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Sample records for dibenzo-p-dioxine und dibenzofurane

  1. The toxicity of brominated and mixed-halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.W.D. |; Greim, H.

    1997-02-21

    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans can be formed under laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of flame retardants based on polybrominated biphenyls and biphenyl ethers. Their occurrence in the environment, however, is due to combustion processes such as municipal waste incineration and internal combustion engines. As these processes generally take place in the presence of an excess of chlorine, predominantly mixed brominated and chlorinated compounds have been identified so far in environmental samples. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor about as avidly as their chlorinated congeners and induce hepatic microsomal enzymes with comparable potency. The same holds true for mixed brominated-chlorinated compounds. Gross pathologic symptoms-hypothyroidism, thymic atrophy, wasting of body mass, lethality-also occur at doses that, on a molar concentration basis, are virtually identical to those seen with the chlorinated compounds. Their potency to induce malformations in mice following prenatal exposure is equivalent to that of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Possible activities as (co)carcinogens and endocrine disrupters have not been evaluated, but are likely to exist. Considering the overall similarity in action of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, environmental and health assessment should be based on molar body burdens without discrimination for the nature of the halogen. 107 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  2. OCCURRENCE OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, POLYBROMINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYBROMINATED DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the present study is to determine the concentrations and compositions of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) as contaminants in the commercial polybrominated diphenylether (PBDE) mixt...

  3. Evaluation of methodology for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hours to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up procedures using microcolumns of silica gel, alumina and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from this study satisfied QA/QC requirements for analytical data and demonstrated that the methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of these compounds in ambient air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also discussed.

  4. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  5. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  6. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  8. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors. PMID:10448567

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans formed from sucralose at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shujun; Liu, Guorui; Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a widely-used artificial high-intensity sweetener. Although doubts have been raised about the safety of sucralose by several researchers, it can still be found in a broad range of foods and beverages worldwide, including in baked goods. Sucralose may decompose at high temperatures, and participate in chlorination reactions, generating highly toxic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that heating sucralose at high temperatures in stainless steel or other metal utensils in the presence of rust (Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CuO) produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs were found in smoke generated during the heating of sucralose and in the residues after heating. CuO enhanced the PCDD/F yield in comparison with Al2O3 and Fe2O3. PMID:24126490

  10. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors.

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  12. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  13. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively. PMID:25083749

  14. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively.

  15. Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Matsuda, Muneaki; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from Changwon and Masan Cities, Korea, and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). Nearly all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs were detected in all samples. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEGs) in soils ranged from 35 to 121,400 pg/g, dry weight, and from 0.2 to 3720 pg of I-TEQ/g, respectively. On the basis of guidelines for TEQ concentrations established in Germany and the United States, 9 of 23 soil samples (39% of the total samples analyzed) could not be expected to pose human health hazards. The rest of 61% of soils need measures such as investigations of source identification, soil decontamination, and/or soil removal. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were greater at or near four industrial sites, which are concerned with the steel industry, petrochemical-related industry, and industrial waste incineration, than other areas. This indicates the presence of potential source areas. Soil collected from a site 50 m from an open-burning industrial waste incinerator in an industrial complex was heavily contaminated, containing a total concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 121,400 pg/g, dry weight. PCDDs/DFs were also detected in soils from the top of a 200 m mountain indicating a wide dispersal of PCDDs/DFs by atmospheric transport from point source areas. The congener pattern and relative proportions of PCDFs in soils suggest that commercial PCB preparations such as Kanechlors may be one of the sources. The wide range of PCDD/DF isomers detected in soils from many locations also suggests a multitude of sources, in addition to commercial PCBs, such as incineration of industrial wastes such as car tires, scrap wires, plastics, papers, and emission of automobile exhaust.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions from an industrial park clustered with metallurgical industries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenshi B; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-01-30

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from an industrial park operated as Taiwan's center of metallurgical industries were investigated. The characteristics of mean PCDD/F I-TEQ concentrations, congener profiles and emission factors of each source were studied over samples of stack flue gases of individual sources. Different characteristics of congener profiles and large variations of emission factors of secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs) were observed. The mean emission factors of electric arc furnaces were comparable to those for ALSs and much greater than those of municipal solid waste incinerators and sinter plants, but still less than that of clinical waste incinerators. Annual PCDD/F emission contribution of each source was estimated, raising critical concerns over the overall PCDD/F emissions from metallurgical processes. The metallurgical industries altogether contributed approximately 98.1% of the total annual emissions, while waste incinerators only 1.9%. The contributions by sinter plants and metallurgical industries to the total annual emissions of the Park were much higher than the corresponding national averages of Taiwan. The combined dioxin emissions from the entire metallurgical processes and their controls should be seriously envisaged by industrial parks devoted to metal productions.

  17. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from chemical manufacturers and waste disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Muto, H; Saito, K; Shinada, M; Takizawa, Y

    1991-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in various source and environmental samples obtained from eight chemical manufacturers producing agricultural chemicals, synthetic dye, or resin and eight chemical waste disposal facilities. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs ranged from 3.0 to 3504 ng/g for PCDDs and from 1.2 to 1668 ng/g for PCDFs in fly ash. Their concentrations in emission were in the ranges of 21.8 to 3205 ng/m3 for PCDDs and not detected to 4344 ng/m3 for PCDFs. PCDD and PCDF concentrations were higher in fly and bottom ashes and in emissions from two manufacturers that incinerate waste plastics than in those from other manufacturers. For emission and liquid samples from the manufacturers. For emission and liquid samples from the manufacturers of agricultural chemicals, significantly high concentrations of tetra-CDDs were detected. Furthermore, the high concentrations of PCDFs, especially hepta- and octa-CDF congeners, existed in emissions from waste incinerators that manufacture rubber. Among manufacturers and disposal facilities, the total emission equivalent (2.94 ng/m3) of PCDDs and PCDFs was highest for a certain manufacturer of agricultural chemicals, showing that more 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were present in their emissions.

  18. Formation of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin and their hydroxylated derivatives from catechol.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-21

    We present, in this study, mechanistic and kinetic accounts of the formation of dibenzofuran (DF), dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) and their hydroxylated derivatives (OHs-DF/OHs-DD) from the catechol (CT) molecule, as a model compound for phenolic constituents in biomass. Self-condensation of two CT molecules produces predominantly a DD molecule via open- and closed-shell corridors. Coupling modes involving the o-semiquinone radical and the CT molecule (o-SQ/CT) generate two direct structural blocks for the formation of OHs-DF/OHs-DD structures, ether-type intermediates and di-keto moieties. The calculated reaction rate constants indicate that the fate of ether-type intermediates is to make hydroxylated diphenyl ethers rather than to undergo cyclisation reactions leading to the formation of preDF structures. Unimolecular loss of a H or OH moiety from a pivotal carbon in these hydroxylated diphenyl ethers then produces hydroxylated and non-hydroxylated DD molecules. Formation of OHs-DF initiated by o(C)-o(C) cross-linkages involving o-SQ/o-SQ and o-SQ/CT reactions incurs very similar reaction and activation enthalpies encountered in the formation of chlorinated DFs from chlorophenols.

  19. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane.

  20. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.E. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from incineration of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vejerano, Eric P; Holder, Amara L; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-05-01

    Disposal of some nanomaterial-laden waste through incineration is inevitable, and nanomaterials' influence on combustion byproduct formation under high-temperature, oxidative conditions is not well understood. This work reports the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from incineration of paper and plastic waste containing various nanomaterials, including titania, nickel oxide, silver, ceria, iron oxide, quantum dots, and C60-fullerene, in a laboratory-scale furnace. The presence of nanomaterials in the waste stream resulted in higher emissions of some PAH species and lower emissions of others, depending on the type of waste. The major PAH species formed were phenanthrene and anthracene, and emissions were sensitive to the amount of nanomaterials in the waste. Generally, there were no significant differences in emission factors for the larger PAH species when nanomaterials were added to the waste. The total PAH emission factors were on average ~6 times higher for waste spiked with nanomaterials v. their bulk counterparts. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) waste were not detected; however, chlorinated furans were formed at elevated concentrations with wastes containing silver and titania nanomaterials, and toxicity was attributable mainly to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. The combination of high specific surface area and catalytic, including electrocatalytic, properties of nanomaterials might be responsible for affecting the formation of toxic pollutants during incineration.

  2. Thermal treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Shih, Shun-I; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Thermal treatment technology was used to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from heavily contaminated soil. For a soil with an original PCDD/F content of 35,970ng International Toxic Equivalents (I-TEQ)/kg, >99.99% PCDD/F removal efficiency was obtained with a primary furnace at two different treatment temperatures (750 degrees C and 850 degrees C), while a secondary furnace at 1200 degrees C gave >98% decomposition efficiency. The total PCDD/F I-TEQ contents in treated soils at 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C were 1.56ngI-TEQ/kg and 2.15ngI-TEQ/kg, respectively, which were far below the soil pollution standard of Taiwan (1000ngI-TEQ/kg soil). Although air pollution control devices had significant effects on the removal of PCDD/Fs, the total I-TEQ concentrations in the upstream flue gas of PUF cartridge at 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C (2.61ngI-TEQ/Nm(3) and 2.38ngI-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively) were still higher than the stationary emission limit of the Taiwan EPA (0.5ngI-TEQ/Nm(3)). The above results also suggested that additional APCDs, such as activated carbon injection in front of the filter are needed to enhance PCDD/F removal efficiency.

  3. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane. PMID:26476048

  4. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J M

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1 classification) on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans derived from follow-up of workers who had been heavily exposed in industrial accidents and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The evaluation also considered the following supporting evidence: TCDD is a multisite carcinogen in experimental animals and has been shown by several lines of evidence to act through a mechanism involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; this receptor is highly conserved in an evolutionary sense and functions the same way in humans as in experimental animals; tissue concentrations of TCDD are similar in heavily exposed human populations in which an increased overall cancer risk was observed and in exposed rats that developed tumors in carcinogenicity tests. Other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, the nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were evaluated as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (group 3). PMID:9599727

  5. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p < 0.01). The mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p < 0.01) and length (n = 11, R = 0.618, p < 0.05) of the species. The fish likely accumulated the contaminants through ingestion of other organisms or the sediment. However, after the pollutants entered a fish, they exhibited distinct accumulation patterns because of their differing chemical properties. Specifically, the mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  6. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from various industrial sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Full; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2006-12-01

    This study characterized the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the stack flue gases of 17 industrial sources, which were classified into 10 categories. The results show that the mean PCDD/PCDF concentration of secondary zinc smelter (Zn-S) and secondary copper smelter (Cu-S) is 2.44 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm3 (N represents normal conditions at 0 degrees C, 760 mmHg), which was found to be significantly greater than that of industrial waste incinerators (mean concentration = 0.15 ng I-TEQ/Nm3). These results imply that the controlling of secondary metallurgical melting processes is more important than industrial waste incineration for the reduction of PCDD/PCDF emissions. The mean emission factors of cement production, Zn-S and Cu-S, are 0.052, 1.99, and 1.73 microg I-TEQ/t product, respectively. For industrial waste incineration, the mean emission factors of waste rubber, waste liquor, waste sludge, industrial waste solid (IWI)-1, IWI-2, IWI-3, and IWI-4 are 0.752, 0.435, 0.760, 6.64, 1.67, 2.38, and 0.094 microg I-TEQ/t feed, respectively. Most of the PCDD/PCDF emission factors established in this study are less than those reported in previous studies, which could be because of the more stringent regulations for PCDD/PCDF emissions in recent years. PMID:17195489

  7. Accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in liver of control laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Vanden Heuvel, J P; Clark, G C; Tritscher, A m; Lucier, G W

    1994-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls belong to a class of compounds, the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to the existence of a common mechanism of action, i.e., binding to the Ah receptor, the activity of members of this class of compounds is generally expressed relative to the prototypical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). In the present studies we examined the presence of liver of untreated PCDFs in standard laboratory feed and in the liver of untreated rats at three different ages (60, 140, and 200 days) in terms of concentration and in toxic equivalents (TEQs, TEF x concentration). Feed was shown to contain trace amounts of PCDDs and PCDFs and control rat liver was shown to contain several PCDD and PCDF congeners in terms of concentration of congener and concentration of TEQs contributed by that congener. The total concentration of TEQs increased with increasing age in rat liver, going from 20 ppt TEQ at 60 days to 78 ppt TEQ at 200 days of age. This accumulation in dioxin-like activity was due primarily to PCDFs. In particular the congener 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran accrued in untreated rat liver accounting for approximately 80% of the total TEQ at 200 days of age. These studies affirm the pervasive presence of PHAHs and suggest prudence in evaluating chronic rat studies in which interference from background levels of PCDDs and PCDFs may be a factor.

  8. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. PMID:25129161

  9. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens.

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Long-Full Lin; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the stack flue gases of 17 industrial sources, which were classified into 10 categories. The results show that the mean PCDD/PCDF concentration of secondary zinc smelter (Zn-S) and secondary copper smelter (Cu-S) is 2.44 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm{sup 3} (N represents normal conditions at 0{sup o}C, 760 mmHg), which was found to be significantly greater than that of industrial waste incinerators (mean concentration = 0.15 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3}). These results imply that the controlling of secondary metallurgical melting processes is more important than industrial waste incineration for the reduction of PCDD/PCDF emissions. The mean emission factors of cement production, Zn-S and Cu-S, are 0.052, 1.99, and 1.73 {mu}g I-TEQ/t product, respectively. The cement plant uses bituminous coal as fuel. For industrial waste incineration, the mean emission factors of waste rubber, waste liquor, waste sludge, industrial waste solid (IWI)-1, IWI-2, IWI-3, and IWI-4 are 0.752, 0.435, 0.760, 6.64, 1.67, 2.38, and 0.094 {mu}g I-TEQ/t feed, respectively. Most of the PCDD/PCDF emission factors established in this study are less than those reported in previous studies, which could be because of the more stringent regulations for PCDD/PCDF emissions in recent years. 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in fishermen in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Kiviranta, Hannu; Vartiainen, Terttu; Tuomisto, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishermen from the Finnish Baltic Sea area and fishermen fishing in inland lakes. The concentrations clearly correlated with the frequency of fish meals and consumption of Baltic fatty fish. The body burden of PCDD/Fs reached the median level of 170 pg/g toxic equivalents (I-TEq) in fat for Baltic Sea fishermen, with the maximum being 420 pg/g. Results for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (range = 4.9-110 pg/g fat) showed that lifetime exposure in a population consuming much Baltic fatty fish can reach the levels of exposures seen in Seveso, Italy, in 1976. After we summed the PCB-TEqs, the total median exposure of Baltic Sea fishermen increased to 290 pg/g TEq in fat, and the highest concentration was 880 pg/g. There was a noted individual variation in fishermen's PCDD/F congener patterns, and it was possible to associate this variation with congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in the fish species that the fisherman reported they had consumed. Linear regression models for ln WHO(PCDD/F)-TEq, ln WHO(PCB)-TEq, and ln total WHO-TEq, from the World Health Organization, explained 48%, 60%, and 53% of the variability, respectively. Age was the only significant predictor of ln WHO(PCDD/F)-TEq, whereas age, amount of fish eaten, and place of residence were significant predictors of ln WHO(PCB)-TEq, and ln total WHO-TEq. PMID:11940453

  12. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured. Background levels of these compounds in the ambient air were also determined. Total PCDDs, PCDFs, TBDFs, and PeBDFs were detected in a low concentration range of 0.3 to 3.0 pg/cu m.

  13. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana; Päpke, Olaf; Bergman, Ake

    2005-12-01

    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) together with its major metabolites. The objectives of the study were to assess the presence of major organohalogen contaminants in butter, to trace geographical differences, and to determine toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in butter. The highest PCDD/F concentrations were found in butter from Korea with an average of 1.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid weight (l.w.). from PCDD/F and an additional contribution from the non- and mono-ortho-PCBs of 0.55 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Belgian butter showed average levels of 0.53 and 1.2 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, respectively, but one sample of Belgium butter had a total TEQ level as high as 4.0 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Three out of five butter samples from Portugal showed similarly high PCDD/F TEQ levels. The sigmaPCB levels in European butter appeared to be somewhat higher than in the samples from the rest of the world. The average contribution of CB-153 to the total PCB concentration was 22% (SD 6.4, coefficient of variation 29%). Generally, the PCBs contributed around 60% of the total TEQ value, with CB-126 contributing approximately half of this value. This shows the important TEQ contribution from dioxinlike PCBs to the total TEQs. The highest HCB levels were found in butter samples from Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Slovenia. Low levels of HCB in butter were generally found in the Southern Hemisphere. Butter samples from countries from Eastern Europe had elevated sigmaDDT concentrations, with a particularly high concentration in Ukraine butter, followed by some Russian samples, Brazil, and the U.S. PMID:16521833

  14. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers in Japanese human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Won; Fujimaki, T Susumu; Kitamura, Kimiyoshi; Hashimoto, Shunji; Ito, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-03-01

    Human adipose samples collected in Tokyo, Japan in 1970 and 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and the concentrations in the two groups were compared. As far as we know, the concentrations of the PBDD/Fs in adipose tissue from the general Japanese population are reported for the first time. Three PBDD/F congeners were found in the following adipose tissues: 2,3,7,8-TeBDD, 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF. The median concentrations (ranges) of three PBDD/Fs in 1970 and 2000 were 5.1 (3.4-8.3) and 3.4 (1.9-5.3) pg/g lipid wt (l.w.), respectively. For PBDEs, seven PBDE congeners were determined in the following samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5',6-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-183). Median concentrations (ranges) of PBDEs showed a significant increase from 29.2 (6.8-78.4) pg/g l.w. in 1970 to 1288 (466-2,753) pg/g l.w. in 2000. BDE-47, the major congener of PBDEs, was 56.2% and 35.6% of the total in 1970 and 2000, respectively, whereas the BDE-153 was < 1% and 29.7% of the total in 1970 and 2000, respectively. This may indicate that the source of PBDEs had changed during this period. Further analysis of archived human samples from 1970 to 2000 is needed to describe the details of the contamination trends of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the Japanese population. Furthermore, PBDD/F monitoring, particularly 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, may give more toxicological information based on TeCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs).

  15. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) isomer patterns from municipal waste combustion: formation mechanism fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae-Yong; Choi, Kum-Chan; Mulholland, James A

    2006-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) byproducts can be formed in combustion systems by a variety of mechanisms. While total PCDD/F emissions and, to a lesser extent, homologue distributions from incinerators have been found to vary widely depending on combustion conditions, PCDD/F isomer distributions do not. Formation mechanisms can be grouped into two general categories: condensation of precursors, such as chlorinated phenols, and formation from particulate carbon, termed de novo synthesis. In addition to these mechanisms, chlorination and dechlorination reactions may affect isomer patterns. In this work, isomer patterns from field and laboratory municipal waste combustion samples are compared with computed thermodynamic distributions and those from the following experimental investigations: both gas-phase and metal-catalyzed condensation of chlorinated phenols, chlorination of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran, and dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran. PCDD/F isomer patterns produced by different formation mechanisms in controlled experiments are distinct and robust, largely unaffected by combustion conditions. PCDD isomer patterns from municipal waste combustion are most similar to those produced by CuCl(2)-catalyzed phenol condensation from 10 chlorinated phenols. PCDF isomer patterns are most similar to those produced by chlorination and dechlorination.

  17. Microbial degradation of dibenzofuran, fluorene, and dibenzo-p-dioxin by staphylococcus auriculans DBF63

    SciTech Connect

    Monna, L.; Omori, Toshio; Kodama, Tohru )

    1993-01-01

    Polychlorinated derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) and dibezonfuran (DBF), well known for their toxicity and mutagenicity, have created serious environmental contamination problems. They are formed during combustion of dust or bleaching of pulp as well as production of halogen-containing aromatics such as herbicides. Information on the microbial degradation of these compounds is limited. This papers describes the isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus auriculans DBF63, which can be grown on either DBF or FN as the sole source of carbon and energy. The resting cell reaction of DD is also investigated, leading to proposed metabolic degradation pathways of DBF, FN, and DD. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  18. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  19. FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS OVER FLY ASH: INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To offer a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) parameter for plant operation control, the on-line estimation of PCDD/Fs emissions by surrogates like chlorophenols is useful. Formation of PCDD/Fs over fly ash was studied in an isothermal (310 degree...

  20. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  1. INCLUSION OF 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS IN U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290

    EPA Science Inventory

    13C12-labeled mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and -chlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) standards have been tested for their applicability to standard EPA sampling and analytical Methods 0023A/8290. These methods target for analysis only the tetra- through octa-C...

  2. The effect of dibenzo-p-dioxin- and dibenzofuran-contaminated soil on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants, highly toxic environmental pollutants that include hydrophobic compounds with the tendency to bioaccumulate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to PCDD/Fs-contaminated soil, and changes in their lipophilic structures and the gene expression of their defense molecules were followed. Damage to the intestinal wall and adjacent chloragogenous tissue was observed. Further, the up-regulation of the expression of several genes was detected. On the basis of these results, the mechanism of the impact of PCDD/Fs on earthworms has been proposed. Dioxins that accumulate in the lipophilic structures cause an increase in reactive oxidative species that triggers oxidative stress followed by the gene expression of two molecules that play a role in protection against oxidant toxicity, calreticulin (CRT) and Hsp70. Moreover, the effect of microbial biomass on the expression of coelomic cytolytic factor (CCF), a pattern recognition receptor, was also observed.

  3. Modeling study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans behavior in flue gases under electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Gennady

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the electron beam treatment of industrial flue gases for the removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides was investigated as applied to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) using methods of mathematical modeling. The proposed kinetic model of the process includes mechanism of PCDD/Fs decomposition caused by their interaction with OH radicals generated in the flue gases under the electron beam (EB) irradiation as well as PCDD/Fs formation from unburned aromatic compounds. The model allows to predict the main features of the process, which are observed in pilot plant installations, as well as to evaluate the process efficiency. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data. PMID:27258900

  4. Isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in incinerator-related environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, A.; Ito, H.; Morita, M.

    1987-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranging from tetra- to octachloro congeners in ash and fly ash from incinerators, river water, effluent water from incinerators, groundwater, soil, and sediment were determined isomer specifically by high-resolution gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry in order to manifest an environmental situation polluted with those compounds in Japan. The most toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was detected only in fly ash. In many samples, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin had the highest abundance in PCDDs, and heptachlorodibenzofurans had the highest abundance in PCDFs. Gas chromatographic patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in all samples were compared with each other by use of the pattern similarity method in order to classify the pollution pattern with PCDDs and PCDFs. Gas chromatographic patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in fly ash, effluent water, and sediment were different from each other.

  5. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  6. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, O; Babayemi, J O; Tysklind, M; Osibanjo, O; Weber, R; Watson, A; Schlummer, M; Lundstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings were sampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content. PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected in BFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentration of 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels were highest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels of PBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levels reported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequently exceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levels are likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEs during production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processes responsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE) were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPE content. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrations around 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated with TBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities-probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics. It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiled in Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The total PBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historic PBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQ values of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention's provisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Due to the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs, more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fs in stockpiles are needed.

  7. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  8. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided. PMID:25510612

  9. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in e-waste plastic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, O; Babayemi, J O; Tysklind, M; Osibanjo, O; Weber, R; Watson, A; Schlummer, M; Lundstedt, S

    2015-10-01

    Plastics from cathode ray tube (CRT) casings were sampled in Nigeria and analysed for their polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PBDD/F) content. PBDD/Fs, consisting mainly of PBDFs, were detected in BFR containing plastic with a median (mean) concentration of 18,000 ng/g (41,000 ng/g). The PBDD/Fs levels were highest in samples containing PBDEs, but the levels of PBDFs were two orders of magnitude higher than the levels reported in the technical PBDE mixtures and where frequently exceeding 1000 μg/g of PBDE content. These higher levels are likely to arise from additional transformation of PBDEs during production, use, recycling, or storage, but the processes responsible were not identified in this study. PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing1,2-bistribromophenoxyethane (TBPE) were dominated by tetrabrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TBDDs) with concentrations around 10 μg/g of the TBPE content. The PBDD/Fs in CRT casings containing tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) were found at concentrations around 0.1 μg/g of TBBPA levels. Casings treated with TBPE or TBBPA often contained PBDEs (and PBDF) as impurities-probably originating from recycled e-waste plastics. It was estimated that the 237,000 t of CRT casings stockpiled in Nigeria contain between 2 and 8 t of PBDD/Fs. The total PBDD/F contamination in polymers arising from total historic PBDE production/use is estimated in the order of 1000 t. TEQ values of CRT samples frequently exceeded the Basel Convention's provisional low POPs content of 15 ng TEQ/g. Due to the significant risks to health associated with PBDD/Fs, more detailed studies on the exposure routes from PBDD/Fs in stockpiles are needed. PMID:26347415

  10. Encapsulation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in Ba(2+)-alginate to form coated micro-beads and their application to the pre-concentration/elimination of dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Fugetsu, Bunshi; Satoh, Shuya; Iles, Alexander; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Nishi, Norio; Watari, Fumio

    2004-07-01

    We report preliminary data on the first use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes as adsorbents for the pre-concentration/elimination of dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and biphenyl from contaminated water.

  11. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  12. Exposure of arc-furnace-plant workers to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Po-Chin; Hsieh, Chia-Yi; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) levels in electric-arc-furnace workers according to their corresponding occupational exposure. In addition, the ambient PCDD/Fs of the work environment were measured to provide additional support for the exposure and accumulation inside the electric arc furnace. The ambient PCDD/F concentrations inside the electric arc furnace were 1.557-1.917 pg-TEQ/Nm(3), 5-24 folds higher than those outside (0.080-0.385 pg-TEQ/N m(3)). In addition, higher average serum levels were measured in the workers with high occupational dioxin exposure (24.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) than in those with lower occupational dioxin exposure (13.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). Higher PCDFs/PCDDs ratios were found in serum samples from high-exposure groups than in low-exposure groups. The higher ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs was also found in ambient samples consistent with other metallurgical processes reported previously. Our results suggest that PCDD/Fs exposure exits in the smelting process of electric arc furnace, and the occupational hygiene should be taken more seriously concern in that workplace.

  13. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future. PMID:23492812

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human tissues, meat, fish, and wildlife samples from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K S; Kannan, K; Paramasivan, O N; Shanmuga Sundaram, V P; Nakanishi, J; Masunaga, S

    2001-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in tissues of humans, fishes, chicken, lamb, goat, predatory birds, and Ganges River dolphins collected from various locations in India. PCDDs/DFs were found in most of the samples analyzed with the liver of spotted owlet containing the highest concentration of 3,300 pg/g, fat wt. 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were found in human fattissues at concentrations ranging from 170 to 1,300 pg/g, fat wt. Concentrations of PCDDs were generally greaterthan those of PCDFs in human tissues, fishes, animal fat, and dolphin. Among fishes, meat, and wildlife samples analyzed, concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were found in the following order: country chicken < goat/lamb fat < fishes < river dolphins < predatory birds. Hepta-CDDs and OCDD were the major PCDD homologues found in humans, fishes, meat products, and dolphins. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of PCDDs/DFs were greater than those of PCBs in selected fish, dolphin, and human samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCDDs and PCDFs in human tissues, fishes, meat, and wildlife collected from India. PMID:11563645

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran formation and emission in the thermal desorption waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.

    1995-03-01

    It is extremely unlikely that significant amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) will be emitted in the off-gas stream from the thermal desorption process, or the treated waste, particularly if the baseline design and anticipated operating conditions of the enhanced bench-scale (EBS) system are used. However, because of the acute toxicity of these compounds and because most of the data on their formation have been extrapolated from studies more related to incineration and fire conditions than thermal desorption, specific laboratory tests and specific EBS runs should be performed to monitor the rate of emission of PCDDs and PCDFs under thermal desorption conditions. In general, the following four conditions need to exist for significant amounts of PCDD or PCDF to be formed: (1) the presence of fly ash; (2) the presence of an oxidizing source; (3) a suitable temperature, and (4) the presence of a suitable precursor. Although the EBS system provides some of these conditions, it is unlikely that enough fly ash will be produced in the system to allow a significant amount of PCDD or PCDF formation. Additionally, particulate matter controls will be used to remove airborne particulates from the gas phase. If PCDD/Fs are presented in a waste stream being evaluated in the EBS, they will likely volatilize in the kiln and subsequently condense in the venturi scrubber system.

  16. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in common fish species in the Pearl River Delta area, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqing; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Yousheng; Jiang, Jie; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yongning

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations in 31 fish samples from 19 commonly consumed freshwater and saltwater species from the Pearl River Delta Area were analyzed. The PCDD/Fs dietary intake from fish for the local population was evaluated to provide a database for setting the national PCDD/F limits in fish for the People's Republic of China. The median concentration from the 31 fish samples was 1.27 pg/g wet weight for the total of PCDD/Fs, and the median WHO-TEQ was 0.26 pg/g wet weight, and ranged from 0.063 to 1.30 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight. The dominant contributors to the WHO-TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, which accounted for 38% and 28%, respectively. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs from fish for local people was estimated to be 0.47 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw x day. In view of the findings, the dietary of PCDD/Fs from other foods of animal origins in China should be studied in more detail as soon as possible in order that standards can be put forward to protect human health.

  18. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  19. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  20. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration profiles in sediment and fish tissue of the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are highly hydrophobic compounds that have been implicated as carcinogens and, more recently, as estrogen disrupters. An occurrence and distribution study of these compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Bed sediment was collected from 22 sites; fish tissue was collected from eight sites. PCDD/F were found to be ubiquitous in Willamette Basin sediment. A distinct homolog profile, dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, was observed in sediment throughout the basin. The PCDD homolog profile was consistent at all sites, regardless of total PCDD/F concentration, presence of point sources, subbasin size, geographic location or land use. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient among the homolog profiles that showed increasing dominance of highly chlorinated congeners where human and industrial activity increased. Tissue and bed sediment obtained from the same site did not have similar PCDD/F concentrations or homolog profiles. Fish tissue showed enrichment in less chlorinated congeners and congeners with chlorine substitutions in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions.

  3. [Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in newsprints and copy papers by HRGC/HRMS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yang, Zhijun; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Wenzhong; Liang, Xinmiao; Lu, Peizhang

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in newsprints and copy papers which included blank and printed paper samples were determined by isotope dilution and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). All of the paper samples collected at random were extracted with organic solvents and the extracts were cleaned up successively by three different chromatographic columns. The results indicated that the total concentrations of PCDD/ Fs in newsprints were higher than those in copy papers, but the total toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values of newsprint samples were lower than those in copy paper samples. In addition, for both papers, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in printed papers were higher than the blank papers. Moreover, the patterns of PCDD/Fs in newsprint samples and copy paper samples were different. The total international TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in newsprints and printed newsprints were 0.48 ng/kg and 0.61 ng/kg, respectively. Moreover, the total TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in copy paper and printed copy paper samples were 0.74 ng/kg and 0.79 ng/kg, respectively. The recoveries of 13C labeled 2, 3 ,7, 8-substituted PCDD/Fs spiked before extraction into all paper samples were between 49.82% and 131.34%.

  4. Theoretical and experimental formation of low chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the Fenton oxidation of chlorophenol solutions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Castro, Pablo; San Román, M Fresnedo; Ortiz, Inmaculada

    2016-10-01

    The formation of chlorinated and non-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has been experimentally investigated after the Fenton oxidation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP, 15.56 mM) aqueous solutions by assessing the influence of iron concentration (0.09-2.88 mM), hydrogen peroxide dose (40.44-202.20 mM), temperature (20-70 °C) and chloride concentration (0-56.35 mM). The presence of chloride in the medium together with room temperature and substoichiometric Fenton conditions (40.44 mM H2O2) led to an increase in total PCDD/Fs concentration from less than 1 ng L(-1) to 2 μg L(-1). Results showed a dominance of the dichlorinated species (DCDD/Fs) in the homologue profile of total PCDD/Fs reaching values up to 1.5 μg L(-1). Furthermore, the products distribution exhibited a gradual decrease in the homologue concentration as the chlorination degree increased from di-to octachloro-substituted positions. Considering the characteristics of the reaction medium, the experimental results, and the information gathered in bibliography with regard to the generation of active radicals from 2-chlorophenol, a mechanism describing the formation of low chlorinated PCDD/Fs in a Fenton oxidizing aqueous system has been proposed. PMID:27424055

  5. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons around a thermal desorption plant in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    This study was launched to establish comprehensive environmental monitoring on the levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both in soil and ambient air around a thermal desorption plant in China. All 209 congeners of PCBs, 136 congeners of PCDD/Fs (P = 4 to 8) and 16 EPA priority PAHs were analyzed. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 20.0 to 536 ng g(-1) (or 0.077-5.27 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in soil and from 972 to 991 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.245-0.374 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)) in air samples, much higher than the levels in cities. A single soil sampling point could have been affected by some transfer of PCBs from the untreated soil by the fingerprint characteristics and the statistical analysis. Establishing blank values prior to the start-up of new plant is a safe and sure method to establish subsequent impacts on the environment. During the treatment of hazardous waste, strict control of all waste materials and all emissions is required.

  7. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in coastal sediments from Spain.

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel; De La Cal, Agustina; Larrazabal, David; Fabrellas, Begoña; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo Rodriguez; Borrull, Francesc; Marce, Rosa Maria; Barcelo, Damia

    2005-08-01

    Fifteen sediment samples were analysed in order to determine their content of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). Samples were collected from several hot spots on the Spanish coast, such as the harbours of Almeria and Tarragona, and the mouths of the Besos and Llobregat rivers in Barcelona. A generic analytical procedure based on Soxhlet extraction followed by an automated cleanup system and gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry was employed for determining the toxic congeners of PCDDs and PCDFs, as well as dioxin-like PCBs. As regards PBDE determinations, a rapid method based on the use of selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was applied. Total toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) values were calculated using the toxicity equivalent factors proposed by WHO for dioxin-like PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. WHO-TEQ values ranged from 0.3 to 75 pg/g dry weight (dw), with PCB contribution on the toxicity of the samples between 1 and 84%. Total PBDE levels ranged from 2.7 to 134 ng/g dw, with BDE-209 contribution on the total PBDE contamination between 50 and 99%.

  8. Natural formation of chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in soil of a Douglas fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, E.J.; De Weerd, H. ); De Leer, E.W.B. ); Brinkman, U.A.T. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1999-08-01

    The natural formation of 4-MCP, 24/25- and 26-DCP, and 245-TrCP was detected in four selected areas of a rural Douglas fir forest where the humic layer was spiked in situ with a solution of Na[sup 37]Cl and covered by an enclosure, after 1 year of incubation. Chlorinated phenols (CP) can be formed naturally from organic matter and inorganic chloride by either de novo synthesis or chloroperoxidase (CPO)-catalyzed chlorination. The natural CP congeners were found to be present in high concentrations in soil compared to the other congeners, except for the 245-TrCP which was present in a relatively low concentration. This study did not reveal which source, natural or anthropogenic, caused the observed concentrations. Some 20 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) were found to be formed naturally in soil of the Douglas fir forest; the formation of three 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, 2378-TeCDD, 12378-PeCDD, and 123789-HxCDD, deserves special attention. A formation mechanism has been proposed which starts from naturally formed CP congeners and which probably involves peroxidase mediation. Chlorination of CDD/F congeners by the CPO-mediated reaction cannot be ruled out, but seems to be less likely due to the absence of several predicted congeners.

  9. Evaluation of the Spanish hot dip galvanising sector as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angeles; Sanz, Paloma; Ruiz, M Luisa; Fabrellas, Begoña; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    A survey to estimate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions of Spanish hot dip galvanising sector was carried out during 2002. This investigation is the first presenting Spanish experimental data related to this industrial sector. Three different matrices: flue gas, ash and filter dust were tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs generated during the galvanising process. The organic source of PCDD/F formation could be from the insufficient degreasing o from inhibitors or additives used in the pickling steps such as quinoline, isoquinoline, 8-methylquinoline or polyether phosphoric acid. Low levels PCDD/Fs were achieved in air emissions when air control devices are used. On the contrary, filter dusts are highly contaminated; indicating that the absence of air control devices would increase the risk of fugitive emissions. Homologue profiles and Principal Component Analysis demonstrate there are differences in the formation mechanisms in the bath zone (ashes) compared to the stack location (filter dusts and air emissions), related to the de novo synthesis and reaction time. The annual PCDD/F emission to the atmosphere for this sector during 2002 has been estimated in 0.023g I-TEQ. The emission factor of plants with air control devices has been calculated at 0.030microg I-TEQ/ton of galvanised steel. PMID:18083211

  10. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

  11. Toxic equivalency factors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, biphenyl, and polyhalogenated diphenyl ether congeners based on rainbow trout early life stage mortality.

    PubMed

    Hornung, M W; Zabel, E W; Peterson, R E

    1996-10-01

    Polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls (PBBs/PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs/PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs/PCDFs), and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs/PCDEs) are persistent, lipophilic environmental contaminants that may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. To determine this potential risk, a rainbow trout early life stage mortality bioassay was used in which the potency of individual polybrominated chemicals was compared to the potency of the most potent polychlorinated chemical in these classes, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Following injection of newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs, fish-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were calculated as the molar ratio of TCDD LD50 to brominated compound LD50. Signs of toxicity were identical to those produced by polychlorinated TCDD-like chemicals and included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages, reduced growth, and craniofacial malformations. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls exhibited decreased potency with increased bromine substitution. Only 2,3,7,8-TBDD was more potent than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, whereas other polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins were equipotent or less potent than identically substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in this assay. Although two PBDF congeners were equipotent to identically substituted PCDFs, 2,3,7,8-TBDF was 9-fold more potent than 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Both 3,3',4,4'-TBB and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxBB were 10-fold more potent than identically substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. The halogenated diphenyl ethers and di-ortho polybrominated biphenyls were inactive in this assay. Thus, in this in vivo assay the polybrominated and polychlorinated TCDD-like chemicals were not always equally potent. To assess the risk posed by mixtures of these chemicals to feral fish populations, fish-specific TEFs for both polybrominated and polychlorinated chemicals should be used.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in estuarine and coastal North Sea sediments: Sources and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, E.H.G.; Klamer, H.J.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M. . Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management); Govers, H.A.J. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Sediments from two depositional zones of the North Sea (the Wadden Sea and Oyster Grounds) and from the estuaries of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Ems, and Humber were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) using a congener-specific procedure. A simple grain-size correction procedure was utilized for the comparison of PCDF and PCDD concentrations in sediments from different origin. PCDFs were more widely encountered than PCDDs in all sediments, except for the Ems-Dollard and the Humber estuary. The highest concentrations were found in the outflow sediments of the rivers Rhine and Humber. Concentrations up to 2,980 ng/kg PCDFs, principally 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF, and up to 1,760 ng/kg PCDDs, principally OCDD, were determined in the River Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of PCDD and PCDF profiles in the sediments. Two-dimensional projections based on sample scores from the principal component models showed a marked influence of the River Rhine on the presence of these compounds in the western Wadden Sea and the Oyster Grounds. Based on a chemometric evaluation of chromatographic profiles of these coastal, estuarine and related freshwater sediments, the authors have deduced that these compounds originate from industrial operation discharges, related to the production of chloroaliphatic compounds and the chloralkali compounds and the chloralkali industry along the River Rhine. The atmospheric deposition of combustion-generated PCDDs and PCDFs appeared significant only for remote marine environments.

  13. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E. |; Norstrom, R.J.; Lorenzen, A.; Kennedy, S.W.; Hart, L.E.; Bellward, G.D.; Cheng, K.M.; Philibert, H.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    During the 1992 breeding season, eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were collected within a gradient of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants on the southern coast of British Columbia. Twenty-five eggs were placed in a laboratory incubator, of which 18 hatched; chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success was not significantly different between eggs taken from pulp mill sites and reference sites. A hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was induced nearly sixfold in chicks from near a pulp mill at Powell River compared to those from a reference site. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activities were also significantly elevated in chicks from nests located near pulp mills compared to reference sites. A hepatic CYP2B cross-reactive protein was threefold higher in chicks from pulp mill versus reference sites, but the difference was not significant. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected near pulp mill sites contained greater concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) compared to reference areas. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho congeners, and organochlorine pesticides occurred among sites. Regressions showed that the hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein and EROD and BROD activities were positively correlated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and toxic equivalents (TEQs{sub WHO}--World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors) in yolk sacs. No significant concentration-related effects were found for morphological, physiological, or histological parameters, such as chick growth, edema, or density of thymic lymphocytes. Using hepatic CYP1A induction as a biomarker, a no-observed-effect-level of 100 ng/kg and a lowest-observed-effect-level of 210 ng/kg TEQs{sub WHO} on a whole egg (wet weight basis) are suggested for bald eagle chicks.

  14. Atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in urban and suburban areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Lee, Su-Jeong; Choi, Hee-Gu; Ok, Gon

    2005-03-01

    Bulk atmospheric samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly throughout a year at urban and suburban areas of Korea to assess the deposition flux and seasonal variations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The PCDDs/DFs deposition fluxes ranged from 1.0 to 3.7 ng TEQ/m2/year in the urban area and from 0.5 to 4.6 ng TEQ/m2/year in the suburban area. The deposition fluxes of PCDDs/DFs in this study were comparable to or lower than those previously reported at different locations. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of particles and PCDDs/DFs in winter tended to be higher than those in summer. However, monthly variations between particle and PCDDs/DFs deposition fluxes were small, and the correlation coefficients between the deposition fluxes of air particles and each homologue group of PCDDs/DFs varied according to the degree of chlorination of the homologue group. The deposition velocity of PCDDs/DFs in the urban area was estimated at 0.04 cm/s, which is a lower value than those found in other studies. The two most likely factors affecting the monthly variation of deposition fluxes are the ambient temperature and the amount of precipitation. In particular, the ambient temperature had an influence on the lower chlorinated homologues of PCDDs/DFs while precipitation had an influence on the higher chlorinated PCDDs/DFs. The PCDDs/DFs profiles in atmospheric deposition bulk samples showed a similar pattern at the urban and suburban sites. The possibility of the loading of PCDDs/DFs by Asian dust events could be partly confirmed by investigation of homologue profiles.

  15. Effects of clenbuterol on body stores of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) in rats.

    PubMed

    Shappell, N W; Billey, L O; Feil, V J

    2002-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), persistent pollutants that accumulate in the food chain, pose a risk to humans through consumption of tainted livestock. Clenbuterol, a leanness-enhancing agent, was tested for usefulness in PCDD/F body store reduction through body fat reduction (the predominant site of accumulation). To mimic the situation of contaminated animals, rats were given feed with or without a mixture of PCDD/F (0.6 to 2.7 ng/congener per day) for 10 d, followed by 16 d of feed with or without dietary clenbuterol (2 mg/kg feed). Clenbuterol reduced body fat by 28% (P < 0.05), increased muscle mass by 25% (P < 0.02), and decreased liver mass by 7% (P < 0.02). Although the concentrations of most PCDD/F per gram of fat were slightly increased after clenbuterol treatment, the total amount of PCDD/F that remained in fat was reduced by approximately 30%. Muscle PCDD/F concentrations and total burden were decreased by clenbuterol. In contrast, clenbuterol tended to increase concentration, but not total burden of PCDD/F in livers. One congener known to be rapidly metabolized and excreted, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, was the exception to this increase, decreasing 40% with clenbuterol treatment. This was also the congener that showed the greatest reduction in both fat and muscle. Examination of the ratio of PCDD/F in liver and fat revealed that clenbuterol increased the liver's share of the body burden of PCDD/F, from 38 to 75%. In a remediation/disposal context, these findings would be beneficial if clenbuterol lowered the meat and carcass burden of PCDD/F to safe levels, requiring only livers to be disposed of as hazardous waste.

  16. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged.

  17. Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoning; Meng, Fan; Shi, Chune; Yang, Fuquan; Wen, Deyong; Aronsson, Jonatan; Gbor, Philip K.; Sloan, James J.

    The atmospheric fate of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was simulated for the year 2000 in North America using a SMOKE/CMAQ-based chemical transport model that was modified for this purpose. The 1999 USEPA emission inventories of PCDD/Fs and criteria pollutants were used. The 1995 Canadian emission inventory of criteria pollutants and the 1995 Canadian area source emissions for PCDD/Fs were used with the 2000 Canadian point source emissions. Modifications to CMAQ involved coupling it with dual organic matter (OM) absorption and black carbon (BC) adsorption models to calculate PCDD/F gas-particle partitioning. The model satisfactorily reproduced the particle bound fractions at all rural sites for which there were measured data and across the whole domain, the modeled vs. measured differences in particle bound fractions were less than 20% for nearly all congeners. The model predicted ambient air PCDD/F concentrations were also consistent with measurements. Simulated deposition fluxes were within 58% of direct measurements. PCDD/F atmospheric depositions to each of the Great Lakes were estimated for the year 2000. The results indicate that approximately 76% of the total deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Great Lakes (in W-TEQ, or toxic equivalent units as defined by the World Health Organization) is attributed to PCDD/Fs absorbed into OM in aerosol. For all of the lakes, more than 92% of all deposition is particle phase wet deposition and only 5-8% is particle phase dry deposition. Wet deposition from the gas phase is negligible. Of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners, the Cl 4-5DD/F compounds contribute approximately 70% to the total atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes. The seasonal changes in the PCDD/F deposition flux track variations in ambient temperature.

  18. Determination of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and pesticides in harp seals from the Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Oehme, M; Schlabach, M; Hummert, K; Luckas, B; Nordøy, E S

    1995-01-27

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and compounds of the DDT group were determined in individual seal blubber and brain samples from ten male and one female harp seals caught in the Greenland Sea. No data from this region and from harp seals have been reported before. The age of the animals varied between 1 and 18 years. PCDD/PCDF concentrations in the blubber (4-10 pg/g TEQ wet weight (w.w.), Nordic model) were somewhat lower than in ringed seals from the Arctic. Non-ortho substituted PCB (CB 77,126 and 169) showed TEQ levels in the blubber which were about 4-10-times higher. CB 77 dominated in most samples, but in a few cases CB 169 was the most abundant congener. p,p'-DDE (average 760 ng/g w.w.) and di-ortho substituted PCB concentrations (2560 ng/g w.w. expressed as sigma PCB) in the blubber were comparable to those found in ringed seals from the European and Canadian Artic. Levels of PCDD/PCDF in brain correspond to the detection limit (about. 0.1-0.6 pg/g w.w.) for most congeners. With one exception, PCB amounts in brain (w.w.) were one to two orders of magnitude lower. A highly significant correlation was found between age, p,p-DDE and di-ortho PCB as well as between single PCDD and coplanar PCB congeners. No relationship was observed between levels of PCDD/PCDF, age and di-ortho-PCB.

  19. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  20. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  1. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and their association with cancer mortality among workers in one automobile foundry factory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihua; Weng, Shaofan; Wen, Sheng; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Gangtao; Zeng, Yuyu; Qi, Cheng; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans. However, epidemiological studies on their carcinogenic roles are limited. The current study was designed to determine the concentrations and characteristics of PCDD/Fs and evaluate their association with cancer mortality in exposed workers in one automobile foundry factory. PCDD/F levels in factory and surrounding environment were analyzed through air and settling dust sampling. The cancer mortalities among workers in this foundry factory were calculated using data from a cohort study. The results showed that the PCDD/F concentrations of air in workplace ranged 0.36-2.25 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ) Nm(-3) (average 1.01 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)), which were 1.16-7.26 times higher than those outside the factory. The PCDD/F concentrations of settling dust in the workplace ranged 3.34-18.64 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) (average 8.25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)), which were lower than those just outside the factory (average 16.13 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). Furthermore, a cohort study of workers in this factory with average follow-up of 24.52 years showed that cancer was the leading cause of death, with significant elevated mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.13) among workers, when compared with Chinese national mortality. The cancer mortality among front-line workers was increased significantly (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.73, 95% CI: 1.14-2.60), particularly among melting and casting workers, when compared with that among assistant workers. Our results indicated that there was a dose-response relationship between PCDD/F exposure and cancer mortality among foundry workers.

  3. Effectiveness of activated carbon and biochar in reducing the availability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soils.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunzhou; Currie, Rebecca J; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Fishman, Vyacheslav N; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-01-17

    Five activated carbons (ACs) and two biochars were tested as amendments to reduce the availability of aged polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two soils. All sorbents (ACs and biochars) tested substantially reduced the availability of PCDD/Fs measured by polyoxymethylene (POM) passive uptake and earthworm (E. fetida) biouptake. Seven sorbents amended at a level of 0.2 × soil total organic carbon (0.2X) reduced the passive uptake (physicochemical availability) of total PCDD/Fs in POM by 40% to 92% (or toxic equivalent by 48% to 99%). Sorbents with finer particle sizes or more macropores showed higher reduction efficiencies. The powdered regenerated AC and powdered coconut AC demonstrated to be the most effective and the two biochars also performed reasonably well especially in the powdered form. The passive uptake of PCDD/F in POM increased approximately 4 to 5 fold as the contact time between POM and soil slurry increased from 24 to 120 d while the efficacy of ACs in reducing the physicochemical availability remained unchanged. The reduction efficiencies measured by POM passive uptake for the regenerated AC were comparable to those measured by earthworm biouptake (bioavailability) at both dose levels of 0.2X and 0.5X. The biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values for unamended soil ranged from 0.1 for tetra-CDD/F to 0.02 for octa-CDD/F. At both dose levels, the regenerated AC reduced the BSAFs to below 0.03 with the exception of two hexa-CDD/Fs. The reduction efficiencies measured by earthworm for coconut AC and corn stover biochar were generally less than those measured by POM probably due to larger particle sizes of these sorbents that could not be ingested by the worms. PMID:22136630

  4. Investigating differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soil and soil components using selective supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Chai, Yunzhou; Grabanski, Carol B; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Miller, David J; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide was performed at increasingly strong conditions to investigate differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two impacted soils, in their sieved size fractions, and in small (a few mg) samples of industry-related waste products separated from impacted soil. The binding strengths of PCDD/Fs were shown to be different in the two soils, and in their different soil particle size fractions. As might be expected based on surface area considerations, one soil showed the strongest binding in the smallest (<5μm) sieved fraction. However, the other soil showed the strongest binding in the larger sized fractions, possibly indicating that process-related particles could be controlling PCDD/F binding. Selective SFE of various types of particles including black carbon and charcoal (separated from soil), and from a suspected process anode residue did show different PCDD/F binding behavior ranging from quite weak binding (charcoal) to very strong binding (anode particles). Shifts to the stronger SFE fractions in the soils after activated carbon treatment agreed well with the decreases previously found in the uptake of PCDD/Fs by earthworms, as well as decreases in their freely-dissolved aqueous concentrations in soil/water slurries. These results show that, as previously demonstrated for PAHs and PCBs, selective SFE can be a useful tool to investigate differences in PCDD/F binding behaviors in impacted soils and sediments and their component parts, as well as a rapid tool for estimating the effectiveness of activated carbon treatments on decreasing the bioavailability of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments. PMID:22406311

  5. Mono- to Octachlorinated Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Emissions from Sintering Plants Synergistically Controlled by the Desulfurization Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Li, Haifeng; Yan, Nan; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-05-17

    The influence of desulfurization systems in sintering plants on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations, profiles, and emission factors was studied. Mono- to tri-CDD/Fs and tetra- to octa-CDD/F concentrations were 4.4 ± 2.3 and 10.5 ± 8.3 ng m(-3), respectively, at the inlets and 0.87 ± 0.48 and 0.47 ± 0.22 ng m(-3), respectively, after desulfurization. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 0.95 ± 0.093 and 0.51 ± 0.040 ng of I-TEQ m(-3) at the inlets and after desulfurization, respectively. The congener profiles and homologue distributions were dominated by 2-MoCDF and MoCDF, respectively. The PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved by desulfurization increased as the chlorination level increased. The PCDD/Fs became adsorbed to gypsum. Annual mono- to tri-CDD/Fs PCDD/F and TEQ (tetra- to octa-CDD/F) emission factors for flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were determined. The total amounts of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were 10.7 and 10.2 kg, respectively. The total TEQs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were estimated to be 15486 and 1878 g of I-TEQ, respectively. PCDD/Fs adsorbed to gypsum are not effectively eliminated. The PCDD/F concentrations increased as the fly ash surface area increased moving through the electrostatic precipitator stages.

  6. Uptake by roots and translocation to shoots of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in typical crop plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Root uptake and subsequent translocation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 12 agricultural crops were comparatively investigated. All crop plants were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of three kinds of dioxin congeners over 4d. The root concentration factor (RCF) of dioxin showed a logarithmic correlation with extractable lipid content in plant root. On the assumption that the dioxin escaping via gas phase from nutrient solution in the closed container can evenly diffuse in the air and equally absorb onto the shoot tissues of the dioxin-exposed plant and their nearby blank control plant, the amount of translocated dioxin was estimated by subtracting dioxin content in the shoot tissues of the blank control plant from that of the dioxin-exposed plant, and then the transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) of dioxin was calculated. The TSCF values of PCDD/Fs largely varied according to the plant species, and the TSCF values of 2,4,8-TrCDF were a little higher than those for 1,3,6,8-TeCDD expect for zucchini. For 1,3,6,8-TeCDD, zucchini had the highest TSCF value of 0.0089, followed by pumpkin (0.0064) towel gourd (0.0027), and cucumber (0.0010), verifying plants of the genus Cucurbita have the higher abilities of dioxin translocation. The TSCF values of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD for wheat and sorghum were 0.0013 and 0.0012, respectively. For maize, soybean, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and garland chrysanthemum, translocation was an insignificant mechanism of dioxin contamination in shoot tissues. PMID:19541345

  7. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. PMID:23159200

  8. Characteritization of, and health risks from, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans from incense burned in a temple.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Tsan; Chen, Shen-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Lee, Jia-Twu; Chiu, Chuen-Huey

    2009-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may cause adverse health effects. However, PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in temples have rarely been addressed. This study investigates PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in a temple. The mean total PCDD/F concentrations were 72.4-82.2 pg Nm(-3) at two indoor sites; their corresponding mean total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentrations (0.24-0.27 pg I-TEQ Nm(-3)) were approximately 11 times that at a background location. In air samples collected from burning incense, OCDFs accounted for approximately 90% of total PCDD/Fs at the two indoor sites and an outdoor site near the temple, while the major PCDD/Fs in incense ash were PCDDs. The total PCDD/F content and toxic equivalent value of incense ash were 617 pg g(-1) and 1.55 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. At the three sites inside/outside the temple, the air and ash samples contained the same four primary PCDD/Fs-OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The Cl- emission factor, which is related to the PCDD/F formation, from burning incense was 0.454 mg g(-1). The resultant lifetime average daily dose and cancer risk for temple workers were 0.00964 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 9.64 x 10(-6), respectively, approximately 2 times that for residents near the temple (0.00489 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 4.89 x 10(-6), respectively). We suggest that the chlorine content in incense must be regulated, and the high risk of PCDD/F exposure from burning incense for temple workers and visitors should be of concern.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in livers of birds from Japan.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, K; Iseki, N; Hayama, S; Nakanishi, J; Masunaga, S

    2002-02-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in livers of 17 species of birds collected from Japan. Birds were grouped according to their feeding habits as granivores, piscivores, omnivores, and predators for discussions. Livers of granivores contained relatively low concentrations of PCDD/DFs (80-660 pg/g) followed in increasing order by omnivores (2,300-8,000 pg/g), piscivores (61-12,000 pg/g) and predators (480-490,000 pg/g on a fat weight basis). Especially, one species of predatory bird (mountain hawk eagle) contained elevated concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs, and the measured concentration is one of the highest reported to date. Homolog and congener patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs varied among species; hence, the results suggested that feeding habits, specific elimination, and metabolism influence contamination pattern. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs were in the order of granivores (32-83 ng/g) < predators [excluding mountain hawk eagle] (32-2,500 ng/g) < piscivore (61-12,000 ng/g) < omnivores (1,800-67,000 ng/g on a fat weight basis). Mountain hawk eagle contained the highest concentration of dioxin-like PCBs (55,000 ng/g fat weight). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) ranged from 53-450,000 pg/g fat weight. 23478-PeCDF, 2378-TCDD/TCDF, and PCB congeners IUPAC 126 and 77 were major contributors to TEQs in birds. To our knowledge, this is the first study of PCDD/DFs and dioxin-like PCBs in livers of several species of Japanese birds.

  11. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  12. Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from soils inoculated with Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1

    SciTech Connect

    Halden, R.U.; Halden, B.G.; Dwyer, D.F.

    1999-05-01

    Removal of dibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) (10 ppm each) from soil microcosms to final concentrations in the parts-per-billion range was affected by the addition of Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1. Rates and extents of removal were influenced by the density of RW1 organisms. For 2-CDD, the rate of removal was dependent on the content of soil organic matter (SOM), with half-life values ranging from 5.8 h (0% SOM) to 26.3 h (5.5% SOM).

  13. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from stack gases of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from four electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and eight secondary aluminum smelters (secondary ALSs) in Taiwan. The mean PCDD/F International-Toxicity Equivalents (I-TEQ) concentrations in the stack gases of these EAFs and secondary ALSs are 0.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (relative standard deviation [RSD]= 100%) and 3.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (RSD = 260%), respectively. The high RSDs, especially for those obtained from secondary ALSs, could be caused by the intrinsic differences in their involved feeding materials, furnace operating conditions, and air pollution control devices. The mean I-TEQ emission factor of PCDD/Fs for EAFs (1.8 microg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock) is lower than that for secondary ALSs (37 microg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock). This result might be because the involved furnace temperatures for secondary ALSs (650-750 degrees C) are lower than those for EAFs (1600-1700 degrees C), resulting in the deterioration of the combustion condition, leading to the formation of PCDD/Fs during the industrial process. This study found that the total PCDD/F emissions from EAFs (20 g I-TEQ/yr) and secondary ALSs (18 g I-TEQ/yr) are approximately 27, 53, and approximately 24, 49 times higher than those from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs; 0.74 g I-TEQ/yr) and medical waste incinerators (MWIs; 0.37 g I-TEQ/yr), respectively; while those are 44 and 40% of total PCDD/F emission from sinter plants (45 g I-TEQ/ yr), respectively. Considering a more stringent emission limit has been applied to waste incinerators (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3) in Taiwan lately, the results suggest that the control of the emissions from metallurgical processes has become the most important issue for reducing the total PCDD/F emission from industrial sectors to the ambient environment.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bear, penguin and south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Evans, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Nakanishi, Junko; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (DFs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in livers of polar bears from the Alaskan Arctic and in eggs of Adelie penguin and south polar skua and weddell seal liver, fish and krill from Antarctica. This is one of the first reports to document the concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in polar bear livers from Alaska, and in penguin and skua eggs from Antarctica. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in livers of polar bears ranged from 8 to 66 (mean: 26) pg/g, on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in Antarctic samples were in the increasing order on a lipid weight basis; weddell seal liver (8.9 pg/g) < fish (11-17 pg/g) < krill (27 pg/g) > penguin eggs (30 ng/g) > seal liver (57 ng/g) > fishes (6.2 ng/g) > krill (0.9 ng/g). Concentrations of 2378-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) calculated based on the WHO TEFs were higher in the eggs of polar skua (mean: 344: range: 220-650 pg/g, lipid wt.) from Antarctica than in polar bear livers from Alaska (mean: 120; range: 69-192 pg/g). In general, concentrations of PCDFs were greater than those of PCDDs in polar organisms. 23478-PeCDF is one of the dominant congener found in several samples. Concentrations of TEQs in polar bear livers and skua eggs were close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Dioxin-like PCBs, particularly, non-ortho coplanar PCBs were the major contributors to TEQ concentrations in penguin and skua eggs whereas mono-ortho PCBs accounted for a major portion of TEQs in

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  17. Relative potency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans for inducing mixed-function oxygenase activity in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, J.L.; Dixon, D.G.; Hodson, P.V.; Servos, M.R.; Huestis, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    Toxic equivalent factors (TEFs) were generated for various polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to compare the relative potencies as inducers of liver mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout, dosed orally with one of five PCDD congeners, either [{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PnCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD), [{sup 14}C]-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD), or [{sup 14}C]-1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) or one of four PCDF congeners, either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF), or 1,2,3,4,7,8--hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF), showed increases in liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity up to 250-fold. Liver concentrations of congeners were better predictors of EROD activity than oral dose. TEFs, ratios of the potency of each congener to that of TCDD, were calculated comparing ``threshold`` PCDD concentrations that induced EROD significantly above control levels. In cases of nonparallel dose-response curves between congeners, these comparisons are more relevant to environmental situations as PCDDs are compared at concentrations closer to those in the environment, instead of at higher pharmaceutical levels. Threshold-based TEFs were: PnCDD, 1.8; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 0.4; HpCDD, 0.05; 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 2; TCDF, 0.5; 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF and HxCDF, 0.4. The ranking of potencies of the PCDFs was the same in fish as in mammalian tests, with the exception of PnCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, which were more potent to fish than was TCDD.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in water and six fish species from Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Ke

    2014-11-01

    There have been few studies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in environmental water because of the large volume of water required for PCDD/Fs analysis. Water quality directly affects aquatic organisms, and little is known about how PCDD/Fs are transported in aquatic environments. PCDD/Fs were analyzed in eight water samples from Dongting Lake, China, which was contaminated with PCDD/Fs because of sodium pentachlorophenate use between the 1960s and the 1980s. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the samples were 36-345 pg L(-1), and the mean was 191 pg L(-1). Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was the most abundant PCDD/F congener in every sample, contributing 67-95% of the total 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/F concentrations. The toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ) concentrations in the samples were 0.17-0.37 pg L(-1), and the mean was 0.28 pg L(-1), which is higher than the Canadian environmental quality guideline (0.038 pg L(-1) WHO-TEQ for freshwater) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency water quality criterion (0.014 pg L(-1) WHO-TEQ). PCDD/Fs were also determined in six fish species collected from Dongting Lake, to assess the concentrations, accumulation patterns, and potential for toxic effects. The total 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/F concentrations in the fish samples were 2.2-17.9 pg g(-1) (wet weight), and the dominant congeners were octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. The PCDD/F WHO-TEQs were 0.10-0.92 ww (3.3-65.3l w) pg g(-1) in different species of fish. PCDD/F congener patterns in fish may be affected by food chain biomagnification and the lipid content of the species.

  19. Thermochemical Formation of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Mediated by Secondary Copper Smelter Fly Ash, and Implications for Emission Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2016-07-19

    Heterogeneous reactions mediated by fly ash are important to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) formation. However, the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) through heterogeneous reactions is not yet well understood. Experiments were performed to investigate the thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs at 150-450 °C through heterogeneous reactions on fly ash from a secondary copper smelter. The maximum PBDD/F concentration was 325 times higher than the initial PBDD/F concentration in the fly ash. The PBDD/F concentration after the experiment at 150 °C was five times higher than the initial concentration. PBDD/Fs have not previously been found to form at such a low temperature. Secondary-copper-smelter fly ash clearly promoted PBDD/F formation, and this conclusion was supported by the low activation energies that were found in Arrhenius's law calculations. Thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs mediated by fly ash deposited in industrial facilities could explain "memory effects" that have been found for PCDD/Fs and similar compounds released from industrial facilities. Abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that were formed through fly ash-mediated reactions could be important precursors for PBDD/Fs also formed through fly ash-mediated reactions. The amounts of PBDEs that formed through fly ash-mediated reactions suggested that secondary copper smelters could be important sources of reformed PBDEs. PMID:27347728

  20. Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Guibin; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ding

    2008-04-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), a protected endangered species, is the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise, living only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and its appended lakes. Its population has decreased sharply to 1,400 because of human activities, including environmental contamination. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in the blubber, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and brains of five individual Yangtze finless porpoises collected from 1998 to 2004. The results showed PCB concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 1.89 microg/g lipid weight in the organs and consisted mainly of penta-, hexa-, and decachlorinated biphenyls. The PBDE concentrations were between 5.32 and 72.76 ng/g lipid weight. Tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were the major homologues. The PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 65 to 1,563 pg/g lipid weight, and their predominant homologues were penta- and hexachlorinated dibenzofurans and hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The hazard quotients (HQs) based on toxic equivalency were determined to be greater than one in all individuals for PCBs, for PCDD/Fs, and for PCBs and PCDD/Fs In addition, HQs would be higher if PBDEs were included. The results suggest that reduction of environmental contamination may contribute greatly to protecting this highly endangered species. PMID:18333690

  1. Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Guibin; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ding

    2008-04-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), a protected endangered species, is the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise, living only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and its appended lakes. Its population has decreased sharply to 1,400 because of human activities, including environmental contamination. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in the blubber, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and brains of five individual Yangtze finless porpoises collected from 1998 to 2004. The results showed PCB concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 1.89 microg/g lipid weight in the organs and consisted mainly of penta-, hexa-, and decachlorinated biphenyls. The PBDE concentrations were between 5.32 and 72.76 ng/g lipid weight. Tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were the major homologues. The PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 65 to 1,563 pg/g lipid weight, and their predominant homologues were penta- and hexachlorinated dibenzofurans and hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The hazard quotients (HQs) based on toxic equivalency were determined to be greater than one in all individuals for PCBs, for PCDD/Fs, and for PCBs and PCDD/Fs In addition, HQs would be higher if PBDEs were included. The results suggest that reduction of environmental contamination may contribute greatly to protecting this highly endangered species.

  2. Characterizing the emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from metallurgical processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-02-15

    This study investigated the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in the stack flue gases of the metallurgical processes. An examination of the PBDEs existing in the stack flue gases of sinter plants revealed that PBDEs can form during the combustion processes through the similar formation conditions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The PBDD/F and PBDE emission rates of the metallurgical facilities were 0.446-3.19 microg TEQ/h and 4470-27000 microg/h, correspondingly. Both emission rates could reach several orders higher than those of the reported sources, revealing that the metallurgical facilities are not only important PCDD/F but also significant PBDD/F and PBDE emission sources to the environment. BDE-209 is the most abundant PBDE congener in the emissions of metallurgical facilities and is found to be dominant in the atmosphere and soils. However, few studies have considered metallurgical facilities as potential PBDE contributors to the environment. Because PBDEs could form or not be completely destroyed in the feeding materials in the combustion system, PBDE contributions from combustion emission sources to the atmosphere should not be ignored and need further investigation.

  3. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Fen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Bottom ashes (BA) exhibited much higher PBDD/F (8.11-52.2 pg TEQ/g) and PBDE contents (20.4-186 ng/g) than those of fly ashes (0.0932-2.02 pg TEQ/g and 0.332-25.5 ng/g), revealing that the PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the feeding waste may not be completely destroyed. The PBDE concentrations/contents in the stack flue gases (26.1-109 ng/Nm(3)) and in the BA (20.4-186 ng/g) of the MSWIs could reach three orders higher than those in the atmosphere and reference soils. PBDE contributions to the environment from the stack flue gases or the reutilization of BA of MSWIs should not be ignored from the developing PBDE inventory.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans distributions in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-06-15

    This study determined the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contents in ash in the super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), fabric filter (FF), fly ash pit (FAP) and bottom residue (BR) in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results showed that average PCDD/F contents in ash samples from the SH, EC, SDA, FF, FAP and BR were 0.102, 0.788, 0.210, 1.95, 2.04 and 0.0218 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/F content was very low in the SH and BR due to high temperatures (around 461 degrees C in the SH and 914 degrees C in combustion chamber). Conversely, total PCDD/F content was significantly high in ash samples from the EC (around 340 degrees C), mainly because the temperature is within the favorable range of 250-400 degrees C for PCDD/F formation due to de nova reformation mechanisms. Although the SDA operated at 245 degrees C, the PCDD/F content decreased very significantly, mainly because the temperature was relatively low and because calcium carbonate was introduced into flue gases to dechlorinate and dilute chlorine-containing species. PCDD/Fs were captured by the active carbon in the FF. Furthermore, the duration that fly ash remained in the FF was longer than that for other incinerator units, and thus causing an increasing trend of PCDD/Fs level downstream (except the SDA). Total PCDD/Fs emission factors (microg tonnes-waste(-1); microg I-TEQ tonnes-waste(-1)) in ash samples from different units were: SH (42.3; 0.846), EC (326; 6.12), SDA (58.1; 1.10), FF (1540; 61.3), FAP (2950; 107) and BR (537; 4.31). Most PCDD/Fs in ash were contributed by the FF (about 56%), and the generation of PCDD/Fs in ash was significant (about 35%) during the transfer process from different units to the FAP. A strong and positive correlation in a logarithmic form existed between PCDD/Fs and

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans distributions in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-06-15

    This study determined the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contents in ash in the super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), fabric filter (FF), fly ash pit (FAP) and bottom residue (BR) in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results showed that average PCDD/F contents in ash samples from the SH, EC, SDA, FF, FAP and BR were 0.102, 0.788, 0.210, 1.95, 2.04 and 0.0218 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/F content was very low in the SH and BR due to high temperatures (around 461 degrees C in the SH and 914 degrees C in combustion chamber). Conversely, total PCDD/F content was significantly high in ash samples from the EC (around 340 degrees C), mainly because the temperature is within the favorable range of 250-400 degrees C for PCDD/F formation due to de nova reformation mechanisms. Although the SDA operated at 245 degrees C, the PCDD/F content decreased very significantly, mainly because the temperature was relatively low and because calcium carbonate was introduced into flue gases to dechlorinate and dilute chlorine-containing species. PCDD/Fs were captured by the active carbon in the FF. Furthermore, the duration that fly ash remained in the FF was longer than that for other incinerator units, and thus causing an increasing trend of PCDD/Fs level downstream (except the SDA). Total PCDD/Fs emission factors (microg tonnes-waste(-1); microg I-TEQ tonnes-waste(-1)) in ash samples from different units were: SH (42.3; 0.846), EC (326; 6.12), SDA (58.1; 1.10), FF (1540; 61.3), FAP (2950; 107) and BR (537; 4.31). Most PCDD/Fs in ash were contributed by the FF (about 56%), and the generation of PCDD/Fs in ash was significant (about 35%) during the transfer process from different units to the FAP. A strong and positive correlation in a logarithmic form existed between PCDD/Fs and

  6. Chlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans and the human immune system (2) In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes from workers with quantified moderately-increased body burdens

    SciTech Connect

    Neubert, R.; Maskow, L.; Delgado, I.

    1995-11-01

    Lymphocyte proliferation responses were studied in workers with moderately increased body burdens of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and other polyclorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), calculated as International Toxicity Equivalencies [I-TE]. Mitogens (pokeweed mitogen [PWM], phytohemagglutinine [PHA], concanavalin A [Con A], as well as anti-human monoclonal antibody against CD3 were used as proliferation stimulators in vitro. Additionally, the feasibility of using the lymphocyte response to tetanus toxoid was assessed, and the response to this recall-antigen was included in this trial. No decrease in the capacity of {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation was observed with any of the proliferation stimulators in the group of volunteers with the increased TCDD-body burden when compared with volunteers exhibiting TCDD-concentrations in blood flat within the reference range. Regression analysis revealed a slight trend towards an increase for {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation during the stimulation with PHA only. It can be concluded from our data that moderates increases in the TCDD- or I-TE-body burdens do not induce any medically significant changes in the capacity for proliferation of lymphocytes, measured as {sub 3}H=thymidine incorporation. 25 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Removal efficiencies for 136 tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran congeners with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal efficiency of 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD)/furan (F) congeners from a nitrogen + oxygen carrier gas was studied using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed adsorption system. Two kinds of activated carbon with dissimilar pore structures were used as adsorbents. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in the source gas was 541 ng/Nm(3) and that of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs 96.35 ng/Nm(3), accounting for 17.8% of the total original weight amount. Their toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was 8.31 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). For both activated carbons, the removal efficiencies of the ten PCDD/F homologue groups rise with chlorine substitution number. The removal efficiencies vary approximately as a power function of vapor pressure (correlation coefficients r(2) = 0.93 and 0.81, respectively). Competitive adsorption and desorption occur as adsorption time went on, causing elution of the lower chlorinated homologues, i.e. tetra-CDD/F and Penta-CDD/F congeners. In addition, there are significantly different concentration distributions for isomers in the same homologue groups. However, their removal efficiencies have weak correlation with their initial concentrations. The correlation coefficients are from -0.47 to 0.32 and from -0.57 to 0.46 respectively for the two kinds of activated carbons.

  8. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  9. EXTENSION OF U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290 TO INCLUDE 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are typically reported only in terms of the tetra-through octa-CDD/CDF isomers, either as homologue sums or as subsets thereof. This practice is common because the toxic isomers ...

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides in yellow-blotched map turtle from the Pascagoula River basin, Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ueda, M; Shelby, J A; Mendonca, M T; Kawano, M; Matsuda, M; Wakimoto, T; Giesy, J P

    2000-04-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides were measured in tissues of map turtles collected from two locations in the Pascagoula River drainage of Mississippi, USA. PCBs were most predominant among the organochlorines with a concentration of up to 99 ng/g, wet weight (580 ng/g, lipid weight) in livers. The greatest concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 1.1 pg/g, wet weight (15.76 pg/g, lipid weight) was found in the liver of a male turtle. The measured concentrations of organochlorines were less than those reported for turtles from the Great Lakes Basin and upper St. Lawrence River. PCBs contributed 90-99% of the total estimated 2, 3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs). Particularly, PCB congeners 105, 118, and 156 accounted for 68-80% of the estimated toxic potency of PCBs in turtles.

  11. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed.

  12. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  13. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to air from waste incinerators and high thermal processes in India.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Neeta; Sheikh, Javed; Tamane, S M; Bhanarkar, Anil; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Singh, Kanchan; Chavhan, Chatrapati; Trivedi, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in gasses emitted from waste incinerators and thermal processes in central and western parts of India. The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) ranged from 0.0070 to 26.8140 ng toxicity equivalent (TEQ)/Nm(3), and those of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ranged from 0.0001 × 10(-1) to 0.0295 ng TEQ/Nm(3). The characteristics of mean PCDD/F I-TEQ concentration and congener profiles were studied over all the samples of air. In particular, a pattern consisting of a low proportion of dioxin-like PCBs and high proportion of PCDDs/DFs was common for all the samples from incinerators and high-temperature processes.

  14. Removal efficiencies for 136 tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran congeners with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal efficiency of 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD)/furan (F) congeners from a nitrogen + oxygen carrier gas was studied using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed adsorption system. Two kinds of activated carbon with dissimilar pore structures were used as adsorbents. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in the source gas was 541 ng/Nm(3) and that of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs 96.35 ng/Nm(3), accounting for 17.8% of the total original weight amount. Their toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was 8.31 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). For both activated carbons, the removal efficiencies of the ten PCDD/F homologue groups rise with chlorine substitution number. The removal efficiencies vary approximately as a power function of vapor pressure (correlation coefficients r(2) = 0.93 and 0.81, respectively). Competitive adsorption and desorption occur as adsorption time went on, causing elution of the lower chlorinated homologues, i.e. tetra-CDD/F and Penta-CDD/F congeners. In addition, there are significantly different concentration distributions for isomers in the same homologue groups. However, their removal efficiencies have weak correlation with their initial concentrations. The correlation coefficients are from -0.47 to 0.32 and from -0.57 to 0.46 respectively for the two kinds of activated carbons. PMID:26154037

  15. Modeling of indoor air treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using high-efficiency particulate air-carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hebi; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John; Hand, David; Taylor, Roy

    2006-08-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-carbon filtration system was developed by the Access Business Group, LLC, to reduce the indoor levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The HEPA filter removes the particle-bound PCDD/Fs, and the carbon filter removes the gaseous fraction. Because of the toxicity of PCDD/Fs, it is very difficult to handle them in the laboratory. In this study, mathematical modeling was performed to evaluate the performance of the HEPA-carbon filtration system for PCDD/Fs removal and to optimize its design and operation. The model was calibrated with experimental data conducted with toluene in a sealed room. Model simulations with four selected congeners demonstrated that it takes approximately 1 hr for the indoor air treatment system to reach the maximum removal efficiency and that the carbon air filter has a life time of 10(7) yr for dioxin removal. Given a zero emission from the HEPA filter, the overall removal efficiency is 78.7% for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins, 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzodioxin, 78% for tetra-chlorodibenzofuran, and 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzofuran. The larger the mass emission from the HEPA filter, the lower the overall removal efficiency, and the larger the ratio of the filter flow rate (Q(f)) to the room flow rate (Q), the higher the overall removal efficiency. When the ratio of Q(f)/Q is 15, an overall removal efficiency of 90% can be reached for all four of the selected compounds. The removal of the four selected compounds does not change as the relative humidity increases < or = 90%. PMID:16933648

  16. Modeling of indoor air treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using high-efficiency particulate air-carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hebi; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John; Hand, David; Taylor, Roy

    2006-08-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-carbon filtration system was developed by the Access Business Group, LLC, to reduce the indoor levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The HEPA filter removes the particle-bound PCDD/Fs, and the carbon filter removes the gaseous fraction. Because of the toxicity of PCDD/Fs, it is very difficult to handle them in the laboratory. In this study, mathematical modeling was performed to evaluate the performance of the HEPA-carbon filtration system for PCDD/Fs removal and to optimize its design and operation. The model was calibrated with experimental data conducted with toluene in a sealed room. Model simulations with four selected congeners demonstrated that it takes approximately 1 hr for the indoor air treatment system to reach the maximum removal efficiency and that the carbon air filter has a life time of 10(7) yr for dioxin removal. Given a zero emission from the HEPA filter, the overall removal efficiency is 78.7% for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins, 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzodioxin, 78% for tetra-chlorodibenzofuran, and 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzofuran. The larger the mass emission from the HEPA filter, the lower the overall removal efficiency, and the larger the ratio of the filter flow rate (Q(f)) to the room flow rate (Q), the higher the overall removal efficiency. When the ratio of Q(f)/Q is 15, an overall removal efficiency of 90% can be reached for all four of the selected compounds. The removal of the four selected compounds does not change as the relative humidity increases < or = 90%.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans detected in bivalve samples from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; Sericano, José L; Defreitas, Debra A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2014-04-30

    Bivalve samples from 142 sites were analyzed to determine the concentration and toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and furans (D/F) as part of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. The total concentration of 17 D/F ranged from not detected to 203 pg/g wet weight of tissue. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, OCDD, had a concentration range from not detected to 189 pg/g and a mean concentration of 8.65 pg/g. OCDD was the dominant D/F compound detected and accounted for, on average, over 70% of the total D/F concentration. The TEQ (compared to 2,3,7,8-TCDD) ranged from 0.12 to 7.32 pg TEQ/g. The TEQ for 39% of the bivalves analyzed were below 0.238 pg TEQ/g. TEQ above human consumption advisory concentration of 1.2 pg TEQ/g were found in 9.3% of the samples analyzed. TEQ for D/F indicate very limited human health concerns from consumption of bivalves at most of the locations sampled. PMID:24095200

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans detected in bivalve samples from the NOAA National Status and Trends Program.

    PubMed

    Wade, Terry L; Sweet, Stephen T; Sericano, José L; Defreitas, Debra A; Lauenstein, Gunnar G

    2014-04-30

    Bivalve samples from 142 sites were analyzed to determine the concentration and toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins and furans (D/F) as part of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program. The total concentration of 17 D/F ranged from not detected to 203 pg/g wet weight of tissue. Octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, OCDD, had a concentration range from not detected to 189 pg/g and a mean concentration of 8.65 pg/g. OCDD was the dominant D/F compound detected and accounted for, on average, over 70% of the total D/F concentration. The TEQ (compared to 2,3,7,8-TCDD) ranged from 0.12 to 7.32 pg TEQ/g. The TEQ for 39% of the bivalves analyzed were below 0.238 pg TEQ/g. TEQ above human consumption advisory concentration of 1.2 pg TEQ/g were found in 9.3% of the samples analyzed. TEQ for D/F indicate very limited human health concerns from consumption of bivalves at most of the locations sampled.

  19. Effect of injection of di- and tricyclic aromatic compounds on post-combustion formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Stina; Fick, Jerker; Tysklind, Mats

    2011-08-15

    The formation of mono- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC₁₋₈DD) and dibenzofurans (PC₁₋₈DF) was studied using a model waste in a laboratory-scale combustion reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas at three different temperatures (450 °C, 300 °C, and 200 °C) in the post-combustion zone. To investigate the influence of chlorination reactions and the effects of carbon backbone-containing compounds present in the flue gases, five aromatic compounds were injected into the flue gas, namely dibenzofuran (DF), biphenyl (BP), naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The injection of DF induced a reduction in the concentration of PC₃₋₅DD, but did not significantly influence the concentration of PCDF. A reduction in the concentration of PC₃₋₅DD was also observed during the injection of fluorene, which is structurally very similar to DF. The injection of biphenyl, naphthalene and phenanthrene had less pronounced effects on the formation of PCDD and PCDF. A possible explanation of the observed changes during injection of DF and fluorene, based on homologue profiles and affected congeners, involves formation of radical species from fluorene and/or dibenzofuran. The fluorene radical is stabilized by the delocalization of electrons across the aromatic ring structure and has the propensity to react with highly abundant hydrogen chloride, whereas the molecular species would require reaction with Cl₂ or chlorine radicals.

  20. Oceanic Sink and Biogeochemical Controls on the Accumulation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Plankton.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Mompean, Carmen; González-Gaya, Belén; Jiménez, Begoña; Bode, Antonio; Ábalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in plankton samples from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans collected during the Malaspina circumnavigation cruise. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in plankton averaged 14 and 240 pg gdw(-1), respectively, but concentrations were highly variable. The global distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was not driven by proximity to continents but significantly correlated with plankton biomass, with higher plankton phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations at lower biomass. These trends are consistent with the interactions between atmospheric deposition, biomass dilution, and settling fluxes of organic matter in the water column (biological pump), as key processes driving POPs plankton phase concentrations in the global oceans. The application of a model of the air-water-plankton diffusive exchange reproduces in part the influence of biomass on plankton phase concentrations and suggests future modeling priorities. The estimated oceanic sink (Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans) due to settling fluxes of organic matter bound PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs is of 400 and 10,500 kg y(-1), respectively. The atmospheric inputs due to gross diffusive absorption and dry deposition are nearly 3 and 10 times larger for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, respectively, than the oceanic sink. These observations suggest that the coupling of atmospheric deposition with water column cycling supports and drives the accumulation of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs in plankton from the global oligotrophic oceans.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran mass distribution in both start-up and normal condition in the whole municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Che-Kuan; Lin, Chieh; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Although many researches focused on the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from stack, in the bottom ash and in the surrounding environment, researches focused on PCDD/F mass distributions in the whole incineration plant have seldom been addressed. This study determined PCDD/F emissions in the whole plant. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results displayed that PCDD/Fs were formed during fly ash from super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA) and fabric filter (FF) was transferred to fly ash pit. Mass distribution ratios of PCDD/Fs in g I-TEQ (Toxicity Equivalency Quantity) per week from stack, SH, EC, SDA, FF, generation and bottom residue (BR) in start-up operations were 14.6%, 0.1%, 8.3%, 1.0%, 41.7%, 33.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Above results indicated that main PCDD/F source in the MSWI was from fly ash. However, the fly ash is easily controlled and PCDD/F emitted from stack flue gases will be difficult to be handled. Therefore, we should pay more attention on PCDD/F emission from flue gases especially from start-up procedure. Besides, fly ash should be controlled by sodium hypophosphite before being landfilled. MSWI did require further detoxification treatments for the solid residues and flue gases. PMID:18440134

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts.

  3. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given.

  5. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  6. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thu T; Traag, Wim A; Murk, AlberTinka J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2014-11-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249 pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1)) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat). The estimated average consumption of 22 g d(-1) of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas.

  7. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oil samples by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavia, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Abad, E; Rivera, J; Galceran, M T

    2007-05-18

    Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (CG-MS-MS) has been evaluated for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in vegetable oil samples containing different concentration levels (0.2-6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) of the 29 toxic congeners of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCBs. The effect of potential interfering compounds such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs) on the quantification of mono-ortho PCBs has been investigated. In addition, the influence of the clean-up procedure on the final determination by CG-MS-MS was studied, showing that the quality of the results depends to a great extent on this analytical step. Quality parameters have been established and good precisions (CV: 3-19%) and low limits of detection for PCDD/Fs (0.04-0.20 pg g(-1) oil) and dl-PCBs (0.08-0.64 pg g(-1) oil) were obtained. The method was validated by a comparison of the CG-MS-MS results with those obtained by GC-HRMS.

  8. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation. PMID:17948789

  9. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2009-05-01

    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  11. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).

  12. Assessment of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yin, Shuaixing; Wang, Xiangyong; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2015-10-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in food samples from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) performed in 2011. A total of 152 composite samples from various food groups were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were subsequently estimated for the adult from various regions in China. The mean dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was 20.1 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (WHO-TEF of 1998) within a range of 4.2 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) to 53.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) which were all much lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). By comparing with results from previous Chinese TDS, a decline of the average dietary intake was observed from 2000 to 2011, but a notable elevation was observed in some regions partly stem from increasing contamination levels in certain foods.

  13. Influence of temperature and atmosphere on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans desorption from waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    A fly ash sample was heated for 1 h to 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, in order to study the influence of temperature and gas phase composition on the removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from fly ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration. The tests were conducted by treating a fixed bed of fly ash both in an inert (nitrogen) and in a reducing (nitrogen+hydrogen) gas flow in a horizontal bench-scale quartz tubular reactor, heated by a surrounding tubular furnace. The results indicate that most of the PCDD/Fs in fly ash were removed by thermal treatment, especially when the temperature was higher than 300°C: the PCDD/Fs' removal efficiency attained up to 96%. PCDD/Fs dechlorination and destruction were much more important than PCDD/Fs desorption, under either inert or reducing atmosphere. At 200°C and 300°C, the experiments with reducing atmosphere yielded slightly better results than those in nitrogen; yet, this tendency was reversed at 400°C. In general, both treatment modes can fully meet the requirements regarding the concentration of dioxins in fly ash to be sent for landfill in China.

  14. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area.

  15. Leaching of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators to a water system.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, R; Akimoto, Y

    1991-08-01

    In order to predict how much polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) are leached from fly ash by rain water when fly ash is disposed, leaching of PCDDs/Fs from a fly ash obtained from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) was investigated by packing the ash in a column and eluting with water. In the beginning of the elution, PCDDs/Fs associated with water-soluble particulates in the ash were eluted, whereas in the latter half, those associated with water slightly soluble particles were eluted, judging from the comparison of PCDDs/Fs in eluate fractions with those transferred to solutions from the original ash by stepwise batch methods with water and 2N hydrochloric acid. The amounts of PCDDs/Fs eluted from the ash column were 2.9% and 1.7% of those extracted from the original ash, respectively, while large amounts of PCDDs/Fs were contained in the fly ash in the column after the elution, suggesting that PCDDs/Fs in water-insoluble particulates of the ash would not be eluted by water.

  16. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thu T; Traag, Wim A; Murk, AlberTinka J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2014-11-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249 pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1)) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat). The estimated average consumption of 22 g d(-1) of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas. PMID:25113212

  17. Evaluation of the leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in raw and solidified air pollution control residues from municipal waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    Leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from raw and solidified air pollution control (APC) residues with selected solvents, including acetic acid, simulated acid rain, humic acid, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and n-hexane was investigated. High-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were observed in all leachates of raw APC residue samples, with the largest total leaching concentration (61.60 ngm(-3); 0.30 ngI-TEQm(-3)) from treatment with humic acid. Low-chlorinated congeners were mainly leached with LAS and n-hexane. Solidification and stabilization (S/S) processes with cement and sulfur-containing chelating agent decreased the leachability of PCDD/Fs by up to 98% with humic acid and LAS as solvents. However, S/S processes enhanced the leachability of both high- and low-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners with n-hexane as the solvent, which largely increased the toxic equivalent quantity of leachates. These results suggest that conventional S/S processes may effectively restrain the release of PCDD/Fs when APC residues are leached with rain water or natural organic compounds (e.g., humic acid), but may have a deteriorated effect when APC residues are leached with nonpolar organic solvents (e.g., n-hexane) coexisting in the landfill sites.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group.

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) near a magnesium smelter in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tolley, Cecilia; Blais, Jules M

    2007-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) near a magnesium-refining facility in Quebec (Canada) known to be a source of chlorinated organic compounds to the area. We compared contaminant concentrations in deer caught one year before the start of magnesium production with those measured three years later. Total PCB concentrations were spatially uniform in deer before magnesium production, but after magnesium production began, concentrations were higher near the smelter and decreased with distance. Many of the midrange PCB homologues that bioconcentrate most in deer showed similar relationships. Concentrations of coplanar PCB congeners and cytochrome P4501A expression in deer liver were examined in a subset of the samples, and these also showed a significant inverse relationship with distance after magnesium production began. This pattern was not observed for PCDD/F concentrations in deer. The risk involved for the human population in consuming local deer meat was assessed by applying contaminant concentrations measured in the present study to Health Canada consumption guidelines. Contaminants in deer were not shown to pose a serious risk to the population, but the number of portions of deer from beyond 20 km that could be safely consumed was less restrictive than the number for deer from within a 5-km radius of the magnesium smelter.

  20. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. PMID:26774770

  1. Atmospheric bulk deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Park, Hyokeun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-08-01

    An IRA-743 resin bulk sampler was validated to monitor long-term bulk deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Six consecutive sampling campaigns (2008-2009) were conducted at four sites around steel complexes in Pohang, South Korea to investigate spatial and seasonal variations of PCDD/F bulk deposition. The bulk deposition within the steel complex showed the highest ∑(4-8)PCDD/F (Tetra-Octa) fluxes, ranging from 204 to 608 (mean: 352)pg m(-2)d(-1), indicating steel complexes were major sources of PCDD/Fs. The homologue profiles were dominated with lower chlorinated PCDFs. Furthermore, the prevailing winds were confirmed to influence the spatial distribution of PCDD/F deposition. There were apparent seasonal variations of the bulk deposition at each site, and seasonal homologue patterns of PCDD/Fs were clearly observed. According to the passive air sampling, however, no significant seasonal change of ambient air concentrations of PCDD/Fs was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the seasonal variations of deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs probably resulted from temperature-dependent gas/particle partitioning.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  3. Influence of a municipal waste landfill on the spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Hajduk, Aleksandra; Koda, Eugeniusz; Grochowalski, Adam; Jeske, Agnieszka

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the influence of a municipal waste landfill on the pollution of soil, plants and groundwater by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Analysis of their migration in the environment was made in relation to the direction of groundwater flow in the study area. Determination of PCDDs/Fs was performed by isotope dilution high resolution chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/MS-MS) on a Thermo Scientific GCQ-1100/Trace2000 system equipped with an Xcalibur data acquisition and analysis software. The content in soil was in the range of 0.04-27.3pg I-TEQg(-1) of soil dry mass and decreased with depth. Similar values were obtained for plants: in Solidago virgaurea L. there were 0.13-1.9pg I-TEQg(-1) dry mass and in grass from the Family Poaceae - 0.12-3.18pg I-TEQg(-1) dry mass. The concentration in groundwater reached 1.16-6.6pg I-TEQdm(-3); the highest concentration was obtained in water samples collected from a ditch collecting leachates from the landfill. The study has shown that the analyzed object is not responsible for PCDDs/Fs emission to the environment. The increased concentration of these compounds in the topsoil may be influenced by processes linked with waste management (transportation and unloading) and other localized sources of low emission located beyond the landfill. PMID:23659967

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in freshwater since the volume of water needed for dioxin analysis is large. In this study, 19 water samples from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River were analysed for the levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). The results showed that the concentration ranges of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 0.6-8.5 and 2.0-15.8 pg/L, respectively, which were relatively low compared with those reported in the literature. The WHO-TEQ concentration range of dioxins was 0.002-0.040 pg/L. The PCA results indicated that the main sources of PCDD/Fs may be the applications of pentachlorophenol or sodium pentachlorophenate and domestic wood and coal burning. For dl-PCBs, domestic wood burning and coal burning were the main sources.

  5. Occurrence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in industrial and domestic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-10-01

    Sewage sludge samples collected from 43 different domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industries that discharge to the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), which are highly toxic and carcinogenic towards humans and animals. The measured total PCDD/F toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged between 0.73 and 7348.40 pg/g dry weight. The mean TEQ of PCDD/Fs in industrial sludge was approximately 40 times higher than that in sewage sludge. The PCDD homolog concentrations in the industrial samples were higher than those observed at the wastewater treatment plants by a factor of 10, with total heptachlorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) exhibiting the maximum concentration in most of the samples. Among the PCDF homologs, total heptadichlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) dominated the total homolog concentration in sludge from the wastewater treatment plants, whereas total tetradichlorodibenzofuran (TeCDF) dominated the industrial sludge samples. Overall, the total PCDD/F TEQ in sludge samples was much higher than that in effluent samples from the same facility. A linear correlation (R (2) = 0.62, p value < 0.068) was found indicating that sludge sampling can be used as a surrogate for effluent concentrations in wastewater treatment plants but not for industrial discharges.

  6. Method development for the simultaneous determination of polybrominated, polychlorinated, mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Rjabova, J; Viksna, A; Bartkevics, V

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for simultaneous determination of five groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated, polychlorinated and mixed brominated-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs, PCDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs, respectively), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples. The presented analytical approach was based on well established and robust method for determination of PCDD/DFs and PCBs, which was augmented with gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) to include PBDEs, as well as poorly investigated PBDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs at toxicologically significant levels. Intensive clean-up and fractionation procedures in combination with optimized instrumental parameters provided reliable detection and quantification of these compounds. The application of (13)C12-labeled surrogates of analyzed compounds allowed the internal standardization and accurate measurement of selected contaminants. The developed procedure was validated while taking into account the Commission Regulation (EU) 252/2012 requirements for PCDD/DFs and PCBs, and was used to measure the occurrence of priority POPs in Baltic wild salmon.

  7. Modelling the environmental transfer of phthalates and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into agricultural products: the EN-forc model.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Cornelis, C; Standaert, A; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to predict the occurrence of four phthalates, two polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and two polychlorinated dibenzofurans in environmental and agricultural media from observed concentrations in air, sludge, manure and concentrate. For the environmental and agricultural fate modelling, the newly developed multimedia model "EN-forc" (ENvironmental Food transfer model for ORganic Contaminants) was used. To validate EN-forc calculations, the predicted concentrations of the considered chemicals in soil, groundwater, drinking water, plants and animal products were compared with both observed and modelled concentrations available in the literature. For the majority of the considered matrices, predicted phthalate and dioxin levels differed one order of magnitude at most with observed concentrations. Unfortunately, the transfer models implemented in EN-forc lacked power to predict levels of some phthalates and dioxins in pasture, root crops and/or tubers. Concentrations of phthalates and dioxins in offal could not be predicted due to the absence of suitable models that have an acceptable level of complexity to implement in EN-forc. For this type of food products, further research is highly encouraged. In a next step, the modelling framework of EN-forc will be extended in order to be able to predict human dietary exposure to organic chemicals like phthalates and dioxins.

  8. Biochemical and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) after in ovo exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M. Van Den; Craane, B.L.H.J.; Sinnige, T. . Research Inst. of Toxicology)

    1994-05-01

    Ecological investigation revealed differences in breeding success of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) between two colonies in the Netherlands. In this study the possible role of organohalogen pollutants was investigated. Thirty-nine cormorant eggs were collected from two colonies with marked differences in contamination. Seventeen cormorant eggs were hatched in an incubator. The respiration rate was monitored regularly during the incubation. Hatchlings were euthanized at day 1. Several morphological parameters were measured. PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analyzed in the yolk sac. Blood and liver were collected for analysis of cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation (PROD) activities, vitamin A, and thyroid hormone levels. Residue levels differed two- to five-fold for PCBs and 25% for PCDDs and PCDFs between both colonies. Birds from the most contaminated colony showed an increase in ovo respiration rate, increased cytochrome P450 and EROD activity, and reduced plasma thyroid hormone and hepatic retinyl palmitate levels. Large interindividual differences were observed for all parameters. The data were compared on an individual basis (n = 17) to detect any concentration-effect relationships. Significant concentration-effect relationships were observed for EROD induction, plasma free thyroxine reduction, yolk sac weight, relative liver weight, and head size. It is concluded these compounds may, at least in part, have played a role in the observed low breeding success of cormorants.

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in water and suspended particulate matter from the Xijiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanlin; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Sukun; Ren, Man

    2008-03-21

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from the Xijiang River, China, were measured by the quarter from September 2005 to June 2006. Total PCDD/F concentration ranged from 2.659 to 4.596pg/L for water and from 562.4 to 3259.5pg/g for SPM. Concentrations were high in summer and low in winter. I-TEQ values in water and SPM were low, ranging from 0.012 to 0.075pg/L, with a mean value of 0.039pg/L. Calculated annual loadings of total PCDD/Fs and I-TEQ were 8.55kg and 0.026kg, respectively. Composition and homologue distribution of PCDD/Fs were varied because of large seasonal differences in discharge from the Xijiang River into the South China Sea. Comparison of the PCDD/Fs homologue and congener profiles of atmospheric deposition, soil, and water revealed that soil was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs in the Xijiang River. Industrial effluents were also possible sources of PCDD/Fs. A good correlation between logK(oc) and logK(ow) was observed for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs and correlation coefficients were 0.71 and 0.84, indicating organic matter in SPM played a dominant role in PCDD/Fs partition between SPM and water.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given. PMID:25029402

  11. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  12. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions. PMID:25686404

  13. An egg injection method for assessing early life stage mortality of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Hufnagle, L.C.; Clayton, M.K.; Peterson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize the risk that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) pose to salmonid early life stage survival, we developed a method to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs to graded doses of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a prototype. Rainbow trout eggs were injected 24–50 h post-fertilization with 0.2 μl of 50 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes (control) or 0.2 μl of 5–7 graded doses of TCDD incorporated into 50 mM PC liposomes. Injection volume never exceeded 0.6% egg volume. Immediately following injection, the injection site was sealed with Super glue®, resulting in 92–97% of TCDD dose retained by the egg. Following both egg injection and waterborne egg exposure. TCDD toxicity in rainbow trout was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with hemorrhages, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. TCDD LD50s, following injection and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout eggs, were 421 (331–489) and 439 (346–519) pg TCDD/g egg (LD50, 95% fiducial limits), respectively. As in rainbow trout, TCDD toxicity in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) following the same two routes of exposure was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality preceded by hemorrhages and yolk sac edema. LD50s, based on the dose of TCDD in lake trout eggs, were 47 (21–65) and 65 (60–71) pg/g following injection and waterborne exposure, respectively. The egg injection method is ideal for assessing the relationship between early life stage mortality in rainbow trout and graded egg doses of individual PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congeners.

  14. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aquatic animals from an e-waste dismantling area in East China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Wenjuan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    Eight aquatic biota species were collected from an e-waste dismantling area in East China to investigate bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The mean concentrations of PCBs varied widely from 6.01 × 10(4) to 2.27 × 10(6) pg per g dry weight (dw). The ∑25PCB concentrations in eels were significantly higher than those in other species. The levels of PCDD/Fs changed from 8.13 pg per g dw in toads to 617 pg per g dw in stone snails. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) ranged from 2.57 to 2352 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw with a geometric mean value of 64.7 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw, which greatly exceeded the maximum levels of 4 pg per g ww set by the European Commission. The log-transferred bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 25 PCB congeners ranged from 1.0 to 6.6, with the highest value for CB-205 in crucian carp and the lowest value for CB-11 in frog. A parabolic correlation was observed between log BCF and log Kow (R(2) = 0.53, p < 0.001), where the maximum value occurred at a log Kow of approximately 7. A similar correlation was also found in the plot of log BCF against the number of chlorine atoms of PCBs (R(2) = 0.57, p < 0.001), indicating that medium-halogenated congeners of PCBs are more easily accumulated by aquatic biota species. There were no significant correlations between the log-transferred concentrations and trophic levels of aquatic species, suggesting that trophic magnification for PCBs and PCDD/Fs was not observed in this study.

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in fishes from Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Jude, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents were measured in composite samples of forage fishes and several sizes of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from Saginaw Bay, Michigan, USA. The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined from the use of TCDD equivalency factors (TEFs) and instrumentally determined concentrations of individual congeners were designated TEq. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined on the same extracts with the H4IIE bioassay were defined as TCDD-EQ. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ and TEq were significantly, but poorly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.44). Concentrations of TCDD-EQ and TEq ranged from 10.6 to 348 and 13.5 to 69.5 ng/kg, wet weight, respectively. The ratio of TCDD-EQ to TEq ranged from 0.5 to 5.0, with the greatest ratio observed in common carp but the average ratio between TEq and TCDD-EQ was approximately 1.0. In common carp, larger walleye, and medium-sized alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) there were significant concentrations of TCDD-EQ that could not be accounted for by TEq calculated from an additive model of PCBs, PCDDs, or PCDFs. As much as 75% of the TCDD-EQ in some samples could not be accounted for by TEqs. It is unlikely that PCNs, PCDTs, or polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) occurred at concentrations that were, based on their relative potencies, great enough to contribute significant quantities of TCDD-EQ. The discrepancy between TCDD-EQs and TEqs was not due to antagonisms among congeners or extraction efficiencies.

  16. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day.

  17. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in Xingyun Lake sediment close to the pulp mill region of Jiangchuan (China): a typical case study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Sediment cores from Xingyun Lake close to the pulp mill region of Jiangchuan (China), earlier found to be highly contaminated by pulping at least from the 1990s, were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS for the concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Regarding the contribution of individual congeners, PCDD/F levels ranged from ND (non-detectable) to 82.05 pg g(-1) dw (from ND to 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) dw) in 0-20 cm of sediment and from ND to 45.61 pg g(-1) dw (from ND to 0.67 WHO-TEQ g(-1) dw) in 20-40 cm of sediment for 17 PCDD/Fs (WHO-TEQ: WHO-endorsed toxic equivalents). Major PCDD/Fs identified and confirmed were high-chlorinated congeners including OCDD/Fs and HpCDD/Fs in the two depths. For high-chlorinated PCDD/Fs such as O, Hp-CDD/Fs across the depth of sediment, sediment had a higher proportion in 0-20 cm than that in 20-40 cm. On the contrary, for low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs such as T, Pe, Hx-CDD/Fs, the lower proportion was found in 0-20 cm. The results demonstrated that PCDD/Fs loads in the sediment of Xingyun Lake were very low compared to loads in the other regions about 8 years after closedown of a majority of pulp production with chlorine, which indicated that pulp production was an important emission source of dioxins.

  19. Perspective on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions during chemical production in China: an overlooked source of contemporary relevance.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Fang, Yanyan; Tian, Shulei; Yang, Yufei; Die, Qingqi; Tian, Yajun; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) are pollutants of significant global concern, and China with its large size and industries is one of the main dioxin-emitting countries in the world. PCDDs/DFs may be formed during the manufacture of chemicals and can either remain in the products as impurities or be emitted into the environment or residues disposed to landfills. The uncertainties in the environmental emissions of PCDDs/DFs from the chemical production industry in China are large because of the complex nature of the industry and variability in the technologies used and limited monitoring conducted. In the current study, we used the PCDD/DF emission factor from the updated United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) toolkit 2013, information from otherwise published data, and the chemical production data in 2010 to estimate PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical productions in China. Based on these data, it was estimated that there is 1480 g toxic equivalent (TEQ) from the chemical production industry in China, which is much higher than the value that was estimated and used in the national implementation plans (NIPs) for China (102.4 g TEQ in 2004). These results indicate that current PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical production industry in China may be overlooked. Therefore, we suggest that attention should be paid to PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical production industry in future updates of the Chinese NIP and that appropriate measures to decrease PCDD/DF emissions should be taken by better monitoring of products and processes in chemical production industry.

  20. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies.

  1. Relationship between polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in vegetation and soil on residential properties.

    PubMed

    Demond, Avery; Towey, Timothy; Adriaens, Peter; Zhong, Xiaobo; Knutson, Kristine; Chen, Qixuan; Hong, Biling; Gillespie, Brenda; Franzblau, Alfred; Garabrant, David; Lepkowski, James; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha

    2010-12-01

    The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study was undertaken to address concerns that the industrial discharge of dioxin-like compounds in the Midland, Michigan, USA area had resulted in the contamination of soil and vegetation in the Tittabawassee River floodplain and downwind of the incinerator in the City of Midland. The study included the analysis of 597 vegetation samples, predominantly grass and weeds, from residential properties selected through a multistage probabilistic sample design in the Midland area, and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties (Michigan), as a background comparison, for 29 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the house perimeter vegetation samples ranged from 4.2 to 377 pg/g. The ratio of TEQs (vegetation to soil) was about 0.3, with a maximum of 3.5. Based on a calculation of the similarity of the congener patterns between the soil and the vegetation, it appeared that the source of the contamination on the vegetation was the surrounding soil. This conclusion was supported by linear regression analysis, which showed that the largest contributor to the R(2) for the outcome variable of log(10) of the vegetation concentration was log(10) of the surrounding soil concentration. Models of vegetation contamination usually focus on atmospheric deposition and partitioning. The results obtained here suggest that the deposition of soil particles onto vegetation is a significant route of contamination for residential herbage. Thus, the inclusion of deposition of soil particles onto vegetation is critical to the accurate modeling of contamination residential herbage in communities impacted by historic industrial discharges of persistent organic compounds.

  2. An improved clean-up strategy for simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fatty food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Focant, Jean-François; De, Pauw Edwin

    2002-01-01

    The study and extension of a simple automated clean-up method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) to a broad range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is described. The isolation of seven PCDD, ten PCDF, and three coplanar PCB (cPCB) is extended to eight monoortho substituted PCB and seven so-called "marker PCB" (Aroclor 1260) for fatty food samples. This enables quantification of 35 compounds - including all congeners with a WHO toxic equivalent factor (TEF)--in a single extraction and single purification step. The chromatographic behaviour of mono-ortho PCB and marker PCB on a variety of adsorbents, including basic alumina, has been studied. Partitioning of analytes through multi-column sequences is described and correlated with their structural and electronic properties, by use of molecular modelling calculations. The fractionation process available with the Power-Prep automated clean-up system enables rapid independent analysis of the different groups of compounds. Gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) is used for the PCDD/F and cPCB fraction and quadrupole ion-storage tandem in time mass spectrometry (GC-QISTMS) for analysis of the remaining PCB. A comparison study was performed on quality-control samples and real fatty food samples to evaluate the robustness of the new strategy compared with a reference method. On the basis of this simultaneous clean-up, a rapid simplified strategy for PCDD/F and selected PCB analysis determination is proposed for fatty food samples.

  3. Effects of injected activated carbon and solidification treatment on the leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from air pollution control residues of municipal waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Chi; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the injected activated carbon, cement, and sulfur-containing chelating agent in controlling polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) release from the surface of air pollution control (APC) residues, this study examined the leachability of PCDD/Fs from APC residues generated by municipal solid waste incinerators. Results showed that PCDD/Fs were stably retained in the APC residues when the samples were leached with acetic acid solution. Highly chlorinated PCDD/F homologues (i.e., hepta- and octa-CDDs and CDFs) were relatively easy to leach. The leaching percentages of PCDD/Fs from raw APC residue samples containing activated carbon were smaller than those from samples without activated carbon, especially when n-hexane was used as the leachant. These results indicate that the flue gas injected activated carbon not only controls PCDD/F emissions, but also suppresses the leachability of PCDD/Fs from the APC residues. Solidification/stabilization (S/S) processes with 30wt% cement and 5wt% sulfur-containing agent can additionally decrease the leachability of PCDD/Fs with humic acid. Using n-hexane as the leachant, S/S processes increased the leachability of PCDD/Fs. Various low chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were moreover leached out of the APC residue samples, markedly increasing the leachate toxicity. The enhancement of leachability and toxicity owing to S/S processes may negatively impact the environment when APC residues are exposed to nonpolar organic solvents.

  4. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  5. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals.

  6. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  7. Formation and potential mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash from a secondary copper smelting process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-06-01

    Secondary copper smelting (SeCu) is widely considered to be an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs; PCDD/Fs). Laboratory experiments were performed using SeCu fly ash as a matrix for thermochemical reactions to investigate the effects of fly ash on the formation of PCDD/Fs and the potential mechanisms. Thermochemical reactions on SeCu fly ash over a temperature range of 250-450 °C and reaction times of 10-120 min caused the PCDD/F concentrations in the fly ash to increase significantly. The PCDD/F concentrations formed in the thermal reactions were about 99-139 times higher than the PCDD/F concentrations in the original fly ash, clearly indicating that fly ash promoted the formation of PCDD/Fs. The PCDFs dominated the PCDDs, and the PCDF/PCDD concentration ratio was about 30-40. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the heptachlorodibenzofurans were the most dominant homologs that were formed. A comparison of the PCDD/F patterns produced in the thermochemical reactions and the patterns in the original fly ash suggested that the chlorination of less chlorinated PCDFs might be an important pathway in the formation of higher chlorinated furans. The results of this study indicated that SeCu fly ash has a high PCDD/F formation potential. It is crucial to have the fly ash filter at low temperature and that fly ash in the cooling system should be minimized.

  8. Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls around a steel plant area, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Hongbiao; Jiang, Guibin; Wei, Fusheng

    2010-04-01

    Air monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the concentrations, profiles and estimating potential inhalation risks to the local residents around a steel plant area in northeast China. The air concentrations and WHO-TEQs of PCDD/Fs ranged 94-4944fgm(-3) (average 1352fgm(-3)) and 3-247fgm(-3) (average 81fgm(-3)), respectively. The WHO-TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs ranged 1-18fgm(-3) (average 5fgm(-3)), contributing to 3.6-26% of the total TEQ. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the winter, whereas higher dioxin-like PCB concentrations were found in the summer. The seasonal trend can be related to the significant correlation between the concentrations of dioxins and the reciprocal of temperature (positive for PCDD/Fs, P<0.01; negative for dioxin-like PCBs, P=0.05). A significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) was found between the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PCDD/F concentrations, but not for PCB congeners. Although the steel plant sites showed higher dioxin levels than the residential and background areas, the PCDD/F levels in the atmosphere of the steel plant area was at a relatively low level. The results from this study provides further aid in evaluating the impact of steel plants as PCDD/Fs emission sources to the ambient air in China. PMID:20176394

  9. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. PMID:18726540

  10. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. PMID:22959899

  11. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there.

  12. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  13. Congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in sediment, water, and fish at a soil contamination site in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hwang-Jen; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Yi-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in sediment, water, and fish was studied for 55 fish farms near a contaminated site in Tainan, Taiwan. Samples were collected from the farms and analyzed for seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners. High correlations were found between PCDD/Fs in water and sediment in regard to both concentration and toxicity (R(2) = 0.933 for concentration and R(2) = 0.832 for toxicity). The congener profiles of the 17 PCDD/Fs in water were similar to those in the sediment. However, the PCDD/Fs congener composition in the fish and fish belly samples were different from those in the sediment and water samples obtained from the same fish farm and were also different among the fish samples. It is thus suggested that the biotic PCDD/Fs distribution is more complex than the abiotic PCDD/Fs distribution. Among the seven factors analyzed, only the lipid percentage presented a relationship with the PCDD/Fs congener composition in the fish and fish bellies. A multiple linear regression of the concentration of each congener in the fish was conducted using the concentration of each congener in the site-matched sediment and the lipid content of the fish as independent variables. The results showed that only seven PCDD/Fs congeners with a lower degree of chlorination, which were 4-6 chlorine substitutes, in the fish presented a significant correlation with the lipid content in the fish and their concentration in sediment (r > 0.65, P < 0.005 for both independent variables). In addition, the octanol-water partition coefficients were not significantly related to this distribution behavior.

  14. Physical-Chemical Property Data for Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), Dibenzofuran (DF), and Chlorinated DD/Fs: A Critical Review and Recommended Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wiberg, Karin

    2008-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are of global concern due to their persistence, their tendency to bioaccumulate, and their extremely high toxicity. The fate of the PCDD/Fs in the environment is largely determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as solubility in water (SW, molm-3), solubility in octanol (SO, molm-3), and vapor pressure (P, Pa). It is not unusual that the range of reported values for a given property varies over several orders of magnitude, especially for the highly chlorinated congeners, and consequently, it is a challenge to select physical-chemical property data from the literature for use in chemical fate and risk assessments. In the current study, physical-chemical property data [P, SW, SO, Henry's law constant (H ), partitioning coefficients between octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA)] for 15 DDs and 17 DFs at 293-299K are compiled from the literature and evaluated to select literature derived values that are then adjusted to conform to thermodynamic constraints using a least-squares adjustment procedure. We also present an analysis of available data on internal energies of phase change (ΔUA, ΔUW, ΔUO, ΔUOW, ΔUAW, ΔUOA) at 298K, which describe the temperature dependence of the partitioning properties. The final adjusted values (FAVs) derived from this study are recommended as physical-chemical property data for PCDD/Fs for use in environmental fate modeling. The FAVs for internal energies of phase change can be used as a first approximation for estimating properties at temperatures other than 298K.

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Korhonen, Markku; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2011-02-01

    To explore the concentrations and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) the reindeer milk and tissue samples were collected from the sub-arctic northern Finland. Reindeer milk's PCB sum (1.20 ng g(-1) wet weight) and PCDD/F sum (0.70 pg g(-1) ww) in autumn were higher than in summer (PCBs 0.50 ng g(-1) ww and PCDD/Fs 0.20 pg g(-1) ww). The mean fat content in autumn milk (26%) was significantly higher than in summer (10%). Concentrations in reindeer milk were generally far below 50% of that in adult reindeer body burden. However, the bioaccumulation factors were multiple in milk/reindeer calf ratio and that aroused the question of other important exposure routes than lactation. The muscle and liver of reindeer calves had higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations than adult animals that possibly indicate the significance of transfer of these compounds from dam to calf through lactation and placenta. However, PBDE concentrations were higher in adult reindeer, especially in liver. In addition, reindeer liver seems to have a special feature to collect highly toxic PCDD/Fs, although the PCB sum concentrations (range from 0.33 to 1.69 ng g(-1) wet weight) were clearly higher than the sums of PCDD/Fs (range from 3.78 to 39.2 pg g(-1) ww). Stillborn reindeer calves represented individuals who had got their PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE load only via the placenta. Concentrations in muscle and brown adipose tissue samples did not indicate dependency on fat content. Obviously effective placental transfer of PCBs and PBDEs from reindeer dam to foetus was seen in this study.

  16. Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Lake Maggiore (Italy and Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Vives, Ingrid; Canuti, Elisabetta; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Christoph, Eugen H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Hanke, Georg; Huber, Tania; Mariani, Giulio; Mueller, Anne; Skejo, Helle; Umlauf, Gunther; Wollgast, Jan

    2007-06-01

    Samples of air (gas and particulate phases), bulk deposition, aquatic settling material and sediments were collected in Lake Maggiore (LM) in order to determine their content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Air (gas and particulate phases) concentrations were 0.5 pg m(-3), 80 pg m(-3), 13 pg m(-3) and 106 pg m(-3) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, SigmaPCBs, Sigma dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and SigmaPBDEs, respectively. Deposition fluxes ranged from 0.7 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCDD/Fs to 32 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCBs. Aquatic settling material presented concentrations of 0.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 13 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.7 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Mean sediment concentrations were 0.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 11 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.1 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Similar PCDD/F and DL-PCB congener patterns in all the environmental compartments of LM point to an important, if not dominant, contribution of atmospheric deposition as source of these pollutants into LM. In contrast, PBDE congener distribution was not similar in the different environmental compartments. BDE 47 dominated air and settling material, while BDE 209 was the predominant congener in the bulk atmospheric deposition. Moreover, sediments showed two distinct PBDE congener profiles. Lower PBDE concentrated sediments were dominated by congeners 47 and 99, while BDE 209 dominated in higher PBDE concentrated samples. This suggests the influence of local sources as well as atmospheric input of PBDEs into LM.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine fish species from Ebro River Delta (Spain).

    PubMed

    Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E

    2013-09-01

    The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marine fish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marine fish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494 pg g(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827 pg g(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141 ng g(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006.

  18. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there. PMID:26952275

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere.

  20. Occurrence and impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in the air and soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Ren, Yue; Chu, Jiazhi; Li, Nan; Zhen, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Pengjun; Qi, Li; Liang, Shuting; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on the environment in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), we determined the levels of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples collected around a MSWI, which is the largest in China. The International Toxicity Equivalency Quantity (I-TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples were from 0.0300 to 1.03pgI-TEQ/m(3) (0.445-13.6pg/m(3)), with an average of 0.237pgI-TEQ/m(3), while in soil samples they ranged from 0.520 to 3.40pgI-TEQ/g (2.41-88.7pg/g) with an average of 1.49pgI-TEQ/g. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples were comparable to other areas, and PeCDFs were the dominant contributors, which was different from stack gas homologue patterns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI did not directly affect the profiles of PCDD/Fs in air and soils, so that vehicles and unidentified emission sources should be considered. The daily inhalation levels of PCDD/Fs for children (0.0110 to 0.392pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) and adults (0.00600 to 0.221pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) near the MSWI were lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1.00 to 4.00pg WHO-TEQ/(kg·day), but in winter the values were higher than in summer. These results can be used as basic data for assessing the risk of PCDD/Fs exposure in residents living around this MSWI, and more monitoring programs and studies should be carried out around MSWIs. PMID:27266321

  1. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  3. Pollution characteristics and potential health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil/sediment from Baiyin City, North West, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Peng, Xiaochun; Ren, Mingzhong; Zhang, Sukun; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Junneng

    2013-10-01

    In order to better understand the environmental behaviors of persistent organic pollutants, the characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were investigated in twenty-three soil/sediment samples from Baiying City, Northwest China, in 2008. The possible sources and potential health risk of PCDD/Fs were also discussed. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in nineteen soil samples varied between 20.13 and 496.26 pg/g dry weight (dw.), with an average value of 125.59 pg/g dw. The highest International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs (8.34 pg/g dw.) in soil was found at sample S1 collected from proximity to a copper metallurgy plant. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in four sediment samples ranged from 37.69 to 491.49 pg/g dw., with an average value of 169.95 pg/g dw. The highest I-TEQ of PCDD/Fs (8.56 pg/g dw.) in sediment was found at sample S12 collected from the East big ditch with waste water discharged into the Yellow River. The results indicated that PCDD/Fs contamination of soil/sediment is originated from three sources: chlorine-containing chemicals, non-ferrous metal industrial PCDD/Fs emission and coal burning. The health risk exposure to PCDD/Fs through soil, dust ingestion and dermal absorption ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0134 pg/kg/day Word Health Organization's toxic equivalent in 1998 (WHO1998-TEQ) with mean values 0.0032 pg WHO1998-TEQ for adults and varied between 0.0012 and 0.0256 pg/kg/day WHO1998-TEQ with mean values 0.006 pg/kg/day WHO1998-TEQ for children, respectively. These results indicated that health risk of PCDD/Fs for children should be paid more attention.

  4. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  5. Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-2011.

    PubMed

    Fång, Johan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke

    2013-10-01

    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which ∑PCDDs, ∑DL-PCBs and the ∑TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for ∑TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of ∑PCDDs, ∑PCDFs, ∑DLPCBs and ∑TEQ, all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WHO2005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for ∑PCDDs, ∑DL-PCBs and ∑TEQ are 9.2-11% and for ∑PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower ∑TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in ∑TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

  6. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (p<0.001) in egg yolks from different regions of collection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1).

  7. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Contaminants in ospreys from the Pacific Northwest: I. Trends and Patterns in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in eggs and plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Machmer, M.M.; Henny, Charles J.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected from 1991 to 1997 at nests (na??=a??121) upstream and downstream of bleached kraft pulp mills and at reference sites in the Fraser and Columbia River drainage systems of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Blood samples were collected from nestling ospreys during the 1992 breeding season on the Thompson River. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and -dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly higher in eggs collected in 1991 at downstream compared to upstream nests near pulp mills at Kamloops and Castlegar, British Columbia. There were no significant temporal trends in 2,3,7,8-TCDD, -TCDF or other measured compounds at a sample of nests monitored between 1991 and 1994 downstream of the Castlegar pulp mill, despite changes in bleaching technology (CIO2 substitution). However, by 1997 concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and -TCDF were significantly lower than previous years in nests sampled downstream at both Castlegar and Kamloops. An unusual pattern of higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs was found in many of the osprey eggs collected in this study, and considerable individual variation in the pattern existed among eggs from the same site. For example, eggs from four different nests at one study area (Quesnel) on the Fraser River had concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD ranging from <1 to 1,100 ng/kg and OCDD from <1 to 7,000 ng/kg wet weight. Higher mean concentrations of HpCDD and OCDD were found in eggs from the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser, compared to the Columbia River, and concentrations were generally higher at nests upstream of pulp mills. In plasma samples, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDD were the main compounds detected, with no significant differences measured between samples upstream versus downstream or earlier versus later in the breeding season. Use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives by lumber processors was considered the

  9. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  10. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  11. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  12. Comparison of the contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and other unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants to the total toxic equivalents in air of steel plant areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Mei; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.01-0.69 pg WHO-TEQN m(-3), 0.001-0.089 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.002-0.011 pg TEQ Nm(-3), 0.004-0.02 pg TEQ Nm(-3), and 0.02-0.12 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas.

  13. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka.

  14. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka. PMID:19892385

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the canadian market: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Rawn, D F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M; Ryan, J J

    2009-01-01

    Canadians are interested in improving their diet through the consumption of fish oil food supplements, which are marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Convenience samples of omega-3 enriched dietary supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All of the omega-3 supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and, although every sample was found to contain detectable residues of PBDEs, only 24 samples were found to have PCDD/F concentrations above the level of detection. PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.05 pg TEQ/g lipid to 45.7 pg TEQ/g lipid in salmon and shark oils, respectively. Maximum PBDE concentrations similarly were observed in shark oil (113 microg/kg lipid), however, most supplements had concentrations below 5 microg/kg lipid. Average PCDD/F and PBDE intake estimates, based on consumption of maximum supplement dose following product label recommendations, were 4.32 pg TEQ/d and 25.1 ng/d lipid, respectively.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and fish species from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zhu, Chaofei; Ren, Daiwei; Shang, Hongtao; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in sediments and fish from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Average concentrations of total (Σ) PCDD/Fs and ΣPBDEs in sediments ranged from 68.8 to 479 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 60.8 to 179 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. Contamination levels of sedimentary PCDD/Fs and PBDEs were low to moderate compared to other urbanized regions worldwide. The concentrations in different fish species (Nile perch; Lates niloticus and Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus) were 5.32 to 49.0 pg g(-1) wet weight (ww) for PCDD/Fs and 59.3 to 495 pg g(-1) ww for PBDEs. Higher concentrations of the pollutants were found in L. niloticus than O. niloticus, which could be attributed to species differences in feeding habits and lifestyles. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for PCDD/Fs ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 pgTEQg(-1) dw and 0.001-0.14 pg TEQg(-1) ww in sediments and fish, respectively. The TEQ values were low compared to the data for fresh water fish reported in literature and within a permissible level of 3.5 pg g(-1) ww recommended by the European Commission. Based on the Commission set value and minimum risk level criteria formulated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the fish from the Murchison Bay was fit for human consumption.

  17. Cross-species comparison of relative potencies and relative sensitivities of fishes to dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Eisner, Bryanna K; Doering, Jon A; Beitel, Shawn C; Wiseman, Steve; Raine, Jason C; Hecker, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Dioxin-like compounds of varying toxicities are found in complex mixtures. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach was developed based on the potency of a dioxin-like compound relative to the potency of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to streamline risk assessment. One limitation of the TEF approach is uncertainty regarding differences in the relative potency of dioxin-like compounds among different species. Relative potencies among fishes are limited, relative to relative potencies among birds and mammals, and TEFs for fishes are based entirely on the model species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). An in vitro liver explant assay was used to characterize species-specific responses with regard to up-regulation of CYP1A transcript after exposure to 6 dioxin-like compounds in rainbow trout, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), and northern pike (Esox lucius). Differences in sensitivities were observed among species after exposure to dioxin-like compounds. The relative potencies developed from liver explants of rainbow trout were comparable to relative potencies developed from embryo toxicity assays. Differences in relative potencies between species with the least and greatest relative potencies were up to 40-fold. To compare relative potencies among species, concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in fish eggs in the Fraser River and in Lake Ontario were used to calculate toxic equivalency quotients (TEQs) determined from TEFs or TCDD equivalents determined from relative potencies. The TEQs underestimated TCDD equivalents for white sturgeon, lake sturgeon, and northern pike, indicating uncertainty in application of TEFs to diverse fishes.

  18. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Ikonomou, Michael G; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Hee-Sun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of blood samples is an effective way of evaluating contamination by persistent pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human population. Concentrations of PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured in the blood of laborers (n = 13) working full time in two different municipal waste incinerator (MWI) plants and residents from the general population (n = 22) living in areas near MWIs in Korea. The concentrations of PBDEs were found to be slightly higher in the blood of incineration workers (8.61-46.05 ng/g lipid; mean, 19.33 ng/g lipid; median, 15.94 ng/g lipid) in comparison to that of residents from the general population (7.24-28.89 ng/g lipid; mean, 15.06 ng/g lipid; median, 14.34 ng/g lipid). The total average PCDD/Fs and PCB TEQ concentration was 20.11 pg/g lipid, averaged over incineration workers (17.73 pg/g lipid) and the general population (21.52 pg/g lipid). In addition, the average total crude concentration of PCDD/Fs was 7.40 ng/g lipids, which was 4.1 times greater than for PBDEs. Congener specific analysis confirmed that BDE 47 was a predictive indicator for total PBDE concentration (correlation coefficient r = 0.912), and that PCB 153 was a predictive indicator for total PCB concentration (r = 0.967). The PBDE levels in human blood in Korea are much higher than those reported in other countries. The presence of the BDE 183 congener was characteristic in the blood of workers from an electronic dismantling facility in MWIs.

  19. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and trace metals in the blood of nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator and electric arc furnace.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Feng

    2010-06-01

    This study examines levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and trace metals in the blood of the nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs). The analysis found that older females had higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs and older males had higher body mass index (BMI) values and higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Moreover, sex appeared to affect the levels of PCDD/Fs because, overall, females showed higher levels of PCDD/Fs. The results of a principal component analysis indicated that the characteristics of the blood were more similar to the characteristics of the stack flux gas in MSWIs than those in EAFs. When sex, age, and BMI values were taken into consideration, none of the factors appeared to significantly affect PCDD/F and trace metal blood levels. However, when participants were divided into eight categories and analyzed, it was found that sex was the most important factor affecting levels of trace metals in blood and that males had higher concentrations of Pb, Al, Cd, and Cu.

  20. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants.

  1. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  2. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  3. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish.

  4. Evaluation of 2,3,7,8 specific congener and toxic potency of persistent polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, B.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Jimenez, O.; Reich, S.; Eljarrat, E.; Rivera, J.

    2000-03-01

    The present study investigates individual 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in cetaceans and assesses the PCDD and PCDF contributions to the total TCDD equivalent concentration. Liver samples of a variety of cetaceans species found stranded along the Italian coasts during the period of 1987--1992 were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. The main aims were to scrutinize levels and patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs for the first time in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea and to estimate whether chlorinated compounds mentioned are implicated in the exceptionally high mortality of dolphins that occurred in the Mediterranean sea during 1990--1992. PCDD and PCDF profiles were dominated by congeners OCCD and OCDF. The new toxic equivalency factors recommended by WHO in 1997 were used for calculation of dioxin-like toxicity. On the basis of their previous study of PCBs, the overall TEQ calculated from the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs do not contribute as much dioxin-like toxicity as PCBs.

  5. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay.

  6. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries.

  7. Relative potencies of individual polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners and congener mixtures based on induction of cytochrome P4501A mRNA in a rainbow trout gonadal cell line (RTG-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Pollenz, R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    Cytochrome P450-catalyzed enzyme activity in cell culture was investigated as a bioassay for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents in environmental mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and biphenyl (PCB) congeners. A problem with the use of enzyme induction is that certain congeners are unable to induce P4501A enzyme activity to the same maximal level as TCDD. The authors sought to eliminate this problem by measuring mRNA induction rather than enzyme activity. Rainbow trout gonadal cells (RTG-2) were exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners and congener mixtures, and induction of cytochrome P4501A mRNA was measured. A high level of induction in cells treated with only a medium change was seen and was due to a component of the fresh medium, 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDD and PCDF congeners and four-non-ortho-substituted PCBs caused significant induction. Toxic equivalency factors determined in RTG-2 cells were generally higher than those in rainbow trout early life stages. Rainbow trout gonadal cell (RTG-2) bioassay TCDD equivalents (TEqs) for three environmental extracts were lower than predicted by addition of individual congener TEqs, and the synthetic congener mixture acted additively.

  8. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study.

  9. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  10. Transformation of dibenzo-p-dioxin by pseudomonas sp. strain HH69

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, H.; Wittich, R.M. ); Sinnwell, V.; Meyer, H.; Fortnagel, P.; Francke, W. )

    1990-04-01

    Dibenzo-p-dioxin was oxidatively cleaved by the dibenzofuran-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain HH69 to produce minor amounts of 1-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin and catechol, while a 2-phenoxy derivative of muconic acid was formed as the major product. Upon acidic methylation, the latter yielded the dimethylester of cis,trans-2-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)-muconic acid.

  11. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tay-Lung; Liao, Chiu-Jung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the major organic contaminants emitted in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The distribution of PAHs and PCDD/Fs in different MSWI unit ashes, including bottom residue (BR), fly ash pit (FAP), fabric filter (FF), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), economizer (EC) and super heater (SH), has seldom been discussed. Average PAHs content in ash samples from BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH were found to be 0.020, 0.237, 0.234, 0.125, 0.037 and 0.034 µg TEQ g(-1), respectively. In addition, the range of total emission factor from different unit ashes varied between 0.30-13.85 mg TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, low molecular weight compounds (2~3-ring) being the dominant species. Furthermore, PAHs in ashes were mainly found in BR (41%) and FAP (31%). The FAP ash included 18% of PAHs coming from FF ash. On the other hand, PCDD/Fs content in BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH was found to be 0.0329, 1.1589, 1.2807, 0.1476, 0.6868 and 0.0921 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/ Fs emission factors in this study ranged between 1.029-67.740 µg I-TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, most PCDD/Fs being present in FAP (55%). The FAP ash included 33% of PCDD/Fs coming from FF ash. Therefore, PCDD/Fs content in FAP and FF exceeded the legal limit of 1 ng I-TEQ g( -1); therefore, a solidification process is necessary before landfilling in Taiwan. PMID:20022903

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  13. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  14. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  16. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in feedstuffs and milk from farms in the vicinity of incineration plants in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ingelido, Anna Maria; Abballe, Annalisa; di Domenico, Alessandro; Fochi, Igor; Iacovella, Nicola; Saragosa, Alberto; Spagnesi, Maurizio; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in samples of bovine and ovine milk collected in farms located in the province of Grosseto, Tuscany, in the vicinity of two incineration plants as well as in farms located in areas with presumable background levels of contamination. Samples of feedstuffs of local origin used in the investigated farms were also collected and analysed. The cumulative levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in feedstuffs ranged from 0.25 to 0.61 pg WHO-TE/g fresh weight (fw) in the farms under impact from incinerator emissions and from 0.21 to 0.34 pg WHO-TE/g fw in the control area farms. The sums of the six non-dioxin-like indicator PCB (NDL-PCB) congeners were 0.13 to 9.3 ng/g fw and 1.2 to 1.9 ng/g fw, respectively. In milk samples, the levels detected were 0.71 to 2.9 pg WHO-TE/g fat and 0.52 to 0.59 pg WHO-TE/g fat in farms under impact from the incinerators and in the control area farms, respectively. The corresponding sums of the six indicator PCB congeners were 1.4 to 8.2 ng/g fat and 0.90 to 1.6 ng/g fat. In all samples, contamination levels were below the limits set by the European Community (EC; Commission Directive 2006/13/EC and Commission Regulation 1881/2006/EC.) No relevant differences were found between samples collected in potentially exposed areas and control areas for total toxic equivalents and cumulative analytic levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, DL-PCBs, and NDL-PCBs (p > 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Observed levels were in agreement with those found in other countries in areas with background levels of exposure. Congener levels and profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in feedstuffs and milk samples that were compared describe congener-specific transfer behavior.

  17. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  18. Dioxin-like toxicity in the Saginaw River Watershed: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in sediments and floodplain soils from the Saginaw and Shiawassee Rivers and Saginaw Bay, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yun, Se Hun; Ostaszewski, Arthur; McCabe, John M; Mackenzie-Taylor, Deborah; Taylor, Allan B

    2008-01-01

    Sediment and floodplain soils in the Saginaw River Watershed, Michigan, USA, have been demonstrated to be contaminated with a variety of organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Existing data indicate that, at some locations, the contamination exceeds human health risk-based regulatory levels and ecological risk-based screening levels. In this study, concentrations of PCBs including non-ortho coplanar congeners, PCDDs, and PCDFs were measured in more than 120 sediment and floodplain soil samples collected from the Shiawassee River (a tributary of the Saginaw River), the Saginaw River, and Saginaw Bay, to determine the sources and magnitude of contamination, and to elucidate the contributions from individual contaminant groups to the overall 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibezo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs). Sediment and soil extracts were also analyzed for total dioxin-like activity by means of the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. Elevated concentrations of PCBs (>1000 ng/g, dry weight) were found in surface sediment and floodplain soil samples collected from the Shiawassee River near Chase Lake, from Middleground Island in the Saginaw River, and from subsurface sediments in Saginaw Bay. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs in sediment and floodplain soils from the Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in the samples from the Shiawassee River. The highest PCDD/F concentration (55,200 pg/g, dry weight in a subsurface layer) was found in sediment collected at the mouth of the Saginaw River. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than the concentrations of PCDDs in sediment from the Saginaw River. 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were the major PCDF congeners found in sediments from the Saginaw River. The elevated concentrations of PCDFs, and the predominance of the less highly chlorinated PCDF congeners, in sediments

  19. Metabolism of dibenzo-p-dioxin by Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1

    SciTech Connect

    Wittich, R.M.; Wilkes, H.; Sinnwell, V.; Francke, W.; Fortnagel, P. )

    1992-03-01

    In the course of screening for dibenzo-p-dioxin-utilizing bacteria, a Sphingomonas sp. strain was isolated from enrichment cultures inoculated with water samples from the river Elbe. The isolate grew with both the biaryl ethers dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (DF) as the sole sources of carbon and energy, showing doubling times of about 8 and 5 h, respectively. Biodegradation of the two aromatic compounds initially proceeded after an oxygenolytic attack at the angular position adjacent to the ether bridge, producing 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxydiphenyl ether or 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxybiphenyl from the initially formed dihydrodiols, which represent extremely unstable hemiacetals. Results obtained from determinations of enzyme activities and oxygen consumption suggest meta cleavage of the trihydroxy compounds. During dibenzofuran degradation, hydrolysis of 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoate yielded salicylate, which was branched into the catechol meta cleavage pathway and the gentisate pathway. Catechol obtained from the product of meta ring fission of 2,2{prime},3-trihydroxydiphenyl ether was both ortho and meta cleaved by Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 when this organism was grown with dibenzo-p-dioxin.

  20. Part 1: (Previous year`s abstract) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) of polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated diphenylethers based on early life stage mortality of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, W.E.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.; Chu, I.; Safe, S.H.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs, PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, PBDDs) and furans (PCDFs, PBDFs), along with mixed polychlorinated/brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC/BDDs) and polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDPEs), comprise a complex mixture of chemicals found in aquatic environments which may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. To evaluate this potential risk, the lethal potency of individual congeners relative to TCDD must be determined. TEFs were calculated based on the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to congener LD{sub 50} in rainbow trout. Mortality was assessed from hatching to swim-up; no congener related mortality occurred during the egg stage. TEFs from PCBs and PBBs were; 3,4,4{prime},5-TCB (IUPAC {number_sign}81) = 0.0056; 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TBB ({number_sign}77) = 0.002; 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-HxBB ({number_sign}169) = 0.0001. PCBs {number_sign}4, {number_sign}28, {number_sign}52, {number_sign}105, {number_sign}118, {number_sign}128, {number_sign}138, {number_sign}156, {number_sign}170 and PBBs {number_sign}4, {number_sign}52, {number_sign}153 all had TEF values < 0.00005. TEFs for PCDDs and PBDDs were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD = 0.024; 1,2,3,4, 6,7,8-HpCDD = 0.0020; 2,3,7,8-TBDD = 1.5; 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD = 0.08. Of two PBDFs tested, 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF had TEF = 0.04 and 2,7-DBDF, had TEF < 0.0004. TEFs for two equipotent PC/BDDs, 2,3,7,-Cl-8-BrDD and 2,8-Cl-3,7-BrDD were 0.6. PCDPEs 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-; 2,3{prime},4{prime}, 6-; 2,2{prime},4,5,6{prime}-; 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-; and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5 had TEFs < 0.000002.

  1. Contribution of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the toxic equivalency of dioxin-like compounds in archived biosolids from the U.S. EPA's 2001 national sewage sludge survey.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-09-16

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40-100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630-42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼ 0.002% vs ∼ 0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15-672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12-96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530-1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids.

  2. Contribution of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the Toxic Equivalency of Dioxin-like Compounds in Archived Biosolids from the U.S. EPA’s 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40–100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630–42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼0.002% vs ∼0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15–672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12–96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530–1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids. PMID:25157505

  3. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  4. Transformation processes, pathways, and possible sources of distinctive polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin signatures in sink environments.

    PubMed

    Gaus, Caroline; Brunskill, Gregg J; Connell, W; Prange, Joelle; Müller, Jochen F; Päpke, Olaf; Weber, Roland

    2002-08-15

    In recent years, studies on environmental samples with unusual dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congener profiles were reported from a range of countries. These profiles, characterized by a dominance of octachlorinated dibenzodioxin (OCDD) and relatively low in dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations, could not be attributed to known sources or formation processes. In the present study, the processes that result in these unusual profiles were assessed using the concentrations and isomer signatures of PCDDs from dated estuarine sediment cores in Queensland, Australia. Increases in relative concentrations of lower chlorinated PCDDs and a relative decrease of OCDD were correlated with time of sediment deposition. Preferred lateral, anaerobic dechlorination of OCDD represents a likely pathway for these changes. In Queensland sediments, these transformations result in a distinct dominance of isomers fully chlorinated in the 1,4,6,9-positions (1,4-patterns), and similar 1,4-patterns were observed in sediments from elsewhere. Consequently, these environmental samples may not reflect the signatures of the original source, and a reevaluation of source inputs was undertaken. Natural formation of PCDDs, which has previously been suggested, is discussed; however, based on the present results and literature comparisons, we propose an alternative scenario. This scenario hypothesizes that an anthropogenic PCDD precursor input (e.g. pentachlorophenol) results in the contamination. These results and hypothesis imply further investigations are warranted into possible anthropogenic sources in areas where natural PCDD formation has been suggested. PMID:12214647

  5. Nonradiative deactivation of the lowest excited triplet state of the dibenzo- p-dioxin molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gastilovich, E. A.; Klimenko, V. G.; Volkova, L. V.; Nurmukhametov, R. N.

    2011-11-01

    In the nonadiabatic approximation, we study how intramolecular interactions affect the nonradiative energy degradation T {1/ s } ↝ S 0 of triplet sublevels s of the lowest triplet state of the dibenzo- p-dioxin molecule. We consider the role played in the degradation by the shape of promoting high- and low-frequency vibrational modes and by spin-orbit interactions separately in the carbon backbone of the molecule and in heteroatoms (oxygen). We find that σ-electrons of oxygen that correspond to the lone pair and to valence electrons play different roles in the nonadiabatic interaction.

  6. Photodegradation of Polyfluorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins in Organic Solvents: Experimental and Theoretical Studies.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaolan; Qu, Ruijuan; Feng, Mingbao; Chen, Jing; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-08-01

    Eighteen polyfluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PFDDs) were synthesized by pyrolysis of fluorophenols. Using a 500 W Xe lamp as the light source, the PFDDs photodegradation kinetics in n-hexane were investigated. The photolysis reactions obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate equation, and higher fluorinated PFDDs tended to photolyze more slowly. Theoretically calculated parameters reflecting the molecular structural properties were used to develop a new model of PFDDs photolysis rates. The results indicated that the substitution pattern for fluorine atoms and the C-O bond length were major factors in the photolysis of PFDDs. We selected octafluorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OFDD) as a representative PFDDs to explore the influence of solvent on the photolysis rate of PFDDs, and the results indicated that neither the polarity nor donor hydrogen of organic solvents are independent influencing factors. Mechanistic pathways for the photolysis of OFDD in n-hexane were first studied. The results indicated that photodegradation of OFDD produces octafluorinated dihydroxybiphenyls, octafluorinated phenoxyphenols, and fluorinated phenols. The major pathway for photodegradation of OFDD was C-O bond cleavage. Defluorination reactions did not occur during the photolysis process. PMID:27380414

  7. Photochemical formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins from environmentally abundant hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Arnoldsson, Kristina; Andersson, Patrik L; Haglund, Peter

    2012-07-17

    High levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) have been found in Baltic Sea biota, where the toxic load owing to, for example, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and other organic pollutants is already high. The levels and geographic pattern of PBDDs suggest biogenic rather than anthropogenic origin, and both biotic and abiotic formation pathways have been proposed. Photochemical formation from hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDE) is a proposed pathway for PBDDs in marine environments. Ultraviolet radiation-initiated transformations of OH-BDEs 47, 68, 85, 90, 99, and 123, which all are abundant in the environment, were investigated. It was shown that the most abundant PBDDs in the environment (1,3,7-triBDD and 1,3,8-triBDD) can be formed from the most abundant OH-BDEs (OH-BDE 47 and OH-BDE 68) at high rates and with percentage yields. In fact, most of the PBDDs that have been identified in the Baltic Sea environment were formed with high yield from the six studied OH-PBDE, through initial cyclization and subsequent debromination reactions. The high formation yields point to this route as an important source of PBDDs in biota. However, congeners showing relatively high retention in fish, specifically 1,3,6,8- and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD, were not formed. These are likely formed by enzymatic coupling of brominated phenols.

  8. Mutagenic potential of binary mixtures of nitro-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, K.C.; Brown, K.W.; Estiri, M.; Jones, D.H.; Safe, S.

    1988-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of binary mixtures of nitro-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and other environmentally related compounds was determined using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the standard plate incorporation assay. Samples tested included binary mixtures of 4-nitro-4'-chlorobiphenyl with 6-nitro-4,2',3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl, 4-nitrobenzo-p-dioxin with 4-nitro-2,3,8-trichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and benzo(a)pyrene with either nitropentachlorobiphenyl or nitrotrichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Inhibition was the primary interaction observed for the mixtures of polyhalogenated dioxins or biphenyls with the direct-acting mutagens nitrodibenzo-p-dioxin or nitrochlorobiphenyl. At the highest dose tested, nitrotrichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibited the bacterial mutagenicity of nitrodibenzo-p-dioxin by almost 50%, while pentachlorobiphenyl inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrobiphenyl by 34%. Conversely, synergism was the primary interaction observed for mixtures of halogenated aromatics with the promutagen benzo(a)pyrene. The addition of nitrotrichlorodioxin to benzo(a)pyrene enhanced the mutagenicity of the latter compound by as much as 70%, while the mutagenic potential of a mixture of benzo(a)pyrene and nitropentachlorobiphenyl was approximately 50% greater than the mutagenicity of benzo(a)pyrene alone. In summary, mixtures of nonmutagenic nitropolyhalogenated biphenyls or dibenzo-p-dioxins appear to inhibit the mutagenicity of direct-acting mutagens, while these same compounds seem to enhance the mutagenic potential of the promutagen benzo(a)pyrene.

  9. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in fish downstream from a Ky-5 manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, M; Verta, M; Lehtoranta, J; Kiviranta, H; Vartiainen, T

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were studied in seven fish species, burbot (Lota lota), pike (Esox lucius), perch (Perca fluviatilis), pikeperch (Stizopedion lucioperca), bream (Abramis brama), salmon (Salmo salar) and Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) in River Kymijoki and its estuary polluted by Ky-5 manufacturing. The fish were caught at 14 localities along the river and its estuary. The selected species represent different trophic levels and/or inhabit different environments. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were low, in most samples below 1 pg g(-1) ITEQ (NATO/CCMS 1988) fresh weight (fw) in muscle, except salmon and Baltic herring. These two species graze at the open sea and consequently accumulate contaminants at a large area in the Baltic Sea. The lipid content in salmon and Baltic herring was an order of magnitude higher than in other species. PCDD/Fs in fish muscle showed only slightly elevated levels in the Kymijoki area and its estuary as compared to the levels in the same species in Finnish freshwaters and sea areas. The concentration of the main impurities of the fungicide Ky-5 was higher in the Kymijoki River downstream the Ky-5 manufacturing place compared to the up-stream locations. The PCDD/F concentrations in fish liver and spawn were 10-100 times higher than the concentration in muscle, because of the much higher lipid concentrations of these organes. Consequently, the tolerable daily intake values could be as much as 100 times smaller (M. Korhonen, M. Verta, T. Vartiainen, Organohalog. Comp. 32 (1997) 305-310; P. Mikkelson, J. Paasivirta, H. Kiviranta, Organohalog. Comp. 39 (1998) 59-62).

  10. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total. PMID:24306724

  11. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total.

  12. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  13. A theoretical investigation into the conformational changes of dibenzo- p-dioxin, thianthrene, and selenanthrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Younghi; Lee, Jong-Phil; Choi, Seung-Youl; Choo, Jaebum

    2003-08-01

    Theoretical ab initio calculations using the HF and B3LYP methods have been carried out to investigate the conformational differences of three cyclic rings, dibenzo- p-dioxin (DPD), thianthrene (THT), and selenanthrene (SET). The physical origin for the conformational preference of each molecule has been studied using the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The NBO results indicate that DPD exists in a planar form due to strong electron delocalization caused by the specific orbital interaction, nπ→ πCC∗, around the X atom. On the other hand, THT and SET exist as puckered forms with high inversion barriers due to less effective electron delocalization. The NBO analysis also shows that the conformational stabilization in DPD is caused by a more effective overlap of the 2 pz- πCC∗ orbitals, compared with the overlap of the 3 pz- πCC∗ orbitals in THT.

  14. Differentiation of (Mixed) Halogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins by Negative Ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sujan; Green, M Kirk; Organtini, Kari; Dorman, Frank; Jones, Rhys; Reiner, Eric J; Jobst, Karl J

    2016-05-17

    Brominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs and PXDDs) may well be as toxic as 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2378-TCDD), a compound reputed as one of the most toxic chemicals known to exist. However, studies on the occurrence of PXDDs have been hampered by a lack of authentic standards as well as separation techniques capable of resolving the enormous number of potential isomers. Electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry based methods are of limited value due to the lack of isomer specific fragmentation. Negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI(-)) of 2378-TCDD was described in this journal over 30 years ago. Under these conditions, the reaction between O2(-•) and 2378-TCDD results in structure diagnostic cleavages of the C-O bonds, which can distinguish TCDD isomers on the basis of Cl distribution between the two aromatic rings. In the present study, the analogous ether cleavages of PBDDs and PXDDs were studied using a gas chromatograph-quadrupole time-of-flight (GC-QTOF) mass spectrometer coupled using APCI. The results indicate comparable detection limits for the radical cations [M(•+)] and negative pseudomolecular ions [M-Cl+O](-): approximately 5 fg and 10 fg, respectively, for 2378-TCDD and 5-10 fg and 10-30 fg, respectively, for the 2,3,7,8-substituted PXDDs. Detection limits obtained by monitoring the ether cleavage products were somewhat higher (between 100 and 600 fg) but still acceptable for trace analysis of PXDDs. Such reactions may resolve coeluting isomers, which is crucial for the identification of PXDDs. The technique is demonstrated by differentiating PXDD isomer classes in a sample obtained from a major industrial fire that would not be feasible using EI or positive ion APCI(+). PMID:27074061

  15. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wood burning stoves and fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Ali, B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of bottom ash and chimney ash were collected from two wood burning stoves, one open fireplace, and from out-of-doors open-air burning. Although only untreated wood was burned, PCDD/PCDF was detected in all samples. Large differences in total PCDD/PCDF and relative congener amounts were observed between samples, although within-congener isomer patterns were very similar and in some cases resembled the patterns detected in municipal incinerator fly ash. Acid treatment of the ash before extraction increased the amounts of PCDD/PCDF detected.

  16. Kinetic Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation Based on Carbon Degradation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor were performed to determine the role of temperature and time in PCDD/F formation allowing a global kinetic expression to be written for PCDD/F formation due to soot oxidation in fly ash deposits. Rate constants were c...

  17. Risk from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emitted from municipal incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Maukerjee, D.; Cleverly, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). Their prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic chemicals known and has been found to have teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in animals. Exposure to TCDD can result in chloracne, general weakness, drastic weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin, hirsutism, porphyria cutanea tarda, liver damage, changes in activities of various liver enzymatic levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, abnormalities of the endocrine and immune systems, and possible teratogenic effects in humans. Moreover, chronic bioassay data indicate that TCDD is one of the most potent carcinogens known. It promotes liver and skin carcinogeneses, and is an initiator for various target organs in rodent test systems. According to the classification system of IARC, the qualitative evidence for carcinogenicity of TCDD is considered to be sufficient in animals and inadequate in humans. Consequently, TCDD has been placed in IARC's 2B category. In the absence of chronic bioassay data on other PCDDs and PCDFs, several TCDD equivalent approaches have been proposed for risk assessment on other congeners or mixtures. The paper compares the various approaches.

  18. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residue levels in food. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, J.S.; Bauer, K.M.

    1989-10-26

    The chemical analysis of selected foods was conducted to provide an estimate of the residue levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. The foodstuffs included saltwater fish, freshwater fish, beef, chicken, pork, bovine milk, and eggs. The foodstuffs were collected from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Emphasis was placed on the collection of foodstuffs of California origin. Individual foods collected from multiple sites within San Francisco and Los Angeles were composited for analysis of the residue levels. Detectable levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were identified in all but the egg samples that were analyzed. Overall, the freshwater fish composites were found to have the highest incidence of detectable levels. The order of highest to lowest incidence of detection follows: freshwater fish > saltwater fish > pork and chicken > beef and milk > eggs. All data were generated from a sample size of approximately 10 g of extractable fatty materials. All data are presented to reflect lipid or fat concentrations such that extrapolation with other data bases can be achieved.

  19. Differentiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, D.A.; Grundy, S.L. ); Cretney, W.J.; MacDonald, R.W.; Kionomou, M.G. )

    1999-06-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis techniques, principal components analysis, and polytopic vector analysis (PVA) were used to apportion sources of dioxins and furans to Howe Sound and the lower Strait of Georgia marine ecosystem, British Columbia, Canada, based on deposition in recent sediments. In sediment cores collected in 1990, differences between congeners in the depth of maximum concentration suggested the influence over time of several different sources. Those with a predominance of hexachlorinated dibenzodioxins and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran comprised one of the major contributions to the sediment core samples and surficial samples collected from Howe Sound, consistent with past inputs of pulpmill effluent. For most sediment samples, however, over 50% of the composition was attributable to a separate source with octachlorodibenzofuran and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). This source signature is consistent with the composition of dioxins/furans in formulations of pentachlorophenol-based wood preservatives, which were used extensively in British Columbia, Canada prior to the mid-1980s. This major input signature to the greater Strait of Georgia cannot be unequivocally ascribed to PCP use and disposal, however, since several other dioxin/furan sources also exhibit a highly similar composition, one dominated by OCDD. For example, source signatures similar to PCP formulations include those from diesel emissions, coal combustion, municipal solid waste, or other incineration stack emissions (fly ash, in particular), chimney soot from oil central heating, black-liquor recovery furnace flue gas, and scrap wire and car incineration. Further research is required to discriminate among the OCDD-containing sources and, hence, provide for improved future source management.

  20. Depositional flux of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Correa, Oscar; Raun, Loren; Rifai, Hanadi; Suarez, Monica; Holsen, Thomas; Koenig, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Dry and wet deposition fluxes of the PCDD/F substituted congeners were measured at two different sites (Clinton Drive and Lang Road) in Houston, TX between December 2003 and April 2004. Average total dry deposition fluxes of 351 and 125pgm(-2)d(-1) were found at Clinton Drive and Lang Road, respectively. A wet deposition flux of 2.873pgm(-2)d(-1) was measured at the Clinton Drive site. The results indicated that the dry deposition process exhibited spatial variability. In addition, the results also demonstrated that precipitation, although intermittent, is the most important mechanism for the removal of dioxins from atmosphere in the area of study. Combining the contributions of the dry and wet deposition processes at Clinton Drive resulted in a total bulk deposition flux of 527pg m(-2)d(-1). The total dry and wet deposition fluxes were dominated by OCDD followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD at both sites. Overall average dry deposition velocities of 0.35 and 0.15cms(-1) were calculated at Clinton Drive and Lang Road sites, respectively. While these velocities were similar to velocities observed in other geographical areas, the contribution of OCDD to the total deposition flux in Houston was significantly higher, probably reflecting the unique nature and character of Houston dioxin sources. The results also showed that lower chlorinated congeners, primarily present in the gas phase, are more likely to be removed from the atmosphere by precipitation. Relationships between the detected congeners in the dry deposition samples and other routinely measured air pollutants/meteorological parameters were found. The results showed that in general, the dry deposition of these congeners was consistently negatively correlated with SO(2) and NO(x) concentrations in the air and positively correlated with relative humidity. However, more research is needed to ascertain those correlations.

  1. The concentration and distribution of 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans in chickens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid adjusted basis for each tissue. While there is a marked difference in the concentration of the 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxins in the edible tissues expressed on a whole weight basis, the lipid-adjusted concentrations of the individual dioxins were not statistically different in the various tissues. This validates the use of lipid adjusted concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs in abdominal fat for the determination of the presence of these compounds in different tissues.

  2. Changing sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in sediments and ecological risk for nekton in the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed; Barrett, Kirk; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in sediments (surface and deeper sediments) and porewater of the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) to apportion their sources and conduct an ecological risk assessment. Positive matrix factorization was applied to identify sources of PCDD/Fs. Five source profiles were extracted from the positive matrix factorization model applied to the sediment samples including chloranil, combustion, polychlorinated biphenyl impurities, mixed urban sources, and the historical contamination from the former Diamond Alkali plant. The ecological risk assessment was estimated using several lines of evidence depending on site-specific data (blue crab and fish samples representing different feeding habits and positions in the trophic wood web of the river). Porewater concentrations gave the best estimates of lipid concentrations especially in the blue crab samples (with an average factor difference of 3.8). Calculated hazard quotients (HQs) for the fish samples and blue crab were >1 based on the no-effect concentration and tissue screening concentration approaches. At the same time, calculated porewater toxic units were >1. Sediment concentrations exceeded the published sediment quality guidelines for the protection of fish and benthic species, indicating the existence of significant risk to the aquatic life in the Passaic River. Accordingly, further actions and control measures are needed to reduce the emission of PCDD/Fs from ongoing sources.

  3. Preliminary health risk assessment for polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yuichi; Jiang, Qinting; Yuan, Wang; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, Man Ka; Lam, Paul K S; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Dietary intake is one of the important routes of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The use of PBDEs may also result in exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/DFs), as these compounds are impurities in technical mixtures of BFRs and can also be formed unintentionally by the same processes that generate chlorinated dioxins. This study determined the concentrations of polybrominated compounds in common seafood in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, and assessed the health risks of these chemicals via consumption of contaminated seafood. Seafood samples (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods) purchased from local markets in 2003 and 2004 were analyzed for PBDEs and PBDDs/DFs. The highest concentration of total PBDEs (46.3 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) was detected in fish from Guangzhou, in which BDEs 47 and 209 were the two predominant congeners. The total daily intakes of PBDEs, PBDDs, and PBDFs were, 946, 6.39, and 6.54 pg kg(-1) body weight (bw) in Guangzhou, and 489, 4.99, and 7.65 pg kg(-1) bw in Zhoushan, respectively. The hazard ratios for PBDDs and PBDFs were both greater than unity, indicating that these compounds may pose some health risks to the local population.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine; Brunak, Søren; Antignac, Jean Philippe; le Bizec, Bruno; Juul, Anders; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Main, Katharina Maria

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated total toxic equivalent (total TEQ). SDS and SDS changes over time (ΔSDS) were calculated for height, weight, BMI, and skinfold fat percentage at 0, 3, 18, and 36 months of age. Serum IGF1 was measured at 3 months. We adjusted for confounders using multivariate regression analysis. Estimates (in parentheses) correspond to a fivefold increase in total TEQ. TEQ levels in breast milk increased significantly with maternal age and fish consumption and decreased with maternal birth year, parity, and smoking. Total TEQ was associated with lower fat percentage (-0.45 s.d., CI: -0.89; -0.04), non-significantly with lower weight and length at 0 months, accelerated early height growth (increased ΔSDS) (ΔSDS 0-18 months: +0.77 s.d., CI: 0.34; 1.19) and early weight increase (ΔSDS 0-18: +0.52 s.d., CI: 0.03; 1.00), and increased IGF1 serum levels at 3 months (+13.9 ng/ml, CI: 2.3; 25.5). Environmental exposure to dioxin-like chemicals was associated with being skinny at birth and with higher infant levels of circulating IGF1 as well as accelerated early childhood growth (rapid catch-up growth).

  5. Passive sampling provides evidence for Newark Bay as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carey L; Cantwell, Mark G; Lohmann, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive samplers. Mono- to octa-CDDs and mono- to hepta-CDFs were detected in bottom and surface waters at ≤ 20 pg/L with no clear gradient between sampling locations, suggesting freely dissolved PCDD/Fs are well mixed in Newark Bay. The most concentrated, freely dissolved gas phase congener was 2,7/2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7/2,8-DiCDD), likely originating from photochemical conversion of triclosan in Newark Bay. Air-surface water gradients strongly favored net volatilization of PCDD/PCDFs from Newark Bay. Water-to-air fluxes of 2,7/2,8-DiCDD and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), the most concentrated and the most toxic PCDD/PCDFs, respectively, were approximately 60 ng/m(2) per month and 14 to 51 pg/m(2) per month. Significant decreases in freely dissolved 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations with increasing freshwater near the Passaic River and conservative behavior during the summer of 2009 suggested Passaic sediments as a likely source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to Newark Bay. Mass balance calculations implied that almost 50% of freely dissolved 2,3,7,8-TCDD delivered to Newark Bay from the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers was lost to volatilization in the summer of 2009.

  6. Health impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, D

    1998-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), commonly known as dioxins, form as unwanted impurities in the manufacturing of chlorophenol and its derivatives--pulp and paper--and in the combustion of municipal, sewage-sludge, hospital, and hazardous waste. Combustion, in presence of a chlorine donor, seems to be a major source of these compounds. High levels of dioxins are also emitted from metallurgical industries including copper smelters, electric furnaces in steel mills, and wire reclamation incinerators. Trace levels are detectable in emissions from motor vehicles using leaded gasoline or diesel fuel, in forest fires, and in residential wood burning. Extremely persistent and widely distributed in the environment, PCDDs have been detected in all three primary and many secondary media. Releases into the air occur mainly from combustor emissions. Atmospheric dispersion, deposition, and subsequent accumulation in the food chain seem to be the major pathways of exposure to the general population. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in soil, sediment, fish, meat, cow's milk, human adipose tissue, and mothers' milk. In general, these chemicals have high lipophilicity. The elimination half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in humans is approximately 7-11 years. Very little human toxicity data from exposure to PCDDs are available. Health-effect data obtained from occupational settings in humans are based on exposure to chemicals contaminated with TCDD. It produces a spectrum of toxic effects in animals and is one of the most toxic chemicals known. Most of the toxicity data available on TCDD are from high-dose oral exposures to animals. Very few percutaneous and no inhalation exposure data are available in the literature. There is a wide range of difference in sensitivity to PCDD lethality in animals. The signs and symptoms of poisoning with chemicals contaminated with TCDD in humans are analogous to those observed in animals. Dioxin exposures

  7. DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CERAMICS AND POTTERY PRODUCED FROM BALL CLAY MINED IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had...

  8. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  9. A Functional 4-Hydroxysalicylate/Hydroxyquinol Degradative Pathway Gene Cluster Is Linked to the Initial Dibenzo-p-Dioxin Pathway Genes in Sphingomonas sp. Strain RW1

    PubMed Central

    Armengaud, Jean; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Wittich, Rolf-Michael

    1999-01-01

    The bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 is able to use dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and several hydroxylated derivatives as sole sources of carbon and energy. We have determined and analyzed the nucleic acid sequence of a 9,997-bp HindIII fragment downstream of cistrons dxnA1A2, which encode the dioxygenase component of the initial dioxygenase system of the corresponding catabolic pathways. This fragment contains 10 colinear open reading frames (ORFs), apparently organized in one compact operon. The enzymatic activities of some proteins encoded by these genes were analyzed in the strain RW1 and, after hyperexpression, in Escherichia coli. The first three ORFs of the locus, designated dxnC, ORF2, and fdx3, specify a protein with a low homology to bacterial siderophore receptors, a polypeptide representing no significant homology to known proteins, and a putative ferredoxin, respectively. dxnD encodes a 69-kDa phenol monooxygenase-like protein with activity for the turnover of 4-hydroxysalicylate, and dxnE codes for a 37-kDa protein whose sequence and activity are similar to those of known maleylacetate reductases. The following gene, dxnF, encodes a 33-kDa intradiol dioxygenase which efficiently cleaves hydroxyquinol, yielding maleylacetate, the ketoform of 3-hydroxy-cis,cis-muconate. The heteromeric protein encoded by dxnGH is a 3-oxoadipate succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA) transferase, whereas dxnI specifies a protein exhibiting marked homology to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases (thiolases). The last ORF of the sequenced fragment codes for a putative transposase. DxnD, DxnF, DxnE, DxnGH, and DxnI (the activities of most of them have also been detected in strain RW1) thus form a complete 4-hydroxysalicylate/hydroxyquinol degradative pathway. A route for the mineralization of the growth substrates 3-hydroxydibenzofuran and 2-hydroxydibenzo-p-dioxin in Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 thus suggests itself. PMID:10348858

  10. Dibenzo-p-dioxins in the environment from ceramics and pottery produced from ball clay mined in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, Joseph; Byrne, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had average PCDD concentrations of 3.2 ng/g toxic equivalents, a congener profile, and isomer distribution consistent with those found previously in raw ball clay. The PCDF concentrations were below the average limit of detection (LOD) of 0.5 pg/g. The final fired ceramic products were found to be free of PCDDs/PCDFs at the LODs. A consideration of the conditions involved in the firing process suggests that the PCDDs, if not destroyed, may be released to the atmosphere and could represent an as yet unidentified source of dioxins to the environment. In addition, the PCDDs in clay dust generated during manufacturing operations may represent a potential occupational exposure.

  11. Predictability of physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) based on single-molecular descriptor models.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhee; Li, Loretta Y; Grace, John R

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are of global concern due to their persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity. Although the fate of PCDDs in the environment is determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as aqueous solubility, vapor pressure, octanol/water-, air/water-, and octanol/water-partition coefficients, experimental property data on the entire set of 75 PCDD congeners are limited. The quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approach is applied to predict the properties of all PCDD congeners. Experimental property data available from the literature are correlated against 16 molecular descriptors of five types. Reported and newly developed QSPR models for PCDDs are presented and reviewed. The values calculated by the best QSPRs are further adjusted to satisfy fundamental thermodynamic relationships. Although the single-descriptor models with chlorine number, molar volume, solvent accessible surface area and polarizability are based on good statistical results, these models cannot distinguish among PCDDs having the same chlorine number. The QSPR model based on the hyper-Wiener index of quantum-chemical descriptor gives useful statistical results and is able to distinguish among congeners with the same chlorine number, as well as satisfying thermodynamic relationships. The resulting consistent properties of the 75 PCDD congeners can be used for environmental modeling. PMID:26878604

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) congener profiles in cement kiln emissions and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ames, Michael; Zemba, Stephen; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2012-03-01

    Cement kilns are known to emit polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs; "dioxins"), but estimates of the amounts and patterns of these emissions vary widely. These variations may stem from a combination of factors, including the design and operating conditions of the kiln, and the fuels and raw materials fed into the kiln. The goal of this study was to examine the patterns of dioxin emissions in a large set of stack-tests at two Portland cement kilns in Portugal that use a variety of fuels. A total of 152 stack-tests provided data on PCDD/F congener concentrations during which the kilns combusted a varied mix of fuels, including petroleum coke, coal, various "special" supplemental fuels, and refinery distillation ends, which are classified as hazardous wastes. The use of coal to fuel the kilns was found to generate significantly different emission-profiles relative to the use of petroleum coke, but the addition of hazardous wastes as a supplemental fuel did not significantly alter profiles. All of the kiln emission profiles were found to differ markedly from profiles in ambient air. However, the small absolute dioxin emission rates from the kilns suggested that kiln impacts would not be detectable via ambient air monitoring, even in rural settings.

  13. Microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and -furans at the Portland Harbor Superfund site, Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Krumins, Valdis; Curran, Joanna Crowe

    2015-06-16

    The Portland Harbor (Oregon, USA) has been declared a "Superfund" site because it is impacted by a variety of contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs). Using data collected in the remedial investigation, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in sediment and water were examined using positive matrix factorization to look for evidence that PCBs and PCDD/Fs are dechlorinated by anaerobic bacteria. This process has long been known to occur in sediments. Recently, it has been recognized that PCB and PCDD/F dechlorination may also occur in other anaerobic environments, such as in landfills, sewers, and groundwater. The results indicate that a factor related to the dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs was present in the water but not in the sediment. Spatial patterns in dechlorination products suggest that they come primarily from groundwater. Dechlorination products comprise 22% of the PCBs in the water. The Portland Harbor therefore represents the third major US watershed in which PCBs appear to undergo dechlorination in an environment other than sediment, suggesting that the microbial dechlorination of PCBs and PCDD/Fs is more common than previously assumed. In addition, the Portland Harbor is impacted by PCBs generated inadvertently during the production of pigments, such as PCB 11, which alone exceeded the 64 pg/L federal water quality standard for the sum of PCBs in two of 120 whole water samples.

  14. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships Study on the Rate Constants of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins with OH Radical

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chuansong; Zhang, Chenxi; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    The OH-initiated reaction rate constants (kOH) are of great importance to measure atmospheric behaviors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in the environment. The rate constants of 75 PCDDs with the OH radical at 298.15 K have been calculated using high level molecular orbital theory, and the rate constants (kα, kβ, kγ and kOH) were further analyzed by the quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) study. According to the QSAR models, the relations between rate constants and the numbers and positions of Cl atoms, the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO), the difference ΔEHOMO-LUMO between EHOMO and ELUMO, and the dipole of oxidizing agents (D) were discussed. It was found that EHOMO is the main factor in the kOH. The number of Cl atoms is more effective than the number of relative position of these Cl atoms in the kOH. The kOH decreases with the increase of the substitute number of Cl atoms. PMID:26274950

  15. Significance of biomass open burning on the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the ambient air.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shun-I; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Long-Full; Huang, Jiao-Yan; Su, Jen-Wei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-05-01

    In southern Taiwan, two areas (L- and Y-) with/without biomass open burning were selected to compare the PCDD/F concentrations and their congener profiles in the ambient air. The results of this study indicate that biomass (rice straw) open burning exhibited a significant impact on the PCDD/F concentration level in the ambient air. During the biomass burning season, the total PCDD/F I-TEQ concentrations in the ambient air of L- and Y-areas were approximately 4 and 17 times higher than those without biomass open burning, respectively. When 10% mass fraction of rice straw was burned, the contribution fraction of biomass burning on annual total PCDD/F I-TEQ emission was 3.28 and 8.11% for KC County and for Taiwan, respectively; however, when the calculation was on a weekly basis, the contribution fraction of biomass burning on weekly total PCDD/F I-TEQ emission was 30.6 and 53.4% for KC County and for Taiwan, respectively. The results of this study imply that during the week of biomass burning, it appears to be the most significant source of total I-TEQ PCDD emission. The results of this research can be applied to the study of other agricultural areas.

  16. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  17. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  18. CONCENTRATIONS AND COMPOSITIONS OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, AND -DIBENZOFURANS IN TECHNICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER PREPARATIONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used as flame retardants in textiles, electronic equipment and plastics.1 The three major commercial products available in the market are penta-BDE, octa-BDE, and deca-BDE products. Due to their widespread use, persistence, and bio...

  19. Characterizing the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from crematories and their impacts to the surrounding environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2003-01-01

    This study was set out to characterize PCDD/F emissions from crematories and assess their impacts on the surrounding environment. Two crematories located in southern Taiwan were investigated, including the one (C1) with no air pollution control device installed and the other (C2) installed with a bag filter. Results show the mean PCDD/F emissions (11% oxygen) from the stacks of Cl and C2 were 2.36 and 0.322 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The mean emission factors for C1 and C2 were 13.6 and 6.11 microg I-TEQ body(-1), respectively. The removal efficiency of the bag filter on PCDD/Fs was 55.1%. The estimated PCDD/F emission rate for all crematories in Taiwan was 0.838 g I-TEG yr(-1) accounting for 227% and 112% of the annual emissions from all medical waste incinerators and municipal waste incinerators, respectively. The above results indicate that PCDD/F emissions from crematories were quite significant. To assess the impact of PCDD/F emissions from a crematory to the surrounding environment, ambient air samples were collected from the downwind site of C1 with the maximum ground concentration. We found the estimated maximum ground concentration at the downwind site of C1 (= 0.521 pg I-TEQ Nm(-3)) was much higherthan thatfound atthe background, rural area, residential area, urban area, and industrial area (= 0.006, 0.023, 0.052, 0.093, and 0.190 pg I-TEG Nm(-3), respectively). The above results suggestthat PCDD/F emissions from a crematory did significantly affect its surrounding environment. In conclusion, a proper control strategy should be taken immediately in order to eliminate PCDD/F emissions from crematories.

  20. Fungal enzyme production and biodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in contaminated sawmill soil.

    PubMed

    Anasonye, Festus; Winquist, Erika; Kluczek-Turpeinen, Beata; Räsänen, Markus; Salonen, Kalle; Steffen, Kari T; Tuomela, Marja

    2014-09-01

    The current treatment method for PCDD/F-contaminated soil, which fulfils the requirements for POP soils, is incineration at high temperature. In this study, we investigated if bioaugmentation with fungal inoculum or treatment with manganese peroxidase (MnP) enzyme preparation could be used instead. The main source of PCDD/F contamination in Finland has been the national production and use of a chlorophenol containing wood preservative, which contained PCDD/Fs as impurities. Therefore, historically contaminated soils from three sawmill sites were used in the experiments. In bioaugmentation experiments with living fungal mycelia, enzyme production, CO2 production and degradation of chlorinated dioxins were measured. When cell free MnP preparation was added to the soil, it was likewise important to follow how enzyme activity was maintained in the soil. As a result of this study, we showed that fungi were able to efficiently degrade PCDD/F, but surprisingly the addition of MnP preparation did not have any effect to the PCDD/F concentration. However, substantial amounts of MnP activity were found in the soil still after 10d of incubation. Treatment with either Stropharia rugosoannulata or Phanerochaete velutina resulted in 62-64% decrease in WHO-TEQ value in 3months. One critical factor for efficient biodegradation was strong growth of fungal mycelia in non-sterile contaminated soil.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, H; Cooper, K R; Bergek, S; Hjelt, M; Rappe, C

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3, 4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  2. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment-associated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Segstro, M.D.; Webster, G.R.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Servos, M.R.

    1995-10-01

    The long-term fate of four polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners in sediments and their bioavailability to benthic invertebrates were studied in littoral enclosures located in a small lake at the Experimental Lakes Area in north-western Ontario. The PCDDs sorbed on sediment particles were added to the 5-m-diameter enclosures on June 12, 1985, and concentrations in sediment cores (0 to 6 cm) were determined over 1,800-d ({approximately}5 years). Concentrations of 1,3,6,8-TCDD, 1,3,7,9-TCDD, HpCDD, and OCDD in the sediment declined, with half-lives of 4.4{+-}1.7, 4.6{+-}1.9, 6.2{+-}3.1, and 6.0{+-}2.8 year, respectively. Evaluation of the data for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and OCDD using a sediment-water exchange model suggested that the decline in PCDD concentrations was due to losses to the water column via diffusion of DOC-associated PCDDs in pore water and via particle resuspension. After 5 years the PCDDs remained bioavailable to freshwater mussel (Anodonta grandis) and crayfish (Orconectes virilis) exposed to sediments for up to 78 d. The crayfish had higher mean biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) for 1,3,6,8-TCDD and 1,3,7,9-TCDD (0.31--0.53) than did mussels (0.07--0.13), whereas BSAFs for HpCDD and OCDD in the two species were similar (0.03--0.09).

  3. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Cliff T.; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F.; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    A Na–smectite clay (Na–SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA–SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA+ intercalation. DODA–SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH2 rocking band positions in DODA–SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA–SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail–tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA–SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear Kl sorption coefficients (log Kl) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA–SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (Kom) was ~2.4 times the octanol–water partition coefficient (Kow). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the Kom for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than Kow, which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, “open” C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of “v-shaped” DODA+ molecular

  4. Nature of the interlayer environment in an organoclay optimized for the sequestration of dibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Cliff T; Khan, Bushra; Barth, Edwin F; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Boyd, Stephen A

    2012-09-01

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA-SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 × CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% carbon content, which demonstrates DODA(+) intercalation. DODA-SWy-2 was evaluated as an archetype of commercial products used to sequester hydrophobic contaminants, and the nature of the primarily C18 alkylhydrocarbon-chain interlayer environment was emhasized. Shifts in ν(CH) and CH(2) rocking band positions in DODA-SWy-2-complex FTIR-spectra indicate that DODA C18 chains were more ordered as DODA surface coverage was increased. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated a DODA-SWy-2 gel-to-liquid transition temperature much lower than the melting point of crystalline DODA-Br and similar to that of aqueous DODA-Br vesicles. This suggests that the transition was governed by C18 alkyl tail-tail interactions in the clay interlamellar region. Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) sorption from water by DODA-SWy-2 was compared to DD sorption by the geosorbents granular activated carbon (GAC), K-exchanged saponite, and a muck soil. The linear K(l) sorption coefficients (log K(l)) from a linear fit of the sorption isotherms were 4.37 for DODA-SWy-2, 5.55 for GAC, 3.19 for muck soil, and 2.46 for K-saponite. The DD-organic-matter-normalized sorption coefficient (K(om)) was ∼2.4 times the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)). This indicates that DD has a higher affinity for the nonpolar interlayer DODA organic phase than for octanol. In contrast, the K(om) for muck soil DD sorption was ~10 times less than K(ow), which reflects the higher polarity of amorphous soil organic matter relative to octanol. Enhanced DD uptake by the DODA-derived lipophilic phase in the organoclay is attributed to the low polarity, "open" C18 alkyl structure due to the physical dimensions of "v-shaped" DODA(+) molecular, and low

  5. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  6. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  7. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  8. Relative differences in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated response for 18 polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans in cell lines from four different species.

    PubMed

    Olsman, Helena; Engwall, Magnus; Kammann, Ulrike; Klempt, Martin; Otte, Jens; Bavel, Bert van; Hollert, Henner

    2007-11-01

    As a consequence of ubiquitous use of brominated organic chemicals, there is a concern for persistent or increasing environmental levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PXDD/Fs). Hence, there is a need to broaden the toxicological and environmental knowledge about these compounds, as a basis for risk assessment. In the study presented here, the relative potencies (REPs) for 18 PBDD/F and PXDD/ F congeners were determined in four dioxin-specific bioassays from different species: dioxin receptor chemically activated luciferase expression assay (DR-CALUX, rat hepatoma cells), TV101L (human hepatoma cells), and GPC.2D (guinea pig adenoma cells), as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction in the fish cell line RTL-W1 (rainbow trout liver cells). The bioassay specific REP factors presented here enable the assessment of the contribution from PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs to total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TEQs: toxic equivalents), using bioassay analysis. The PBDD/Fs were found to be equally potent as their chlorinated analogues in the three mammalian assays, whereas the PXDD/Fs showed relatively higher potencies. Of special concern were the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and tetrahalogenated congeners, for which mean REPs were > or =1. The 2-B-1,3,7,8-CDD (2-bromo-1,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) was up to three times more potent than TCDD in individual experiments (on weight basis). The RTL-W1 was less sensitive to the tested compounds with overall 10-fold lower REPs than the mammalian cell lines. Although the REP factors exhibited species-specific differences, overall resembling rank orders of dioxin-like potency were obtained.

  9. Preparation of liquid chemical feedstocks by co-pyrolysis of electronic waste and biomass without formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    The co-pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEEs) and waste biomass to obtain pyrolysis-oil, a liquid fuel or chemical feedstock, was carried out in the present work. The pyrolysis-oil yield of co-pyrolysis reached 62.3% which was significantly higher than those of pyrolysis of WEEEs and biomass alone (i.e., 53.1% for WEEEs and 46.3% for biomass), suggesting that synergistic effects of the WEEEs and biomass happened during the co-pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis-oil mainly contained aromatic compounds, including many aromatic hydrocarbons. More than 90 wt.% of bromides were enriched in pyrolysis-oil and char, which is easily to be recovered by further treatments, and no polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were detected in all products which may be attributed to the blocking of PBDD/Fs generation under special reductive environment of pyrolysis. This work provided a green and environmentally friendly approach for the disposal of the WEEEs as well as resource recovery.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Ding, Gangqiang; Wu, Yongning; Pan, Guoshao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Han, Jianlong; Li, Jingguang; Wen, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk samples (n=74) from the general maternal population of Zhejiang province were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples were divided into urban and rural groups. Mean ∑PCDD/F, ∑PCB and ∑PBDE concentrations were 71.4±40.8, 42774±27841 and 2679±944 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 38.6±38.1, 26546±11375 and 2731±1093 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. WHO-TEQ concentrations for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were 2.66±1.43 and 3.90±2.60 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 1.83±0.93 and 2.27±1.55 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. Congener profiles for these pollutants were compared between human samples (adipose tissue and breast milk) and foodstuffs (seafood, hen eggs, and freshwater fish). Similar PCB and PCDD/F congener patterns were observed, suggesting that dietary intake is a significant source for human exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs. However, much lower PBDE congener levels were detected in breast milk than in foodstuffs, which implies that pathways other than dietary intake may also account for human exposure to PBDEs.

  11. Airborne polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in concentrated vehicle parking areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiru; Liu, Hehuan; Mo, Ligui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Peng, Ping'an

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in air around three concentrated vehicle parking areas (underground, indoor, and outdoor) in a metropolitan of South China. The parking areas showed higher concentrations of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP than their adjacent urban area or distinct congener/isomer profiles, which indicate their local emission sources. The highest PBDE and DP concentrations were found in the outdoor parking lot, which might be related to the heating effect of direct sunlight exposure. Multi-linear regression analysis results suggest that deca-BDEs without noticeable transformation contributed most to airborne PBDEs in all studied areas, followed by penta-BDEs. The statistically lower anti-DP fractions in the urban area than that of commercial product signified its degradation/transformation during transportation. Neither PBDEs nor vehicle exhaust contributed much to airborne PBDD/Fs in the parking areas. There were 68.1-100 % of PBDEs, PBDD/Fs, and DP associated with particles. Logarithms of gas-particle distribution coefficients (K ps) of PBDEs were significantly linear-correlated with those of their sub-cooled vapor pressures (p Ls) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K OAs) in all studied areas. The daily inhalation doses of PBDEs, DP, and PBDD/Fs were individually estimated as 89.7-10,741, 2.05-39.4, and 0.12-4.17 pg kg(-1) day(-1) for employees in the parking areas via Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  13. Temporal variations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and methoxylated diphenyl ether concentrations in fish revealing large differences in exposure and metabolic stability.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Peter; Löfstrand, Karin; Malmvärn, Anna; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2010-04-01

    The concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated methoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were investigated in perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from a Baltic Sea background contaminated area between 1990 and 2005. No temporal trend was found, but large variations were observed - up to 5-fold and 160-fold differences in MeO-PBDE and PBDD concentrations, respectively - between consecutive years, suggesting that retention of these compounds, particularly the PBDDs, is limited. Examination of the congener profiles using principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis indicated that MeO-PBDEs without adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE47) or with two adjacent substituents (2'-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE90) are retained more than MeO-PBDEs with three adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99) and that 1,3,6,8-tetraBDD and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD are retained more than the other PBDDs which have vicinal hydrogen. Debromination could explain the limited retention of 6-MeO-PBDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99 and the absence of 2-MeO-BDE123 and 6-MeO-BDE137, and cytochrome P-450 mediated oxidation could explain the limited retention of PBDDs containing vicinal hydrogen. The levels of organobromines, especially MeO-PBDEs, were found to covary with water conditions related to primary production, for example temperature, depth visibility, and inorganic nutrient concentrations, which also favor fish productivity. The results suggest natural production of MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs and imply that they fluctuate considerably over time, as do common marine toxins in fish. Thus, assessments of human and environmental risk should consider both the average and peak concentrations of these contaminants in marine biota.

  14. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  15. Comparison of different digestive tract models for estimating bioaccessibility of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) from red slag 'Kieselrot'.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, J; Schrey, P; Hack, A; Selenka, F; Wilhelm, M

    2001-03-01

    'Kieselrot' (red slag), a highly PCDD/F-contaminated leaching residue from a copper production process, has been used as surface layer for more than 1,000 sports fields, playgrounds and pavements in Germany and neighbouring countries. Children can ingest this material directly by hand-to-mouth activities or soil-pica behaviour. Furthermore secondary contamination of farm land or kitchen gardens by drift of red slag dust may lead to an enrichment of PCDD/F within the food-chain. PCDD/F can be mobilized from contaminated materials by digestive juices and thus become bioaccessible for intestinal absorption. Two different digestive tract models were used to estimate the bioaccessibility of PCDD/F from red slag and to study the influence of food material on the mobilization of the contaminants. The bioaccessibility of PCDD/F from red slag depends on the charge of red slag material used, the bile content of the intestinal juice and on the presence of lipophilic foodstuffs. A low bioaccessibility of less than 5% was found when using a digestive tract model with a low bile content and in absence of food material. The bioaccessibility was estimated to be more than 60% when using a model with a higher bile content and in the presence of whole milk powder. A low bioaccessibility of PCDD/F from red slag in general--as assumed until now and mentioned in legal provision--was not confirmed by our study. Considering observations for the different homologue groups it is obvious that bioaccessibility is the first of several important steps to estimate human health risks arising from contaminated materials. In case red slag contaminated with PCDD/F their absorption rate in the digestive tract and/or metabolism might be at least just like important.

  16. Effect of raw materials on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from the stack flue gases of secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsing-Wang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2007-08-25

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of raw materials on PCDD/F emission from secondary aluminum smelters (ALS). Four plants each of aluminum ingot smelters (over 50% ingot) and secondary ALS (over 70% waste or recycled aluminum) were selected and the results compared. The secondary ALS yield much higher PCDD/Fs than the aluminum ingot smelters, or 7.94-22.76ng/Nm(3) versus 0.57-2.67ng/Nm(3), due to the large percentage of waste or recycled aluminum used. As for air pollution control devices (APCDs), the wet scrubber system in one of the aluminum ingot smelters exhibits an adverse effect on PCDD/F removal, due to the continuous recycle of the contaminated water through the scrubber system. Another ingot plant equipped with cartridge filter, there is a significant reduction in PCDD/F TEQ (52%). The powdered activated carbon injection at 2kg/h (110mg/Nm(3)) in one ALS reduces 70% of the total PCDD/Fs. The average emission factor of four secondary ALS is much higher than that of aluminum ingot smelters, or 20-fold higher based on either raw materials or product. Consequently, more attention should be paid to the emission reduction of PCDD/Fs from the secondary ALS, including installation of a secondary burner, additional APCDs and the pre-cleaning of raw materials.

  17. Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thilo; Wendelborn, Anke

    2007-06-01

    PCDD/Fs are hydrophobic organic substances and strongly sorbing to soil particles. Once adsorbed to soil particles they are believed to be virtually immobile. However, research in the last decades confirmed that strong sorbing contaminants may reach the groundwater via colloid-facilitated transport. This pathway has not been investigated before in Vietnam. Ma Da area, 100 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, was repeatedly sprayed during the Vietnam War (1962-1971) with herbicides like Agent Orange containing, beside others, the teratogenic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 11 surface soil samples and 12 water samples were collected in Ma Da area for analysis of PCDD/Fs in solids. Soil TCDD concentrations ranged from 1-41 ppt with a mean of 8.8 ppt and a mean I-TEQ of 9.7 ppt. Two surface water samples showed colloid bound TCDD (7 and 19 ppt). Groundwater samples showed elevated colloid bound PCDD concentrations (mean 770 ng/kg), mainly octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Groundwater colloids separated by filtration did not show any TCDD. The results support that TCDD/Fs can be relocated from the top soil to the groundwater by colloidal pathway. They did not provide evidence that the dioxins bound to groundwater colloids are leftovers from the Second Indochinese War. However, this study reinforces that the colloidal transport pathway has to be included investigating the relocation of strong sorbing organic contaminants.

  18. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: REMOVAL FROM FLUE GAS AND DISTRIBUTION IN ASH/RESIDUE OF A REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartfo...

  19. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  20. Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thilo; Wendelborn, Anke

    2007-06-01

    PCDD/Fs are hydrophobic organic substances and strongly sorbing to soil particles. Once adsorbed to soil particles they are believed to be virtually immobile. However, research in the last decades confirmed that strong sorbing contaminants may reach the groundwater via colloid-facilitated transport. This pathway has not been investigated before in Vietnam. Ma Da area, 100 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, was repeatedly sprayed during the Vietnam War (1962-1971) with herbicides like Agent Orange containing, beside others, the teratogenic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 11 surface soil samples and 12 water samples were collected in Ma Da area for analysis of PCDD/Fs in solids. Soil TCDD concentrations ranged from 1-41 ppt with a mean of 8.8 ppt and a mean I-TEQ of 9.7 ppt. Two surface water samples showed colloid bound TCDD (7 and 19 ppt). Groundwater samples showed elevated colloid bound PCDD concentrations (mean 770 ng/kg), mainly octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Groundwater colloids separated by filtration did not show any TCDD. The results support that TCDD/Fs can be relocated from the top soil to the groundwater by colloidal pathway. They did not provide evidence that the dioxins bound to groundwater colloids are leftovers from the Second Indochinese War. However, this study reinforces that the colloidal transport pathway has to be included investigating the relocation of strong sorbing organic contaminants. PMID:17668815

  1. Assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions from a hazardous waste incineration plant using long-term sampling equipment.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Austrui, J; Borrajo, M A; Martinez, K; Adrados, M A; Abalos, M; Van Bavel, B; Rivera, J; Abad, E

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a continuous monitoring system for the analysis of the mass concentration of PCDD/Fs from stationary sources. Data was acquired from a modern, state of the art, hazardous waste thermal treatment plant for a period of more than 2 years using a commercial available continuous monitoring system. The study consisted of a total of 16 samples, collected in periods from 1 week to 2 months resulting in an average of 360 m³ sampled flue gas per sample. The study showed the system was able to confirm that for a period of more than 2 years the plant was complying with the limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). In addition, the data showed the typical fingerprint of such installations which is useful for example in impact studies. Long-term samples were compared to five short-term samples (6 h) collected every 6 months during the study period. Principal component analysis was applied to PCDD/Fs obtained data as useful statistical tool to find out trends and similarities between different samples. Improvement in terms of representativeness of data was achieved through continuous assessment since the starts of the project. The obtained data was further used to determine the emission factor for this activity and the total annual PCDD/Fs release to the atmosphere.

  2. Characteristics of air pollution by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the typical industrial areas of Tangshan City, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Pu; Li, Cheng; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2011-01-01

    The ambient air in vicinity of different industrial sources for PCDD/PCDFs was sampled by TSP/PM10 active samplers and passive PUF disk samplers in Tangshan City, a metropolis containing clusters of various industrial plants. The TEQ concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ranged from 44.2 to 394.1 fg I-TEQ/m3 with an average of 169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant contributor to sigma TEQ, contributing 41% (12% to 55%), while 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD and OCDF were the major congeners for the total concentrations. The ratios of sigma PCDF/ sigma PCDD reached 2.54 on average, suggesting that de novo synthesis in thermal processes played an important role to the airborne pollution of PCDD/PCDFs. The similarities congener profiles indicated that TSP and PM10 active sampling methods are comparable for the determination of the PCDD/PCDFs in ambient air, and the ratios of concentrations determined by the two methods suggested that the PCDD/PCDFs tended to stay in fine particles. It was found that 2,3,7,8-TCDF and OCDD were the dominating congeners in the passive PUF disks samples. Through principal components analysis, the coke industry was suggested to be a relatively high potential emission source for PCDD/PCDFs in the ambient air of Tangshan, which was possibly formed by de novo synthesis mechanism. In this study, the atmospheric impacts to the environment from different industrial sources could be ranked as follows (from high to low): coking, iron sintering, steel making, power generation and chlorinate alkali chemical production industries.

  3. Temporal trends in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Niagara river suspended sediments.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Chris; Williams, Donald; Kuntz, Ken; Klawunn, Paul; Backus, Sean; Kolic, Terry; Lucaciu, Corina; MacPherson, Karen; Reiner, Eric

    2007-04-01

    Archived suspended sediment samples collected over the period 1980-2002 at Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara river were analyzed to assess temporal trends in contaminants associated with historical industrial activities in the watershed (PCDDs/PCDFs, DLPCBs), compared to more modern industrial chemicals (PBDEs). The temporal trends for PCDDs/PCDFs and DLPCBs were generally similar, and showed a general trend toward decreasing concentrations, which was presumably due to implementation of control measures in the Niagara river watershed, including the remediation of hazardous waste facilities. The temporal trend in PBDEs contrasted with those of PCDDs/PCDFs and DLPCBs. Prior to 1988, PBDEs (sum of 16 congeners including deca-BDE) were generally detected at low-ppb concentrations, but showed a trend toward increasing concentrations over the period 1980-1988. After 1988, PBDE concentrations in the Niagara river showed a more rapidly increasing trend to a maximum of approximately 35 ng/g in 1995, with deca-BDE as the predominant congener detected. Samples collected over the period February 2003 to March 2004 at the head and mouth of the Niagara river were also analyzed for PBDEs; in all cases PBDE concentrations were higher at the mouth of the river at the outflow to Lake Ontario, indicating the Niagara river watershed is a source of PBDE contamination to Lake Ontario. However, PBDE concentrations in suspended sediments of the Niagara river were comparable to, or lower than, concentrations in bottom sediments in other industrialized/urbanized areas of the world. Based on these comparisons of global PBDE bottom sediment concentrations, the Niagara river watershed does not appear to be a significant local source of PBDEs to Lake Ontario, and concentrations in suspended sediments appear to be indicative of general PBDE contamination from a contamination of local, regional, and continental sources.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Removal from flue gas and distribution in ash/residue of a refuse-derived fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford), performance data on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustor and its lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (FGC) system were obtained under good, intermediate, and poor combustor operation and high, normal, and low sulfur dioxide (SO2) control by the FGC system. The independent combustion system variables included steam load, air supply rate, and its distribution. For the FGC system, the outlet gas temperature from the spray dryer absorber served as an easily measurable surrogate for the approach to saturation temperature, while SO2 concentration in the flue gas at the fabric filter outlet continuously represented the lime stoichiometry. Test data included acid gas, trace organic, trace metal, and particulate concentrations, as well as material collection for the determination of ash/residue composition and production rates. In addition, process data and RDF feed and ash/residue generation rates were obtained. Correlations between combustion conditions and furnace emission of organic pollutants are presented.

  5. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  6. Estimation of the cumulated exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and standardized mortality ratio analysis of cancer mortality by dose in an occupationally exposed cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Flesch-Janys, D; Steindorf, K; Gurn, P; Becher, H

    1998-01-01

    For a cohort of 1189 male German former herbicide and insecticide workers with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F), we report an extended standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analysis based on a new quantitative exposure index. This index characterizes the cumulative lifetime exposure by integrating the estimated concentration of PCDD/F at every point in time (area under the curve). Production department-specific dose rates were derived from blood levels and working histories of 275 workers by applying a first-order kinetic model. These dose rates were used to estimate exposure levels for all cohort members. Total mortality was elevated in the cohort; 413 deaths yielded an SMR of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [Cl] 1.05, 1.27) compared to the mortality of the population of Germany. Overall cancer mortality (n = 124) was significantly increased (SMR = 1.41, 95% Cl 1.17, 1.68). Various cancer sites showed significantly increased SMRs. The exposure index was used for an SMR analysis of total cancer mortality by dose. For 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) a significant trend (p = 0.01) for the SMRs with increasing cumulative PCDD/F exposure was observed. The SMR in the first exposure quartile (0-125.2 ng/kg x years) was 1.24 (95% Cl 0.82, 1.79), increasing to 1.73 (95% Cl 1.21, 2.40) in the last quartile (> or = 2503.0 ng/kg x years). For all congeners combined as toxic equivalencies (TEQ) using international toxic equivalency factors, a significant increase in cancer mortality was observed in the second quartile (360.9-1614.4 ng/kg x years, SMR 1.64; 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29) and the fourth quartile (> or = 5217.7 ng/kg x years TEQ, SMR 1.64, 95% Cl 1.13, 2.29). The trend test was not significant. The results justify the use of this cohort for a quantitative risk assessment for TCDD and to a lesser extent for TEQ. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599713

  7. Dibenzofuran

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibenzofuran ; CASRN 132 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  8. Emissions of metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from Portland cement manufacturing plants: inter-kiln variability and dependence on fuel-types.

    PubMed

    Zemba, Stephen; Ames, Michael; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2011-09-15

    Emissions from Portland cement manufacturing facilities may increase health risks in nearby populations and are thus subject to stringent regulations. Direct testing of pollutant concentrations in exhaust gases provides the best basis for assessing the extent of these risks. However, these tests (i) are often conducted under stressed, rather than typical, operating conditions, (ii) may be limited in number and duration, and (iii) may be influenced by specific fuel-types and attributes of individual kilns. We report here on the results of more than 150 emissions-tests conducted of two kilns at a Portland cement manufacturing plant in Portugal. The tests measured various regulated metals and polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Stack-gas concentrations of pollutants were found to be highly variable, with standard deviations on the order of mean values. Emission rates of many pollutants were higher when coal was used as the main kiln fuel (instead of petroleum coke). Use of various supplemental fuels, however, had little effect on stack emissions, and few statistically significant differences were observed when hazardous waste was included in the fuel mix. Significant differences in emissions for some pollutants were observed between the two kilns despite their similar designs and uses of similar fuels. All measured values were found to be within applicable regulatory limits.

  9. Determination of 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans at the part per trillion level in United States beef fat using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; McDaniel, D.; Dupuy, A. Jr; Harless, R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment Program, the 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans were measured at part per trillion (ppt) levels in beef fat collected from slaughter facilities in the United States. This is the first statistically designed national survey of these compounds in the U.S. beef supply. Analyte concentrations were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry, using isotope dilution methodology. Method limits of detection on a whole weight basis were 0.05 ppt for TCDD and 0.10 ppt for TCDF, 0.50 ppt for the pentas (PeCDDs/PeCDFs)/hexas (HxCDDs/HxCDFs)/heptas (HpCDDs/HpCDFs), and 3.00 ppt for the octas (OCDD/OCDF). Method detection and quantitation limits were established on the basis of demonstrated performance criteria utilizing fortified samples rather than by conventional signal-to-noise or variability of response methods. The background subtraction procedures developed for this study minimized the likelihood of false positives and increased the confidence associated with reported values near the detection limits. Mean and median values for each of the 2,3,7,8-Cl-substituted dioxins and furans are reported, along with the supporting information required for their interpretation. The mean toxic equivalence values for the samples are 0.35 ppt (nondetects = 0) and 0.89 ppt (nondetects = 1/2 LOD).

  10. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk.

  11. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in breast milk in Shanghai, China: A temporal upward trend.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Shen, Haitao; Wang, Guoquan; Zhou, Zhijun

    2015-10-01

    Human milk samples were collected from 150 mothers in 2011 and 2012 in Shanghai, China and analyzed for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). The up-bound Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) ranged from 0.27 to 16.8 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 5.4 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑PCDD/Fs and from 0.75 to 10.2 pg TEQ/g lipid (mean 2.9 pg TEQ/g lipid) for ∑DL-PCBs. TEQs in our study were lower than those in most countries worldwide, and displayed a notable uptrend, in contrast with those in China's national survey in 2007. TEQs in mother milks from urban areas were higher than those from rural areas, and an orderly distribution was found in four geographical regions: Eastern China>Central China≈Southwestern China>Northwestern China. Levels of analytes in Shanghai native mothers' milk ranked the first among those from all provinces and cities investigated. Migrant mothers to Shanghai from other inland provinces could potentially represent the population for exposure and risk assessment in their birth and grown-up places. Both the distribution and the uptrend were associated with release of these pollutants due to rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. Fine correlations were observed between TEQs and age of mothers, and weak correlations between TEQs and consumption of meat & meat products. Participants, who preferred both fresh water and marine fish to freshwater fish only, were prone to be exposed to higher level of PCBs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) doses for breastfed neonates entirely exceeded the tolerable intake dose by WHO.

  12. A validated method for rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk: focus on utility of tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Xu, Qian; Lu, Dasheng; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Wang, Guoquan; Wang, Dongli; She, Jianwen; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-07-01

    An improved method based on tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) cleanup and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) has been validated for a rapid determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), marker polychlorinated biphenyls (M-PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) using a large volume (50 mL) of human milk. This method was well validated for the measurement of these analytes in human milk from the general population with low limits of detection (LODs, 0.004-0.12 ng/g lipid), satisfactory accuracy (75-120 % of recoveries), and precision [less than 10 % of relative standard deviations (RSDs)]. To comprehensively evaluate the performance of this method, a good, presently validated and routinely used method based on an automated sample clean-up system (ASCS, based on the commercial acid multilayer silica, basic alumina, and carbon columns) was used in parallel for comparison. Compared with the ASCS method, this method presented comparable specificity. Additionally, this method, in contrast to ASCS method, highly reduced consumption of solvents (40 mL versus 500 mL), which results in much lower background in the procedural blank, reduced time, and enhanced sample pretreatment throughput. This method was also applied in a pilot study to measure a batch of human milk samples with satisfactory results. Graphical Abstract Characteristics of the application of tandem SPE cleanup for determination of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs,M-PCBs and PBDEs in human milk. PMID:27178547

  13. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments.

  14. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments. PMID:26343438

  15. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from a refinery process for zinc oxide used in feed additives: a source of dioxin contamination in Chilean pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Choi, Si-Weon; Guerrero, Pedro; Norambuena, Julio; Chung, Gab-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The Republic of Korea found dioxin at concentrations exceeding the Korean maximum residue limit (MRL) in pork (2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat) imported from Chile in June 2008. Korea and Chile collaborated and investigated to find out the sources of contamination. An isotope dilution method and high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HR-GC/MS) were used for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs were found from 2.17 to 36.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat from Chilean pork. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF were found as the major congeners in pork samples. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showed the highest concentration and contributed about 30% among the congeners in most of the samples. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD, OCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF, and OCDF were not detected or exist at background levels in the less contaminated samples. Remarkably high concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found in samples of zinc oxide (17147 pg TEQ g(-1)), zinc oxide based premix (6673 pg TEQ g(-1)), and the residue crust (800 pg TEQ g(-1)) in a mixing chamber in the feed mill. From the results of various investigations, this case concluded that zinc oxide in the feed was the major source of the dioxin contamination in pork. The dioxins were formed from a metal refinery process to collect zinc oxide.

  16. Time-integrated Monitoring of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Urban and Industrial Wastewaters Using a Ceramic Toximeter and the CALUX Bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Addeck, Amr; Croes, Kim; Van Langenhove, Kersten; Denison, Michael S.; Elhamalawy, Ahmed; Elskens, Marc; Baeyens, Willy

    2015-01-01

    The ceramic toximeter as a passive sampler in combination with the CALUX bioassay was utilized as a time-integrated pollution-assessment technique for dioxin-like PCDD/Fs in wastewaters. Toximeters filled with XCARB and enclosed in stainless steel cages were submerged in wastewater of Belbeis drainage-canal and EMAK paper-mill, located in Egypt, for 28 days. Two samplers were removed every week from each site. Extracts from toximeters, from bottom-sediments, and from paper-mill sludge were analyzed by the CALUX. Results showed a regular increase in the amounts of PCDD/Fs trapped by the toximeters as sampling time increased. Time-weighted average concentrations (TWA) of PCDD/Fs in the wastewaters of the drainage-canal and paper-mill were 231 (214-281) and 26 (24.1-32.6) pg-BEQ L-1, respectively. Compared to literature data, this means a high pollution level for the drainage-canal water, while the pollution level in the paper-mill wastewater is similar to that reported for other paper mills. The PCDD/Fs levels in the drainage-canal bottom-sediments and in the paper-mill sludge were 8.3 and 14.6 pg-BEQ g-1 dry-weight, at the lower end of internationally reported values in similar compartments. The sampling rate of the tested toximeters for dissolved PCDD/Fs was about 3.6 mL d-1. Sediment/water partitioning coefficient log Kd of PCDD/Fs in the drainage-canal and the paper-mill was 1.42 and 2.70 respectively. The organic-carbon normalized partition coefficient log Koc was 4.17 and 3.19 respectively, and is lower than the reported values for other sites. PMID:24075528

  17. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Klop, Arie; Herbes, Rik; van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Zeilmaker, Marco J; van Vuuren, Ad M; Traag, Wim A

    2015-10-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated by a fire with PVC materials, and with sugar beet pulp contaminated by drying with coal, containing particles from a plastic roof. Levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in the maize silage were 0.93 and 0.25 ng TEQ kg(-1), those in beet pulp 1.90 and 0.15 ng TEQ kg(-1) (both on 88% dry matter (DM)). Dairy cows (3 per treatment) received either 16.8 kg DM per day of maize silage or 5.6 kg DM per day of sugar beet pellets for a 33-d period, followed by clean feed for 33 days. This resulted in a rapid increase of PCDD/F levels in milk within the first 10 days with levels at day 33 of respectively 2.6 and 1.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat for maize silage and beet pulp. Levels of dl-PCBs at day 33 were lower, 1.0 and 0.5 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. In the case of the maize silage, the carry-over rates (CORs) at the end of the exposure were calculated to be 25% and 32% for the PCDD/F- and dl-PCB-TEQ, respectively. For the dried beet pulp the CORs were 18% and 35%. This study shows that the carry-over of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs formed during drying processes or fires can be substantial.

  18. Occurrence, variability and human exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in dairy products from Chile during the 2011-2013 survey.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Aránguiz, N; Galbán-Malagón, C J; Ruiz-Rudolph, P; Araya-Jordan, C; Maddaleno, A; San Martin, B

    2015-05-01

    Levels, congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and human exposure for these xenobiotics never have been reported in Chile. For that purpose 102 raw cow milk samples were collected from seven different regions of Chile during 2011 until 2013. The highest mean level for PCDD/Fs, corresponds to 0.32 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2012) and for DL-PCBs 0.17 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2011), using the upper bound approach. Penta and tetra chlorinated congeners dominated PCDD/Fs profiles in a WHO-TEQ2005 basis during the survey. In the case of DL-PCBs, PCB 126 dominated the profiles with 89%. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among years only in DL-PCBs residues. Also dietary intake was estimated, and the highest level for total sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for adult was 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w d(-1) (2011) and for children correspond to 0.65 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.wd(-1) (2011). Concentrations and dietary intake for the studied compounds in milk and butter samples were below international and national regulations.

  19. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  20. Long-term hazards of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J E; Moore, J A; Saracci, R; Tomatis, L

    1980-01-01

    During January 10-11, 1978 in Lyon, France, a joint National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/International Agency for Research on Cancer ad hoc Working Group considered and discussed the feasibility of coordinating epidemiological studies on the long-term hazards associated with the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and and PCDFs). Nineteen invited scientists from eight countries presented introductory working papers summarizing the most up-to-date and relevant information available from their individual programs. This report represents the collective views and scientific opinions of the Working Group. The greater part of this document comprises epidemiological studies related to episodes of human exposures. The review begins with a brief section concerning possible routes of human exposure, an overview of the pertinent chemical characteristics, and the salient toxicological properties of the structurally similar PCDDs/PCDFs. The Working Group report ends with recommendations for future activities. PMID:6448744

  1. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples.

  2. Investigation of American lobster, Homarus americanus, for the presence of chlorinated dibenzo-rho-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Taguchi, V.; Musial, C.J.; Uthe, J.F.

    1987-12-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) are a group of 75 compounds of current environmental concern. Most attention has been focused on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8,-TCDD) because of high toxicity exhibited in laboratory animal studies. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) comprise 135 compounds similar to the PCDD in structure and toxicity. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) is the most toxic of this group. Two principal sources of PCDD and PCDF in the environment are incineration and as by-products in the manufacture and use of pentachlorophenols. American lobsters (Homarus americanus) have not been previously investigated for the presence of PCDD and PCDF. Lobsters were examined in this study because of their proximity to possible sources of PCDD and PCDF and an ability to concentrate hydrophobic organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the digestive gland.

  3. Absence of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans after lactoperoxidase-catalyzed transformation of chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, L.G.; Swanson, S.E.

    1987-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been detected in many species and environments their bioresistance and toxicity being of great concern. PCDDs and PCDFs, or the predioxins and -furans, are formed from chlorophenols (CPs) by burning and pyrolysis by arcing and by photolysis. PCDDs and PCDFs have also been found in emissions from automobiles, municipal waste incinerators, and nickel and copper smelting. Peroxidases (POs), a group of heme-proteins, are found in many organs and organisms. They are exceptional enzymes because of low substrate specificity and multiple reaction mechanisms. This enzyme-catalyzed free radical reaction resembles reactions in pyrolysis, arcing, and photolysis. Halogenated phenols are among the peroxidase substrates, and phenolic substrates have been found to yield dibenzodioxin- and dibenzofuran like products. The question then arose whether CP's in peroxidase-mediated reactions could yield chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Since no-one has yet reported a biological formation of PCDDs and PCDFs the authors have analyzed the rpdoct mixture from the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of some chlorophenols.

  4. Immunological effects of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Kerkvliet, N I

    1995-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and structurally similar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons cause a broad range of immunologic effects in experimental animals including decreased host resistance to infectious disease and suppressed humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the mouse, TCDD immunotoxicity has been shown to be an aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-dependent process. However, despite considerable research, the biochemical and molecular alterations that occur subsequent to Ah receptor activation that lead to altered immune reactivity remain to be elucidated. In addition to immune suppression, TCDD promotes inflammatory responses. This effect may result from an upregulation of the production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. Nonhuman primates exposed to TCDD show suppressed antibody responses and changes in lymphocyte subsets in the peripheral blood. The immunotoxic effects of TCDD in humans are poorly characterized, and few studies have examined the immune status of individuals with known, documented exposure to TCDD. It is important for laboratory research to focus on defining TCDD-sensitive immunologic biomarkers in animal models that can also be used in human subjects. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie species differences in TCDD immunotoxicity is also of critical importance for extrapolation of effects seen in laboratory animals to man. PMID:8635439

  5. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of the general US population and selected subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Orban, J E; Stanley, J S; Schwemberger, J G; Remmers, J C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Environmental Protection Agency's National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) was conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1987 to (1) estimate average concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population, (2) identify differences in average concentrations among subpopulations, and (3) compare average concentrations with those from the FY 1982 NHATS. METHODS. Population estimates of the average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were established on the basis of 865 human adipose tissue specimens collected in FY 1987. Average levels among subpopulations were compared. RESULTS. The average concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the adipose tissue of the US population was 5.38 pg/g, increasing from 1.98 pg/g in children under 14 years of age to 9.40 pg/g in adults over 45. The effect of age was significant for nine compounds. Regional differences in the levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofurans were statistically significant, but there were no significant differences associated with sex or race. CONCLUSIONS. The survey provides a baseline of average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population. PMID:8129062

  6. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Brizio, P; Nespoli, R; Stella, C; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g(-1) for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g(-1) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g(-1) for NDL-PCBs). Without the prompt and immediately applied control strategies, the consumption of contaminated eggs may have posed [corrected] a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits.

  7. Contamination of the alluvial plain, feeding-stuffs and foodstuffs with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and mercury from the River Elbe in the light of the flood event in August 2002.

    PubMed

    Stachel, B; Christoph, E H; Götz, R; Herrmann, T; Krüger, F; Kühn, T; Lay, J; Löffler, J; Päpke, O; Reincke, H; Schröter-Kermani, C; Schwartz, R; Steeg, E; Stehr, D; Uhlig, S; Umlauf, G

    2006-07-01

    Meadow soils, feeding-stuffs and foodstuffs from the alluvial plain of the river Elbe were analyzed in respect of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and mercury with a view to assessing the consequences of the extreme flood of August 2002. The PCDD/F concentrations in the soils range from 3 to 2100 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dm, and for the DL-PCBs the range was 0.32 to 28 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dm. On the basis of established threshold values >40% of the areas are only fit for restricted usage. Mercury concentrations range from 0.11 to 17 mg/kg dm, whereby the action value of 2 mg/kg dm is exceeded in about 50% of the soil samples. A cumulative memory effect from past floods rather than a recent contamination from August 2002 is documented. Soils taken from behind broken dykes showed significantly lower concentrations. Grass, hay and grass silage originating from pasture land in Lower Saxony were taken before and immediately after the flooding. PCDD/Fs range from 0.29 to 16 ng WHO-TEQ/kg, the maximum permitted value of 0.75 ng WHO-TEQ/kg was exceeded in about 50% of the samples. Muscle-tissue from cattle, sheep, lamb and a roe deer as well as untreated milk from individual cows returned values ranging from 0.76 to 5.9 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat, and 10% of the samples returned values higher than the permitted maximum of 3 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat. The action value of 2 pg WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ/g fat was exceeded in 33% of the samples. No direct connection between these results and the effects of the flood could be established. A major input path for PCDD/Fs is the tributary Mulde, which discharges contaminated sediments from its catchment area into the Elbe. PMID:16199077

  8. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-10-15

    This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB6) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009-2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005/kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low.

  9. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  10. THERMAL TREATMENT OF 1,2,3,4-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P- DIOXIN BY REACTION WITH CA-BASED SORBENTS AT 23-300 DEGREES °C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans captured in sorbent-based, air pollution control devices remains uncertain. This process was simulated by passing vapor-phase 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to a...

  11. 40 CFR 766.12 - Testing guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.12 Testing guidelines. Analytical test methods... Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Commercial Products. Copies...

  12. 40 CFR 766.12 - Testing guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.12 Testing guidelines. Analytical test methods... Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Commercial Products. Copies...

  13. 40 CFR 766.12 - Testing guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.12 Testing guidelines. Analytical test methods... Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Commercial Products. Copies...

  14. 40 CFR 766.12 - Testing guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.12 Testing guidelines. Analytical test methods... Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Commercial Products. Copies...

  15. 40 CFR 766.12 - Testing guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.12 Testing guidelines. Analytical test methods... Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Commercial Products. Copies...

  16. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  17. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels. PMID:11993631

  18. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  19. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 1. EVALUATION OF DECISION ANALYSIS METHODS FOR USE IN WEIGHTING RELATIVE POTENCY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of investigators have recently examined the utility of applying probabilistic techniques in the derivation of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  20. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants with the environmental monitoring of these compounds being of great importance. Immunoassay procedures such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIS...

  1. IMMUNOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SERUM SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are considered highly toxic contaminants and the environmental and biological monitoring of these compounds is of great concern. Immunoassays may be used as screening methods to satisfy the gro...

  2. A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF THE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION (BCD) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of halogenated organic compounds--such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)--poses a challenge because these compounds are resistant to microbial attack and to degradation by many com...

  3. TRANSIENT PCDD AND PCDF CONCENTRATIONS IN A MWC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Time-resolved evaluations of combustor performance have shown that concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) and related pollutants undergo significant changes as a response to upset combustion conditions. During and after tr...

  4. ROLE OF SULFUR IN REDUCING PCDD AND PCDF FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research has suggested that the presence of sulfur (S) in municipal waste combustors (MWCs) can decrease downstream formation of chlorinated organic compounds, particularly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Thus, co-firing a...

  5. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR ESTABLISHING TEFS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS. PART 3. DEVEOPMENT OF WEIGHTED DISTRIBUTIONS OF REPS FOR PCB 126 AND 2,3,4,7,8-PECDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, regulatory agencies utilize the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach to evaluate potential health risks associated with exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Th...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFINED DATABASE OF RELATIVE POTENCY ESTIMATES TO FACILITATE BETTER CHARACTERIZATION OF VARIABILITY AND UNCERTAINTY IN THE CURRENT MAMMALIAN TEFS FOR PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach has been widely accepted as the most feasible and plausible method presently available for evaluating potential health risks associated with exposure to mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofuran...

  7. Alternative Approaches for Screening Contaminated Sediments and Soils for PCDD/PCDF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generating analytical data for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) using the traditional high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis method, EPA Method 1613B, is time-consuming and expensive. Consequently, alternative methods to ...

  8. COMPARING PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as ¿dioxin-like compounds¿] are persistent environmental contaminants that have been found to be ubiquitous in environmental media and bio...

  9. 78 FR 63981 - Availability of Interaction Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p -Dioxins, Polybrominated Diphenol...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Availability of Interaction Profile for... the Department of Health and Human Services announces the availability of the interaction profile for..., developmental, and neurobehavioral endpoints in humans. This interaction profile has undergone external...

  10. ELECTRONIC ELASTICITY-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN CONGENERS. (R826166)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCF-MO computations have been performed on tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDD) using an MNDO-PM3 Hamiltonian. Qualitative relationships were developed between empirical, international-toxic equivalence factors for PCDD congeners and their relati...

  11. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  12. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  13. Emissions of polychlorinated-p-dibenzo dioxin, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from rice straw biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Holsen, Thomas M.; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning in Asia has been widely studied owing to its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. However the impact of rice straw burning on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations is not known. In this study concentrations of these pollutants were measured at a farm site and two nearby sites during rice straw (open) burning and non-burning periods. During non-burning periods atmospheric PCDD/F and PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.0263 to 0.0329 pg I-TEQ/Nm3 and 43.5 to 58.3 pg/Nm3 respectively, and were similar at all of the sites. During rice straw burning periods PCDD/F and PBDE concentrations measured near the combustion (farm) site increased dramatically by six to twenty times. The strong correlation between the natural logarithm of PBDE and PCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.949, p < 0.01) at each site indicates that the elevated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs were due to emissions from the rice straw burning. The calculated emission factors, determined using the burned carbon method and the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Dispersion Model (ISCST3), ranged from 12.6 to 14.5 ng TEQ/kg Cburned and 11.7 to 14.5 μg/kg Cburned, for PCDD/Fs and PBDEs respectively. The PBDE emission factors were at least 38 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs, revealing that rice straw burning is an important PBDE emission source.

  14. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F

    2007-06-05

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  15. Cloning of dfdA genes from Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63 encoding dibenzofuran 4,4a-dioxygenase and heterologous expression in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Kano; Nitta, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Habe, Hiroshi; Nojiri, Hideaki; Yamane, Hisakazu; Omori, Toshio; Kojima, Ikuo

    2013-05-01

    A dibenzofuran (DF)-degrader Terrabacter sp. strain DBF63 harbors the dbfA and dbfBC genes for DF degradation and the fln-dbfA, pht, and pca gene clusters for the utilization of fluorene (FN) as a sole carbon source. From this strain, dfdA1, the gene encoding the second DF dioxygenase was detected using degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the dfdA1A2A3A4 genes were cloned from a cosmid library of the DBF63 genome. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the dfdA genes showed considerably high identities with those of other actinobacteria, such as Terrabacter sp. strain YK3 and Rhodococcus sp. strain HA01. In the neighboring region of the dfdA genes, as many as 11 homologs for transposase and integrase genes and the putative extradiol dioxygenase gene disrupted by an insertion sequence (dfdB::ISTesp2) were found, suggesting that repeated gene rearrangement had occurred. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that dfdA1 was expressed primarily in the DF-fed strain, whereas dbfA1 was expressed in the FN-cultured strain, apparently indicating that the dfdA genes are induced by DF for the initial hydroxylation of DF in strain DBF63. Furthermore, two polycistronic gene cassettes consisting of either dfdA or dbfA together with the dbfBC gene were constructed and expressed heterologously in Streptomyces lividans, degrading DF to salicylate. Furthermore, the expressed DfdA dioxygenase degraded dibenzo-p-dioxin, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl, thereby exhibiting a broader substrate range than that of the DbfA dioxygenase.

  16. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-06-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  17. Dibenzofuran induces oxidative stress, disruption of trans-mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and G1 arrest in human hepatoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Prashant Kumar; Srivastava, Shaili; Gupta, Jyotsana; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2012-10-17

    Dioxins are a class of extremely toxic environmentally persistent pollutant, comprised of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls. Despite significant human exposure via multiple routes, very little is known about toxicity induced by dibenzofuran (DF). Current study shed lights on the potential toxicity mechanism of DF using human hepatoma cell line (HepG2). It was observed that the exposure to DF potentiate oxidative stress, apoptosis and necrosis at 10μM within 8h in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, when we pre-incubated the cells with α-NF (1nM) for 12h, an aromatic hydrocarbon receptor antagonist, the IC(50) of DF increased by 14 folds indicating the cytoprotective ability of α-NF from DF induced toxicity. Furthermore, three additional metabolites were observed while studying the metabolic profile of DF in HepG2 cells with and without pre-incubation with α-NF using chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Of these, two metabolites were characterized as dihydroxylated derivative of DF and third metabolite was characterized as quinone derivative of DF. By flow cytometry and confocal laser microscopy analysis we followed the ROS formation after DF (10μM) exposure for 3h. Significantly low ROS was generated in cells which were pre-incubated with α-NF than cells which were not pre-incubated with α-NF underlining the importance of metabolism in DF toxicity. The same pattern of protection was consistent while measuring mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), i.e., less MMP dip was observed in 'with α-NF pre-incubated and DF (10μM) exposed cells' than 'without α-NF pre-incubated but DF exposed cells'. In cell cycle studies, it was confirmed that cell population of HepG2 at G1 stage progressively increased in number (∼74%) within 24h. Thus, DF and its metabolites induce significantly higher cytotoxicity after metabolism in HepG2 cells than its parent compound (DF) by ROS formation, MMP dip and impaired cell cycle.

  18. Formation of dioxin-like compounds from the pyrolysis of some halogenated flame retardants

    SciTech Connect

    Alsabbagh, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans as well as polyhalogenated phenazines have been shown to form from the pyrolysis of some flame retardants. In addition, chlorine-bromine exchange was shown to occur in the formation of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and halogenated phenazines when both chlorine and bromine sources are present in the pyrolysis mixture. There was no chlorine-hydrogen exchange observed in the formation of chloro-bromo-dibenzo-dioxins, chloro-bromo-dibenzofurans and chloro-bromophenazines. At high temperatures, the amino-group of the halogenated anilines may be replaced by oxygen and yield halogenated dibenzo-pdioxins and halogenated dibenzofurans, in addition to the halogenated phenazines. The complete substitution of bromine with chlorine was demonstrated to occur, which is probably why chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans are more widely spread than the brominated analogs, since chlorinated compounds are used in much larger quantities than the brominated compounds. The addition of antimony (III) oxide to the flame-retardant formulations showed initial increase in the formation of the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and the halogenated phenazines. The mass spectra of bromo-phenazines, chloro-phenazines and chloro-bromo-phenazines have been presented. The similarity in the structure of the halogenated phenazines and the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins may be of interest to be used in the search of compounds with breast cancer therapeutic use, although the toxicity of the halogenated phenazines should be thoroughly investigated.

  19. Fluorescence and nonradiative processes of dioxin vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takao; Hashimoto, Ryuso

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, biacetyl-sensitized phosphorescence excitation and absorption spectra of five dioxins (dibenzofuran, 2-chlirodibenzofuran, 2,8-dichlorodibenzofuran, dibenzo-p-dioxin and 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) have been measured in the vapor phase. The intersystem crossing yields of dioxin vapors have been determined by means of a biacetyl sensitized phosphorescence method. It is shown that the nonradiative rates from the S1 state of dibenzo-p-dioxins increase significantly with increasing excitation energy, while those of dibenzofurans are almost unchanged. It is also shown that the main nonradiative process from S1 for dibenzofurans is both the intersystem crossing to T1 and internal conversion to S0 which includes possible photodecomposition, while that for dibenzo-p-dioxins is the internal conversion to S0, which also may include possible photochemical decomposition processes.

  20. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in sediment by oligochaetes: Influence of exposure pathway and contact time

    SciTech Connect

    Loonen, H.; Parsons, J.R.; Govers, H.A.J.; Muir, D.C.G.

    1997-07-01

    Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed simultaneously to radiolabeled [{sup 3}H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and [{sup 14}C]octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in sediment for 28 d, in order to study accumulation processes of hydrophobic substances. Elimination was studied for a further 20 d. The uptake and elimination rate constants and the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were determined for TCDD and OCDD in the presence and absence of sediment (overlying water). Steady-state concentrations in oligochaetes were achieved for TCDD but not for OCDD over the 28-d exposure. Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) after a 28-d exposure were 1.6 {+-} 0.27 for TCDD and 0.07 {+-} 0.02 for OCDD. Steady-state log BAF values (lipid based) for TCDD and OCDD in oligochaetes in the overlying water were 5.9 and 5.5 L/kg, respectively. The effect of incubation time between sediment and contaminants was investigated by repeating the accumulation study after a contact period of 21 months. BSAFs of sediment-sorbed TCDD and OCDD were 1.5 to 2-fold lower for the long contact time sediment. Based on comparison of predicted accumulation from pore water and observed accumulation by sediment-exposed oligochaetes, it was concluded that 1.4-fold greater accumulation occurred due to assimilation of TCDD and OCDD from ingested sediment. This additional accumulation in the presence of sediment, not accounted for by uptake only from pore waters, was consistent with literature data for other hydrophobic organochlorines.

  1. Geochemical investigations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in the subsurface environment at an abandoned wood-treatment facility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Sisak, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The discharge of effluents containing creosote and pentachlorophenol into two unlined surface impoundments at a wood-treatment facility in Pensacola, Florida, resulted in contamination of the underlying sand and gravel aquifer. These wastes contained significant amounts of chlorinated dioxins, such as isomers of hexa- and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, probably derived from commercial pentachlorophenol. Geochemical investigations of pond sludge, groundwater and porous media from the unsaturated and saturated zones indicated that these geologic materials were contaminated by chlorinated dioxins. The fate and movement of these compounds in the subsurface environment were studied using the technique of GC-MS-MS. Chlorinated dioxins migrated both vertically and horizontally in the subsurface and were present at considerable distances from the source of contamination. Concentrations of chlorinated dioxins in groundwater were several orders of magnitude lower than in porous media from the unsaturated and saturated zones. Ratios of the various isomers remained relatively constant in highly contaminated areas. However, in less contaminated areas, isomer ratios changed dramatically; at certain locations, one hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin isomer predominated. The environmental significance of these compounds is discussed. ?? 1985.

  2. Nature of the Interlayer Environment in an Organoclay Optimized for the Sequestration of Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Na-smectite clay (Na-SWy-2) was exchanged with various amounts of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DODA-Br) up to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The organoclay (DODA - SWy-2) with DODA-Br added at 2 X CEC exhibited a maximum 4.2 nm d-spacing and a 31.4% c...

  3. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  4. Effects of in ovo exposure of white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two chlorinated dibenzofurans on CYP1A induction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinfei; Wiseman, Steve; Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Kennedy, Sean W; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    In birds, activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by some polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) results in induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression. This response has been useful for predicting relative sensitivity of birds to dioxin-like compounds. To further investigate species-sensitivity to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds induction of cytochrome P450 1A4 and 1A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) mRNA and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were quantified in liver of posthatch white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) via air cell injection. The rank-order of sensitivity of TCDD- and TCDF-exposed birds, based on CYP1A, was chicken>pheasant>quail. Based on CYP1A5 mRNA expression and EROD induction, the order of sensitivity of PeCDF-exposed birds was identical to that for TCDD and TCDF. However, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression the rank-order was pheasant>chicken>quail. When comparing the potency of the three compounds in each species, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression, TCDD was the most potent compound in chicken. However, PeCDF was equally potent to TCDD in quail and was more potent than TCDD in pheasant. These results suggest that quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis of CYP1A expression, particularly CYP1A4 mRNA expression, may be a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than analysis of EROD induction, especially in less responsive avian species. Based on these findings future risk assessments should consider the sensitivity of the species inhabiting a site and the congeners of concern that are present.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been shown to occur from the combustion products of fuels as complex as municipal solid waste and as relatively simple as a methane flame. PCDD/F emissions from flame carbon in th...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE PATHWAYS TO PCDDS/FS FROM AN ETHYLENE DIFFUSION FLAME: FORMATION FROM FLAME SOOT AND AROMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, PCDDs/Fs, occur in the combustion of a wide variety of fuels, and is related to poor combustion conditions. This study looks at the importance of flame soot, including associated adsorbed and condensed aeromati...

  7. MECHANISTIC STEPS IN THE PRODUCTION OF PCDD AND PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during municipal waste combustion can proceed through a three step mechanism including 1) production of Cl2 from a metal-catalyzed reaction of HCl a...

  8. FRAMEWORK FOR APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenols (PCBs) commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment, including in animal tissues. For more than a decade the USEPA and other organizations have estimated the combined risks that such mixtures...

  9. EFFECT OF SOOT AND COPPER COMBUSTOR DEPOSITS ON DIOXIN EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of residual soot and copper combustor deposits on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during the combustion of a chlorinated waste. In a bench-scale set...

  10. UNDERSTANDING PCDD/F FORMATION AND SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work at the U. S. EPA has examined fundamental concepts regarding formation and minimization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in combustion scenarios. This paper summarizes some of these main findings, drawing on work from multiple studies....

  11. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  12. Status report on the US national dioxin study

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; McBride, A.; Jaworski, N.; Harless, R.; Dupuy, A.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) embarked on an extensive investigation of the presence and extent of contamination of the national environment by chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDDs/CDFs). The status report is a prelude to a final report delivered to the U.S. Congress in December 1985.

  13. New and Old POP (PCDD/FS, PCBS, and PBDES) in U.S. Foods: Levels, Trends, and Implications for Human Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of several historic persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls, along with a newer class of POPs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in domestic meat and poultry ...

  14. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PCDD/PCDF AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN EDIBLE VEGETABLE OILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reassessment of the toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) identifies ingestion as a key route of human exposure to these compounds. The reassessme...

  15. Effect of updated 2005 TEFS on previous USDA food surveys of PCDD/Fs and co-planar PCBS and comparison to initial results from a new survey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The toxicity of dioxin-like compounds (polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins/dibenzofurans/biphenyls) was recently reevaluated by an expert panel and changes were made to the toxicity factors (TEFs) of several compounds which directly effects the calculation of toxic equivalents (TEQs), a measure of tot...

  16. Levels and Trends of Historic POPs (PCDD/Fs and PCBs) and Newer POPs (PBDEs) in U.S. Meat and Poultry and Implications for Human Exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of several historic POPs, i.e. polychlorinated dibenzo p dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls, along with a newer class of POPs, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were measured in domestic meat and poultry samples from 2002 and 2008. The ...

  17. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF PCDD/F INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission samples from a simulated hazardous waste-fired North American Package Boiler (NAPB) and a refuse-derived fuel incineration facility (RDFF) were analyzed separately and combined in order to identify single polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran ...

  18. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRE SIMULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was b...

  19. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  20. THE USE OF SURROGATE COMPOUNDS AS INDICATORS OF PCDD/F CONCENTRATIONS IN COMBUSTOR STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from stationary combustion sources are of concern because they are carcinogenic and may result in disruption of endocrine systems in human and wildlife populations. PCDDs/Fs are typically ...

  1. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. BEEF: A PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA and the USDA completed the first statistically designed survey of the occurrence and concentration of dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), dibenzofurans (CDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the fat of beef animals raised for human consumption in the United Stat...

  2. EVIDENCE OF FEED CONTAMINATION DUE TO SAMPLE HANDLING AND PREPARATION DURING A MASS BALANCE STUDY OF DIOXINS IN LACTATING COWS IN BACKGROUND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1997, the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a mass balance study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in lactating cows in background conditions. The field portion of the study occurred at the US Department of A...

  3. 75 FR 27249 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources and Emissions Guidelines for Existing Sources...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ..., chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen chloride and sulfur... standard cubic meter TEQ (grains per billion dry standard cubic feet). Hydrogen chloride Parts per million... proposed action is not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of EO 12866 (58 FR...

  4. PCDD/F EMISSIONS FROM FOREST FIRES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from combustion of forest biomass were sampled to obtain an estimated emission factor for forest fires. An equal composition of live shoot and litter biomass from Oregon and North Carolina was bu...

  5. PCDD/F FORMATION RATES FROM FLY ASH AND METHANE COMBUSTION CARBON SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The abstract discusses polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD,F) from fly ash and methane combustion carbon sources. (NOTE: PCDD,Fs are formed in trace quantities in combustion processes via two primary mechanisms: de novo synthesis in which they ...

  6. THE ROLE OF GAS-PHASE CL2 IN THE FORMATION OF PCDD/PCDF DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of previous experiments investigating formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) through low-temperature (300°C), fly-ash-catalyzed reactions are demonstrated to have occurred through intermediate formation of gas-phase Cl2 by deco...

  7. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOMOLOGUE CONCENTRATIONS OF PCDD/FS AND TOXIC EQUIVALENCY VALUES IN LABORATORY-, PACKAGE BOILER-, AND FIELD-SCALE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted with a model based on the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a package boiler (61 data points), and ...

  8. PREDICTION OF DIOXIN/FURAN INCINERATOR EMISSIONS USING LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT VOLATILE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) from incinerators and other stationary combustion sources are of environmental concern because of the toxicity of certain PCDD/PCDF congeners. Measurement of trace levels of PCDDs/PCDFs...

  9. EVALUATION OF THE FULL-SCALE BASE CATALYZED DECOMPOSITION PROCESS (BCDP) UNIT LOCATED IN GUAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes performance data collected in February 1997 on the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from soil fed to a first-stage rotary kiln reactor of the Base Catalyzed Dec...

  10. AN ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) FOR DETERMINING DIOXINS IN SEDIMENT AND SOIL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dioxins comprise a family of compounds chemically referred to as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The most toxic of these compounds is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a known human carcinogen. Dioxins are formed ...

  11. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED INGREDIENTS FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were ...

  12. VARIABLES AFFECTING EMISSIONS OF PCDDS/FS FROM UNCONTROLLED COMBUSTION OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uncontrolled burning of household waste in barrels has recently been implicated as a major source of airborne emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Based on the need to generate a more accurate emission factor for burn ba...

  13. DIOXIN FORMATION: THE BURN BARREL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports results from tests designed to examine some of the factors influencing the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) from burn barrels. Results from PCDDs/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported, al...

  14. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS DURING SOLID WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formation mechanisms of the precursors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) were examined in a laboratory reactor. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions were studied between 200 and 800°C with HCl, Cl2, and pheno...

  15. MECHANISTIC AND SOURCE UNDERSTANDING OF PCDD/F FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses mechanistic and source understanding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) formation. (NOTE: Considerable research effort has been expended over the last 15-plus years to understand how combustion sources result in formation of PCDDs/F...

  16. A STATISTICAL SURVEY OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN U.S. POULTRY FAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on the results of a joint survey of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the rate of occurrence and concentration of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF...

  17. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  18. H4IIE hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in colonial fish-eating waterbird eggs from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tillitt, D.E.; Ankley, G.T.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Fish-eating waterbirds from the Great Lakes of North America have shown symptoms of poisoning similar to those observed in laboratory exposures of various avian species to planar halogenated hydrocarbons(PHHs). PHHs, include among others, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and have been implicated in some of the reproductive problems of Great Lakes waterbirds.

  19. 40 CFR 63.1502 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the final rule in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as... Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and -Dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs) and 1989 Update” (EPA/625/3-89... Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634, telephone number (513) 742-2020; and (2) The National...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1502 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the final rule in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as... Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and -Dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs) and 1989 Update” (EPA/625/3-89... Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634, telephone number (513) 742-2020; and (2) The National...

  1. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODELING STUDY OF DE NOVO FORMATION OF PCDD/PCDF ON MSW FLY ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has been studied in an entrained-flow reactor under simulated waste combustion conditions. A chlorination model based on conditional probability ...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PIC FORMATION DURING CFC INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of experiments to assess: (1) the effect of residual copper retained in an incineration facility on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) formation during incineration of non-copper-containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); and (2) th...

  3. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  4. DIOXIN AND FURAN FORMATION ON FLY ASH FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To establish the relationship between specific chlorophenol (CP) congener distributions and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) products this work investigated the formation of PCDDs/Fs from different CP mixtures passed over fly ash under selected reaction ...

  5. A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...

  6. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities. PMID:26867808

  7. Copolymerization of dibenzofuran and dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.P.; Jones, M.B.; Baltisberger, R.J.; Brown, C.E.; Burger, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a project involving synthesis of model oligomers of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes, we required bis(2-dibenzofuranyl)methane (1). The successful preparation of 1 was carried out via coupling of 2-lithio-dibenzofuran with 2-formyldibenzofuran, followed by reduction of the resulting diaryl substituted methanol. Attempts to prepare 1 by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of dibenzofuran (DBF) with stoichiometric amounts of CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ failed. However, when CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ was present in excess (as solvent), alkylation of DBF proceeded smoothly at ambient temperature to yield an insoluble, infusible, yellow powder. We report herein preliminary observations on the characteristics and structural features of this new copolymer.

  8. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?

    PubMed Central

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T

    2005-01-01

    Background: For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK. Aims and Methods: The authors aimed to investigate whether long term residents close to a heavy chemical industrial complex (Teesside, UK) had a higher body burden and distinct pattern of PCDD/F and PCBs. We measured current levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in a population based sample of older women (mean 64 years, range 42–79 years). Forty women were recruited, 20 living near (zone A: 0.1–2.7 km) and 20 distant (zone C: 5–40 km) from industry during 2000–03. The authors ascertained occupational exposure to lung carcinogens, residential history, consumption of local produce, breast feeding, diet, and height and weight. Results: The mean body burden measured on lipid basis in ng/kg for the whole sample was: WHO-TEQ (PCDD/Fs): 29.9, 2378TCDD: 4.0, PCB 118:16200, PCB156: 13100. Body burdens were similar to others reported from industrialised countries, except that mean 2378TCDD was slightly higher. Mean ages, body mass index, and lifelong dietary patterns were similar in both zones. The authors found no significant difference in mean body burden levels between zones A and C before or after adjustment for covariates. All congener patterns were consistent with an urban background pattern, and there was no significant difference between congener compositions in the two zones. The TCDD body burden increased with age with accelerated increments above age 70. Conclusion: Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Teesside, UK. The body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution. PMID:16299100

  9. 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN MINED CLAY PRODUCTS FROM THE U.S.: EVIDENCE FOR POSSIBLE NATURAL ORIGIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been rai...

  10. Simultaneous determination of tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and poly-aromatic chlorinated biphenyls in aqueous environment using liquid phase microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikiti, Phumile; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mishra, Ajay K.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Among the most notable and notorious persistent organic pollutants in many aquatic environments are the dioxins and poly-aromatic chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These compounds are nuisances in the environment due to their toxicities which come mainly as a result of their tendencies to bio accumulate because of their lipophilic nature. Dioxins and PCBs belong to the group of compounds known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Since these compounds are problematic when they are discharged in the environment, strict regulations and guidelines with regard to their use and discharge has been put in place. Of the dioxin congeners, 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-Cl4DD) is the most toxic while a number of PCB congeners such PCB-1, PCB-28 and PCB 101 are also known to cause pollution when present in the environment. In this work, the analytical monitoring strategies for dioxins and PCBs employing extraction and purification of samples using liquid phase microextraction as well as gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the separation and detection of the extracts was employed. The extraction results were validated by various statistical tests such as linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility and repeatability data.

  11. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K S; Zheng, Gene J; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-07-01

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China.

  12. Carbon injection proves effective in removing dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Roeck, D.R.; Sigg, A.

    1996-01-01

    The last several years concerns have grown about the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, both byproducts of the combustion effluent-gas stream. In Europe carbon injection is widley used to effectively control dioxin emissions from hazardous-waste incinerators. Waste Technologies Industries, a hazardous waste incinerator in Ohio, recently completed extensive testing of the effectiveness of carbon injection technology. This article discusses the testing. 1 tab.

  13. Atmospheric baseline levels of PCDD and PCDF in the region of Oporto.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, M; Ferreira, J; Gomes, P; Mata, P; Borrego, C

    2001-01-01

    An external monitoring plan (EMP) is being implemented in the region of Oporto, Portugal, to follow the potential effects of a future incinerator of municipal solid waste. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) were measured during 1998 and the first semester of 1999, prior to the working up of the incineration unit. The baseline levels obtained through this intensive monitoring work are presented and discussed in the present paper.

  14. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br2) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X=Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion.

  15. Brominated flame retardants and the formation of dioxins and furans in fires and combustion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengmei; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-03-01

    The widespread use and increasing inventory of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have caused considerable concern, as a result of BFRs emissions to the environment and of the formation of both polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and mixed polybromochloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBCDD/Fs or PXDD/Fs). Structural similarities between PBDD/Fs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) suggest the existence of comparable formation pathways of both PBDD/Fs and PCDD/Fs, yet BFRs also act as specific precursors to form additional PBDD/Fs. Moreover, elementary bromine (Br2) seems to facilitate chlorination by bromination of organics, followed by Br/Cl-exchange based on displacement through the more reactive halogen. Overall, PBDD/Fs form through three possible pathways: precursor formation, de novo formation, and dispersion of parts containing BFRs as impurities and surviving a fire or other events. The present review summarises the formation mechanisms of both brominated (PBDD/Fs) and mixed dioxins (PXDD/Fs with X=Br or Cl) from BFRs, recaps available emissions data of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs from controlled waste incineration, uncontrolled combustion sources and accidental fires, and identifies and analyses the effects of several local factors of influence, affecting the formation of PBDD/Fs and mixed PXDD/Fs during BFRs combustion. PMID:26546701

  16. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe. PMID:22563359

  17. Levels and profiles of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants in surface soils from Shanxi province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, G R; Cai, M W; Zheng, M H; Nie, Z Q; Liu, W B; Lv, P; Su, G J; Gao, L R; Xiao, K

    2011-05-01

    Six species of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutions comprised of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated naphthalenes, hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene in soils collected from Shanxi province, China were determined. The sum toxic equivalent ranged from 0.14 to 2.20 with an average of 0.94 pg TEQ/g. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans contributed the most toxic proportion to the total toxic equivalent. CB-126 was the most toxic contributor to polychlorinated biphenyls. CN66/67 and CN73 are the dominant toxic congeners to polychlorinated naphthalenes. From the patterns, it was speculated that thermal related industries were possible sources of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutions.

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 B. 12,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 C. 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 D. 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 E. 12,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 B. 12,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 C. 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 D. 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 E. 12,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Llll of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan isomer Toxicequivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  1. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 B. 12,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 C. 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 D. 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 E. 12,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 B. 12,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 C. 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 D. 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 E. 12,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart III of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor A. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 B. 12,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 C. 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 D. 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 E. 12,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  4. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Llll of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan isomer Toxicequivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  5. PCDD/Fs in sediments of Central Vietnam coastal lagoons: in search of TCDD.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Rossano; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Mugnai, Cristian; Cu, Nguyen Huu; Nhon, Dang Hoai; Vecchiato, Marco; Romano, Stefania; Frignani, Mauro

    2010-12-01

    Samples from nine Central Vietnam coastal lagoons, together with three soils and sediments collected in two freshwater reservoirs of the Thua Thien-Hué province, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total concentrations are low, from 192 to 2912 pg g(-1) and depth profiles in Tam Giang-Cau Hai (TG-CH) sediment cores show only minor changes over time in PCDD/F input and composition. Octachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) is the prevailing congener (approximately 90%), indicating combustion as the main PCDD/F source to these coastal systems, whereas natural formation might be partly responsible for the presence at depth. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), largely sprayed together with Agent Orange over the study areas during the war (1961-1971), is absent or very low. This result supports the hypothesis of strong degradation soon after spraying. Multivariate statistical analyses account for the presence of local, short-range sources as observed in the northern part of the TG-CH lagoon. PMID:20952038

  6. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Mixed Halogen Dioxins and Furans in Fire Debris Utilizing Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Organtini, Kari L; Myers, Anne L; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Ross, Brian; Ladak, Adam; Mullin, Lauren; Stevens, Douglas; Dorman, Frank L

    2015-10-20

    Residential and commercial fires generate a complex mixture of volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile compounds. This study focused on the semi/nonvolatile components of fire debris to better understand firefighter exposure risks. Using the enhanced sensitivity of gas chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (APGC-MS/MS), complex fire debris samples collected from simulation fires were analyzed for the presence of potentially toxic polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs). Extensive method development was performed to create multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods for a wide range of PXDD/Fs from dihalogenated through hexa-halogenated homologue groups. Higher halogenated compounds were not observed due to difficulty eluting them off the long column used for analysis. This methodology was able to identify both polyhalogenated (mixed bromo-/chloro- and polybromo-) dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the simulated burn study samples collected, with the dibenzofuran species being the dominant compounds in the samples. Levels of these compounds were quantified as total homologue groups due to the limitations of commercial congener availability. Concentration ranges in household simulation debris were observed at 0.01-5.32 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.18-82.11 ppb (PBDFs). Concentration ranges in electronics simulation debris were observed at 0.10-175.26 ppb (PXDFs) and 0.33-9254.41 ppb (PBDFs). Samples taken from the particulate matter coating the firefighters' helmets contained some of the highest levels of dibenzofurans, ranging from 4.10 ppb to 2.35 ppm. The data suggest that firefighters and first responders at fire scenes are exposed to a complex mixture of potentially hundreds to thousands of different polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans that could negatively impact their health.

  8. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  9. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal. PMID:27375673

  10. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal.

  11. Suppressive effects of caraway (Carum carvi) extracts on 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin-dependent gene expression of cytochrome P450 1A1 in the rat H4IIE cells.

    PubMed

    Naderi-Kalali, B; Allameh, A; Rasaee, M J; Bach, H-J; Behechti, A; Doods, K; Kettrup, A; Schramm, K-W

    2005-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) is among the cytochrome P450 classes known to convert xenobiotics and endogenous compounds to toxic and/or carcinogenic metabolites. Suppression of CYP1A1 over expression by certain compounds is implicated in prevention of cancer caused by chemical carcinogens. Chemopreventive agents containing high levels of flavonoids and steroids-like compounds are known to suppress CYP1A1. This study was carried out for assessment of the genomic and proteomic effects of caraway (Carum carvi) extracts containing high levels of both flavonoids and steroid-like substances on ethoxy resorufin dealkylation (EROD) activity and CYP1A1 at mRNA levels. Rat hepatoma cells co-treated with a CYP1A1 inducer i.e. TCDD (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and different preparations of caraway extracts at concentrations of 0, 0.13, 1.3, and 13 microM in culture medium. After incubation (37 degrees C and 7% CO2 for 20 h), changes in EROD specific activity recorded and compared in cells under different treatments. The results show that caraway seed extract prepared in three different organic solvents suppressed the enzyme activity in hepatoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts added above 0.13 microM could significantly inhibit EROD activity and higher levels of each extract (1.3 and 13 microM) caused approximately 10-fold suppression in the enzyme activity. Accordingly, data obtained from the RT-PCR (TaqMan) clearly showed the suppressive effects of plant extract on CYP1A1-related mRNA expression. These data clearly show that substances in caraway seeds extractable in organic solvents can potentially reverse the TCDD-dependent induction in cytochrome P450 1A1.

  12. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL-1. Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32–37, 20–24, and 16–18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log KLB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which indicates that our approach could be used as a broader biomimetic strategy for toxin removal. PMID:27375673

  13. Evaluation of dioxin-like activities in settled house dust from Vietnamese E-waste recycling sites: relevance of polychlorinated/brominated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans and dioxin-like PCBs.

    PubMed

    Tue, Nguyen M; Suzuki, Go; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Trang, Pham T K; Viet, Pham H; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the human exposure to the ensemble of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) released from uncontrolled e-waste recycling, especially from a toxic effect standpoint. This study evaluated the TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in persistent extracts of settled house dust from two Vietnamese e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression assay (DR-CALUX), combined with chemical analysis of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, PBDD/Fs, and monobromo PCDD/Fs to determine their TEQ contribution. The CALUX-TEQ levels in house dust ranged from 370 to 1000 pg g(-1) in the EWRSs, approximately 3.5-fold higher than in the urban control site. In EWRS house dust, the concentrations of the unregulated PBDFs were 7.7-63 ng g(-1), an order of magnitude higher than those of regulated DRCs (PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs), and PBDFs were also principal CALUX-TEQ contributors (4.2-22%), comparable to PCDD/Fs (8.1-29%). The CALUX-TEQ contribution of DRCs varied, possibly depending on thermal processing activities (higher PCDD/F-TEQs) and PBDE content in the waste (higher PBDF-TEQs). However, the percentage of unknown dioxin-like activities was high in all dust samples, indicating large contribution from unidentified DRCs and/or synergy among contaminants. Estimates of TEQ intake from dust ingestion suggest that children in the EWRSs may be adversely affected by DRCs from dust.

  14. Occurrence of brominated persistent organic pollutants (PBDD/DFs, PXDD/DFs, and PBDEs) in Baltic wild salmon ( Salmo salar ) and correlation with PCDD/DFs and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Zacs, Dzintars; Rjabova, Jekaterina; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-08-20

    The contamination profiles of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and mixed monobromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins (PXDDs) and dibenzofurans (PXDFs) were determined in the tissue of Baltic wild salmon and compared with those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs). Out of the analyzed PXDD/DFs, only the 3-B-2,7,8-triCDF was detected (in the concentration range of 0.039-0.075 pg g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.)). The toxic equivalents (TEQs) for analyzed PBDD/DFs (0.074-0.142 pg TEQ g(-1) f.w.) were found to contribute on average 2.1% to the total PCDD/DF-PBDD/DF-TEQ. The total concentrations of 27 PBDE congeners were in the range of 1.3-5.6 ng g(-1) f.w., with an average of 3.3 ng g(-1) f.w. The levels of PCDD/DFs and PCBs were found to be in the range of 4.53-14.6 pg WHO(2005)-PCDD/DF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) f.w., and concentrations of these compounds in most of the analyzed samples were above the maximum levels specified in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 1259/2011. Good correlation was observed between WHO(2005)-PCDD/DF-TEQ and WHO(2005)-PCB-TEQ (r(2) = 0.98), and these parameters were well correlated with the total sum of PBDE concentrations (r(2) = 0.91 and r(2) = 0.94, respectively). The results suggest that the consumption of Baltic wild salmon has no crucial impact on the average POP intake for typical Latvians.

  15. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  16. Increased PCDD/F formation in the bottom ash from fires of CCA-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Tame, N W; Dlugogorski, B Z; Kennedy, E M

    2003-03-01

    Bottom ash that was the result of the combustion of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood under controlled fire conditions showed an increase of several orders of magnitude in the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), compared to that of untreated timber. Wood that has been pressure treated with CCA contains copper (II), which is known to catalyse the so-called de novo formation of PCDD/Fs. Comparable levels of PCDD/Fs would be expected in residual ash from burning CCA-treated wood in backyard fires, stoves and wood heaters, as a consequence of similar combustion conditions. PMID:12547341

  17. Endangered Vancouver Island marmots (Marmota vancouverensis): sentinels of atmospherically delivered contaminants to British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lichota, Gillian B; McAdie, Malcolm; Ross, Peter S

    2004-02-01

    We characterized legacy and new contaminants in the highly endangered Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) marmot and found generally low blood and fat concentrations of a complex mixture of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in their tissues. The dominance of the more volatile alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) pesticides and the lesser chlorinated PCB congeners suggests that atmospheric processes largely explain the contamination of this high-altitude herbivore.

  18. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the VICON incinerator facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Draft final report: Volume 1, Text

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-18

    Airborne emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) can be produced as a result of incomplete combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, knowledge is limited about the incinerator design and operating conditions which cause these compounds to be formed or which can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate their discharge. In addition, the chemical forms of chlorine and precursors which may contribute to the formation of PCDD and PCDF are not clearly known. This study focuses on determining the relationships between incinerator combustion/operating variables, refuse characteristics, and emission levels of PCDD and PCDF, as well as selected potential precursor compounds.

  19. Hepatic cytochrome P450 1A as a biomarker for hydrocarbon and oxidant pollutants in fish: Relevance of identification of specific mechanism(s) of induction and potential effects on homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharewski, T.R.; McCallum, G.P.; Bend, J.R.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The induction of hepatic and extrahepatic P450 1A isozymes in fish and mammals is used as a biomarker for certain classes of toxic environmental pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), planar polychlorinated (PCBs) and polybrominated (PBBs) biphenyl congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). However, recent data from the laboratory have shown that rat pulmonary P450 1A1 can also be induced by arsenite or liver transplantation (via a stress mechanism), raising the possibility that regulation of this biomarker can occur by mechanisms other than Ah receptor-mediated increases of CYP1A gene transcription.

  20. 2,3,7,8,-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in tissues of birds at Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Giesy, J.P.; Newsted, J.L.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Beaver, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The environment has become contaminated with complex mixtures of planar, chlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and structurally similar compounds. Because the potencies of individual congeners to cause the same adverse effects vary greatly and the relative as well as absolute concentrations of individual PCH vary among samples from different locations, it is difficult to assess the toxic effects of these mixtures on wildlife. These compounds can cause a number of adverse effects, however, because the toxic effects which occur at ecologically-relevant concentrations such as embryo-lethality and birth defects appear to be mediated through the same mechanism.

  1. Thermochemical chlorination of carbon indirectly driven by an unexpected sulfide of copper with inorganic chloride.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2011-12-15

    Unintentional anthropogenic thermal chlorination of carbon is known to be a contributor to global environmental pollution of organochlorine compounds. We found unexpected, serious chlorination of carbon promoted by a "sulfide" of copper, which has been generally thought of and studied as an inactive metal catalyst. Our quantitative and X-ray spectroscopic results show that a fraction of cupric sulfide indirectly promoted thermochemical solid-phase formation of a large quantity of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and benzenes that used inactive inorganic chloride as chlorine storage, which partly caused environmental pollution by organochlorine compounds. PMID:22004834

  2. Thermochemical chlorination of carbon indirectly driven by an unexpected sulfide of copper with inorganic chloride.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki

    2011-12-15

    Unintentional anthropogenic thermal chlorination of carbon is known to be a contributor to global environmental pollution of organochlorine compounds. We found unexpected, serious chlorination of carbon promoted by a "sulfide" of copper, which has been generally thought of and studied as an inactive metal catalyst. Our quantitative and X-ray spectroscopic results show that a fraction of cupric sulfide indirectly promoted thermochemical solid-phase formation of a large quantity of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and benzenes that used inactive inorganic chloride as chlorine storage, which partly caused environmental pollution by organochlorine compounds.

  3. Occupational exposure to dioxins at UK worksites.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, Andy; Keen, Chris; Healy, John; Ball, Elanor; Davy, Colin

    2004-07-01

    Following a request from a Governmental Interdepartmental Group, the Health and Safety Executive undertook a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) sampling exercise at several work sites in the UK. An initial survey suggested potential PCDD/F production at metal recycling sites, during cement manufacture, at municipal waste incinerators and landfill sites and during the use of thermal oxygen lances. PCDD/F sampling, using static and personal air samplers, revealed that the highest PCDD/F exposures were found at metal recycling sites, particularly aluminium recycling sites. The reasons for these results and the possible consequential intakes are discussed.

  4. PCDD/F and related compounds in solid residues from municipal solid waste incineration--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Vehlow, Jürgen; Bergfeldt, Britta; Hunsinger, Hans

    2006-10-01

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) from waste incineration into the air have been a major focus of interest during the last two decades. An integrated approach to clean waste disposal has to take the occurrence of PCDD/F in all residues into account. This paper compiles published data on concentration ranges of PCDD/F and the related compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated benzenes and phenols, as well as polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in solid residues from waste incineration in grate furnaces and their development since 1985. A short description of inertization processes for PCDD/F loaded materials is added.

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart X of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart X of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxicequivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Table 4 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60—Model Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan isomer Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  8. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Table 3 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  9. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart X of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Subpart X of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  10. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 4 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60—Model Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ec to... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Ec to Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  13. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Table 4 to Subpart DDDD of Part 60—Model Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan isomer Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  14. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Dddd of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  15. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Subpart MMMM of Part 60—Model Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan isomer Toxicequivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 3 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ec to... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Ec to Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Table 3 to Subpart CCCC of Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  19. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Cccc of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Mmmm of... - Model Rule-Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart MMMM of Part 60—Model Rule—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan isomer Toxicequivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1...

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ec to... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Ec to Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart X of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Subpart X of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorinated...

  3. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes. PMID:27400905

  4. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion.

  5. Influence of variation in combustion conditions on the primary formation of chlorinated organic micropollutants during municipal solid waste combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wikstroem, E.; Tysklind, M.; Marklund, S.

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of variation in combustion conditions on the primary formation of organic micropollutants (OMPs). The flue gas samples were taken at a relatively high flue gas temperature (650 C), to enable mechanistic studies on the high temperature formation (primary formation). Eleven experiments were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor fed with an artificial municipal solid waste (MSW). The samples were analyzed for nomo- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDDs/Fs), tri- to decachlorinated biphenyls (CBs), di- to hexachlorinated benzenes (CBzs), and di- to pentachlorinated phenols (CPhs). In addition to chlorinated OMPs, nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), dibenzofuran (DF), and biphenyl (BP) were analyzed. The experiments show that variations in the Ce influence the degree of chlorination of the organic micropollutants. A correlation between low CE and formation of non- and low- chlorinated OMPs was seen and a distinct relationship of higher chlorinated homologues and efficient combustion condition. Thus, the DiCDFs and DiCBzs are formed during low combustion efficiency (CE), which the PeCDF and PeCBzs formation take place at higher Ce. The distribution between primary and secondary air is important for the formation of higher CDD/Fs and CBzs. The primary formation of CDDs and CDFs is through different mechanisms. The CDDs are mainly formed by condensation of CPhs, while the CDFs are formed through a non- or a low-chlorinated precursor followed by further chlorination reactions.

  6. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes.

  8. Reducing emissions of persistent organic pollutants from a diesel engine by fueling with water-containing butanol diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lu, Jau-Huai; Tsai, Ying I; Cheng, Man-Ting; Young, Li-Hao; Chiang, Chia-Jui

    2014-05-20

    The manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends requires no excess dehydration and surfactant addition. Therefore, compared with the manufacture of conventional bio-alcohols, the energy consumption for the manufacture of water-containing butanol diesel blends is reduced, and the costs are lowered. In this study, we verified that using water-containing butanol diesel blends not only solves the tradeoff problem between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines, but it also reduces the emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. After using blends of B2 with 10% and 20% water-containing butanol, the POP emission factors were decreased by amounts in the range of 22.6%-42.3% and 38.0%-65.5% on a mass basis, as well as 18.7%-78.1% and 51.0%-84.9% on a toxicity basis. The addition of water-containing butanol introduced a lower content of aromatic compounds and most importantly, lead to more complete combustion, thus resulting in a great reduction in the POP emissions. Not only did the self-provided oxygen of butanol promote complete oxidation but also the water content in butanol diesel blends could cause a microexplosion mechanism, which provided a better turbulence and well-mixed environment for complete combustion. PMID:24738886

  9. Deca-brominated diphenyl ether destruction and PBDD/F and PCDD/F emissions from coprocessing deca-BDE mixture-contaminated soils in cement kilns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yufei; Huang, Qifei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Xiaohua; Liu, Wenbin

    2012-12-18

    The disposal of soil contaminated with polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) was studied using an industrial coprocessing cement kiln. Two tests, Test 1 and Test 2, studied the destruction, removal, and emissions of PBDE in soils with PBDE concentrations of 4160 and 25,000 mg/kg, respectively. Emissions of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were also quantified. The PBDE destruction and removal efficiencies for Tests 1 and 2 were 99.9997% and 99.9998%, respectively. PBDE stack gas concentrations were 39.1 and 85.9 ng/Nm³ for Tests 1 and 2, respectively. The mean PBDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations related to Tests 1 and 2 were 11.0 and 11.4 pg/Nm³, and PBDFs contributed 60.0-64.2% of the total PBDD/F concentrations. 2,3,7,8-TeBDD made the greatest contribution to the total PBDD/Fs, 40%, of all the homologues. The mean PCDD/F TEQ stack gas concentrations in Tests 1 and 2 were 0.74 and 0.65 pg/Nm³. The total PBDE, PBDD/F, and PCDD/F TEQ at the kiln outlet was 0.006% and 0.001% of the feed material TEQ. Therefore, coprocessing heavily PBDE-contaminated soils in a cement kiln is a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology.

  10. Synthesis and Coordination Chemistry of Phosphine Oxide Decorated Dibenzofuran Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario-Amorin, Daniel; Duesler, Eileen N.; Paine, Robert T.; Hay, Benjamin; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Reilly, Sean D.; Gaunt, Andrew J.; Scott, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    A four-step synthesis for 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphinoylmethyl)dibenzofuran (4) from dibenzofuran and a two-step synthesis for 4,6-bis(diphenylphosphinoyl)dibenzofuran (5) are reported along with coordination chemistry of 4 with In(III), La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Er(III), and Pu(IV) and of 5 with Er(III). Crystal structure determinations for the ligands, 4 {center_dot} CH{sub 3}OH and 5, the 1:1 complexes [In(4)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}], [Pr(4)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)] {center_dot} 0.5CH{sub 3}CN, [Er(4)(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}(CH{sub 3}CN)] {center_dot} CH{sub 3}CN, [Pu(4)Cl4] {center_dot} THF and the 2:1 complex [Nd(4){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} (H{sub 2}O) {center_dot} 4(CH{sub 3}OH) are described. In these complexes, ligand 4 coordinates in a bidentate POP{prime}O{prime} mode via the two phosphine oxide O-atoms. The dibenzofuran ring O-atom points toward the central metal cations, but in every case it is more than 4 {angstrom} from the metal. A similar bidentate POP{prime}O{prime} chelate structure is formed between 5 and Er(III) in the complex, {l_brace}[Er(5){sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}](NO{sub 3}) {center_dot} 4(CH{sub 3}OH){r_brace}0.5, although the nonbonded Er{hor_ellipsis} O{sub furan} distance is reduced to 3.6 {angstrom}. The observed bidentate chelation modes for 4 and 5 are consistent with results from molecular mechanics computations. The solvent extraction performance of 4 and 5 in 1,2-dichloroethane for Eu(III) and Am(III) in nitric acid solutions is described and compared against the extraction behavior of n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (O{Phi}DiBCMPO) measured under identical conditions.

  11. National annual dioxin emissions estimate for hazardous waste incinerators

    PubMed

    Cudahy; Rigo

    1998-11-01

    Reducing emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, commonly known as dioxins, is a high priority for environmental regulatory bodies throughout much of the world. In the United States, Section 112 (c)(6) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to identify and control emissions from sources that are responsible for at least 90% of the overall emissions of seven targeted hazardous air pollutants, including dioxins. On April 19, 1996, the EPA proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors (HWCs). In that preamble, the EPA estimated annual dioxin emissions from the nation's hazardous waste incinerators (HWIs) to be 79 grams expressed as 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDD) international toxic equivalents (ITEQs). However, early EPA dioxin emission estimates from medical waste incinerators and cement kilns were significantly overestimated; so, the following independent national dioxin emissions estimate for HWIs was prepared. This estimate corrects the errors in the EPA's HWI emissions database, uses an updated inventory of HWIs in the United States, and applies statistical imputation techniques that take maximum advantage of the limited dioxin emissions data for HWIs.

  12. Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J.

    1996-10-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.

  13. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  14. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals. PMID:25829055

  15. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  16. A Dibenzofuran-Based Host Material for Blue Electrophosphorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vecchi, Paul A.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Qiao, Hong; Sapochak, Linda S.; Burrows, Paul E.

    2006-09-14

    All reactions were performed using standard Schlenk techniques under an atmosphere of pre-purified argon. Dibenzofuran (≥ 99%) was purchased from Aldrich and sublimed in a cold finger prior to use. Bromine (99.5+%), chlorodiphenylphosphine (PPh2Cl, 98%), n-butyllithium (n-BuLi, 2.5 M sltn. in hexanes) and chloroform-d (CDCl3) were purchased from Aldrich and used without further purification. Methylene chloride, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexanes and anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF) were purchased through VWR and used without further purification. Methylene chloride for phosphorescent studies and chloroform for the bromination reaction were purchased from Fisher, distilled over CaH2 under argon, and deoxygenated by 3 freeze-pump-thaw cycles before use.

  17. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented.

  18. O-Methyltransferases involved in biphenyl and dibenzofuran biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed N A; Brandt, Wolfgang; Beuerle, Till; Reckwell, Dennis; Groeneveld, Josephine; Hänsch, Robert; Gaid, Mariam M; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-07-01

    Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Malinae involving apple and pear. Biosynthesis of the defence compounds includes two O-methylation reactions. cDNAs encoding the O-methyltransferase (OMT) enzymes were isolated from rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) cell cultures after treatment with an elicitor preparation from the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis. The preferred substrate for SaOMT1 was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl, supplied by the first pathway-specific enzyme, biphenyl synthase (BIS). 3,5-Dihydroxybiphenyl underwent a single methylation reaction in the presence of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). The second enzyme, SaOMT2, exhibited its highest affinity for noraucuparin, however the turnover rate was greater with 5-hydroxyferulic acid. Both substrates were only methylated at the meta-positioned hydroxyl group. The substrate specificities of the OMTs and the regiospecificities of their reactions were rationalized by homology modeling and substrate docking. Interaction of the substrates with SAM also took place at a position other than the sulfur group. Expression of SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 was transiently induced in rowan cell cultures by the addition of the fungal elicitor. While the immediate SaOMT1 products were not detectable in elicitor-treated cell cultures, noraucuparin and noreriobofuran accumulated transiently, followed by increasing levels of the SaOMT2 products aucuparin and eriobofuran. SaOMT1, SaOMT2 and SaBIS3 were N- and C-terminally fused with the super cyan fluorescent protein and a modified yellow fluorescent protein, respectively. All the fluorescent reporter fusions were localized to the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermis cells. A revised biosynthetic pathway of biphenyls and dibenzofurans in the Malinae is presented. PMID:26017378

  19. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  20. Information und Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesoly, Michael; Ohlhausen, Peter; Bucher, Michael; Hichert, Rolf; Korge, Gabriele; Schnabel, Ulrich; Gairola, Arun; Reichwald, Ralf; Habicht, Hagen; Möslein, Kathrin; Schwarz, Torsten; Schönsleben, Paul; Scherer, Eric; Schloske, Alexander; Adlbrecht, Gerald; Federhen, Jens

    Wissen ist mittlerweile unverzichtbar für den entscheidenden Vorsprung auf dem Markt. Unabhängig davon, ob sich das Wissen in Innovationen, neuen Produkten und Dienstleistungen oder in der Verbesserung interner Unternehmensprozesse manifestiert: Wissen ist Treiber von Innovation, Wissen bringt Schnelligkeit und Wissen ist die Voraussetzung für Problemlösungen [40]. Wissensmanagement ist daher der Schlüssel für Unternehmenserfolg und bezeichnet den "bewussten und systematischen Umgang mit der Ressource Wissen und den zielgerichteten Einsatz von Wissen in der Organisation“ [6]. In dieser umfassenden Sichtweise ist Wissensmanagement ein Begriff, der Konzepte, Strategien und Methoden umfasst.

  1. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysklind, M.; Tillitt, D.; Eriksson, L.; Lundgren, K.; Rappe, C.

    1994-01-01

    The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction of 20 polychiorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was examined in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. The selection of the compounds tested was based on a multivariate chemical characterization laying the groundwork for covering the whole chemical series of PCDFs. The EROD induction potency was found to vary in ED50 values from 25 to 100,000,000 pg/mg, i.e., nearly seven orders of magnitude. The response of the bioassay was calibrated against the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, enabling the corresponding toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) to be calculated. In order to establish a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for the TEF values, 37 physicochemical descriptor variables were used to chemically characterize the 87 tetra- to octachlorinated PCDFs. Using partial least-squares modeling on a training set of 10 congeners, a QSAR model with sound predictive power was obtained. The QSAR model was validated with a validation set of additional 10 congeners. The predicted TEFs indicate that a large number of congeners are potent EROD inducers.

  2. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  3. Lymph- und Immunsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Steven F.

    Alle Lebewesen müssen sich gegen Eindringlinge wehren. Ihre Abwehrmechanismen wirken auf verschiedenen Ebenen, von übergeordneten Feindvermeidungsstrategien und Putzverhalten bis hin zu molekularen Erkennungs- und Tötungsmechanismen. Da Eindringlinge über Kontaktflächen mit der Außenwelt, wie z.B. Körperoberfläche, Darmwand und Atmungsoberflächen, in den Organismus gelangen, sind an diesen Stellen immer primäre Abwehrmechanismen zu finden. Dazu zählen (1) Schleimabsonderung (Schleimhäute bei allen Schädeltieren, Fischkiemen, epidermale Schleimdrüsen (Fische, Amphibien)), (2) Stoffwechselgifte und antibakteriell wirkende Substanzen in der Haut (Fische, Amphibien) und im Speichel (Amnioten), (3) Flimmerepithelien zum Abtransport von Eindringlingen und (4) starke Keratinbildung in der mehrschichtigen Epidermis und schützende Strukturen wie Schuppen, Federn und Haare (Amnioten) (S. 20). Auch die starke Säurebildung im Magen kann als Schutz gegen Eindringlinge betrachtet werden.

  4. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ttttt of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Subpt. TTTTT, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTTT of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  5. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Hhh of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Subpt. HHH, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 62—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  6. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ec of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Subpt. Ec, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart Ec of Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  7. 40 CFR Table 2 of Subpart Ec of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Subpt. Ec, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart Ec of Part 60—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  8. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Hhh of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Subpt. HHH, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 62—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  9. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Hhh of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 62, Subpt. HHH, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 62—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  10. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Hhh of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 62, Subpt. HHH, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 62—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  11. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Hhh of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Subpt. HHH, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart HHH of Part 62—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.5 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ttttt of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Subpt. TTTTT, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTTT of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  13. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ttttt of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Subpt. TTTTT, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTTT of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  14. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ttttt of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Subpt. TTTTT, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTTT of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ttttt of... - Toxic Equivalency Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Subpt. TTTTT, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart TTTTT of Part 63—Toxic Equivalency Factors Dioxin/furan congener Toxic equivalency factor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 1 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin 0.1 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexachlorinated...

  16. Characteristic occurrence patterns of micropollutants and their removal efficiencies in industrial wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seok; Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Chang-Won; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-02-01

    The concentrations and removal efficiencies of various kinds of micropollutants were investigated and the relationships between the input sources of industrial wastewater and occurrence patterns of each micropollutant were identified at nine on-site industrial wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The distribution pattern of each compound varied according to the WWTP type and several micropollutants were significantly related with specific industries: chlorinated phenols (ClPhs) with paper and metal industries, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with petrogenic- and pyrogenic-related industries, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) with the paper industry, and chlorinated benzenes (ClBzs) with dye-related industries. The activated sludge (AS) process was very efficient in the removal of ClPhs and PAHs, and the filtration process in the removal of PCDD/Fs and 1,4-dioxane. Generally, the removal efficiencies of each micropollutant varied according to the WWTP type. PMID:21140016

  17. Removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs by air pollution control devices in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Kim, S C; Jeon, S H; Jung, I R; Kim, K H; Kwon, M H; Kim, J H; Yi, J H; Kim, S J; You, J C; Jung, D H

    2001-01-01

    Removal efficiencies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) by air pollution control devices (APCDs) in the commercial-scale municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators with a capacity of above 200 ton/day were evaluated. The removal efficiencies of PCDDs/PCDFs were up to 95% when the activated carbon (AC) was injected in front of electrostatic precipitator (EP). Spray dryer absorber/bag filter (SDA/BF) had high removal efficiency (99%)) of PCDDs/PCDFs when a mixture of lime and AC was sprayed into the SDA. When the AC was not added in scrubbing solution, the whole congeners of PCDDs/PCDFs were enriched in the wet scrubber (WS) with negative removal efficiencies of -25% to -5731%. Discharge of PCDDs/PCDFs was decreased with increasing the proportions of AC added in scrubbing solution. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system had the removal efficiencies of up to 93% during the test operation.

  18. Environmental levels of PCDD/Fs and metals around a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain, before and after alternative fuel implementation. Assessment of human health risks.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn, and the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were determined in samples of soil, vegetation, and air, collected in the vicinity of a cement plant (Catalonia, Spain), before (January 2011 and July 2011) and after (January 2012 and June 2013) alternative fuel partial substitution (fossil fuels by sewage sludge). Seven sampling points were selected at different directions and distances to the facility including two background sampling points. The results were used to assess the health risk assessment for the population living near the facility. Only few significant differences were found before and after alternative fuel partial substitution (Mn in soils and Cd in vegetation). Non-carcinogenic risks were below the safety threshold (HQ<1), while carcinogenic risks were below 10(-5), or exceeding slightly that value, always in the range considered as assumable (10(-6)-10(-4)). PMID:24704963

  19. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in spent foundry sands.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Huwe, Janice; Chaney, Rufus L

    2009-05-01

    Approximately 10 million tons of spent foundry sand (SFS) are generated in the United States each year, and their beneficial use in agricultural and horticultural applications is being considered. Other studies have demonstrated that trace elements are low enough in sands from iron, steel, and aluminum foundries to allow their beneficial use. Because data were not available on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in SFSs, we analyzed representative spent sands from 10 foundries to assess the potential for these compounds to limit their use in soil-related applications. The total TEQ (toxicity equivalent) concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.13 ng TEQ kg(-1), with an average concentration of 0.58 ng TEQ kg(-1). These concentrations are within the range of natural background in soils. PMID:19264346

  20. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L.; Ptak, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated ethers (PBDEs), chloronaftalens (PCNs), and bisphenol A (BPA), are stable, lipophilic pollutants that affect fertility and cause serious reproductive problems, including ovotoxic action, lack of ovulation, premature ovarian failure (POF), or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Most of the representatives of POPs influence the activation of transcription factors, not only activation of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), but also the steroid hormone receptors. This minireview will focus on a variety of PAH activities in oocyte, ovary, placenta, and mammary gland. The complexity and diversity of factors belonging to POPs and disorders of the reproductive function of women indicate that the impact of environmental pollution as an important determinant factor in fertility should not be minimize. PMID:23762054

  1. Chloracne associated with employment in the production of pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.A.; Carpenter, A.V.; Sweeney, M.H.; Fingerhut, M.A.; Marlow, D.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Mathias, C.G. )

    1990-01-01

    To evaluate the association between exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and the occurrence of chloracne, we studied the medical and personnel records for individuals employed in the manufacturing of PCP. Forty-seven cases of chloracne were identified among 648 workers (7.0%) assigned to PCP production at a single plant between 1953 and 1978. The annual incidence rate varied considerably, ranging from 0 (in 1953) to 1.46 (in 1978). No linear trend in the risk of chloracne was observed with the duration of employment in the pentachlorophenol department. Workers with a documented episode of direct skin contact with PCP had a significantly increased risk of chloracne compared with workers who did not have a documented episode of direct skin contact (cumulative incidence ratio = 4.6; 95% confidence interval 2.6-8.1). Our results confirm that chloracne is associated with exposure to PCP contaminated with hexachlorinated, heptachlorinated, and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of persistent organic pollutants in the surroundings of various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Holoubek, I.; Helesic, J.; Kocan, A.; Pokorny, B.

    1995-12-31

    During the last decade several studies have been carried out aimed at improving the knowledge on the behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment. Evidence has been found that many of these compounds create serious problems due to their toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Examples of POPs that behave in this way are polychlorinated pesticides, industrial compounds (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls) and some degradation, industrial, and combustion by-products (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, hexachlorobenzene). Although work has been done in order to understand the fate, behavior, and effects of POPs, less information is available on environmental cycling (migration) of these compounds through various environmental media. The major reason for this deficiency in the knowledge is related to a lack of detailed information on emissions of POPs and the parameters affecting their migration through the environment under various meteorological, chemical and physical conditions.

  3. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Volume 3, Appendices H-K: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) can be generated as a result of combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, knowledge is limited about the incinerator design and operating conditions that cause these compounds to form and that can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate their discharge. This study focused on identifying the relationships between incinerator operating conditions, waste characteristics, combustion variables, and levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and selected other semivolatile organic compounds measured in the combustion gases. The study was designed primarily to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on levels of PCDDs/PCDFs in the combustion gases:Incinerator operating conditions; PVC content of the waste; Moisture content of the waste; and Combustion gas variables. Further, the study investigated the relationship between levels of PCDDs/PCDFs and other semivolatile organic compounds measured in the combustion gases.

  4. Combustion and emissions tests of the Vicon Incinerator at Pittsfield, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Neulicht, R.; Visalli, J.

    1987-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) can be generated as a result of combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, knowledge is limited about the incinerator design and operating conditions that cause these compounds to form and that can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate their discharge. This paper reports some of the major results of an extensive combustion/emissions testing program designed to gather data related to this topic. The testing was conducted at the VICON Resource Recovery Municipal Solid Waste Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The study focused on identifying the relationships between incinerator operating conditions, waste characteristics, combustion variables, and levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and selected other semivolatile organic compounds measures in the combustion gases.

  5. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The New York State Energy Research Development Authority (Energy Authority) contracted with Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct a series of tests at the Municipal Solid Waste incineration facility operated by VICON Recovery Associates in Pittsfield, Massaschusetts. The project was conducted in two phases. This final report presents the results of Phase II. Phase II was directed to the monitoring of combustion variables and to the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorianted dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the combustion gases. Tests were conducted under several different incinerator operating conditions, including with different waste feeds, to identify any relationships between those compounds and the combustion variables and operating conditions.

  6. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Final report, Volume 3 (Appendices H-K)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The New York State Energy Research Development Authority (Energy Authority) contracted with Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct a series of tests at the Municipal Solid Waste incineration facility operated by VICON Recovery Associates in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The project was conducted in two phases. This final report presents the results of Phase II. Phase II was directed to the monitoring of combustion variables and to the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the combustion gases. Tests were conducted under several different incinerator operating conditions, including with different waste feeds, to identify any relationships between those compounds and the combustion variables and operating conditions. Dioxin/furan homolog distribution graphs and a summary of daily field testing logs are given, as well as MM5 calculations and analytical data and calculations for chlorine, moisture, and percent ash.

  7. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Volume 2, Appendices A-G: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) can be generated as a result of combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, knowledge is limited about the incinerator design and operating conditions that cause these compounds to form and that can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate their discharge. This study focused on identifying the relationships between incinerator operating conditions, waste characteristics, combustion variables, and levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and selected other semivolatile organic compounds measured in the combustion gases. The study was designed primarily to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on levels of PCDDs/PCDFs in the combustion gases: Incinerator operating conditions; PVC content of the waste; Moisture content of the waste; and Combustion gas variables. Further, the study investigated the relationship between levels of PCDDs/PCDFs and other semivolatile organic compounds measured in the combustion gases.

  8. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Final report, Volume 4 (Appendices L-O)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The New York State Energy Research Development Authority (Energy Authority) contracted with Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct a series of tests at the Municipal Solid Waste incineration facility operated by VICON Recovery Associates in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The project was conducted in two phases. This final report presents the results of Phase 2. Phase 2 was directed to the monitoring of combustion variables and to the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the combustion gases. Tests were conducted under several different incinerator operating conditions, including with different waste feeds, to identify any relationships between those compounds and the combustion variables and operating conditions. Time frequency plots for selected operating parameters are given as well as statistical percent analysis for stack gas and combustion parameters. Statistical procedures and Phase 1 data are summarized.

  9. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Final report, Volume 2 (Appendices A-G)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    The New York State Energy Research Development Authority (Energy Authority) contracted with Midwest Research Institute (MRI) to conduct a series of tests at the Municipal Solid Waste incineration facility operated by VICON Recovery Associates in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. The project was conducted in two phases. This final report presents the results of Phase 2. Phase 2 was directed to the monitoring of combustion variables and to the sampling and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the combustion gases. Tests were conducted under several different incinerator operating conditions, including with different waste feeds, to identify any relationships between those compounds and the combustion variables and operating conditions. Compilations of the analytical chemical analyzers for semivolatile chemical emissions are tabulated, and quality assurance results are given.

  10. Results of the combustion and emissions research project at the Vicon Incinerator Facility in Pittsfield, Massachusetts: Volume 4, Appendices L-O: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Atomspheric emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) can be generated as a result of combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW). However, knowledge is limited about the incinerator design and operating conditions that cause these compounds to form and that can be adjusted to minimize or eliminate their discharge. This study focused on identifying the relationships between incinerator operating conditions, waste characteristics, combustion variables, and levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and selected other semivolatile organic compounds measured in the combustion gases. The study was designed primarily to evaluate the effect of the following parameters on levels of PCDDs/PCDFs in the combustion gases: Incinerator operating conditions; PVC content of the waste; Moisture content of the waste; and Combustion gas variables. Further, the study investigated the relationship between levels of PCDDs/PCDFs and other semivolatile organic compounds measured in the combustion gases.

  11. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food samples on the Greek market.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Athanasios; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Papanicolaou, Christina; Leondiadis, Leondios

    2004-11-01

    Food intake is the main source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds for humans. The results of a surveillance programme on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) in 77 food samples from the Greek market and producers are presented. The study included the analyses of milk and dairy products, meat and meat products, fish, vegetable oil, eggs, fruit, vegetable and rice collected between August and December 2002. After extraction, extracts were cleaned up on a series of carbon column chromatography, silica gel, alumina chromatography, and then analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry. All samples had a dioxin content far below the EC Regulation (2375/2001/EC) limits. PMID:15331268

  12. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: high levels of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of southern Kazakstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Petreas, M X; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Druz, N; Seminova, G; Sharmanov, T; Hayward, D; She, J; Visita, P; Winkler, J; McKinney, M; Wade, T J; Grassman, J; Stephens, R D

    1998-01-01

    To assess levels of chlorinated contaminants in breast milk, we measured organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk samples collected in 1994 according to the World Health Organization protocol from 92 donors that were representative of regional populations in southern Kazakstan. High levels (10-120 pg/g fat) of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic of the PCDD/PCDF congeners, were found in breast milk samples from an agricultural region. TCDD was the major contributor (75%) to the international toxicity equivalents of these samples. The same distinctive PCDD/PCDF congener pattern was found in 15 breast milk samples and 4 serum samples collected in 1996 in a follow-up study, and has now been confirmed by three analytical laboratories. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9831540

  13. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M.; Estes, J.A.; Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  14. Comparative toxicity of PCBs and related compounds in various species of animals

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.

    1985-05-01

    There are several basic principles that apply to the clinicopathologic syndrome produced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They are as follows: the degree of halogenation and position of the halogen atoms determine the potency of PCB, PBB, CDD, CDF and CN; in a given species of animals, the clinicopathologic syndrome induced by PCB is comparable to that induced by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF), and chlorinated naphthalenes (CN) when an equitoxic dose is achieved; the clinicopathologic syndrome is different in each species of animals; different species of animals vary in their susceptibility to intoxication; intoxication is more readily effected in young animals than in adults; at lethal doses the time between exposure and death is prolonged (> 2 weeks).

  15. [Concentrations, distribution characteristics and electron beam radiolysis degradation of PCDD/Fs in waste water from a paper mill].

    PubMed

    Qing, Xian; Huang, Jin-Qiong; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Su-Kun; Yang, Yan-Yan; Ren, Ming-Zhong; Wen, Yu-Long

    2014-07-01

    Concentrations and distribution characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in waste water from a paper mill. And concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in waste water before and after electron beam irradiation with different doses were compared. The feasibility, mechanism and rates of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs degradation were discussed. The PCDD/Fs concentrations and corresponding I-TEQ (toxic equivalent quantity) values were 239 pg x L(-1) and 41.0 pg x L(-1), respectively, in the waste water. The concentrations of total 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs decreased after electron beam radiolysis at a dose of 30 kGy and 60 kGy with degradation rates of 5.27% and 23.6%, respectively.

  16. Comprehensive assessment of the specific compounds present in combustion processes. Volume 4. National estimates of emission of specific compounds from coal fired utility boiler plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.M.; Kircher, G.W.

    1985-08-01

    Specimens were acquired from influents and effluents from seven coal-fired utility boilers. The specimens were chemically analyzed for toxic compounds in the polycyclic organic matter group. The specific target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo(p)-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected phthalates. Twelve PAH compounds and six phthalate compounds were included among the targetted compounds. Naphthalene was the most prevalent PAH compound detected. It was found in the flue gas emissions from all seven facilities. Other PAHs were also detected in the coal at all seven facilities but were only rarely detected in the other media. No PCDDs or PCDFs were detected in any of the acquired specimens. PCBs were only detected in one other media, the influent combustion air.

  17. Characterization and quantification of unintentional POP emissions from primary and secondary copper metallurgical processes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Zheng, Minghui

    2012-09-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to update and develop unintentional persistent organic pollutant (unintentional POP) emission inventories for the copper metallurgy industry in China. In this study, emissions of six unintentional POPs comprised of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) in stack gas and fly ash samples from primary and secondary copper smelters using different raw materials and technologies were measured and compared. Different concentrations, congener patterns and emission factors of unintentional POPs among four copper smelters were observed. Variations in unintentional POP emissions from several areas of a primary copper smelter were also investigated. The total emissions of unintentional POPs from primary and secondary copper production in 2010 in China were estimated respectively. These results provide a useful reference for the establishment of unintentional POP emission inventories and for policymakers to formulate control strategies to reduce unintentional POPs resulting from copper metallurgy.

  18. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  19. Persistent organic pollutants in human breast milk from Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk. PMID:16949712

  20. Implementation of a 3D Coupled Hydrodynamic and Contaminant Fate Model for PCDD/Fs in Thau Lagoon (France): The Importance of Atmospheric Sources of Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Dueri, Sibylle; Marinov, Dimitar; Fiandrino, Annie; Tronczyński, Jacek; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    A 3D hydrodynamic and contaminant fate model was implemented for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Thau lagoon. The hydrodynamic model was tested against temperature and salinity measurements, while the contaminant fate model was assessed against available data collected at different stations inside the lagoon. The model results allow an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of the distribution of contaminants in the lagoon, the seasonality of loads and the role of atmospheric deposition for the input of PCDD/Fs. The outcome suggests that air is an important source of PCDD/Fs for this ecosystem, therefore the monitoring of air pollution is very appropriate for assessing the inputs of these contaminants. These results call for the development of integrated environmental protection policies. PMID:20617040