm(-3)) were approximately 11 times that at a background location. In air samples collected from burning incense, OCDFs accounted for approximately 90% of total PCDD/Fs at the two indoor sites and an outdoor site near the temple, while the major PCDD/Fs in incense ash were PCDDs. The total PCDD/F content and toxic equivalent value of incense ash were 617 pg g(-1) and 1.55 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. At the three sites inside/outside the temple, the air and ash samples contained the same four primary PCDD/Fs-OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The Cl- emission factor, which is related to the PCDD/F formation, from burning incense was 0.454 mg g(-1). The resultant lifetime average daily dose and cancer risk for temple workers were 0.00964 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 9.64 x 10(-6), respectively, approximately 2 times that for residents near the temple (0.00489 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 4.89 x 10(-6), respectively). We suggest that the chlorine content in incense must be regulated, and the high risk of PCDD/F exposure from burning incense for temple workers and visitors should be of concern.

  5. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and their association with cancer mortality among workers in one automobile foundry factory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihua; Weng, Shaofan; Wen, Sheng; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Gangtao; Zeng, Yuyu; Qi, Cheng; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans. However, epidemiological studies on their carcinogenic roles are limited. The current study was designed to determine the concentrations and characteristics of PCDD/Fs and evaluate their association with cancer mortality in exposed workers in one automobile foundry factory. PCDD/F levels in factory and surrounding environment were analyzed through air and settling dust sampling. The cancer mortalities among workers in this foundry factory were calculated using data from a cohort study. The results showed that the PCDD/F concentrations of air in workplace ranged 0.36-2.25 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ) Nm(-3) (average 1.01 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)), which were 1.16-7.26 times higher than those outside the factory. The PCDD/F concentrations of settling dust in the workplace ranged 3.34-18.64 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) (average 8.25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)), which were lower than those just outside the factory (average 16.13 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). Furthermore, a cohort study of workers in this factory with average follow-up of 24.52 years showed that cancer was the leading cause of death, with significant elevated mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.13) among workers, when compared with Chinese national mortality. The cancer mortality among front-line workers was increased significantly (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.73, 95% CI: 1.14-2.60), particularly among melting and casting workers, when compared with that among assistant workers. Our results indicated that there was a dose-response relationship between PCDD/F exposure and cancer mortality among foundry workers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans pollution in China: sources, environmental levels and potential human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gene J; Leung, Anna O W; Jiao, Li Ping; Wong, Ming H

    2008-10-01

    This review represents an assessment of the pollution status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in China (the mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan). During the past decades, seven PCDD/Fs pollution hotspots have been found: (a). Ya-er Lake, Hubei Province, with 'total PCDD/Fs' level reaching 177,427 pg g(-1) (dry weight) in lake sediments; (b). Chinese Schistosomiasis affected areas of Jiangxi Province with 33,660 pg g(-1) in soil; (c). e-waste recycling area of Yangtze River Delta, with 2726 pg g(-1) in paddy soil; (d). e-waste recycling area of Guiyu (eastern part of Guangdong Province), with 967,500 pg g(-1) in mixture of burnt residue and soil (the highest level among all hotspots); (e). Pearl River Delta with 2630 pg g(-1) in coastal sediment. (f). Kwun Tong, Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong with 10,999 pg g(-1) in coastal sediment; and (g). southern Taiwan with 606,000 pg g(-1) in soil near the vicinity of a pentachlorophenol manufacturing factory. The main sources of PCDD/Fs in China were formed from impurities during the production of polychlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, organic chlorinated pesticide and triclosan. In addition, sources of PCDD/Fs included municipal waste incineration, mineral fuel usage, open burning of electronic waste and crop residues, industrial waste discharge and vehicle exhaust emission. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to PCDD/Fs at these hotspots, body loadings of these contaminants should be monitored.

  8. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E. |; Norstrom, R.J.; Lorenzen, A.; Kennedy, S.W.; Hart, L.E.; Bellward, G.D.; Cheng, K.M.; Philibert, H.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    During the 1992 breeding season, eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were collected within a gradient of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants on the southern coast of British Columbia. Twenty-five eggs were placed in a laboratory incubator, of which 18 hatched; chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success was not significantly different between eggs taken from pulp mill sites and reference sites. A hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was induced nearly sixfold in chicks from near a pulp mill at Powell River compared to those from a reference site. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activities were also significantly elevated in chicks from nests located near pulp mills compared to reference sites. A hepatic CYP2B cross-reactive protein was threefold higher in chicks from pulp mill versus reference sites, but the difference was not significant. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected near pulp mill sites contained greater concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) compared to reference areas. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho congeners, and organochlorine pesticides occurred among sites. Regressions showed that the hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein and EROD and BROD activities were positively correlated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and toxic equivalents (TEQs{sub WHO}--World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors) in yolk sacs. No significant concentration-related effects were found for morphological, physiological, or histological parameters, such as chick growth, edema, or density of thymic lymphocytes. Using hepatic CYP1A induction as a biomarker, a no-observed-effect-level of 100 ng/kg and a lowest-observed-effect-level of 210 ng/kg TEQs{sub WHO} on a whole egg (wet weight basis) are suggested for bald eagle chicks.

  9. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  10. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uptake by roots and translocation to shoots of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in typical crop plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Root uptake and subsequent translocation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 12 agricultural crops were comparatively investigated. All crop plants were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of three kinds of dioxin congeners over 4d. The root concentration factor (RCF) of dioxin showed a logarithmic correlation with extractable lipid content in plant root. On the assumption that the dioxin escaping via gas phase from nutrient solution in the closed container can evenly diffuse in the air and equally absorb onto the shoot tissues of the dioxin-exposed plant and their nearby blank control plant, the amount of translocated dioxin was estimated by subtracting dioxin content in the shoot tissues of the blank control plant from that of the dioxin-exposed plant, and then the transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) of dioxin was calculated. The TSCF values of PCDD/Fs largely varied according to the plant species, and the TSCF values of 2,4,8-TrCDF were a little higher than those for 1,3,6,8-TeCDD expect for zucchini. For 1,3,6,8-TeCDD, zucchini had the highest TSCF value of 0.0089, followed by pumpkin (0.0064) towel gourd (0.0027), and cucumber (0.0010), verifying plants of the genus Cucurbita have the higher abilities of dioxin translocation. The TSCF values of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD for wheat and sorghum were 0.0013 and 0.0012, respectively. For maize, soybean, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and garland chrysanthemum, translocation was an insignificant mechanism of dioxin contamination in shoot tissues.

  12. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in estuarine and coastal North Sea sediments: Sources and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, E.H.G.; Klamer, H.J.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M. . Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management); Govers, H.A.J. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Sediments from two depositional zones of the North Sea (the Wadden Sea and Oyster Grounds) and from the estuaries of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Ems, and Humber were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) using a congener-specific procedure. A simple grain-size correction procedure was utilized for the comparison of PCDF and PCDD concentrations in sediments from different origin. PCDFs were more widely encountered than PCDDs in all sediments, except for the Ems-Dollard and the Humber estuary. The highest concentrations were found in the outflow sediments of the rivers Rhine and Humber. Concentrations up to 2,980 ng/kg PCDFs, principally 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF, and up to 1,760 ng/kg PCDDs, principally OCDD, were determined in the River Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of PCDD and PCDF profiles in the sediments. Two-dimensional projections based on sample scores from the principal component models showed a marked influence of the River Rhine on the presence of these compounds in the western Wadden Sea and the Oyster Grounds. Based on a chemometric evaluation of chromatographic profiles of these coastal, estuarine and related freshwater sediments, the authors have deduced that these compounds originate from industrial operation discharges, related to the production of chloroaliphatic compounds and the chloralkali compounds and the chloralkali industry along the River Rhine. The atmospheric deposition of combustion-generated PCDDs and PCDFs appeared significant only for remote marine environments.

  14. Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoning; Meng, Fan; Shi, Chune; Yang, Fuquan; Wen, Deyong; Aronsson, Jonatan; Gbor, Philip K.; Sloan, James J.

    The atmospheric fate of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was simulated for the year 2000 in North America using a SMOKE/CMAQ-based chemical transport model that was modified for this purpose. The 1999 USEPA emission inventories of PCDD/Fs and criteria pollutants were used. The 1995 Canadian emission inventory of criteria pollutants and the 1995 Canadian area source emissions for PCDD/Fs were used with the 2000 Canadian point source emissions. Modifications to CMAQ involved coupling it with dual organic matter (OM) absorption and black carbon (BC) adsorption models to calculate PCDD/F gas-particle partitioning. The model satisfactorily reproduced the particle bound fractions at all rural sites for which there were measured data and across the whole domain, the modeled vs. measured differences in particle bound fractions were less than 20% for nearly all congeners. The model predicted ambient air PCDD/F concentrations were also consistent with measurements. Simulated deposition fluxes were within 58% of direct measurements. PCDD/F atmospheric depositions to each of the Great Lakes were estimated for the year 2000. The results indicate that approximately 76% of the total deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Great Lakes (in W-TEQ, or toxic equivalent units as defined by the World Health Organization) is attributed to PCDD/Fs absorbed into OM in aerosol. For all of the lakes, more than 92% of all deposition is particle phase wet deposition and only 5-8% is particle phase dry deposition. Wet deposition from the gas phase is negligible. Of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners, the Cl 4-5DD/F compounds contribute approximately 70% to the total atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes. The seasonal changes in the PCDD/F deposition flux track variations in ambient temperature.

  15. Indoor air contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerjee, D.; Paepke, O.K.; Karmaus, W. )

    1989-10-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP), used extensively for wood preservative purposes, contains trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and-dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as contaminants. Residues of these compounds are present on the surface and sub-surface of the treated wood. These contaminants have the potential to wear (or migrate) away or volatilize from the wood surface and become entrained in ambient air or dust particles, and thus becoming available for human contact. During the early sixties several day nursery facilities were built with PCP-treated wood in the northern part of West Germany. In this paper we describe the indoor air monitoring data in these kindergarten buildings and the associated possible long-term health risk. The indoor ambient air was found to be contaminated with highly toxic PCDDs/PCDFs at pg/m3 levels. HxCDDs, HpCFs and OCDDs/OCDFs congeners were the major contaminants.

  16. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in double-crested cormorant chicks (Phalacrocorax auritus).

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Norstrom, R J; Elliott, J E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-02-01

    The present project assessed the effect of environmental contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and morphological parameters in matched double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) hatchlings from egg clutches chosen for chemical analysis. Double-crested cormorant eggs were collected from five colonies across Canada, with differing levels of contamination. Levels of contamination expressed in sum of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-toxic equivalents (TCDD-toxic equivalents or TEQ, ng/kg egg; mean +/- SEM) were: Saskatchewan, 250 +/- 50; Chain Islands, 672 +/- 73; Christy Islet, 276 +/- 14; Crofton, 131, n = 1; and Lake Ontario, 1606 +/- 118. In the hatchlings, hepatic EROD activities (pmol/min/mg protein; mean +/- SEM) were: Saskatchewan, 283 +/- 42; Chain Islands, 516 +/- 98; Christy Islet, 564 +/- 91; Crofton, 391 +/- 52; and Lake Ontario, 2250 +/- 156. Hepatic microsomal EROD activity (pmol/min/mg protein) regressed positively on TEQ (r2 = .69; p < .00005; n = 25). Yolk weight (g) regressed negatively on TEQ (r2 = .44; p = .00005). Wing length (mm) regressed negatively on PCB-169 (r2 = .28; p = .007). Monospecific antibodies raised against rat cytochrome P-450 1A1 recognized a protein in the hepatic microsomes of the double-crested cormorant, and also in those of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias), using immunoblotting. The intensity of the stained band increased with increased EROD activity, supporting the assumption that ethoxyresorufin is a suitable substrate for avian cytochrome P-450 1A1. These results validate the use of avian hepatic microsomal EROD activity as an index of cytochrome P-450 1A1 induction by environmental levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons and as a useful screening tool to determine the extent of exposure to such chemicals. Furthermore, the induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 observed

  17. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from stack gases of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from four electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and eight secondary aluminum smelters (secondary ALSs) in Taiwan. The mean PCDD/F International-Toxicity Equivalents (I-TEQ) concentrations in the stack gases of these EAFs and secondary ALSs are 0.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (relative standard deviation [RSD]= 100%) and 3.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (RSD = 260%), respectively. The high RSDs, especially for those obtained from secondary ALSs, could be caused by the intrinsic differences in their involved feeding materials, furnace operating conditions, and air pollution control devices. The mean I-TEQ emission factor of PCDD/Fs for EAFs (1.8 microg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock) is lower than that for secondary ALSs (37 microg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock). This result might be because the involved furnace temperatures for secondary ALSs (650-750 degrees C) are lower than those for EAFs (1600-1700 degrees C), resulting in the deterioration of the combustion condition, leading to the formation of PCDD/Fs during the industrial process. This study found that the total PCDD/F emissions from EAFs (20 g I-TEQ/yr) and secondary ALSs (18 g I-TEQ/yr) are approximately 27, 53, and approximately 24, 49 times higher than those from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs; 0.74 g I-TEQ/yr) and medical waste incinerators (MWIs; 0.37 g I-TEQ/yr), respectively; while those are 44 and 40% of total PCDD/F emission from sinter plants (45 g I-TEQ/ yr), respectively. Considering a more stringent emission limit has been applied to waste incinerators (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3) in Taiwan lately, the results suggest that the control of the emissions from metallurgical processes has become the most important issue for reducing the total PCDD/F emission from industrial sectors to the ambient environment.

  18. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from different regions of France.

    PubMed

    Focant, Jean-François; Fréry, Nadine; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Eppe, Gauthier; Scholl, Georges; Saoudi, Abdessattar; Oleko, Amivi; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    We report on the pilot study carried out before the start of the Elfe project (French longitudinal study from childhood). A total of 44 samples of mature human milk were collected at home 8 weeks after delivery. A total of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 6 non dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs were measured. For total TEQ (PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs), the geometric mean concentration was 17.81 pg TEQ(WHO05)/g lipids. Relative PCDD, PCDF, and DL-PCB contributions to the arithmetic mean TEQ(WHO05) were 38%, 18%, and 44%, respectively. The use of TEF(WHO05) instead of TEF(WHO98) resulted in a 27% reduction of the total TEQ value. Although PCDD levels did not significantly change (less than 0.5% increase), PCDF and DL-PCB levels both decreased by 35% and 38%, respectively. Levels have been compared to data obtained during a previous non-reported national study conducted in 1998 (TEF(WHO98)) in French lactaria (n=244). The mean of PCDD/Fs has decreased about 39.4% (18.8 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in 1998 vs 11.4 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in pilot study), respectively 41.5% for PCDDs (10.6 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in 1998 vs 6.2 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in pilot study) and 36.7% for PCDFs (7.9 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in 1998 vs 5.0 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in pilot study). For the sum of the 6 NDL-PCBs, the 2007 geometric mean concentration in milk was 176.3 ng/g lipids. The arithmetic mean lipid concentration in 2007 breast milk was 26.4 g/l (range from 6.0 to 46.7 g/l). A PCDD/F and DL-PCB daily intake was estimated to be 62.3 pg TEQ(WHO05)/kg body weight per day (85.0 pg TEQ(WHO98)/kg body weight per day) for a baby of 5 kg of body weight fed daily with 700 ml of maternal milk containing 25 g/l of lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  20. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from a heavy oil-fueled power plant in northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Chao, How-Ran; Wu, Chia-Hsin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Ding Yan; Tsou, Tsui-Chun

    2009-04-15

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from the flue gas and the ambient atmosphere of a power plant fueled by heavy oil in northern Taiwan. The mean emission concentration and I-TEQ concentration of total PCDD/Fs were 0.292 ng/Nm(3) and 0.016 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively. All PCDD/F emission concentrations in the flue gas were supposed to meet the Environmental Protection Administration Executive Yuan, R.O.C. standard (1.0 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) from 2008). Furthermore, the mean I-TEQ concentration in the ambient atmosphere was 0.011 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3), which was much lower than the environmental quality standards for dioxins in Japan (0.6 pg TEQ/Nm(3)). Also, the PCDD/F emission factor was 0.188 ng I-TEQ/L fuel, which was comparable to the data issued in US EPA [EPA, Locating and estimating air emissions from sources of dioxins and furans, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, NC, DCN No. 95-298130-54-01, 1997] (0.2 ng I-TEQ/L of fuel). Also, the result of the correlations of PCDD/Fs and operational parameters illustrated that the positively significant correlation (r=0.502, p=0.048) was found only between PCDD/Fs (I-TEQ) and the flue gas emission temperature (125-157 degrees C). However, PCDD-TEQ/PCDF-TEQ ratios were statistically significantly associated with the decreased flue gas flow (r=-0.659, p=0.006), moisture (r=-0.612, p=0.012) and flue gas temperature (r=-0.503, p=0.047). For proper environmental management of dioxins, it is necessary to establish a complete emission inventory of PCDD/Fs, and, in particular, the government should pay more attention to power plants to address the information shortage.

  1. Removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by three coagulants in simulated coagulation processes for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Peng, Ping'an; Zhang, Sukun; Man, Ren; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2009-02-15

    Surface water from Guangzhou to which standard polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were added was treated by coagulation with ferric chloride (FC), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), and aluminium sulfate (AS) at optimum removal dosages for nature organic matter (NOM) to assess the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) removal efficiencies. PCDD/Fs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and treated water (TW) after coagulation were analysed. Low residual levels of PCDD/Fs were found in treated water after coagulation: 0.8% for FC, 0.9% for PAC, and 3.1% for AS. The removal efficiency calculated using these results was >99% for FC and PAC and 97-98% for AS. Most PCDD/Fs congeners could be removed by the three coagulation processes; the removal efficiency of FC and PAC was similar, and slightly higher than that of AS. The results also demonstrate that coagulation with FC preferentially removed tetra- and penta-substituted PCDD/Fs from raw water.

  2. Thermochemical Formation of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Mediated by Secondary Copper Smelter Fly Ash, and Implications for Emission Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2016-07-19

    Heterogeneous reactions mediated by fly ash are important to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) formation. However, the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) through heterogeneous reactions is not yet well understood. Experiments were performed to investigate the thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs at 150-450 °C through heterogeneous reactions on fly ash from a secondary copper smelter. The maximum PBDD/F concentration was 325 times higher than the initial PBDD/F concentration in the fly ash. The PBDD/F concentration after the experiment at 150 °C was five times higher than the initial concentration. PBDD/Fs have not previously been found to form at such a low temperature. Secondary-copper-smelter fly ash clearly promoted PBDD/F formation, and this conclusion was supported by the low activation energies that were found in Arrhenius's law calculations. Thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs mediated by fly ash deposited in industrial facilities could explain "memory effects" that have been found for PCDD/Fs and similar compounds released from industrial facilities. Abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that were formed through fly ash-mediated reactions could be important precursors for PBDD/Fs also formed through fly ash-mediated reactions. The amounts of PBDEs that formed through fly ash-mediated reactions suggested that secondary copper smelters could be important sources of reformed PBDEs.

  3. Chlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the human immune system (2) In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from workers with quantified moderately-increased body burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Neubert, R.; Maskow, L.; Delgado, I.

    1995-11-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation responses were studied in workers with moderately increased body burdens of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and other polyclorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), calculated as International Toxicity Equivalencies [I-TE]. Mitogens (pokeweed mitogen [PWM], phytohemagglutinine [PHA], concanavalin A [Con A], as well as anti-human monoclonal antibody against CD3 were used as proliferation stimulators in vitro. Additionally, the feasibility of using the lymphocyte response to tetanus toxoid was assessed, and the response to this recall-antigen was included in this trial. No decrease in the capacity of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation was observed with any of the proliferation stimulators in the group of volunteers with the increased TCDD-body burden when compared with volunteers exhibiting TCDD-concentrations in blood flat within the reference range. Regression analysis revealed a slight trend towards an increase for {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation during the stimulation with PHA only. It can be concluded from our data that moderates increases in the TCDD- or I-TE-body burdens do not induce any medically significant changes in the capacity for proliferation of lymphocytes, measured as {sub 3}H=thymidine incorporation. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. EXTENSION OF U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290 TO INCLUDE 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are typically reported only in terms of the tetra-through octa-CDD/CDF isomers, either as homologue sums or as subsets thereof. This practice is common because the toxic isomers ...

  5. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  6. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. EXTENSION OF U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290 TO INCLUDE 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are typically reported only in terms of the tetra-through octa-CDD/CDF isomers, either as homologue sums or as subsets thereof. This practice is common because the toxic isomers ...

  8. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and non-orthopolychlorinated biphenyls in U.S. meat and poultry from 2012-2013: Toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends, and implication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically-based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-P...

  9. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed.

  10. Separation of extracts from biological tissues into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran fractions prior to analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, P W; Miller, J; Smith, R; Connor, S; Clayton, W; Storm, R

    1997-05-30

    A low-pressure liquid chromatography method is presented for separating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) from biological tissue extracts. After removing lipid from extracts, the PAHs are separated from PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs on a deactivated 13-24 microns silica gel column. The PCBs are subsequently separated from PCDDs/PCDFs by collecting the first fraction from an automated three column cleanup procedure for PCDDs/PCDFs. The complete method has been used to obtain high recoveries of the three compound classes for analysis by GC-electron capture detection (PCBs) or GC-MS (PAHs and PCDDs/PCDFs).

  11. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  12. Estimation of air concentrations and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from calculated vegetation-air partition coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeller, L.O.; Rappe, C.; Jones, K.C.

    1995-12-31

    Air concentrations of vapor and particulate phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted by use of calculated plant-air partition coefficients. The plant-air interaction is reduced to an octanol-air distribution at equilibrium. Partition coefficients are deduced from the fugacity approach and calculated from congener group average data of solubility, vapor pressure and octanol-water partition coefficient. Calculated partition coefficients were used for prediction of the PCDD/F levels and congener profile in air from archived herbage collected pre- and post-1940. Before 1940 the air had a fly ash or combustion derived PCDD/F composition. After 1940 Hp and OCDD/F are superimposed on the combustion pattern, reflection of their release from the extensive use of polychlorinated compounds, notably penta chlorophenol, but also related compounds.

  13. Thermochemical Properties, ΔfH°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K), and Cp°(T), of 1,4-Dioxin, 2,3-Benzodioxin, Furan, 2,3-Benzofuran, and Twelve Monochloro and Dichloro Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Li; Bozzelli, Joeseph W.

    2003-12-01

    Values for ΔfH°(298.15 K), S°(298.15 K), and Cp°(T) (5⩽T/K⩽6000) are computed by density functional B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) calculation methods for 12 monochloro and dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: 1-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2-chloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,6-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,9-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,8-dichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-chloro dibenzofuran, 4-chloro dibenzofuran, 1,6-dichloro dibenzofuran, 3,6-dichloro dibenzofuran, 3,7-dichloro dibenzofuran, and 4,6-dichloro dibenzofuran. Molecular structures and vibration frequencies are determined at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. Isodesmic reactions are utilized at each calculation level to determine the enthalpy of formation of each species. Contributions to the entropy and the heat capacity from translation, vibration, and external rotations are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation based on the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) structures. The enthalpies of formation for 1,4-dioxin, furan, 2,3-benzodioxin, 2,3-benzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and dibenzofuran are also calculated. Thermochemical properties of two composite central atom groups and four interaction groups are derived for use in a group additivity scheme to calculate these thermochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans detected in bivalve samples from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; Sericano, José L; Defreitas, Debra A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2014-04-30

    Bivalve samples from 142 sites were analyzed to determine the concentration and toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and furans (D/F) as part of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. The total concentration of 17 D/F ranged from not detected to 203 pg/g wet weight of tissue. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, OCDD, had a concentration range from not detected to 189 pg/g and a mean concentration of 8.65 pg/g. OCDD was the dominant D/F compound detected and accounted for, on average, over 70% of the total D/F concentration. The TEQ (compared to 2,3,7,8-TCDD) ranged from 0.12 to 7.32 pg TEQ/g. The TEQ for 39% of the bivalves analyzed were below 0.238 pg TEQ/g. TEQ above human consumption advisory concentration of 1.2 pg TEQ/g were found in 9.3% of the samples analyzed. TEQ for D/F indicate very limited human health concerns from consumption of bivalves at most of the locations sampled.

  15. Oceanic Sink and Biogeochemical Controls on the Accumulation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Plankton.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Mompean, Carmen; González-Gaya, Belén; Jiménez, Begoña; Bode, Antonio; Ábalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in plankton samples from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans collected during the Malaspina circumnavigation cruise. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in plankton averaged 14 and 240 pg gdw(-1), respectively, but concentrations were highly variable. The global distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was not driven by proximity to continents but significantly correlated with plankton biomass, with higher plankton phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations at lower biomass. These trends are consistent with the interactions between atmospheric deposition, biomass dilution, and settling fluxes of organic matter in the water column (biological pump), as key processes driving POPs plankton phase concentrations in the global oceans. The application of a model of the air-water-plankton diffusive exchange reproduces in part the influence of biomass on plankton phase concentrations and suggests future modeling priorities. The estimated oceanic sink (Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans) due to settling fluxes of organic matter bound PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs is of 400 and 10,500 kg y(-1), respectively. The atmospheric inputs due to gross diffusive absorption and dry deposition are nearly 3 and 10 times larger for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, respectively, than the oceanic sink. These observations suggest that the coupling of atmospheric deposition with water column cycling supports and drives the accumulation of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs in plankton from the global oligotrophic oceans.

  16. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  17. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Specific congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blue mussel in Osaka Bay in Japan: Aqueous solubilities of PCDDs and PCDFs

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Hideaki; Takayama, Koji; Mimura, Mayumi; Kashimoto, Takashi ); Fukushima, Shigehiko )

    1989-09-01

    The authors have monitored polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the coastal waters of Japan by using blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) as a biological indicator. The levels of both chemicals were surmised to closely relate to the number of municipal incinerators and the population densities in the cities adjoining the sampling location. The main contamination source in Osaka Bay, which is heavy polluted with PCDDs and PCDFs, was determined to be the fly ash from municipal waste incinerators based upon analytical results of blue mussel from Osaka Bay sediments, sediments from Osaka Bay, and sediments from a river, which is located near a typical urban municipal waste incinerator. However, there was a remarkable difference in congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs between the blue mussel and the fly ash, that is, the mussel mainly contained tetraCDDs and tetraCDFs with congener ratios of 56 {plus minus} 9.7% and 62 {plus minus} 6.0%, respectively, whereas the fly ash contained the higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs as major congeners. In this study, the specific congener profiles of PCDDs and PCDFs in blue mussel were investigated from the point of view of their water solubilities.

  19. Occurrence of brominated diphenyl ethers, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in foam materials in scrapped car seats from 1985 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Redin, L; Niinipuu, M; Jansson, S

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs) in polyurethane foam (PUF) from car seats of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and compare the concentrations of PBDEs with the stipulated regulations in the POP Directive. The method comprised screening by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and GG-MS analysis. Of 59 tested samples from ELVs, 17 samples showed lines above limit of detection (LOD) levels when screening by XRF. Those samples were selected as replicates and for further analysis by GC-MS. The majority of the studied samples showed low or non-detectable concentrations of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs, but two samples showed concentrations of Σ Te-HpBDEs close to the regulated level for Te-HpBDEs in waste (1000mgkg(-1)); one was slightly higher (1390mgkg(-1)) and the other slightly lower (570mgkg(-1)). It was concluded that brominated pollutants such as Te-HpBDEs occur in low levels in automotive applications in scrapped cars produced in years when brominated flame retardants were used. However, two of the 59 samples tested showed levels close to those stipulated by regulations concerning POPs in waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interactive effects between CYP1A1 genotypes and environmental polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans exposures on liver function profile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Su, Huey-Jen; Wang, Ying-Jan; Guo, Yue-Liang; Liao, Pao-Chi; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies reported that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) induced hepatic cytochrome P-4501A1 (CYP1A1). The aim of this study was to examine the interactive influence of CYP1A1 genotypes and PCDD/Fs exposure on liver function profile. PCDD/Fs levels and liver function parameters were determined in serum and correlated with genetic polymorphism of CYP1A1/Msp 1 in 225 human volunteers who had no or minimal occupational exposure to PCDD/F. The results showed that the highest glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity levels were found in subjects with homozygous variant CYP1A1/Msp 1, followed by heterozygous variant, and finally homozygous wild type for those individuals whose serum PCDD/Fs levels were higher than 17.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid. Data suggest that GPT activity levels may be modified by interaction of CYP1A1/Msp 1 genotype with dioxin after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, and history of liver illness. Further studies are needed to characterize the variation in other related genes to verify whether a correlation exists between serum PCDD/Fs levels and adverse health effects.

  1. Exposure assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in temporary municipal-waste-incinerator maintenance workers before and after annual maintenance.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tung S; Chen, Hsiu L; Wu, Yei L; Lin, Yun C; Lee, Ching C

    2006-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been found in ambient air around municipal waste incinerators (MWIs), and elevated serum levels in incinerator workers have also been observed in some studies. However, few studies have focused on temporary employees who work intermittently through the annual maintenance and clean-up around different incinerators. The present study aimed to assess the change in serum PCDD/F levels of temporary employees between the beginning of periodic incinerator maintenance and one month the work was completed. Thirty-five volunteer workers, most of them transient and temporary maintenance staff, were recruited from a contractor that provided annual maintenance for four incinerators in this study. Information about each participant was obtained by questionnaire at the beginning of annual maintenance. The questionnaire asked for work history, health status, and diet information. As measured by the PCDD/F levels in blood, a significant increase was observed in workers after a month of maintenance work. The increase was greater in workers who had never done this type of maintenance than in those with previous experience, especially for 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF levels. The data also showed that the laborers and employers need to pay more attention to occupational health issues even for short-term incinerator maintenance workers.

  2. Biochemical and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) after in ovo exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M. Van Den; Craane, B.L.H.J.; Sinnige, T. . Research Inst. of Toxicology)

    1994-05-01

    Ecological investigation revealed differences in breeding success of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) between two colonies in the Netherlands. In this study the possible role of organohalogen pollutants was investigated. Thirty-nine cormorant eggs were collected from two colonies with marked differences in contamination. Seventeen cormorant eggs were hatched in an incubator. The respiration rate was monitored regularly during the incubation. Hatchlings were euthanized at day 1. Several morphological parameters were measured. PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analyzed in the yolk sac. Blood and liver were collected for analysis of cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation (PROD) activities, vitamin A, and thyroid hormone levels. Residue levels differed two- to five-fold for PCBs and 25% for PCDDs and PCDFs between both colonies. Birds from the most contaminated colony showed an increase in ovo respiration rate, increased cytochrome P450 and EROD activity, and reduced plasma thyroid hormone and hepatic retinyl palmitate levels. Large interindividual differences were observed for all parameters. The data were compared on an individual basis (n = 17) to detect any concentration-effect relationships. Significant concentration-effect relationships were observed for EROD induction, plasma free thyroxine reduction, yolk sac weight, relative liver weight, and head size. It is concluded these compounds may, at least in part, have played a role in the observed low breeding success of cormorants.

  3. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  4. [Effect of green tea (matcha) on gastrointestinal tract absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Matsueda, T; Iida, T

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents the liver distribution and fecal excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) congeners and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) congeners, in male rats fed with powdered green tea (matcha). The rats were given a treatment diet containing 10% matcha for the first five days. Then, the animals were administered 4 g of 10% matcha diet containing 0.5 ml of the casual rice-bran oil of Yusho that had occurred in the Southwest part of Japan in 1968 and kept on the same diet for another five days. The fecal excretion of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the group fed with 10% matcha were 4.4, 2.4-9.1 and 2.5-4.7 times higher (p < 0.01), respectively, than that in the control group. The liver distribution of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the same groups were 79%, 20-75% and 26-67% of the control group, respectively. These findings suggest that administration of matcha is useful as a treatment of Yusho patients exposed to PCB, PCDF and PCDD.

  5. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu, Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n=23 males, n=4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n=11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ∑PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group.

  7. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from joss paper burned in a furnace with air pollution control devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Tsan; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung

    2009-05-01

    Burning joss paper, a common practice in temples in some Asian countries, can release toxic pollutants. This study investigated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and profiles from burning joss paper in a temple furnace connected to two wet scrubbers. The mean total PCDD/F content and corresponding toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in joss paper were 193 ng kg(-1) and 0.645 ng I-TEQ kg(-1), respectively, whereas those in bottom ash from burned joss paper were 18.5 ng kg(-1) and 1.92 ng I-TEQ kg(-1), respectively. The wet scrubbers decreased individual PCDD/F emissions by 26.7-71.0% and those of total PCDD/Fs and I-TEQ by 47.2% and 66.0%, respectively. The total PCDD/F TEQ emission factors before and after the wet scrubbers were 8.14 and 3.42 microg I-TEQ ton-feedstock(-1), respectively. The estimated total PCDD/F and corresponding TEQ emissions were 5.29 g year(-1) and 0.462 g I-TEQ year(-1), respectively, in Taiwan. Burning joss paper in temple furnaces is a significant source of PCDD/F emissions.

  8. Evaluation of the leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in raw and solidified air pollution control residues from municipal waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    Leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from raw and solidified air pollution control (APC) residues with selected solvents, including acetic acid, simulated acid rain, humic acid, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and n-hexane was investigated. High-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were observed in all leachates of raw APC residue samples, with the largest total leaching concentration (61.60 ngm(-3); 0.30 ngI-TEQm(-3)) from treatment with humic acid. Low-chlorinated congeners were mainly leached with LAS and n-hexane. Solidification and stabilization (S/S) processes with cement and sulfur-containing chelating agent decreased the leachability of PCDD/Fs by up to 98% with humic acid and LAS as solvents. However, S/S processes enhanced the leachability of both high- and low-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners with n-hexane as the solvent, which largely increased the toxic equivalent quantity of leachates. These results suggest that conventional S/S processes may effectively restrain the release of PCDD/Fs when APC residues are leached with rain water or natural organic compounds (e.g., humic acid), but may have a deteriorated effect when APC residues are leached with nonpolar organic solvents (e.g., n-hexane) coexisting in the landfill sites.

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2009-05-01

    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  10. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in cow's milk collected in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Cavallo, S; Serpe, F P; D'Ambrosio, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; Pellicanò, R; Baldi, L; Guarino, A; Serpe, L

    2009-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and certain dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are a family of chemically-related lipophilic compounds characterized by similar toxicity. Due to their properties they are universally distributed in the environment and classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). From most of studies carried out to evaluate human dietary intake, milk and dairy products result as a major contributors of PCDD/Fs uptake. Of course the main source of milk contamination is animal feeds. Lactating ruminants, cows included, transfer these compounds to the food chain by ingestion of contaminated vegetables or soil. Their resistance to degradation and a high lipophilicity means that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs may be accumulated into fat tissues from which they are transferred to milk during lactation period. Seventy-nine cows milk samples, collected in the monitoring plan 2008, were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Eleven milk samples were non-compliant corresponding to five breeding livestock located in Caserta province. The distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs congeners in these samples was examined in order to determine the likely sources of dioxins. The results show that the congener profile is characterized by a prevalence of PCDFs in respect of PCDDs, that represents the typical pattern of thermal origin contamination.

  11. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively.

  12. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fillets of farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).

    PubMed

    Phua, Samuel T G; Ashman, Peter J; Daughtry, Ben J

    2008-10-01

    Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) is the only farmed tuna species in the southern hemisphere, with production centred offshore of Port Lincoln, South Australia. SBT farming is a quota-based fishery where farmers fatten wild-caught stock for subsequent sale as fresh-chilled or frozen product, mainly to Japanese markets. Fillets from wild-caught and farmed SBT were analysed and the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are reported for the first time. Time of farming was separated into two periods: a typical farming period of approximately five months and an experimental scenario that involved holding (farming) these fish for an additional 12 months. WHO-PCB and WHO-PCDD/F TEQ concentrations in fillets on a fresh weight basis at the same times and over the same periods were, 0.67-1.18pg-TEQg(-1) and 0.16-0.29pg-TEQg(-1), respectively. All WHO-PCB congeners, and only three WHO-PCDD/F congeners, were found to biomagnify during farming, after blank correction. Caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to SBT farming as a whole because of the use of varying husbandry and feeding practices employed by different companies.

  13. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K F; Chen, Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, Man Ka; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K S

    2007-07-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity.

  15. Distribution of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the Jukskei and Klip/Vaal catchment areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Rimayi, Cornelius; Chimuka, Luke; Odusanya, David; de Boer, Jacob; Weiss, Jana

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC)-μECD analysis was used to determine 2,3,7,8-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) distribution in the Jukskei and Klip/Vaal catchment areas from ten sites previously identified as persistent organic pollutant hotspots in major rivers in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Five sediment samples from the Jukskei River catchment area and five sediment samples from the Kilp/Vaal River catchment area were collected for analysis. The extracts were screened for dioxin-like activity using the DR-Luc bioassay prior to GCxGC-μECD analysis. All sediment samples tested positive for dioxin-like activity with total activity ranging from 16 to 37 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ) g(-1) dry weight (dw) for the Jukskei River catchment and 1.5-22 pg TEQ g(-1) dw for the Klip/Vaal River catchment, indicating that the Jukskei River catchment area had higher concentrations of total dioxin-like compounds. Confirmatory tests for the presence of the most potent seven PCDDs and ten PCDFs conducted using GCxGC-μECD revealed presence of 11 PCDD/Fs and 6 PCDD/Fs in the Jukskei and Klip/Vaal River catchments respectively. Total organic carbon (TOC) and particle size distribution analysis were conducted to understand the distribution of PCDD/Fs within the Jukskei and Klip/Vaal catchments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in workplaces of secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Changliang; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Dong, Shujun

    2013-07-16

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in workplace air from eight secondary nonferrous metal processing plants to investigate occupational exposure to these toxic compounds. The total estimated daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for workers by inhalation in the workplace were in the range of 0.15-9.91 and 0.13-8.59 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of body weight (bw) for moderate and light activities, respectively. The daily inhalation doses for workers in the workplaces of three investigated plants exceeded the tolerable daily intake recommended by the World Health Organization. These results indicate that the risk of occupational exposure to dioxins by inhalation in the workplace of plants investigated was considerably high. For PCNs, the daily inhalation doses for workers in the workplace were in the range of 0.005-4.46 and 0.004-3.87 pg of TEQ/kg of bw for moderate and light activities, respectively, which were lower than those of dioxins. To identify the source of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs in workplace air, their homologue profiles were compared with those in stack gas from the plants investigated. It was found that significant dioxin contamination in workplace air was mainly attributed to the emission of fugitive gas from smelting furnaces during reclamation processes.

  17. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of black carbon in the sorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Diamond Alkali superfund site, Newark Bay, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Matthew K; Friedman, Carey; Luey, Pamela; Lohmann, Rainer

    2011-05-15

    The sorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) was measured in two sediment cores taken near the Diamond Alkali superfund site (DA) in the Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey (U.S.A.). An OC partitioning model and a BC-inclusive, Freundlich distribution model were used to interpret measurements of freely dissolved PCDD/Fs using passive samplers in sediment incubations, together with measured sedimentary concentrations of OC, BC, and PCDD/Fs. Samples were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as controls on the two distribution models. The OC partitioning model underpredicted the distribution of PAHs and PCDD/Fs by 10-100-fold. The Freundlich model predicted the distribution of PAHs at the DA to within a factor of 2-3 of observations. Black carbon-water partition coefficients (K(iBC)) for PCDD/Fs, derived from literature results of both field and laboratory studies differed up to 1000-fold from values derived from this study. Contrary to expectations, PCDDs displayed stronger sorption than either PCDFs or PAHs relative to their subcooled liquid aqueous solubilities. Even though the presence of BC in the sediments reduced the overall bioavailability of PCDD/Fs by >90%, the sediments at 2 m depth continue to display the highest pore water activities of PCDD/Fs.

  19. Particle size distributions and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air during haze days and normal days.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zheng, Minghui; Liang, Yong; Liu, Guorui; Zhu, Qingqing; Gao, Lirong; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Ke; Sun, Xu

    2016-12-15

    Little information is available on the distributions of airborne polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during haze days. In this study, PCDD/F concentrations, particle size distributions, and gas-particle partitioning in a Beijing suburban area during haze days and normal days were investigated. High PCDD/F concentrations, 3979-74,702fgm(-3) (173-3885fgI-TEQm(-3)), were found during haze days and ~98% of the PCDD/Fs were associated with particles. Most PCDD/F congeners (>90%) were associated with particles. PCDD/F concentrations increased as particle sizes decreased and 95% of the particle-bound PCDD/Fs were associated with inhalable fine particles with aerodynamic diameters<2.5μm. PCDD/Fs were mainly absorbed in the particles and the Harner-Bidleman model predicted the particulate fractions of the PCDD/F congeners in the air samples well. The investigated PCDD/F concentrations and particle-bound distributions were different during normal days than during haze days. Temporal airborne PCDD/F trends in a suburban area during haze conditions could support better understanding of the exposure risk posed by toxic PCDD/Fs associated with fine particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given.

  1. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  2. Assessment of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yin, Shuaixing; Wang, Xiangyong; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2015-10-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in food samples from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) performed in 2011. A total of 152 composite samples from various food groups were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were subsequently estimated for the adult from various regions in China. The mean dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was 20.1 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (WHO-TEF of 1998) within a range of 4.2 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) to 53.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) which were all much lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). By comparing with results from previous Chinese TDS, a decline of the average dietary intake was observed from 2000 to 2011, but a notable elevation was observed in some regions partly stem from increasing contamination levels in certain foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation.

  4. Characteristics of particle-bound polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere used in carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kuen-Yuan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Peng, Yen-Ping; Yen, Ting-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were estimated for different particle size distributions in a carbon black feeding process at a tire manufacturing plant on 15 days in March and April of 2014. A total of 75 integrated air samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI). Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were analyzed using a high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). Concentrations of thoracic particles and total particles produced in the carbon black feeding process of a tire manufacturing plant were measured in ranges of 0.19-2.61 and 0.28-4.22 mg/m(3), respectively. On all sampling days, the three most abundant species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF. The mean concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were 0.74-6.83 pg/m(3) within five particle size ranges. Total I-TEQ in particulate matter (PM)<1.0 was 2.2 and 3.2 times higher than those in PM>18 and PM2.5-10, respectively. However, the total I-TEQ of thoracic PM contributed approximately 74 % of the total I-TEQ of total PM. The assessment of health risk indicates that exposure to fractions of thoracic PM by inhalation poses a significant cancer risk (>10(-6)).

  5. A preliminary investigation on emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from coke plants in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Ba, Te; Liu, Wenbin; Guo, Li

    2009-05-01

    Thermal related processes are widely recognized as the main sources of formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is well known that, carbonization of coal in coke production involves many thermal reactions at high-temperature. However, there are still no strong evidences to identify coking processes as source of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. In this study, coke production was qualified and quantified for emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in some typical coke plants in China. In the preliminary investigation, stack gases from three typical coke plants were collected, and dl-PCBs and 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs were analyzed by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS technique. The total toxic equivalents of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were in the range of 1.6-1785.4pg WHO-TEQNm(-3). For dl-PCBs, the most abundant congener was CB-118, and the most dominant contributor to total WHO-TEQ of dl-PCBs was CB-126. With regard to PCDD/Fs, four congeners comprised of OCDD, 1234678-HpCDD, 1234678-HpCDF and OCDF were the predominant species in stack gases. Further investigation on the emission of dioxins from coking industry is still in process.

  6. Sample preparation for analyzing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediment by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.L.; Kong, Ada; Chiu, Yue-On )

    1993-12-01

    A sample preparation technique was developed to isolate and separate two classes of combustion-produced pollutants: three- to six-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), from sediment samples for interference-free analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The method involves soxhlet extraction with methylene chloride, sulfur removal with activated copper powder, gel filtration chromatography with Sephadex LH-20, polarity separation of PAH and PCDD/F with prepacked silica gel solid-phase extraction columns, and isolation of PCDD/F from polychlorinated biphenyls with microalumina columns. Stringent procedural controls were established to achieve clean isolations and recoveries of 70% or better for each step in the method. The prepared sample extracts were analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Electron impact ionization was used for PAH, and negative chemical ionization with methane as a reagent gas was used for PCDD/F. Reproducible results were obtained. The method is sample and has the advantage of conserving sample consumption since two classes of compounds can be analyzed from the same sample. This can be critical in sediment core analyses were sample size is usually limited. 23 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. A novel method to enhance polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans removal by adding bio-solution in EAF dust treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Mou, Jin-Luh; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Yang, Kuen-Thyr

    2008-01-15

    In order to understand the effect of different amounts of powder-activated carbon (PAC) injection and bio-solution (NOE-7F) addition on the removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in a fly ash treatment plant with Waelz rotary kiln process, the PCDD/F concentrations in the stack flue gasses were measured and discussed. In the amount of 20, 40 and 50 kg/h PAC injection, the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs in the stack flue gas were 86, 96 and 97%, respectively. While adding more amounts of PAC did enhance the removal efficiencies, the reduction fractions of low chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were much higher than those of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. Particularly, a lower amount of PAC injection (20 kg/h), not only cannot remove highly chlorinated PCDD/Fs, but also the carbon surface of the PAC can act as a precursor for the formation promotion of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. The addition of NOE-7F in the raw materials had the dechlorination effect on the PCDD/F removal and mainly inhibited highly chlorinated PCDD/F formation. The combination of both PAC injection and NOE-7F addition has a high potential for practical application.

  8. Atmospheric bulk deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Park, Hyokeun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-08-01

    An IRA-743 resin bulk sampler was validated to monitor long-term bulk deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Six consecutive sampling campaigns (2008-2009) were conducted at four sites around steel complexes in Pohang, South Korea to investigate spatial and seasonal variations of PCDD/F bulk deposition. The bulk deposition within the steel complex showed the highest ∑(4-8)PCDD/F (Tetra-Octa) fluxes, ranging from 204 to 608 (mean: 352)pg m(-2)d(-1), indicating steel complexes were major sources of PCDD/Fs. The homologue profiles were dominated with lower chlorinated PCDFs. Furthermore, the prevailing winds were confirmed to influence the spatial distribution of PCDD/F deposition. There were apparent seasonal variations of the bulk deposition at each site, and seasonal homologue patterns of PCDD/Fs were clearly observed. According to the passive air sampling, however, no significant seasonal change of ambient air concentrations of PCDD/Fs was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the seasonal variations of deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs probably resulted from temperature-dependent gas/particle partitioning.

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and flame retardants in northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Gulf of St. Lawrence, 1994-2014.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rail, Jean-François; Lavoie, Raphael A

    2017-03-01

    Northern gannet (Morus bassanus) eggs from Bonaventure Island, Québec, Canada, were collected to monitor concentrations of contaminants. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in eggs from 2004 and 2009, and several brominated and nonbrominated flame retardants (FRs) were measured every 2-5 years in eggs from 1994 to 2014. The sum (Σ) concentrations of PCDDs/Fs were significantly lower in 2009 relative to 2004, but the total toxic equivalent concentrations for PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs showed no significant differences (196 ng/kg wet weight (ww) in 2004 and 220 ng/kg ww in 2009). The mean ΣFR concentrations decreased significantly between 1994 and 2014, from 58 ng/g ww to 19 ng/g ww. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) was the principal nonbrominated FR detected in gannet eggs and ranged from <1.0 ng/g ww to 6.9 ng/g ww. The PCDD/F and nonortho PCB profiles were dominated by 2,3,7,8- tetrachloro-dibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF; from 26.2 ng/g ww to 34.8 ng/kg ww) and PCB-77 (from 1580 ng/g ww to 2650 ng/kg ww), respectively. Although the values of both ecological tracer stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) showed differences among the years, no temporal trends were observed, which indicates relatively stable adults' diet and foraging area over this time period. The trends over time in concentrations of the studied contaminants likely reflect a decrease in environmental contamination. The mean 2012 eggshell thickness was 10% lower than the pre-DDT value and corresponded to a year of poor reproductive success. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  11. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  12. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  13. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  14. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aquatic animals from an e-waste dismantling area in East China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Wenjuan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    Eight aquatic biota species were collected from an e-waste dismantling area in East China to investigate bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The mean concentrations of PCBs varied widely from 6.01 × 10(4) to 2.27 × 10(6) pg per g dry weight (dw). The ∑25PCB concentrations in eels were significantly higher than those in other species. The levels of PCDD/Fs changed from 8.13 pg per g dw in toads to 617 pg per g dw in stone snails. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) ranged from 2.57 to 2352 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw with a geometric mean value of 64.7 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw, which greatly exceeded the maximum levels of 4 pg per g ww set by the European Commission. The log-transferred bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 25 PCB congeners ranged from 1.0 to 6.6, with the highest value for CB-205 in crucian carp and the lowest value for CB-11 in frog. A parabolic correlation was observed between log BCF and log Kow (R(2) = 0.53, p < 0.001), where the maximum value occurred at a log Kow of approximately 7. A similar correlation was also found in the plot of log BCF against the number of chlorine atoms of PCBs (R(2) = 0.57, p < 0.001), indicating that medium-halogenated congeners of PCBs are more easily accumulated by aquatic biota species. There were no significant correlations between the log-transferred concentrations and trophic levels of aquatic species, suggesting that trophic magnification for PCBs and PCDD/Fs was not observed in this study.

  15. [Determination of mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in stack gas using isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chen; Liu, Qipeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-09-01

    A method for the determination of mono- to tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (mono- to tri-CDD/Fs) in stack gas using isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) was developed. The sam- ples were extracted by Soxhlet extraction, and then the extracts were concentrated and purified using a multilayer silica gel column and a basic alumina column. The analytes were separated by HRGC on a DB-5MS column (30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm) and determined by HRMS. The identi- fication of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs was based on the retention times of 13C-labelled standard and the abundance ratios of the two exacted mass-to-charge ratios. The quantitative analysis was performed using the ratios of the integrated areas of the 13C-labelled standards. This method had the recoveries ranging from 66.6% to 112.5% and the relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 19.9% to 40.5% (n = 5). The limits of detection (LODs) of this method for the mono- to tri-CDD/Fs were ranging from 0.027 to 0.485 μg/L. Three stack gas samples from waste incinerators were measured using this method, with the recoveries ranging from 85.7% to 137.0% and the concentrations ranging from 11.4 to 9,183 pg/Nm3. The results indicated that the method can be applied to the precise determination of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs at trace level in stack gas.

  16. An egg injection method for assessing early life stage mortality of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Hufnagle, L.C.; Clayton, M.K.; Peterson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize the risk that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) pose to salmonid early life stage survival, we developed a method to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs to graded doses of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a prototype. Rainbow trout eggs were injected 24–50 h post-fertilization with 0.2 μl of 50 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes (control) or 0.2 μl of 5–7 graded doses of TCDD incorporated into 50 mM PC liposomes. Injection volume never exceeded 0.6% egg volume. Immediately following injection, the injection site was sealed with Super glue®, resulting in 92–97% of TCDD dose retained by the egg. Following both egg injection and waterborne egg exposure. TCDD toxicity in rainbow trout was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with hemorrhages, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. TCDD LD50s, following injection and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout eggs, were 421 (331–489) and 439 (346–519) pg TCDD/g egg (LD50, 95% fiducial limits), respectively. As in rainbow trout, TCDD toxicity in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) following the same two routes of exposure was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality preceded by hemorrhages and yolk sac edema. LD50s, based on the dose of TCDD in lake trout eggs, were 47 (21–65) and 65 (60–71) pg/g following injection and waterborne exposure, respectively. The egg injection method is ideal for assessing the relationship between early life stage mortality in rainbow trout and graded egg doses of individual PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congeners.

  17. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: case evidence from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Gosens, Jorrit; Ni, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions from eight main industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steel making and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.

  18. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination.

  19. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, J.T.; Bellward, G.D. ); Elliott, J.E.; Whitehead, P.E. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r[sup 2] = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988. 40 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Monitoring biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in great blue heron chicks (Ardea herodias) in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J T; Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E; Hart, L E; Cheng, K M; Bellward, G D

    1994-04-01

    The Canadian Wildlife Service monitors levels of polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs in British Columbia as indicators of environmental contamination. The present project assessed the temporal effects of environmental contamination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) on hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and several morphological parameters in heron hatchlings. Between 1990 and 1992, eggs were collected from two great blue heron colonies in British Columbia that had elevated levels of contamination in 1988: Vancouver in 1990 and 1992, and Crofton in 1991. Biological parameters in the hatchlings and chemical contaminant levels in matched eggs from the same clutch were measured and compared with the findings from the same colonies studied in 1988. Levels of TCDD and other PCDDs and PCDFs had decreased significantly in both colonies since 1988. A concomitant decrease in EROD activity and incidence of chick edema, increase in body weight, and improvement of the reproductive success of the Crofton colony was observed. Body, yolk-free body, stomach, and intestine weights, tibia wet, dry, and ash weights, and tibia length regressed negatively on TCDD level (p < .01; n = 54). Hepatic EROD activity regressed positively on TCDD level (r2 = .49; p = .00005; n = 54). Regression of these parameters on the sum of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ) resulted in similar relationships. The reduction in severity of the effects observed in the contaminated colonies in the recent collections, accompanied by the declines in levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, was consistent with the dose-response relationships determined in 1988.

  1. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day.

  2. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and breast milk samples from residents of a schistosomiasis area with Na-PCP application in China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ke; Zhao, Xingru; Liu, Zhengtao; Zhang, Bing; Fang, Liping; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2010-04-01

    Schistosomiasis has prevailed in some areas of China for a long time. Chinese technical sodium pentachlorophenate (Na-PCP) has been used to control the spread of snail-borne schistosomiasis since the 1960s. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), impurities contained in the Na-PCP, enter the soil and may accumulate in the food chain. In order to evaluate their potentially harmful effects on local residents, 50 breast milk samples and 20 blood samples were collected in 2004 from residents in the Dongting Lake area, one of China's known schistosomiasis areas. Levels of 17 PCDD/F congeners were measured in all samples, and DNA damage was simultaneously assessed in blood samples. The PCDD/F congener distribution patterns in human tissue samples from the Dongting Lake area were similar to those in Na-PCP, and the octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD) congener was predominant in all samples. We also had a primary investigation that the breast milk WHO-TEQ associated with some factors such as: age, dietary habit, body mass index (BMI) and the total menses times. In blood samples, the samples with higher OCDD level had higher DDS (DNA damage score) values than those samples with low OCDD level, which indicated that the higher DNA damage value in general population might be caused directly or indirectly by PCDD/Fs. The results also indicated that the WHO-TEQ values in blood were associated with age (r=0.6, p=0.007). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perspective on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions during chemical production in China: an overlooked source of contemporary relevance.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Fang, Yanyan; Tian, Shulei; Yang, Yufei; Die, Qingqi; Tian, Yajun; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) are pollutants of significant global concern, and China with its large size and industries is one of the main dioxin-emitting countries in the world. PCDDs/DFs may be formed during the manufacture of chemicals and can either remain in the products as impurities or be emitted into the environment or residues disposed to landfills. The uncertainties in the environmental emissions of PCDDs/DFs from the chemical production industry in China are large because of the complex nature of the industry and variability in the technologies used and limited monitoring conducted. In the current study, we used the PCDD/DF emission factor from the updated United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) toolkit 2013, information from otherwise published data, and the chemical production data in 2010 to estimate PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical productions in China. Based on these data, it was estimated that there is 1480 g toxic equivalent (TEQ) from the chemical production industry in China, which is much higher than the value that was estimated and used in the national implementation plans (NIPs) for China (102.4 g TEQ in 2004). These results indicate that current PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical production industry in China may be overlooked. Therefore, we suggest that attention should be paid to PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical production industry in future updates of the Chinese NIP and that appropriate measures to decrease PCDD/DF emissions should be taken by better monitoring of products and processes in chemical production industry.

  5. Characterization of trophic transfer for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, non- and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in the marine food web of Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Hu, Jianying; Yang, Min; An, Lihui; An, Wei; Jin, Xiaohui; Hattori, Tatsuya; Itoh, Mitsuaki

    2005-04-15

    Many investigations have highlighted the bioaccumulation of dioxins in animals, but little is known about the trophodynamics of dioxins in the food web. In this study, the trophic transfer of nine dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners, eleven dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and twelve non-, mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) congeners in a marine food web were determined. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non- and mono-ortho PCBs were analyzed in phytoplankton/ seston, zooplankton, three invertebrate species, six fish species, and one seabirds species collected from Bohai Bay, representing approximately 4 trophic levels based on stable nitrogen isotope values. Positive relationships were found between trophic levels and lipid equivalent concentrations of non- and mono-ortho PCBs except for PCB-77, PCB-81, PCB-126, PCB-156, and PCB-167, indicating bioaccumulation of these compounds in this food web. But lipid equivalent concentrations of low chlorinated 2,3,7,8-substituted-PCDD/Fs did not exhibit statistically significant trends with trophic levels. And lipid equivalent concentrations of high chlorinated 2,3,7,8-substituted-PCDD/Fs and three non-2,3,7,8-substituted-PCDD/Fs declined significantly with increasing trophic levels providing that these isomers undergo trophic dilution. The similarity in log Kow values for non-, mono-ortho PCBs, non-2,3,7,8-substituted-PCDD/Fs, and some 2,3,7,8-substituted-PCDD/Fs suggests that the difference of trophic transfer is mainly due to their different metabolic transformation rates.

  6. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    PubMed Central

    NC, Deziel; Nuckols; JS, Colt; AJ, De Roos; A, Pronk; C, Gourley; RK, Severson; W, Cozen; Cerhan; P, Hartge; MH, Ward

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources, including industrial facilities and traffic. Samples from vacuum bag dust from homes of 40 residents of Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, or Iowa who participated in a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma conducted in 1998–2000 were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry for 7 PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners considered toxic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Locations of 10 types of PCDD/F-emitting facilities were obtained from the EPA; however only 4 types were located near study homes (non-hazardous waste cement kilns, coal-fired power plants, sewage sludge incinerators, and medical waste incinerators). Relationships between concentrations of each PCDD/F and proximity to industrial facilities, freight routes, and major roads were evaluated using separate multivariate regression models for each congener. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) toxic equivalence (TEQ) concentration of these congeners in the house dust was 20.3 pg/g (IQR=14.3, 32.7). Homes within 3 or 5 km of a cement kiln had 2 to 9-fold higher concentrations of 5 PCDD and 5 PCDF (p<0.1 in each model). Proximity to freight routes and major roads was associated with elevated concentrations of 1 PCDD and 8 PCDF. Higher concentrations of certain PCDD/F in homes near cement kilns, freight routes, and major roads suggest these outdoor sources are contributing to indoor environmental exposures. Further study of the contribution of these sources and other facility types to total PCDD/F exposure in a larger number of homes is warranted. PMID:22832089

  7. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls of the French population: Results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Tard, Alexandra; Venisseau, Anaïs; Brosseaud, Aline; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulate through the food chain and are therefore of public health concern. Exposure to these compounds was assessed in the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Food samples (n=583) were collected to be representative of the whole diet of the population, prepared as consumed, and analyzed. Contamination data were combined with national individual food consumption data. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to PCDD/F+DL-PCBs was assessed to be 0.57 (1.29) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 0.89 (2.02) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Less than 4% of the population exceeded the health-based guidance value for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to the six indicator PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) was estimated at 2.71 (7.90) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 3.77 (11.7) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Only 2.6% of the adults [CI(95%): 1.9; 3.3] and 6.5% of the children and teenagers [5.2; 7.8] exceeded the health-based guidance value for total PCBs. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general French population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined (by a factor of 3.2 for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs and about three for total PCBs) since the last evaluation, which was conducted using another methodology in 2005 and 2007, and show the efficiency of the European risk management measures which came into force after these evaluations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and naphthalenes in plasma of workers deployed at the World Trade Center after the collapse.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuichi; Jiang, Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Jansing, Robert; Aldous, Kenneth M; Mauer, Matthew P; Eadon, George A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2010-07-01

    Blood plasma samples (n = 43) collected retrospectively from New York State employees and National Guard personnel who had been assigned to work in the vicinity of the World Trade Center (WTC) during the week after the collapse of the buildings were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). On the basis of algorithms developed to rank individual exposures to dust and debris and to smoke, we categorized the samples as: more smoke exposure (MSE), more dust exposure (MDE), less smoke exposure (LSE), and less dust exposure (LDE). Mean concentrations of PCDDs were 1070, 223, 3690, and 732 pg/g lipid wt, and mean concentrations of PCDFs were 910, 1520, 230, and 117 pg/g lipid wt, for the MSE, MDE, LSE, and LDE groups, respectively. The concentrations of PCDFs were higher in the two "more exposure" groups than in the two "less exposure" groups. Calculated TEQ concentrations of coplanar PCBs and PCDD/Fs in plasma samples were, on average, 1.12 and 41.2 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid wt, respectively. TEQ concentrations of PCDFs were higher than those of PCDDs in both "more exposure" groups but lower than those of PCDDs in "less exposure" groups. This result is suggestive of exposure of the WTC responders to PCDFs after the WTC collapse. PCDFs contributed the majority of TEQs and are therefore the critical dioxin-like compounds in MSE/MDE groups, whereas PCDDs are the critical compounds in the LSE/LDE groups.

  10. Biota--sediment accumulation factors for polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in southern Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Burkhard, Lawrence P; Cook, Philip M; Lukasewycz, Marta T

    2004-10-15

    A set of high-quality, age-specific biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined from concentrations measured with high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, by use of the 13C isotopic dilution technique, in lake trout and surficial (0-2 cm) sediment samples from southern Lake Michigan. BSAFs ranged from <0.1 to 18 for PCBs and from <0.001 to 0.32 for PCDDs and PCDFs detected in the fish. PCBs with zero or one chlorine in an ortho position had smaller BSAFs than other PCBs. PCDDs and PCDFs with chlorines at the 2,3,7,8-positions had larger BSAFs than most other PCDDs and PCDFs. The fidelity of the relative bioaccumulation potential data between independent lake trout samples, within and among age classes, suggests that differences in slight rates of net metabolism in the food chain are important and contribute to the apparent differences in BSAFs, not only for PCDDs and PCDFs but also possibly for some PCBs. A complicating factor for non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs is the uncertain contribution of enhanced affinity for black carbon (and possibly volatility) acting in concert with metabolism to reduce measured BSAFs for lake trout. On the basis of the association between chemicals with apparent slight rates of metabolism and measured dioxin-like toxicity, several PCDFs with similar measured BSAFs but unknown toxicity may be candidates for toxicity testing.

  11. Optimization of separation and detection conditions for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography--time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Eunha; Mastovska, Katerina; Lehotay, Steven J

    2007-03-23

    The 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are among the most toxic compounds known, and several sources of exposure to these chemicals should be monitored to protect human and environmental health. The current predominant method of analysis is too expensive and cumbersome, and comprehensive two-dimensional GC coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC--TOF-MS) has the potential to lower the costs and speed analysis of PCDD/Fs. In this study, GC x GC--TOF parameters were evaluated and optimized to yield complete separation of the 17 most important PCDD/F congeners from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) interferences, and to attain the lowest detection limits. The optimization study entailed evaluation of oven temperature programs, column flow rates, ion source temperatures, electron ionization energy, data acquisition rate, and various GC x GC parameters, including modulation period, modulator temperature offset and hot pulse duration. After optimization, all 17 PCDD/Fs were separated in <60 min, and in particular, the critical pair of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and pentachlorobiphenyl congener CB126 did not co-elute chromatographically. Accurate identification and determination of all analytes could be made using their deconvoluted full mass spectra. In GC x GC, the modulation period and start time were the most important factors that affected sensitivity and selectivity for the analysis of the PCDD/Fs. The modulation period should be < or = 4s to preserve separations achieved in one-dimensional GC, and the modulation start time was important to achieve one large slice and two smaller symmetrical slices of TCDD to maximize its detection sensitivity. After optimization, the method could identify 0.25 pg of TCDD with standard injection from its full mass spectrum.

  12. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in placentas from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Mariana F; Parera, Jordi; Arrebola, Juan P; Marina, Loreto Santa; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina; Abalos, Manoli; Tardon, Adonina; Castaño, Argelia; Abad, Esteban; Olea, Nicolas

    2012-12-15

    Because fetuses are considered significantly more sensitive to various environment toxicants, there is a need for continuous biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs (DL-PCBs) to assess their impact on this susceptible population. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in placenta samples from women participating in the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA) birth cohort study and to evaluate whether maternal and child characteristics predict placenta concentrations of these pollutants. The presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was investigated in 50 placenta samples selected at random in the recruitment period 2000-2008. Multivariable regression models were constructed. Mothers had a mean age at delivery of 30.7 years (18.0-38.0 years), pre-pregnancy BMI of 23.3 kg/m² (18.0-40.2 kg/m²), and 31% were smokers. Median total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 6.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid and 2.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In comparison to the few previous studies in placenta, total TEQ levels were among the lowest recorded in comparable general populations. The congener distribution pattern and the frequencies and concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCB congeners were similar to previous reports in placenta. PCDD/F and DL-PCB exposure was related to the age of the mother and the year of the delivery. Although placental concentrations cannot be considered wholly appropriate predictors for evaluating fetal exposure to these contaminants, they can provide a good indication of both maternal and infant prenatal and postnatal exposure and can be used as a proxy for fetal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g(-)(1) wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  17. Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in fruit and vegetables from an industrial area in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Paola; Fattore, Elena; Generoso, Caterina; Fanelli, Roberto; Arvati, Massimo; Zuccato, Ettore

    2010-04-01

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in fruit and vegetables (n=113) harvested in different parts of the Mantua district, in northern Italy, and levels were used for assessing the exposure of the population to the contaminants through these food items. Concentrations in fruit and vegetables were in the range 33.39-10130pgg(-1)fresh weight (fw) for the sum of the 26PCBs analyzed (Sigma(26PCBs)), 14.86-4504pgg(-1)fw for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (Sigma(6 NDL-PCBs)), and 0.0004-1.398pg toxic equivalent (TEQ)g(-1)fw for the dioxin-like PCBs (SigmaTEQ(DL-PCBs)). Altogether fruit and vegetables made only a limited contribution to total dietary PCB intake, as the estimated total mean daily intake (TMDI) of Sigma(26PCBs) through these food items was 10.1% in children and 10.4% in adults of the minimal risk level (MRL) for PCBs, while the TMDI of SigmaTEQ(DL-PCBs) was 3.3% in children and 3.7% in adults of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for dioxin-like compounds. The contribution of fruit and vegetables to total PCDD and PCDF dietary intake could not be assessed because concentrations of these congeners were almost all below the limit of detection in most of the crops analyzed. This study also found that PCB levels in rosemary were much higher than in any other crop, suggesting that rosemary leaves accumulate PCBs and that this plant might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and mussels at three sites in the lower Great Lakes, North America.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Christopher H; Howell, E Todd; Kolic, Terry M; Reiner, Eric J

    2002-09-01

    Levels of contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-substituted and mono-ortho-substituted dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs) were determined in sediments and freshwater mussels (Dreissena spp. and Elliptio complanata) at three sites in the lower Great Lakes (North America). Impacts of mussel colonization on sediment quality were investigated by comparing contaminant levels in colonized sediment with levels in sediment in the same area that was not colonized, but exposed to similar environmental conditions. Significant impacts on contaminant levels of colonized sediment, compared to noncolonized sediment, were observed at two sites exhibiting high mussel population densities (Fort Erie, eastern Lake Erie, ON, Canada, 2.2 kg/m2 dry wt biomass, and Port Dalhousie, western Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, 6.1 kg/m2 dry wt biomass); these differences were not observed at a site with lower mussel densities (Bay of Quinte, eastern Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, 0.7 kg/m2). Total organic carbon and contaminant concentrations were statistically significantly greater in colonized sediment, compared to noncolonized sediment, at the two impacted sites. Areal estimates of PCDD/PCDF and DLPCB toxicity equivalents (TEQs) in mussel biomass at the three sites averaged 0.16% and 3.3%, respectively, of the TEQs in the top 3 cm of sediment, indicating that the sediments were the primary sink for contaminants. The observed differences between colonized and noncolonized sediment suggest that Dreissena are capable of influencing the chemical properties of sediment they colonize.

  19. Formation and potential mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash from a secondary copper smelting process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-06-01

    Secondary copper smelting (SeCu) is widely considered to be an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs; PCDD/Fs). Laboratory experiments were performed using SeCu fly ash as a matrix for thermochemical reactions to investigate the effects of fly ash on the formation of PCDD/Fs and the potential mechanisms. Thermochemical reactions on SeCu fly ash over a temperature range of 250-450 °C and reaction times of 10-120 min caused the PCDD/F concentrations in the fly ash to increase significantly. The PCDD/F concentrations formed in the thermal reactions were about 99-139 times higher than the PCDD/F concentrations in the original fly ash, clearly indicating that fly ash promoted the formation of PCDD/Fs. The PCDFs dominated the PCDDs, and the PCDF/PCDD concentration ratio was about 30-40. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the heptachlorodibenzofurans were the most dominant homologs that were formed. A comparison of the PCDD/F patterns produced in the thermochemical reactions and the patterns in the original fly ash suggested that the chlorination of less chlorinated PCDFs might be an important pathway in the formation of higher chlorinated furans. The results of this study indicated that SeCu fly ash has a high PCDD/F formation potential. It is crucial to have the fly ash filter at low temperature and that fly ash in the cooling system should be minimized.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in fishes from Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, John P.; Jude, David J.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Gale, Robert W.; Meadows, John C.; Zajieck, James L.; Peterman, Paul H.; Verbrugge, David A.; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Schwartz, Ted R.; Tuchman, Marc L.

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlo-rodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents were measured in composite samples of forage fishes and several sizes of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from Saginaw Bay, Michigan, USA. The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined from the use of TCDD equivalency factors (TEFs) and instrumentally determined concentrations of individual congeners were designated TEq. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined on the same extracts with the H4IIE bioassay were defined as TCDD-EQ. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ and TEq were significantly, but poorly correlated (R2 = 0.44). Concentrations of TCDD-EQ and TEq ranged from 10.6 to 348 and 13.5 to 69.5 ng/kg, wet weight, respectively. The ratio of TCDD-EQ to TEq ranged from 0.5 to 5.0, with the greatest ratio observed in common carp but the average ratio between TEq and TCDD-EQ was approximately 1.0. In common carp, larger walleye, and medium-sized alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) there were significant concentrations of TCDD-EQ that could not be accounted for by TEq calculated from an additive model of PCBs, PCDDs, or PCDFs. As much as 75% of the TCDD-EQ in some samples could not be accounted for by TEqs. It is unlikely that PCNs, PCDTs, or polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) occurred at concentrations that were, based on their relative potencies, great enough to contribute significant quantities of TCDD-EQ. The discrepency between TCDD-EQs and TEqs was not due to antagonisms among congeners or extraction efficiencies.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Korhonen, Markku; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2011-02-01

    To explore the concentrations and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) the reindeer milk and tissue samples were collected from the sub-arctic northern Finland. Reindeer milk's PCB sum (1.20 ng g(-1) wet weight) and PCDD/F sum (0.70 pg g(-1) ww) in autumn were higher than in summer (PCBs 0.50 ng g(-1) ww and PCDD/Fs 0.20 pg g(-1) ww). The mean fat content in autumn milk (26%) was significantly higher than in summer (10%). Concentrations in reindeer milk were generally far below 50% of that in adult reindeer body burden. However, the bioaccumulation factors were multiple in milk/reindeer calf ratio and that aroused the question of other important exposure routes than lactation. The muscle and liver of reindeer calves had higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations than adult animals that possibly indicate the significance of transfer of these compounds from dam to calf through lactation and placenta. However, PBDE concentrations were higher in adult reindeer, especially in liver. In addition, reindeer liver seems to have a special feature to collect highly toxic PCDD/Fs, although the PCB sum concentrations (range from 0.33 to 1.69 ng g(-1) wet weight) were clearly higher than the sums of PCDD/Fs (range from 3.78 to 39.2 pg g(-1) ww). Stillborn reindeer calves represented individuals who had got their PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE load only via the placenta. Concentrations in muscle and brown adipose tissue samples did not indicate dependency on fat content. Obviously effective placental transfer of PCBs and PBDEs from reindeer dam to foetus was seen in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  3. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  4. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  6. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Kao, Ya-Min; Chang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2016-07-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs) in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample) and large marine fish (0.6). In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60-65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13-40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic waste recycling site in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2007-11-15

    This study is one of the very few investigating the dioxin body burden of a group of child-bearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) (24 +/- 2.83 years of age, 40% were primiparae) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province, about 245 km away from Taizhou) (24 +/- 2.35 years of age, 100% were primiparae) in China. Five sets of samples (each set consisted of human milk, placenta, and hair) were collected from each site. Body burdens of people from the e-waste processing site (human milk, 21.02 +/- 13.81 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat (World Health Organization toxic equivalency 1998); placenta, 31.15 +/- 15.67 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 33.82 +/- 17.74 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) showed significantly higher levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) than those from the reference site (human milk, 9.35 +/- 7.39 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; placenta, 11.91 +/- 7.05 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 5.59 +/- 4.36 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) and were comparatively higher than other studies. The difference between the two sites was due to e-waste recycling operations, for example, open burning, which led to high background levels. Moreover, mothers from the e-waste recycling site consumed more foods of animal origin. The estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs within 6 months by breastfed infants from the e-waste processing site was 2 times higher than that from the reference site. Both values exceeded the WHO tolerable daily intake for adults by at least 25 and 11 times, respectively. Our results implicated that e-waste recycling operations cause prominent PCDD/F levels in the environment and in humans. The elevated body burden may have health implications for the next generation.

  8. Levels of non-ortho-substituted (coplanar), mono- and di-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in human serum and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, D G; Todd, G D; Turner, W E; Maggio, V; Alexander, L R; Needham, L L

    1994-01-01

    We have measured non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in human adipose tissue and serum collected in Atlanta, Georgia. The results show that the concentrations of the coplanar PCBs can be more than an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Our measurements in pooled serum collected in 1982, 1988, and 1989 show a decrease in coplanar PCB levels from 1982 to 1989. We found that the pattern of relative amounts of coplanar PCBs in adipose tissue varied greatly from person to person unlike the PCDD and PCDF patterns, which were more nearly the same. Age was significantly correlated with the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD,3,3'4,4'-PCB, 3,3',4,4',5-PCB, and 3,3'4,4',5,5'-PCB in adipose tissue. We also measured levels of the mono- and di-ortho chlorine-substituted PCBs in human serum. The levels for some of these PCB congeners were three orders of magnitude higher than the coplanar PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. We used the international toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCDDs and PCDFs and the TEFs proposed by Safe for PCBs to calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Four PCBs (3,3',4,4',5-; 2,3',4,4',5-;2,3,3',4,4'-;2,3,3',4,4',5-) make a larger contribution than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, while four other PCBs (3,3',4,4'5,5'-; 2,2',3,4,4',5'-;2,2',4,4',5,5'-;2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-) make nearly the same contribution as 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted 2,3',4,4',5-PCB, however, is the major contributor to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents in general population samples from the United States, Sweden, and Japan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187709

  9. Comprehensive profiling of 136 tetra- to octa-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using ionic liquid columns and column combinations.

    PubMed

    Do, Lan; Liljelind, Per; Zhang, Jin; Haglund, Peter

    2013-10-11

    The orders of elution of all 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined on six gas chromatography (GC) columns. Three of these columns had ionic liquid stationary phases (SLB-IL111, SLB-IL76 and SLB-IL61; Supelco), one a liquid crystal phase (LC-50; Restek), one a chiral phase (βDEXcst; Restek) and one a low bleed non-polar phase (DB-XLB; J&W/Agilent). According to our results, the high polarity and multiple solvation interactions of the ionic liquid stationary phases offered superior resolving power to that achieved with previously evaluated columns. The SLB-IL61 and SLB-IL111 columns resolved or partially separated 106 and 100 congeners, respectively, of the 136 PCDD/Fs. The SLB-IL61 also resolved 15 and partially separated one of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs. Additional congeners can be separated by complementary analyses using additional columns in a dual- or triple-column approach. For example, using a combination of the SLB-IL61 and SLB-IL111 columns all but 8 congeners would be separated, including all 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs. Two more congeners would be separated using a combination of SLB-IL76 and a liquid crystal (SB-Smectic) column, but in this case the 2,3,7,8-TeCDF would not be resolved. Three-column combinations would give even better separation: the DB-17/Smectic/SLB-IL76 and DB-225/Smectic/SLB-IL111 combinations would separate all but 1 of the 136 PCDD/F congeners. Unfortunately, the smectic column is no longer in production. If only commercially available columns are considered, combinations of SLB-IL61 and SLB-IL111 with DB-XLB, LC-50, or DB-225 offer the best performance, with 4, 4, and 3 unresolved congeners, respectively. Moreover, in each of these cases, one of the congeners in each unresolved pair is resolved on at least one of the other columns and so a reasonable estimate of the unresolved congeners' concentrations can be obtained by subtraction. The profiling of all 136

  10. Contaminants in ospreys from the Pacific Northwest: I. Trends and Patterns in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in eggs and plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Machmer, M.M.; Henny, Charles J.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected from 1991 to 1997 at nests (na??=a??121) upstream and downstream of bleached kraft pulp mills and at reference sites in the Fraser and Columbia River drainage systems of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Blood samples were collected from nestling ospreys during the 1992 breeding season on the Thompson River. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and -dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly higher in eggs collected in 1991 at downstream compared to upstream nests near pulp mills at Kamloops and Castlegar, British Columbia. There were no significant temporal trends in 2,3,7,8-TCDD, -TCDF or other measured compounds at a sample of nests monitored between 1991 and 1994 downstream of the Castlegar pulp mill, despite changes in bleaching technology (CIO2 substitution). However, by 1997 concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and -TCDF were significantly lower than previous years in nests sampled downstream at both Castlegar and Kamloops. An unusual pattern of higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs was found in many of the osprey eggs collected in this study, and considerable individual variation in the pattern existed among eggs from the same site. For example, eggs from four different nests at one study area (Quesnel) on the Fraser River had concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD ranging from <1 to 1,100 ng/kg and OCDD from <1 to 7,000 ng/kg wet weight. Higher mean concentrations of HpCDD and OCDD were found in eggs from the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser, compared to the Columbia River, and concentrations were generally higher at nests upstream of pulp mills. In plasma samples, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDD were the main compounds detected, with no significant differences measured between samples upstream versus downstream or earlier versus later in the breeding season. Use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives by lumber processors was considered the

  11. Assessment of emissions and removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at start-up periods in a hazardous waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Karademir, Aykan; Korucu, M Kemal

    2013-07-01

    A study was conducted to observe the changes in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) levels and congener profiles in the flue gas of a hazardous waste incinerator during two start-up periods. Flue gas samplings were performed simultaneously through Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) (including boiler outlet, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) outlet, wet scrubbers (WS) outlet, and activated carbon (AC) filter outlet) in different combustion temperatures during a planned cold (long) start-up and an unplanned warm (short) start-up. The results showed that PCDD/F concentrations could be elevated during the start-up periods up to levels 3-4 times higher than those observed in the normal operation. Especially lower combustion temperatures in the short start-ups may cause high PCDD/F concentrations in the raw flue gas. Assessment of combustion temperatures and Furans/Dioxins values indicated that surface-catalyzed de novo synthesis was the dominant pathway in the formation of PCDD/Fs in the combustion units. PCDD/F removal efficiencies of Air Pollution Control Devices suggested that formation by de novo synthesis existed in ESP also when in operation, leading to increase of gaseous phase PCDD/Fs in ESP Particle-bound PCDD/Fs were removed mainly by ESP and WS, while gaseous phase PCDD/Fs were removed by WS, and more efficiently by AC filter. This paper evaluates PCDD/F emissions and removal performances of APCDs (ESP, wet scrubbers, and activated carbon) during two start-up periods in an incinerator. The main implications are the following: (1) start-up periods increase PCDD/F emissions up to 2-3 times in the incinerator; (2) low combustion temperatures in start-ups cause high PCDD/F emissions in raw gas; (3) formation of PCDD/Fs by de novo synthesis occurs in ESP; (4) AC is efficient in removing gaseous PCDD/Fs, but may increase particle-bound ones; and (5) scrubbers remove both gaseous and particle-bound PCDD/Fs efficiently.

  12. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Comparison of industrial emissions and carpet dust concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in a multi-center U.S. study.

    PubMed

    Deziel, Nicole C; Nuckols, John R; Jones, Rena R; Graubard, Barry I; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Pronk, Anjoeka; Gourley, Chris; Colt, Joanne S; Ward, Mary H

    2017-02-15

    Proximity to facilities emitting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). There is limited information about whether proximity to industrial sources leads to indoor PCDD/F contamination of homes. We measured carpet dust concentrations (pg/g) of 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners and calculated their toxic equivalence (TEQ) in 100 homes in a population-based case-control study of NHL in Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Iowa (1998-2000). We took global positioning system readings at residences and obtained coordinates and PCDD/F emissions (ng TEQ/yr) from an Environmental Protection Agency database for 6 facility types: coal-fired electricity generating plants, cement kilns burning non-hazardous waste, hazardous waste incinerators, medical waste incinerators, municipal solid waste incinerators, and sewage sludge incinerators. For each residence, we computed an inverse distance-squared weighted average emission index (AEI [pg TEQ/km(2)/yr]) for all facilities within 5km from 1983 to 2000. We also computed AEIs for each of the 6 facility types. We evaluated relationships between PCDD/F dust concentrations and the all-facility AEI or categories of facility-type AEIs using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for study center, demographics, and home characteristics. A doubling of the all-facility AEI was associated with a 4-8% increase in PCDD/F dust concentrations of 7 of 17 PCDD/F congeners and the TEQ (p-value<0.1). We also observed positive associations between PCDD/F dust concentrations and facility-type AEIs (highest vs. lowest exposure category) for municipal solid waste incinerators (9 PCDD/F, TEQ), and medical waste incinerators (7 PCDD/F, TEQ) (p<0.1). Our results from diverse geographical areas suggest that industrial PCDD/F emission sources contribute to residential PCDD/F dust concentrations. Our emissions index could be improved by incorporating local

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment and mussel samples from Kentucky Lake, USA.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Masunaga, Shigeki; Sajwan, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    Sediment and mussel tissues from the Kentucky Dam Tailwater (KDTW) and Ledbetter Embayment (LE) of Kentucky Lake, Kentucky, USA, were analyzed to examine the presence of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-, mono-, and di-ortho-chlorine-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of target compounds varied with locations and sample matrices. In general, KDTW sediment samples contained slightly higher amounts of PCDD/DFs (average: 1100, range: 120-2400) than the LE sediments (average: 920, range: 580-1300) on a pg/g dry wt (dw) basis. Dioxin-like PCBs in KDTW were (average: 550, range: 70-2,000) higher than in LE (average: 320, range: 44-1000) on a ng/g dw basis. In contrast, mussel tissues had greater concentrations of PCDD/DFs in LE (average: 6500, range: 2200-13,000) than in KDTW (average: 3500, range: 2500-4800). Dioxin-like PCBs were slightly higher in KDTW (average: 76, range: 18-100) than in LE (average: 49, range: 24-96) on a ng/g fat wt basis. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated using tissue concentrations and sediment concentrations based on dry weight. PCDD/DFs BSAF was in the range of 0.21-25 in LE and 0.093-13 in KDTW. 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF in LE and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in KDTW had a greater BSAF, while BSAF for dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.84 to 13 in LE and from 2.3 to 12 in KDTW in which PCB-169 had the greatest BSAF in LE and PCB-167 in KDTW. Toxic equivalency (TEQ) was greatest in mussel from LE (mean: 193 pgTEQ/g fat wt) followed by mussel from KDTW (32 pgTEQ/g fat wt), sediment in KDTW (13 pgTEQ/g dry wt), and sediment in LE (7.6 pgTEQ/g dry wt). In general, PCDD/DF had a greater contribution to toxicity in mussels, while dioxin-like PCBs had a greater contribution to toxicity in sediment at both locations.

  15. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  16. Comprehensive characterization of the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contents of residential fire debris using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Cochran, Jack; Ross, Brian; McCarry, Brian; Reiner, Eric J; Dorman, Frank L

    2014-11-21

    A comprehensive approach was taken to characterize the polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contents of fire debris. Household and electronics fire simulations were performed to create samples representative of those firefighters most typically come in contact with. Sample analysis was performed using GC×GC-TOFMS to provide a comprehensive profile of the halogenated dioxins and furans present among the two types of fire debris. Both the household fire and electronics fire simulations produced a significant amount of polybrominated dibenzofurans. Only the electronics rich fire simulation produced mixed halogenated (Br/Cl) dibenzofurans in amounts above the limit of detection of the analytical method. Of the mixed halogenated dibenzofurans identified, a majority were those having no commercially available standard to allow for specific congener identification. GC×GC-TOFMS was extremely beneficial for the identification of compound classes due to the manner in which compounds classify in the two-dimensional chromatographic plane, thus aiding data reduction for these materials.

  17. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Cheng, Jinping; Horii, Yuichi; Wu, Qian; Wang, Wenhua

    2008-11-15

    Environmental pollution arising from electronic waste (e-waste) disposal and recycling has received considerable attention in recent years. Treatment, at low temperatures, of e-wastes that contain polyvinylchloride and related polymers can release polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Although several studies have reported trace metals and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) released from e-waste recycling operations, environmental contamination and human exposure to PCDD/Fs from e-waste recycling operations are less well understood. In this study, electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total PCDD/ Fs including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil (44.5-531 pg/g dry wt) from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels (3.44-33.8 pg/g dry wt) of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/ Fs via soil/dust ingestion

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in the serum samples of workers at continuously burning municipal waste incinerators in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, S.; Koda, S.; Miyakita, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Katagi, K.; Yasuda, N.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To find whether concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in serum increased in workers at municipal incinerators that burn continuously.
METHODS—30 Workers employed at three municipal waste incineration plants (incinerator workers) and 30 control workers were studied. The incinerator workers had worn dust masks or airline masks during the periodic repair work inside the incinerators. Previous job, dietary habit, smoking habit, distance from residence to the incineration plant, and body weight and height were obtained from a questionnaire survey. Concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured in the serum of the workers and the dust deposited in the plants. The influence of various factors on serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs was examined by multiple regression analysis.
RESULTS—Dust analysis showed the greatest amount of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF), and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). The toxicity equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs and PCDFs in the deposited dust were 4.8, 1.0, and 6.4 ng TEQs/g, respectively, for plants A, B, and C. The mean serum TEQs of PCDDs and PCDFs in the incinerator workers and control workers were 19.2 and 22.9 pg TEQs/g lipid, respectively, for area A, 28.8 and 24.5 pg TEQs/g lipid for area B, and 23.4 and 23.6 pg TEQs/g lipid for area C. No significant differences were found between the incinerator workers and the controls for TEQs of PCDDs and PCDFs separately, and TEQs of PCDDs and PCDFs together. However, the serum 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF concentration was significantly higher in the incinerator workers than in the controls for all the three areas. When the exposure index to 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF is defined as the product of the concentration of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF in the deposited dust and duration of employment, the concentration of 1

  19. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  20. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  1. Comparison of the contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and other unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants to the total toxic equivalents in air of steel plant areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Mei; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.01-0.69 pg WHO-TEQN m(-3), 0.001-0.089 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.002-0.011 pg TEQ Nm(-3), 0.004-0.02 pg TEQ Nm(-3), and 0.02-0.12 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas.

  2. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka.

  3. Increase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from China in 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yin, Shuaixing; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-01

    A national survey was conducted to determine polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from 16 provinces in China to assess current exposure and temporal trends in China. The arithmetic mean concentration of total TEQ (PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) in 2011 is 6.7pgTEQg(-1) lipid with a range of 2.9-15.4pgTEQg(-1) lipid in 2011. Levels have been compared to data obtained during a previous national study conducted in 2007. The mean of PCDD/Fs has increased about 32.6% and 99.9% for total TEQ concentration (3.7pgTEQg(-1) lipid in 2007 vs 4.9pgTEQg(-1) lipid in 2011) and mass concentration (66.7pgg(-1) lipid in 2007 vs 133.3pgg(-1) lipid in 2011) during the period of 2007-2011, respectively. Continuous surveillance on PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk is critical to evaluate the human health effect and environment impact in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the canadian market: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Rawn, D F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M; Ryan, J J

    2009-01-01

    Canadians are interested in improving their diet through the consumption of fish oil food supplements, which are marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Convenience samples of omega-3 enriched dietary supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All of the omega-3 supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and, although every sample was found to contain detectable residues of PBDEs, only 24 samples were found to have PCDD/F concentrations above the level of detection. PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.05 pg TEQ/g lipid to 45.7 pg TEQ/g lipid in salmon and shark oils, respectively. Maximum PBDE concentrations similarly were observed in shark oil (113 microg/kg lipid), however, most supplements had concentrations below 5 microg/kg lipid. Average PCDD/F and PBDE intake estimates, based on consumption of maximum supplement dose following product label recommendations, were 4.32 pg TEQ/d and 25.1 ng/d lipid, respectively.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and fish species from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zhu, Chaofei; Ren, Daiwei; Shang, Hongtao; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in sediments and fish from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Average concentrations of total (Σ) PCDD/Fs and ΣPBDEs in sediments ranged from 68.8 to 479 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 60.8 to 179 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. Contamination levels of sedimentary PCDD/Fs and PBDEs were low to moderate compared to other urbanized regions worldwide. The concentrations in different fish species (Nile perch; Lates niloticus and Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus) were 5.32 to 49.0 pg g(-1) wet weight (ww) for PCDD/Fs and 59.3 to 495 pg g(-1) ww for PBDEs. Higher concentrations of the pollutants were found in L. niloticus than O. niloticus, which could be attributed to species differences in feeding habits and lifestyles. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for PCDD/Fs ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 pgTEQg(-1) dw and 0.001-0.14 pg TEQg(-1) ww in sediments and fish, respectively. The TEQ values were low compared to the data for fresh water fish reported in literature and within a permissible level of 3.5 pg g(-1) ww recommended by the European Commission. Based on the Commission set value and minimum risk level criteria formulated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the fish from the Murchison Bay was fit for human consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes. © 2015 SETAC.

  7. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Addink, Rudolf; Yun, Sehun; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-10-01

    The formation and release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from the incineration of electronic wastes (e-waste) that contain brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a concern. However, studies on the determination of PBDD/Fs in environmental samples collected from e-waste recycling facilities are scarce. In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale e-waste recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-800000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89600-pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of sigmaPBDD/Fs and sigmaPBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between sigmaPBDD/Fs and the previously reported sigmaPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by

  8. A review of the Texas, USA San Jacinto Superfund site and the deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the San Jacinto River and Houston Ship Channel.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Rupa; Aggarwal, Juhi; Iken, Brian

    2016-12-01

    The San Jacinto River (SJR) waste pits that lie just under the 1-10 overpass in eastern Harris County east of Houston, Texas, USA, were created in the 1960s as dumping grounds for paper mill waste. The deposition of this waste led to accumulation of highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCCDDs/PCDFs) over the course of several decades. After abandonment, the waste material eventually became submerged under the waters of the SJR, resulting in widespread environmental contamination that currently constitutes a significant health concern for eastern Harris County communities. The original waste pits were rediscovered in 2005, and the San Jacinto waste site is now a designated EPA superfund site. The objective of this review then is to discuss the history and current state of containment around the San Jacinto waste pits and analyze spatial and temporal trends in the PCDD/PCDF deposition through the SJR system from the data available. We will discuss the current exposure and health risks represented by the Superfund site and the SJR system itself, as well as the discovery of liver, kidney, brain (glioma), and retinoblastoma cancer clusters in eastern Harris County across multiple census tracts that border the Superfund site. We will also cover the two primary management options, containment versus removal of the waste from the Superfund and provide recommendations for increased monitoring of existing concentrations of polychlorinated waste in the SJR and its nearby associated communities.

  9. Evaluation of 2,3,7,8 specific congener and toxic potency of persistent polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, B.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Jimenez, O.; Reich, S.; Eljarrat, E.; Rivera, J.

    2000-03-01

    The present study investigates individual 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in cetaceans and assesses the PCDD and PCDF contributions to the total TCDD equivalent concentration. Liver samples of a variety of cetaceans species found stranded along the Italian coasts during the period of 1987--1992 were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. The main aims were to scrutinize levels and patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs for the first time in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea and to estimate whether chlorinated compounds mentioned are implicated in the exceptionally high mortality of dolphins that occurred in the Mediterranean sea during 1990--1992. PCDD and PCDF profiles were dominated by congeners OCCD and OCDF. The new toxic equivalency factors recommended by WHO in 1997 were used for calculation of dioxin-like toxicity. On the basis of their previous study of PCBs, the overall TEQ calculated from the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs do not contribute as much dioxin-like toxicity as PCBs.

  10. Atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) at Umm-Al-Aish oil field-Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guijarro, Karell; Ramadan, Ashraf; Gevao, Bondi

    2017-02-01

    A sampling campaign was carried out to assess the impact of the oil field activities on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in ambient air at Umm Al-Aish oil field in northern Kuwait. Sixteen samples were collected from March 2014 to January 2015. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs were relatively high (33.6-586 fg I-TEQ/m(3); median: 94.7 fg I-TEQ/m(3); 31.2 to 516 fg WHO-TEQ2005/m(3); median: 83.7 fg WHO-TEQ2005/m(3)) compared to those of dl-PCBs (3.9-36.8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3); median 9.9 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3)). A unique PCDD/F profile that was not previously reported was found. Further investigations should be conducted to establish whether the dioxin profile found in this study is specific for the desulfurization facility located in the study area or from oil flaring in the oil fields located upstream of the study area. The findings suggest that the oil field activities have a significant impact on the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air but a low or negligible influence on dl-PCBs' levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins.

  12. Monitoring temporal and spatial trends in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in eggs of great blue heron (Ardea herodias) on the coast of British Columbia, Canada, 1983-1998.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Harris, M L; Wilson, L K; Whitehead, P E; Norstrom, R J

    2001-11-01

    Eggs from 21 resident great blue heron (Ardea herodias) rookeries were monitored from 1983 to 1998 along the coast of British Columbia, Canada, for contamination with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). Dominant congeners (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF) fell markedly in the early 1990s after pulp mills changed from molecular chlorine bleaching to alternative bleaching technologies, and the use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives and anti-sapstains was severely restricted. Strong positive linear regressions between prey fish and heron egg contaminant levels suggested that local dietary uptake was an important route of exposure for herons. Toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) sufficient to produce embryotoxicity in great blue heron chicks were measured in eggs from 1985 to 1991 at some colonies. Despite reduction in PCDD/Fs, estimated TEQs remained elevated throughout the 1980s at some urban colonies due to contributions from PCBs.

  13. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  14. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and trace metals in the blood of nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator and electric arc furnace.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Feng

    2010-06-01

    This study examines levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and trace metals in the blood of the nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs). The analysis found that older females had higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs and older males had higher body mass index (BMI) values and higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Moreover, sex appeared to affect the levels of PCDD/Fs because, overall, females showed higher levels of PCDD/Fs. The results of a principal component analysis indicated that the characteristics of the blood were more similar to the characteristics of the stack flux gas in MSWIs than those in EAFs. When sex, age, and BMI values were taken into consideration, none of the factors appeared to significantly affect PCDD/F and trace metal blood levels. However, when participants were divided into eight categories and analyzed, it was found that sex was the most important factor affecting levels of trace metals in blood and that males had higher concentrations of Pb, Al, Cd, and Cu.

  16. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries.

  17. Quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by direct injection of sample extract into the comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatograph/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Shunji, Hashimoto; Yoshikatsu, Takazawa; Akihiro, Fushimi; Hiroyasu, Ito; Kiyoshi, Tanabe; Yasuyuki, Shibata; Masa-aki, Ubukata; Akihiko, Kusai; Kazuo, Tanaka; Hideyuki, Otsuka; Katsunori, Anezaki

    2008-01-18

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in crude extracts of fly ash and flue gas from municipal waste incinerators were quantified using a comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatograph (GC x GC) coupled to a high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-TOFMS). For identification and quantification, we developed our own program to prepare 3D chromatograms of selected mass numbers from the data of the GC x GC/HR-TOFMS. Isolation of all congeners with a TCDD toxic equivalency factor from the other isomers by only one injection was confirmed. The instrumental detection limit of TCDD on the GC x GC/HR-TOFMS was 0.9 pg by the relative calibration method. Quantification of these substances in the crude extracts was achieved by direct injection to the GC x GC/HR-TOFMS. The results agree with the values obtained using a generic gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. It was confirmed that measurement by high-resolution TOFMS and GC x GC effectively reduces interference from other chemicals.

  18. Distribution characteristics and source identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from River Kanzaki, running through Osaka urban area, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao

    2013-03-01

    This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan. The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L). The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs, which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs, suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes. To find the sources, the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined. Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs). The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream. These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs. Here, a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs. The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream, indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs.

  19. Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry: complementary application in the measurement of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in US foods.

    PubMed

    Hayward, D G; Holcomb, J; Glidden, R; Wilson, P; Harris, M; Spencer, V

    2001-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has simultaneously utilized both high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry (QISTMS) in the measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 147 food samples collected in 1998 and 1999 in the US. In 1998, 20 egg samples, six scallop, 10 blue crab, eight American lobster, 10 pollack, 15 striped bass, five rockfish, 10 crawfish, seven aqua-cultured and 13 wild-caught salmon, along with 19 cream and 18 mozzarella cheese samples were measured for PCDD/Fs. QISTMS provided limits of detection (LODs) close to those produced using HRMS for many congeners in 56 samples analyzed by both techniques in 1998 and three salmon and three striped bass collected in 1999. The I-TEQs of the mean levels for measured congeners in 40 samples of fish and shellfish and 16 cheese and eggs from 1998 analyzed by HRMS and QISTMS were 0.99 and 1.1 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. The I-TEQ for mean congener levels in the 40 fish and shellfish measured by HRMS was 1.4 ng/kg wet weight. A higher sample throughput with greater data quality at a lower cost is achievable by using both QISTMS and HRMS.

  20. Elevated levels of urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in male electrical and electronic equipment dismantling workers exposed to high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Wen, Sheng; Yang, Fang-Xing; Gong, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Hui, Yang; Li, Jing-Guang; Liu, Ai-Ling; Wu, Yong-Ning; Lu, Wen-Qing; Xu, Ying

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the occupational exposure levels to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), indoor dust (n = 3) in workshops and hair samples from male workers (n = 64) were collected at two electrical and electronic equipmentwaste (E-waste) dismantling factories located in the LQ area in east China in July 11--13, 2006. Pre- and postworkshift urines (64 of each) were also collected from the workers to study oxidative damage to DNA using 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as a biomarker. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/F-WHO-TEQs, PBDEs, PCBs and PCB-WHO-TEQs were (50.0 +/- 8.1) x 10(3), 724.1 +/- 249.6, (27.5 +/- 5.8) x 10(6), (1.6 +/- 0.4) x 10(9), (26.2 +/- 3.0) x 10(3) pg/g dry weight (dw) in dust, and (2.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(3),42.4 +/- 9.3, (870.8 +/- 205.4) x 10(3), (1.6 +/- 0.2) x 10(6), 41.5 +/- 5.5 pg/g dw in hair, respectively. The homologue and congener profiles in the samples demonstrated that high concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PBDEs, and PCBs were originated from open burning of E-waste. The 8-OHdG levels were detected at 6.40 +/- 1.64 micromol/mol creatinine in preworkshift urines. However, the levels significantly increased to 24.55 +/- 5.96 micromol/mol creatinine in postworkshift urines (p < 0.05). Then, it is concluded that there is a high cancer risk originated from oxidative stress indicated by the elevated 8-OHdG levels in the E-waste dismantling workers exposed to high concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PBDEs, and PCBs.

  1. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study.

  2. Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil and combusted residue at Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Luksemburg, William J; Wong, Anthony S; Wong, Ming H

    2007-04-15

    Surface soils and combusted residue from a village located in southeast China, which has been intensely involved in the dismantling and "recycling" of computer parts (e-waste) for the past decade, were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total PBDE concentrations were highest in combusted residue of plastic chips and cables collected from a residential area (33,000-97,400 ng/g, dry wt), in soils from an acid leaching site (2720-4250 ng/g, dry wt), and a printer roller dump site (593-2890 ng/g, dry wt). BDE-209 was the most dominant congener (35-82%) among the study sites indicating the prevalence of commercial Deca-BDE, however signature congeners from commercial Penta- and Octa-BDE were also found. PCDD/F concentrations were also highest in soil from the acid leaching site (12,500-89,800 pg/g, 203-1100 pg WHO-TEQ/g, dry wt) and in combusted residue (13,500-25,300 pg/g, 84.3-174 pg WHO-TEQ/g, dry wt) and were comparable to PCDD/F levels of some open dumping sites in Asian developing countries. Of the e-waste activities, acid leaching and open burning emitted the highest concentrations of PBDEs and PCDD/Fs. This study is among the very few studies dealing with the important issue of pollution generated from crude e-waste recycling. Our results showthatthe crude processing of e-waste has become one of the major contributors of PBDEs and PCDD/Fs to the terrestrial environment.

  3. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-07-11

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1).

  4. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Lodge, Keith B.; Harris, Hallett J.; Beaver, Donald L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Hagley, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Accumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), and H411E rat hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) was evaluated in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, and in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) nestlings from colonies nesting in several locations within the watershed. Concentrations of the PCHs were greatest in eggs and chicks of the two tern species, less in the tree swallows and least in the red-winged blackbirds. Young of all four species accumulated total PCBs, PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, and TCDD-EQ. The young birds also accumulated small concentrations of several 2,3,7,8-sbustituted PCDF and PCDD congeners. Uptake rates for certain of the PCHs for the Forster's tern chicks were: 15 μg/day for total PCBs, 70, 200, 6.5, and 0.14 ng/day for PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, respectively, and 270 μg/day for TCDD-EQ. Principal components analysis revealed that the patterns of PCH concentrations in the samples were influenced by species of bird, their age (or length of exposure) and nesting location. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that exposure of avian species to contaminants derived from aquatic food chains can be characterized and quantified for the purposes of ecological risk assessment.

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs.

  7. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  8. Suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls transfer from feed to eggs of laying hens by activated carbon as feed additive.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Katsuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryoji; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Tanimura, Nobuhiko

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) transfer from the feed to the eggs of laying hens by using activated carbon as a feed additive. Four groups of six hens (White Leghorn egg-layers; age, 11weeks) were housed as two control groups and two exposure groups for a period of 20weeks. Two control groups were fed with either the basal feed "Control" or basal feed additing activated carbon "Control+C". Another two exposure groups were fed with feed contaminated (about 6ng TEQ kg(-1) feed) by standard solutions of PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs "Exposure" alone and contaminated feed adding activated carbon "Exposure+C". There was no significant effect on each groups for the growth rate, biochemical blood components, and egg production: these were around the standard levels for poultry in general. Moreover the results in this study showed the availability of activated carbon as a feed additive owing to the reduction in the risk of food pollution by PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs. The concentration in the eggs of the Exposure group gradually increased following the start of egg-laying but reached a steady state after about 1month. In contrast, the concentration for the Exposure+C group was stationary and below the maximum EU level (6pgTEQg(-1)fat). In comparison to the Exposure group, the Exposure+C group showed a significant decline in the percentage of bioaccumulation into the egg. This reduction due to activated carbon was also observed in the muscle and abdominal fat. The reductions were compound- and congener-dependent for DL-PCBs as follows: PCDDs/PCDFs, non-ortho-PCBs, and mono-ortho-PCBs were more than 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively, irrespective of the type of tissues. Fat soluble vitamin concentrations in the eggs of the Exposure+C group showed lower trends than the Exposure group. The γ-tocopherol and

  9. Consensus toxicity factors for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls combining in silico models and extensive in vitro screening of AhR-mediated effects in human and rodent cells.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Malin; van den Berg, Martin; Brenerová, Petra; van Duursen, Majorie B M; van Ede, Karin I; Lohr, Christiane; Luecke-Johansson, Sandra; Machala, Miroslav; Neser, Sylke; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Poellinger, Lorenz; Schrenk, Dieter; Strapáčová, Simona; Vondráček, Jan; Andersson, Patrik L

    2015-04-20

    Consensus toxicity factors (CTFs) were developed as a novel approach to establish toxicity factors for risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Eighteen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and biphenyls (PCBs) with assigned World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors (WHO-TEFs) and two additional PCBs were screened in 17 human and rodent bioassays to assess their induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-related responses. For each bioassay and compound, relative effect potency values (REPs) compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were calculated and analyzed. The responses in the human and rodent cell bioassays generally differed. Most notably, the human cell models responded only weakly to PCBs, with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) being the only PCB that frequently evoked sufficiently strong responses in human cells to permit us to calculate REP values. Calculated REPs for PCB126 were more than 30 times lower than the WHO-TEF value for PCB126. CTFs were calculated using score and loading vectors from a principal component analysis to establish the ranking of the compounds and, by rescaling, also to provide numerical differences between the different congeners corresponding to the TEF scheme. The CTFs were based on rat and human bioassay data and indicated a significant deviation for PCBs but also for certain PCDD/Fs from the WHO-TEF values. The human CTFs for 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-heptachlorodibenzofuran were up to 10 times greater than their WHO-TEF values. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models were used to predict CTFs for untested WHO-TEF compounds, suggesting that the WHO-TEF value for 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran could be underestimated by an order of magnitude for both human and rodent models. Our results indicate that the CTF approach provides a powerful tool for condensing

  10. A survey of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from food during 2000-2002 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ogaki, Sumiko

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs), collectively referred as dioxins, were conducted using the total diet study (TDS) method with food purchased in Osaka City, Japan during 2000-2002. The daily intake of dioxin-TEQ (toxic equivalent) from food per adult person was estimated respectively as 104.24 pg TEQ/person/day in 2000, 72.73 pg TEQ/person/day in 2001, and 87.28 pg TEQ/person/day in 2002, corresponding to 2.08, 1.45, and 1.74 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/day for an adult weighing 50 kg. The highest contribution ratio to the total intake of dioxin-TEQ was from fish and shellfish (group 10) in each year, accounting for 77-92%. The next highest contributor was meat and eggs (groups 11-A and 11-B). An annual decrease of the intake of dioxin-TEQ was not observed clearly. Otherwise, the dietary intake of non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs were estimated together. The intake of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD came mostly from intake of fish and shellfish (group 10), green vegetable (group 7), and the other vegetables, including mushrooms and seaweed (group 8). In addition, the intake of 1,3,6,8-TeCDF, which reportedly antagonizes 2,3,7,8-TeCDD-mediated aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction activities, was an insufficient amount to suppress 2,3,7,8-TeCDD-mediated activities. Furthermore, we discussed different TEQ compositions of PCDDs/PCDFs to dioxin-like PCBs from food intake and in human samples and inferred that the difference was caused by low bioaccumulation properties of 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (PCB 126). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  11. Transactivation activity of human, zebrafish, and rainbow trout aryl hydrocarbon receptors expressed in COS-7 cells: greater insight into species differences in toxic potency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners.

    PubMed

    Abnet, C C; Tanguay, R L; Heideman, W; Peterson, R E

    1999-08-15

    Transactivation assays were used to compare the potency and efficacy of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and biphenyl (PCB) congeners in activating aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) from rainbow trout (rtAhR2alpha and rtAhR2beta), zebrafish (zfAhR2), and human (huAhR), respectively. All AhRs were expressed with their species-specific AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) in COS-7 cells. Transactivation activity was determined for two PCDD, two PCDF, and seven PCB congeners with each of the four AhR/ARNT pairs using prt1Aluc, a luciferase reporter driven by two dioxin-responsive enhancer elements (DREs) from the rainbow trout cyp1A gene. Maximal-fold induction, EC50, and relative potency values were calculated for congeners that exhibited dose-related activity in the assay. Of the four AhR/ARNT pairs tested with PCDD, PCDF, and non-ortho PCB congeners, three exhibited high activity (rainbow trout AhR2alpha, zebrafish AhR2, and human AhR), while rainbow trout AhR2beta had very weak or no activity. Comparisons between these AhRs showed that while mono-ortho PCBs were able to activate the human AhR, they were generally ineffective in activating rainbow trout and zebrafish AhR2s. This supports the hypothesis that structural differences between mammalian and fish AhRs may account for differences in relative potencies of the mono-ortho PCBs between mammals and fish. Another important finding was a significant difference in transactivation activity between the two rainbow trout AhR2 isoforms despite the fact that they are 95% identical at the amino acid level. For all PCDD, PCDF, and PCB agonists tested, rainbow trout AhR2alpha was significantly more active than AhR2beta. However, rainbow trout AhR2beta is active as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-activated transcription factor, with enhancer elements from the mouse cyp1A gene. This suggests that AhR2beta may have evolved to serve a different physiological function than AhR2alpha in

  12. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Did municipal solid waste landfill have obvious influence on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air: A case study in East China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiafu; Wang, Chong; Du, Lei; Lv, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaonan; Hu, Xuepeng; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Ying

    2017-02-17

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill was a main way to disposal of MSW and almost 95% of MSW was disposed by landfills in the world. In order to understand the influence of MSW landfill on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in surrounding atmosphere, 42 ambient air samples were collected and analyzed from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site of a MSW landfill in East China. The results of present study were summarized as follows. (1) The total concentrations of PCDD/Fs (∑PCDD/Fs) in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 2.215±1.004, 2.058±0.458, 2.617±1.092 and 1.822±0.566pgNm(-3), respectively. (2) The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 0.103±0.017, 0.096±0.015, 0.120±0.024 and 0.108±0.014pg I-TEQNm(-3), respectively. (3) The congener profiles, ∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ between background atmosphere and surrounding atmosphere of landfill did not show statistically significant difference. (4) The ∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ in ambient air of downwind site were not higher than that of upwind site, suggesting that studied landfill did not have obvious influence on PCDD/Fs in ambient air from downwind site. (5) The 95th percentile carcinogenic risk (CR) of PCDD/Fs in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 8.03×10(-9), 7.57×10(-9), 9.69×10(-9) and 8.15×10(-9), respectively, which were much lower than the threshold value of CR (10(-6)), suggesting that studied landfill did not influence the CR of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and negligible cancer risk occurred. (6) The non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) analysis indicated that landfill did not have influence on the non-CR of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and no obvious non-carcinogenic effects developed.

  14. Emission characteristic of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from medical waste incinerators (MWIs) in China in 2016: A comparison between higher emission levels of MWIs and lower emission levels of MWIs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiafu; Lv, Zhiwei; Du, Lei; Li, Xiaonan; Hu, Xuepeng; Wang, Chong; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Ying

    2017-02-01

    Emission characteristic of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from 12 medical waste incinerators (MWIs) which have a total yearly capacity of 523 440 ton medical waste and accounted for 8.1% of total yearly capacity of 246 MWIs in China were studied. The congeners profile, emissions and toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) indicators of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from two groups of MWIs were researched, and the possible formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs from MWIs were preliminarily discussed. The results of present study were summarized as follows. (1) The total concentrations and TEQ of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from MWIs were 0.516-122.803 ng Nm(-3) and 0.031-3.463 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. (2) 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDF, O8CDD, O8CDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-H7CDD were the indicatory PCDD/Fs of MWI source, which could be used to apportion the sources of PCDD/Fs in environmental medium in China. (3) The emission factors of PCDD/Fs from MWIs ranged from 32.7 to 4900.0 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) with a mean of 1923.6 ng I-TEQ ton(-1). (4) The gas emissions of PCDD/Fs from researched 12 MWIs and all of MWIs in China in 2016 were 37.742 and 465.951 mg I-TEQ year(-1), respectively. (5) 1,2,3,7,8,9-H6CDF and 1,2,3,4,7,8-H6CDF were effective TEQ indicators for the real-time monitoring of the PCDD/Fs emission. (6) The congeners profile and factor composition of PCDD/Fs in stack gas from two groups of MWIs were researched based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, and the possible formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs from MWIs were preliminarily discussed.

  15. Potencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, for producing early life stage mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Mary K.; Peterson, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    The presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in feral lake trout eggs (Salvelinus namaycush) may increase the risk of lake trout early life stage mortality in the Great Lakes. To assess the combined toxicity of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs to lake trout early development, toxic potencies, relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), were determined for individual PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, based on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) early life stage mortality. Newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs were injected with graded doses of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, or a PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congener. LD50 values were determined based on the egg dose that caused mortality from hatching onset to swim-up. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were calculated as 2,3,7,8-TCDD LD50/congener LD50. TEFs were for PCDDs: 2,3,7,8-TCDD = 1.0; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD = 0.730;and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD = 0.319; for PCDFs: 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF = 0.359; 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF = 0.280; 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF = 0.034; and 2,3,7,8-TCDF = 0.028; and for PCBs: 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB = 0.005; 3,3',4,4'-TCB = 0.00016; 2,3,3',4,4'-PeCB and 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB ortho-chlorinated analogues of the coplanar PCBs fish-specific TEFs were 1/14 to 1/80 less than both those determined in H4IIE cells and proposed for risk assessment. Using these fish-specific TEFs, the risk associated with exposure of early life stages of Sake trout to complex mixtures of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in the Great Lakes can be estimated.

  16. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  17. Metabolism of dibenzo-p-dioxin by Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1

    SciTech Connect

    Wittich, R.M.; Wilkes, H.; Sinnwell, V.; Francke, W.; Fortnagel, P. )

    1992-03-01

    In the course of screening for dibenzo-p-dioxin-utilizing bacteria, a Sphingomonas sp. strain was isolated from enrichment cultures inoculated with water samples from the river Elbe. The isolate grew with both the biaryl ethers dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (DF) as the sole sources of carbon and energy, showing doubling times of about 8 and 5 h, respectively. Biodegradation of the two aromatic compounds initially proceeded after an oxygenolytic attack at the angular position adjacent to the ether bridge, producing 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxydiphenyl ether or 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxybiphenyl from the initially formed dihydrodiols, which represent extremely unstable hemiacetals. Results obtained from determinations of enzyme activities and oxygen consumption suggest meta cleavage of the trihydroxy compounds. During dibenzofuran degradation, hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoate yielded salicylate, which was branched into the catechol meta cleavage pathway and the gentisate pathway. Catechol obtained from the product of meta ring fission of 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxydiphenyl ether was both ortho and meta cleaved by Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 when this organism was grown with dibenzo-p-dioxin.

  18. Contribution of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the toxic equivalency of dioxin-like compounds in archived biosolids from the U.S. EPA's 2001 national sewage sludge survey.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-09-16

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40-100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630-42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼ 0.002% vs ∼ 0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15-672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12-96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530-1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids.

  19. Contribution of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the Toxic Equivalency of Dioxin-like Compounds in Archived Biosolids from the U.S. EPA’s 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40–100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630–42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼0.002% vs ∼0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15–672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12–96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530–1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids. PMID:25157505

  20. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  1. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  2. Statistically designed survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls in U. S. meat and poultry, 2002-2003: results, trends, and implications.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael K; Huwe, Janice; Deyrup, Cynthia L; Lorentzsen, Margaret; Zaylskie, Richard; Clinch, Nelson R; Saunders, Patricia; Sutton, W R

    2006-09-01

    To obtain information on dioxin levels in the human diet, the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture recently determined levels of dioxin-like compounds (dioxins/dibenzofurans/PCBs) in four major slaughter classes (steers and heifers, market hogs, young chickens, and young turkeys) that comprise over 90% of the meat and poultry production in the United States. The data were analyzed and compared to data from smaller surveys carried out from 1994 to 1996. These surveys were conducted by different laboratories nearly 10 years apart, so a direct comparison of the data was not straightforward. Three approaches were taken: (1) comparison with nondetects set to zero, (2) comparison with nondetects set to half the limit of detection, and (3) comparison applying the earlier surveys' limits of detection to the newer data. The data analyses indicated that dioxin levels appear to have declined in three of the four slaughter classes, with young chickens, market hogs, and young turkeys declining 20-80%, while any declines in cattle dioxin levels, if real, are less than those observed in the other slaughter classes. Further study is needed to examine factors that might explain the differences in dioxin levels and distribution profiles in the four slaughter classes. A small number of market hog and steers/ heifers samples had dioxin toxic equivalency levels (TEQs) greater than 2 pg/g lipid weight. Follow-up investigations for those samples indicated a common source for the market hog samples (a dioxin-contaminated mineral supplement), but no commonality was found for the steers/ heifers samples.

  3. Environment-related properties of polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jia-Qi; Qu, Rui-juan; Flamm, Alison; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Ying; Wang, Zun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PHODDs) are important metabolic and synthetic products of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Two types of hydrogen bonds exist in PHODD molecules: one between a hydroxyl group (HO) and an oxygen atom of the ether bond, and the other between two ortho hydroxyls of a benzene ring. By fully optimized calculation with density functional theory (DFT), their bond energies were ascertained to be approximately 9-14 kJ/mol and 15-19 kJ/mol respectively by the comparison of standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ(f)G(θ)) between different molecules, which was experimentally verified. The two types of hydrogen bonds affect the hydrophilicity and stability of the molecules. The torsional potential of hydroxyls and the orientation making the congener most stable were obtained. The octanol-water partition coefficients (logK(ow)s) were calculated based on the group contribution method, and the standard state entropy (S(θ)), standard enthalpy (Δ(f)H(θ)) of formation and Δ(f)G(θ) were obtained from the combination of DFT calculation and isodesmic reaction for the stable PHODD congeners. The number and position of hydroxyl substitution (N(PHOS)) were employed as descriptors to establish quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models. Although the hydrophilicity of PHODDs increases with the number of hydroxyl groups, it is impaired by the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The logK(ow)s of PHODDs are much smaller than those of PCDDs, and the variation trend with the number of substituents is different. In addition, the relative stability order of PHODD congeners was theoretically proposed, which is quite different from that of PCDDs. Considering the ionization in water, first-order ionization constants of PHODDs were calculated according to the results of SMD method of Self-Consistent Reaction Field Theory (SCRF), and they were influenced by the hydrogen bonds.

  4. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in processed ball clay from the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian; Schaum, John

    2007-04-01

    Processed ball clays commonly used by the ceramic art industry in the United States were collected from retail suppliers and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The average PCDD toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of these processed ball clays was approximately 800 pg/g (TEQ-WHO) with characteristic congener profiles and isomer distributions similar to patterns of previously analyzed raw and processed ball clays. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. Correlation analyses reveal no significant relationship between total organic carbon (TOC) and either individual, homologues, and total tetra-through octa-chlorinated PCDD congeners, or TEQ concentrations of the processed ball clays. The results are consistent with earlier studies on levels of PCDDs in ball clays. Data from earlier studies indicated that dioxins may be released to the environment during the processing of raw clay or the firing process used in commercial ceramic facilities. The presence of dioxin in the clays also raises concerns about potential occupational exposure for individuals involved in the mining/processing of ball clay, ceramics manufacturing and ceramic artwork.

  5. Radiative deactivation of the lowest triplet state of dibenzo- p-dioxine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastilovich, E. A.; Korol'Kova, N. V.; Klimenko, V. G.; Serov, S. A.

    2002-08-01

    A theoretical evaluation of the dipole moments of vibronic transitions (which are governed by vibronic spin-orbit interactions) was carried out for dibenzo- p-dioxin molecules. On the basis of the comparison of the obtained results with the data on the distribution of line intensities in a fine-structure phosphorescence spectrum of dibenzo- p-dioxin at 4.2 K, it is inferred that radiative deactivation of the lowest triplet state T 1 (ππ*) occurs from one of the triplet sublevels. For the molecules of dibenzo- p-dioxin and one of the isomers of tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin, the effect of the form of vibrational modes and individual constants of the spin-orbit coupling in O and Cl atoms on vibronic spin-orbit interactions is discussed.

  6. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in fish and meat.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tsuguhide; Nakagawa, Reiko; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takao; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake

    2005-11-02

    We investigated the cooking-induced changes in concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) using mackerel and beef. The concentrations of dioxins (29 congeners) were determined by isomer specific analyses and were compared between uncooked and cooked samples. The cooking procedures examined in this study included grilling as a fillet, boiling as a fillet, and boiling as tsumire (small, hand-rolled balls) for mackerel and boiling as a slice, broiling as a slice, and broiling as a hamburger for beef. Three trials were carried out for each cooking method. Generally, concentrations of dioxins were reduced in every cooking trial. When nondetected congener concentrations were assumed to be half the limit of detection for mackerel, the maximum percentage reductions of total concentrations given as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) were 31% in grilling as a slice, 14% in boiling as a slice, and 21% in boiling as tsumire under the conditions of this study. In contrast, for beef, the reductions were 42% in boiling as a slice, 42% in broiling as a slice, and 44% in broiling as a hamburger. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes with heating undoubtedly reduce the dioxin content in animal products, and the reductions estimated should be considered when dioxin intake is evaluated using contamination data for individual food items.

  7. Mutagenic potential of binary mixtures of nitro-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.C.; Brown, K.W.; Estiri, M.; Jones, D.H.; Safe, S.

    1988-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of binary mixtures of nitro-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and other environmentally related compounds was determined using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the standard plate incorporation assay. Samples tested included binary mixtures of 4-nitro-4'-chlorobiphenyl with 6-nitro-4,2',3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 4-nitrobenzo-p-dioxin with 4-nitro-2,3,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and benzo(a)pyrene with either nitropentachlorobiphenyl or nitrotrichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Inhibition was the primary interaction observed for the mixtures of polyhalogenated dioxins or biphenyls with the direct-acting mutagens nitrodibenzo-p-dioxin or nitrochlorobiphenyl. At the highest dose tested, nitrotrichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibited the bacterial mutagenicity of nitrodibenzo-p-dioxin by almost 50%, while pentachlorobiphenyl inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrobiphenyl by 34%. Conversely, synergism was the primary interaction observed for mixtures of halogenated aromatics with the promutagen benzo(a)pyrene. The addition of nitrotrichlorodioxin to benzo(a)pyrene enhanced the mutagenicity of the latter compound by as much as 70%, while the mutagenic potential of a mixture of benzo(a)pyrene and nitropentachlorobiphenyl was approximately 50% greater than the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene alone. In summary, mixtures of nonmutagenic nitropolyhalogenated biphenyls or dibenzo-p-dioxins appear to inhibit the mutagenicity of direct-acting mutagens, while these same compounds seem to enhance the mutagenic potential of the promutagen benzo(a)pyrene.

  8. Gas-phase tropospheric chemistry of 2,3,7,8-tetrafuorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Xiaomin

    2014-01-15

    Growing attention has been devoted to understanding the formation and destruction of polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs). High-accuracy molecular orbital calculations have been performed to investigate the tropospheric oxidation reaction of 2,3,7,8-tetrafuorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TFDD) initiated by OH radical, NO3 radical and O3. The rate constant of TFDD reaction triggered by the OH radical, NO3 radical and O3 is about 2.30 × 10(-11)cm(3) molecule(-l) s(-l), 3.18 × 10(-13)cm(3) molecule(-l) s(-l), and 3.30 × 10(-19)cm(3) molecule(-l) s(-l), respectively. OH radical is the major gas phase tropospheric sink for TFDD. Once TFDD-OH intermediates are produced in the initial reactions, they can react with tropospheric O2 subsequently to generate peroxy radical isomers. The TFDD-OH-O2 can further react with tropospheric NO via isomerization or combination, resulting that the dioxin ring will be ruptured completely. This study can serve as a template for tropospheric degradation of the gaseous PFDDs, which is beneficial for assessing their tropospheric behaviors.

  9. Steel dust catalysis for Fenton-like oxidation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Min; Kim, Ji-Hun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-04-15

    An advanced oxidation process (AOP) for degrading toxic contaminants, specifically polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), was developed to utilize steel dust, a steel industry by-product, as the heterogenous catalyst for a Fenton-like oxidation. The steel dust was treated using a chemical acid etchant (HCl) and ultrasound to remove surface anchored groups, reduce aggregation, and thereby increase the specific surface areas, resulting in increased access to catalytic sites. The removal of PCDD was optimized through various reaction conditions. The removal percentage of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorintated dibenzo-p-dioxins (1,2,3,4-TCDD, 3.1 microM) after 3 h of Fenton-like oxidation under the conditions of 3 g/L (88 mM) H(2)O(2) and pH 3 was approximately 97% with 10 g/L of steel dust, compared to approximately 99% when 5 g/L metallic iron was used as a control. When a PCDD mixture (0.5-0.7 nM) was treated, 10 g/L (92 mM) steel dust achieved approximately 88% removal, comparable to the removal with 5 g/L (89 mM) Fisher iron with 3 g/L (88 mM) H(2)O(2.) These results indicate that the steel dust is a potentially viable catalyst for removing PCDDs from contaminated water.

  10. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  11. A theoretical investigation into the conformational changes of dibenzo- p-dioxin, thianthrene, and selenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Younghi; Lee, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seung-Youl; Choo, Jaebum

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical ab initio calculations using the HF and B3LYP methods have been carried out to investigate the conformational differences of three cyclic rings, dibenzo- p-dioxin (DPD), thianthrene (THT), and selenanthrene (SET). The physical origin for the conformational preference of each molecule has been studied using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The NBO results indicate that DPD exists in a planar form due to strong electron delocalization caused by the specific orbital interaction, nπ→ πCC∗, around the X atom. On the other hand, THT and SET exist as puckered forms with high inversion barriers due to less effective electron delocalization. The NBO analysis also shows that the conformational stabilization in DPD is caused by a more effective overlap of the 2 pz- πCC∗ orbitals, compared with the overlap of the 3 pz- πCC∗ orbitals in THT.

  12. Risk from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emitted from municipal incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Maukerjee, D.; Cleverly, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). Their prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic chemicals known and has been found to have teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in animals. Exposure to TCDD can result in chloracne, general weakness, drastic weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin, hirsutism, porphyria cutanea tarda, liver damage, changes in activities of various liver enzymatic levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, abnormalities of the endocrine and immune systems, and possible teratogenic effects in humans. Moreover, chronic bioassay data indicate that TCDD is one of the most potent carcinogens known. It promotes liver and skin carcinogeneses, and is an initiator for various target organs in rodent test systems. According to the classification system of IARC, the qualitative evidence for carcinogenicity of TCDD is considered to be sufficient in animals and inadequate in humans. Consequently, TCDD has been placed in IARC's 2B category. In the absence of chronic bioassay data on other PCDDs and PCDFs, several TCDD equivalent approaches have been proposed for risk assessment on other congeners or mixtures. The paper compares the various approaches.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in shellfishes from south coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Hyeon-Seo, C; Morita, M

    1998-08-01

    PCDDs and PCDFs were analyzed by high resolution GC-MS in two species of shellfish collected from southern coast of Korea. PCDDs and PCDFs were detected from all samples. Total concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs ranged from 4.4 to 19 pg/g wet weight and from 2.5 to 26 pg/g wet weight, respectively. By using a method of cluster analysis based on congener profiles, samples were categorized into two groups, "the urban group" and "the rural group". A tendency that TEQ levels of the urban group were higher than those of the other group was observed. Although a reliable source of dioxins in the samples was identified in this study, it was suggested that combustion sources are responsible for occurrence of dioxins in samples of both groups.

  14. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residue levels in food. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.

    1989-10-26

    The chemical analysis of selected foods was conducted to provide an estimate of the residue levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. The foodstuffs included saltwater fish, freshwater fish, beef, chicken, pork, bovine milk, and eggs. The foodstuffs were collected from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Emphasis was placed on the collection of foodstuffs of California origin. Individual foods collected from multiple sites within San Francisco and Los Angeles were composited for analysis of the residue levels. Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were identified in all but the egg samples that were analyzed. Overall, the freshwater fish composites were found to have the highest incidence of detectable levels. The order of highest to lowest incidence of detection follows: freshwater fish > saltwater fish > pork and chicken > beef and milk > eggs. All data were generated from a sample size of approximately 10 g of extractable fatty materials. All data are presented to reflect lipid or fat concentrations such that extrapolation with other data bases can be achieved.

  15. Kinetic Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation Based on Carbon Degradation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor were performed to determine the role of temperature and time in PCDD/F formation allowing a global kinetic expression to be written for PCDD/F formation due to soot oxidation in fly ash deposits. Rate constants were c...

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation Based on Carbon Degradation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor were performed to determine the role of temperature and time in PCDD/F formation allowing a global kinetic expression to be written for PCDD/F formation due to soot oxidation in fly ash deposits. Rate constants were c...

  17. The concentration and distribution of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid adjusted basis for each tissue. While there is a marked difference in the concentration of the 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the edible tissues expressed on a whole weight basis, the lipid-adjusted concentrations of the individual dioxins were not statistically different in the various tissues. This validates the use of lipid adjusted concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs in abdominal fat for the determination of the presence of these compounds in different tissues.

  18. The concentration and distribution of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid adjusted basis for each tissue. While there is a marked difference in the concentration of the 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the edible tissues expressed on a whole weight basis, the lipid-adjusted concentrations of the individual dioxins were not statistically different in the various tissues. This validates the use of lipid adjusted concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs in abdominal fat for the determination of the presence of these compounds in different tissues.

  19. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: a new class of marine toxins?

    PubMed

    Haglund, Peter; Malmvärn, Anna; Bergek, Sture; Bignert, Anders; Kautsky, Lena; Nakano, Takeshi; Wiberg, Karin; Asplund, Lillemor

    2007-05-01

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles from Eastern and Northern Europe: Spatiotemporal patterns, and potential sources.

    PubMed

    Holt, Eva; Kočan, Anton; Klánová, Jana; Assefa, Anteneh; Wiberg, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Pine needles were sampled to determine levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and metals in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles at industrial, urban and background sites in Sweden (SW), Czech Republic (CZ) and Slovakia (SK). Spatial and temporal patterns of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were investigated and principal component analysis (PCA) used to determine spatial patterns, potential sources and transport of PCDD/Fs. Levels of PCDD/Fs in pine needles were generally greatest near to industrial sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (lower bound (LB)): 6 ng kg(-1) - 190 ng kg(-1)) compared to urban and background sites (Ʃ2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs (LB): 0.90 ng kg(-1) - 20 ng kg(-1)). Using metal contamination in pine needles helped to detect spatial patterns and separate local thermal sources of PCDD/Fs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in sediments and ecological risk for nekton in the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Barrett, Kirk; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in sediments (surface and deeper sediments) and porewater of the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) to apportion their sources and conduct an ecological risk assessment. Positive matrix factorization was applied to identify sources of PCDD/Fs. Five source profiles were extracted from the positive matrix factorization model applied to the sediment samples including chloranil, combustion, polychlorinated biphenyl impurities, mixed urban sources, and the historical contamination from the former Diamond Alkali plant. The ecological risk assessment was estimated using several lines of evidence depending on site-specific data (blue crab and fish samples representing different feeding habits and positions in the trophic wood web of the river). Porewater concentrations gave the best estimates of lipid concentrations especially in the blue crab samples (with an average factor difference of 3.8). Calculated hazard quotients (HQs) for the fish samples and blue crab were >1 based on the no-effect concentration and tissue screening concentration approaches. At the same time, calculated porewater toxic units were >1. Sediment concentrations exceeded the published sediment quality guidelines for the protection of fish and benthic species, indicating the existence of significant risk to the aquatic life in the Passaic River. Accordingly, further actions and control measures are needed to reduce the emission of PCDD/Fs from ongoing sources.

  2. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs. PMID:25123135

  3. Mammalian cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-13

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  4. Forensic Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Furan Fingerprints to Elucidate Dechlorination Pathways.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Dewani, Yashika; Häggblom, Max M; Kerkhof, Lee J; Fennell, Donna E

    2017-09-19

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants whose main removal process in the environment is due to biodegradation, and particularly anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Since PCDD/F congeners that are substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions are the most toxic, removal of these chlorines is advantageous, but previous studies have only demonstrated their removal under laboratory conditions. We evaluated a concentration data set of PCDD/F congeners with four or more chlorines along with all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in surface water, treated and untreated wastewater, landfill leachate, and biosolids (NY CARP data set) to determine whether peri and peri/lateral dechlorination of PCDD/Fs occurs in these environments. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) applied to the data set revealed a factor indicative of the microbial dechlorination of PCBs, and this factor also contained a variety of non-2,3,7,8 substituted PCDD/F congeners. These results suggest that dechlorination of PCDD/Fs at the lateral positions is facile if not preferred in these environments. The relative lack of tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCDD/Fs suggested that dechlorination proceeds to PCDD/F congeners with less than four chlorines. The PMF results were confirmed by examining three samples that contained >90% PCB dechlorination products from the Fresh Kills Landfill and the Hudson River. Even without factor analysis, these samples demonstrated almost identical PCDD/F congener patterns. This study suggests that PCDD/Fs are reductively dechlorinated to nontoxic non-2,3,7,8 PCDD/F congeners in sewers and landfills as well as in the sediment of the Upper Hudson River.

  5. Quantum-chemical and experimental modeling of hydrogen peroxide generation in heterogenous aqueous surroundings, which contain dibenzo-p-dioxines or their analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Nina B.; Kuznetsov, Pavel E.; Vlasov, Igor A.; Mikhirev, Dmitry A.

    2006-07-01

    A hypothetical molecular mechanism of previously unknown way of toxic action of dibenzo-p-dioxin derivatives has been suggested and demonstrated on the basis of quantum-chemical investigations. The main stages of this process are as follows: protonization of oxygen atom of dioxin ring on the surface of biomembrane; interaction of dioxin with oxygen of oxidized cytochrome P-450; as a result, this xenobiotic becomes a catalyst in the generation of active forms of oxygen (H IIO II, O II -, 3O II, etc.). The process may become cyclic if the initial state of dibenzo-p-dioxin is restored. In this case dibenzo-p-dioxines can be considered as carriers of electrons. The hypothesis we are coming up with has been tested by means of comparatively simple experimental models based on the well-known chemical model of cytochrome P-450. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in heterogeneous aqueous media containing dioxanes derivatives has been experimentally proven.

  6. Evidence for dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans in wastewater collection systems in the New York metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Du, Songyan; Lui, Hui; Guo, Jia; Oseagulu, Nicole; Fennell, Donna E

    2012-06-19

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants targeted by the Stockholm Convention. Both contain aromatic chlorines and are subject to microbial dechlorination. Dechlorination of PCBs in sewers in the Delaware River basin was recently reported. In this work, two data sets on concentrations of PCBs and PCBs+PCDD/Fs in wastewater treatment plant influents and effluents were analyzed to look for evidence that these compounds undergo dechlorination in the sewers of the New York/New Jersey Harbor area. The two data sets come from the Contamination Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) and were analyzed via Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Analysis of the data set containing only PCB concentrations suggests that PCBs are dechlorinated in the sewers of the NY/NJ Harbor via the same pathways observed in the sewers of the Delaware River basin and that advanced dechlorination of PCB mixtures is more likely to occur in combined sewers vs separate sanitary sewers. When the combined data set of PCBs+PCDD/Fs was analyzed, the factor containing PCB dechlorination products also contained high proportions of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), a known product of the dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and other known dechlorination products of PCDD/Fs. Despite being the most abundant PCDD/F congener in all of the samples in the database, OCDD was a minor component in the dechlorination factor. This provides the first evidence that PCDD/Fs may be dechlorinated in sewers.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine; Brunak, Søren; Antignac, Jean Philippe; le Bizec, Bruno; Juul, Anders; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Main, Katharina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated total toxic equivalent (total TEQ). SDS and SDS changes over time (ΔSDS) were calculated for height, weight, BMI, and skinfold fat percentage at 0, 3, 18, and 36 months of age. Serum IGF1 was measured at 3 months. We adjusted for confounders using multivariate regression analysis. Estimates (in parentheses) correspond to a fivefold increase in total TEQ. TEQ levels in breast milk increased significantly with maternal age and fish consumption and decreased with maternal birth year, parity, and smoking. Total TEQ was associated with lower fat percentage (-0.45 s.d., CI: -0.89; -0.04), non-significantly with lower weight and length at 0 months, accelerated early height growth (increased ΔSDS) (ΔSDS 0-18 months: +0.77 s.d., CI: 0.34; 1.19) and early weight increase (ΔSDS 0-18: +0.52 s.d., CI: 0.03; 1.00), and increased IGF1 serum levels at 3 months (+13.9 ng/ml, CI: 2.3; 25.5). Environmental exposure to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth).

  8. Health impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, D

    1998-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), commonly known as dioxins, form as unwanted impurities in the manufacturing of chlorophenol and its derivatives--pulp and paper--and in the combustion of municipal, sewage-sludge, hospital, and hazardous waste. Combustion, in presence of a chlorine donor, seems to be a major source of these compounds. High levels of dioxins are also emitted from metallurgical industries including copper smelters, electric furnaces in steel mills, and wire reclamation incinerators. Trace levels are detectable in emissions from motor vehicles using leaded gasoline or diesel fuel, in forest fires, and in residential wood burning. Extremely persistent and widely distributed in the environment, PCDDs have been detected in all three primary and many secondary media. Releases into the air occur mainly from combustor emissions. Atmospheric dispersion, deposition, and subsequent accumulation in the food chain seem to be the major pathways of exposure to the general population. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in soil, sediment, fish, meat, cow's milk, human adipose tissue, and mothers' milk. In general, these chemicals have high lipophilicity. The elimination half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in humans is approximately 7-11 years. Very little human toxicity data from exposure to PCDDs are available. Health-effect data obtained from occupational settings in humans are based on exposure to chemicals contaminated with TCDD. It produces a spectrum of toxic effects in animals and is one of the most toxic chemicals known. Most of the toxicity data available on TCDD are from high-dose oral exposures to animals. Very few percutaneous and no inhalation exposure data are available in the literature. There is a wide range of difference in sensitivity to PCDD lethality in animals. The signs and symptoms of poisoning with chemicals contaminated with TCDD in humans are analogous to those observed in animals. Dioxin exposures

  9. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  10. DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CERAMICS AND POTTERY PRODUCED FROM BALL CLAY MINED IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had...

  11. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  12. DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CERAMICS AND POTTERY PRODUCED FROM BALL CLAY MINED IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had...

  13. Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -furans at the Portland Harbor Superfund site, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Krumins, Valdis; Curran, Joanna Crowe

    2015-06-16

    The Portland Harbor (Oregon, USA) has been declared a "Superfund" site because it is impacted by a variety of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Using data collected in the remedial investigation, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in sediment and water were examined using positive matrix factorization to look for evidence that PCBs and PCDD/Fs are dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. This process has long been known to occur in sediments. Recently, it has been recognized that PCB and PCDD/F dechlorination may also occur in other anaerobic environments, such as in landfills, sewers, and groundwater. The results indicate that a factor related to the dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs was present in the water but not in the sediment. Spatial patterns in dechlorination products suggest that they come primarily from groundwater. Dechlorination products comprise 22% of the PCBs in the water. The Portland Harbor therefore represents the third major US watershed in which PCBs appear to undergo dechlorination in an environment other than sediment, suggesting that the microbial dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs is more common than previously assumed. In addition, the Portland Harbor is impacted by PCBs generated inadvertently during the production of pigments, such as PCB 11, which alone exceeded the 64 pg/L federal water quality standard for the sum of PCBs in two of 120 whole water samples.

  14. Dibenzo-p-dioxins in the environment from ceramics and pottery produced from ball clay mined in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had average PCDD concentrations of 3.2 ng/g toxic equivalents, a congener profile, and isomer distribution consistent with those found previously in raw ball clay. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. The final fired ceramic products were found to be free of PCDDs/PCDFs at the LODs. A consideration of the conditions involved in the firing process suggests that the PCDDs, if not destroyed, may be released to the atmosphere and could represent an as yet unidentified source of dioxins to the environment. In addition, the PCDDs in clay dust generated during manufacturing operations may represent a potential occupational exposure.

  15. Phytotoxicity effects and biological responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad

    2014-06-01

    Dioxins are persistent organic pollutants. Their bioaccumulation in the food chain makes dioxins a considerable risk for human health. The use of plants for removing toxic organic compounds, including dioxins, is a safe and efficient strategy. Herein we studied the toxicity effects and the biological responses in Arabidopsis thaliana to 2',3',7',8'-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. First, TCDD-induced toxicity was demonstrated using several parameters including, a decrease in seed germination, a loss in fresh weight with a striking decrease in chlorophyll content, but not in carotenoids, and an augmentation in the biomass of the lateral roots system, but not in the elongation of the primary root. Uptake of TCDD by Arabidopsis was confirmed. Responses to TCDD-exposure were marked by an enhanced level of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 production and a massive stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme activities. Moreover, a significant variation in the transcript level of transcription factor genes, bHLH, MYB and AP2-EREBP was detected in Arabidopsis shoot and an up-regulation of WRKY, MYB and IAA was observed in the root. Our results illustrate the TCDD-induced toxicity effects and the biological responses of Arabidopsis to TCDD. Better understanding of the plants ability to detoxifydioxins would help to improve their use as a safe bioremediators.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) congener profiles in cement kiln emissions and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ames, Michael; Zemba, Stephen; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2012-03-01

    Cement kilns are known to emit polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs; "dioxins"), but estimates of the amounts and patterns of these emissions vary widely. These variations may stem from a combination of factors, including the design and operating conditions of the kiln, and the fuels and raw materials fed into the kiln. The goal of this study was to examine the patterns of dioxin emissions in a large set of stack-tests at two Portland cement kilns in Portugal that use a variety of fuels. A total of 152 stack-tests provided data on PCDD/F congener concentrations during which the kilns combusted a varied mix of fuels, including petroleum coke, coal, various "special" supplemental fuels, and refinery distillation ends, which are classified as hazardous wastes. The use of coal to fuel the kilns was found to generate significantly different emission-profiles relative to the use of petroleum coke, but the addition of hazardous wastes as a supplemental fuel did not significantly alter profiles. All of the kiln emission profiles were found to differ markedly from profiles in ambient air. However, the small absolute dioxin emission rates from the kilns suggested that kiln impacts would not be detectable via ambient air monitoring, even in rural settings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dibenzo-p-dioxins in the environment from ceramics and pottery produced from ball clay mined in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2002-03-01

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had average PCDD concentrations of 3.2 ng/g toxic equivalents, a congener profile, and isomer distribution consistent with those found previously in raw ball clay. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. The final fired ceramic products were found to be free of PCDDs/PCDFs at the LODs. A consideration of the conditions involved in the firing process suggests that the PCDDs, if not destroyed, may be released to the atmosphere and could represent an as yet unidentified source of dioxins to the environment. In addition, the PCDDs in clay dust generated during manufacturing operations may represent a potential occupational exposure.

  18. Structural-functional adaptations of porcine CYP1A1 to metabolize polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed

    Molcan, Tomasz; Swigonska, Sylwia; Orlowska, Karina; Myszczynski, Kamil; Nynca, Anna; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Ruszkowska, Monika; Jastrzebski, Jan Pawel; Ciereszko, Renata E

    2017-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are widespread by-products of human industrial activity. They accumulate in tissues of animals and humans, exerting numerous adverse effects on different systems. In living organisms, dioxins are metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family, including CYP1A1. Particular dioxin congeners differ in their toxicity level and ability to undergo biodegradation. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying dioxin susceptibility or resistance to biodegradation are unknown, in the present study the molecular interactions between five selected dioxins and porcine CYP1A1 protein were investigated. It was found that the ability of a dioxin to undergo CYP1A1-mediated degradation is associated mainly with the number and position of chlorine atoms in the dioxin molecule. Among all examined congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated the highest affinity to CYP1A1 and, at the same time, the greatest distance to the active site of the enzyme. Interestingly, in contrast to other dioxins, the binding of the TCDD molecule to the porcine CYP1A1 active site resulted in a rapid and continuous closure of substrate channels. All the information may help to explain the extended half-life of TCDD in living organisms as well as its high toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Responses of antioxidant defense system to polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) exposure in liver of freshwater fish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Li, Chenguang; Qin, Li; Qu, Ruijuan; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of ten polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) congeners to freshwater fish Carassius auratus, by determining the antioxidative responses and lipid peroxidation in the liver after the fish were injected with two different concentrations (10 and 100 µmol/kg) of individual PFDDs for 3 and 14 days. The results showed that oxidative stress was obviously induced in some PFDDs-treated groups, as implied by the significantly inhibited antioxidants levels (superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase) and elevated malondialdehyde content. In addition, the oxidative stress inducing ability was variable for different PFDDs congeners, which was related with the substitution number and position of fluorine atom. Based on the calculated integrated biomarker response (IBR) values, the toxicity was ranked as 2,3,7,8-FDD>Octa-FDD>1,2,3,4,7-FDD>1,3,6,8-FDD>1,2,3,4,6,7-FDD>1,2,6,7-FDD>1,2,7-FDD>DD>2,7-FDD>2-FDD. This study can enhance the general understanding of the PFDDs induced oxidative stress in aquatic organisms.

  20. Dibenzo-p-dioxins in the environment from ceramics and pottery produced from ball clay mined in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had average PCDD concentrations of 3.2 ng/g toxic equivalents, a congener profile, and isomer distribution consistent with those found previously in raw ball clay. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. The final fired ceramic products were found to be free of PCDDs/PCDFs at the LODs. A consideration of the conditions involved in the firing process suggests that the PCDDs, if not destroyed, may be released to the atmosphere and could represent an as yet unidentified source of dioxins to the environment. In addition, the PCDDs in clay dust generated during manufacturing operations may represent a potential occupational exposure.

  1. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  2. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  3. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  4. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  5. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  6. In Situ Enhancement of Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-18

    native dehalogenating bacteria to remediate freshwater aquifers has not yet been extended to contaminated marine environments. Among the impediments to...dehalogenating bacteria perform and compete in these often highly sulfidogenic environments. Anaerobic reductive dechlorination is the first step required for...suggest that halogenated aromatic compounds with structural similarity to PCDD/Fs simulate bacteria with the ability to dechlorinate these contaminants

  7. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Segstro, M.D.; Webster, G.R.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Servos, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    The long-term fate of four polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in sediments and their bioavailability to benthic invertebrates were studied in littoral enclosures located in a small lake at the Experimental Lakes Area in north-western Ontario. The PCDDs sorbed on sediment particles were added to the 5-m-diameter enclosures on June 12, 1985, and concentrations in sediment cores (0 to 6 cm) were determined over 1,800-d ({approximately}5 years). Concentrations of 1,3,6,8-TCDD, 1,3,7,9-TCDD, HpCDD, and OCDD in the sediment declined, with half-lives of 4.4{+-}1.7, 4.6{+-}1.9, 6.2{+-}3.1, and 6.0{+-}2.8 year, respectively. Evaluation of the data for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and OCDD using a sediment-water exchange model suggested that the decline in PCDD concentrations was due to losses to the water column via diffusion of DOC-associated PCDDs in pore water and via particle resuspension. After 5 years the PCDDs remained bioavailable to freshwater mussel (Anodonta grandis) and crayfish (Orconectes virilis) exposed to sediments for up to 78 d. The crayfish had higher mean biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and 1,3,7,9-TCDD (0.31--0.53) than did mussels (0.07--0.13), whereas BSAFs for HpCDD and OCDD in the two species were similar (0.03--0.09).

  8. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Cliff T.; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F.; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    A Na–smectite clay (Na–SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA–SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA+ intercalation. DODA–SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH2 rocking band positions in DODA–SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA–SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail–tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA–SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear Kl sorption coefficients (log Kl) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA–SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (Kom) was ~2.4 times the octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the Kom for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than Kow, which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, “open” C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of “v-shaped” DODA+ molecular

  9. Levels and trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Spanish commercial fish and shellfish products, 1995-2003.

    PubMed

    Gómara, B; Bordajandi, L R; Fernández, M A; Herrero, L; Abad, E; Abalos, M; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2005-10-19

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contents of 123 Spanish commercial salmon, tuna fish, sardine, oyster, mussel, and clam samples from 1995 to 2003 were investigated. A significant decrease of dioxin and non-ortho PCB concentrations in the studied species was found over the years. The decrease was greater in the case of dioxins than in that of non-ortho PCBs, especially during the early years of the study. PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in the years 2001-2003 were comparable to those reported in the literature for similar species collected after 1999. Mean PCB concentrations ranged from 3.46 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) in clams to 100 ng/g of fw in tuna fish. PCDD/F mean current levels ranged from 0.62 pg/g of fw in clams to 2.89 pg/g of fw in oysters. Toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) ranged from 0.05 pg of WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g of fw in clams to 0.5 pg of WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g of fw in salmon (in the upper bound determination levels). When coplanar PCBs were included, the WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+cop) (PCBs) values increased by a range of 1.7 times in oysters to 14.1 times in tuna fish. The decrease in dioxin concentrations suggests that efforts to control dioxin emissions and to reduce human exposure through foodstuffs are succeeding. The high contribution of PCBs to total WHO-TEQs in the fish and shellfish species investigated suggests that it is important to determine PCBs in foodstuffs, and especially in fish products, and they should be included in further research and future legislation.

  10. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  11. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  12. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  13. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  14. Thermal decomposition of municipal solid waste fly ash and desorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from fly ash surfaces.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Eva; Lundin, Lisa; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-11-01

    Surfaces of fly ashes from three Swedish MSW incinerating plants were extensively characterized to better predict their involvement in the generation of persistent organic pollutants. The ashes were then subjected to thermal treatment at 400 °C in sealed glass ampoules to track the decomposition polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD and PCDF). Temperature programmed desorption experiments in the 30-900 °C range also enabled monitoring of thermally decomposing ashes by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as well as thermally desorbing effluent gases by mass spectrometry. In addition, one ash was doped with (13)C-labelled PCDD and PCDF to evaluate the potential of the experimental setup for elucidating the thermal desorption of the organic molecules. It was found that in ashes with high carbon content PCDD and PCDF decomposition were led pronounced, and that PCDD degraded more readily than PCDF.

  15. The tissue distribution of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins in humans who died of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hajime; Shinada, Masayuki; Abe, Touru; Takizawa, Yukio )

    1991-01-01

    The tissue distribution of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins was conducted in 11 patients who died of cancer. The concentration of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(octa-CDD) was the highest in each organ and tissue and hepta-CDD was also found at relatively high levels, second only to OCDD. The levels of 1,2,3,7,8-penta-CDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexa-CDD in the spleen were the highest, respectively. 2,3,7,8-Tetra-CDD was also detected and its concentration was the highest in the gonad. From the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent calculations, the highest equivalent value was obtained from a 54-year-old female who died of cancerous goiter. This individual had the highest concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and hexa-CDDs among the 11 patients.

  16. Formation of trichlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins from 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenolate: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Ernesto; Suárez, Dimas; Menéndez, Maria Isabel; López, Ramón; Sordo, Tomás Luis

    2006-11-13

    The reaction of the 2,4,5-trichlorophenolate anion with 2,4-dichlorophenol to afford trichlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (T3CDDs) is investigated at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) and B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d)+ZPVE(B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) levels of theory. The first stage of the process corresponds to the formation of a predioxin, which can evolve through four different routes. Two of them lead directly to the products 2,3,7-T3CDD and 1,3,8-T3CDD, and the other two afford different predioxin-type intermediates, which in turn can evolve through all or some of the four routes to give new predioxins or T3CDD. Consequently, the theoretical results obtained show plainly the complex chemistry implied in the formation of dioxins from chlorophenols via anionic mechanisms by disclosing all the critical structures through which the system evolves, thus allowing assessment of the viability of the different mechanistic routes and the accessible products. The statistical thermodynamics treatment at 1 atm and 298.15, 600, 900, and 1200 K indicates that at higher temperatures, the Gibbs energy barrier for the formation of the initial predioxin is clearly the rate-determining step for the whole process, but at lower temperatures the Gibbs energy barrier for this step is similar to those for its evolution into 2,3,7-T3CDD. This result is in contrast with previous proposals that the closure of the central ring is the rate-limiting step. Finally, according to our results the rate constant for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins increases with the temperature, in agreement with the experimental observation that the conversion of trichlorophenols increases when going from 600 to 900 K in the gas phase in the absence of catalysts, and with DFT molecular dynamics results.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Ding, Gangqiang; Wu, Yongning; Pan, Guoshao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Han, Jianlong; Li, Jingguang; Wen, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk samples (n=74) from the general maternal population of Zhejiang province were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples were divided into urban and rural groups. Mean ∑PCDD/F, ∑PCB and ∑PBDE concentrations were 71.4±40.8, 42774±27841 and 2679±944 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 38.6±38.1, 26546±11375 and 2731±1093 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. WHO-TEQ concentrations for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were 2.66±1.43 and 3.90±2.60 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 1.83±0.93 and 2.27±1.55 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. Congener profiles for these pollutants were compared between human samples (adipose tissue and breast milk) and foodstuffs (seafood, hen eggs, and freshwater fish). Similar PCB and PCDD/F congener patterns were observed, suggesting that dietary intake is a significant source for human exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs. However, much lower PBDE congener levels were detected in breast milk than in foodstuffs, which implies that pathways other than dietary intake may also account for human exposure to PBDEs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dibenzo-p-dioxin. An ab initio CASSCF/CASPT2 study of the pi-pi* and n-pi* valence excited states.

    PubMed

    Ljubić, Ivan; Sabljić, Aleksandar

    2005-09-15

    The pi-pi* and n-pi* valence excited states of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) were studied via the complete active space SCF and multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory employing the cc-pVDZ basis set and the full pi-electron active spaces of 16 electrons in 14 active orbitals. The geometry and harmonic vibrational wavenumbers of the ground state correlate well with the experimental and other theoretical data. In particular, significant improvements over previously reported theoretical results are observed for the excitation energies. All of the pi-pi* excited states exhibit planar D(2h)minima. Thus no evidence was found for a C(2v) butterfly-like relaxation, although the wavenumbers of the b(3u) butterfly flapping mode proved exceedingly low in both the ground S(0)((1)A(g)) and the lowest dipole allowed excited S(1)((1)B(2u)) state. The calculations of oscillator strengths established the 2(1)B(2u) <-- 1(1)A(g) and 2(1)B(1u) <-- 1(1)A(g) transitions as by far the most intense, whereas the only allowed of the n-pi* transitions ((1)B(3u)) should possess only a modest intensity. Studies into dependence of the oscillator strengths on the extent of the butterfly-like folding showed that the electronic spectrum is more consistent with a folded equilibrium geometry assumed by DD in solution.

  19. Resembling a "natural formation pattern" of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins by varying the experimental conditions of hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Tirler, Werner; Basso, Albino

    2013-11-01

    Until several years ago dioxins were considered as just an unwanted by product of anthropogenic activities and stigmatized as the symbol of man-made environmental pollution. Natural processes, such as forest fires, can emit dioxins, but compared to industrial processes, usually very low quantities are emitted. However after a case of food contamination occurred in the United States of America in 1996 caused by kaolinitic clay a discussion on the provenience started. Besides the relatively high concentration also an unusual PCDD/F distribution pattern was found in these ball clay samples. This specific pattern related to none of the known anthropogenic sources for these contaminants and, in relation to a supposed natural formation, later it was named "natural formation pattern". Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can transform biomass within hours into a brown coal-like product which resembles naturally occurring coal formation. HTC can also transform an already present PCDD/F contamination in a way to obtain a "natural formation pattern" characterized by an unusual high ratio between 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and the absence of almost all chlorinated dibenzofurans. By varying the experimental conditions of the HTC process applied to sewage sludge samples contaminated with PCDD/Fs from anthropogenic sources, beside the "natural formation pattern" at a temperatures of 255 °C, a remarkable increase of the toxicity based on WHO-TEQ was observed.

  20. Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in red alga and cyanobacteria living in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Malmvärn, Anna; Zebühr, Yngve; Kautsky, Lena; Bergman, Ke; Asplund, Lillemor

    2008-06-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are present in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. OH-PBDEs are known to be both natural products from marine environments and metabolites of the anthropogenic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), whereas, MeO-PBDEs appear to be solely natural in origin. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are by-products formed in connection with the combustion of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but are also indicated as natural products in a red alga (Ceramium tenuicorne) and blue mussels living in the Baltic Sea. The aims of the present investigation were to quantify the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs present in C. tenuicorne; to verify the identities of PBDDs detected previously in this species of red alga and to investigate whether cyanobacteria living in this same region of the Baltic Sea contain OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and/or PBDDs. The red alga was confirmed to contain tribromodibenzo-p-dioxins (triBDDs), by accurate mass determination and additional PBDD congeners were also detected in this sample. This is the first time that PBDDs have been identified in a red alga. The SigmaOH-PBDEs and SigmaMeO-PBDEs concentrations, present in C. tenuicorne were 150 and 4.6 ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively. In the cyanobacteria 6 OH-PBDEs, 6 MeO-PBDEs and 4 PBDDs were detected by mass spectrometry (electron capture negative ionization (ECNI)). The PBDDs and OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs detected in the red alga and cyanobacteria are most likely of natural origin.

  1. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  3. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS AND DISTRIBUTION IN ASH/RESIDUE OF A REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartfo...

  4. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  5. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  6. Characteristics of air pollution by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the typical industrial areas of Tangshan City, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Pu; Li, Cheng; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2011-01-01

    The ambient air in vicinity of different industrial sources for PCDD/PCDFs was sampled by TSP/PM10 active samplers and passive PUF disk samplers in Tangshan City, a metropolis containing clusters of various industrial plants. The TEQ concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ranged from 44.2 to 394.1 fg I-TEQ/m3 with an average of 169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant contributor to sigma TEQ, contributing 41% (12% to 55%), while 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD and OCDF were the major congeners for the total concentrations. The ratios of sigma PCDF/ sigma PCDD reached 2.54 on average, suggesting that de novo synthesis in thermal processes played an important role to the airborne pollution of PCDD/PCDFs. The similarities congener profiles indicated that TSP and PM10 active sampling methods are comparable for the determination of the PCDD/PCDFs in ambient air, and the ratios of concentrations determined by the two methods suggested that the PCDD/PCDFs tended to stay in fine particles. It was found that 2,3,7,8-TCDF and OCDD were the dominating congeners in the passive PUF disks samples. Through principal components analysis, the coke industry was suggested to be a relatively high potential emission source for PCDD/PCDFs in the ambient air of Tangshan, which was possibly formed by de novo synthesis mechanism. In this study, the atmospheric impacts to the environment from different industrial sources could be ranked as follows (from high to low): coking, iron sintering, steel making, power generation and chlorinate alkali chemical production industries.

  7. Decontamination of metals, pentachlorophenol, and polychlorined dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans polluted soil in alkaline conditions using an amphoteric biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Reynier, Nicolas; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy; Besner, Simon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, flotation in acidic conditions and alkaline leaching soil washing processes were compared to decontaminate four soils with variable contamination with metals, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and polychlorodibenzo dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). The measured concentrations of the four soils prior treatment were between 50 and 250 mg/kg for As, 35 and 220mg/kg for Cr, 80 and 350mg/kg for Cu, and 2.5 and 30mg/kg for PCP. PCDD/F concentrations reached 1394, 1375, 3730, and 6289ng/kg for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively. The tests were carried out with masses of 100g of soil (fraction 0-2 mm) in a 2 L beaker or in a 1 L flotation cell. Soil flotation in sulphuric acid for 1 h at 60 degreeC with three flotation cycles using the surfactant cocamidopropyl betaine (BW) at 1% allows the solubilization of metals and PCP with average removal yields of 85%, 51%, 90%, and 62% for As, Cr, Cu, and PCP, respectively. The alkaline leaching for 2 h at 80 degreeC solubilizes As, Cr, Cu, and PCP with average removal yields of 60%, 32%, 77%, and 87%, respectively. Tests on PCDD/F solubilization with different surfactants were carried out in combination with the alkaline leaching process. PCDD/F removal yields of 25%, 72%, 70%, and 74% for F1, S1, S2, and S3 soils, respectively, were obtained using the optimized conditions.

  8. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS), DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS), AND RELATED COMPOUNDS: ENVIRONMENTAL AND MECHANISTIC CONSIDERATIONS WHICH SUPPORT THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTORS (TEFS). (R823881)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  9. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  10. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS AND DISTRIBUTION IN ASH/RESIDUE OF A REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartfo...

  11. Long-time monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans over a decade in the ambient air of Porto, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M; Albuquerque, M; Silva, A P; Rodrigues, J; Borrego, C

    2015-10-01

    As part of a monitoring program initiated in 1998 and conducted by IDAD - Institute for Environment and Development and supported by regional municipal solid waste (MSW) management authorities, an extensive database of dioxins' and furans' (PCDD/PCDF) concentrations in ambient air was collected in Porto, in two sites classified as suburban. The present paper summarizes the analytical results of PCDD/PCDF in ambient air obtained from 2001 to 2014 through this intensive monitoring work. The toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ 1998) concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF in the air ranged from 8.2 to 904.4 fg TEQ m(-3), with an average and median values of 104.5 fg TEQ m(-3) and 49.8 fg TEQ m(-3), respectively. The PCDD/PCDF concentration trend in Porto's ambient air shows a clear drop of the annual average values occurred during the study period. The presence of seasonal variations is very clear in the present study. Winter levels (average: 154.3 fg TEQ m(-3)) are significantly higher than summer levels (average: 42.9 fg TEQ m(-3)). The PCDD/PCDF profiles' details show that several differences occurred over time. The homologue profiles presented changes and the PCDD congeners have decreased in terms of mass. The analysis of concentrations in combination with specific homologue and congener patterns of PCDD/PCDF allowed identification of potential emission sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in street dust samples.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-07-26

    Owing to massive pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls in the harbour area of Dortmund (Germany), several dust samples were taken from surfaces at industrial sites and analyzed by the North-Rhine Westphalian State Agency for Nature, Environment, and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW). This report describes and validates a rapid approach to screening for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in street dust. Samples were collected by using a natural bristle brush and stainless steel scoops. Mass recovery of fine-particle sea sand (a dust surrogate) on asphalt and concrete surfaces was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of sampling. Better recoveries of sea sand were achieved on concrete than on asphalt surfaces. Furthermore, temperature optimization for a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method used to extract PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) from street dust samples was developed and compared with Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PCBs in real street dust samples. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent in both cases. During this study, a combination of toluene and PLE achieved better extraction efficiencies than Soxhlet extraction. Finally, the performance of the PLE method was evaluated by analysing NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a for PCB and PCDD/F concentrations. This demonstrated that the accuracy of the PLE method for the determination of both substance classes was satisfactory. In addition, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in street dust samples from industrial sites are reported.

  13. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  14. Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in eggs from free-range hens in Campania (southern Italy) and risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Sara; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Cavallo, Stefania; Rosato, Guido; Baldi, Loredana; Neri, Bruno; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Hens' eggs collected in home-producing farms located in different areas of the Campania region of southern Italy were analysed for six NDL-polychlorobiphenyls (PCB indicators), 17 polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and 12 congeners of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). In the investigated area, waste from civil, industrial and hospital activities was illegally dumped and in many cases burned, so the area is called the 'Land of fire'. This illicit practice has been considered the main source of pollution in this territory and the cause of the persistent organic pollutants' (POPs) contamination in the neighbouring lands intended for agricultural use and livestock. The results, which were obtained from the analysis of 56 samples of eggs, showed levels of contamination by dioxins and PCBs that have often exceeded the action levels set by European Union Recommendation 711/2013 and sometimes even exceeded the maximum levels set by Commission Regulation (EU) 1259/2011. The median PCDD/Fs was 0.41 pg TEQ g(-1) fat (range = 0.01-6.18 pg TEQ g(-1) fat) and the median concentration of DL-PCBs was 0.70 pg TEQ g(-1) fat (range = 0.01-14.60 pg TEQ g(-1) fat), whereas NDL-PCBs median was 7.35 ng g(-1) fat (range = 0.48-67.55 ng g(-1) fat). Nevertheless, the estimated weekly intake (EWI) calculated for consumers of eggs home produced in Campania is lower than the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF).

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the serum of US Air Force veterans in 2002

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, Marian; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Ketchum, Norma S.

    2016-01-01

    We measured levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho, and mono-ortho substituted PCBs in 106 US Air Force Vietnam veterans, participants of the Air Force Health Study (AFHS) who attended the final medical examination in 2002. Twelve veterans were Ranch Hands involved in aerial spraying of herbicides in Vietnam (1962–1971), and 94 were Comparisons who flew transport missions in Southeast Asia (SEA) during the same time period. These veterans had no previous 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) measurement because they had not attended any of the previous AFHS examinations, or their previous measurements were missing or not valid. The mean TCDD levels in 2002 were 1.7 pg/g lipid in Comparisons and 5.5 pg/g lipid in Ranch Hands. The mean PCDD toxic equivalent – TEQ (1997) in Comparisons was 12.6 pg/g lipid, 5.4 pg/g lipid for PCDFs, 5.2 pg/g lipid for non-ortho PCBs, and 9.4 pg/g lipid for mono-ortho PCBs, with a total mean TEQ (1997) of 32.6 pg/g lipid. Corresponding mean TEQs in Ranch Hands were 15.5 pg/g lipid for PCDDs, 4.6 pg/g lipid for PCDFs, 2.2 pg/g lipid for non-ortho PCBs, and 9.3 pg/g lipid for mono-ortho PCBs, yielding the total mean TEQ (1997) of 31.6 pg/g lipid. Using the re-evaluated 2005 WHO TEFs, the total mean TEQs (2005) decreased by about 28% in both Comparisons and Ranch Hands, to 23.6 pg/g lipid and 22.8 pg/g lipid, respectively. This was mainly due to changes of TEFs for the group of mono-ortho PCBs, which decreased the mono-ortho PCBs TEQs by almost 90% in both Ranch Hands and Comparisons. PMID:17280705

  16. Impact of forest fires on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in coastal waters of central Chile.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Marco; Chandía, Cristian; Hernández, Aldo

    2016-12-15

    The relationship between the occurrence of forest fires in central Chile and the total concentration of dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) in nearby coastal waters was analyzed. The data for this analysis was obtained from a long-term environmental monitoring program (PROMNA) in the Bio-Bio Region. Quantification of PCDD/F was performed using HRGC/HRMS at the MSS laboratory in England. Between 2006 and 2014, peaks were observed in February 2007 and 2012. These concentration maxima coincided with major forest fires in the Bio-Bio Region and particularly with those in the Itata River Basin. The January 2012 fires generated an intense short-term response that was associated with atmospheric transport which increases medium toxicity furan-type congeners concentrations (TCDF, PCDF and HxCDF) and six months later a concentration increase of low toxicity dioxin-type congeners was observed (OCDD, HpCDD and HxCDD) coinciding with maximum winter river flow. These results suggest that forest fires near the coastal zone are responsible for increases in PCDD/F concentration observed in the study area.

  17. Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thilo; Wendelborn, Anke

    2007-06-01

    PCDD/Fs are hydrophobic organic substances and strongly sorbing to soil particles. Once adsorbed to soil particles they are believed to be virtually immobile. However, research in the last decades confirmed that strong sorbing contaminants may reach the groundwater via colloid-facilitated transport. This pathway has not been investigated before in Vietnam. Ma Da area, 100 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, was repeatedly sprayed during the Vietnam War (1962-1971) with herbicides like Agent Orange containing, beside others, the teratogenic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 11 surface soil samples and 12 water samples were collected in Ma Da area for analysis of PCDD/Fs in solids. Soil TCDD concentrations ranged from 1-41 ppt with a mean of 8.8 ppt and a mean I-TEQ of 9.7 ppt. Two surface water samples showed colloid bound TCDD (7 and 19 ppt). Groundwater samples showed elevated colloid bound PCDD concentrations (mean 770 ng/kg), mainly octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Groundwater colloids separated by filtration did not show any TCDD. The results support that TCDD/Fs can be relocated from the top soil to the groundwater by colloidal pathway. They did not provide evidence that the dioxins bound to groundwater colloids are leftovers from the Second Indochinese War. However, this study reinforces that the colloidal transport pathway has to be included investigating the relocation of strong sorbing organic contaminants.

  18. Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and non-ortho biphenyls (PCBs) along a North-South Atlantic transect.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, R; Ockenden, W A; Shears, J; Jones, K C

    2001-10-15

    Air samples were taken on board the RRS Bransfield (typically for 24-72 h), during an Atlantic cruise from the U.K. to Antarctica in October-December 1998, to investigate the global scale distribution of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs. Highest concentrations of Cl2-8DD/Fs all occurred between 25 and 52 degrees N; lowest concentrations were measured around approximately 60 degrees S and further south. Cl3DFs showed highest overall concentrations (up to 9800 fg/m3), followed by Cl2DFs (up to 5300 fg/m3) and OCDD (up to 1300 fg/m3). Lowest concentrations, measured in the remote Southern hemisphere, were generally 2 orders of magnitude lower than their highest concentrations over the North Atlantic. Concentrations of PCB-77 were higher in the northern hemisphere, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 exhibited highest concentrations around the equator. Evidence was obtained for substantial emissions of PCDD/Fs off west Africa and while in the port of Montevideo, Uruguay. Shifts in PCDD/F profile distribution were observed on increasing distance from source regions, such that those from the most remote locations were dominated by Cl3DF (approximately 40% of the total) and OCDD (approximately 20%). Gas-particle partition data was obtained for all samples. Cl4-6DD/Fs showed the widest range, varying between 10 and 90% of the total in the gas phase, depending on location/ temperature. The study gave limited evidence for the influence of OH-radical initiated depletion reactions of gaseous PCDD/Fs. The global atmospheric burden is estimated to be on the order of 350 kg sigmaCl4-8DD/Fs and approximately 3 kg sigmaTEQ.

  19. Estimation of the cumulated exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and standardized mortality ratio analysis of cancer mortality by dose in an occupationally exposed cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Flesch-Janys, D; Steindorf, K; Gurn, P; Becher, H

    1998-01-01

    For a cohort of 1189 male German former herbicide and insecticide workers with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F), we report an extended standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on a new quantitative exposure index. This index characterizes the cumulative lifetime exposure by integrating the estimated concentration of PCDD/F at every point in time (area under the curve). Production department-specific dose rates were derived from blood levels and working histories of 275 workers by applying a first-order kinetic model. These dose rates were used to estimate exposure levels for all cohort members. Total mortality was elevated in the cohort; 413 deaths yielded an SMR of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.05, 1.27) compared to the mortality of the population of Germany. Overall cancer mortality (n = 124) was significantly increased (SMR = 1.41, 95% Cl 1.17, 1.68). Various cancer sites showed significantly increased SMRs. The exposure index was used for an SMR analysis of total cancer mortality by dose. For 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) a significant trend (p = 0.01) for the SMRs with increasing cumulative PCDD/F exposure was observed. The SMR in the first exposure quartile (0-125.2 ng/kg x years) was 1.24 (95% Cl 0.82, 1.79), increasing to 1.73 (95% Cl 1.21, 2.40) in the last quartile (> or = 2503.0 ng/kg x years). For all congeners combined as toxic equivalencies (TEQ) using international toxic equivalency factors, a significant increase in cancer mortality was observed in the second quartile (360.9-1614.4 ng/kg x years, SMR 1.64; 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29) and the fourth quartile (> or = 5217.7 ng/kg x years TEQ, SMR 1.64, 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29). The trend test was not significant. The results justify the use of this cohort for a quantitative risk assessment for TCDD and to a lesser extent for TEQ. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599713

  20. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  1. Dibenzofuran

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibenzofuran ; CASRN 132 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  2. Determination of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans at the part per trillion level in United States beef fat using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; McDaniel, D.; Dupuy, A. Jr; Harless, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed national survey of these compounds in the U.S. beef supply. Analyte concentrations were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, using isotope dilution methodology. Method limits of detection on a whole weight basis were 0.05 ppt for TCDD and 0.10 ppt for TCDF, 0.50 ppt for the pentas (PeCDDs/PeCDFs)/hexas (HxCDDs/HxCDFs)/heptas (HpCDDs/HpCDFs), and 3.00 ppt for the octas (OCDD/OCDF). Method detection and quantitation limits were established on the basis of demonstrated performance criteria utilizing fortified samples rather than by conventional signal-to-noise or variability of response methods. The background subtraction procedures developed for this study minimized the likelihood of false positives and increased the confidence associated with reported values near the detection limits. Mean and median values for each of the 2,3,7,8-Cl-substituted dioxins and furans are reported, along with the supporting information required for their interpretation. The mean toxic equivalence values for the samples are 0.35 ppt (nondetects = 0) and 0.89 ppt (nondetects = 1/2 LOD).

  3. Determination of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans at the part per trillion level in United States beef fat using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; McDaniel, D.; Dupuy, A. Jr; Harless, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed national survey of these compounds in the U.S. beef supply. Analyte concentrations were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, using isotope dilution methodology. Method limits of detection on a whole weight basis were 0.05 ppt for TCDD and 0.10 ppt for TCDF, 0.50 ppt for the pentas (PeCDDs/PeCDFs)/hexas (HxCDDs/HxCDFs)/heptas (HpCDDs/HpCDFs), and 3.00 ppt for the octas (OCDD/OCDF). Method detection and quantitation limits were established on the basis of demonstrated performance criteria utilizing fortified samples rather than by conventional signal-to-noise or variability of response methods. The background subtraction procedures developed for this study minimized the likelihood of false positives and increased the confidence associated with reported values near the detection limits. Mean and median values for each of the 2,3,7,8-Cl-substituted dioxins and furans are reported, along with the supporting information required for their interpretation. The mean toxic equivalence values for the samples are 0.35 ppt (nondetects = 0) and 0.89 ppt (nondetects = 1/2 LOD).

  4. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in breast milk in Shanghai, China: A temporal upward trend.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 150 mothers in 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China and analyzed for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). The up-bound Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) ranged from 0.27 to 16.8 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 5.4 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑PCDD/Fs and from 0.75 to 10.2 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 2.9 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑DL-PCBs. TEQs in our study were lower than those in most countries worldwide, and displayed a notable uptrend, in contrast with those in China's national survey in 2007. TEQs in mother milks from urban areas were higher than those from rural areas, and an orderly distribution was found in four geographical regions: Eastern China>Central China≈Southwestern China>Northwestern China. Levels of analytes in Shanghai native mothers' milk ranked the first among those from all provinces and cities investigated. Migrant mothers to Shanghai from other inland provinces could potentially represent the population for exposure and risk assessment in their birth and grown-up places. Both the distribution and the uptrend were associated with release of these pollutants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Fine correlations were observed between TEQs and age of mothers, and weak correlations between TEQs and consumption of meat & meat products. Participants, who preferred both fresh water and marine fish to freshwater fish only, were prone to be exposed to higher level of PCBs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) doses for breastfed neonates entirely exceeded the tolerable intake dose by WHO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk.

  7. Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in the Taiwanese elementary school classrooms: Assessment of the risk to school-age children.

    PubMed

    Gou, Yan-You; Que, Danielle E; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Wen; Chuang, Kuo Pin; Tsai, Chih-Chung; Tayo, Lemmuel L

    2016-12-01

    Elementary school classroom dust is an important source of exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and diphenyl ethers (PBDD/DF/DEs) for school-age children. Our goal is thus to investigate concentrations of PBDD/DF/DEs in elementary school classroom dust to further assess the impact on school-age children via ingestion. The dust from classrooms, including both normal (NR) and computer classrooms (CR), was collected from six urban and four rural schools. Fourteen PBDEs and twelve PBDD/Fs were measured using high-resolution gas-chromatography/high-resolution mass-spectrometry. The mean levels of Σ14PBDEs in NR and CR dust from the urban classrooms were 370 and 2510ng/g and those whose dust from the rural classrooms were 464 and 1780ng/g. The means of ΣPBDD/Fs were 0.0401ng-WHO2005-TEQ/g (concentration: 4.72ng/g) in urban NR dust, 0.0636ng-WHO2005-TEQ/g (7.51ng/g) in urban CR dust, 0.0281ng-WHO2005TEQ/g (3.60ng/g) in rural NR dust, and 0.0474ng-WHO2005TEQ/g (6.28ng/g) in rural CR dust. The PBDEs pattern in NR dust was quite different from that in CR dust, but the PBDD/Fs patterns in NR and CR dust were similar. A linearly significant correlation coefficient (n=20, r=0.862, p<0.001) was found between ΣPBDEs and ΣPBDD/Fs in NR and CR dust, indicating that the PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in the dust may be from the same sources in the elementary school classrooms. This study assessed the risks (daily intake and cancer and non-cancer risks) of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs for the children from the classroom dust, and the calculated risk values did not exceed the related thresholds. With regard to the exposure scenarios for school-age children in an indoor environment, the results suggest that they might ingest more dust PBDD/DF/DEs in their homes than in the schools. In conclusion, the exposure of Taiwanese elementary school children to PBDD/DF/DEs via indoor dust was with a safe range based on our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments.

  9. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  10. The use of ultrasound-assisted anaerobic compost tea washing to remove poly-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzo-furans (PCDFs) from highly contaminated field soils.

    PubMed

    Hung, Weiteng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Chitsan; Vu, Chi Thanh; Yotapukdee, Siwalee; Kaewlaoyoong, Acharee; Chen, Jenq-Renn; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2017-06-27

    The remediation of dioxin-contaminated soil of a specific coastal area previously employed for the manufacture of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in southern Taiwan's Tainan City has attracted much attention of researchers there. This work addresses the possibility of providing an effective and environmentally friendly option for removing PCDD/Fs from soil in that field. Soil screening/sieving was first conducted to assess particle distribution. Fine sand was observed to be the major component of the soil, accounting for more than 60% of the total mass. A combination of ultrasonification and mechanical double-blade agitation was used to facilitate the washing of the soil using the biosurfactant anaerobic compost tea. More than 85 and 95% of total removal efficiencies were achieved for moderately and highly contaminated soils after 6 and 10 washing cycles, respectively, under ambient temperature, a soil/liquid ratio 1:2.5, 700 rpm, and over a relatively short duration. These results were achieved through the collision and penetration effects of this combined treatment as well as PCDD/F partitioning between the particles and anaerobic compost tea. This study represents the first to report the use of anaerobic compost tea solvent to wash soil highly contaminated by dioxin. It was concluded that anaerobic compost tea, rich in non-toxic bio-surfactants (e.g., alcohols, humic acids), can be used to improve bioavailability and bioactivity of the soil making bio-attenuation and full remediation more efficient.

  11. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klop, Arie; Herbes, Rik; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Zeilmaker, Marco J; van Vuuren, Ad M; Traag, Wim A

    2015-10-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated by a fire with PVC materials, and with sugar beet pulp contaminated by drying with coal, containing particles from a plastic roof. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the maize silage were 0.93 and 0.25 ng TEQ kg(-1), those in beet pulp 1.90 and 0.15 ng TEQ kg(-1) (both on 88% dry matter (DM)). Dairy cows (3 per treatment) received either 16.8 kg DM per day of maize silage or 5.6 kg DM per day of sugar beet pellets for a 33-d period, followed by clean feed for 33 days. This resulted in a rapid increase of PCDD/F levels in milk within the first 10 days with levels at day 33 of respectively 2.6 and 1.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for maize silage and beet pulp. Levels of dl-PCBs at day 33 were lower, 1.0 and 0.5 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. In the case of the maize silage, the carry-over rates (CORs) at the end of the exposure were calculated to be 25% and 32% for the PCDD/F- and dl-PCB-TEQ, respectively. For the dried beet pulp the CORs were 18% and 35%. This study shows that the carry-over of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs formed during drying processes or fires can be substantial.

  12. Occurrence, variability and human exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in dairy products from Chile during the 2011-2013 survey.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Aránguiz, N; Galbán-Malagón, C J; Ruiz-Rudolph, P; Araya-Jordan, C; Maddaleno, A; San Martin, B

    2015-05-01

    Levels, congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and human exposure for these xenobiotics never have been reported in Chile. For that purpose 102 raw cow milk samples were collected from seven different regions of Chile during 2011 until 2013. The highest mean level for PCDD/Fs, corresponds to 0.32 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2012) and for DL-PCBs 0.17 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2011), using the upper bound approach. Penta and tetra chlorinated congeners dominated PCDD/Fs profiles in a WHO-TEQ2005 basis during the survey. In the case of DL-PCBs, PCB 126 dominated the profiles with 89%. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among years only in DL-PCBs residues. Also dietary intake was estimated, and the highest level for total sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for adult was 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w d(-1) (2011) and for children correspond to 0.65 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.wd(-1) (2011). Concentrations and dietary intake for the studied compounds in milk and butter samples were below international and national regulations.

  13. Time-integrated Monitoring of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Urban and Industrial Wastewaters Using a Ceramic Toximeter and the CALUX Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Addeck, Amr; Croes, Kim; Van Langenhove, Kersten; Denison, Michael S.; Elhamalawy, Ahmed; Elskens, Marc; Baeyens, Willy

    2015-01-01

    The ceramic toximeter as a passive sampler in combination with the CALUX bioassay was utilized as a time-integrated pollution-assessment technique for dioxin-like PCDD/Fs in wastewaters. Toximeters filled with XCARB and enclosed in stainless steel cages were submerged in wastewater of Belbeis drainage-canal and EMAK paper-mill, located in Egypt, for 28 days. Two samplers were removed every week from each site. Extracts from toximeters, from bottom-sediments, and from paper-mill sludge were analyzed by the CALUX. Results showed a regular increase in the amounts of PCDD/Fs trapped by the toximeters as sampling time increased. Time-weighted average concentrations (TWA) of PCDD/Fs in the wastewaters of the drainage-canal and paper-mill were 231 (214-281) and 26 (24.1-32.6) pg-BEQ L-1, respectively. Compared to literature data, this means a high pollution level for the drainage-canal water, while the pollution level in the paper-mill wastewater is similar to that reported for other paper mills. The PCDD/Fs levels in the drainage-canal bottom-sediments and in the paper-mill sludge were 8.3 and 14.6 pg-BEQ g-1 dry-weight, at the lower end of internationally reported values in similar compartments. The sampling rate of the tested toximeters for dissolved PCDD/Fs was about 3.6 mL d-1. Sediment/water partitioning coefficient log Kd of PCDD/Fs in the drainage-canal and the paper-mill was 1.42 and 2.70 respectively. The organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient log Koc was 4.17 and 3.19 respectively, and is lower than the reported values for other sites. PMID:24075528

  14. Long-term hazards of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J E; Moore, J A; Saracci, R; Tomatis, L

    1980-01-01

    During January 10-11, 1978 in Lyon, France, a joint National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/International Agency for Research on Cancer ad hoc Working Group considered and discussed the feasibility of coordinating epidemiological studies on the long-term hazards associated with the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and and PCDFs). Nineteen invited scientists from eight countries presented introductory working papers summarizing the most up-to-date and relevant information available from their individual programs. This report represents the collective views and scientific opinions of the Working Group. The greater part of this document comprises epidemiological studies related to episodes of human exposures. The review begins with a brief section concerning possible routes of human exposure, an overview of the pertinent chemical characteristics, and the salient toxicological properties of the structurally similar PCDDs/PCDFs. The Working Group report ends with recommendations for future activities. PMID:6448744

  15. Investigation of American lobster, Homarus americanus, for the presence of chlorinated dibenzo-rho-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Taguchi, V.; Musial, C.J.; Uthe, J.F.

    1987-12-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) are a group of 75 compounds of current environmental concern. Most attention has been focused on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8,-TCDD) because of high toxicity exhibited in laboratory animal studies. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) comprise 135 compounds similar to the PCDD in structure and toxicity. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) is the most toxic of this group. Two principal sources of PCDD and PCDF in the environment are incineration and as by-products in the manufacture and use of pentachlorophenols. American lobsters (Homarus americanus) have not been previously investigated for the presence of PCDD and PCDF. Lobsters were examined in this study because of their proximity to possible sources of PCDD and PCDF and an ability to concentrate hydrophobic organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the digestive gland.

  16. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunological effects of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Kerkvliet, N I

    1995-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally similar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons cause a broad range of immunologic effects in experimental animals including decreased host resistance to infectious disease and suppressed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the mouse, TCDD immunotoxicity has been shown to be an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-dependent process. However, despite considerable research, the biochemical and molecular alterations that occur subsequent to Ah receptor activation that lead to altered immune reactivity remain to be elucidated. In addition to immune suppression, TCDD promotes inflammatory responses. This effect may result from an upregulation of the production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Nonhuman primates exposed to TCDD show suppressed antibody responses and changes in lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood. The immunotoxic effects of TCDD in humans are poorly characterized, and few studies have examined the immune status of individuals with known, documented exposure to TCDD. It is important for laboratory research to focus on defining TCDD-sensitive immunologic biomarkers in animal models that can also be used in human subjects. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie species differences in TCDD immunotoxicity is also of critical importance for extrapolation of effects seen in laboratory animals to man. PMID:8635439

  18. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of the general US population and selected subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Orban, J E; Stanley, J S; Schwemberger, J G; Remmers, J C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Environmental Protection Agency's National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) was conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1987 to (1) estimate average concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population, (2) identify differences in average concentrations among subpopulations, and (3) compare average concentrations with those from the FY 1982 NHATS. METHODS. Population estimates of the average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were established on the basis of 865 human adipose tissue specimens collected in FY 1987. Average levels among subpopulations were compared. RESULTS. The average concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the adipose tissue of the US population was 5.38 pg/g, increasing from 1.98 pg/g in children under 14 years of age to 9.40 pg/g in adults over 45. The effect of age was significant for nine compounds. Regional differences in the levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofurans were statistically significant, but there were no significant differences associated with sex or race. CONCLUSIONS. The survey provides a baseline of average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population. PMID:8129062

  19. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-10-15

    This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB6) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009-2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005/kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low.

  20. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Brizio, P; Nespoli, R; Stella, C; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g(-1) for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g(-1) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g(-1) for NDL-PCBs). Without the prompt and immediately applied control strategies, the consumption of contaminated eggs may have posed [corrected] a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits.

  1. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  2. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  3. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  4. THERMAL TREATMENT OF 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P- DIOXIN BY REACTION WITH CA-BASED SORBENTS AT 23-300 DEGREES °C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans captured in sorbent-based, air pollution control devices remains uncertain. This process was simulated by passing vapor-phase 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to a...

  5. THERMAL TREATMENT OF 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P- DIOXIN BY REACTION WITH CA-BASED SORBENTS AT 23-300 DEGREES °C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans captured in sorbent-based, air pollution control devices remains uncertain. This process was simulated by passing vapor-phase 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to a...

  6. 40 CFR 766.12 - Testing guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.12 Testing guidelines. Analytical test methods... Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Commercial Products. Copies are...

  7. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters.

  8. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Buser, H R

    1985-01-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750 degrees C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3928352

  9. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels.

  10. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Congener-specific levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in U.S. food and estimated daily dioxin toxic equivalent intake.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Startin, J; Wright, C; Kelly, M; Päpke, O; Lis, A; Ball, M; Olson, J R

    1994-01-01

    Food, especially meat, milk, and fish, is the immediate source of almost all polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxinlike compounds in the general population. To estimate intake of these highly toxic compounds, we performed congener-specific dioxin analyses for the first time on U.S. food for 18 dairy meat, and fish samples from a supermarket in upstate New York. 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, "dioxin") toxic equivalents (TEqs) on a wet weight basis for the dairy products ranged for 0.04 to 0.7 ppt, meat TEqs ranged from 0.03 to 1.5 ppt, and fish TEqs ranged from 0.02 to 0.13 ppt. Previous human breast milk and infant formula analyses were used with the current preliminary food data to estimate a range of dioxin intake for Americans. Average daily food intake of TEqs for an adult weighing 65 kg was estimated to be between 0.3 and 3.0 pg/kg body weight, for a total of 18-192 pg TEq, using 1986 American consumption rates. Due to the relatively high level of PCDDs and PCDFs commonly found in human breast milk from American women and from women in other industrial countries, a nursing infant may consume an average of 35-53 pg TEq/kg body weight/day in its first year of life. This may be compared with the current U.S. EPA virtually safe dose of 0.006 pg TCDD/kg body weight per day over a 70-year lifetime based on an upper limit cancer risk of 10(-6), or the 10 pg/kg/day used by some European government agencies. PMID:9738211

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFINED DATABASE OF RELATIVE POTENCY ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE BETTER CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY IN THE CURRENT MAMMALIAN TEFS FOR PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran...

  13. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  14. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  15. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  16. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  17. Data Validation Standard Operating Procedure for EPA Method 1613 Revision B, Tetra-through Octa-chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dillution (High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method used for isomer specific determination todetect the Tetra- through octa- chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans associatedwith the CWA, RCRA, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act and the SDWA

  18. TRANSIENT PCDD AND PCDF CONCENTRATIONS IN A MWC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time-resolved evaluations of combustor performance have shown that concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and related pollutants undergo significant changes as a response to upset combustion conditions. During and after tr...

  19. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  20. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  1. 76 FR 70443 - Decision on Waiver Application From 3M

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) or halogenated dibenzofurans (HDFs), and that results be reported to EPA... determine whether they may be contaminated with HDDs and HDFs. Under 40 CFR 766.32(a)(2)(i), a waiver may be...

  2. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  3. COMPARING PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as ¿dioxin-like compounds¿] are persistent environmental contaminants that have been found to be ubiquitous in environmental media and bio...

  4. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 3. DEVEOPMENT OF WEIGHTED DISTRIBUTIONS OF REPS FOR PCB 126 AND 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, regulatory agencies utilize the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Th...

  6. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  7. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  8. TRANSIENT PCDD AND PCDF CONCENTRATIONS IN A MWC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time-resolved evaluations of combustor performance have shown that concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and related pollutants undergo significant changes as a response to upset combustion conditions. During and after tr...

  9. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  10. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  11. 78 FR 63981 - Availability of Interaction Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p -Dioxins, Polybrominated Diphenol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... and literature reviews. After the selection, a letter is sent to individuals and agencies on ATSDR's... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...-review and review by ATSDR's Interagency Workgroup on Mixtures. ] DATES: The interaction profile was made...

  12. Presence of Bacterial Virulence Gene Homologues in the dibenzo-p-dioxins degrading bacterium Sphingomonas wittichii

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Amr T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sphingomonas wittichii, a close relative of the human pathogen Sphingomonas paucimobilis, is a microorganism of great interest to the bioremediation community for its ability of biodegradation to a large number of toxic polychlorinated dioxins. In the present study we investigated the presence of different virulence factors and genes in S. wittichii. We utilized phylogenetic, comparative genomics and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the potentiality of S. wittichii as a potential virulent pathogen. The 16SrDNA phylogenetic tree showed that the closest bacterial taxon to S. wittichii is Brucella followed by Helicobacter, Campylobacter, Pseudomonas then Legionella. Despite their close phylogenetic relationship, S. wittichii did not share any virulence factors with Helicobacter or Campylobacter. On the contrary, in spite of the phylogenetic divergence between S. wittichii and Pseudomonas spp., they shared many major virulence factors, such as, adherence, antiphagocytosis, Iron uptake, proteases and quorum sensing. S. wittichii contains several major virulence factors resembling Pseudomonas sp., Legionella sp., Brucella sp. and Bordetella sp. virulence factors. Similarity of virulence factors did not match phylogenetic relationships. These findings suggest horizontal gene transfer of virulence factors rather than sharing a common pathogenic ancestor. S. wittichii is a potential virulent bacterium. Another possibility is that reductive evolution process attenuated S. wittichii pathogenic capabilities. Thus plenty of care must be taken when using this bacterium in soil remediation purposes. PMID:28197061

  13. ELECTRONIC ELASTICITY-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN CONGENERS. (R826166)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCF-MO computations have been performed on tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDD) using an MNDO-PM3 Hamiltonian. Qualitative relationships were developed between empirical, international-toxic equivalence factors for PCDD congeners and their relati...

  14. ELECTRONIC ELASTICITY-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN CONGENERS. (R826166)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCF-MO computations have been performed on tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDD) using an MNDO-PM3 Hamiltonian. Qualitative relationships were developed between empirical, international-toxic equivalence factors for PCDD congeners and their relati...

  15. 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN MINED CLAY PRODUCTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been raised in the southern United States, represented approximately 5% of the national poultry production . All of these chickens and other animal food sources (i.e., farm-raised catfish), similarly contaminated, were fed a diet of animal feed containing ball clay as an anti-caking additive. The clay was mined in northwestern Mississippi within a geological formation referred to as the Mississippi Embayment. Individual raw and processed ball clay samples were analyzed for the presence of the 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs. The average toxic equivalents (TEQs) for the raw and processed samples were 1513 and 996 ppt dry weight, respectively. Other mined clay-based products used in animal feeds revealed lower TEQs. All of the products exhibited either an absence of detectable concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDFs or concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the PCDDs. The isomer distribution, specific isomer identification, and congener profile of the PCDDs in the clay were established and compared to known sources of dioxin contamination. Several unique features of this isomer distribution are characteristic of the clays and are distinguishable from those other known sources. These characteristic

  16. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-06-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  17. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F

    2007-06-05

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  18. Chronic effects of polychlorinated dibenzofurans on mink in laboratory and field environments.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Beckett, Kerrie J; Bursian, Steve; Kay, Denise P; Holem, Ryan R; Moore, Jeremy N; Yamini, Behzad; Giesy, John P

    2009-04-01

    Mink are often used as a sentinel species in ecological risk assessments of chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that cause toxicity mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor. Considerable toxicological information is available on the effects of PCBs and PCDDs on mink, but limited toxicological information is available for PCDFs. Thus, exposure concentrations at which adverse effects occur could not be determined reliably for complex mixtures in which PCDFs dominate the total calculated concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ). Two studies were conducted to evaluate the potential toxicity of PCDFs to mink. The first was a chronic exposure, conducted under controlled laboratory conditions, in which mink were exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) concentrations as great as 2.4 x 10(3) ng 2,3,7,8-TCDF/kg wet-weight (ww) diet or 2.4 x 10(2) ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww diet. In that study, transient decreases in body masses of kits relative to the controls was the only statistically significant effect observed. The second study was a 3-y field study during which indicators of individual health, including hematological and morphological parameters, were determined for mink exposed chronically to a mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs under field conditions. In the field study, there were no statistically significant differences in any of the measured parameters between mink exposed to a median estimated dietary dose of 31 ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww and mink from an upstream reference area where they had a median dietary exposure of 0.68 ng TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal)/kg ww. In both studies, concentrations of TEQ(2006-WHO-mammal) to which the mink were exposed exceeded those at which adverse effects, based on studies with PCDD and PCB congeners, would have been expected. Yet in both instances where PCDF congeners were the sole or predominant source of the TEQ

  19. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA - SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 X CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% c...

  20. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  1. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sediment by oligochaetes: Influence of exposure pathway and contact time

    SciTech Connect

    Loonen, H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1997-07-01

    Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed simultaneously to radiolabeled [{sup 3}H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and [{sup 14}C]octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in sediment for 28 d, in order to study accumulation processes of hydrophobic substances. Elimination was studied for a further 20 d. The uptake and elimination rate constants and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were determined for TCDD and OCDD in the presence and absence of sediment (overlying water). Steady-state concentrations in oligochaetes were achieved for TCDD but not for OCDD over the 28-d exposure. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) after a 28-d exposure were 1.6 {+-} 0.27 for TCDD and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 for OCDD. Steady-state log BAF values (lipid based) for TCDD and OCDD in oligochaetes in the overlying water were 5.9 and 5.5 L/kg, respectively. The effect of incubation time between sediment and contaminants was investigated by repeating the accumulation study after a contact period of 21 months. BSAFs of sediment-sorbed TCDD and OCDD were 1.5 to 2-fold lower for the long contact time sediment. Based on comparison of predicted accumulation from pore water and observed accumulation by sediment-exposed oligochaetes, it was concluded that 1.4-fold greater accumulation occurred due to assimilation of TCDD and OCDD from ingested sediment. This additional accumulation in the presence of sediment, not accounted for by uptake only from pore waters, was consistent with literature data for other hydrophobic organochlorines.

  2. Geochemical investigations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in the subsurface environment at an abandoned wood-treatment facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Sisak, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The discharge of effluents containing creosote and pentachlorophenol into two unlined surface impoundments at a wood-treatment facility in Pensacola, Florida, resulted in contamination of the underlying sand and gravel aquifer. These wastes contained significant amounts of chlorinated dioxins, such as isomers of hexa- and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, probably derived from commercial pentachlorophenol. Geochemical investigations of pond sludge, groundwater and porous media from the unsaturated and saturated zones indicated that these geologic materials were contaminated by chlorinated dioxins. The fate and movement of these compounds in the subsurface environment were studied using the technique of GC-MS-MS. Chlorinated dioxins migrated both vertically and horizontally in the subsurface and were present at considerable distances from the source of contamination. Concentrations of chlorinated dioxins in groundwater were several orders of magnitude lower than in porous media from the unsaturated and saturated zones. Ratios of the various isomers remained relatively constant in highly contaminated areas. However, in less contaminated areas, isomer ratios changed dramatically; at certain locations, one hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin isomer predominated. The environmental significance of these compounds is discussed. ?? 1985.

  3. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  4. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA - SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 X CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% c...

  5. Effects of in ovo exposure of white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two chlorinated dibenzofurans on CYP1A induction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinfei; Wiseman, Steve; Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Kennedy, Sean W; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    In birds, activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by some polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) results in induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression. This response has been useful for predicting relative sensitivity of birds to dioxin-like compounds. To further investigate species-sensitivity to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds induction of cytochrome P450 1A4 and 1A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) mRNA and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were quantified in liver of posthatch white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) via air cell injection. The rank-order of sensitivity of TCDD- and TCDF-exposed birds, based on CYP1A, was chicken>pheasant>quail. Based on CYP1A5 mRNA expression and EROD induction, the order of sensitivity of PeCDF-exposed birds was identical to that for TCDD and TCDF. However, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression the rank-order was pheasant>chicken>quail. When comparing the potency of the three compounds in each species, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression, TCDD was the most potent compound in chicken. However, PeCDF was equally potent to TCDD in quail and was more potent than TCDD in pheasant. These results suggest that quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis of CYP1A expression, particularly CYP1A4 mRNA expression, may be a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than analysis of EROD induction, especially in less responsive avian species. Based on these findings future risk assessments should consider the sensitivity of the species inhabiting a site and the congeners of concern that are present.

  6. Open dumping site in Asian developing countries: a potential source of polychlorinated dibenz-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Minh; Tu, Binh Minh; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Sakai, Shinichi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sasikumar, Karuppian; Pham, Hung Viet; Bui, Cach Tuyen; Tana, Touch S; Prudente, Maricar S

    2003-04-15

    Open landfill dumping areas for municipal wastes in Asian developing countries have recently received particular attention with regard to environmental pollution problems. Because of the uncontrolled burning of solid wastes, elevated contamination by various toxic chemicals including dioxins and related compounds in these dumping sites has been anticipated. In this study, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam. Residue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in dumping site soils were apparently greater than those in soils collected in agricultural or urban areas far from dumping sites, suggesting that dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds. Observed PCDD/F concentrations in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines and Cambodia were comparable or higher than those reported for dioxin-contaminated locations in the world (e.g., near the municipal waste incinerators and open landfill dumping sites). Homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in dumping site soils from the Philippines and, to a lesser extent, from Cambodia and India reflected patterns of samples representing typical emissions, while profiles of agricultural or urban soils were similar to those of typical environmental sinks. This result suggests recent formation of PCDD/Fs in dumping site areas and that open dumping sites are a potential source of dioxins in Asian developing countries. Uncontrolled combustions of solid wastes by waste pickers, generation of methane gas, and low-temperature burning can be major factors for the formation of dioxins in dumping sites. Elevated fluxes of PCDD/Fs to soils in dumping sites were encountered in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi, and these levels were higher than those reported for other countries. Considerable loading rates

  7. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-02

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities.

  8. THE ROLE OF GAS-PHASE CL2 IN THE FORMATION OF PCDD/PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of previous experiments investigating formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) through low-temperature (300°C), fly-ash-catalyzed reactions are demonstrated to have occurred through intermediate formation of gas-phase Cl2 by deco...

  9. EFFECT OF SOOT AND COPPER COMBUSTOR DEPOSITS ON DIOXIN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of residual soot and copper combustor deposits on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during the combustion of a chlorinated waste. In a bench-scale set...

  10. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  11. DIOXIN AND FURAN FORMATION ON FLY ASH FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish the relationship between specific chlorophenol (CP) congener distributions and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) products this work investigated the formation of PCDDs/Fs from different CP mixtures passed over fly ash under selected reaction ...

  12. BAFS AND BSAFS FOR CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioaccumulation factors and biota-sediment accumulation factors have been measured for tetra- to octa- polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans for forage fishes, i.e., alewife, bloater chub, deep water sculpin, slimy sculpin, smelt and for lake trout, age classes of ...

  13. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  14. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  15. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  16. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  17. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM FLAME SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDDs/Fs, occur in the combustion of a wide variety of fuels, and is related to poor combustion conditions. This study looks at the importance of flame soot, including associated adsorbed and condensed aeromati...

  19. 75 FR 27249 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... inadvertent drafting errors in the emissions limits for nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide promulgated for... Emissions Limit B. Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Limit C. Reporting and Recordkeeping Requirements IV. Impacts of..., chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride and sulfur...

  20. THE USE OF SURROGATE COMPOUNDS AS INDICATORS OF PCDD/F CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBUSTOR STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from stationary combustion sources are of concern because they are carcinogenic and may result in disruption of endocrine systems in human and wildlife populations. PCDDs/Fs are typically ...

  1. UNDERSTANDING PCDD/F FORMATION AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work at the U. S. EPA has examined fundamental concepts regarding formation and minimization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in combustion scenarios. This paper summarizes some of these main findings, drawing on work from multiple studies....

  2. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR DETERMINING DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dioxins comprise a family of compounds chemically referred to as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The most toxic of these compounds is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a known human carcinogen. Dioxins are formed ...

  3. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. BEEF: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA completed the first statistically designed survey of the occurrence and concentration of dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), dibenzofurans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat of beef animals raised for human consumption in the United Stat...

  4. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. POULTRY FAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on the results of a joint survey of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the rate of occurrence and concentration of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF...

  5. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS DURING SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation mechanisms of the precursors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) were examined in a laboratory reactor. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were studied between 200 and 800°C with HCl, Cl2, and pheno...

  6. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  8. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  9. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. BEEF: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA completed the first statistically designed survey of the occurrence and concentration of dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), dibenzofurans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat of beef animals raised for human consumption in the United Stat...

  10. EFFECT OF SOOT AND COPPER COMBUSTOR DEPOSITS ON DIOXIN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of residual soot and copper combustor deposits on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during the combustion of a chlorinated waste. In a bench-scale set...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDY OF DE NOVO FORMATION OF PCDD/PCDF ON MSW FLY ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has been studied in an entrained-flow reactor under simulated waste combustion conditions. A chlorination model based on conditional probability ...

  12. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS DURING SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation mechanisms of the precursors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) were examined in a laboratory reactor. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were studied between 200 and 800°C with HCl, Cl2, and pheno...

  13. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  14. VARIABLES AFFECTING EMISSIONS OF PCDDS/FS FROM UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uncontrolled burning of household waste in barrels has recently been implicated as a major source of airborne emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Based on the need to generate a more accurate emission factor for burn ba...

  15. THE ROLE OF GAS-PHASE CL2 IN THE FORMATION OF PCDD/PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of previous experiments investigating formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) through low-temperature (300°C), fly-ash-catalyzed reactions are demonstrated to have occurred through intermediate formation of gas-phase Cl2 by deco...

  16. GAS- AND SOLID-PHASE PARTITIONING OF PCDDS/FS ON MSWI FLY ASH AND THE EFFECTS OF SAMPLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), are partitioned as gas-phase and particle-bound products of many industrial combustion processes. This gas/particle partitioning of SOCs has severe implications on both ...

  17. UNDERSTANDING PCDD/F FORMATION AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work at the U. S. EPA has examined fundamental concepts regarding formation and minimization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in combustion scenarios. This paper summarizes some of these main findings, drawing on work from multiple studies....

  18. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF PCDD/F INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission samples from a simulated hazardous waste-fired North American Package Boiler (NAPB) and a refuse-derived fuel incineration facility (RDFF) were analyzed separately and combined in order to identify single polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ...

  19. OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON DIOXIN/FURAN YIELD IN MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of fly ash loading; ash-borne, extractable organics; sulfur dioxide (SO2) and hydrogen chloride concentration; and combustion quality on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were evaluated in pilot scale tests simu...

  20. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  1. MECHANISTIC STEPS IN THE PRODUCTION OF PCDD AND PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during municipal waste combustion can proceed through a three step mechanism including 1) production of Cl2 from a metal-catalyzed reaction of HCl a...

  2. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  3. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  4. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was bu...

  5. A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...

  6. New and Old POP (PCDD/FS, PCBS, and PBDES) in U.S. Foods: Levels, Trends, and Implications for Human Exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentrations of several historic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls, along with a newer class of POPs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in domestic meat and poultry ...

  7. DIOXIN FORMATION: THE BURN BARREL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results from tests designed to examine some of the factors influencing the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from burn barrels. Results from PCDDs/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported, al...

  8. MECHANISTIC AND SOURCE UNDERSTANDING OF PCDD/F FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses mechanistic and source understanding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) formation. (NOTE: Considerable research effort has been expended over the last 15-plus years to understand how combustion sources result in formation of PCDDs/F...

  9. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOMOLOGUE CONCENTRATIONS OF PCDD/FS AND TOXIC EQUIVALENCY VALUES IN LABORATORY-, PACKAGE BOILER-, AND FIELD-SCALE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted with a model based on the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a package boiler (61 data points), and ...

  10. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  11. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  12. ON-ROAD EMISSIONS OF PCDDS AND PCDFS FROM HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work characterized emission factors, homologue profiles, and isomer patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from on-road sampling of three heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVS) under various conditions of city and highway drivi...

  13. A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...

  14. DIOXIN AND FURAN FORMATION ON FLY ASH FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish the relationship between specific chlorophenol (CP) congener distributions and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) products this work investigated the formation of PCDDs/Fs from different CP mixtures passed over fly ash under selected reaction ...

  15. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF PCDD/F INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission samples from a simulated hazardous waste-fired North American Package Boiler (NAPB) and a refuse-derived fuel incineration facility (RDFF) were analyzed separately and combined in order to identify single polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ...

  16. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence Methodology for Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, and Biphenyls in Ecological Risk Assessment (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adver...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  18. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  19. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

  20. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR DETERMINING DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dioxins comprise a family of compounds chemically referred to as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The most toxic of these compounds is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a known human carcinogen. Dioxins are formed ...

  1. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  2. PCDD/F FORMATION RATES FROM FLY ASH AND METHANE COMBUSTION CARBON SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract discusses polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD,F) from fly ash and methane combustion carbon sources. (NOTE: PCDD,Fs are formed in trace quantities in combustion processes via two primary mechanisms: de novo synthesis in which they ...

  3. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  4. Effect of updated 2005 TEFS on previous USDA food surveys of PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBS and comparison to initial results from a new survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The toxicity of dioxin-like compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins/dibenzofurans/biphenyls) was recently reevaluated by an expert panel and changes were made to the toxicity factors (TEFs) of several compounds which directly effects the calculation of toxic equivalents (TEQs), a measure of tot...

  5. Levels and Trends of Historic POPs (PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and Newer POPs (PBDEs) in U.S. Meat and Poultry and Implications for Human Exposure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentrations of several historic POPs, i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls, along with a newer class of POPs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in domestic meat and poultry samples from 2002 and 2008. The ...

  6. MECHANISTIC AND SOURCE UNDERSTANDING OF PCDD/F FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses mechanistic and source understanding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) formation. (NOTE: Considerable research effort has been expended over the last 15-plus years to understand how combustion sources result in formation of PCDDs/F...

  7. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been shown to occur from the combustion products of fuels as complex as municipal solid waste and as relatively simple as a methane flame. PCDD/F emissions from flame carbon in th...

  8. Copolymerization of dibenzofuran and dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.P.; Jones, M.B.; Baltisberger, R.J.; Brown, C.E.; Burger, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a project involving synthesis of model oligomers of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes, we required bis(2-dibenzofuranyl)methane (1). The successful preparation of 1 was carried out via coupling of 2-lithio-dibenzofuran with 2-formyldibenzofuran, followed by reduction of the resulting diaryl substituted methanol. Attempts to prepare 1 by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of dibenzofuran (DBF) with stoichiometric amounts of CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ failed. However, when CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ was present in excess (as solvent), alkylation of DBF proceeded smoothly at ambient temperature to yield an insoluble, infusible, yellow powder. We report herein preliminary observations on the characteristics and structural features of this new copolymer.

  9. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?

    PubMed

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T

    2005-12-01

    For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK. The authors aimed to investigate whether long term residents close to a heavy chemical industrial complex (Teesside, UK) had a higher body burden and distinct pattern of PCDD/F and PCBs. We measured current levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in a population based sample of older women (mean 64 years, range 42-79 years). Forty women were recruited, 20 living near (zone A: 0.1-2.7 km) and 20 distant (zone C: 5-40 km) from industry during 2000-03. The authors ascertained occupational exposure to lung carcinogens, residential history, consumption of local produce, breast feeding, diet, and height and weight. The mean body burden measured on lipid basis in ng/kg for the whole sample was: WHO-TEQ (PCDD/Fs): 29.9, 2378TCDD: 4.0, PCB 118:16200, PCB156: 13100. Body burdens were similar to others reported from industrialised countries, except that mean 2378TCDD was slightly higher. Mean ages, body mass index, and lifelong dietary patterns were similar in both zones. The authors found no significant difference in mean body burden levels between zones A and C before or after adjustment for covariates. All congener patterns were consistent with an urban background pattern, and there was no significant difference between congener compositions in the two zones. The TCDD body burden increased with age with accelerated increments above age 70. Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Teesside, UK. The body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution.

  10. Simultaneous determination of tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and poly-aromatic chlorinated biphenyls in aqueous environment using liquid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikiti, Phumile; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Among the most notable and notorious persistent organic pollutants in many aquatic environments are the dioxins and poly-aromatic chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These compounds are nuisances in the environment due to their toxicities which come mainly as a result of their tendencies to bio accumulate because of their lipophilic nature. Dioxins and PCBs belong to the group of compounds known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Since these compounds are problematic when they are discharged in the environment, strict regulations and guidelines with regard to their use and discharge has been put in place. Of the dioxin congeners, 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-Cl4DD) is the most toxic while a number of PCB congeners such PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB 101 are also known to cause pollution when present in the environment. In this work, the analytical monitoring strategies for dioxins and PCBs employing extraction and purification of samples using liquid phase microextraction as well as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the separation and detection of the extracts was employed. The extraction results were validated by various statistical tests such as linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility and repeatability data.

  11. Transfer and uptake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into meat and organs of indoor and outdoor reared pigs.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Fernandes, A; Foxall, C; Dowding, A

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate how and to what extent PCDD/Fs and PCBs are transmitted from exposure sources to porcine muscle and other tissues derived from pigs. The experimental approach involved two longitudinal studies in which indoor and outdoor pigs were reared to market readiness using typical animal husbandry practices; closely matched samples of soil, feed, bedding, meat, etc. were collected and analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs. The total PCDD/F + PCB WHO-TEQs in pig liver were much higher than in meat and kidney samples from the same animals and exceeded the current relevant European Union maximum limits (6 ng PCDD/F-TEQ kg⁻¹ fat). Liver samples were also characterised by much lower PCB contributions to the total TEQ than for the corresponding meat and kidney samples, and by a predominance of many of the hepta- and octa-substituted PCDD/Fs. At ages approaching market readiness, TEQ values in meat samples from outdoor pigs tended to be slightly higher than those from comparable ages in the indoor programme, possibly due to additional intake from soil. Biotransfer factors (BTFs) were derived for each of the 39 PCDD/F and PCB congeners measured. Interpretation of the findings focused particularly on trends in four selected congeners, namely: 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB 153 and PCB 169. Increases in the BTF for PCB 169 in the pig-rearing programmes were noticed when the diet changed from being dominated by sow's milk to feed. Much higher transfer factors for many of the more heavily chlorinated PCDD/Fs (e.g. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) were found in liver compared with meat or kidney samples from the same animals. Soil consistently accounted for at least 30% of input for many hexa- or higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs, while it rarely representing more than 10% of the total intake.

  12. 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN MINED CLAY PRODUCTS FROM THE U.S.: EVIDENCE FOR POSSIBLE NATURAL ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been rai...

  13. Differential tissue accumulation of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin in Arabidopsis thaliana affects plant chronology, lipid metabolism and seed yield.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Moursel, Nour; Shahadeh, AbdAlbaset; Alhajji, Eskander

    2015-08-11

    Dioxins are one of the most toxic groups of persistent organic pollutants. Their biotransmission through the food chain constitutes a potential risk for human health. Plants as principal actors in the food chain can play a determinant role in removing dioxins from the environment. Due to the lack of data on dioxin/plant research, this study sets out to determine few responsive reactions adopted by Arabidopsis plant towards 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins. Using a high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis plant uptakes TCDD by the roots and accumulates it in the vegetative parts in a tissue-specific manner. TCDD mainly accumulated in rosette leaves and mature seeds and less in stem, flowers and immature siliques. Moreover, we observed that plants exposed to high doses of TCDD exhibited a delay in flowering and yielded fewer seeds of a reduced oil content with a low vitality. A particular focus on the plant fatty acid metabolism showed that TCDD caused a significant reduction in C18-unsaturated fatty acid level in plant tissues. Simultaneously, TCDD induced the expression of 9-LOX and 13-LOX genes and the formation of their corresponding hydroperoxides, 9- and 13-HPOD as well as 9- or 13-HPOT, derived from linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. The current work highlights a side of toxicological effects resulting in the administration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD on the Arabidopsis plant. Similarly to animals, it seems that plants may accumulate TCDD in their lipids by involving few of the FA-metabolizing enzymes for sculpting a specific oxylipins "signature" typified to plant TCDD-tolerance. Together, our results uncover novel responses of Arabidopsis to dioxin, possibly emerging to overcome its toxicity.

  14. 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN MINED CLAY PRODUCTS FROM THE U.S.: EVIDENCE FOR POSSIBLE NATURAL ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been rai...

  15. Characterization and inventory of PBDD/F emissions from deca-BDE, polyethylene (PE) and metal blends during the pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Wang, Xiuji; Xiao, Xiao; Cai, Ying; Tang, Yuhui; Chen, Pei

    2017-02-16

    The thermal treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regarded as the largest potential contributor to the environmental release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Herein, the pyrolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), polyethylene (PE) and metal blends was conducted to investigate the emission characteristics of PBDD/Fs at different thermal treatment conditions. The total yield of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) was less than that of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) during the pyrolysis of the PE matrix and metal blends. 2,3,7,8-TBDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PBDF were the dominant congeners emitted from the pyrolysis. Temperature, presence of oxygen and type of added metal were the critical influencing factors for the PBDD/F formation rates and speciation in the pyrolysis process.

  16. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe. PMID:22563359

  17. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 B. 12,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 C. 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 D. 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 E. 12,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 F...

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ross, Brian; Ladak, Adam; Mullin, Lauren; Stevens, Douglas; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-10-20

    Residential and commercial fires generate a complex mixture of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile compounds. This study focused on the semi/nonvolatile components of fire debris to better understand firefighter exposure risks. Using the enhanced sensitivity of gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS), complex fire debris samples collected from simulation fires were analyzed for the presence of potentially toxic polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs). Extensive method development was performed to create multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods for a wide range of PXDD/Fs from dihalogenated through hexa-halogenated homologue groups. Higher halogenated compounds were not observed due to difficulty eluting them off the long column used for analysis. This methodology was able to identify both polyhalogenated (mixed bromo-/chloro- and polybromo-) dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the simulated burn study samples collected, with the dibenzofuran species being the dominant compounds in the samples. Levels of these compounds were quantified as total homologue groups due to the limitations of commercial congener availability. Concentration ranges in household simulation debris were observed at 0.01-5.32 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.18-82.11 ppb (PBDFs). Concentration ranges in electronics simulation debris were observed at 0.10-175.26 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.33-9254.41 ppb (PBDFs). Samples taken from the particulate matter coating the firefighters' helmets contained some of the highest levels of dibenzofurans, ranging from 4.10 ppb to 2.35 ppm. The data suggest that firefighters and first responders at fire scenes are exposed to a complex mixture of potentially hundreds to thousands of different polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans that could negatively impact their health.

  1. Isolation and Functional Gene Analyses of Aromatic-Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria from a Polychlorinated-Dioxin-Dechlorinating Process

    PubMed Central

    Kaiya, Shinichi; Utsunomiya, Sati; Suzuki, Saori; Yoshida, Naoko; Futamata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Hiraishi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Aerobic aromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria from a semi-anaerobic microbial microcosm that exhibited apparent complete dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were isolated through enrichment and plating culture procedures with dibenzofuran as the model substrate. By 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, these dibenzofuran-degrading isolates were identified as being members of the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, among which those of the genera Paenibacillus and Rhizobium were most abundant. All of the isolates utilized naphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source and degraded dibenzofuran metabolically or co-metabolically; however, they hardly attacked monochlorinated dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin. By PCR cloning and sequencing, genes predicted to encode aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (AhDO) were detected in all test isolates. Real-time quantitative PCR assays with specific primer sets detected approximately 105 copies of the AhDO large subunit genes g−1 wet wt in the microcosm from which the isolates were obtained. This order of the copy number corresponded to approximately 1% of the 16S rRNA gene copies from “Dehalococcoides” and its relatives present as potent dechlorinators. These results suggest that aerobic AhDO-containing bacteria co-exist and play a role in the oxidative degradation of less chlorinated and completely dechlorinated products in the PCDD/F-dechlorinating process, thereby achieving the apparent complete dechlorination of PCDD/Fs. PMID:22791044

  2. Influence of the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 on the bioavailability of solid and sorbed dibenzofuran.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J M; Wick, L Y; Harms, H

    2001-05-15

    The effect of the nonionic surfactant Brij 35 on the bioavailability of solid and Teflon-sorbed dibenzofuran for Sphingomonas sp. strain HH19k was studied in simple model systems. Growth with dibenzofuran and dibenzofuran-specific oxygen uptake in surfactant-free media and with Brij 35 above the critical micelle concentration (cmc) were compared with dissolution and desorption in the absence of bacteria. Brij 35 accelerated dissolution and biodegradation of solid dibenzofuran by a factor of 2. It also enhanced the initial desorption rate of dibenzofuran from Teflon by this factor. Continuously decreasing desorption rates were attributed to slow diffusion of dibenzofuran inside Teflon, leading to depletion of dibenzofuran in the exterior of the Teflon particles. Surprisingly, Brij 35 slowed the initial biodegradation of desorbing dibenzofuran. We propose two processes that led to low bioavailability of sorbed dibenzofuran in the presence of surfactant. First, desorbing dibenzofuran rapidly accumulated in surfactant micelles, leading to reduced truly water-dissolved dibenzofuran concentration as the factor controlling the biodegradation rate. Second, Brij 35 suppressed the contact between bacteria and Teflon. This increased the average diffusion distance of dibenzofuran to the bacteria, which in turn flattened the gradient of the dissolved dibenzofuran concentration between the sorbent and the cells as the driving force for desorption.

  3. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL-1. Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32–37, 20–24, and 16–18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log KLB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal. PMID:27375673

  4. Effect of a heavy atom on photophysical deactivation of triplet states of tetrachloro-substituted derivatives of dibenzo- p-dioxine of symmetry D 2 h and C 2 h

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. G.; Nurmukhametov, R. N.; Serov, S. A.; Gastilovich, E. A.

    2000-07-01

    The line phosphorescence spectrum of 1,3,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxine is detected at 4.2 K and interpreted. The relative contributions of spin-orbit (SO) and vibronic-spin-orbit (VSO) interactions to the phosphorescence rate constant k ph = k SO + k VSO are determined from the intensities of the vibronic lines. The role of different heteroatoms in the SO interaction is analyzed using model calculations. The anomalous heavy atom effect, which is often observed in the ππ* phosphorescence of molecules upon variation heteroatoms, is interpreted.

  5. Evaluation of dioxin-like activities in settled house dust from Vietnamese E-waste recycling sites: relevance of polychlorinated/brominated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans and dioxin-like PCBs.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen M; Suzuki, Go; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Trang, Pham T K; Viet, Pham H; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the human exposure to the ensemble of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling, especially from a toxic effect standpoint. This study evaluated the TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in persistent extracts of settled house dust from two Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX), combined with chemical analysis of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, PBDD/Fs, and monobromo PCDD/Fs to determine their TEQ contribution. The CALUX-TEQ levels in house dust ranged from 370 to 1000 pg g(-1) in the EWRSs, approximately 3.5-fold higher than in the urban control site. In EWRS house dust, the concentrations of the unregulated PBDFs were 7.7-63 ng g(-1), an order of magnitude higher than those of regulated DRCs (PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs), and PBDFs were also principal CALUX-TEQ contributors (4.2-22%), comparable to PCDD/Fs (8.1-29%). The CALUX-TEQ contribution of DRCs varied, possibly depending on thermal processing activities (higher PCDD/F-TEQs) and PBDE content in the waste (higher PBDF-TEQs). However, the percentage of unknown dioxin-like activities was high in all dust samples, indicating large contribution from unidentified DRCs and/or synergy among contaminants. Estimates of TEQ intake from dust ingestion suggest that children in the EWRSs may be adversely affected by DRCs from dust.

  6. Suppressive effects of caraway (Carum carvi) extracts on 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin-dependent gene expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 in the rat H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Naderi-Kalali, B; Allameh, A; Rasaee, M J; Bach, H-J; Behechti, A; Doods, K; Kettrup, A; Schramm, K-W

    2005-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is among the cytochrome P450 classes known to convert xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to toxic and/or carcinogenic metabolites. Suppression of CYP1A1 over expression by certain compounds is implicated in prevention of cancer caused by chemical carcinogens. Chemopreventive agents containing high levels of flavonoids and steroids-like compounds are known to suppress CYP1A1. This study was carried out for assessment of the genomic and proteomic effects of caraway (Carum carvi) extracts containing high levels of both flavonoids and steroid-like substances on ethoxy resorufin dealkylation (EROD) activity and CYP1A1 at mRNA levels. Rat hepatoma cells co-treated with a CYP1A1 inducer i.e. TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and different preparations of caraway extracts at concentrations of 0, 0.13, 1.3, and 13 microM in culture medium. After incubation (37 degrees C and 7% CO2 for 20 h), changes in EROD specific activity recorded and compared in cells under different treatments. The results show that caraway seed extract prepared in three different organic solvents suppressed the enzyme activity in hepatoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts added above 0.13 microM could significantly inhibit EROD activity and higher levels of each extract (1.3 and 13 microM) caused approximately 10-fold suppression in the enzyme activity. Accordingly, data obtained from the RT-PCR (TaqMan) clearly showed the suppressive effects of plant extract on CYP1A1-related mRNA expression. These data clearly show that substances in caraway seeds extractable in organic solvents can potentially reverse the TCDD-dependent induction in cytochrome P450 1A1.

  7. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal.

  8. Increased PCDD/F formation in the bottom ash from fires of CCA-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Tame, N W; Dlugogorski, B Z; Kennedy, E M

    2003-03-01

    Bottom ash that was the result of the combustion of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood under controlled fire conditions showed an increase of several orders of magnitude in the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), compared to that of untreated timber. Wood that has been pressure treated with CCA contains copper (II), which is known to catalyse the so-called de novo formation of PCDD/Fs. Comparable levels of PCDD/Fs would be expected in residual ash from burning CCA-treated wood in backyard fires, stoves and wood heaters, as a consequence of similar combustion conditions.

  9. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lichota, Gillian B; McAdie, Malcolm; Ross, Peter S

    2004-02-01

    We characterized legacy and new contaminants in the highly endangered Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) marmot and found generally low blood and fat concentrations of a complex mixture of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in their tissues. The dominance of the more volatile alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) pesticides and the lesser chlorinated PCB congeners suggests that atmospheric processes largely explain the contamination of this high-altitude herbivore.

  10. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A as a biomarker for hydrocarbon and oxidant pollutants in fish: Relevance of identification of specific mechanism(s) of induction and potential effects on homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharewski, T.R.; McCallum, G.P.; Bend, J.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The induction of hepatic and extrahepatic P450 1A isozymes in fish and mammals is used as a biomarker for certain classes of toxic environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), planar polychlorinated (PCBs) and polybrominated (PBBs) biphenyl congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). However, recent data from the laboratory have shown that rat pulmonary P450 1A1 can also be induced by arsenite or liver transplantation (via a stress mechanism), raising the possibility that regulation of this biomarker can occur by mechanisms other than Ah receptor-mediated increases of CYP1A gene transcription.

  11. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate.

  12. Dioxin emissions from industrial boilers burning hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, C.; Olexsey, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory analyses for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF) were performed on waste fuels and stack gas emission samples from five industrial boiler test sites cofiring liquid hazardous wastes. Analytical results indicate that, apart from creosote sludge, chlorinated wastes were void of PCDD and PCDF compounds at detection limits in the range of 0.045 to 4.17 ppb. Creosote sludge cofired with wood waste in a stoker boiler was found to contain 7.4 ppm of total dioxins, primarily hepta and octa homologs.

  13. Investigation of the distribution of organochlorine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds in the lower Columbia River using semipermeable membrane devices

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.A.; Gale, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The authors used semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to sample water, and achieved sub-parts-per-quintillion detection limits. They deployed SPMDs during 1997 low-flow conditions and 1998 high-flow conditions at nine main-stem sites and seven tributary sites, spanning approximately 700 miles of the Columbia River. They also collected streambed sediment from three sites. SPMD extracts and sediments were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzo-furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and related transformation products, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  15. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehlenschläger, Jörg

    Fische und Fischerzeugnisse lassen sich gemäß den "Leitsätzen für Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" des Deutschen Lebensmittelbuches einteilen. Tiefgefrorene Fische werden von den "Leitsätzen für tiefgefrorene Fische, Krebs- und Weichtiere und Erzeugnisse daraus" und Salate mit Fleisch von Fischen, Krebs- und/oder Weichtieren durch Abschnitt II.B. der "Leitsätze für Feinkostsalate" abgedeckt. Zu nennen sind: Frischfische, Getrocknete Fische, Räucherfische, Gesalzene Fische, Erzeugnisse aus gesalzenen Fischen, Anchosen, Marinaden, Bratfischwaren, Kochfischwaren, Fischerzeugnisse in Gelee, Pasteurisierte Fischerzeugnisse, Fischdauerkonserven, Erzeugnisse aus Surimi, Krebstiere und Krebstiererzeugnisse, Weichtiere und Weichtiererzeugnisse und tiefgekühlte Fischereierzeugnisse.

  16. Mikrodaten und statistische Auswertungsmethoden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hujer, Reinhard

    Mit der zunehmenden Verfügbarkeit immer größerer Querschnitts- und Längschnittsdatensätze für Personen, Haushalte und Betriebe sowie deren Verknüpfungen hat sich die mikroökonometrische Forschung in den vergangenen Jahren rasant weiterentwickelt. Dies gilt sowohl aus methodischer als auch aus empirischer, anwendungsorientierter Sicht. Mikrodaten und mikroökonometrische Ansätze dienen dazu, aktuelle, politikrelevante Fragen aufzugreifen, sie zu analysieren und fundierte politische Empfehlungen zu geben, beispielsweise im Rahmen der Arbeitsmarkt- und Sozialpolitik, der Finanzanalyse und der Marketingforschung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) und deren Mitglieder haben sich in den Ausschüssen und in Hauptversammlungen kontinuierlich mit den Weiterentwicklungen der mikroökonometrischen Methodik und den empirischen Anwendungen befasst. Zahlreiche Publikationen von Mitgliedern der DStatG haben entscheidend zum kritischen Diskurs und zum wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt in diesem Bereich beigetragen.

  17. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes.

  18. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion.

  19. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  20. Automated milk fat extraction for the analyses of persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Archer, Jeffrey C; Jenkins, Roy G

    2017-01-15

    We have utilized an automated acid hydrolysis technology, followed by an abbreviated Soxhlet extraction technique to obtain fat from whole milk for the determination of persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls. The process simply involves (1) pouring the liquid milk into the hydrolysis beaker with reagents and standards, (2) drying the obtained fat on a filter paper and (3) obtaining pure fat via the modified Soxhlet extraction using 100mL of hexane per sample. This technique is in contrast to traditional manually intense liquid-liquid extractions and avoids the preparatory step of freeze-drying the samples for pressurized liquid extractions. Along with these extraction improvements, analytical results closely agree between the methods, thus no quality has been compromised. The native spike (n=12) and internal standard (n=24) precision and accuracy results are within EPA Methods 1613 and 1668 limits. While the median (n=6) Toxic Equivalency Quotient (TEQ) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans and the concentration of the marker polychlorinated biphenyls show a percent difference of 1% and 12%, respectively, compared to 315 previously analyzed milk samples at the same laboratory using liquid-liquid extraction. During our feasibility studies, both egg and fish tissue show substantial promise using this technique as well.

  1. Deca-brominated diphenyl ether destruction and PBDD/F and PCDD/F emissions from coprocessing deca-BDE mixture-contaminated soils in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Xiaohua; Liu, Wenbin

    2012-12-18

    The disposal of soil contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was studied using an industrial coprocessing cement kiln. Two tests, Test 1 and Test 2, studied the destruction, removal, and emissions of PBDE in soils with PBDE concentrations of 4160 and 25,000 mg/kg, respectively. Emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also quantified. The PBDE destruction and removal efficiencies for Tests 1 and 2 were 99.9997% and 99.9998%, respectively. PBDE stack gas concentrations were 39.1 and 85.9 ng/Nm³ for Tests 1 and 2, respectively. The mean PBDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations related to Tests 1 and 2 were 11.0 and 11.4 pg/Nm³, and PBDFs contributed 60.0-64.2% of the total PBDD/F concentrations. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD made the greatest contribution to the total PBDD/Fs, 40%, of all the homologues. The mean PCDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations in Tests 1 and 2 were 0.74 and 0.65 pg/Nm³. The total PBDE, PBDD/F, and PCDD/F TEQ at the kiln outlet was 0.006% and 0.001% of the feed material TEQ. Therefore, coprocessing heavily PBDE-contaminated soils in a cement kiln is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  2. Emission factors and congener-specific characterization of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from an off-road diesel engine using waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung; Yeh, C Kuei-Jyum

    2017-10-05

    Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends. The PCDD/Fs contributed 87.2% of total dioxin-like toxicity (PCDD/Fs+PCBs+PBDD/Fs) in the exhaust, while the PCBs and PBDD/Fs only contributed 8.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Compared with petroleum diesel, B20 (20vol% WCO-based biodiesel+80vol% diesel) reduced total toxicity by 46.5% for PCDD/Fs, 47.1% for PCBs, and 24.5% for PBDD/Fs, while B40 (40vol% WCO-based biodiesel+60vol% diesel) reduced it by 89.5% for PCDD/Fs, 57.1% for PCBs, and 63.2% for PBDD/Fs in POP emission factors. The use of WCO-based biodiesel not only solves the problem of waste oil disposal, but also lowers POP emissions from diesel generators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Destruction of the World Trade Center and PCBs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, and chlorinated biphenylenes in water, sediment, and sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Litten, Simon; McChesney, Dennis J; Hamilton, M C; Fowler, Brian

    2003-12-15

    Ash-laden runoff samples collected near Ground Zero soon after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) and subsequent fire demonstrate the release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dipheyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and tetra- and pentachlorinated biphenylenes (PCBPs) from the incident. Relative abundances of PCDD/F congeners in the runoff water and post-disaster lower Manhattan dust samples were different from those seen in pre-disaster NYC combined sewer outfall (CSO) samples. The WTC-related samples showed a greater relative abundance of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF than usually seen in CSOs, sludges, and treated wastewaters. This congener may be associated with certain types of incineration. Comparison of sediment and water samples collected in the lower Hudson River before and shortly after September 11, 2001 (9/11) showed no changes in PCB or PCDD/F concentrations or homologue profiles determined down to the parts per quadrillion range. Comparisons of ambient water samples collected post-9/11 with archived samples suggest that the WTC disaster did not significantly impact ambient concentrations of the target chemicals. Ambient concentrations of PBDD/Fs in New York Harbor are similar to those of PCDD/Fs, suggesting that these contaminants deserve increased scrutiny with respect to toxicity, sources, and fate in the environment.

  4. Formation of PCDD/Fs from Oxidation of 2-Monochlorophenol over an Fe2O3/Silica Surface

    PubMed Central

    Nganai, Shadrack; Lomnicki, Slawo; Dellinger, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The role of iron in surface-mediated formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from 2-chlorophenol (2-MCP) was investigated over the temperature range of 200 to 550°C under oxidative conditions. In order to compare and contrast with previous work on copper and ferric oxide-mediated pyrolysis of 2-MCP, identical reaction conditions were maintained (50 ppm 2-MCP, model fly-ash particles containing 5% Fe2O3 on silica). Observed products included dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), 1-monochlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1-MCDD), dibenzofuran (DF), 4,6-dichlorodibenzofuran (4,6-DCDF), 2,4– and 2,6-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, quinone, catechol, chloro-o-quinone, chlorocatechol and polychlorinated benzenes. Yields of DD and 1-MCDD were 2 and 5 times higher than under pyolysis conditions, respectively. Although 4,6-DCDF was the major PCDD/F product formed with a yield that was 2.5x greater than under pyrolysis, the yield of non-chlorinated DF, which was the dominant PCDD/F product under pyrolysis, decreased by a factor of 3. Furthermore, the ~2x higher yield of PCDDs under oxidative conditions resulted in a PCDD to PCDF ratio of 0.75 compared to a relatively low ratio of 0.39 previously observed under pyrolytic conditions. PMID:22525510

  5. Unintentional production of persistent chlorinated and brominated organic pollutants during iron ore sintering processes.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Mei; Li, Changliang; Chen, Yuan

    2017-06-05

    Iron ore sintering (SNT) processes are major sources of unintentionally produced chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). However, few studies of emissions of brominated POPs, such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), during SNT have been performed. Stack gas and fly ash samples from six typical SNT plants in China were collected and analyzed to determine the concentrations and profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PCNs, PBDD/Fs, and PBDEs, as well as any correlations among these compounds. The PCDD/F, PCB, PCN, PBDD/F, and PBDE emission factors were 2.47, 0.61, 552, 0.32, and 107μgt(-1), respectively (109, 4.07, 10.4, 4.41 and 0.02ng toxic equivalents t(-1), respectively). PCBs were the most abundant compounds by mass, while PCNs were the next most abundant, contributing 51% and 42% to the total POP concentration, respectively. However, PCDD/Fs were the dominant contributors to the chlorinated and brominated POP toxic equivalent concentrations, contributing 89% to the total toxic equivalent concentration. The PCDD/F and other chlorinated and brominated POP concentrations were positively correlated, indicating that chlorinated and brominated POP emissions could be synergistically decreased using the best available technologies/best environmental practices already developed for PCDD/Fs.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa FA-HZ1, an Efficient Dibenzofuran-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Fawad; Hu, Haiyang; Xu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas sp. FA-HZ1, an efficient dibenzofuran-degrading bacterium, was isolated from landfill leachate. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of strain FA-HZ1, which contains only one circular chromosome. The complete genome sequence will be essential for revealing the molecular mechanisms of dibenzofuran degradation. PMID:28209830

  7. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  8. Ingenieurgeologie: Grundlagen und Anwendung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genske, Dieter D.

    Geplünderter Planet? Die Ingenieurgeologie ist ein junges, interdisziplinäres Fachgebiet. Es befasst sich mit der Wechselwirkung zwischen Geosphäre und Mensch. Der Autor stellt Georisiken vor und diskutiert die Folgen menschlicher Eingriffe in die Natur. Er thematisiert aktuelle Herausforderungen und entwirft nachhaltige Lösungskonzepte für verschiedene Problembereiche: z.B. Naturgefahren wie Hangrutschungen und Bergfälle, die Ausbeute natürlicher Ressourcen, Bau- und Sanierungsvorhaben. Fallbeschreibungen und ausgearbeitete Beispiele vertiefen das Verständnis für diesen neuen, zukunftsweisenden Zweig der Wissenschaft.

  9. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  10. The OH-initiated atmospheric chemical reactions of polyfluorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: A comparative theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Pan, Xiaoxue; Wang, Zunyao

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric chemical reactions of some polyfluorinated dibenzofurans (PFDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), initiated by OH radical, were investigated by performing theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT) and B3LYP/6-311++G(2df,p) method. The obtained results indicate that OH addition reactions of PFDFs and PCDFs occurring at C1∼4 and CA sites are thermodynamic spontaneous changes and the branching ratio of the PF(C)DF-OH adducts is decided primarily by kinetic factor. The OH addition reactions of PFDFs taking place at fluorinated C1∼4 positions are kinetically comparable with those occurring at nonfluorinated C1∼4 positions, while OH addition reactions of PCDFs occurring at chlorinated C1∼4 sites are negligible. The total rate constants of the addition reactions of PFDFs or PCDFs become smaller with consecutive fluorination or chlorination, and substituting at C1 position has more adverse effects than substitution at other sites. The succedent O2 addition reactions of PF(C)DF-OH adducts are thermodynamic nonspontaneous processes under the atmospheric conditions, and have high Gibbs free energies of activation (ΔrG(≠)). The substituted dibenzofuranols are the primary oxidation products for PCDFs under the atmospheric conditions. However, other oxidative products may also be available for PFDFs besides substituted dibenzofuranols.

  11. A Dibenzofuran-Based Host Material for Blue Electrophosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Paul A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Qiao, Hong; Sapochak, Linda S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-09-14

    All reactions were performed using standard Schlenk techniques under an atmosphere of pre-purified argon. Dibenzofuran (≥ 99%) was purchased from Aldrich and sublimed in a cold finger prior to use. Bromine (99.5+%), chlorodiphenylphosphine (PPh2Cl, 98%), n-butyllithium (n-BuLi, 2.5 M sltn. in hexanes) and chloroform-d (CDCl3) were purchased from Aldrich and used without further purification. Methylene chloride, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexanes and anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF) were purchased through VWR and used without further purification. Methylene chloride for phosphorescent studies and chloroform for the bromination reaction were purchased from Fisher, distilled over CaH2 under argon, and deoxygenated by 3 freeze-pump-thaw cycles before use.

  12. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  13. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  14. Assessment of risk of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in marine and freshwater fish in Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Leung, K S; Wong, M H; Giesy, J; Cai, Z W; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-01-01

    Fish consumption is known to be beneficial to human health. However since the age of industrialization, the released/disposed chemical pollutants into water systems make fish a source of various environmental toxicants to humans. In oceanic cities with heavy industrial activities, fish products contribute the greatest proportion of exposure to pollutants. In this study, risks and potential effects of dioxins to health of coastal populations in the Pearl River Delta were assessed. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins