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Sample records for dibutyl hydrogen phosphate

  1. Dibutyl phthalate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibutyl phthalate ; CASRN 84 - 74 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate /n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Campbell, Emily L.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterman, Dean; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2013-11-05

    In liquid-liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to the high dose external gamma irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis for Online Monitoring of Dibutyl Phosphate Degradation Product in Tributyl Phosphate/n-Dodecane/Nitric Acid Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Tatiana G. Levitskaia; James M. Peterson; Emily L. Campbell; Amanda J. Casella; Dean R. Peterman; Samuel A. Bryan

    2013-12-01

    In liquid–liquid extraction separation processes, accumulation of organic solvent degradation products is detrimental to the process robustness, and frequent solvent analysis is warranted. Our research explores the feasibility of online monitoring of the organic solvents relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. This paper describes the first phase of developing a system for monitoring the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/n-dodecane solvent commonly used to separate used nuclear fuel. In this investigation, the effect of extraction of nitric acid from aqueous solutions of variable concentrations on the quantification of TBP and its major degradation product dibutylphosphoric acid (HDBP) was assessed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to discriminate between HDBP and TBP in the nitric acid-containing TBP/n-dodecane solvent. Multivariate analysis of the spectral data facilitated the development of regression models for HDBP and TBP quantification in real time, enabling online implementation of the monitoring system. The predictive regression models were validated using TBP/n-dodecane solvent samples subjected to high-dose external ?-irradiation. The predictive models were translated to flow conditions using a hollow fiber FTIR probe installed in a centrifugal contactor extraction apparatus, demonstrating the applicability of the FTIR technique coupled with multivariate analysis for the online monitoring of the organic solvent degradation products.

  4. Crystal structure of 4-sulfamoylanilinium di­hydrogen phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Muthuselvi, C.; Mala, N.; Srinivasan, N.; Pandiarajan, S.; Krishnakumar, R. V.

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title mol­ecular salt, C6H9N2O2S+·H2PO4 −, the sulfomylalinium cations and the di­hydrogen phosphate anions form independent [100] chains through Ns—H⋯O (s = sulfamo­yl) and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively. The chains are cross-linked by Na—H⋯O (a = amine) hydrogen bonds, generating (010) sheets. Two C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving diametrically opposite C atoms in the benzene ring of the cation as donors form chains parallel to [202] in which P=O and P—OH groups are acceptors. Together, these inter­actions lead to a three-dimensional network. PMID:25309301

  5. Barium hydrogen phosphate/gelatin composites versus gelatin-free barium hydrogen phosphate: synthesis and characterization of properties.

    PubMed

    Gashti, Mazeyar Parvinzadeh; Burgener, Matthias; Stir, Manuela; Hulliger, Jürg

    2014-10-01

    Recently, attention has been spent on crystal growth of phosphate compounds in gels for studying the mechanism of in vitro crystallization processes. Here, we present a gel-based approach for the synthesis of barium hydrogen phosphate (BHP) crystals using single and double diffusion techniques in gelatin. The composite crystals were compared with analytical grade BHP powder, single and polycrystalline BHP materials using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning pyroelectric microscopy (SPEM), optical microscopy (OM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR spectra showed surface adsorption of gelatin molecules by using BHP stacked sheets due to CH2 stretching, CH2 bending and amide I vibrations are found in a gelatin content of about 2% determined by dissolution. SEM shows various crystal morphologies of the BHP/gelatin composites forming bundled micro-flakes to irregular bundled needles and spheres different from gel-free crystals. The variety in morphology depends on the ion concentration, pH of gel as well as the method of crystal growth. SPEM investigation of BHP/gelatin aggregates revealed polar domains showing alteration of the polarization. Moreover, BHP/gelatin composite crystals showed a higher thermal stability in comparison with analytical grade BHP or/and BHP single crystals due to strong interactions between gelatin and BHP. The XRD diffraction analysis demonstrated that the single and double diffusion techniques in gelatin led to the formation of orthorhombic BHP. This study demonstrates that gelatin is a useful high molecular weight biomacromolecule for controlling the crystallization of a composite material by producing a variety of morphological forms. PMID:24996024

  6. Hydrogen bonding mediated by key orbital interactions determines hydration enthalpy differences of phosphate water clusters.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Eliza A; Chapman, Michael S; Evanseck, Jeffrey D

    2007-10-25

    Electronic structure calculations have been carried out to provide a molecular interpretation for dihydrogen phosphate stability in water relative to that of metaphosphate. Specifically, hydration enthalpies of biologically important metaphosphate and dihydrogen phosphate with one to three waters have been computed with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation and density functional theory (B3LYP) with up to the aug-cc-pvtz basis set and compared to experiment. The inclusion of basis set superposition error corrections and supplemental diffuse functions are necessary to predict hydration enthalpies within experimental uncertainty. Natural bond orbital analysis is used to rationalize underlying hydrogen bond configurations and key orbital interactions responsible for the experimentally reported difference in hydration enthalpies between metaphosphate and dihydrogen phosphate. In general, dihydrogen phosphate forms stronger hydrogen bonds compared to metaphosphate due to a greater charge transfer or enhanced orbital overlap between the phosphoryl oxygen lone pairs, n(O), and the antibonding O-H bond of water. Intramolecular distal lone pair repulsion with the donor n(O) orbital of dihydrogen phosphate distorts symmetric conformations, which improves n(O) and sigma*(O-H) overlap and ultimately the hydrogen bond strength. Unlike metaphosphate, water complexed to dihydrogen phosphate can serve as both a hydrogen bond donor and a hydrogen bond acceptor, which results in cooperative charge transfer and a reduction of the energy gap between n(O) and sigma*(O-H), leading to stronger hydrogen bonds. This study offers insight into how orbital interactions mediate hydrogen bond strengths with potential implications on the understanding of the kinetics and mechanism in enzymatic phosphoryl transfer reactions.

  7. Interaction of sorbed Ni(II) ions with amorphous zirconium hydrogen phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyazko, Yu. S.; Trachevskii, V. V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, L. M.; Vasilyuk, S. L.; Belyakov, V. N.

    2013-05-01

    Samples of amorphous zirconium hydrogen phosphate with different zirconium and phosphorus concentrations in hydrogen and nickel-substituted forms are studied by means of electronic, 31P NMR, and impedance spectroscopy. It is shown that Ni(II) → H+ ion exchange is accompanied by the hydrolysis of sorbed cations and the formation of complexes with the dihydro- and hydrophosphate groups of the inorganic ionite. It is found that the coordination environment of Ni(II) in the sorbent phase includes 2-4 fragments of phosphate groups, along with OH groups and water molecules.

  8. Gadolinium-hydrogen ion exchange of zirconium phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, D. C.; Power, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The Gd(+3)/H(+) ion exchange on a commercial zirconium phosphate ion exchanger was investigated in chloride, sulfate, and phosphate solutions of Gd(+3) at gadolinium concentrations of 0.001 to 1 millimole per cc and in the pH range of 0 to 3.5. Relatively low Gd(+3) capacities, in the range of 0.01 to 0.1 millimole per g of ion exchanger were found at room temperature. A significant difference in Gd(+3) sorption was observed, depending on whether the ion exchanger was converted from initial conditions of greater or lesser Gd(+3) sorption than the specific final conditions. Correlations were found between decrease in Gd(+3) capacity and loss of exchanger phosphate groups due to hydrolysis during washing and between increase in capacity and treatment with H3PO4. Fitting of the experimental data to ideal ion exchange equilibrium expressions indicated that each Gd(+3) ion is sorbed on only one site of the ion exchanger. The selectivity quotient was determined to be 2.5 + or - 0.4 at room temperature on gadolinium desorption in chloride solutions.

  9. Crystal structure of bis­(2-amino­anilinium) hydrogen phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Ittyachan, Reena; Ahigna, Melesuparambil Sundaram; Jagan, Rajamony

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C6H9N2 +·HPO4 2−, comprises two 2-amino­anilinium cations and one hydrogen phosphate dianion. In the crystal, the HPO4 2− dianions are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds into chains along [100]. The inorganic anionic chains and organic cations are linked by N—H⋯O and N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supra­molecular network extending parallel to (001). PMID:27375882

  10. Di­hydrogen phosphate mediated supra­molecular frameworks in 2- and 4-chloro­anilinium dihydrogen phosphate salts

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, P.; Jagan, R.; Sivakumar, K.

    2010-01-01

    The title compounds, 2-chloro­anilinium dihydrogen phosphate (2CADHP) and 4-chloro­anilinium di­hydrogen phosphate (4CADHP), both C6H7NCl+·H2PO4 −, form two-dimensional supra­molecular organic–inorganic hybrid frameworks. In 2CADHP, the dihydrogen phosphate anions form a double-stranded anionic chain generated parallel to the [010] direction through O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, whereas in 4CADHP they form a two-dimensional supra­molecular net extending parallel to the crystallographic (001) plane into which the cations are linked through strong N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:20203405

  11. Simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewater by zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Tokumura, Masahiro; Kawase, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The zero-valent iron (ZVI) wastewater treatment has been applied to simultaneous removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate in semiconductor acidic wastewaters. The simultaneous removal occurs by the reactions performed due to the sequential transformation of ZVI under the acidic condition. Fortunately the solution pH of semiconductor acidic wastewaters is low which is effective for the sequential transformation of ZVI. Firstly the reduction of nitrate is taken place by electrons generated by the corrosion of ZVI under acidic conditions. Secondly the ferrous ion generated by the corrosion of ZVI reacts with hydrogen peroxide and generates ·OH radical (Fenton reaction). The Fenton reaction consists of the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the generation of ferric ion. Finally phosphate precipitates out with iron ions. In the simultaneous removal process, 1.6 mM nitrate, 9.0 mM hydrogen peroxide and 1.0 mM phosphate were completely removed by ZVI within 100, 15 and 15 min, respectively. The synergy among the reactions for the removal of nitrate, hydrogen peroxide and phosphate was found. In the individual pollutant removal experiment, the removal of phosphate by ZVI was limited to 80% after 300 min. Its removal rate was considerably improved in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and the complete removal of phosphate was achieved after 15 min.

  12. Experimental synovitis induced by aluminium phosphate in rabbits. Comparison of the changes produced in synovial tissue and in articular cartilage by aluminium phosphate, carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and natural diamond powder.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J L; Netter, P; Boz, P; Faure, G; Royer, R J; Gaucher, A

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to examine the effect on articular tissue of tribasic aluminium phosphate (crystalline and amorphous forms) after intraarticular injection in rabbit and to compare it with that of various phlogistic compounds such as carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate and diamond powder, as a control. Synovium and cartilage were studied with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive micro-analysis (EDM). Crystalline and amorphous aluminium phosphate could induce a synovitis with articular effusion in rabbits. With TEM, lysosomal inclusions of phagocytosed material were observed. Through SEM coupled with EDM, aluminium associated with phosphate was found in cellular elements. PMID:6087947

  13. Experimental synovitis induced by aluminium phosphate in rabbits. Comparison of the changes produced in synovial tissue and in articular cartilage by aluminium phosphate, carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate, and natural diamond powder.

    PubMed

    Delongeas, J L; Netter, P; Boz, P; Faure, G; Royer, R J; Gaucher, A

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this experimental study was to examine the effect on articular tissue of tribasic aluminium phosphate (crystalline and amorphous forms) after intraarticular injection in rabbit and to compare it with that of various phlogistic compounds such as carrageenin, calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate and diamond powder, as a control. Synovium and cartilage were studied with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive micro-analysis (EDM). Crystalline and amorphous aluminium phosphate could induce a synovitis with articular effusion in rabbits. With TEM, lysosomal inclusions of phagocytosed material were observed. Through SEM coupled with EDM, aluminium associated with phosphate was found in cellular elements.

  14. Dihydrogen phosphate as a hydrogen-bonding donor element: anion receptors based on acylhydrazone.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T Senthil; Cho, Seung Joo; Kang, Jongmin

    2013-12-01

    Chromogenic anion receptors based on acylhydrazone are designed and synthesized. UV-vis and (1)H NMR titration showed that receptors 1 and 2 are selective receptors for dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4(-)). Both showed strong association constants with H2PO4(-) even in polar solvents. Receptor 1 was found to recognize H2PO4(-) through three types of hydrogen-bonding (H-bonding) donors: indole N-H, amide N-H, and imine C-H hydrogens. However, receptor 2 seemed to sense H2PO4(-) through two types of H-bonding donors. Despite this seemingly different number of H-bonding elements, the binding constants of receptors 1 and 2 with H2PO4(-) were almost equal. To understand this puzzling result, we investigated the binding poses of complexes using density functional theory. The proposed 2·H2PO4(-) complex structure revealed another possible H-bonding element involving an aromatic nitrogen acting as a H-bonding acceptor. To confirm this, we synthesized receptor 3, which is devoid of this nitrogen. The binding constant of receptor 3 for H2PO4(-) was 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of receptors 1 and 2. This decreased binding affinity strongly supports the existence of a N(aromatic)···H-O(phosphate) interaction. These results provide a rare opportunity to identify H2PO4(-) acting as a H-bonding donor during an anion-recognition event.

  15. [Determination of the degree of saturation of calcium hydrogen phosphate in the urine].

    PubMed

    Reusz, G; Szabó, A; Tulassay, T

    1989-03-12

    Calcium-hydrogen-phosphate (CaHPO4) was considered as one of the main factors governing renal calculus formation. The degree of saturation (expressed as activity product) with respect to this phase was therefore calculated in urines of 36 hypercalciuric children (20 absorptive, 16 renal subtype) with isolated hematuria, 10 renal stone patients, and 30 healthy controls. On low calcium diet 12 children of the absorptive hypercalciuric-, 13 of the renal hypercalciuric and 7 of the renal stone forming children hat their urines in the saturated zone --irrespective of the evolution of hypercalciuria Ca/cr ratio. Thiazide normalised the activity product in all groups. The use of the Ca/cr ratio as the sole parameter in the investigation of children with isolated hematuria and hypercalciuria or calcium nephrolithiasis is therefore insufficient, simultaneous determinations of the state of saturation of urines is recommended. This technique should also allow a quantitative assessment of the various therapeutic regimens recommended.

  16. Advanced oxidation process using hydrogen peroxide/microwave system for solubilization of phosphate.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ping Huang; Wong, Wayne T; Lo, Kwang Victor

    2005-01-01

    An advanced oxidation process (AOP) combining hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating was used for the solubilization of phosphate from secondary municipal sludge from an enhanced biological phosphorus removal process. The microwave irradiation is used as a generator agent of oxidizing radicals as well as a heating source in the process. This AOP process could facilitate the release of a large amount of the sludge-bound phosphorus from the sewage sludge. More than 84% of the total phosphorous could be released at a microwave heating time of 5 min at 170 degrees C. This innovative process has the potential of being applied to simple sludge treatment processes in domestic wastewater treatment and to the recovery of phosphorus from the wastewater.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of autunite, uranyl hydrogen phosphate, and uranyl orthophosphate from solubility and calorimetric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Shareva, Tatiana; kubatko, Karrie-Ann; burns, Peter; Wellman, Dawn M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; szymanowski, jennifer; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we use solubility and oxide melt solution calorimetry measurements to determine the thermodynamic properties of the uranyl phosphate phases autunite (abbreviated: CaUP), uranyl hydrogen phosphate (HUP), and uranyl orthophosphate (UP). Solubility measurements from both supersaturated and undersaturated conditions, as well as under different pH conditions, rigorously demonstrate attainment of equilibrium and yield well-constrained solubility product values of -48.36 (-0.03 /+ 0.03), -13.17 (-0.11 / +0.07), and -49.36 (-0.04 / +0.02) for CaUP, HUP, and UP, respectively. We use the solubility data to calculate standard state Gibbs free energies of formation for all phases (-7630.61 ± 9.69, -3072.27 ± 4.76, and -6138.95 ± 12.24 kJ mol-1 for CaUP, HUP, and UP, respectively), and calorimetry data to calculate standard state enthalpies of formation of -3223.22 ± 4.00 and -7001.01 ± 15.10 kJ mol-1 for HUP and UP, respectively. Combining these results allows us also to calculate the standard state entropies of formation of -506.54 ± 10.48 and -2893.12 ± 19.44 kJ mol-1 K-1 for HUP and UP phases, respectively. The results from this study are part of a combined effort to develop reliable and internally consistent thermodynamic data for environmentally relevant uranyl minerals. Data such as these are required in order to optimize and quantitatively assess the effect of phosphate amendment remediation technologies for uranium contaminated systems.

  18. Tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Noriko, Fujii

    2009-06-01

    Tryptophanase, an enzyme with extreme absolute stereospecificity for optically active stereoisomers, catalyzes the synthesis of l-tryptophan from l-serine and indole through a beta-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type, and has no activity on d-serine. We previously reported that tryptophanase changed its stereospecificity to degrade d-tryptophan in highly concentrated diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) solution. The present study provided the same stereospecific change seen in the d-tryptophan degradation reaction also occurs in tryptophan synthesis from d-serine. Tryptophanase became active to d-serine to synthesize l-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate. This reaction has never been reported before. d-serine seems to undergo beta-replacement via an enzyme-bonded alpha-aminoacylate intermediate to yield l-tryptophan.

  19. Use of triphenyl phosphate as risk mitigant for metal amide hydrogen storage materials

    DOEpatents

    Cortes-Concepcion, Jose A.; Anton, Donald L.

    2016-04-26

    A process in a resulting product of the process in which a hydrogen storage metal amide is modified by a ball milling process using an additive of TPP. The resulting product provides for a hydrogen storage metal amide having a coating that renders the hydrogen storage metal amide resistant to air, ambient moisture, and liquid water while improving useful hydrogen storage and release kinetics.

  20. Broadband supercontinuum generation in a single potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal achieved in tandem with sum frequency generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Santosh Kumar, R.; Sree Harsha, S.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2007-03-01

    We present here an enhanced broadband supercontinuum generation in a potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal. The enhancement in the bandwidth of the white light is obtained towards the shorter wavelength regime (<400 nm) by employing supercontinuum generation and sum frequency generation in tandem. The tunability in the blue region of the spectrum with angle is demonstrated. The bandwidth of supercontinuum achieved spans from 350 nm to 1300 nm. Further, we show the excellent polarization maintenance of continuum generated in KDP in comparison to that generated in water and BK-7 glass.

  1. Synthesis of hierarchical iron hydrogen phosphate crystal as a robust peroxidase mimic for stable H₂O₂ detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongbao; Lu, Yangcheng; Luo, Guangsheng

    2014-08-27

    To develop a green, cost-efficient and robust peroxidase mimic, micro/nano hierarchical morphology (for ease of separation and reuse), relative chemically stable composition (for ease of storage) and stable crystal structure (for long-term stability) are highly desired. Herein, using phosphoric acid as a chelating ligand to control the release of iron ions, hierarchical iron(III) hydrogen phosphate hydrate crystals are successfully prepared by nanosheets formation and following self-assembling in a facile low-temperature hydrothermal process. They are first found to have peroxidase-like activity and showed higher affinity for H2O2 and lower affinity for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine compared with horseradish peroxidase. The affinity feature is used for quantitative detection of H2O2 and shows a wide linear detection range from 57.4 to 525.8 μM (R(2) = 0.994) with a low detection limit of 1 μM. Benefited from chemical stability of hierarchical iron(III) salt crystals, they own good reproducibility (relative standard deviation = 1.95% for 10 independent measurements), long-term stability (no activity loss after 10 cycles), and ease of recovery (by simple centrifugation). Because the method is easily accessible, iron hydrogen phosphate hierarchical crystals have great potential for practical use of H2O2 sensing and detection under harsh conditions.

  2. 40 CFR 721.10115 - 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, bromide (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10115 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2... chemical substance identified as 1-hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, bromide (1:1) (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10115 - 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, bromide (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10115 1-Hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2... chemical substance identified as 1-hexadecanaminium, N,N-dibutyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-, bromide (1:1) (PMN...

  4. Adsorption, interaction, and manipulation of dibutyl sulfide on cu{111}.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Stephen C; Baber, Ashleigh E; Tierney, Heather L; Sykes, E Charles H

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of a simple thioether, dibutyl sulfide, on a Cu{111} surface. The literature is full of data about thiol-based monolayers; however, relatively little is known about thioether self-assembly. Thioethers are more resilient to oxidation than thiols and offer the potential for control over nanoscale assembly in two dimensions parallel to the surface. Therefore, robust assembly schemes derived from thioethers may offer a new class of self-assembled systems with novel and useful properties. At a medium surface coverage and a temperature of 78 K, dibutyl sulfide grows in small, highly ordered islands in which the ordering is driven by both the molecule-surface dative bonds and intermolecular van der Waals bonding. Annealing to around 120 K allows diffusion and reordering of the molecules and the formation of large, very well ordered domains with little or no defects. We show high-resolution images of the molecular arrays and propose a model for their packing structure. These data suggest the potential use of thioethers for a variety of self-assembly applications that require control over molecular spacing parallel to the surface. We also show how the STM tip can be used to manipulate individual molecules within the ordered structures and that the arrays can act as a nanoscale abacus. The range of motion of the manipulated molecules inside a regular array reflects the potential imposed upon them by their neighbors.

  5. Bioaccumulation of nickel by intercalation into polycrystalline hydrogen uranyl phosphate deposited via an enzymatic mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bonthrone, K.M.; Basnakova, G.; Lin, F.; Macaskie, L.E.

    1996-05-01

    A Citrobacter sp. accumulates uranyl ion (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) as crystalline HUO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (HUP), using enzymatically generated inorganic phosphate. Ni was not removed by this mechanism, but cells already loaded with HUP removed Ni{sup 2+} by intercalative ion-exchange, forming Ni(UO{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}7H{sub 2}O, as concluded by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analyses. The loaded biomass became saturated with Ni rapidly, with a molar ratio of Ni:U in the cellbound deposit of approx. 1:6; Ni penetration was probably surface-localized. Cochallenge of the cells with Ni{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, and glycerol 2-phosphate (phosphate donor for phosphate release and metal bioprecipitation) gave sustained removal of both metals in a flow through bioreactor, with more extensively accumulated Ni. We propose `Microbially Enhanced Chemisorption of Heavy Metals` (MECHM) to describe this hybrid mechanism of metal bioaccumulation via intercalation into preformed, biogenic crystals, and note also that MECHM can promote the removal of the transuranic radionuclide neptunium, which is difficult to achieve by conventional methods. 42 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Bioaccumulation of nickel by intercalation into polycrystalline hydrogen uranyl phosphate deposited via an enzymatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bonthrone, K M; Basnakova, G; Lin, F; Macaskie, L E

    1996-05-01

    A Citrobacter sp. accumulates uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) as crystalline HUO2PO4.4H2O (HUP), using enzymatically generated inorganic phosphate. Ni was not removed by this mechanism, but cells already loaded with HUP removed Ni2+ by intercalative ion-exchange, forming Ni(UO2PO4)2.7H2O, as concluded by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analyses. The loaded biomass became saturated with Ni rapidly, with a molar ratio of Ni:U in the cellbound deposit of approx. 1:6; Ni penetration was probably surface-localized. Cochallenge of the cells with Ni2+ and UO2(2+), and glycerol 2-phosphate (phosphate donor for phosphate release and metal bioprecipitation) gave sustained removal of both metals in a flow through bioreactor, with more extensively accumulated Ni. We propose 'Microbially Enhanced Chemisorption of Heavy Metals' (MECHM) to describe this hybrid mechanism of metal bioaccumulation via intercalation into preformed, biogenic crystals, and note also that MECHM can promote the removal of the transuranic radionuclide neptunium, which is difficult to achieve by conventional methods.

  7. Intercalation of aliphatic amines into the layered structure of vanadyl(IV) hydrogen phosphate hemihydrate (VOHPO[sub 4][center dot]0. 5H[sub 2]O)

    SciTech Connect

    Guliants, V.V.; Benziger, J.B.; Sundaresan, S. )

    1994-04-01

    The vanadyl(IV) hydrogen phosphate hemihydrate, VOHPO[sub 4][center dot]0.5H[sub 2]O, is a pyrolytic precursor of the vanadyl(IV) pyrophosphate phase, (VO)[sub 2]P[sub 2]O[sub 7], generally believed to be the active phase in the selective oxidation of n-butane into maleic anhydride. Pyrolytic transformation into the pyrophosphate phase occurs with conservation of a morphology of the material. VOHPO[sub 4][center dot]0.5H[sub 2]O is a layered hydrogen phosphate, where -POH groups form interlayer hydrogen bonds with the water molecules shared by two face-linked vanadyl octahedra. The structure of the hemihydrate is similar to that of [alpha]-zirconium hydrogen phosphate ([alpha]-ZrP), where hydrogen bonds are within the same layer and -POH groups are also pointed into the interlayer space. In contrast to [alpha]-ZrP, where extensive data exist, intercalation chemistry of the layered vanadyl(IV) hydrogen phosphate hemihydrate at present is a terra incognita. This paper reports the results of the first systematic study of VOHPO[sub 4][center dot]0.5H[sub 2]O intercalation with aliphatic amines as a new route to novel vanadyl(IV) phosphate phases. N-Alkylamines have been commonly known as excellent intercalation agents for testing the intracrystalline reactivity of layered oxides. Intercalated alkylamines may also facilitate introduction of thermostable guest molecules, or [open quotes]pillars[close quotes], by ion exchange producing microporous materials which can modify catalytic and sorptive properties. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Subungual penetration of dibutyl phthalate in human fingernails.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E M

    2008-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has a wide variety of manufacturing applications and is used in both commercial and consumer products. Results of animal reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity animal studies have not been consistent in identifying DBP as a reproductive toxicant. Expert reviews for its use in consumer products have consistently concluded that it is not a reproductive risk to consumers. Results from a subungual penetration study of 100% fluid DBP applied to human fingernails showed levels of penetration at the limits of chemical detection. Even if DBP penetrated the human fingernail, its rapid metabolism by the human body would prevent its having any toxic reproductive effects. Furthermore, DBP functions as a plasticizer in consumer products such as cosmetic nail products (nail polish, basecoats, topcoats, nail hardeners), resulting in its becoming unavailable for subungual penetration seconds after application of the cosmetic nail product since it is then trapped in the rapidly forming coating. PMID:17912019

  9. Subungual penetration of dibutyl phthalate in human fingernails.

    PubMed

    Jackson, E M

    2008-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has a wide variety of manufacturing applications and is used in both commercial and consumer products. Results of animal reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity animal studies have not been consistent in identifying DBP as a reproductive toxicant. Expert reviews for its use in consumer products have consistently concluded that it is not a reproductive risk to consumers. Results from a subungual penetration study of 100% fluid DBP applied to human fingernails showed levels of penetration at the limits of chemical detection. Even if DBP penetrated the human fingernail, its rapid metabolism by the human body would prevent its having any toxic reproductive effects. Furthermore, DBP functions as a plasticizer in consumer products such as cosmetic nail products (nail polish, basecoats, topcoats, nail hardeners), resulting in its becoming unavailable for subungual penetration seconds after application of the cosmetic nail product since it is then trapped in the rapidly forming coating.

  10. Self-assembled dahlia-like cadmium hydrogen phosphate hydrate nanostructures as templates for cadmium hydroxyapatite hexagonal prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arami, Hamed; Mazloumi, Mahyar; Khalifehzadeh, Razieh; Lak, Aidin; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2007-11-01

    Cadmium hydroxyapatite (Cd-Hap, Cd 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2) and cadmium hydrogen phosphate hydrate (Cd 5H 2(PO 4) 4·4H 2O) nanostructures with average crystallite sizes of about 38 and 44 nm, respectively, were prepared through a simple chemical process. The formation mechanism and characteristics of the Cd 5H 2(PO 4) 4·4H 2O precipitates prior to the hydrothermal process and Cd-Hap during the hydrothermal treatment were investigated with XRD, SEM, TEM and BET analyses. It was found that self-assembled dahlia-like Cd 5H 2(PO 4) 4·4H 2O nanostructure precipitates were formed due to interlace of preliminary nanosheets prior to the hydrothermal process, while nanostructure Cd-Hap hexagonal prisms were prepared after 15 h of hydrothermal treatment.

  11. Supramolecular open-framework based on 1-D iron phosphate-diphosphate chains assembled through hydrogen bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Salvado, Miguel A.; Pertierra, Pilar; Trobajo, Camino; Garcia, Jose R.

    2008-05-15

    Fe(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}).C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N, a new iron(III) phosphate with an open-framework has been synthesized hydrothermally using pyridine as organic template. The crystal structure was solved ab initio using conventional powder X-ray diffraction data. The unit cell is orthorhombic, a=9.5075(2), b=10.1079(1), c=13.3195(2) A, space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, Z=4. The structure consists of FeO{sub 6} octahedra joined by H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups forming linear chains interconnected by hydrogen bonding to give rise to a supramolecular framework enclosing tunnels in which the pyridine molecules reside. - Graphical abstract: The low temperature hydrothermal synthesis offers many possibilities in the preparation of new materials with mixed octahedral-tetrahedral open-frameworks. Fe(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4})(H{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}).C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N is constituted by linear chains of FeO{sub 6} octahedra joined through of both dihydrogenphosphate and dihydrogendiphosphate bridges, interconnected by hydrogen bonds, originating channels where the pyridine molecules are located.

  12. Reaction pathway and oxidation mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate by persulfate activated with zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanxuan; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2016-08-15

    This study investigated reaction pathway and oxidation mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) by persulfate (PS) activated with zero-valent iron (ZVI). The DBP degradation was studied at three pH values (acidic, neutral and basic) in the presence of different organic scavengers. Using a chemical probe method, both sulfate radical (SO4(-)) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) were found to be primary oxidants at pH3.0 and pH7.0, respectively while ·OH was the major specie to oxidize DBP at pH11.0. A similar result was found in an experiment of Electron Spin Resonance spin-trapping where in addition to OH, superoxide radical (O2(-)) was detected at pH11.0. The transformation of degradation products including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), phthalic anhydride, and acetophenone exhibited diverse variation during the reaction processes. The phthalic anhydride concentration appeared to be maximum at all pHs. Another eleven intermediate products were also found at pH3.0 by GC-MS and HPLC analysis, and their degradation mechanisms and pathways were proposed. It was suggested that dealkylation, hydroxylation, decarboxylation and hydrogen extraction were the dominant degradation mechanisms of DBP at pH3.0. PMID:27125682

  13. NOx reduction Activity over Phosphate-supported Platinum Catalysts with Hydrogen under Oxygen-rich Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, M.; Takehara, M.; Saito, M.; Machida, K.

    2011-10-01

    The phosphate supported Pt catalysts (Pt/AlPO4, Pt/CePO4, Pt/CeP2O7, Pt/SnP2O7, Pt/TiP2O7, Pt/Zn3(PO4)2) were prepared by a conventional impregnation method to evaluate their selective catalytic reduction activity of NOx under excess oxygen condition. Among them, good NOx reduction activity was obtained on the Pt/AlPO4 catalyst. Specific adsorption species during the NOx reduction were checked by a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrum (DRIFTs) measurement to examine the reaction mechanism. Also NH3 temperature programmed desorption measurements were performed for all catalysts and their catalytic properties were discussed from the viewpoints of solid acidity.

  14. Synthesis of calcium hydrogen phosphate and hydroxyapatite coating on SS316 substrate through pulsed electrodeposition.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rajib; Sengupta, Srijan; Saha, Partha; Das, Karabi; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    The orthopaedic implants for human body are generally made of different biomaterials like stainless steels or Ti based alloys. However, it has been found that from surface properties point of view, none of these materials is attractive for fast tissue or cell growth on the surface of implant. This is one of the most important criteria to assure quick bonding between implant and body tissues vis-à-vis minimum recovery time for the patient. Keeping in view of the above facts, this work involves the pulsed electro-deposition coating of biocompatible hydroxyapatite and its group compounds from a diluted bath of calcium and phosphate salt at various current densities over the biomaterial sheet of SS316. SEM study confirms different morphologies of the coatings at different current densities. Characterization techniques like X-ray diffraction, SEM with EDX and FTIR have been used to confirm the phase and percentage quantity of hydroxyapatite compound in the depositions. This coating can serve as a medium for faster tissue growth over the metallic implants. PMID:27612782

  15. Dibutyl phthalate biodegradation by the white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Jae-Won; Koo, Bon-Wook; Kim, Myung-Kil; Choi, Don-Ha; Choi, In-Gyu

    2007-08-15

    In this study, white rot fungus, Polyporus brumalis, was applied to degrade dibutyl phthalate (DBP), a major environmental pollutant. The degradation potential and resulting products were evaluated with HPLC and GC/MS. As DBP concentration increased to 250, 750, and 1,250 microM, the mycelial growth of P. brumalis was inhibited. However, growth was still observed in the 1,250 microM concentration. DBP was nearly eliminated from culture medium of P. brumalis within 12 days, with 50% of DBP adsorbed by the mycelium. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) were detected as intermediate degradation products of DBP. In culture medium, the concentration of DEP was higher than that of MBP during the incubation period. After 12-15 days, the concentrations of both decreased rapidly in the culture medium. The primary final degradation product of DBP in culture medium was phthalic acid anhydride, as well as trace amounts of aromatic compounds, such as alpha-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, benzyl alcohol, and O-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. According to these results, the degradation of DBP in culture medium by the white rot fungus, P. brumalis, may be completed through two pathways-transesterification and de-esterification-which successively combine into an intracellular degradation pathway.

  16. Rapid determination of hydrogen peroxide produced by Lactobacillus using enzyme coupled rhodamine isocyanide/calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Vadivoo, V S; Raj, G Dhinakar

    2014-11-15

    A sensitive method for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using rhodamine isocyanide incorporated calcium phosphate nanoparticles (Rho/CaP) was developed. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). To study the application, the nanoparticles were functionalized with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) based on aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and used as tools to detect H2O2. The detection strategy was based on fluorescence quenching or colorimetric detection. The enzyme immobilized nanoparticles were titrated with different concentrations of H2O2 and a fixed concentration of O-phenylenediamine (OPD). The HRP conjugated Rho/CaP strongly catalyzed H2O2 oxidation of OPD that caused fluorescence quenching at 575 nm. For colorimetric detection, the OPD product was read at 492 nm. In the fluorescence quenching assay, the minimum detectable concentration was ~1 pmol in contrast to ~5 nmol in the colorimetric assay. The minimum detectable concentration by visual detection was ~500 nmol. The specificity of the developed assay method was examined with different interferences which did not produce any significant response. This assay was applied, along with a commercially available kit to compare the H2O2 production capacities of different Lactobacillus strains. The results indicated that the developed assay and commercially available kit methods were highly correlated. The fluorescence quenching kinetics is also discussed.

  17. Electrochemistry and voltammetric determination of colchicine using an acetylene black-dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate composite film modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajie

    2006-05-01

    The electrochemical behavior of colchicine at an acetylene black-dihexadecyl hydrogen phosphate (denoted as AB-DHP) composite film coated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Compared with the poor electrochemical signal at the unmodified GCE, the electrochemical response of colchicine at the AB-DHP film modified GCE was greatly improved, as confirmed from the significant peak current enhancement. The remarkable peak current enhancement indicates that the AB-DHP modified GCE has great potential in the sensitive determination of colchicine. Thus, all the experimental conditions, which influence the electrochemical response of colchicine, were studied and the optimum conditions were achieved. Finally, a sensitive and simple voltammetric method with a good linear relationship in the range of 1.0 x 10(-7) approximately 4.0 x 10(-5) mol/L, was developed for the determination of colchicine. The detection limit of colchicine was also examined and a low value of 4.0 x 10(-8) mol/L for 4-min accumulation was obtained (S/N=3). This electrode was successfully applied to detect colchicine in human urine samples.

  18. Enhanced performance and stability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell by incorporating zirconium hydrogen phosphate in catalyst layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Olivia; Su, Huaneng; Linkov, Vladimir; Pollet, Bruno G.; Pasupathi, Sivakumar

    2015-03-01

    Zirconium hydrogen phosphate (ZHP) together with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polymer binder is incorporated into the catalyst layers (CLs) of ABPBI (poly(2,5-benzimidazole))-based high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFCs) to improve its performance and durability. The influence of ZHP content (normalised with respect to dry PTFE) on the CL properties are structurally characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Electrochemical analyses of the resultant membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) are performed by recording polarisation curves and impedance spectra at 160 °C, ambient pressure and humidity. The result show that a 30 wt.% ZHP/PTFE content in the CL is optimum for improving fuel cell performance, the resultant MEA delivers a peak power of 592 mW cm-2 at a cell voltage of 380 mV. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) indicate that 30% ZHP in the CL can increase the proton conductivity compared to the pristine PTFE-gas diffusion electrode (GDE). A short term stability test (∼500 h) on the 30 wt.% ZHP/PTFE-GDE shows a remarkable high durability with a degradation rate as low as ∼19 μV h-1 at 0.2 A cm-2, while 195 μV h-1 was obtained for the pristine GDE.

  19. Rapid determination of hydrogen peroxide produced by Lactobacillus using enzyme coupled rhodamine isocyanide/calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Vadivoo, V S; Raj, G Dhinakar

    2014-11-15

    A sensitive method for detecting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using rhodamine isocyanide incorporated calcium phosphate nanoparticles (Rho/CaP) was developed. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD). To study the application, the nanoparticles were functionalized with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) based on aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APTES) and used as tools to detect H2O2. The detection strategy was based on fluorescence quenching or colorimetric detection. The enzyme immobilized nanoparticles were titrated with different concentrations of H2O2 and a fixed concentration of O-phenylenediamine (OPD). The HRP conjugated Rho/CaP strongly catalyzed H2O2 oxidation of OPD that caused fluorescence quenching at 575 nm. For colorimetric detection, the OPD product was read at 492 nm. In the fluorescence quenching assay, the minimum detectable concentration was ~1 pmol in contrast to ~5 nmol in the colorimetric assay. The minimum detectable concentration by visual detection was ~500 nmol. The specificity of the developed assay method was examined with different interferences which did not produce any significant response. This assay was applied, along with a commercially available kit to compare the H2O2 production capacities of different Lactobacillus strains. The results indicated that the developed assay and commercially available kit methods were highly correlated. The fluorescence quenching kinetics is also discussed. PMID:24886832

  20. Phosphate enhancing fermentative hydrogen production from substrate with municipal solid waste composting leachate as a nutrient.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Wen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Yu, Lijia; Zhou, Jizhi; Xu, Yunfeng; Qian, Guangren

    2015-08-01

    To overcome phosphorus deficiency in municipal solid waste composting leachate, orthophosphate (OP) and pyrophosphate (PP) were separately added into leachate to evaluate the possibility of fermentative H2 production with leachate and phosphorus-rich streams as a full nutrient source. Results indicate H2 production is significantly promoted by OP addition but slightly facilitated by PP in some cases, depending on initial pH and P dosage. The highest hydrogen yield (1.95±0.07mol H2/mol glucose) was achieved at a COD/P ratio of 27.64 (mg/mg) with OP as phosphorus source at initial pH 5. For PP, a maximum yield of 1.58±0.09mol H2/mol glucose can be attained at the optimal COD/P ratio of 221.12 (mg/mg) and initial pH 5. OP promotes H2 production via dual approaches: supplying nutrient and relieving inhibition from excessive Ca(2+) on granule sludge. However, both the roles in nutrient supply and Ca(2+) removal by PP addition are limited.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of two polyoxometalates consisting of different Cu-ligand hydrogen phosphate units

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jinshuang; Zhao, Xiaofang; Huang, Jiao; Gong, Kaining; Han, Zhangang Zhai, Xueliang

    2014-03-15

    Two polyoxometalates [(Cu-mbpy){sub 4}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}][PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}]·H{sub 2}O (1) and [(Cu-mbpy){sub 6}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 4}][PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]·4H{sub 2}O (2) (mbpy=4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl in 1; 5,5″-dimethyl-2,2'-dipyridyl in 2) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, X-ray powder diffraction, TG analysis and electrochemical property. The structural features of 1–2 are in their cationic moieties consisting of different linkages of [Cu-mbpy]{sup 2+} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups. In 1 four Cu-mbpy bridged by two HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions form a discrete cluster with an interesting octahedron of (Cu{sub 4}P{sub 2}), while in 2 Cu-mbpy fragments are bridged by HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into 1D structure consisting of trigonal bipyramidal polyhedra of (Cu{sub 3}P{sub 2}). Photocatalytic experiments indicate that compounds 1 and 2 are actively photocatalytic for degradation of methyl orange in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under UV light irradiation. -- Graphical abstract: Two polyoxometalate-based supramolecular compounds consisting of different linkages based on Cu-ligand and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups have been synthesized and characterized. The photocatalytic activity are studied. Highlights: • Two polyoxometalate-based supramolecular compounds consisting of different linkages based on Cu-ligand and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2−} groups have been synthesized. • Hydrogen bonding and π…π interactions play important roles in constructing crystal supramolecular frameworks. • Two compounds represent a high photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methyl orange.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) (External Review Draft) 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of dibutyl phthalate that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Peer review is meant to ensure that science is used cr...

  3. Toxicity of 17 {beta}-estradiol and dibutyl-n-phthalate to Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Patvna, P.J.; Cooper, K.R. |

    1995-12-31

    Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are hypothesized to cause developmental toxicity in aquatic organisms via an estrogenic mechanism. Japanese medaka embryos and larvae provide an excellent model for the study of toxicant effects on embryonic development. The following groups were examined (N = 10--20): a non-treatment control, a vehicle control, 17 {beta}-estradiol and Dibutyl-n-phthalate, in individual glass vials. The medaka embryos were treated beginning at the blastula stage, for ten days. At day 10, embryos were changed into fresh rearing solution. The embryos were observed daily, until three days post-hatching, for toxic developmental effects. Exposure to 17 {beta}-estradiol caused urinary bladder lesions at the lowest doses tested. At concentrations {le} 3 {micro}M/0.82 ppm, 17 {beta}-estradiol caused inhibition of swim bladder inflation, pericardial edema, and marked cachexia. Dibutyl-n-phthalate caused pronounced enlargement of the urinary bladder. No other gross lesions were observed. Both 17 {beta}-estradiol and Dibutyl-n-phthalate caused effects on the urinary tract which will be characterized at the light microscopic level. The lesions observed in the embryo medaka following Dibutyl-n-phthalate exposure were at or below water solubility and are in agreement with previously reported toxic levels.

  4. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  5. Effects of Di-butyl Phthalate (DBP) on Developing Medaka Embryos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    Plasticizers are chemical additives that enhance plastic flexibility. They are ubiquitous environmental contaminants and are commonly found in river and lake waters (Fromme et al 2002). The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a water-soluble plasticizer, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on developing Medaka ("Oryzias latipes") embryos. Three…

  6. Pressure and temperature dependent viscosity of two glass forming liquids: Glycerol and dibutyl phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Richard L.; King, H. E., Jr.; Herbst, Chris A.; Herschbach, Dudley R.

    1994-04-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent viscosities of two glass forming liquids, glycerol and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), have been studied in the range P=0-3 GPa, T=0-125 °C, and η=101-1010 cP. These studies were made using a combination of a rolling-ball and a centrifugal-force diamond anvil cell viscometer. The majority of the results extend up to viscosities of 107 cP, with those at 22.5 °C going to 1010 cP. The overall precision of the data are approximately 10% or better throughout. This level of precision allows us to define a viscosity surface which can then be extrapolated to the glass transition along both temperature and pressure cuts. The T-dependence of viscosity is larger for glycerol than DBP but the P-dependence smaller for glycerol than for DBP, whereas the T-dependence is much more pressure sensitive for DBP. These data provide an assessment of the T-dependence of an isothermal model (free volume), the P-dependence of an isobaric model (Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher) and by extension that for isochoric conditions. Fragility parameters are evaluated for these three isometric conditions. For glycerol and (less conclusively) DBP under isobaric conditions, the fragility increases markedly at high pressure. Under isochoric conditions, the fragility for both glycerol and DBP increases with increasing density. This is dramatic for DBP, which goes from a strong to an intermediate-strength liquid. For the isothermal model, we derive a new measure of fragility. Using this, DBP shows a trend common to several liquids, a decrease in fragility with increasing temperature. Glycerol, however, becomes more fragile over the same temperature range. For glycerol, the trends towards increased fragility at elevated pressure and temperature are consistent with diminished hydrogen bonding under those conditions. The P-dependence of the glass transition is also determined over a wide range of T. The slope, dTg/dP, is positive with the pressure dependence for glycerol being

  7. IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE FUNGICIDE PROCYMIDONE AND DIBUTYL PHTHALATE PRODUCE DOSE ADDITIVE DISRUPTIONS OF MALE RAT SEXUAL DIFFERENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Procymidone (PRO) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) alter male rat sexual differentiation by disrupting the androgen-signaling pathway via distinctly different cellular mechanisms of toxicity. DBP inhibits fetal Leydig cell androgen production whereas PRO binds AR and blocks androgen a...

  8. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Namikoshi, Michio; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Teruaki; Ukai, Kazuyo

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50–80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  9. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    SciTech Connect

    Euling, Susan Y.; Thompson, Chad M.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Benson, Robert

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  10. NMR studies of protonation and hydrogen bond states of internal aldimines of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate acid-base in alanine racemase, aspartate aminotransferase, and poly-L-lysine.

    PubMed

    Chan-Huot, Monique; Dos, Alexandra; Zander, Reinhard; Sharif, Shasad; Tolstoy, Peter M; Compton, Shara; Fogle, Emily; Toney, Michael D; Shenderovich, Ilya; Denisov, Gleb S; Limbach, Hans-Heinrich

    2013-12-01

    Using (15)N solid-state NMR, we have studied protonation and H-bonded states of the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) linked as an internal aldimine in alanine racemase (AlaR), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), and poly-L-lysine. Protonation of the pyridine nitrogen of PLP and the coupled proton transfer from the phenolic oxygen (enolimine form) to the aldimine nitrogen (ketoenamine form) is often considered to be a prerequisite to the initial step (transimination) of the enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Indeed, using (15)N NMR and H-bond correlations in AspAT, we observe a strong aspartate-pyridine nitrogen H-bond with H located on nitrogen. After hydration, this hydrogen bond is maintained. By contrast, in the case of solid lyophilized AlaR, we find that the pyridine nitrogen is neither protonated nor hydrogen bonded to the proximal arginine side chain. However, hydration establishes a weak hydrogen bond to pyridine. To clarify how AlaR is activated, we performed (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR experiments on isotopically labeled PLP aldimines formed by lyophilization with poly-L-lysine. In the dry solid, only the enolimine tautomer is observed. However, a fast reversible proton transfer involving the ketoenamine tautomer is observed after treatment with either gaseous water or gaseous dry HCl. Hydrolysis requires the action of both water and HCl. The formation of an external aldimine with aspartic acid at pH 9 also produces the ketoenamine form stabilized by interaction with a second aspartic acid, probably via a H-bond to the phenolic oxygen. We postulate that O-protonation is an effectual mechanism for the activation of PLP, as is N-protonation, and that enzymes that are incapable of N-protonation employ this mechanism. PMID:24147985

  11. Synthesis and characterization of novel barium iron phosphates: Insight into new structure types tailored by hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Li-Zhi; Sun, Wei; Ren, Wei-Jian; Zhang, Jia-Ying; Huang, Ya-Xi; Sun, Zhi-Mei; Pan, Yuanming; Mi, Jin-Xiao

    2014-04-01

    A significant gap in our knowledge of phosphate crystal chemistry is the lack of understanding of what controls the depolymerization of [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra. A new route using phosphoric acid without any added water at 240 °C has been developed to synthesize two new compounds Ba{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}[H(PO{sub 3}OH){sub 2}][H(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}] and Ba{sub 2}Fe[H(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}], as well as a new polymorph β-BaFe{sub 2}(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2} from annealing the former at ≥500 °C. Structural characterizations show that Ba{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}[H(PO{sub 3}OH){sub 2}][H(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}] features a novel 2D {sup 2}{sub ∞}([Fe{sub 2}[H(PO{sub 3}OH){sub 2}][H(P{sub 2}O{sub 7}){sub 2}

  12. Effect of zirconium oxide nanofiller and dibutyl phthalate plasticizer on ionic conductivity and optical properties of solid polymer electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Yasin, Siti Mariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Suriani; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2014-01-01

    New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38 × 10(-4) Scm(-1)). The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased.

  13. Co-production of hydrogen and ethanol from glucose by modification of glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli - from Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Seol, Eunhee; Sekar, Balaji Sundara; Raj, Subramanian Mohan; Park, Sunghoon

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen (H2) production from glucose by dark fermentation suffers from the low yield. As a solution to this problem, co-production of H2 and ethanol, both of which are good biofuels, has been suggested. To this end, using Escherichia coli, activation of pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, which can generate more NADPH than the Embden-Meyhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, was attempted. Overexpression of two key enzymes in the branch nodes of the glycolytic pathway, Zwf and Gnd, significantly improved the co-production of H2 and ethanol with concomitant reduction of pyruvate secretion. Gene expression analysis and metabolic flux analysis (MFA) showed that, upon overexpression of Zwf and Gnd, glucose assimilation through the PP pathway, compared with that of the EMP or Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, was greatly enhanced. The maximum co-production yields were 1.32 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose and 1.38 mol ethanol mol(-1) glucose, respectively. It is noteworthy that the glycolysis and the amount of NAD(P)H formed under anaerobic conditions could be altered by modifying (the activity of) several key enzymes. Our strategy could be applied for the development of industrial strains for biological production of reduced chemicals and biofuels which suffers from lack of reduced co-factors.

  14. Data on the degree of saturation of urine with respect to calcium hydrogen phosphate in hypercalciuric children and renal stone formers.

    PubMed

    Szabó, A; Reusz, G S; Tulassay, T

    Calcium hydrogen phosphate (CaHPO4) was considered as one of the main factors governing renal calculus formation. The degree of saturation with respect to this phase was therefore calculated in urines of 36 hypercalciuric children (20 absorptive, 16 renal subtype) with isolated hematuria, 10 renal stone patients, and 30 healthy controls. The effects of low calcium diet and hydrochlorothiazide treatment were also investigated in the patient groups. The results were compared to the widely used indicator of hypercalciuria (Ca/Cr ratio). Urines of both the hypercalciuric and the normocalciuric renal stone patients were saturated on basal conditions. On low calcium diet, 12 children of the absorptive hypercalciuric, 13 of the renal hypercalciuric and 7 of the renal stone-forming children had their urines in the saturated zone - irrespective of the evolution of Ca/Cr ratio. Thiazide normalized the activity product of CaHPO4 in all groups. The use of the Ca/Cr ratio as the sole parameter in the investigation of children with isolated hematuria and hypercalciuria or calcium nephrolithiasis seems to be insufficient; simultaneous determinations of the state of saturation of urines is recommended. This technique should also allow a quantitative assessment of the various therapeutic regimens recommended.

  15. Co-production of hydrogen and ethanol from glucose by modification of glycolytic pathways in Escherichia coli - from Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to pentose phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Seol, Eunhee; Sekar, Balaji Sundara; Raj, Subramanian Mohan; Park, Sunghoon

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen (H2) production from glucose by dark fermentation suffers from the low yield. As a solution to this problem, co-production of H2 and ethanol, both of which are good biofuels, has been suggested. To this end, using Escherichia coli, activation of pentose phosphate (PP) pathway, which can generate more NADPH than the Embden-Meyhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, was attempted. Overexpression of two key enzymes in the branch nodes of the glycolytic pathway, Zwf and Gnd, significantly improved the co-production of H2 and ethanol with concomitant reduction of pyruvate secretion. Gene expression analysis and metabolic flux analysis (MFA) showed that, upon overexpression of Zwf and Gnd, glucose assimilation through the PP pathway, compared with that of the EMP or Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway, was greatly enhanced. The maximum co-production yields were 1.32 mol H2 mol(-1) glucose and 1.38 mol ethanol mol(-1) glucose, respectively. It is noteworthy that the glycolysis and the amount of NAD(P)H formed under anaerobic conditions could be altered by modifying (the activity of) several key enzymes. Our strategy could be applied for the development of industrial strains for biological production of reduced chemicals and biofuels which suffers from lack of reduced co-factors. PMID:26581029

  16. A Raman spectroscopic study of the mono-hydrogen phosphate mineral dorfmanite Na 2(PO 3OH)·2H 2O and in comparison with brushite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Palmer, Sara J.; Xi, Yunfei

    2011-11-01

    Aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral dorfmanite Na 2(PO 3OH)·2H 2O were determined by Raman spectroscopy. The mineral originated from the Kedykverpakhk Mt., Lovozero, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Raman bands are assigned to the hydrogen phosphate units. The intense Raman band at 949 cm -1 and the less intense band at 866 cm -1 are assigned to the PO 3 and POH stretching vibrations. Bands at 991, 1066 and 1141 cm -1 are assigned to the ν3 antisymmetric stretching modes. Raman bands at 393, 413 and 448 cm -1 and 514, 541 and 570 cm -1 are attributed to the ν2 and ν4 bending modes of the HPO 4 units, respectively. Raman bands at 3373, 3443 and 3492 cm -1 are assigned to water stretching vibrations. POH stretching vibrations are identified by bands at 2904, 3080 and 3134 cm -1. Raman spectroscopy has proven very useful for the study of the structure of the mineral dorfmanite.

  17. Phosphate salts

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken by mouth or used as enemas. Indigestion. Aluminum phosphate and calcium phosphate are FDA-permitted ingredients ... Phosphate salts containing sodium, potassium, aluminum, or calcium are LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth short-term, when sodium phosphate is inserted into the ...

  18. Use of Genomic Data in Risk Assessment Caes Study: II. Evaluation of the Dibutyl Phthalate Toxicogenomic Dataset

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of ni...

  19. Atomic partitioning of the dissociation energy of the P-O(H) bond in hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO4(2-)): disentangling the effect of Mg2+.

    PubMed

    Matta, Chérif F; Arabi, Alya A; Keith, Todd A

    2007-09-13

    This paper has three goals: (1) to provide a first step in understanding the atomic basis of the role of magnesium in facilitating the dissociation of the P-O bond in phosphorylated biochemical fuel molecules (such as ATP or GTP), (2) to compare second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) results with those obtained at the more economical density functional theory (DFT) level for a future study of larger more realistic models of ATP/GTP, and (3) to examine the calculation of atomic total energies from atomic kinetic energies within a Kohn-Sham implemention of DFT, as compared to ab initio methods. A newly described method based on the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), which is termed the "atomic partitioning of the bond dissociation energy" (APBDE), is applied to a simple model of phosphorylated biological molecules (HPO42-). The APBDE approach is applied in the presence and in the absence of magnesium. It is found that the P-O(H) bond in the magnesium complex is shorter, exhibits a higher stretching frequency, and has a higher electron density at the bond critical point than in the magnesium-free hydrogen phosphate anion. Though these data would seem to suggest a stronger P-O(H) bond in the magnesium complex compared to the magnesium-free case, the homolytic breaking of the P-O(H) bond in the complex is found to be easier, i.e., has a lower BDE. This effect is the result of the balance of several atomic contributions to the BDE induced by the magnesium cation, which stabilizes the dissociation product more than it stabilizes the intact model molecule.

  20. Effect of Cd⁺² on phosphate solubilizing abilities and hydrogen peroxide production of soil-borne micromycetes isolated from Phragmites australis-rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Silva, Jose Roberto; Chan-Cupul, Wilberth; Kuschk, Peter; Loera, Octavio; Aguilar-López, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the phosphate-solubilization and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production by the soil-borne micromycetes, Aspergillus japonicus, Penicillium italicum and Penicillium dipodomyicola, isolated from Phragmites australis rhizosphere and to study the effect of several concentrations of Cadmium (Cd(2+)) on both variables. Our results showed that P. italicum achieved a higher P-solubilization and H2O2 production than A. japonicus and P. dipodomyicola, as only P. italicum showed a positive correlation (R(2) = 0.71) between P-solubilization and H2O2 production. In dose-response assays, P. italicum was also more tolerant to Cd(2+) (0.31 mM) in comparison to A. japonicus (0.26 mM). Analysis of the 2(4) factorial experimental design showed that P-solubilization by P. italicum was negatively affected by increases in Cd(2+) (p = 0.04) and yeast extract (p = 0.02) in the culture medium. The production of H2O2 was positively affected only by glucose (p = 0.002). Fungal biomass production was reduced significantly (p = 0.0009) by Cd(2+) and increased (p = 0.0003) by high glucose concentration in the culture medium. The tolerance and correlation between P-solubilization and H2O2 production in the presence of Cd(2+) was strain and species dependent. The effects of Cd(2+), glucose, ammonium sulfate and yeast extract on those variables were evaluated through a two-level factorial design. P. italicum is promising for P-solubilization in soils contaminated with Cd(2+) and may be an alternative for manufacture of biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers.

  1. Formation of Self-Templated 2,6-Bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine [2]Catenanes by Triazolyl Hydrogen Bonding: Selective Anion Hosts for Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Joseph P; Blasco, Salvador; Aletti, Anna B; Hessman, Gary; Gunnlaugsson, Thorfinnur

    2016-07-25

    We report the remarkable ability of 2,6-bis(1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)pyridine (btp) compounds 2 with appended olefin amide arms to self-template the formation of interlocked [2]catenane structures 3 in up to 50 % yield when subjected to olefin ring-closing metathesis in CH2 Cl2 . X-ray diffraction crystallography enabled the structural characterization of both the [2]catenane 3 a and the non-interlocked macrocycle 4 a. These [2]catenanes showed selective triazolyl hydrogen-bonding interactions with the tetrahedral phosphate anion when screened against a range of ions; 3 a,b are the first examples of selective [2]catenane hosts for phosphate. PMID:27295556

  2. Effect of Zirconium Oxide Nanofiller and Dibutyl Phthalate Plasticizer on Ionic Conductivity and Optical Properties of Solid Polymer Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Yasin, Siti Mariah Mohd; Ibrahim, Suriani

    2014-01-01

    New solid polymer electrolytes (SPE) based on poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) doped with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer, and zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nanoparticles were prepared by solution-casting technique. The conductivity was enhanced by addition of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) plasticizer and ZrO2 nanofiller with maximum conductivity (1.38 × 10−4 Scm−1). The absorption edge and band gap values showed decreases upon addition of LiSO3CF3, DBP, and ZrO2 due to the formation of localized states in the SPE and the degree of disorder in the films increased. PMID:25133244

  3. Correlation of biological value of feed phosphates with their solubility in water, dilute hydrogen chloride, dilute citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T W; Douglas, J H; Gonzalez, N J; Bond, P L

    1992-12-01

    Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates (D-MCP, 18.5% phosphorus), and 14 defluorinated phosphates (DFP, 18.0% phosphorus) were evaluated. The average relative BV for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP samples were 97.6, 94.6, and 90.8%, respectively. Solubility of phosphates was determined by four recognized methods. The solvents were water, .4% HCl, 2.0% citric acid (CA), and neutral ammonium citrate (NAC). Water solubility of M-DCP samples was greater (67.5%) than that of D-MCP (38.8%) and DFP (8.9%) samples. Correlation of water solubility of phosphates to their relative BV was quite low, and water solubility was a poor indicator of BV. When .4% HCl was the solvent, correlation coefficients (r) were .55, .33, and .72 for M-DCP, D-MCP, and DFP, respectively. Based on these results and prediction equations, .4% HCl solubility would be inappropriate for estimating BV of M-DCP and D-MCP samples. Solubility of feed phosphates (mainly D-MCP and DFP) in 2.0% CA or NAC was positively correlated with BV; the r values were .87 to .95. Both of these solubility tests provided a good index of BV. However, it would seem inappropriate and risky to replace bioassays totally with these tests. Feed phosphate users could perform either the 2.0% CA or NAC solubility test easily as a screen for BV along with other quality control procedures (i.e., phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and fluoride determinations).

  4. Structural analysis of kinetic folding intermediates for a TIM barrel protein, indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase, by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry and Gō model simulation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhenyu; Rao, Maithreyi K; Forsyth, William R; Finke, John M; Matthews, C Robert

    2007-11-23

    The structures of partially folded states appearing during the folding of a (betaalpha)(8) TIM barrel protein, the indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (sIGPS), was assessed by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS) and Gō model simulations. HX-MS analysis of the peptic peptides derived from the pulse-labeled product of the sub-millisecond folding reaction from the urea-denatured state revealed strong protection in the (betaalpha)(4) region, modest protection in the neighboring (betaalpha)(1-3) and (betaalpha)(5)beta(6) segments and no significant protection in the remaining N and C-terminal segments. These results demonstrate that this species is not a collapsed form of the unfolded state under native-favoring conditions nor is it the native state formed via fast-track folding. However, the striking contrast of these results with the strong protection observed in the (betaalpha)(2-5)beta(6) region after 5 s of folding demonstrates that these species represent kinetically distinct folding intermediates that are not identical as previously thought. A re-examination of the kinetic folding mechanism by chevron analysis of fluorescence data confirmed distinct roles for these two species: the burst-phase intermediate is predicted to be a misfolded, off-pathway intermediate, while the subsequent 5 s intermediate corresponds to an on-pathway equilibrium intermediate. Comparison with the predictions using a C(alpha) Gō model simulation of the kinetic folding reaction for sIGPS shows good agreement with the core of the structure offering protection against exchange in the on-pathway intermediate(s). Because the native-centric Gō model simulations do not explicitly include sequence-specific information, the simulation results support the hypothesis that the topology of TIM barrel proteins is a primary determinant of the folding free energy surface for the productive folding reaction. The early misfolding reaction must involve aspects of

  5. Effects of Solute and Surfactant Addition on the Crystallization and Morphology of Hydroxyapatite Powders Synthesized by Hydrolysis of Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dehydrate (DCPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui-Ting; Chang, Hsin-Fang; Ko, Horng-Huey; Hung, I.-Ming; Yen, Feng-Lin; Huang, Hong-Hsin; Hon, Min-Husing; Wang, Moo-Chin; Shih, Wei-Jen

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the addition of alcohol and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the crystallization and the morphology of hydroxyapatite (HA) powders synthesized by hydrolysis of calcium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) in the 2.5 M NaOH solutions at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour have been studied. The values of zeta potential have large differences between the sums of DCPD with CTAB ( Z DCPD+CTAB) minus the sum of DCPD and CTAB ( Z DCPD + Z CTAB), and of HA with CTAB ( Z HA+CTAB) minus the sum of HA and CTAB ( Z HA + Z CTAB), respectively. When the hydrolysis of DCPD occurred in the 2.5 M NaOH solutions at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour both with and without alcohol and CTAB, XRD results show the only one phase of HA in the as-dried powders. When the NaOH solution does not contain CTAB, the crystallite size of HA powders decreased from 23 ± 1 to 16 ± 1 nm as the alcohol content was more than 50 pct. The crystallite size of HA powders obtained from DCPD synthesized in the 2.5 M NaOH solution with 1.0 × 10-3 M CTAB decreased when the alcohol content was increased to 70 pct, whereas the crystallite size increased when the alcohol concentration was greater than that of 70 pct. SEM images show that the HA powders have a rod-like shape when DCPD was synthesized in the 2.5 M NaOH solution without CTAB or alcohol. When the NaOH solution had 1.0 × 10-3 M CTAB and various alcohol concentrations, the morphology of HA powder still maintained a rod-like or needle-like shape. The HA powder had a maximum specific surface area of 180.25 m2/g when the hydrolysis of DCPD occurred in a 2.5 M NaOH solution containing 1.0 × 10-3 M CTAB and 70 pct alcohol at 348 K (75 °C) for 1 hour.

  6. [Effects of allelochemical dibutyl phthalate on Gymnodinium breve reactive oxygen species].

    PubMed

    Bie, Cong-Cong; Li, Feng-Min; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inhibitory action of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on red tide algae Gymnodinium breve. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, contents of *OH and H2O2, and O2*(-) production rate were investigated, and also for the effects of electron transfer inhibitors on the ROS induction of DBP. The results showed that DBP triggered the synthesis of reactive oxygen species ROS, and with the increase of concentration of DBP, *OH and H2O2 contents in cells accumulated, as for the 3 mg x L(-1) DBP treated algae cultures, OH showed a peak of 33 U x mL(-1) at 48 h, which was about 2. 4 times higher than that in the controlled, and H2O2 contents was about 250 nmol x (10(7) cells)(-1) at 72 h, which was about 5 times higher and also was the highest during the whole culture. Rotenone (an inhibitor of complex I in the mitochondria electron transport chain) decreased the DBP induced ROS production, and dicumarol (an inhibitor of the redox enzyme system in the plasma membrane) stimulated the DBP induced ROS production. Taken all together, the results demonstrated DBP induced over production of reactive oxygen species in G. breve, which is the main inhibitory mechanism, and mitochondria and plasma membrane seem to be the main target site of DBP. These conclusions were of scientific meaning on uncovering the inhibitory mechanism of allelochemical on algae.

  7. Screening-level human health risk assessment of toluene and dibutyl phthalate in nail lacquers.

    PubMed

    Kopelovich, Luda; Perez, Angela L; Jacobs, Neva; Mendelsohn, Emma; Keenan, James J

    2015-07-01

    Toluene and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are found in many consumer products, including cosmetics, synthetic fragrances, and nail polish. In 2012, the California Environmental Protection Agency evaluated 25 nail products and found that 83% of the products that claimed to be toluene-free contained toluene at concentrations ranging up to 190,000 ppm, and 14% of the products that claimed to be DBP-free contained DBP at concentrations ranging up to 88,000 ppm. We conducted a preliminary, screening-level analysis of the potential toluene and DBP-related health risks to consumers and professionals based on the medium and maximum concentrations of toluene and DBP presented in the 2012 report and evaluated dermal and inhalation exposure to a salon patron, nail technician, and home user. We concluded that the maximum toluene concentration for the technician and home user scenarios exceeded the California MADL, but the estimated air concentrations did not exceed the Federal or Cal OSHA PEL. The MADL for DBP was exceeded for all user scenarios at both the median and maximum concentrations. Using these highly conservative assumptions, exposures above regulatory limits could possibly occur during routine use of nail products; further research is needed in order to evaluate potential human health risks. PMID:25865937

  8. Dibutyl Phthalate Exposure Disrupts Evolutionarily Conserved Insulin and Glucagon-Like Signaling in Drosophila Males.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Gohel, Priya; Kheder, Sania; Kothegala, Lakshmi V; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-06-01

    Phthalate diesters are commonly used as industrial plasticisers, as well as in cosmetics and skin care products, as a result people are constantly exposed to these xenobiotics. Recent epidemiological studies have found a correlation between circulating phthalate levels and type 2 diabetes, whereas animal studies indicate that phthalates are capable of disrupting endocrine signaling. Nonetheless, how phthalates interfere with metabolic function is still unclear. Here, we show that feeding Drosophila males the xenobiotic dibutyl phthalate (DBP) affects conserved insulin- and glucagon-like signaling. We report that raising flies on food containing DBP leads to starvation resistance, increased lipid storage, hyperglycemia, and hyperphagia. We go on to show that the starvation-resistance phenotype can be rescued by overexpression of the glucagon analogue adipokinetic hormone (Akh). Furthermore, although acute DBP exposure in adult flies is able to affect insulin levels, only chronic feeding influences Akh expression. We establish that raising flies on DBP-containing food or feeding adults DBP food affects the expression of homologous genes involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism (AHR [Drosophila ss], NR1I2 [Hr96], ABCB1 [MDR50], ABCC3 [MRP], and CYP3A4 [Cyp9f2]). Finally, we determined that the expression of these genes is also influenced by Akh. Our results provide comprehensive evidence that DBP can disrupt metabolism in Drosophila males, by regulating genes involved in glucose, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:27100621

  9. Oxidative stress mediates dibutyl phthalateinduced anxiety-like behavior in Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Biao; Guo, Junhui; Liu, Xudong; Li, Jinquan; Yang, Xu; Ma, Ping; Wu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    Among all phthalate esters, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is only second to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in terms of adverse health outcomes, and its potential cerebral neurotoxicity has raised concern in recent years. DBP exposure has been reported to be responsible for neurobehavioral effects and related neurological diseases. In this study, we found that neurobehavioral changes induced by DBP may be mediated by oxidative damage in the mouse brain, and that the co-administration of Mangiferin (MAG, 50mg/kg/day) may protect the brain against oxidative damage caused by DBP exposure. The results of ethological analysis (elevated plus maze test and open-field test), histopathological examination of the brain, and assessments of oxidative stress (OS) in the mouse brain showed that there is a link between oxidative stress and anxiety-like behavior produced by DBP at higher doses (25 or 125mg/kg/day). Biomarkers of oxidative stress encompass reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and DPC coefficients (DPC). MAG (50mg/kg/day),administered as an antioxidant,can attenuatetheanxiety-like behavior of the tested mice. PMID:27262985

  10. [Mechanism of the inhibitory action of allelochemical dibutyl phthalate on algae Gymnodinium breve].

    PubMed

    Bie, Cong-Cong; Li, Feng-Min; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Hao-Yun; Zhao, Ya-Han; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Zhen-Yu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inhibitory action of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on red tide algae Gymnodinium breve. The effects of DBP on malonaldehyde, subcellular structure and superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms were investigated. The results showed that MDA accumulated in the algae cell under DBP exposure, and for the 3 mg x L(-1) DBP treated algae culture a peak value of 0.34 micromol x (10(9) cells) (-1) occurred at 72 h, which was about 2. 3 times than that of the control. TEM pictures showed the disruption of DBP on the subcellular structure of G. breve. A morphological phenomenon appeared that the algae cell was commonly found small tubules or apical parts around the cell membrane, and almost all normal cell organelles were indistinguishable finally. The activity of CuZn-SOD (main cytoplast located isoform with little in cloroplast) under DBP exposure was higher than that of the control, and no significant difference was observed on Fe-SOD (chloroplast located isoform) activity, but for the Mn-SOD (mitochondrial isoform), the activity was significantly inhibited. These results indicated that DBP might inhibit the algae growth from the plasma membrane and the mitochondria, resulting in oxidative damage in algae cell and a final death. This paper will give a theoretical support to the practical usage of the allelochemical on red tide algae.

  11. A dibutyl phthalate sensor based on a nanofiber polyaniline coated quartz crystal monitor.

    PubMed

    Wang, You; Ding, Pengfei; Hu, Ruifen; Zhang, Jianming; Ma, Xingfa; Luo, Zhiyuan; Li, Guang

    2013-03-18

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a commonly used plasticizer and additive to adhesives, printing inks and nail polishes. Because it has been found to be a powerful reproductive and developmental toxicant, a sensor to monitor DBP in some working spaces and the environment is required. In this work polyaniline nanofibers were deposited on the electrode of a quartz crystal oscillator to form a Quartz Crystal Microbalance gas sensor. The coated quartz crystal and a non-coated quartz crystal were mounted in a sealed chamber, and their frequency difference was monitored. When DBP vapor was injected into the chamber, gas adsorption decreased the frequency of the coated quartz crystal oscillator and thereby caused an increase in the frequency difference between the two crystals. The change of the frequency difference was recorded as the sensor response. The sensor was extremely sensitive to DBP and could be easily recovered by N2 purging. A low measurement limit of 20 ppb was achieved. The morphologies of the polyaniline films prepared by different approaches have been studied by SEM and BET. How the nanofiber-structure can improve the sensitivity and stability is discussed, while its selectivity and long-term stability were investigated.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) in the Rat Determined by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Li-Wen; Hou, Mei-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is commonly used to increase the flexibility of plastics in industrial products. However, several plasticizers have been illegally used as clouding agents to increase dispersion of aqueous matrix in beverages. This study thus develops a rapid and validated analytical method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) for the evaluation of pharmacokinetics of DBP in free moving rats. The UPLC-MS/MS system equipped with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) source in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to monitor m/z 279.25→148.93 transitions for DBP. The limit of quantification for DBP in rat plasma and feces was 0.05 μg/mL and 0.125 μg/g, respectively. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrate that DBP appeared to have a two-compartment model in the rats; the area under concentration versus time (AUC) was 57.8 ± 5.93 min μg/mL and the distribution and elimination half-life (t1/2,α and t1/2,β) were 5.77 ± 1.14 and 217 ± 131 min, respectively, after DBP administration (30 mg/kg, i.v.). About 0.18% of the administered dose was recovered from the feces within 48 h. The pharmacokinetic behavior demonstrated that DBP was quickly degraded within 2 h, suggesting a rapid metabolism low fecal cumulative excretion in the rat. PMID:23344044

  13. Sorption behavior of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate by aged refuse.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng-ran; Long, Yu-yang; Shen, Dong-sheng

    2014-06-01

    Sorption is a fundamental process controlling the transformation, fate, degradation, and biological activity of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the environment. We investigated the kinetics, isotherms, and potential mechanisms for the sorption of two phthalic acid esters (PAEs), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP), on aged refuse. A two-compartment first-order model performed better than a one-compartment first-order model in describing the kinetic sorption of PAEs, with a fast sorption process dominating. Both the Freundlich and Dubinin-Astakhov (DA) models fit the sorption isotherms of DBP and DOP, with the DA model being of a better fit over the range of apparent equilibrium concentrations. The values of the fitting parameters (n, b, E) of the PAEs suggest nonlinear sorption characteristics. Higher predicted partition coefficient values and saturated sorption capacity existed in refuse containing larger quantities of organic matter. The sorption capacity of DOP was significantly higher than that of DBP. PAE sorption was dependent on liquid phase pH. Desorption hysteresis occurred in PAE desorption experiments, especially for the long-chain DOP. PAEs may therefore be a potential environmental risk in landfill.

  14. Approach to distribution and accumulation of dibutyl phthalate in rats by immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Wei, Chenxi; Wu, Yang; Li, Ke; Ding, Shumao; Yuan, Junlin; Yang, Xu; Chen, Mingqing

    2013-06-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is mainly taken up by the general population from food intake. To estimate intake of phthalates, determining distribution and accumulation of DBP in biological materials was a critical need. In this work, we set up two novel approaches with a monoclonal antibody specific to DBP to determine the distribution and accumulation of DBP in vivo. The contents of DBP in liver, kidney, stomach and testes were detected by immunofluorescence assays and indirect competitive ELISA. This data give directly evidence that indicates the distribution and accumulation of DBP in vivo. Double-label immunofluorescence assay provides with a visual approach to determination of the distribution and accumulation of DBP. It indicated that DBP accumulated in subcutaneous tissue such as sweat gland, hair follicle. Both of immunofluorescence assay and ELISA can be used to detect the content of DBP in biological materials. Our assays showed that DBP accumulated in viscera being rich in fat, such as liver, kidney and could overcome physiological barriers to penetrate testes. The date suggested that the accumulations of DBP exposed through dermal route were less than that of oral route and most of DBP was metabolized in 2 or 3 days. PMID:23419389

  15. [Phosphate binders].

    PubMed

    Heeb, Rita M

    2016-06-01

    Phosphate binders to treat hyperphosphataemia are part of the medication regime of every dialysis patient. Phosphate binders are taken with every meal (three times a day). Generally, the medication adherence rates of phosphate binders are very low. This is due to inconveniences like their bad taste or their size which makes them hard to swallow. Also nephrologists have differing opinions on phosphate binders as they are aware of the dialysis patients' difficulties to deal with the amount of drugs they are prescribed. Still, phosphate binders are important drugs which have shown potential in reducing mortality by regulating the level of serum phosphate. In order to improve adherence rates, pharmacists have to advise the patients on these drugs' side effects versus the risks associated with omitting their intake. PMID:27439258

  16. [Static Migration and Release of Dibutyl-Phthalate in the Fluctuating Zone of Three Gorges Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa; Wang, Qiang; Mu, Zhi-jian; Yang, Zhi-dan; Song, Jiao-yan

    2015-07-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their widespread use and hazards to human health and fertility in the environment. In order to understand the migration and release processes of organic pollutants in huge fluctuating zone soil, Dibutyl-phthalate(DBP) was chosen as a typical substance, and its migration and release characteristics in the fluctuating zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir to overlying water and the impacts of DBP concentration in the soil, ionic strength and the concentration of organic mater in overlying water on the process were studied using static flooding method. The results showed that DBP migrated from the soil to the overlying water in the early days after flooding, and the release process of DBP was divided into two phases: one was quick release with a relatively short releasing time and a rapid releasing rate; the other was slow release with a relatively long releasing time and a slow releasing rate. The migration and release processes were well fitted by two-compartment first-order kinetics. After different concentrations DBP were added into soil, the rate of quick release increased with the increasing DBP concentrations in soil while the percent of quick release decreased with the increasing DBP concentrations. The results of rate of slow release and the percent of slow release were on the contrary. The water conditions of overlying water could impact the migration and releasing process of DBP when the soil in fluctuating zone was flooded. The amount of DBP released into the overlying water would increase when the ionic strength in the water increased. At the same time, when the ionic strength increased, in spite of the decreasing quick release rate, the percent of quick release increased. The higher concentration of organic matter in overlying water, the more the amount of DBP released into the overlying water. At the same time, all of the rates of quick release, slow release and the

  17. Fungal biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate and toxicity of its breakdown products on the basis of fungal and bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, M; Torres, J L; Rodríguez-Pastrana, B R; Soriano-Santos, J; Díaz-Godínez, G; Díaz, R; Tlecuitl-Beristain, S; Sánchez, C

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates are esters of phthalic acid that give flexibility to polyvinyl chloride. Diverse studies have reported that these compounds might be carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or teratogenic. Radial growth rate, biomass, hyphal thickness of Neurospora sitophyla, Trichoderma harzianum and Aspergillus niger, grown in two different concentrations of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) (500 and 1,000 mg/l) in agar and in submerged fermentation were studied. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) and the constant of biodegradation of dibutyl phthalate in Escherichia coli cultures were used to evaluate toxicity. The radial growth rate and thickness of the hypha were positively correlated with the concentration of phthalate. The pH of the cultures decreased as the fermentation proceeded. It is shown that these fungi are able to degrade DBP to non-toxic compounds and that these can be used as sole carbon and energy sources by this bacterium. It is demonstrated that the biodegradation of the DBP is directly correlated with the IC50. This is the first study that reports a method to determine the biodegradation of DBP on the basis of the IC50 and fungal growth, and the effect of this phthalate on the growth and thickness of hyphae of filamentous fungi in agar and in submerged fermentation.

  18. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus).

    PubMed

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed DCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p<0.05) from those of fish fed the other diets. Survival rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05) than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish.

  19. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate (MgHPO4) as an Alternative Phosphorus Source on Growth and Feed Utilization of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish (Silurus asotus)

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Won, Seung-Gun; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate a supplemental effect of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MHP, MgHPO4) as an alternative phosphorus (P) source on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish (Silurus asotus) in comparison with three conventional P additives (monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and tricalcium phosphate [TCP]) as positive controls. A basal diet as a negative control was prepared without P supplementation and four supplemental P sources were added at the level of 2%. Five groups of 450 fish having mean body weight of 11.3 g following 24 h fasting after three week adaptation period were randomly distributed into each of 15 tanks (30 fish/tank). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiety twice a day for 8 weeks. Fish fed MHP had weight gain (WG), protein efficiency ratio and specific growth rate comparable to those fed MCP. Fish fed MHP and MCP had feed efficiency (FE) significantly higher (p<0.05) than those fed DCP. Fish groups fed control and TCP showed the lower FE than the other groups which was significantly different (p<0.05) from those of fish fed the other diets. Survival rate was not significantly different (p>0.05) among treatments. Fish fed control had the lowest hematocrit, which was significantly different (p<0.05) from that of fish fed MHP. Fish fed MCP and MHP had plasma P higher (p<0.05) than fish fed the other diets. Relative efficiencies of MCP, DCP and TCP to MHP were found to be 100.5 and 101.3%, 92.0 and 91.6%, and 79.1 and 80.9% for WG and FE, respectively. P availability was determined to be 88.1%, 75.2%, 8.7%, and 90.9% for MCP, DCP, TCP, and MHP, respectively. Consequently, MHP recovered from wastewater stream showed that as an alternative P source its performance was comparative with MCP on growth and feed utilization of juvenile far eastern catfish. PMID:25083108

  20. AN APPROACH TO USING TOXICOGENOMIC DATA IN U.S. EPA HUMAN HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENTS: A DIBUTYL PHTHALATE (DBP) CASE STUDY (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This draft report is a description of an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in risk assessment and a case study to illustrate the approach. The dibutyl phthalate (DBP) case study example focuses on male reproductive developmental effects and the qualitative application of...

  1. An Approach to Using Toxicogenomic Data in U.S. EPA Human Health Risk Assessments: A Dibutyl Phthalate Case Study (Final Report) 2009

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) Case Study Report"> This final report is a description of an approach to evaluate genomic data for use in ris...

  2. Defining the Borders of Dose Addition: Mixture Effects of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibutyl phthalate on Male Rat Reproductive Tract Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In utero exposure to either dibutyl phthalate (DBP) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) disrupts male rat reproductive tract differentiation. However, they act via different modes of toxicity and induce distinct postnatal phenotypes. DBP exposure decreases anogenital di...

  3. Mapping the structure of folding cores in TIM barrel proteins by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry: the roles of motif and sequence for the indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhenyu; Zitzewitz, Jill A; Matthews, C Robert

    2007-04-27

    To test the roles of motif and amino acid sequence in the folding mechanisms of TIM barrel proteins, hydrogen-deuterium exchange was used to explore the structure of the stable folding intermediates for the of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (sIGPS). Previous studies of the urea denaturation of sIGPS revealed the presence of an intermediate that is highly populated at approximately 4.5 M urea and contains approximately 50% of the secondary structure of the native (N) state. Kinetic studies showed that this apparent equilibrium intermediate is actually comprised of two thermodynamically distinct species, I(a) and I(b). To probe the location of the secondary structure in this pair of stable on-pathway intermediates, the equilibrium unfolding process of sIGPS was monitored by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The intact protein and pepsin-digested fragments were studied at various concentrations of urea by electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, respectively. Intact sIGPS strongly protects at least 54 amide protons from hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the intermediate states, demonstrating the presence of stable folded cores. When the protection patterns and the exchange mechanisms for the peptides are considered with the proposed folding mechanism, the results can be interpreted to define the structural boundaries of I(a) and I(b). Comparison of these results with previous hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies on another TIM barrel protein of low sequence identify, alpha-tryptophan synthase (alphaTS), indicates that the thermodynamic states corresponding to the folding intermediates are better conserved than their structures. Although the TIM barrel motif appears to define the basic features of the folding free energy surface, the structures of the partially folded states that appear during the folding reaction depend on the amino acid sequence. Markedly, the good

  4. Predicting laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning for deuterated potassium di-hydrogen phosphate crystals using ADM (absorption distribution model)

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Z M; Spaeth, M L; Manes, K; Adams, J J; Carr, C W

    2010-02-26

    We present an empirical model that describes the experimentally observed laser-induced bulk damage and conditioning behavior in deuterated Potassium dihydrogen Phosphate (DKDP) crystals in a self-consistent way. The model expands on an existing nanoabsorber precursor model and the multi-step absorption mechanism to include two populations of absorbing defects, one with linear absorption and another with nonlinear absorption. We show that this model connects previously uncorrelated small-beam damage initiation probability data to large-beam damage density measurements over a range of ns pulse widths relevant to ICF lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition, this work predicts the damage behavior of laser-conditioned DKDP and explains the upper limit to the laser conditioning effect. The ADM model has been successfully used during the commissioning and early operation of the NIF.

  5. Blank problems in trace analysis of diethylhexyl and dibutyl phthalate: investigation of the sources, tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Fankhauser-Noti, Anja; Grob, Koni

    2007-01-23

    The analysis of phthalates, particularly that of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), is notorious for blank problems. Methods and tools are listed to identify the sources and reduce the system contamination to below 1 pg DEHP and DBP or below 1 ng mL(-1) of sample solution. Once direct contact with phthalate-containing plastic articles is ruled out, the air is the major source, primarily via absorption to the surfaces of laboratory glass ware. A main improvement was achieved by cleaning solvents with aluminium oxide permanently left in the reservoirs. The data enables to estimate the contamination to be expected and to design methods keeping blanks below a critical threshold. PMID:17386513

  6. Adaptive lenticular microlens array based on voltage-induced waves at the surface of polyvinyl chloride/dibutyl phthalate gels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Jin, Boya; He, Rui; Ren, Hongwen

    2016-04-18

    We report a new approach to preparing a lenticular microlens array (LMA) using polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/dibutyl phthalate (DBP) gels. The PVD/DBP gels coated on a glass substrate form a membrane. With the aid of electrostatic repulsive force, the surface of the membrane can be reconfigured with sinusoidal waves by a DC voltage. The membrane with wavy surface functions as a LMA. By switching over the anode and cathode, the convex shape of each lenticular microlens in the array can be converted to the concave shape. Therefore, the LMA can present a large dynamic range. The response time is relatively fast and the driving voltage is low. With the advantages of compact structure, optical isotropy, and good mechanical stability, our LMA has potential applications in imaging, information processing, biometrics, and displays. PMID:27137253

  7. Metabolomics-based approach for assessing the toxicity mechanisms of dibutyl phthalate to abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Chen, Baiyang; Cai, Zhonghua

    2015-04-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a ubiquitous contaminant in the marine environment, and relatively little is known about the toxicological mechanisms of this compound at the metabolite level. In this study, marine gastropods (abalone) were exposed to DBP at environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10, and 50 μg/L) for 30 days. The plasma metabolite profiles were determined at the 5th, 15th, and 30th. The major metabolite changes corresponding to DBP exposure were related to osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and environmental stress, and the effects displayed a dose-dependent pattern. The most obvious change was the increase in the levels of intracellular metabolites (betaine, dimethylglycine, homarine, glutamine, and lactate) and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The results revealed that DBP may lead to abalone oxidative stress, lipid metabolism dysfunction, energy metabolism disturbance, and osmoregulation imbalance. These results would be helpful in better understanding the mechanisms of abalone response to DBP stress at the system level. PMID:25416503

  8. Vitamin B6 nutritional status and cellular availability of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate govern the function of the transsulfuration pathway's canonical reactions and hydrogen sulfide production via side reactions.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jesse F; DeRatt, Barbara N; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Ralat, Maria; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2016-07-01

    The transsulfuration pathway (TS) acts in sulfur amino acid metabolism by contributing to the regulation of cellular homocysteine, cysteine production, and the generation of H2S for signaling functions. Regulation of TS pathway kinetics involves stimulation of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and oxidants such as H2O2, and by Michaelis-Menten principles whereby substrate concentrations affect reaction rates. Although pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) serves as coenzyme for both CBS and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), CSE exhibits much greater loss of activity than CBS during PLP insufficiency. Thus, cellular and plasma cystathionine concentrations increase in vitamin B6 deficiency mainly due to the bottleneck caused by reduced CSE activity. Because of the increase in cystathionine, the canonical production of cysteine (homocysteine → cystathionine → cysteine) is largely maintained even during vitamin B6 deficiency. Typical whole body transsulfuration flux in humans is 3-7 μmol/h per kg body weight. The in vivo kinetics of H2S production via side reactions of CBS and CSE in humans are unknown but they have been reported for cultured HepG2 cells. In these studies, cells exhibit a pronounced reduction in H2S production capacity and rates of lanthionine and homolanthionine synthesis in deficiency. In humans, plasma concentrations of lanthionine and homolanthionine exhibit little or no mean change due to 4-wk vitamin B6 restriction, nor do they respond to pyridoxine supplementation of subjects in chronically low-vitamin B6 status. Wide individual variation in responses of the H2S biomarkers to such perturbations of human vitamin B6 status suggests that the resulting modulation of H2S production may have physiological consequences in a subset of people. Supported by NIH grant DK072398. This paper refers to data from studies registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01128244 and NCT00877812.

  9. Nucleation reduction strategy of BaNH{4}MgHPO{4} (barium ammonium magnesium hydrogen phosphate, in vitro approach-1) crystals grown in silica gel medium and its characterization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, P.; Kanchana, G.; Sundaramoorthi, P.

    2009-02-01

    Kidney stones consist of various organic, inorganic and semi-organic compounds. Mineral oxalate monohydrate and di-hydrate is the main inorganic constituent of kidney stones. However, the mechanisms for the formation of crystal mineral oxalate are not clearly understood. In this field of study there are many hypothesis including nucleation, crystal growth and or aggregation of formation of AOMH (ammonium oxalate monohydrate) and AODH (ammonium oxalate di-hydrate) crystals. The effect of some urinary species such as ammonium oxalates, calcium, citrate, proteins and trace mineral elements have been previously reported by the author. The kidney stone constituents are grown in the kidney environments, the sodium meta silica gel medium (SMS) provides the necessary growth simulation (in vitro). In the artificial urinary stone growth process, growth parameters within the different chemical environments are identified. The author has reported the growth of urinary crystals such as CHP, SHP, BHP and AHP. In the present study, BaNH{4}MgHPO{4} (barium ammonium magnesium hydrogen phosphate) crystals have been grown in three different growth faces to attain the total nucleation reductions. As an extension of this research, many characterization studies have been carried out and the results are reported.

  10. An Immunoassay for Dibutyl Phthalate Based on Direct Hapten Linkage to the Polystyrene Surface of Microtiter Plates

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chenxi; Ding, Shumao; You, Huihui; Zhang, Yaran; Wang, Yao; Yang, Xu; Yuan, Junlin

    2011-01-01

    Background Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is predominantly used as a plasticizer inplastics to make them flexible. Extensive use of phthalates in both industrial processes and other consumer products has resulted in the ubiquitous presence of phthalates in the environment. In order to better determine the level of pollution in the environment and evaluate the potential adverse effects of exposure to DBP, immunoassay for DBP was developed. Methodology/Principal Findings A monoclonal antibody specific to DBP was produced from a stable hybridoma cell line generated by lymphocyte hybridoma technique. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) employing direct coating of hapten on polystyrene microtiter plates was established for the detection of DBP. Polystyrene surface was first oxidized by permanganate in dilute sulfuric acid to generate carboxyl groups. Then dibutyl 4-aminophthalate, which is an analogue of DBP, was covalently linked to the carboxyl groups of polystyrene surface with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Compared with conjugate coated format (IC50 = 106 ng/mL), the direct hapten coated format (IC50 = 14.6 ng/mL) improved assay sensitivity after careful optimization of assay conditions. The average recovery of DBP from spiked water sample was 104.4% and the average coefficient of variation was 9.95%. Good agreement of the results obtained by the hapten coated icELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry further confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the icELISA for the detection of DBP in certain plastic and cosmetic samples. Conclusions/Significance The stable and efficient hybridoma cell line obtained is an unlimited source of sensitive and specific antibody to DBP. The hapten coated format is proposed as generally applicable because the carboxyl groups on modified microtiter plate surface enables stable immobilization of aminated or hydroxylated hapten with EDC. The developed hapten

  11. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: II. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate toxicogenomic data set

    SciTech Connect

    Euling, Susan Y.; White, Lori D.; Kim, Andrea S.; Sen, Banalata; Wilson, Vickie S.; Keshava, Channa; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Hester, Susan; Ovacik, Meric A.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Gaido, Kevin W.

    2013-09-15

    An evaluation of the toxicogenomic data set for dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and male reproductive developmental effects was performed as part of a larger case study to test an approach for incorporating genomic data in risk assessment. The DBP toxicogenomic data set is composed of nine in vivo studies from the published literature that exposed rats to DBP during gestation and evaluated gene expression changes in testes or Wolffian ducts of male fetuses. The exercise focused on qualitative evaluation, based on a lack of available dose–response data, of the DBP toxicogenomic data set to postulate modes and mechanisms of action for the male reproductive developmental outcomes, which occur in the lower dose range. A weight-of-evidence evaluation was performed on the eight DBP toxicogenomic studies of the rat testis at the gene and pathway levels. The results showed relatively strong evidence of DBP-induced downregulation of genes in the steroidogenesis pathway and lipid/sterol/cholesterol transport pathway as well as effects on immediate early gene/growth/differentiation, transcription, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways in the testis. Since two established modes of action (MOAs), reduced fetal testicular testosterone production and Insl3 gene expression, explain some but not all of the testis effects observed in rats after in utero DBP exposure, other MOAs are likely to be operative. A reanalysis of one DBP microarray study identified additional pathways within cell signaling, metabolism, hormone, disease, and cell adhesion biological processes. These putative new pathways may be associated with DBP effects on the testes that are currently unexplained. This case study on DBP identified data gaps and research needs for the use of toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. Furthermore, this study demonstrated an approach for evaluating toxicogenomic data in human health risk assessment that could be applied to future chemicals

  12. Templated, layered manganese phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G.; Bonhomme, Francois R.

    2004-08-17

    A new crystalline maganese phosphate composition having an empirical formula: O). The compound was determined to crystallize in the trigonal space group P-3c1 with a=8.8706(4) .ANG., c=26.1580(2) .ANG., and V (volume)=1783 .ANG..sup.3. The structure consists of sheets of corner sharing Mn(II)O.sub.4 and PO.sub.4 tetrahedra with layers of (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N and water molecules in-between. The pronated (H.sub.3 NCH.sub.2 CH.sub.2).sub.3 N molecules provide charge balancing for the inorganic sheets. A network of hydrogen bonds between water molecules and the inorganic sheets holds the structure together.

  13. A sensitive and selective molecularly imprinted sensor combined with magnetic molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for determination of dibutyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Lijuan; Cai, Rong; Chen, Hongjun

    2013-11-15

    A highly sensitive and selective molecularly imprinted (MIP) sensor combined with magnetic molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MMISPE) was developed for the determination of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) in complex matrixes. The magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (MMIP) was synthesized as solid phase extraction (SPE) sorbet to extract DBP from complex matrixes and as sensing element to improve the selectivity of the imprinted sensor. The morphologies of MMIP and MIP-sensor were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical performances of MIP-sensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The conditions of preconcentration, elution and electrochemical determination were studied in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the response currents of the MIP-sensor exhibited a linear relationship towards DBP concentrations ranging from 1.0 × 10(-8)g/L to 1.0 × 10(-3)g/L. The limit of detection of the MMIP-sensor coupled with the MMISPE was calculated as 0.052 ng/L. The MMIP-sensor coupled with the MMISPE was applied to detect DBP in complex samples successfully.

  14. Electrochemical sensor based on magnetic graphene oxide@gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers for determination of dibutyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangjun; Wang, Xiaojiao; Li, Leilei; Duan, Huimin; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-01-01

    A novel composite of magnetic graphene oxide @ gold nanoparticles-molecular imprinted polymers (MGO@AuNPs-MIPs) was synthesized and applied as a molecular recognition element to construct dibutyl phthalate (DBP) electrochemical sensor. The composite of MGO@AuNPs was first synthesized using coprecipitation and self-assembly technique. Then the template molecules (DBP) were absorbed at the MGO@AuNPs surface due to their excellent affinity, and subsequently, selective copolymerization of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was further achieved at the MGO@AuNPs surface. Potential scanning was presented to extract DBP molecules from the imprinted polymers film rapidly and completely. As a consequence, an electrochemical sensor for highly sensitive and selective detection of DBP was successfully constructed as demonstration based on the synthesized MGO@AuNPs-MIPs composite. Under optimal experimental conditions, selective detection of DBP in a linear concentration range of 2.5 × 10(-9)-5.0 × 10(-6)mol/L was obtained. The new DBP electrochemical sensor also exhibited excellent repeatability, which expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was about 2.50% for 30 repeated analyses of 2.0 × 10(-6)mol/L DBP.

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Dibutyl and Monobutyl Phthalates on the Steroidogenesis of Rat Immature Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linxi; Chen, Xiaomin; Hu, Guoxin; Wang, Sicong; Xu, Renai; Zhu, Qiqi; Li, Xiaoheng; Wang, Mingcang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used synthetic phthalic diester and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) is its main metabolite. DBP can be released into the environment and potentially disrupting mammalian male reproductive endocrine system. However, the potencies of DBP and MBP to inhibit Leydig cell steroidogenesis and their possible mechanisms are not clear. Immature Leydig cells isolated from rats were cultured with 0.05–50 μM DBP or MBP for 3 h in combination with testosterone synthesis regulator or intermediate. The concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured, and the mRNA levels of the androgen biosynthetic genes were detected by qPCR. The direct actions of DBP or MBP on CYP11A1, CYP17A1, SRD5A1, and AKR1C14 activities were measured. MBP inhibited androgen production by the immature Leydig cell at as low as 50 nM, while 50 μM was required for DBP to suppress its androgen production. MBP mainly downregulated Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 expression levels at 50 nM. However, 50 μM DBP downregulated Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 expression levels and directly inhibited CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 activities. In conclusion, DBP is metabolized to more potent inhibitor MBP that downregulated the expression levels of some androgen biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:27148549

  16. Characterization and Genomic Analysis of a Highly Efficient Dibutyl Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium Gordonia sp. Strain QH-12.

    PubMed

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Xinxin; Deng, Ye; Jia, Minghong; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain QH-12 isolated from activated sludge was identified as Gordonia sp. based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and was found to be capable of utilizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other common phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source. The degradation kinetics of DBP under different concentrations by the strain QH-12 fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R² > 0.98). However, strain QH-12 could not utilize the major intermediate product phthalate (phthalic acid; PA) as the sole carbon and energy source, and only a little amount of PA was detected. The QH-12 genome analysis revealed the presence of putative hydrolase/esterase genes involved in PAEs-degradation but no phthalic acid catabolic gene cluster was found, suggesting that a novel degradation pathway of PAEs was present in Gordonia sp. QH-12. This information will be valuable for obtaining a more holistic understanding on diverse genetic mechanisms of PAEs-degrading Gordonia sp. strains. PMID:27347943

  17. Properties of the plant- and manure-derived biochars and their sorption of dibutyl phthalate and phenanthrene

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Mengyi; Sun, Ke; Jin, Jie; Gao, Bo; Yan, Yu; Han, Lanfang; Wu, Fengchang; Xing, Baoshan

    2014-01-01

    The properties of plant residue-derived biochars (PLABs) and animal waste-derived biochars (ANIBs) obtained at low and high heating treatment temperatures (300 and 450°C) as well as their sorption of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phenanthrene (PHE) were investigated in this study. The higher C content of PLABs could explain that CO2-surface area (CO2-SA) of PLABs was remarkably high relative to ANIBs. OC and aromatic C were two key factors influencing the CO2-SA of the biochars. Much higher surface C content of the ANIBs than bulk C likely explained that the ANIBs exhibited higher sorption of DBP and PHE compared to the PLABs. H-bonding should govern the adsorption of DBP by most of the tested biochars and π-π interaction play an important role in the adsorption of PHE by biochars. High CO2-SA (>200 m2 g−1) demonstrated that abundant nanopores of OC existed within the biochars obtained 450°C (HTBs), which likely result in high and nonlinear sorption of PHE by HTBs. PMID:24924925

  18. Influence of oily vehicles on fetal testis and lipid profile of rats exposed to di-butyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, A C S; Gomes, C; Boareto, A C; Mueller, R P; Nihi, F; Andrade, L F; Trindade, E S; Coelho, I; Naliwaiko, K; Morais, R N; Martino-Andrade, A J

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that oils containing high levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as canola and fish oil, could counteract some of the adverse effects induced by phthalates. In the present study, the influence of different oily vehicles on di-butyl phthalate (DBP)-induced testicular toxicity and lipid profile was investigated. Pregnant Wistar rats were treated by oral gavage from gestation days 13 to 20 with DBP (500 mg/kg/day) diluted in three different vehicles: corn, canola or fish oil. Male fetuses were analyzed on gestation day 20. DBP exposure lowered intratesticular testosterone levels and anogenital distance, regardless of the vehicle used. The percentage of seminiferous cords containing multinucleated gonocytes and cord diameter was increased in DBP-exposed groups, compared with vehicle controls, with no difference between the three DBP-exposed groups. Clustering of Leydig cells was seen in all DBP groups. Lipid profile indicated that administration of canola and fish oil can increase the content of omega-3 fatty acids in rat testis. However, content of omega-3 was diminished in DBP-treated groups. Overall, our results indicate that different oily vehicles did not alter fetal rat testicular toxicity induced by a high DBP dose.

  19. Characterization and Genomic Analysis of a Highly Efficient Dibutyl Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium Gordonia sp. Strain QH-12

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Xinxin; Deng, Ye; Jia, Minghong; Yu, Xiangyang

    2016-01-01

    A bacterial strain QH-12 isolated from activated sludge was identified as Gordonia sp. based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and was found to be capable of utilizing dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and other common phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source. The degradation kinetics of DBP under different concentrations by the strain QH-12 fit well with the modified Gompertz model (R2 > 0.98). However, strain QH-12 could not utilize the major intermediate product phthalate (phthalic acid; PA) as the sole carbon and energy source, and only a little amount of PA was detected. The QH-12 genome analysis revealed the presence of putative hydrolase/esterase genes involved in PAEs-degradation but no phthalic acid catabolic gene cluster was found, suggesting that a novel degradation pathway of PAEs was present in Gordonia sp. QH-12. This information will be valuable for obtaining a more holistic understanding on diverse genetic mechanisms of PAEs-degrading Gordonia sp. strains. PMID:27347943

  20. Enhanced Dibutyl Phthalate Sensing Performance of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Au-Decorated ZnO Porous Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihuan; Fan, Guokang; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2015-08-27

    Noble metals addition on nanostructured metal oxides is an attractive way to enhance gas sensing properties. Herein, hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) porous microspheres decorated with cubic gold particles (Au particles) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Au-decorated ZnO was then utilized as the sensing film of a gas sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). This fabricated sensor was applied to detect dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which is a widely used plasticizer, and its coating load was optimized. When tested at room temperature, the sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 38.10 Hz/ppb to DBP in a low concentration range from 2 ppb to 30 ppb and the calculated theoretical detection limit is below 1 ppb. It maintains good repeatability as well as long-term stability. Compared with the undecorated ZnO based QCM, the Au-decorated one achieved a 1.62-time enhancement in sensitivity to DBP, and the selectivity was also improved. According to the experimental results, Au-functionalized ZnO porous microspheres displayed superior sensing performance towards DBP, indicating its potential use in monitoring plasticizers in the gaseous state. Moreover, Au decoration of porous metal oxide nanostructures is proved to be an effective approach for enhancing the gas sensing properties and the corresponding mechanism was investigated.

  1. Enhanced Dibutyl Phthalate Sensing Performance of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Au-Decorated ZnO Porous Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kaihuan; Fan, Guokang; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Noble metals addition on nanostructured metal oxides is an attractive way to enhance gas sensing properties. Herein, hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) porous microspheres decorated with cubic gold particles (Au particles) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Au-decorated ZnO was then utilized as the sensing film of a gas sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). This fabricated sensor was applied to detect dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which is a widely used plasticizer, and its coating load was optimized. When tested at room temperature, the sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 38.10 Hz/ppb to DBP in a low concentration range from 2 ppb to 30 ppb and the calculated theoretical detection limit is below 1 ppb. It maintains good repeatability as well as long-term stability. Compared with the undecorated ZnO based QCM, the Au-decorated one achieved a 1.62-time enhancement in sensitivity to DBP, and the selectivity was also improved. According to the experimental results, Au-functionalized ZnO porous microspheres displayed superior sensing performance towards DBP, indicating its potential use in monitoring plasticizers in the gaseous state. Moreover, Au decoration of porous metal oxide nanostructures is proved to be an effective approach for enhancing the gas sensing properties and the corresponding mechanism was investigated. PMID:26343661

  2. Enhanced Dibutyl Phthalate Sensing Performance of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Coated with Au-Decorated ZnO Porous Microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaihuan; Fan, Guokang; Hu, Ruifen; Li, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Noble metals addition on nanostructured metal oxides is an attractive way to enhance gas sensing properties. Herein, hierarchical zinc oxide (ZnO) porous microspheres decorated with cubic gold particles (Au particles) were synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method. The as-prepared Au-decorated ZnO was then utilized as the sensing film of a gas sensor based on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). This fabricated sensor was applied to detect dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which is a widely used plasticizer, and its coating load was optimized. When tested at room temperature, the sensor exhibited a high sensitivity of 38.10 Hz/ppb to DBP in a low concentration range from 2 ppb to 30 ppb and the calculated theoretical detection limit is below 1 ppb. It maintains good repeatability as well as long-term stability. Compared with the undecorated ZnO based QCM, the Au-decorated one achieved a 1.62-time enhancement in sensitivity to DBP, and the selectivity was also improved. According to the experimental results, Au-functionalized ZnO porous microspheres displayed superior sensing performance towards DBP, indicating its potential use in monitoring plasticizers in the gaseous state. Moreover, Au decoration of porous metal oxide nanostructures is proved to be an effective approach for enhancing the gas sensing properties and the corresponding mechanism was investigated. PMID:26343661

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Dibutyl and Monobutyl Phthalates on the Steroidogenesis of Rat Immature Leydig Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxi; Chen, Xiaomin; Hu, Guoxin; Wang, Sicong; Xu, Renai; Zhu, Qiqi; Li, Xiaoheng; Wang, Mingcang; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used synthetic phthalic diester and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) is its main metabolite. DBP can be released into the environment and potentially disrupting mammalian male reproductive endocrine system. However, the potencies of DBP and MBP to inhibit Leydig cell steroidogenesis and their possible mechanisms are not clear. Immature Leydig cells isolated from rats were cultured with 0.05-50 μM DBP or MBP for 3 h in combination with testosterone synthesis regulator or intermediate. The concentrations of 5α-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured, and the mRNA levels of the androgen biosynthetic genes were detected by qPCR. The direct actions of DBP or MBP on CYP11A1, CYP17A1, SRD5A1, and AKR1C14 activities were measured. MBP inhibited androgen production by the immature Leydig cell at as low as 50 nM, while 50 μM was required for DBP to suppress its androgen production. MBP mainly downregulated Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 expression levels at 50 nM. However, 50 μM DBP downregulated Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 expression levels and directly inhibited CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 activities. In conclusion, DBP is metabolized to more potent inhibitor MBP that downregulated the expression levels of some androgen biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:27148549

  4. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate in aqueous solution in the presence of iron-loaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuanxing; Cui, Chenchen; Zhang, Daofang; Li, Liang; Pan, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Iron-loaded activated carbon was prepared and used as catalyst in heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The catalytic activity of iron-loaded activated carbon was investigated under various conditions and the mechanisms of DBP removal were deduced. Characterization of catalyst indicated that the iron loaded on activated carbon was mainly in the form of goethite, which reduced its surface area, pore volume and pore diameter. The presence of metals on activated carbon positively contributed to its catalytic activity in ozonation of DBP. Iron loading content of 15% and initial water pH of 8 achieved highest DBP removal among all the tried conditions. Catalyst dosage of 10 mg L(-1) led to approximately 25% of increase in DBP (initial concentration 2 mg L(-1)) removal in 60 min as compared with ozone alone, and when catalyst dosage increased to 100 mg L(-1), the DBP removal was further improved by 46%. Based on a comparison of reaction rates for direct and indirect transformation of DBP, the increased removal of DBP in this study likely occurred via transformation of ozone into hydroxyl radicals on the catalyst surface.

  5. Degradation of refractory dibutyl phthalate by peroxymonosulfate activated with novel catalysts cobalt metal-organic frameworks: Mechanism, performance, and stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanxuan; Wan, Jinquan; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan; Chen, Xi; Guan, Zeyu

    2016-11-15

    In this work, a new effective and relatively stable heterogeneous catalyst of Metal-Organic Framework Co3(BTC)2·12H2O (Co-BTC) has been synthesized and tested to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for removal of refractory dibutyl phthalate (DBP). Co-BTC(A) and Co-BTC(B) were synthesized by different methods, which resulted in different activity towards PMS. The results indicated that Co-BTC(A) showed better performance on DBP degradation. The highest degradation rate of 100% was obtained within 30min. The initial pH showed respective level on DBP degradation with a rank of 5.0>2.75>9.0>7.0>11.0 in PMS/Co-BTC(A) system. No remarkable reduction of DBP was observed in the catalytic activity of Co-BTC(A) at 2nd run as demonstrated by recycling. However, the DBP degradation efficiency decreased by 8.26%, 10.9% and 25.6% in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th runs, respectively. The loss of active catalytic sites of Co(II) from Co-BTC(A) is responsible for the activity decay. Sulfate radicals (SO4(-)) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) were found at pH 2.75. Here, we propose the possible mechanism for activation of PMS by Co-BTC(A), which is involved in homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions in the solutions and the surface of Co-BTC(A), respectively. PMID:27420387

  6. Regulation of serum phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Lederer, Eleanor

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of serum phosphate, an acknowledged risk factor for chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular mortality, is poorly understood. The discovery of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) as a key regulator of renal phosphate handling and activation of vitamin D has revolutionized our comprehension of phosphate homeostasis. Through as yet undetermined mechanisms, circulating and dietary phosphate appear to have a direct effect on FGF23 release by bone cells that, in turn, causes renal phosphate excretion and decreases intestinal phosphate absorption through a decrease in vitamin D production. Thus, the two major phosphaturic hormones, PTH and FGF23, have opposing effects on vitamin D production, placing vitamin D at the nexus of phosphate homeostasis. While our understanding of phosphate homeostasis has advanced, the factors determining regulation of serum phosphate level remain enigmatic. Diet, time of day, season, gender, age and genetics have all been identified as significant contributors to serum phosphate level. The effects of these factors on serum phosphate have major implications for what is understood as ‘normal’ and for studies of phosphate homeostasis and metabolism. Moreover, other hormonal mediators such as dopamine, insulin-like growth factor, and angiotensin II also affect renal handling of phosphate. How the major hormone effects on phosphate handling are regulated and how the effect of these other factors are integrated to yield the measurable serum phosphate are only now beginning to be studied. PMID:24973411

  7. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, R.D.; Wolfram, J.H.

    1993-10-26

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorus can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution. 6 figures.

  8. Microbial solubilization of phosphate

    DOEpatents

    Rogers, Robert D.; Wolfram, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A process is provided for solubilizing phosphate from phosphate containing ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of phosphate ore, microorganisms operable for solubilizing phosphate from the phosphate ore and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the microbial solubilization process. An aqueous solution containing soluble phosphorous can be separated from the reacted mixture by precipitation, solvent extraction, selective membrane, exchange resin or gravity methods to recover phosphate from the aqueous solution.

  9. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  10. Fluorescence sensor for sequential detection of zinc and phosphate ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Miran; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Seo, Hansol; Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong-Seok

    2016-12-01

    A new, highly selective turn-on fluorescent chemosensor based on 2-(2‧-tosylamidophenyl)thiazole (1) for the detection of zinc and phosphate ions in ethanol was synthesized and characterized. Sensor 1 showed a high selectivity for zinc compared to other cations and sequentially detected hydrogen pyrophosphate and hydrogen phosphate. The fluorescence mechanism can be explained by two different mechanisms: (i) the inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) and (ii) chelation-induced enhanced fluorescence by binding with Zn2 +. The sequential detection of phosphate anions was achieved by the quenching and subsequent revival of ESIPT.

  11. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-dependent hydrogen peroxide production is involved in the regulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase and Na+/H+ antiporter protein in salt-stressed callus from Carex moorcroftii.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Chen, Guichen; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yanli; Jia, Honglei; Bi, Yurong

    2011-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is important for the activation of plant resistance to environmental stresses, and ion homeostasis is the physiological foundation for living cells. In this study, we investigated G6PDH roles in modulating ion homeostasis under salt stress in Carex moorcroftii callus. G6PDH activity increased to its maximum in 100 mM NaCl treatment and decreased with further increased NaCl concentrations. K+/Na+ ratio in 100 mM NaCl treatment did not exhibit significant difference compared with the control; however, in 300 mM NaCl treatment, it decreased. Low-concentration NaCl (100 mM) stimulated plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities as well as Na+/H+ antiporter protein expression, whereas high-concentration NaCl (300 mM) decreased their activity and expression. When G6PDH activity and expression were reduced by glycerol treatments, PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities, Na+/H+ antiporter protein level and K+/Na+ ratio dramatically decreased. Simultaneously, NaCl-induced hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) accumulation was abolished. Exogenous application of H₂O₂ increased G6PDH, PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities, Na+/H+ antiporter protein expression and K+/Na+ ratio in the control and glycerol treatments. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, which counteracted NaCl-induced H₂O₂ accumulation, decreased G6PDH, PM H+-ATPase and NADPH oxidase activities, Na+/H+ antiporter protein level and K+/Na+ ratio. Western blot result showed that G6PDH expression was stimulated by NaCl and H₂O₂, and blocked by DPI. Taken together, G6PDH is involved in H₂O₂ accumulation under salt stress. H₂O₂, as a signal, upregulated PM H+-ATPase activity and Na+/H+ antiporter protein level, which subsequently resulted in the enhanced K+/Na+ ratio. G6PDH played a central role in the process.

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  13. Uranium from phosphate ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described briefly: the way phosphate fertilizers are made; how uranium is recovered in the phosphate industry; and how to detect covert uranium recovery operations in a phsophate plant.

  14. Crystal structure of the phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type phosphate transporter from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Richez, Magali; Bergonzi, Celine; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation is an important environmental stress that affects the metabolism of various organisms and, in particular, can trigger the virulence of numerous bacterial pathogens. Clostridium perfringens, a human pathogen, is one of the most common causes of enteritis necroticans, gas gangrene and food poisoning. Here, we focused on the high affinity phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type transporter, responsible for cellular phosphate uptake. We report the crystal structure (1.65 Å resolution) of the protein in complex with phosphate. Interestingly, PBP-1 does not form the short, low-barrier hydrogen bond with phosphate that is typical of previously characterized phosphate-binding proteins, but rather a canonical hydrogen bond. In its unique binding configuration, PBP-1 forms an unusually high number of hydrogen bonds (14) with the phosphate anion. Discrimination experiments reveal that PBP-1 is the least selective PBP characterised so far and is able to discriminate phosphate from its close competing anion, arsenate, by ~150-fold.

  15. Crystal structure of the phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type phosphate transporter from Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Richez, Magali; Bergonzi, Celine; Chabriere, Eric; Elias, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation is an important environmental stress that affects the metabolism of various organisms and, in particular, can trigger the virulence of numerous bacterial pathogens. Clostridium perfringens, a human pathogen, is one of the most common causes of enteritis necroticans, gas gangrene and food poisoning. Here, we focused on the high affinity phosphate-binding protein (PBP-1) of an ABC-type transporter, responsible for cellular phosphate uptake. We report the crystal structure (1.65 Å resolution) of the protein in complex with phosphate. Interestingly, PBP-1 does not form the short, low-barrier hydrogen bond with phosphate that is typical of previously characterized phosphate-binding proteins, but rather a canonical hydrogen bond. In its unique binding configuration, PBP-1 forms an unusually high number of hydrogen bonds (14) with the phosphate anion. Discrimination experiments reveal that PBP-1 is the least selective PBP characterised so far and is able to discriminate phosphate from its close competing anion, arsenate, by ~150-fold. PMID:25338617

  16. An ultra-sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosobent assay for dibutyl phthalate in human urinary.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lifang; Lei, Yajing; Zhang, Dai; Ahmed, Shabbir; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-15

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been extensively used as a plasticizer in many daily products, which is highly toxic to human, notably affecting the reproductive and developmental function. As the previous method is expensive, time-consuming, low sensitivity and just focused on the environment. Present study was aimed to establish an ultra-sensitive and simple method based on good quality monoclonal antibody, applying to evaluate excretion level of DBP in urine samples of Chinese population directly. A monoclonal antibody was generated and characterized after fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells isolated from BALB/c mouse. The mouse was previously immunized using a specially designed amino derivative of DBP conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as immunogen. Cross-reactivity values of the monoclonal antibody against DBP, di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) were observed 100% and 1.25%, while for dimethyl phthalate (DMP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and didecyl phthalate (DDP) the values were <0.06%. The standard curve was constructed at 0-50 ng mL(-1) and good linearity (R(2)=0.994) was achieved. The observed IC50 (7.34 ng mL(-1)) and LOD (0.06 ng mL(-1)) values was improved 1000-fold to polyclonal antibody and 5-fold to other monoclonal antibodies. A total 1246 urine samples were analyzed and the detection frequency of DBP was observed 72.87% by ic-ELISA. The 95th percentile and mean concentration of DBP were 12.07 and 3.00 ng mL(-1). Acceptable recovery rates of DBP were 97.8-114.3% and coefficients variation 5.93-11.09%. The concentrations of DBP in females were found significantly higher (p<0.05) than males. Similarly, the DBP in middle aged and low educated individuals was found higher (p<0.001) than the others. Considering the adverse health effects, DBP internal exposure in the Chinese population should be reduced. The ic-ELISA method has been proved as a cost effective, specific, and highly sensitive screening tool to detect DBP in urinary samples. PMID

  17. Evaluation of alternate extractants to tributyl phosphate. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, W.D.; Crouse, D.J.

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary evaluations have indicated that tri(n-hexyl) phosphate (THP) and tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) have some significant advantages over tri(n-butyl) phosphate (TBP) for fuel reprocessing although they also have some disadvantages. The longer alkyl chains in these new extractants decrease their aqueous phase solubility and increase the organic phase solubility of their metal complexes and the metal complexes of their degradation products. Both THP and TEHP extract uranium and plutonium more strongly than TBP; thorium extraction is in the order THP > TBP > TEHP. Tritium extraction is highest with TBP because of slightly higher water extraction. In extractions of thorium, a third liquid phase was formed using TBP at a solvent loading of about 40 g/L of thorium and above. Third-phase formation did not occur with THP or TEHP. The dialkyl phosphoric acid degradation products of THP and TEHP showed a markedly lower tendency to precipitate with thorium than did dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). Chemical stability studies showed TEHP to have much greater stability to acid hydrolysis than TBP and THP, which were about equivalent. No differences were detected in the radiation stability of the three extractants. The phase separation properties of THP and TEHP are inferior to those of TBP in both the nitric acid and sodium carbonate (solvent wash) systems. Phase separation was improved appreciably by using a lower extractant concentration than 1.09 M (equivalent to 30 vol % TBP). Difficulties were encountered with TEHP, however, owing to rapid degradation of its phase separation properties with time of contact with HNO{sub 3}; this problem requires additional study.

  18. [Effects of Phosphate and Zeolite on the Transformation of Cd Speciation in Soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-li; Liang, Cheng-hua; Ma, Zi-hui; Han, Yue

    2015-04-01

    The test simulated exogenous Cd contaminated soil indoors, and studied separate application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate and zeolite, and combined application of zeolite and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, zeolite and diammonium hydrogen phosphate, as well as the effect on the morphological changes of Cd contaminated soil. The results showed that soil exchangeable Cd contents were reduced in different degrees after the application of different modifiers, and the carbonate bound and Fe-Mn oxide bound, organic bound and residual Cd contents increased. By comparison, the separate application of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate and zeolite, and the combined application of zeolite and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, zeolite and diammonium hydrogen phosphate respectively reduced the soil available Cd contents at 25.2% -51.7%, 21.6% - 46.8%, 6.4% - 23.2%, 38.6% - 61.4%, and 34.1% - 56.4%. All treatments could increase the soil available phosphorus contents, making the soil available phosphorus contents negatively correlated with the available Cd contents significantly, with the correlation coefficient r = - 0.902 6, and the soil pH values had a negative correlation with the available Cd content during the treatments. Therefore, it could be known that the changes of soil available phosphorus contents were the major factor in reducing the availability of soil cadmium under the conditions of the application of phosphate and natural zeolite.

  19. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  20. Research and engineering assessment of biological solubilization of phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, R.D.; McIlwain, M.E.; Losinski, S.J.; Taylor, D.D.

    1993-03-01

    This research and engineering assessment examined a microbial phosphate solubilization process as a method of recovering phosphate from phosphorus containing ore compared to the existing wet acid and electric arc methods. A total of 860 microbial isolates, collected from a range of natural environments were tested for their ability to solubilize phosphate from rock phosphate. A bacterium (Pseudomonas cepacia) was selected for extensive characterization and evaluation of the mechanism of phosphate solubilization and of process engineering parameters necessary to recover phosphate from rock phosphate. These studies found that concentration of hydrogen ion and production of organic acids arising from oxidation of the carbon source facilitated microbial solubilization of both pure chemical insoluble phosphate compounds and phosphate rock. Genetic studies found that phosphate solubilization was linked to an enzyme system (glucose dehydrogenase). Process-related studies found that a critical solids density of 1% by weight (ore to liquid) was necessary for optimal solubilization. An engineering analysis evaluated the cost and energy requirements for a 2 million ton per year sized plant, whose size was selected to be comparable to existing wet acid plants.

  1. Biodegradation of tributyl phosphate, an organosphate triester, by aerobic granular biofilms.

    PubMed

    Nancharaiah, Y V; Kiran Kumar Reddy, G; Krishna Mohan, T V; Venugopalan, V P

    2015-01-01

    Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is commercially used in large volumes for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. TBP is a very stable compound and persistent in natural environments and it is not removed in conventional wastewater treatment plants. In this study, cultivation of aerobic granular biofilms in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated for efficient biodegradation of TBP. Enrichment of TBP-degrading strains resulted in efficient degradation of TBP as sole carbon or along with acetate. Complete biodegradation of 2mM of TBP was achieved within 5h with a degradation rate of 0.4 μmol mL(-1) h(-1). TBP biodegradation was accompanied by release of inorganic phosphate in stoichiometric amounts. n-Butanol, hydrolysed product of TBP was rapidly biodegraded. But, dibutyl phosphate, a putative intermediate of TBP degradation was only partially degraded pointing to an alternative degradation pathway. Phosphatase activity was 22- and 7.5-fold higher in TBP-degrading biofilms as compared to bioflocs and acetate-fed aerobic granules. Community analysis by terminal restriction length polymorphism revealed presence of 30 different bacterial strains. Seven bacterial stains, including Sphingobium sp. a known TBP degrader were isolated. The results show that aerobic granular biofilms are promising for treatment of TBP-bearing wastes or ex situ bioremediation of TBP-contaminated sites. PMID:25464313

  2. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  4. Phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate.

    PubMed

    Iheagwara, O Susan; Ing, Todd S; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Lew, Susie Q

    2013-10-01

    This article distinguishes the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" which are frequently used interchangeably. We point out the difference between phosphorus and phosphate, with an emphasis on the unit of measure. Expressing a value without the proper name or unit of measure may lead to misunderstanding and erroneous conclusions. We indicate why phosphate must be expressed as milligrams per deciliter or millimoles per liter and not as milliequivalents per liter. Therefore, we elucidate the distinction among the terms "phosphorus, phosphorous, and phosphate" and the importance of saying precisely what one really means.

  5. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  6. CADMIUM PHOSPHATE GLASS

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, H.W.; Johnson, P.D.

    1963-04-01

    A method of preparing a cadmium phosphate glass that comprises providing a mixture of solid inorganic compounds of cadmuim and phosphate having vaporizable components and heating the resulting composition to a temperature of at least 850 un. Concent 85% C is presented. (AEC)

  7. PHOSPHATE MANAGEMENT: FY2010 RESULTS OF PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATION TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, M.; King, W.

    2011-04-04

    The Phosphate Management program seeks to develop treatment options for caustic phosphate solutions resulting from the caustic leaching of the bismuth phosphate sludge. The SRNL subtask investigated the precipitation of phosphate salts from caustic solutions through addition of fluoride and by crystallization. The scoping tests examined the: precipitation of phosphate by the addition of sodium fluoride to form the sodium fluorophosphate double salt, Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 19H{sub 2}O, crystallization of phosphate by reducing the temperature of saturated phosphate solutions, and combinations of precipitation and crystallization. A simplified leachate simulant was used in the study produced by dissolving sodium phosphate in 1 M to 3.5 M sodium hydroxide solutions. The results show that all three processes; precipitation with sodium fluoride, crystallization, and combined precipitation/crystallization can be effective for removing large amounts of phosphate from solution. The combined process of precipitation/crystallization showed >90% removal of phosphate at all hydroxide concentrations when cooling a non-saturated phosphate solution from 65 C to 25 C. Based on the measured solubility of sodium phosphate, pH adjustment/caustic addition will also remove large amounts of phosphate from solution (>80%). For all three processes, the phosphate concentration in the caustic solution must be managed to keep the phosphate from becoming too concentrated and thereby potentially forming a solid mass of sodium phosphate after an effective phosphate removal process.

  8. Intramolecular general acid catalysis of the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl phosphate, and bond length-reactivity correlations for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Tiago A S; Orth, Elisa S; Rocha, Willian R; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Bunton, Clifford A; Nome, Faruk

    2007-05-11

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of 2-(2'-imidazolium)phenyl hydrogen phosphate (IMPP) in water at pH<6 indicate that activation by the imidazolium moiety disappears with the deprotonation of the phosphate group, and the reaction involves the hydrogen-bonding of the imidazolium NH with the aryl oxygen leaving group. The reaction should involve a near-planar conformation of the imidazolium and the phenyl groups in the activated complex, which favors proton-transfer. The crystal structure of IMPP was solved, and a bond length-reactivity correlation for reactions of phosphate monoester monoanions is described.

  9. Metal-phosphate binders

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, Beth Ann; Chaps-Cabrera, Jesus Guadalupe

    2009-05-12

    A metal-phosphate binder is provided. The binder may include an aqueous phosphoric acid solution, a metal-cation donor including a metal other than aluminum, an aluminum-cation donor, and a non-carbohydrate electron donor.

  10. Accessing alkali-free NASICON-type compounds through mixed oxoanion sol-gel chemistry: Hydrogen titanium phosphate sulfate, H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x (x=0.5-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieritz, Daniel; Davidowski, Stephen K.; Seo, Dong-Kyun

    2016-10-01

    We report a direct sol-gel synthesis and characterization of new proton-containing, rhombohedral NASICION-type titanium compounds with mixed phosphate and sulfate oxoanions. The synthetic conditions were established by utilizing peroxide ion as a decomposable and stabilizing ligand for titanyl ions in the presence of phosphates in a strong acidic medium. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), induction-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopic (ICP-OES) elemental analysis, and Raman and 1H magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopic studies have determined the presence of sulfate and proton ions in the structure, for which the compositional range has been found to be H1-xTi2(PO4)3-x(SO4)x (x=0.5-1). The particulate products exhibit a nanocrystalline nature observed through characterization with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The N2 sorption isotherm measurements and subsequent Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) analyses confirmed the presence of the textural meso- and macropores in the materials. Future studies would determine the potential of the new compounds in various applications as battery materials, proton conductors and solid acid catalysts.

  11. Phosphate control in dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Cupisti, Adamasco; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Caria, Stefania; Meola, Mario; Bolasco, Piergiorgio

    2013-01-01

    Prevention and correction of hyperphosphatemia is a major goal of chronic kidney disease–mineral and bone disorder (CKD–MBD) management, achievable through avoidance of a positive phosphate balance. To this aim, optimal dialysis removal, careful use of phosphate binders, and dietary phosphate control are needed to optimize the control of phosphate balance in well-nourished patients on a standard three-times-a-week hemodialysis schedule. Using a mixed diffusive–convective hemodialysis tecniques, and increasing the number and/or the duration of dialysis tecniques are all measures able to enhance phosphorus (P) mass removal through dialysis. However, dialytic removal does not equal the high P intake linked to the high dietary protein requirement of dialysis patients; hence, the use of intestinal P binders is mandatory to reduce P net intestinal absorption. Unfortunately, even a large dose of P binders is able to bind approximately 200–300 mg of P on a daily basis, so it is evident that their efficacy is limited in the case of an uncontrolled dietary P load. Hence, limitation of dietary P intake is needed to reach the goal of neutral phosphate balance in dialysis, coupled to an adequate protein intake. To this aim, patients should be informed and educated to avoid foods that are naturally rich in phosphate and also processed food with P-containing preservatives. In addition, patients should preferentially choose food with a low P-to-protein ratio. For example, patients could choose egg white or protein from a vegetable source. Finally, boiling should be the preferred cooking procedure, because it induces food demineralization, including phosphate loss. The integrated approach outlined in this article should be actively adapted as a therapeutic alliance by clinicians, dieticians, and patients for an effective control of phosphate balance in dialysis patients. PMID:24133374

  12. Crystal structure of 4,4-dibutyl-2-phenyl-3,4-di­hydro­quinazoline

    PubMed Central

    El-Hiti, Gamal A.; Smith, Keith; Hegazy, Amany S.; Alshammari, Mohammed B.; Kariuki, Benson M.

    2014-01-01

    In the title compound, C22H28N2, the dihedral angle between the planes of the phenyl ring and the di­hydro­quinazoline ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.030 Å) is 24.95 (7)° and both n-butane chains assume all-trans conformations. In the crystal, N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into C(4) chains propagating in the [001] direction. PMID:25484693

  13. Apatite Formation from Amorphous Calcium Phosphate and Mixed Amorphous Calcium Phosphate/Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, Casper J S; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Birkedal, Henrik

    2016-08-22

    Crystallization from amorphous phases is an emerging pathway for making advanced materials. Biology has made use of amorphous precursor phases for eons and used them to produce structures with remarkable properties. Herein, we show how the design of the amorphous phase greatly influences the nanocrystals formed therefrom. We investigate the transformation of mixed amorphous calcium phosphate/amorphous calcium carbonate phases into bone-like nanocrystalline apatite using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The speciation of phosphate was controlled by pH to favor HPO4 (2-) . In a carbonate free system, the reaction produces anisotropic apatite crystallites with large aspect ratios. The first formed crystallites are highly calcium deficient and hydrogen phosphate rich, consistent with thin octacalcium phosphate (OCP)-like needles. During growth, the crystallites become increasingly stoichiometric, which indicates that the crystallites grow through addition of near-stoichiometric apatite to the OCP-like initial crystals through a process that involves either crystallite fusion/aggregation or Ostwald ripening. The mixed amorphous phases were found to be more stable against phase transformations, hence, the crystallization was inhibited. The resulting crystallites were smaller and less anisotropic. This is rationalized by the idea that a local phosphate-depletion zone formed around the growing crystal until it was surrounded by amorphous calcium carbonate, which stopped the crystallization. PMID:27460160

  14. Biomineralization of calcium phosphate crystals on chitin nanofiber hydrogel for bone regeneration material.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Mari; Azuma, Kazuo; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-01-20

    We previously reported a chitin nanofiber hydrogel from squid pen β-chitin by a simple NaOH treatment. In the present study, a calcium phosphate/chitin nanofiber hydrogel was prepared for bone tissue engineering. Calcium phosphate was mineralized on the hydrogel by incubation in a solution of diammonium hydrogen phosphate solution followed by calcium nitrate tetrahydrate. X-ray diffractometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the formation of calcium phosphate crystals. The morphology of the calcium phosphate crystals changed depending on the calcification time. After mineralization, the mechanical properties of the hydrogel improved due to the reinforcement effect of calcium phosphate crystal. In an animal experiment, calcium phosphate/chitin nanofiber hydrogel accelerated mineralization in subcutaneous tissues. Morphological osteoblasts were observed. PMID:26572435

  15. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ovacik, Meric A.; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y.; Gaido, Kevin W.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  16. Use of genomic data in risk assessment case study: I. Evaluation of the dibutyl phthalate male reproductive development toxicity data set

    SciTech Connect

    Makris, Susan L.; Euling, Susan Y.; Gray, L. Earl; Benson, Robert; Foster, Paul M.D.

    2013-09-15

    A case study was conducted, using dibutyl phthalate (DBP), to explore an approach to using toxicogenomic data in risk assessment. The toxicity and toxicogenomic data sets relative to DBP-related male reproductive developmental outcomes were considered conjointly to derive information about mode and mechanism of action. In this manuscript, we describe the case study evaluation of the toxicological database for DBP, focusing on identifying the full spectrum of male reproductive developmental effects. The data were assessed to 1) evaluate low dose and low incidence findings and 2) identify male reproductive toxicity endpoints without well-established modes of action (MOAs). These efforts led to the characterization of data gaps and research needs for the toxicity and toxicogenomic studies in a risk assessment context. Further, the identification of endpoints with unexplained MOAs in the toxicity data set was useful in the subsequent evaluation of the mechanistic information that the toxicogenomic data set evaluation could provide. The extensive analysis of the toxicology data set within the MOA context provided a resource of information for DBP in attempts to hypothesize MOAs (for endpoints without a well-established MOA) and to phenotypically anchor toxicogenomic and other mechanistic data both to toxicity endpoints and to available toxicogenomic data. This case study serves as an example of the steps that can be taken to develop a toxicological data source for a risk assessment, both in general and especially for risk assessments that include toxicogenomic data.

  17. Nanostructured copper-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber for gas chromatographic analysis of dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate environmental estrogens.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2015-01-01

    A novel nanostructured copper-based solid-phase microextraction fiber was developed and applied for determining the two most common types of phthalate environmental estrogens (dibutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate) in aqueous samples, coupled to gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. The copper film was coated onto a stainless-steel wire via an electroless plating process, which involved a surface activation process to improve the surface properties of the fiber. Several parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as extraction time, extraction temperature, ionic strength, desorption temperature, and desorption time were optimized by a factor-by-factor procedure to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. The as-established method showed wide linear ranges (0.05-250 μg/L). Precision of single fiber repeatability was <7.0%, and fiber-to-fiber repeatability was <10%. Limits of detection were 0.01 μg/L. The proposed method exhibited better or comparable extraction performance compared with commercial and other lab-made fibers, and excellent thermal stability and durability. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of model analytes in plastic soaking water.

  18. Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 μg/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17β-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats.

  19. Using Carbon-14 Isotope Tracing to Investigate Molecular Structure Effects of the Oxygenate Dibutyl Maleate on Soot Emissions from a DI Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Mueller, C J; Upatnieks, A; Martin, G C; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2004-01-07

    The effect of oxygenate molecular structure on soot emissions from a DI diesel engine was examined using carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) isotope tracing. Carbon atoms in three distinct chemical structures within the diesel oxygenate dibutyl maleate (DBM) were labeled with {sup 14}C. The {sup 14}C from the labeled DBM was then detected in engine-out particulate matter (PM), in-cylinder deposits, and CO{sub 2} emissions using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The results indicate that molecular structure plays an important role in determining whether a specific carbon atom either does or does not form soot. Chemical-kinetic modeling results indicate that structures that produce CO{sub 2} directly from the fuel are less effective at reducing soot than structures that produce CO before producing CO{sub 2}. Because they can follow individual carbon atoms through a real combustion process, {sup 14}C isotope tracing studies help strengthen the connection between actual engine emissions and chemical-kinetic models of combustion and soot formation/oxidation processes.

  20. Pathway modeling of microarray data: a case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP).

    PubMed

    Ovacik, Meric A; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y; Gaido, Kevin W; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  1. NMR studies on mechanism of isomerisation of fructose 6-phosphate to glucose 6-phosphate catalysed by phosphoglucose isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Shahzada Nadeem; Mok, Kenneth Hun; Rashid, Naeem; Xie, Yongjing; Ruether, Manuel; O'Brien, John; Akhtar, Muhammad

    2016-06-01

    The fate of hydrogen atoms at C-2 of glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) and C-1 of fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) was studied in the reaction catalysed by phosphoglucose isomerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TkPGI) through 1D and 2D NMR methods. When the reaction was performed in (2)H2O the hydrogen atoms in the aforementioned positions were exchanged with deuterons indicating that the isomerization occurred by a cis-enediol intermediate involving C-1 pro-R hydrogen of F6P. These features are similar to those described for phosphoglucose isomerases from rabbit muscle and Pyrococcus furiosus.

  2. Effects of limestone on the dissolution of phosphate from sediments under anaerobic condition.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Park, J

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a study on the role of limestone on the dissolution of phosphates when phosphate-containing sediments are put under anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic decomposition of organic substances produces both organic acids and carbonic acids which in turn could accelerate the dissolution of the phosphates. If limestone coexisted, both phosphate and limestone would compete as receptors of hydrogen ions so as to affect the dissolution of phosphate. A small quantity of calcium hydroxyapatite, alone or mixed with limestone powder, was put in contact with an aqueous solution of acetic acid or carbonic acid and the variations in phosphate concentration were determined over time. The results showed that the phosphate concentration was remarkably low in the case of limestone presence, in comparison with the case of limestone absence. This signifies that the coexistence of limestone suppresses the dissolution of phosphate by organic acid and/or carbonic acid. Separate experiments conducted by developing an anaerobic condition, after mixing lake sediments with dried leaves and limestone, allowed us to observe that the existence of limestone suppressed the dissolution of phosphate. It seems that the limestone acts as a material sacrificing to the leaching of hydrogen ions from the acids produced under anaerobic conditions. These results show that the application of limestone might be a useful measure to prevent deterioration of water quality through eutrophication, by breaking the internal loading of phosphates in eutrophic water bodies. PMID:18619142

  3. Phosphate mineral formation on the supported dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) layers.

    PubMed

    Szcześ, Aleksandra

    2014-07-01

    Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) mono- and bilayers supported on mica surface were soaked for two weeks in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. Two solutions were investigated: with and without Tris. The experiment was conducted at 20°C and at a physiological temperature equal to 37°C. Raman spectroscopy was used for the characterization of the precipitated phosphate minerals. These studies may provide information about the physiological mineralization of cell membranes that are mainly composed of phospholipids. Findings from these experiments suggest that the DPPC bilayers enhance the formation of less soluble phosphate forms especially at a temperature of 37°C. In the solution without Tris temperature increase gives more mineral deposits. It is probably the hydrogen interactions between phosphate groups of the phospholipid and hydroxyl groups from Tris that lower exposure of the phosphate group to interact with calcium ions.

  4. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium).

    The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  6. Fundamentals of phosphate transfer.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Anthony J; Nome, Faruk

    2015-07-21

    Historically, the chemistry of phosphate transfer-a class of reactions fundamental to the chemistry of Life-has been discussed almost exclusively in terms of the nucleophile and the leaving group. Reactivity always depends significantly on both factors; but recent results for reactions of phosphate triesters have shown that it can also depend strongly on the nature of the nonleaving or "spectator" groups. The extreme stabilities of fully ionised mono- and dialkyl phosphate esters can be seen as extensions of the same effect, with one or two triester OR groups replaced by O(-). Our chosen lead reaction is hydrolysis-phosphate transfer to water: because water is the medium in which biological chemistry takes place; because the half-life of a system in water is an accepted basic index of stability; and because the typical mechanisms of hydrolysis, with solvent H2O providing specific molecules to act as nucleophiles and as general acids or bases, are models for reactions involving better nucleophiles and stronger general species catalysts. Not least those available in enzyme active sites. Alkyl monoester dianions compete with alkyl diester monoanions for the slowest estimated rates of spontaneous hydrolysis. High stability at physiological pH is a vital factor in the biological roles of organic phosphates, but a significant limitation for experimental investigations. Almost all kinetic measurements of phosphate transfer reactions involving mono- and diesters have been followed by UV-visible spectroscopy using activated systems, conveniently compounds with good leaving groups. (A "good leaving group" OR* is electron-withdrawing, and can be displaced to generate an anion R*O(-) in water near pH 7.) Reactivities at normal temperatures of P-O-alkyl derivatives-better models for typical biological substrates-have typically had to be estimated: by extended extrapolation from linear free energy relationships, or from rate measurements at high temperatures. Calculation is free

  7. Characterization of the phosphatic mineral of the barnacle Ibla cumingi at atomic level by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: comparison with other phosphatic biominerals.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Mason, Matthew J; Chan, Benny K K; Duer, Melinda J

    2012-07-01

    Ibliform barnacles are among the few invertebrate animals harnessing calcium phosphate to construct hard tissue. The (31)P solid-state NMR (SSNMR) signal from the shell plates of Ibla cumingi (Iblidae) is broader than that of bone, and shifted by ca 1 ppm to low frequency. (1)H-(31)P heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) experiments show a continuum of different phosphorus/phosphate atomic environments, close to hydrogen populations with resonance frequencies between ca 10 and 20 ppm. Associated (1)H and (31)P chemical shifts argue the coexistence of weakly (high (31)P frequency, low (1)H frequency) to more strongly (lower (31)P frequency, higher (1)H frequency) hydrogen-bonded hydrogen phosphate-like molecular/ionic species. There is no resolved signal from discrete OH(-) ions. (13)C SSNMR shows chitin, protein and other organic biomolecules but, unlike bone, there are no significant atomic scale organic matrix-mineral contacts. The poorly ordered hydrogen phosphate-like iblid mineral is strikingly different, structurally and compositionally, from both vertebrate bone mineral and the more crystalline fluoroapatite of the linguliform brachiopods. It probably represents a previously poorly characterized calcium phosphate biomineral, the evolution of which may have reflected either the chemical conditions of ancestral seas or the mechanical advantages of phosphatic biomineralization over a calcium carbonate equivalent.

  8. Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase show apparent specificity for a specific ribulose 5-phosphate species.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L E

    1987-02-01

    Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase and ribulose-5-phosphate kinase appear to show specificity for a particular ribulose 5-phosphate species. The effect of this specificity will be channeling of ribulose 5-phosphate from the isomerase to the kinase during photosynthesis.

  9. Domestic phosphate deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKelvey, V.E.; Cathcart, J.B.; Altschuler, Z.S.; Swanson, R.W.; Lutz, Katherine

    1953-01-01

    Most of the worlds phosphate deposits can be grouped into six types: 1) igneous apatite deposits; 2) marine phosphorites; 3) residual phosphorites; 4) river pebble deposits; 5) phosphatized rock; and 6) guano. The igneous apatites and marine phosphorites form deposits measurable in millions or billions of tons; the residual deposits are measurable in thousands or millions; and the other types generally only in thousands of tons. Igneous apatite deposits have been mined on a small scale in New York, New Jersey, and Virginia. Marine phosphorites have been mined in Montana, Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. Residual phosphorites have been mined in Tennessee, Pennsylvania, and Florida. River pebble has been produced in South Carolina and Florida; phosphatized rock in Tennessee and Florida; and guano in New Mexico and Texas. Present production is limited almost entirely to Florida, Tennessee, Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. Incomplete but recently partly revised estimates indicate the presence of about 5 billion tons of phosphate deposits in the United States that is minable under present economic conditions. Deposits too lean in quality or thickness to compete with those in the western and southeastern fields probably contain tens of billions of tons.

  10. Effects of dibutyl phthalate as an environmental endocrine disruptor on gonadal sex differentiation of genetic males of the frog Rana rugosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ohtani, H; Miura, I; Ichikawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    To examine the effects of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on gonadal sex differentiation, genetically male tadpoles of Rana rugosa were exposed to dilute solutions of DBP at concentrations of 0.1, 1, or 10 microM during days 19-23 after fertilization, which is the critical period of gonadal sex differentiation in R. rugosa. Tadpoles were necropsied on day 40. The genetically male tadpoles were produced from crossings between males (ZZ) of one local population, in which females are the heterogametic sex, and females (XX) of another local population, in which males are the heterogametic sex. As positive control groups, tadpoles were exposed to dilute solutions of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) at concentrations of 0. 01, 0.1, or 1 microM during the same period. The internal structure of the gonads was histologically examined in a total of 30 control tadpoles, 86 E(2)-treated tadpoles, and 90 DBP-treated tadpoles. The gonads of the control tadpoles all showed the typical structure of testes. In contrast, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 microM E(2) treatments caused the undifferentiated gonads of 18, 63, and 100% of the tadpoles, respectively, to develop into gonads of complete or partial ovarian structure. After 0.1, 1, and 10 microM DBP treatment, 0, 7, and 17% of tadpoles, respectively, were similarly affected. These findings suggest that DBP was about 1,000-fold less potent than E(2). Nevertheless, DBP is an environmentally dangerous hormone that disrupts the pathways of testicular differentiation in genetically male animals. PMID:11133400

  11. Inhibition of Ca2+ release from Trypanosoma brucei acidocalcisomes by 3,5-dibutyl-4-hydroxytoluene: role of the Na+/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Vercesi, A E; Grijalba, M T; Docampo, R

    1997-01-01

    Acidocalcisomes are acidic vacuoles present in trypanosomatids that contain a considerable fraction of intracellular Ca2+. They possess a vacuolar-type H+-ATPase for H+ uptake, a Ca2+/H+ countertransporting ATPase for Ca2+ uptake and a Ca2+/nH+ antiporter for Ca2+ release. Trypanosoma brucei procyclic trypomastigotes acidocalcisomes possess, in addition, an Na+/H+ antiporter that may participate in Ca2+ release from these organelles. In this work we show that the hydrophobic antioxidant 3,5-dibutyl-4-hydroxy toluene (BHT), at concentrations in the range 1-20 microM, inhibits Na+-induced Ca2+ release from the acidocalcisomes of digitonin-permeabilized procyclic trypomastigotes in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect supports the notion that Ca2+ release from this compartment is regulated by the activity of the Na+/H+ antiporter. In the presence of BHT, Ca2+ release could still be obtained by nigericin-mediated alkalinization of the acidocalcisomes, clearly demonstrating that the action of BHT is not at the level of the Ca2+/nH+ antiporter but on that of the Na+/H+ antiporter. In the same range of concentrations and depending on the preincubation time, BHT had an stimulatory or an inhibitory effect on the vacuolar H+-ATPase present in T. brucei acidocalcisomes. Since these effects of BHT were obtained at concentrations which are commonly used for its antioxidant properties, these results indicate that care should be exercised when attributing effects of BHT to only these properties. PMID:9371704

  12. Pathway modeling of microarray data: a case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP).

    PubMed

    Ovacik, Meric A; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y; Gaido, Kevin W; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data. PMID:20850466

  13. Preliminary time-of-flight neutron diffraction studies of Escherichia coli ABC transport receptor phosphate-binding protein at the Protein Crystallography Station

    PubMed Central

    Sippel, K. H.; Bacik, J.; Quiocho, F. A.; Fisher, S. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate is an essential molecule for all known life. Organisms have developed many mechanisms to ensure an adequate supply, even in low-phosphate conditions. In prokaryotes phosphate transport is instigated by the phosphate-binding protein (PBP), the initial receptor for the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) phosphate transporter. In the crystal structure of the PBP–phosphate complex, the phosphate is completely desolvated and sequestered in a deep cleft and is bound by 13 hydrogen bonds: 12 to protein NH and OH donor groups and one to a carboxylate acceptor group. The carboxylate plays a key recognition role by accepting a phosphate hydrogen. PBP phosphate affinity is relatively consistent across a broad pH range, indicating the capacity to bind monobasic (H2PO4 −) and dibasic (HPO4 2−) phosphate; however, the mechanism by which it might accommodate the second hydrogen of monobasic phosphate is unclear. To answer this question, neutron diffraction studies were initiated. Large single crystals with a volume of 8 mm3 were grown and subjected to hydrogen/deuterium exchange. A 2.5 Å resolution data set was collected on the Protein Crystallography Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Initial refinement of the neutron data shows significant nuclear density, and refinement is ongoing. This is the first report of a neutron study from this superfamily. PMID:24915101

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  19. Expanding sapphyrin: towards selective phosphate binding.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Evgeny A; Boev, Nikolay V; Myshkovskaya, Ekaterina; Khrustalev, Victor N; Ustynyuk, Yu A

    2008-01-01

    The anion-templated syntheses and binding properties of novel macrocyclic oligopyrrole receptors in which pyrrole rings are linked through amide or imine bonds are described. The efficient synthesis was accomplished by anion-templated [1+1] Schiff-base condensation and acylation macrocyclization reactions. Free receptors and their host-guest complexes with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid, tetrabutylammonium chloride, and hydrogen sulfate were analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Stability constants with different tetrabutylammonium salts of inorganic acids were determined by standard 1H NMR and UV/Vis titration techniques in [D6]DMSO/0.5% water solution. According to the titration data, receptors containing three pyrrole rings (10 and 12) exhibit high affinity (log Ka=5-7) for bifluoride, acetate, and dihydrogen phosphate, and interact weakly with chloride and hydrogen sulfate. The amido-bipyrrole receptors 11 and 13 with four pyrrole rings exhibit 10(4)- and 10(2)-fold selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate, respectively, as inferred from competitive titrations in the presence of tetrabutylammonium acetate.

  20. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  1. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    DOEpatents

    Goldstein, A.H.; Rogers, R.D.

    1999-06-15

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  2. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone–kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  3. Dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and conditions associated with phosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ronald B; Razzaque, Mohammed S

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate homeostasis is coordinated and regulated by complex cross-organ talk through delicate hormonal networks. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), secreted in response to low serum calcium, has an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis by influencing renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, thereby increasing intestinal phosphate absorption. Moreover, PTH can increase phosphate efflux from bone and contribute to renal phosphate homeostasis through phosphaturic effects. In addition, PTH can induce skeletal synthesis of another potent phosphaturic hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), which is able to inhibit renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, thereby increasing urinary phosphate excretion. FGF23 can also fine-tune vitamin D homeostasis by suppressing renal expression of 1-alpha hydroxylase (1α(OH)ase). This review briefly discusses how FGF23, by forming a bone-kidney axis, regulates phosphate homeostasis, and how its dysregulation can lead to phosphate toxicity that induces widespread tissue injury. We also provide evidence to explain how phosphate toxicity related to dietary phosphorus overload may facilitate incidence of noncommunicable diseases including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, cancers and skeletal disorders. PMID:26131357

  4. Extended hydrogen-bonded structures of phosphatidylethanolamine.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Yang, P W; Mantsch, H H; Hui, S W

    1988-06-01

    The structure of phosphatidylethanolamine in pure dry hexane was studied. Viscosity measurements show that the hexane solution of PE has a very high viscosity, while freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed extensive fibre-like structures. These extended structures are disrupted by the addition of small amounts of water or organic solvents which are capable of hydrogen-bonding. The Fourier transform infrared spectra of the lipid solutions in dry and hydrated hexane show considerable differences in the phosphate and ethanolamine absorption bands, and demonstrate that the viscous fibre-like structures formed by phosphatidylethanolamine in dry hexane consist of extended intermolecular hydrogen-bonds, similar to those found in the solid lipid, with the ammonium group as the hydrogen-donor and the phosphate group as the hydrogen-acceptor. The high viscosity is not observed in hexane solution of phosphatidylcholine.

  5. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  6. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    ions would enhance the absorption of CO2 into the aerosol even more than the singly or doubly charged ions. Ion containing aerosols also help to catalyze reactions between water and CO2. Hydrated phosphate and silicate ions tend to attract hydrogen atoms from neighboring water molecules to reduce the charged state. When there is CO2 in the vicinity of the ion, the remainder of the water molecule which loses the hydrogen(s) reacts with CO2 to form carbonates. (PO4---) + H2O + CO2 -> (HPO3--) + (HCO3-) (SiO4----) + H2O + CO2 -> (HSiO4---) + (HCO3-) (SiO4----) + H2O + CO2 -> (H2SiO4--) + (CO3--) In conclusion, highly charged phosphate and silicate ions dissolved in water and aerosolized into small droplets can facilitate both the capture and the mineralization of CO2. This method would be especially effective in a CO2 rich environment such as the exhaust gas of a combustion process. [1] H. Gokturk, "Geoengineering with Charged Droplets," AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco 2011 [2] H. Gokturk, "Atomistic Simulation of Sea Spray Particles," AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco 2012

  7. Solubilization of insoluble phosphates by thermophilic fungi.

    PubMed

    Singh, C P; Mishra, M M; Yadav, K S

    1980-01-01

    The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate and rock phosphate and assimilation of solubilized P by thermophilic fungi isolated from compost were studied. The solubilization of tricalcium phosphate was greater than that of rock phosphate on inoculation with fungi in liquid medium, but growth of most of the fungi was greater in rock phosphate. Torula thermophila solubilized tricalcium phosphate maximally. There was solubilization of rock phosphate in semi-solid lignocellulose medium by Aspergillus fumigatus.

  8. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  9. ION EXCHANGE SUBSTANCES BY SAPONIFICATION OF ALLYL PHOSPHATE POLYMERS

    DOEpatents

    Kennedy, J.

    1959-04-14

    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  10. Effects of combined exposure to 17α-ethynylestradiol and dibutyl phthalate on the growth and reproduction of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Chen, Pengyu; Liu, Lei; Zeng, Yaqiong; Zhou, Haixia; Li, Song

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the combined effects of 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on the growth and reproduction of male zebrafish, three-month-old fish were exposed to 0.005 or 0.020µg/L EE2, 100 or 500µg/L DBP or their binary mixtures under semi-static conditions. Investigated parameters include the length, weight, condition factor, vitellogenin (VTG) induction, acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) protein level, histopathological alteration of testis, liver and gill, and reproductive capacity. After 21d exposure, no statistical difference was found among the weights, lengths and condition factors of different treatment groups. In all binary mixture groups, decreased VTG levels were detected compared to EE2-only groups; and the AOX levels were significantly lower than DBP-only treatments while both chemicals can individually induce AOX synthesis. Therefore, EE2 and DBP may act additively on VTG and antagonistically on AOX induction in males. After 45d exposure, delayed gametogenesis was observed for the DBP-only groups, indicated by fewer spermatozoa and more spermatocytes, which was further aggravated with the addition of EE2. The developmental delay of testis partially recovered after a 30d depuration in clean water. Combined exposure also caused liver and gill lesions, which were not alleviated during the 30d depuration, suggesting a nonreversible harmful effect the same as single exposure. Mixed EE2 and DBP were observed to impair the reproductive capability (the fecundity and fertilization rate) of males, while single exposure did not. Co-exposed to 0.020µg/L EE2 and 100µg/L DBP promoted the early hatching of offspring (F1 generation) at 48h post-fertilization (hpf), but the survival rates of the F1 generation were similar in all treatments. Our findings indicate that the effects of mixed EE2 and DBP at environmentally relevant levels can be either antagonistic or additive relying on the specific toxicological endpoints and the respective doses of each

  11. Structural Basis for Substrate Specificity in Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrels: D-Allulose 6-Phosphate 3-Epimerase from Escherichia coli K-12

    SciTech Connect

    Chan,K.; Fedorov, A.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes that share the ({beta}/{alpha})8-barrel fold catalyze a diverse range of reactions. Many utilize phosphorylated substrates and share a conserved C-terminal ({beta}/a)2-quarter barrel subdomain that provides a binding motif for the dianionic phosphate group. We recently reported functional and structural studies of d-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE) from Streptococcus pyogenes that catalyzes the equilibration of the pentulose 5-phosphates d-ribulose 5-phosphate and d-xylulose 5-phosphate in the pentose phosphate pathway [J. Akana, A. A. Fedorov, E. Fedorov, W. R. P. Novack, P. C. Babbitt, S. C. Almo, and J. A. Gerlt (2006) Biochemistry 45, 2493-2503]. We now report functional and structural studies of d-allulose 6-phosphate 3-epimerase (ALSE) from Escherichia coli K-12 that catalyzes the equilibration of the hexulose 6-phosphates d-allulose 6-phosphate and d-fructose 6-phosphate in a catabolic pathway for d-allose. ALSE and RPE prefer their physiological substrates but are promiscuous for each other's substrate. The active sites (RPE complexed with d-xylitol 5-phosphate and ALSE complexed with d-glucitol 6-phosphate) are superimposable (as expected from their 39% sequence identity), with the exception of the phosphate binding motif. The loop following the eighth {beta}-strand in ALSE is one residue longer than the homologous loop in RPE, so the binding site for the hexulose 6-phosphate substrate/product in ALSE is elongated relative to that for the pentulose 5-phosphate substrate/product in RPE. We constructed three single-residue deletion mutants of the loop in ALSE, ?T196, ?S197 and ?G198, to investigate the structural bases for the differing substrate specificities; for each, the promiscuity is altered so that d-ribulose 5-phosphate is the preferred substrate. The changes in kcat/Km are dominated by changes in kcat, suggesting that substrate discrimination results from differential transition state stabilization. In both ALSE and RPE, the phosphate

  12. Direct observation of grafting interlayer phosphate in Mg/Al layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Akihiro; Kanezaki, Eiji; Jones, Mark I.; Metson, James B.

    2012-02-15

    The grafting of interlayer phosphate in synthetic Mg/Al layered double hydroxides with interlayer hydrogen phosphate (LDH-HPO{sub 4}) has been studied by XRD, TG/DTA, FT-IR, XPS and XANES. The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature, from 1.06 nm to 0.82 nm at 333 K in the first transition, and to 0.722 nm at 453 K in the second. The first stage occurs due to the loss of interlayer water and rearrangement of the interlayer HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. In the second transition, the interlayer phosphate is grafted to the layer by the formation of direct bonding to metal cations in the layer, accompanied by a change in polytype of the crystalline structure. The grafted phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange with 1-octanesulfonate. The LDH is amorphous at 743 K but decomposes to Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, AlPO{sub 4}, MgO and MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} after heated to 1273 K. - Graphical abstract: The cross section of the synthetic Mg, Al layered double hydroxides in Phase 1, with interlayer hydrogen phosphate Phase 2, and with grafted phosphate, Phase 3. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafting of hydrogen phosphate intercalated Mg/Al-LDH has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The basal spacing of crystalline LDH-HPO{sub 4} decreases in two stages with increasing temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first decrease is due to loss of interlayer water, the second is attributed to phosphate grafting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grafted interlayer phosphate becomes immobilized and cannot be removed by anion-exchange.

  13. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  14. Hydrogen Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The series of absorption or emission lines that are characteristic of the hydrogen atom. According to the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom, devised by Danish physicist Neils Bohr (1885-1962) in 1913, the hydrogen atom can be envisaged as consisting of a central nucleus (a proton) around which a single electron revolves. The electron is located in one of a number of possible permitted orbits, each...

  15. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  16. Coal hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1981-01-06

    Disclosure is made of a method and apparatus for reacting carbonaceous material such as pulverized coal with heated hydrogen to form hydrocarbon gases and liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. The heated hydrogen and entrained coal are injected through a rocket engine type injector device. The coal particles are reacted with hydrogen in a reaction chamber downstream of the injector. The products of reaction are rapidly quenched as they exit the reaction chamber and are subsequently collected.

  17. Phosphate nutrition: improving low-phosphate tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar Lizbeth; Leyva-González, Marco Antonio; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; López-Bucio, José; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that is required for all major developmental processes and reproduction in plants. It is also a major constituent of the fertilizers required to sustain high-yield agriculture. Levels of phosphate--the only form of phosphorus that can be assimilated by plants--are suboptimal in most natural and agricultural ecosystems, and when phosphate is applied as fertilizer in soils, it is rapidly immobilized owing to fixation and microbial activity. Thus, cultivated plants use only approximately 20-30% of the applied phosphate, and the rest is lost, eventually causing water eutrophication. Recent advances in the understanding of mechanisms by which wild and cultivated species adapt to low-phosphate stress and the implementation of alternative bacterial pathways for phosphorus metabolism have started to allow the design of more effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to produce highly phosphate-efficient crops, optimize fertilizer use, and reach agricultural sustainability with a lower environmental cost. In this review, we outline the current advances in research on the complex network of plant responses to low-phosphorus stress and discuss some strategies used to manipulate genes involved in phosphate uptake, remobilization, and metabolism to develop low-phosphate-tolerant crops, which could help in designing more efficient crops.

  18. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  19. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  20. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  1. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  2. 21 CFR 520.823 - Erythromycin phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Specifications. Erythromycin phosphate is the phosphate salt of the antibiotic substance produced by the growth of Streptomyces erythreus or the same antibiotic substance produced by any other...

  3. Quality control in production of suspensions from solid ammonium phosphates (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate). [Monoammonium phosphate; diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Achorn, F.P.; Balay, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Suspensions of good quality can be produced from MAP and DAP. Suspension quality depends on the amount of impurities in the ammonium phosphate solids used. Tests have shown that adding ammonium fluoride helps lower viscosity of suspensions containing a considerable amount of impurities. Also, adding polyphosphates (such as 10-34-0, 9-32-0, and 11-37-0) as a source of part of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (6 to 15% polyphosphate in the product) helps to produce a suspension that has excellent storage characteristics. When the polyphosphate content of the product (11-33-0 suspension) is between 10 and 15% it usually will not solidify during cold weather storage. Freight and production costs of granular ammonium phosphates are relatively low compared to other sources of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for the fluid fertilizer market; therefore, using MAP and DAP to produce suspensions is expected to continue to grow in popularity. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Hydrogen Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  5. Ultrafast phosphate hydration dynamics in bulk H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costard, Rene; Tyborski, Tobias; Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Phosphate vibrations serve as local probes of hydrogen bonding and structural fluctuations of hydration shells around ions. Interactions of H2PO4- ions and their aqueous environment are studied combining femtosecond 2D infrared spectroscopy, ab-initio calculations, and hybrid quantum-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two-dimensional infrared spectra of the symmetric ( ν S ( PO2 - ) ) and asymmetric ( ν A S ( PO2 - ) ) PO 2- stretching vibrations display nearly homogeneous lineshapes and pronounced anharmonic couplings between the two modes and with the δ(P-(OH)2) bending modes. The frequency-time correlation function derived from the 2D spectra consists of a predominant 50 fs decay and a weak constant component accounting for a residual inhomogeneous broadening. MD simulations show that the fluctuating electric field of the aqueous environment induces strong fluctuations of the ν S ( PO2 - ) and ν A S ( PO2 - ) transition frequencies with larger frequency excursions for ν A S ( PO2 - ) . The calculated frequency-time correlation function is in good agreement with the experiment. The ν ( PO2 - ) frequencies are mainly determined by polarization contributions induced by electrostatic phosphate-water interactions. H2PO4-/H2O cluster calculations reveal substantial frequency shifts and mode mixing with increasing hydration. Predicted phosphate-water hydrogen bond (HB) lifetimes have values on the order of 10 ps, substantially longer than water-water HB lifetimes. The ultrafast phosphate-water interactions observed here are in marked contrast to hydration dynamics of phospholipids where a quasi-static inhomogeneous broadening of phosphate vibrations suggests minor structural fluctuations of interfacial water.

  6. Hydrogen energy.

    PubMed

    Edwards, P P; Kuznetsov, V L; David, W I F

    2007-04-15

    The problem of anthropogenically driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs are arguably the greatest challenge facing our planet. Hydrogen is now widely regarded as one key element of a potential energy solution for the twenty-first century, capable of assisting in issues of environmental emissions, sustainability and energy security. Hydrogen has the potential to provide for energy in transportation, distributed heat and power generation and energy storage systems with little or no impact on the environment, both locally and globally. However, any transition from a carbon-based (fossil fuel) energy system to a hydrogen-based economy involves significant scientific, technological and socio-economic barriers. This brief report aims to outline the basis of the growing worldwide interest in hydrogen energy and examines some of the important issues relating to the future development of hydrogen as an energy vector.

  7. Production of complex rubidium and cesium hydrogen sulfate‒phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komornikov, V. A.; Grebenev, V. V.; Makarova, I. P.; Selezneva, E. V.; Andreev, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    The solubility in the CsH2PO4‒CsHSO4‒H2O system at different temperatures (25, 50, and 75°C) is studied and the phase equilibria in the Rb3H(SO4)2‒RbH2PO4‒H2O system under isothermal conditions (at 25°C) are analyzed. The temperature and concentration conditions for forming Rb2(HSO4)(H2PO4), Rb4(HSO4)3(H2PO4), Cs4(HSO4)3(H2PO4), Cs3(HSO4)2(H2PO4), Cs2(HSO4)(H2PO4), and Cs6H(HSO4)3(H2PO4)4 compounds (the latter has been obtained for the first time) are determined. The conditions for growing large single crystals of complex acid rubidium and cesium salts are found.

  8. 2-Amino-1,3-thia­zolium dihydrogen phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Matulková, Irena; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Němec, Ivan; Pojarová, Michaela; Dušek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C3H5N2S+·H2PO4 −, the dihydrogen phosphate anions form infinite chains along [001] via short O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. The 2-amino­thia­zolium cations inter­connect these chains into a three-dimensional network by short linear or bifurcated N—H⋯O and weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22199896

  9. Toxicological review of inorganic phosphates.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Salminen, W F; Larson, P R; Barter, R A; Kranetz, J L; Simon, G S

    2001-08-01

    Inorganic phosphate salts are widely used as food ingredients and in a variety of commercial applications. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers inorganic phosphates "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) (FDA, 1973a, 1979) [FDA: Food and Drug Administration 1973a. GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) food ingredients-phosphates. NTIS PB-221-224, FDA, Food and Drug Administration, 1979. Phosphates; Proposed Affirmation of and Deletion From GRAS Status as Direct and Human Food Ingredients. Federal Register 44 (244). 74845-74857, 18 December (1979)] and the European Union (EU) allows inorganic phosphates to be added directly to food (EU Directive 95/2/EC as amended by 98/72/EC). In this review, data on the acute, subchronic and chronic toxicity, genotoxicity, teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity from the published literature and from unpublished studies by the manufacturers are reviewed. Based on the toxicity data and similar chemistry, the inorganic phosphates can be separated into four major classes, consisting of monovalent salts, divalent salts, ammonium salts and aluminum salts. The proposed classification scheme supports the use of toxicity data from one compound to assess the toxicity of another compound in the same class. However, in the case of eye and skin irritation, the proposed classification scheme cannot be used because a wide range of responses exists within each class. Therefore, the eye and skin hazards associated with an individual inorganic phosphate should be assessed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. A large amount of toxicity data exists for all four classes of inorganic phosphates. The large and comprehensive database allows an accurate assessment of the toxicity of each class of inorganic phosphate. Overall, all four classes of inorganic phosphates exhibit low oral, inhalation and dermal toxicities. Based on these data, humans are unlikely to experience adverse effects when the daily phosphorus consumption remains

  10. Novel highly biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate and beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbao; Weng, Wenjian; Tam, Kim Chiu

    2007-03-01

    Novel biodegradable biphasic tricalcium phosphates (BTCP) composed of alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) were successfully synthesized by heating amorphous calcium phosphate precursors with different structures at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The ratio of alpha-TCP and beta-TCP in the calcium phosphate particle can be controlled by aging time and pH value during synthesis of the amorphous precursor.

  11. Hydrogen Effect against Hydrogen Embrittlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yukitaka; Kanezaki, Toshihiko; Mine, Yoji

    2010-10-01

    The well-known term “hydrogen embrittlement” (HE) expresses undesirable effects due to hydrogen such as loss of ductility, decreased fracture toughness, and degradation of fatigue properties of metals. However, this article shows, surprisingly, that hydrogen can have an effect against HE. A dramatic phenomenon was found in which charging a supersaturated level of hydrogen into specimens of austenitic stainless steels of types 304 and 316L drastically improved the fatigue crack growth resistance, rather than accelerating fatigue crack growth rates. Although this mysterious phenomenon has not previously been observed in the history of HE research, its mechanism can be understood as an interaction between hydrogen and dislocations. Hydrogen can play two roles in terms of dislocation mobility: pinning (or dragging) and enhancement of mobility. Competition between these two roles determines whether the resulting phenomenon is damaging or, unexpectedly, desirable. This finding will, not only be the crucial key factor to elucidate the mechanism of HE, but also be a trigger to review all existing theories on HE in which hydrogen is regarded as a dangerous culprit.

  12. Synergism in polyethylene oxide dewatering of phosphatic clay waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smelley, A.G.; Scheiner, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of research conducted in its mission to effect pollution abatement, the Bureau of Mines, US Department of the Interior, is developing a dewatering technique that allows for disposal of phosphatic clay wastes, for reuse of water now lost with clays, and for reclamation of mined land. The technique utilizes a high-molecular-weight nonionic polyethylene oxide polymer (PEO) that has the ability to flocculate and dewater phosphatic clay wastes. A synergistic flocculation study was made to determine whether a portion of PEO could be replaced by other reagents. Several groups of reagents were tested: (1) those that increased the zeta potential of the phosphatic clay wastes; (2) those capable of hydrogen bonding; and (3) those which flocculated the phosphatic clay waste. Reduction in PEO consumption occurred only with addition of those reagents able to flocculate the slime. The use of natural guar gums resulted in a lower PEO requirement and also yielded a dewatered product of higher solids content, 43 to 45%, versus 33 to 35% obtained with PEO alone.

  13. Phosphate transport and sensing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Wykoff, D D; O'Shea, E K

    2001-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate; however, little is known about how phosphate concentrations are sensed. The similarity of Pho84p, a high-affinity phosphate transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to the glucose sensors Snf3p and Rgt2p has led to the hypothesis that Pho84p is an inorganic phosphate sensor. Furthermore, pho84Delta strains have defects in phosphate signaling; they constitutively express PHO5, a phosphate starvation-inducible gene. We began these studies to determine the role of phosphate transporters in signaling phosphate starvation. Previous experiments demonstrated a defect in phosphate uptake in phosphate-starved pho84Delta cells; however, the pho84Delta strain expresses PHO5 constitutively when grown in phosphate-replete media. We determined that pho84Delta cells have a significant defect in phosphate uptake even when grown in high phosphate media. Overexpression of unrelated phosphate transporters or a glycerophosphoinositol transporter in the pho84Delta strain suppresses the PHO5 constitutive phenotype. These data suggest that PHO84 is not required for sensing phosphate. We further characterized putative phosphate transporters, identifying two new phosphate transporters, PHO90 and PHO91. A synthetic lethal phenotype was observed when five phosphate transporters were inactivated, and the contribution of each transporter to uptake in high phosphate conditions was determined. Finally, a PHO84-dependent compensation response was identified; the abundance of Pho84p at the plasma membrane increases in cells that are defective in other phosphate transporters. PMID:11779791

  14. SEPARATION OF URANYL AND RUTHENIUM VALUES BY THE TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, A.S.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranyl values from ruthenium values contained in an aqueous 3 to 4 M nitric acid solution. After the addition of hydrogen peroxide to obtain a concentration of 0.3 M, the uranium is selectively extracted with kerosene-diluted tributyl phosphate.

  15. Synthetic Studies to Lyngbouilloside: A Phosphate Tether-Mediated Synthesis of the Macrolactone Core

    PubMed Central

    Chegondi, Rambabu

    2015-01-01

    A concise synthetic pathway to the originally assigned structure of lyngbouilloside macrolactone (3) is reported. The core macrocycle 3 was synthesized via a phosphate tether-mediated, one-pot, sequential RCM/CM/chemoselective hydrogenation reaction, Roskamp homologation, and a high yielding Boeckman acylketene cyclization. PMID:26388654

  16. Amine templated zinc phosphates phases for membrane separations

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, T.M.; Chavez, A.V.; Thoma, S.G.; Provencio, P.; Harrison, W.T.A.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1998-08-01

    This research is focused on developing inorganic molecular sieve membranes for light gas separations such as hydrogen recovery and natural gas purification, and organic molecular separations, such as chiral enantiomers. The authors focus on zinc phosphates because of the ease in crystallization of new phases and the wide range of pore sizes and shapes obtained. With hybrid systems of zinc phosphate crystalline phases templated by amine molecules, the authors are interested in better understanding the association of the template molecules to the inorganic phase, and how the organic transfers its size, shape, and (in some cases) chirality to the bulk. Furthermore, the new porous phases can also be synthesized as thin films on metal oxide substrates. These films allow one to make membranes from organic/inorganic hybrid systems, suitable for diffusion experiments. Characterization techniques for both the bulk phases and the thin films include powder X-ray diffraction, TGA, Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) and Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS).

  17. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. PMID:24556272

  18. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-04-15

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers.

  19. Dissolution of phosphate matrices based on the thorium phosphate diphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacheux, N.; Thomas, A. C.; Brandel, V.; Genet, M.

    2000-07-01

    Several authors have reported the use of phosphate matrices like apatites, monazites or NZP for the immobilization of actinides coming from an advanced reprocessing or for the final disposal of the excess plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons. The thorium phosphate diphosphate Th4(PO4)4P2O7 (namely TPD) was also proposed for this purpose. Indeed, its structure allows the replacement of large amounts of tetravalent actinides like uranium, neptunium or plutonium leading to the obtention of solid solutions. The maximum weight loading was estimated to be equal to about 48% for uranium, 33% for neptunium and 26% for plutonium.

  20. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  1. Recognizing the Effects of Terrestrial Contamination on D/H Ratios in Shergottite Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Ito, M.; Hervig, R.; Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope ratios in shergottite phosphate minerals have been investigated by SIMS in the meteorites Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94201 and Los Angeles. We have also collected electron probe data on these phosphates in order to characterize the phosphate minerals and attempt to document any potential hydrogen isotopic differences between chlor-apatite and whitlockite. In the section of Los Angeles we studied (748), we found both chlor-apatite and whitlockite, but in the section of QUE 94201,38 studied, we found only whitlockite. In both meteorites, D/H ratios (expressed in units of delta D (sub SMOW) vary, from terrestrial values up to approximately 5400%o in QUE 94201, and to approximately 3800%o in Los Angeles. We have carefully examined the ion probed pits with high-resolution FE-SEM. In most cases where the D/H ratios are low, we have iden-tified cracks that instersect the ion probe pit. These cracks are not visible in the optical microscope attached to the SIMS instument, making them impossible to avoid during SIMS data collection. We contend that the low ratios are a function of substantial terrestrial contamination, and that similar contamination is a likely factor in previously published studies on D/H ratios in martian phosphates. Here we highlight the difficulty of attempts to constrain the martian mantle D/H ratio using phosphate data, given that both terrestrial contamination and martian mantle hydrogen will move phosphate D/H ratios in the same direction, toward lower values. We note that our data include some of the most deuterium-rich values ever reported for martian phosphates. It is clear that some of our measurements are only minimally or totally uncontaminated, but the question arises, are intermediate values diminished because of true martian variability, or do they reflect contamination?

  2. Thermally highly stable amorphous zinc phosphate intermediates during the formation of zinc phosphate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Bach, Sven; Celinski, Vinicius R; Dietzsch, Michael; Panthöfer, Martin; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-18

    The mechanisms by which amorphous intermediates transform into crystalline materials are still poorly understood. Here we attempt to illuminate the formation of an amorphous precursor by investigating the crystallization process of zinc phosphate hydrate. This work shows that amorphous zinc phosphate (AZP) nanoparticles precipitate from aqueous solutions prior to the crystalline hopeite phase at low concentrations and in the absence of additives at room temperature. AZP nanoparticles are thermally stable against crystallization even at 400 °C (resulting in a high temperature AZP), but they crystallize rapidly in the presence of water if the reaction is not interrupted. X-ray powder diffraction with high-energy synchrotron radiation, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering showed the particle size (≈20 nm) and confirmed the noncrystallinity of the nanoparticle intermediates. Energy dispersive X-ray, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectrometry as well as thermal analysis were used for further compositional characterization of the as synthesized nanomaterial. (1)H solid-state NMR allowed the quantification of the hydrogen content, while an analysis of (31)P{(1)H} C rotational echo double resonance spectra permitted a dynamic and structural analysis of the crystallization pathway to hopeite.

  3. Thermally highly stable amorphous zinc phosphate intermediates during the formation of zinc phosphate hydrate.

    PubMed

    Bach, Sven; Celinski, Vinicius R; Dietzsch, Michael; Panthöfer, Martin; Bienert, Ralf; Emmerling, Franziska; Schmedt auf der Günne, Jörn; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-18

    The mechanisms by which amorphous intermediates transform into crystalline materials are still poorly understood. Here we attempt to illuminate the formation of an amorphous precursor by investigating the crystallization process of zinc phosphate hydrate. This work shows that amorphous zinc phosphate (AZP) nanoparticles precipitate from aqueous solutions prior to the crystalline hopeite phase at low concentrations and in the absence of additives at room temperature. AZP nanoparticles are thermally stable against crystallization even at 400 °C (resulting in a high temperature AZP), but they crystallize rapidly in the presence of water if the reaction is not interrupted. X-ray powder diffraction with high-energy synchrotron radiation, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and small-angle X-ray scattering showed the particle size (≈20 nm) and confirmed the noncrystallinity of the nanoparticle intermediates. Energy dispersive X-ray, infrared, and Raman spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and optical emission spectrometry as well as thermal analysis were used for further compositional characterization of the as synthesized nanomaterial. (1)H solid-state NMR allowed the quantification of the hydrogen content, while an analysis of (31)P{(1)H} C rotational echo double resonance spectra permitted a dynamic and structural analysis of the crystallization pathway to hopeite. PMID:25602353

  4. Phosphate-a poison for humans?

    PubMed

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2016-10-01

    Maintenance of phosphate balance is essential for life, and mammals have developed a sophisticated system to regulate phosphate homeostasis over the course of evolution. However, due to the dependence of phosphate elimination on the kidney, humans with decreased kidney function are likely to be in a positive phosphate balance. Phosphate excess has been well recognized as a critical factor in the pathogenesis of mineral and bone disorders associated with chronic kidney disease, but recent investigations have also uncovered toxic effects of phosphate on the cardiovascular system and the aging process. Compelling evidence also suggests that increased fibroblastic growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone levels in response to a positive phosphate balance contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. These insights support the current practice of managing serum phosphate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, although definitive evidence of these effects is lacking. Given the potential toxicity of excess phosphate, the general population may also be viewed as a target for phosphate management. However, the widespread implementation of dietary phosphate intervention in the general population may not be warranted due to the limited impact of increased phosphate intake on mineral metabolism and clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, the increasing incidence of kidney disease or injury in our aging society emphasizes the potential importance of this issue. Further work is needed to more completely characterize phosphate toxicity and to establish the optimal therapeutic strategy for managing phosphate in patients with chronic kidney disease and in the general population. PMID:27282935

  5. Process for producing granular diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, W.D.

    1988-05-17

    A process for the production of solid granular diammonium phosphate is described comprising: reacting anhydrous ammonia with phosphoric acid in a reactor to form a partially reacted slurry of monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate; pumping the slurry to a granulator-reactor and further reacting the slurry with anhydrous ammonia to form a solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture having a particle range size consisting of undersize, oversize and product; drying the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture in a dryer; dividing the dried solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture being discharged from the dryer into a first portion and a second portion; diverting and feeding the first portion of the dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture back to the granulator-reactor; feeding the second portion of dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture to a classifying means consisting of a set of screens including an oversize screen and a product screen set to a narrow size separation to separate the mixture of the solid granular diammonium phosphate into undersize, oversize and product solid granular diammonium phosphate; milling the oversize granular diammonium phosphate; recycling to the granular-reactor the milled oversized granular diammonium phosphate and the undersized granular particles obtained during the classifying of the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture; and collecting the desired product granular particle thereby enhancing the production of a narrow range of granular diammonium phosphate particle size distribution within a broad range of particle size distribution.

  6. Photosynthesis in Rhodospirillum rubrum. III. Metabolic Control of Reductive Pentose Phosphate and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Enzymes 1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Louise; Fuller, R. C.

    1967-01-01

    Enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle including ribulose-diphosphate carboxylase, ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, ribose-5-phosphate isomerase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and alkaline fructose-1,6-diphos-phatase were shown to be present in autotrophically grown Rhodospirillum rubrum. Enzyme levels were measured in this organism grown photo- and dark heterotrophically as well. Several, but not all, of these enzymes appeared to be under metabolic control, mediated by exogenous carbon and nitrogen compounds. Light had no effect on the presence or levels of any of these enzymes in this photosynthetic bacterium. The enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and enolase were shown to be present in R. rubrum cultured aerobically, autotrophically, or photoheterotrophically, both in cultures evolving hydrogen and under conditions where hydrogen evolution is not observed. Light had no clearly demonstrable effect on the presence or levels of any of these enzymes. PMID:6042359

  7. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  8. Detergent phosphate bans and eutrophication

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, G.F.; Jones, R.A.

    1986-04-01

    The Vollenweider-OECD eutrophication model has been expanded to approximately 400 lakes. It is possible to make a quantitative prediction of the effects of a detergent phosphate ban and thereby to ascertain the potential benefits of such a ban. In order to assess the effect of a detergent phosphate ban on water quality it is necessary to know the percentage of phosphorus in the domestic waste water that enters the water body, either directly or indirectly, and the percentage of the total phosphorus load that is derived from domestic wastewater. Although detergent phosphate bans generally will not result in an overall improvement to water quality, there may be some situations in which eutrophication-related water quality would be improved by a ban. 8 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  9. Safe conditions for contacting nitric acid or nitrates with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L

    1994-01-01

    In response to a request from DOE-SR, the current state of knowledge of the reactions between TBP and aqueous nitrate solutions is critically reviewed, and recommendations are made for the safe operation of SRS separations equipment in which this combination of chemicals may be present. The existing limits for evaporation are validated. Guidelines are presented for cases in which general limits do not apply. The rate of reaction between nitric acid and TBP appears to be controlled by the rate of TBP hydrolysis. The hydrolysis reaction produces dibutyl phosphate and n-butanol. The hydrolysis rate is a strong function of temperature, and becomes very fast at temperatures in the range 130{degrees} to 150{degrees}C. The resulting n-butanol is volatile at high temperatures, boiling at 117.5{degrees}C, but is also subject to exothermic oxidation by nitric acid or nitrates. If oxidation occurs before the n-butanol evaporates, the heat of oxidation may exceed local cooling by convection. The resulting heating will further accelerate the reaction, leading to an energetic runaway and possibly (in confined systems) an explosion. Extensive experiments and practice have shown that in a well-mixed and well-vented aqueous system such as an evaporator, at moderate acidities and temperatures below 130{degrees}C, the heat of reaction is adequately removed by vaporization of steam. In general, the heating will be so slow that natural processes provide adequate cooling at temperatures below 80{degrees}C. Above this temperature, care should be taken to ensure that adequate cooling is available for the amount of TBP that may be present. Experiments suggest that in well-ventilated systems n-butanol evaporation and convective cooling are sufficient to control the reaction at temperatures up to 120{degrees}C.

  10. [Phosphate metabolism and iron deficiency].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Keitaro

    2016-02-01

    Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets(ADHR)is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage. Fibroblast growth factor 23(FGF23)is a hormone that inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D biosynthesis. Low iron status plays a role in the pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. It was reported that FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient. In patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD, treatment with ferric citrate hydrate resulted in significant reductions in serum phosphate and FGF23.

  11. Photorelease of phosphates: Mild methods for protecting phosphate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Yousef, Abraham L

    2014-01-01

    Summary We have developed a new photoremovable protecting group for caging phosphates in the near UV. Diethyl 2-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14a) quantitatively releases diethyl phosphate upon irradiation in aq MeOH or aq MeCN at 350 nm, with quantum efficiencies ranging from 0.021 to 0.067 depending on the solvent composition. The deprotection reactions originate from the triplet excited state, are robust under ambient conditions and can be carried on to 100% conversion. Similar results were found with diethyl 2-(4-methoxy-1-naphthyl)-2-oxoethyl phosphate (14b), although it was significantly less efficient compared with 14a. A key step in the deprotection reaction in aq MeOH is considered to be a Favorskii rearrangement of the naphthyl ketone motif of 14a,b to naphthylacetate esters 25 and 26. Disruption of the ketone-naphthyl ring conjugation significantly shifts the photoproduct absorption away from the effective incident wavelength for decaging of 14, driving the reaction to completion. The Favorskii rearrangement does not occur in aqueous acetonitrile although diethyl phosphate is released. Other substitution patterns on the naphthyl or quinolin-5-yl core, such as the 2,6-naphthyl 10 or 8-benzyloxyquinolin-5-yl 24 platforms, also do not rearrange by aryl migration upon photolysis and, therefore, do not proceed to completion. The 2,6-naphthyl ketone platform instead remains intact whereas the quinolin-5-yl ketone fragments to a much more complex, highly absorbing reaction mixture that competes for the incident light. PMID:25246963

  12. Hydrogen sulfide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen sulfide ; 7783 - 06 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  13. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  14. Hydrogen technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    To the non-nonsense engineer, any talk of a hydrogen economy may seem like so much hot air. This paper reports that as legislative, safety and environmental issues continue to tighten, they're promoting hydrogen's chances as an energy source and, more immediately, its prospects as a chemical feedstock. Paradoxically, the environmental demands that are stimulating hydrogen demand are also inhibiting the gas's production. Previously, gasoline was made with benzene, which means that H{sub 2} was rejected. But now that the laws mandate lower aromatic and higher oxygenate levels in gasolines, there's less H{sub 2} available as byproduct. At the same time, H{sub 2} demand is rising in hydrodesulfurization units, since the same laws require refiners to cut sulfur levels in fuels. Supplementary sources for the gas are also shrinking. In the chlor-alkali industry, H{sub 2} output is dropping, as demand for its coproduct chlorine weakens. At the same time, H{sub 2} demand for the making of hydrogen peroxide is growing, as that environmentally safer bleach gains chlorine's market share.

  15. Metallic Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    2015-03-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the Universe. At high pressure it is predicted to transform to a metal with remarkable properties: room temperature superconductivity, a metastable metal at ambient conditions, and a revolutionary rocket propellant. Both theory and experiment have been challenged for almost 80 years to determine its condensed matter phase diagram, in particular the insulator-metal transition. Hydrogen is predicted to dissociate to a liquid atomic metal at multi-megabar pressures and T =0 K, or at megabar pressures and very high temperatures. Thus, its predicted phase diagram has a broad field of liquid metallic hydrogen at high pressure, with temperatures ranging from thousands of degrees to zero Kelvin. In a bench top experiment using static compression in a diamond anvil cell and pulsed laser heating, we have conducted measurements on dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K. We observe a first-order phase transition in the liquid phase, as well as sharp changes in optical transmission and reflectivity when this phase is entered. The optical signature is that of a metal. The mapping of the phase line of this transition is in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions for the long-sought plasma phase transition to metallic hydrogen. Research supported by the NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H.

  16. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Product. Ferric phosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  14. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  15. Phosphate bonding to goethite and pyrolusite surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiner, Eugene R.; Goldberg, M.C.; Boymel, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra were obtained from pure and phosphated goethite (??-FeOOH), and pyrolusite (MnO2). The nature of the phosphate-surface bond was determined to be binuclear for goethite and bidentate for pyrolusite.

  16. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-05-15

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a scaleup project

  17. SCALEUP OF ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE CATALYST FOR PILOT PLANT LPDMEtm RUN

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew W. Wang

    2002-01-01

    The Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LPDME{trademark}) process converts synthesis gas to dimethyl ether in a single slurry bubble column reactor. A mixed slurry of methanol synthesis catalyst and methanol dehydration catalyst in a neutral mineral oil simultaneously synthesizes methanol from syngas and converts some of it to dimethyl ether and water. The reaction scheme is shown below: 2H{sub 2} + CO = CH{sub 3}OH; 2CH{sub 3}OH = CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}O; H{sub 2}O + CO = CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Most of the water produced in this reaction is converted to hydrogen by reduction with carbon monoxide (water gas shift reaction). This synergy permits higher per pass conversion than methanol synthesis alone. The enhancement in conversion occurs because dehydration of the methanol circumvents the equilibrium constraint of the syngas-to-methanol step. The slurry bubble column reactor provides the necessary heat transfer capacity to handle the greater heat duty associated with high conversion. In order to improve the stability of the catalyst system, non-stoichiometric aluminum phosphate was proposed as the dehydration catalyst for the LPDME{trademark} process. This aluminum phosphate material is a proprietary catalyst. This catalyst system of a standard methanol catalyst and the aluminum phosphate provided stable process performance that met the program targets under our standard test process conditions in the laboratory. These targets are (1) an initial methanol equivalent productivity of 28 gmol/kg/hr, (2) a CO{sub 2}-free, carbon selectivity of 80% to dimethyl ether and (3) stability of both catalysts equivalent to that of the methanol catalyst in the absence of the aluminum phosphate. A pilot plant trial of the LPDME{trademark} process using the aluminum phosphate catalyst was originally planned for March 1998 at the DOE-owned, Air Products (APCI)-operated facility at LaPorte, Texas. Because the aluminum phosphate catalyst is not commercially available, we initiated a

  18. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1301 Ferric phosphate. (a) Ferric phosphate (ferric orthophosphate, iron (III) phosphate, FePO4·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 10045-86-0) is an odorless, yellowish-white to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301...

  19. Sintering of calcium phosphate bioceramics.

    PubMed

    Champion, E

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics have become of prime importance for biological applications in the field of bone tissue engineering. This paper reviews the sintering behaviour of these bioceramics. Conventional pressureless sintering of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, a reference compound, has been extensively studied. Its physico-chemistry is detailed. It can be seen as a competition between two thermally activated phenomena that proceed by solid-state diffusion of matter: densification and grain growth. Usually, the objective is to promote the first and prevent the second. Literature data are analysed from sintering maps (i.e. grain growth vs. densification). Sintering trajectories of hydroxyapatite produced by conventional pressureless sintering and non-conventional techniques, including two-step sintering, liquid phase sintering, hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, ultrahigh pressure, microwave and spark plasma sintering, are presented. Whatever the sintering technique may be, grain growth occurs mainly during the last step of sintering, when the relative bulk density reaches 95% of the maximum value. Though often considered very advantageous, most assisted sintering techniques do not appear very superior to conventional pressureless sintering. Sintering of tricalcium phosphate or biphasic calcium phosphates is also discussed. The chemical composition of calcium phosphate influences the behaviour. Similarly, ionic substitutions in hydroxyapatite or in tricalcium phosphate create lattice defects that modify the sintering rate. Depending on their nature, they can either accelerate or slow down the sintering rate. The thermal stability of compounds at the sintering temperature must also be taken into account. Controlled atmospheres may be required to prevent thermal decomposition, and flash sintering techniques, which allow consolidation at low temperature, can be helpful. PMID:23212081

  20. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  7. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 182.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.1778 Section 182.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.5778 Section 582.5778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  4. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  6. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  7. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  8. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  9. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  2. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 40 CFR 721.5995 - Polyalkyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyalkyl phosphate. 721.5995 Section... Substances § 721.5995 Polyalkyl phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyalkyl phosphate (PMN P-95-1772)...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 182.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 182.6290 Section 182.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 182.6285 Section 182.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6285 - Dipotassium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dipotassium phosphate. 582.6285 Section 582.6285 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Dipotassium phosphate. (a) Product. Dipotassium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6290 - Disodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disodium phosphate. 582.6290 Section 582.6290 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Disodium phosphate. (a) Product. Disodium phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  14. Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-01-01

    In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 °C.

  15. Calcium phosphate cements: study of the beta-tricalcium phosphate--monocalcium phosphate system.

    PubMed

    Mirtchi, A A; Lemaitre, J; Terao, N

    1989-09-01

    The possibility of making cements based on beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), a promising bone graft material, was investigated. Upon admixture with water, beta-TCP/monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) mixtures were found to set and harden like conventional hydraulic cements. Beta-TCP powders with larger particle size, obtained by sintering at higher temperatures, increased the ultimate strength of the cement. Results show that setting occurs after dissolution of MCPM, as a result of the precipitation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) in the paste. The ultimate tensile strength of the hardened cement is proportional to the amount of DCPD formed. Upon ageing above 40 degrees C, DCPD transforms progressively into anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP), thereby decreasing the strength. Ageing of the pastes in 100% r.h. results in a decay of the mechanical properties. This can be ascribed to an intergranular dissolution of the beta-TCP aggregates as a result of the pH lowering brought about by the MCPM to DCPD conversion.

  16. Hydrogen scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, David W.; Salazar, Kenneth V.; Trkula, Mitchell; Sandoval, Cynthia W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a codeposition process for fabricating hydrogen scavengers. First, a .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is prepared by reacting an allylic transition metal halide with an organic ligand complexed with an alkali metal; and then, in a second step, a vapor of the .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is combined with the vapor of an acetylenic compound, irradiated with UV light, and codeposited on a substrate.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    PubMed Central

    Giocondi, Jennifer L.; El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Nancollas, George H.; Orme, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    The biomineral calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4·2H2O), known as brushite, is a malleable material that both grows and dissolves faster than most other calcium minerals, including other calcium phosphate phases, calcium carbonates and calcium oxalates. Within the body, this ready formation and dissolution can play a role in certain diseases, such as kidney stone and plaque formation. However, these same properties, along with brushite’s excellent biocompatibility, can be used to great benefit in making resorbable biomedical cements. To optimize cements, additives are commonly used to control crystallization kinetics and phase transformation. This paper describes the use of in situ scanning probe microscopy to investigate the role of several solution parameters and additives in brushite atomic step motion. Surprisingly, this work demonstrates that the activation barrier for phosphate (rather than calcium) incorporation limits growth kinetics and that additives such as magnesium, citrate and bisphosphonates each influence step motion in distinctly different ways. Our findings provide details of how, and where, molecules inhibit or accelerate kinetics. These insights have the potential to aid in designing molecules to target specific steps and to guide synergistic combinations of additives. PMID:20308110

  18. The p-eIF2α/ATF4 pathway links endoplasmic reticulum stress to autophagy following the production of reactive oxygen species in mouse spermatocyte-derived cells exposed to dibutyl phthalate.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowei; Ling, Xi; Liu, Kaijun; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Gao, Jianfang; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used plasticizer that has been shown to induce germ cell apoptosis-related testicular atrophy and cause reproductive toxicity. Our previous results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-activated autophagy served as a self-defense mechanism against DBP-induced germ cell apoptosis. However, the specific pathways that link ER stress and autophagy remain unclear. Here, we showed that exposure to DBP enhanced autophagic flux in mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cells and that the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2/activating transcription factor 4 pathway mediated ER stress-related autophagy independent of the mTOR and Beclin-1 pathways. Moreover, we demonstrated that DBP treatment led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that the inhibition of ROS by melatonin abrogated both ER stress and autophagy. The results indicated that excessive ROS production might be involved in DBP-induced ER stress and autophagy in GC-2 cells. Thus, ROS may serve as upstream mediators of ER stress and autophagy in DBP-treated GC-2 cells. PMID:27002192

  19. ESR study of stable radicals in an irradiated single crystal of deoxyguanosine 5'-phosphate (Na salt)

    SciTech Connect

    Rakvin, B.; Herak, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    Three different radical species have been identified in an irradiated single crystal of deoxyguanosine 5'-phosphate at room temperature. The dominating species is a hydrogen-addition radical with spectroscopic characteristics similar to those of the N(7)-protonated H-addition radical in guanine/sup ./HCl. The well-resolved quartet ESR pattern is believed to belong to a radical in the sugar moiety formed by breakage of the furanose ring in the same manner as that reported earlier for deoxycytidine 5'-phosphate. The third species present is either a protonated anion or a deprotonated cation located in this six-member ring of the guanine base.

  20. Structural and spectroscopic investigations on deuteron glasses belonging to the potassium dihydrogen phosphate family

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Rajul Ranjan Chitra, R.; Abraham, Geogy J.

    2015-06-24

    X-ray powder diffraction and Raman measurements were performed on the mixed crystals of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) and deuterated ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (DADP) grown at our lab. These crystals are known to behave like deuteron glasses due to frustration between ferroelectric and antiferroelectric ordering. Both spectral as well as structural studies indicate that crystals belonging to the glassy regions of the crystal composition have stronger O-D-O hydrogen bonds as compared to those belong to the ferroelectric or antiferroelectric regions of the crystal composition.

  1. Hydrogen environment embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement is classified into three types: internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen reaction embrittlement, and hydrogen environment embrittlement. Characteristics of and materials embrittled by these types of hydrogen embrittlement are discussed. Hydrogen environment embrittlement is reviewed in detail. Factors involved in standardizing test methods for detecting the occurrence of and evaluating the severity of hydrogen environment embrittlement are considered. The effect of test technique, hydrogen pressure, purity, strain rate, stress concentration factor, and test temperature are discussed. Additional research is required to determine whether hydrogen environment embrittlement and internal reversible hydrogen embrittlement are similar or distinct types of embrittlement.

  2. Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios.

  3. Bioavailable dietary phosphate, a mediator of cardiovascular disease, may be decreased with plant-based diets, phosphate binders, niacin, and avoidance of phosphate additives.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    Increased fasting serum phosphate within the normal physiological range has been linked to increased cardiovascular risk in prospective epidemiology; increased production of fibroblast growth factor 23, and direct vascular effects of phosphate, may mediate this risk. Although dietary phosphate intake does not clearly influence fasting serum phosphate in individuals with normal renal function, increased phosphate intake can provoke a rise in fibroblast growth factor 23, and in diurnal phosphate levels, and hence may adversely influence vascular health. Dietary phosphate absorption can be moderated by emphasizing plant-based dietary choices (which provide phosphate in less bioavailable forms); avoidance of processed foods containing inorganic phosphate food additives; and by ingestion of phosphate-binder drugs, magnesium supplements, or niacin, which precipitate phosphate or suppress its gastrointestinal absorption. The propensity of dietary phosphate to promote vascular calcification may be opposed by optimal intakes of magnesium, vitamin K, and vitamin D; the latter should also counter the tendency of phosphate to elevate parathyroid hormone.

  4. Enzymatic Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2007-01-01

    A novel enzymatic reaction was conducted for producing hydrogen from starch and water at 30oC. The overall reaction comprised of 13 enzymes, 1 cofactor (NADP+), and phosphate was driven by energy stored in carbohydrate starch according to the overall stoichiometry stoichiometric reaction of C6H10O5 (l) + 7 H2O (l) --> 12 H2 (g) + 6 CO2 (g). It is spontaneous and unidirectional because of negative Gibbs free energy and the removal of gaseous products from the aqueous reaction solution. With technology improvement and integration with fuel cells, this technology would be suitable for mobile applications and also solve the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in a hydrogen economy.

  5. Hydrogen detector

    DOEpatents

    Kanegae, Naomichi; Ikemoto, Ichiro

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

  6. Effects of phosphates on microstructure and bioactivity of micro-arc oxidized calcium phosphate coatings on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y K; Chen, C Z; Wang, D G; Zhao, T G

    2013-09-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings were prepared on Mg-Zn-Zr magnesium alloy by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in electrolyte containing calcium acetate monohydrate (CH3COO)2Ca·H2O) and different phosphates (i.e. disodium hydrogen phosphate dodecahydrate (Na2HPO4·12H2O), sodium phosphate (Na3PO4·H2O) and sodium hexametaphosphate((NaPO3)6)). Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were employed to characterize the microstructure, elemental distribution and phase composition of the CaP coatings. Simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test was used to evaluate the coating bioactivity and degradability. Systemic toxicity test was used to evaluate the coating biocompatibility. Fluoride ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure F(-) ions concentration during 30 days SBF immersion. The CaP coatings effectively reduced the corrosion rate and the surfaces of CaP coatings were covered by a new layer formed of numerous needle-like and scale-like apatites. The formation of these calcium phosphate apatites indicates that the coatings have excellent bioactivity. The coatings formed in (NaPO3)6-containging electrolyte exhibit thicker thickness, higher adhesive strength, slower degradation rate, better apatite-inducing ability and biocompatibility.

  7. Phosphate: are we squandering a scarce commodity?

    PubMed

    Ferro, Charles J; Ritz, Eberhard; Townend, Jonathan N

    2015-02-01

    Phosphorus is an essential element for life but is a rare element in the universe. On Earth, it occurs mostly in the form of phosphates that are widespread but predominantly at very low concentration. This relative rarity has resulted in a survival advantage, in evolutionary terms, to organisms that conserve phosphate. When phosphate is made available in excess it becomes a cause for disease, perhaps best recognized as a potential cardiovascular and renal risk factor. As a reaction to the emerging public health issue caused by phosphate additives to food items, there have been calls for a public education programme and regulation to bring about a reduction of phosphate additives to food. During the Paleoproterzoic era, an increase in the bioavailability of phosphate is thought to have contributed significantly to the oxygenation of our atmosphere and a dramatic increase in the evolution of new species. Currently, phosphate is used poorly and often wasted with phosphate fertilizers washing this scarce commodity into water bodies causing eutrophication and algal blooms. Ironically, this is leading to the extinction of hundreds of species. The unchecked exploitation of phosphate rock, which is an increasingly rare natural resource, and our dependence on it for agriculture may lead to a strange situation in which phosphate might become a commodity to be fought over whilst at the same time, health and environmental experts are likely to recommend reductions in its use.

  8. A vacuolar phosphate transporter essential for phosphate homeostasis in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinlong; Yang, Lei; Luan, Mingda; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Jisen; Zhao, Fu-Geng; Lan, Wenzhi; Luan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic phosphate (Pi) is stored in the vacuole, allowing plants to adapt to variable Pi availability in the soil. The transporters that mediate Pi sequestration into vacuole remain unknown, however. Here we report the functional characterization of Vacuolar Phosphate Transporter 1 (VPT1), an SPX domain protein that transports Pi into the vacuole in Arabidopsis. The vpt1 mutant plants were stunted and consistently retained less Pi than wild type plants, especially when grown in medium containing high levels of Pi. In seedlings, VPT1 was expressed primarily in younger tissues under normal conditions, but was strongly induced by high-Pi conditions in older tissues, suggesting that VPT1 functions in Pi storage in young tissues and in detoxification of high Pi in older tissues. As a result, disruption of VPT1 rendered plants hypersensitive to both low-Pi and high-Pi conditions, reducing the adaptability of plants to changing Pi availability. Patch-clamp analysis of isolated vacuoles showed that the Pi influx current was severely reduced in vpt1 compared with wild type plants. When ectopically expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana mesophyll cells, VPT1 mediates vacuolar influx of anions, including Pi, SO42−, NO3−, Cl−, and malate with Pi as that preferred anion. The VPT1-mediated Pi current amplitude was dependent on cytosolic phosphate concentration. Single-channel analysis showed that the open probability of VPT1 was increased with the increase in transtonoplast potential. We conclude that VPT1 is a transporter responsible for vacuolar Pi storage and is essential for Pi adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:26554016

  9. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  10. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Woodward, Jonathan; Mattingly, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch. The reaction mixture further comprises an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture.

  11. The phosphate of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate is an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Robert S; Scott, Israel; Paulose, Riya; Patel, Akshay; Barron, Taylor Colt

    2014-02-01

    Kynureninase (L-kynurenine hydrolase, EC 3.7.1.3) catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of L-kynurenine to L-alanine and anthranilic acid. The proposed mechanism of the retro-Claisen reaction requires extensive acid/base catalysis. Previous crystal structures showed that Tyr226 in the Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme (Tyr275 in the human enzyme) hydrogen bonds to the phosphate of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) cofactor. This Tyr residue is strictly conserved in all sequences of kynureninase. The human enzyme complexed with a competitive inhibitor, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, showed that the ligand carbonyl O is located 3.7 Å from the phenol of Tyr275 (Lima, S., Kumar, S., Gawandi, V., Momany, C. & Phillips, R. S. (2009) J. Med. Chem. 52, 389-396). We prepared a Y226F mutant of P. fluorescens kynureninase to probe the role of this residue in catalysis. The Y226F mutant has approximately 3000-fold lower activity than wild-type, and does not show the pKa values of 6.8 on kcat and 6.5 and 8.8 on k(cat)/K(m) seen for the wild-type enzyme (Koushik, S. V., Moore, J. A. III, Sundararaju, B. & Phillips, R. S. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 1376-1382). Wild-type kynureninase shows a resonance at 4.5 ppm in (31)P-NMR, which is shifted to 5.0, 3.3 and 2.0 ppm when the potent inhibitor 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. However, Y226F kynureninase shows resonances at 3.6 and 2.5 ppm, and no change in the peak position is seen when 5-bromodihydrokynurenine is added. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyr226 mediates proton transfer between the substrate and the phosphate, which accelerates formation of external aldimine and gem-diol intermediates. Thus, the phosphate of PLP acts as an acid/base catalyst in the mechanism of kynureninase.

  12. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  13. Preliminary results on the immobilisation of radionuclides from waters with specific adsorbers based on phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Valentini Ganzerli, Maria Teresa; Maggi, Luigino; Crespi Caramella, Vera; Berzero, Antonella

    2004-11-01

    The present paper is focused on the ability of aluminium phosphate (ALPC), magnesium ammonium phosphate (MGPC), magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MGHPC), and calcium hydrogenphosphate (CAHPC), adsorbed onto charcoal, to immobilise actinides by adsorption from natural waters. The objective of this process is to evaluate the environmental pollution due to the actinides. Europium, thorium, protactinium, neptunyl, and uranyl ions were chosen to simulate actinides in the +3, +4, +5 and +6 oxidation state. The adsorbers were tested using natural waters samples. The adsorption trends and capacities were analysed. ALPC and MGPC exhibited a similar behaviour and adsorbed demonstrating that the +5, +4 and +3 actinide ions can be easily immobilised from natural waters and may be successfully used at pH 7-8. MGHPC may be used at a higher pH, whereas CAHPC is effective in the whole pH range. In all cases, thorium, protactinium and europium were strongly

  14. Preliminary results on the immobilisation of radionuclides from waters with specific adsorbers based on phosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Valentini Ganzerli, Maria Teresa; Maggi, Luigino; Crespi Caramella, Vera; Berzero, Antonella

    2004-11-01

    The present paper is focused on the ability of aluminium phosphate (ALPC), magnesium ammonium phosphate (MGPC), magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MGHPC), and calcium hydrogenphosphate (CAHPC), adsorbed onto charcoal, to immobilise actinides by adsorption from natural waters. The objective of this process is to evaluate the environmental pollution due to the actinides. Europium, thorium, protactinium, neptunyl, and uranyl ions were chosen to simulate actinides in the +3, +4, +5 and +6 oxidation state. The adsorbers were tested using natural waters samples. The adsorption trends and capacities were analysed. ALPC and MGPC exhibited a similar behaviour and adsorbed demonstrating that the +5, +4 and +3 actinide ions can be easily immobilised from natural waters and may be successfully used at pH 7-8. MGHPC may be used at a higher pH, whereas CAHPC is effective in the whole pH range. In all cases, thorium, protactinium and europium were strongly PMID:15626242

  15. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  16. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  17. Phosphate-limited culture of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, J C; Aladegbami, S L; Vela, G R

    1979-01-01

    Batch cultures of Azotobacter vinelandii grown in phosphate-deficient media were compared with control cultures grown in phosphate-sufficient media. Phosphate limitation was assessed by total cell yield and by growth kinetics. Although cell protein, nucleic acids, and early growth rate were unaffected by phosphate deficiency, cell wall structure, oxygen uptake, and cell viability were significantly affected. Also, phosphate-limited cells contained much larger amounts of poly-beta-hydroxybutyric acid but lower adenylate nucleotide energy charge than did control cells. The ratio of adenosine 5'-triphosphate to adenosine 5'-diphosphate was much lower in phosphate-deficient cells. The data indicate a substrate saving choice of three metabolic pathways available to this organism under different growth conditions. Images PMID:457614

  18. Application of Calcium Phosphate Materials in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sanabani, Jabr S.; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate materials are similar to bone in composition and in having bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Calcium phosphate materials in different forms, as cements, composites, and coatings, are used in many medical and dental applications. This paper reviews the applications of these materials in dentistry. It presents a brief history, dental applications, and methods for improving their mechanical properties. Notable research is highlighted regarding (1) application of calcium phosphate into various fields in dentistry; (2) improving mechanical properties of calcium phosphate; (3) biomimetic process and functionally graded materials. This paper deals with most common types of the calcium phosphate materials such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate which are currently used in dental and medical fields. PMID:23878541

  19. Biosynthesis of riboflavin. Studies on the mechanism of L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Volk, R; Bacher, A

    1991-11-01

    The riboflavin precursor, L-3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate, is formed from D-ribulose 5-phosphate by a single 24-kDa enzyme. Studies with various specifically 13C-labeled D-ribulose 5-phosphates as substrate showed that the carbon atoms 1-3 of the enzyme product correspond to carbon atoms 1-3 of the substrate, whereas C-4 of the product stems from C-5 of the substrate. Carbon atom 4 of the substrate is released as formate together with the hydrogen atom attached to it. The skeletal rearrangement which leads to the loss of C-4 and the direct linkage between C-3 and C-5 of the substrate is an intramolecular reaction. The hydrogen atom at C-3 of the enzyme product is introduced from solvent water. A reaction mechanism which is in agreement with all experimental data is proposed. PMID:1939111

  20. Hydrogen peroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... peroxide is used in these products: Hydrogen peroxide Hair bleach Some contact lens cleaners Note: Household hydrogen peroxide ... it contains 97% water and 3% hydrogen peroxide. Hair bleaches are stronger. They usually have a concentration of ...

  1. New zirconium phosphate fluorides: Hydrothermal synthesis and crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wloka, M.; Troyanov, S.I.; Kemnitz, E.

    1998-02-01

    A series of zirconium phosphate fluorides were synthesized and structurally characterized using different amines as templates. The compounds have the general formulas [amH{sub n}]{sub 1/n}[Zr{sub 2}(HPO{sub 4})(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}F]{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (1, am = ethylenediamine, n = 2; 2. am = N-methylethylenediamine, n = 2; 3, am = 1,3-diaminopropane, n = 2; 4, am = diethylenetriamine, n = 3) and [amH{sub 2}]{sub 0.5}[Zr{sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})F{sub 2}]{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O (5, am = N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethylethylenediamine). In the structures of 2--4 with a Zr:F ratio of 2:1, there exists a three-dimensional arrangement of zirconium octahedra (one ZrO{sub 6} and one ZrO{sub 5}F) and phosphate tetrahedra (two PO{sub 4} and one HPO{sub 4}) connected via common oxygen atoms, whereas fluorine atoms and OH groups are terminal. These compounds crystallize in the ZrPO-1 structure type, which contains channels along the b axis formed by eight-membered rings of alternating PO{sub 4} tetrahedra and ZrO{sub 6} or ZrO{sub 5}F octahedra, respectively. The protonated disordered templates occupy the channels. Half the water molecules are situated in the positions alternatively left free by the disordered templates and the other half are bonded via hydrogen bridges to the terminal OH groups of the HPO{sub 4} tetrahedra. In contrast, the structure of 5 reveals a Zr:F ratio of 1:1, consequently forming a layer structure. The layers formed by ZrO{sub 5}F octahedra and PO{sub 4} or HPO{sub 4} tetrahedra, respectively, are linked by hydrogen bridges of type O{single_bond}H{hor_ellipsis}F and by weak H bonds over the protonated template. The similarities in connectivity pattern between Zr octahedra and P tetrahedra in all known zirconium phosphate fluorides and some zirconium phosphates are discussed.

  2. Mineral induced formation of sugar phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitsch, S.; Eschenmoser, A.; Gedulin, B.; Hui, S.; Arrhenius, G.

    1995-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde phosphate, sorbed from highly dilute, weakly alkaline solution into the interlayer of common expanding sheet structure metal hydroxide minerals, condenses extensively to racemic aldotetrose-2, 4-diphophates, and aldohexose-2, 4, 6-triphosphates. The reaction proceeds mainly through racemic erythrose-2, 4-phosphate, and terminates with a large fraction of racemic altrose-2, 4, 6-phosphate. In the absence of an inductive mineral phase, no detectable homogeneous reaction takes place in the concentration- and pH range used. The reactant glycolaldehyde phosphate is practically completely sorbed within an hour from solutions with concentrations as low as 50 micron; the half-time for conversion to hexose phosphates is of the order of two days at room temperature and pH 9.5. Total production of sugar phosphates in the mineral interlayer is largely independent of the glycolaldehyde phosphate concentration in the external solution, but is determined by the total amount of GAP offered for sorption up to the capacity of the mineral. In the presence of equimolar amounts of rac-glyceraldehyde-2-phosphate, but under otherwise similar conditions, aldopentose-2, 4, -diphosphates also form, but only as a small fraction of the hexose-2, 4, 6-phosphates.

  3. Preparation of porous lanthanum phosphate with templates

    SciTech Connect

    Onoda, Hiroaki; Ishima, Yuya; Takenaka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2009-08-05

    Malonic acid, propionic acid, glycine, n-butylamine, and urea were added to the preparation of lanthanum phosphate from lanthanum nitrate and phosphoric acid solutions. All additives were taken into lanthanum phosphate particles. The additives that have a basic site were easy to contain in precipitates. The addition of templates improved the specific surface area of lanthanum phosphate. The amount of pore, with radius smaller than 4 nm, increased with the addition of templates. The remained additives had influence on the acidic properties of lanthanum phosphate.

  4. Next generation calcium phosphate-based biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    LC, Chow

    2009-01-01

    It has been close to a century since calcium phosphate materials were first used as bone graft substitutes. Numerous studies conducted in the last two decades have produced a wealth of information on the chemistry, in vitro properties, and biological characteristics of granular calcium phosphates and calcium phosphate cement biomaterials. An in depth analysis of several key areas of calcium phosphate cement properties is presented with the aim of developing strategies that could lead to break-through improvements in the functional efficacies of these materials. PMID:19280963

  5. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of D-Galactose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Complexed with Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    D-Galactose-6-phosphate isomerase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LacAB; EC 5.3.1.26), which is encoded by the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway gene cluster (lacABCD), catalyzes the isomerization of D-galactose-6-phosphate to D-tagatose-6-phosphate during lactose catabolism and is used to produce rare sugars as low-calorie natural sweeteners. The crystal structures of LacAB and its complex with D-tagatose-6-phosphate revealed that LacAB is a homotetramer of LacA and LacB subunits, with a structure similar to that of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi). Structurally, LacAB belongs to the RpiB/LacAB superfamily, having a Rossmann-like αβα sandwich fold as has been identified in pentose phosphate isomerase and hexose phosphate isomerase. In contrast to other family members, the LacB subunit also has a unique α7 helix in its C-terminus. One active site is distinctly located at the interface between LacA and LacB, whereas two active sites are present in RpiB. In the structure of the product complex, the phosphate group of D-tagatose-6-phosphate is bound to three arginine residues, including Arg-39, producing a different substrate orientation than that in RpiB, where the substrate binds at Asp-43. Due to the proximity of the Arg-134 residue and backbone Cα of the α6 helix in LacA to the last Asp-172 residue of LacB with a hydrogen bond, a six-carbon sugar-phosphate can bind in the larger pocket of LacAB, compared with RpiB. His-96 in the active site is important for ring opening and substrate orientation, and Cys-65 is essential for the isomerization activity of the enzyme. Two rare sugar substrates, D-psicose and D-ribulose, show optimal binding in the LacAB-substrate complex. These findings were supported by the results of LacA activity assays. PMID:24015281

  6. Crystal structure and substrate specificity of D-galactose-6-phosphate isomerase complexed with substrates.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Singh, Raushan Kumar; Lee, Jung-Kul; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    D-Galactose-6-phosphate isomerase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LacAB; EC 5.3.1.26), which is encoded by the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway gene cluster (lacABCD), catalyzes the isomerization of D-galactose-6-phosphate to D-tagatose-6-phosphate during lactose catabolism and is used to produce rare sugars as low-calorie natural sweeteners. The crystal structures of LacAB and its complex with D-tagatose-6-phosphate revealed that LacAB is a homotetramer of LacA and LacB subunits, with a structure similar to that of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi). Structurally, LacAB belongs to the RpiB/LacAB superfamily, having a Rossmann-like αβα sandwich fold as has been identified in pentose phosphate isomerase and hexose phosphate isomerase. In contrast to other family members, the LacB subunit also has a unique α7 helix in its C-terminus. One active site is distinctly located at the interface between LacA and LacB, whereas two active sites are present in RpiB. In the structure of the product complex, the phosphate group of D-tagatose-6-phosphate is bound to three arginine residues, including Arg-39, producing a different substrate orientation than that in RpiB, where the substrate binds at Asp-43. Due to the proximity of the Arg-134 residue and backbone Cα of the α6 helix in LacA to the last Asp-172 residue of LacB with a hydrogen bond, a six-carbon sugar-phosphate can bind in the larger pocket of LacAB, compared with RpiB. His-96 in the active site is important for ring opening and substrate orientation, and Cys-65 is essential for the isomerization activity of the enzyme. Two rare sugar substrates, D-psicose and D-ribulose, show optimal binding in the LacAB-substrate complex. These findings were supported by the results of LacA activity assays.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral kryzhanovskite and in comparison with reddingite-implications for the molecular structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Scholz, Ricardo; Wang, Lina

    2016-08-01

    We have studied the phosphate mineral kryzhanovskite (Fe3+,Mn2+)3(PO4)2(OH,H2O) which is a member of the phosphoferrite mineral group using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Chemical analysis shows the presence of P, Mn and Fe and confirms the formula given above. The presence of hydroxyl units in the structure is indicative of ferric iron in the formula that is an oxidised product. Raman spectroscopy coupled with infrared spectroscopy supports the concept of phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate units in the structure of kryzhanovskite -phosphoferrite. Infrared and Raman bands attributed to water and hydroxyl stretching modes are identified. Vibrational spectroscopy adds useful information to the molecular structure of kryzhanovskite -phosphoferrite.

  8. The SLC37 Family of Sugar-Phosphate/Phosphate Exchangers

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Janice Y.; Mansfield, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    The SLC37 family members are endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated sugar-phosphate/phosphate (Pi) exchangers. Three of the four members, SLC37A1, SLC37A2, and SLC37A4, function as Pi-linked glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) antiporters catalyzing G6P:Pi and Pi:Pi exchanges. The activity of SLC37A3 is unknown. SLC37A4, better known as the G6P transporter (G6PT), has been extensively characterized, functionally and structurally, and is the best characterized family member. G6PT contains 10 transmembrane helices with both N and C termini facing the cytoplasm. The primary in vivo function of the G6PT protein is to translocate G6P from the cytoplasm into the ER lumen where it couples with either the liver/kidney/intestine-restricted glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) or the ubiquitously expressed G6Pase-β (or G6PC3) to hydrolyze G6P to glucose and Pi. The G6PT/G6Pase-α complex maintains interprandial glucose homeostasis, and the G6PT/G6Pase-β complex maintains neutro-phil energy homeostasis and functionality. G6PT is highly selective for G6P and is competitively inhibited by cholorogenic acid and its derivatives. Neither SLC37A1 nor SLC37A2 can couple functionally with G6Pase-α or G6Pase-β, and the antiporter activities of SLC37A1 or SLC37A2 are not inhibited by cholorogenic acid. Deficiencies in G6PT cause glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), a metabolic and immune disorder. To date, 91 separate SLC37A4 mutations, including 39 missense mutations, have been identified in GSD-Ib patients. Characterization of missense mutations has yielded valuable information on functionally important residues in the G6PT protein. The biological roles of the other SLC37 proteins remain to be determined and deficiencies have not yet been correlated to diseases. PMID:24745989

  9. Crystal structure of hydrazine iron(III) phosphate, the first transition metal phosphate containing hydrazine

    PubMed Central

    David, Renald

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, poly[(μ2-hydrazine)(μ4-phosphato)iron(III)], [Fe(PO4)(N2H4)]n, was prepared under hydro­thermal conditions. Its asymmetric unit contains one FeIII atom located on an inversion centre, one P atom located on a twofold rotation axis, and two O, one N and two H atoms located on general positions. The FeIII atom is bound to four O atoms of symmetry-related PO4 tetra­hedra and to two N atoms of two symmetry-related hydrazine ligands, resulting in a slightly distorted FeO4N2 octa­hedron. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional hydrazine/iron phoshate framework whereby each PO4 tetra­hedron bridges four FeIII atoms and each hydrazine ligand bridges two FeIII atoms. The H atoms of the hydrazine ligands are also involved in moderate N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding with phosphate O atoms. The crystal structure is isotypic with the sulfates [Co(SO4)(N2H4)] and [Mn(SO4)(N2H4)]. PMID:26870399

  10. Effects of phosphate addition on methane fermentation in the batch and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Sho; Shintani, Masaki; Sanchez, Zoe Kuizon; Kimura, Kohei; Numata, Mitsuru; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia inhibition of methane fermentation is one of the leading causes of failure of anaerobic digestion reactors. In a batch anaerobic digestion reactor with 429 mM NH3-N/L of ammonia, the addition of 25 mM phosphate resulted in an increase in methane production rate. Similar results were obtained with the addition of disodium phosphate in continuous anaerobic digestion using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. While methane content and production rate decreased in the presence of more than 143 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride in UASB, the addition of 5 mM disodium phosphate suppressed ammonia inhibition at 214 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride. The addition prevented acetate/propionate accumulation, which might be one of the effects of the phosphate on the ammonia inhibition. The effects on the microbial community in the UASB reactor was also assessed, which was composed of Bacteria involved in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and dehydrogenation, as well as Archaea carrying out methanogenesis. The change in the microbial community was observed by ammonia inhibition and the addition of phosphate. The change indicates that the suppression of ammonia inhibition by disodium phosphate addition could stimulate the activity of methanogens, reduce shift in bacterial community, and enhance hydrogen-producing bacteria. The addition of phosphate will be an important treatment for future studies of methane fermentation.

  11. Con: Phosphate binders in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Kestenbaum, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Phosphate binders are prescribed to chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients based on associations of serum phosphate concentrations with mortality and calcification, experimental evidence for direct calcifying effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle tissue and the central importance of phosphate retention in CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Current knowledge regarding phosphate metabolism in CKD provides important insight into disease mechanisms and supports future clinical trials of phosphate binders in CKD patients to determine the impact of these medications on clinically relevant outcomes. The risks and benefits of phosphate binders cannot be inferred from association studies of serum phosphate concentrations, which are inconsistent and subject to confounding, animal-experimental data, which are based on conditions that differ from human disease, or physiological arguments, which are limited to known regulatory factors. Many interventions that targeted biochemical pathways suggested by association studies and suspected biological importance have yielded null or harmful results. Clinical trials of phosphate binders are of high clinical and scientific importance to nephrology. Demonstration of reduced rates of clinical disease in such trials could lead to important health benefits for CKD patients, whereas negative results would refocus efforts to understand and treat CKD-MBD. Clinical trials that employ highly practical or 'pragmatic' designs represent an optimal approach for determining the safety and effectiveness of phosphate binders in real-world settings. Absent clinical trial data, observational studies of phosphate binders in large CKD populations could provide important information regarding the benefits, risks and/or unintended side effects of these medications. PMID:26681747

  12. The measurement of xylulose 5-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, and combined sedoheptulose 7-phosphate and ribose 5-phosphate in liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Casazza, J P; Veech, R L

    1986-12-01

    A modification of the method of Kauffman et al. (F. C. Kauffman, J. G. Brown, J. V. Passonneau, and O. H. Lowry (1969) J. Biol. Chem. 244, 3647-3653) for the spectrophotometric determination of xylulose 5-phosphate, ribulose 5-phosphate, and combined ribose 5-phosphate and sedoheptulose 7-phosphate in tissue extract is presented. Using commercially available enzymes all three assays come to a clear endpoint with the assays described. Values for these metabolites in liver in three dietary states are reported; 48 h starved, ad libitum feeding of standard NIH rat ration, and meal feeding of a fat-free diet. Xylulose 5-phosphate values were 3.8 +/- 0.3, 8.6 +/- 0.3, and 66.3 +/- 8.3 nmol/g. Ribulose 5-phosphate values were 3.4 +/- 0.3, 5.8 +/- 0.2, and 37.1 +/- 5.3 nmol/g. Combined ribose 5-phosphate and sedoheptulose 7-phosphate were 29.3 +/- 0.3, 38.2 +/- 1.2, and 108.2 +/- 14.5 nmol/g. The ratio of measured tissue content of [xylulose 5-phosphate]/[ribulose 5-phosphate] was found to be 1.12 +/- 0.07 in starved animals, 1.48 +/- 0.04 in ad libitum fed animals and 1.78 +/- 0.03 in low-fat meal fed animals. These data are in good agreement with the range of equilibrium constants reported for this reaction, suggesting that the ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase reaction (EC 5.1.3.1) is a near equilibrium reaction despite a more than 10-fold change in the tissue content of these metabolites.

  13. Tribology in Gaseous Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawae, Yoshinori; Sugimura, Joich

    Hydrogen is expected as a clean and renewable energy carrier for future environment-friendly society. Many machine elements in hydrogen energy systems should be operating within hydrogen gas and tribological behavior, such as friction and wear, of bearings and seals are affected by the hydrogen environment through some interactions between material surfaces and gaseous hydrogen, i.e., physisorption of hydrogen molecules and following chemisorptions of dissociated atoms on metal surfaces, formation of metal hydride and reduction of metal oxide layer by hydrogen atoms diffused into bulk. Therefore, friction and wear characteristics of tribomaterials in the hydrogen environment should be appropriately understood to establish a design guideline for reliable hydrogen utilizing systems. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the effect of hydrogen on friction and wear of materials, and then describes our recent progress of hydrogen research in the tribology field.

  14. Removal of phosphate from solution by adsorption and precipitation of calcium phosphate onto monohydrocalcite.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shintaro; Fukushi, Keisuke

    2012-10-15

    The sorption behavior and mechanism of phosphate on monohydrocalcite (CaCO(3)·H(2)O: MHC) were examined using batch sorption experiments as a function of phosphate concentrations, ionic strengths, temperatures, and reaction times. The mode of PO(4) sorption is divisible into three processes depending on the phosphate loading. At low phosphate concentrations, phosphate is removed by coprecipitation of phosphate during the transformation of MHC to calcite. The sorption mode at the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations is most likely an adsorption process because the sorption isotherm at the conditions can be fitted reasonably with the Langmuir equation. The rapid sorption kinetics at the conditions is also consistent with the adsorption reaction. The adsorption of phosphate on MHC depends strongly on ionic strength, but slightly on temperature. The maximum adsorption capacities of MHC obtained from the regression of the experimental data to the Langmuir equation are higher than those reported for stable calcium carbonate (calcite or aragonite) in any conditions. At high phosphate concentrations, the amount of sorption deviates from the Langmuir isotherm, which can fit the low-to-moderate phosphate concentrations. Speciation-saturation analyses of the reacted solutions at the conditions indicated that the solution compositions which deviate from the Langmuir equation are supersaturated with respect to a certain calcium phosphate. The obtained calcium phosphate is most likely amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)·xH(2)O). The formation of the calcium phosphate depends strongly on ionic strength, temperature, and reaction times. The solubility of MHC is higher than calcite and aragonite because of its metastability. Therefore, the higher solubility of MHC facilitates the formation of the calcium phosphates more than with calcite and aragonite.

  15. On the Pressure-Induced Loss of Crystallinity in Zinc- and Calcium-Phosphates

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhvorostov, D.; Mosey, N; Munoz-Paniagua, D; Pereira, G; Song, Y; Kasrai, M; Norton, P; Müser, M

    2008-01-01

    A recently suggested mechanism for the stress memory of various metal phosphates is investigated experimentally. Based on first-principles simulations [N. J. Mosey et al., Science 307, 1612 (2005)], it had been argued that atoms with flexible coordination, such as zinc or heavy-metal cations, act as network-forming agents, undergoing irreversible pressure-induced changes in bonding that lead to increased connectivity between phosphate anions. In the present study, orthophosphates of zinc and calcium were exposed to high pressures on surfaces and in diamond anvil cells. An additional set of first-principles simulations was accomplished on ?-orthophosphate of zinc, which suggested that this material was already cross-linked before compression but that it nevertheless underwent a reversible coordination change under pressure in agreement with the experimental results presented here. Raman spectra indicate an irreversible, pressure-induced loss of long-range crystallinity. The pressures required to induce these changes are around 7 GPa for the zinc phosphates, while they are close to 21 GPa for the calcium phosphates. Hydrogenation of the metal phosphate lowers the threshold pressure by approximately 2-3 GPa in both cases. Moreover, ?-orthophosphate of zinc could be partially amorphisized under nonisotropic pressure on copper foils.

  16. Advanced oxidation kinetics of aqueous trialkyl phosphate flame retardants and plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Michael J; Linden, Karl G

    2009-04-15

    Trialkyl phosphate esters are a class of anthropogenic organics commonly found in surface waters of Europe and North America, due to their frequent application as flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents. Four trialkyl phosphate esters were evaluated to determine second-order rates of reaction with ultraviolet- and ozone-generated *OH in water. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) was fastest to react with *OH (kOH,TBEP = 1.03 x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1)), followed sequentially by tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) (kOH,TBP = 6.40 x 10(9), kOH,TCEP = 5.60 x 10(8), and kOH,TCPP = 1.98 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1)). A two-stage process was used to test the validity of the determined kOH for TBEP and the fastest reacting halogenated alkyl phosphate, TCEP. First, *OH oxidation of TCEP and TBEP, in competition with nitrobenzene was measured in ozonated hydrogen peroxide solutions. Applying multiple regression analysis, it was determined that the UV/H2O2 and O3/H2O2 data sets were statistically identical for each compound. The subsequent validated kOH were used to predict TCEP and TBEP photodegradation in neutral pH, model surface water after chemical oxidant addition and UV irradiation (up to 1000 mJ/cm2). The insignificant difference between the predicted TBEP and TCEP photodegradation and a best-fit of the first-order exponential decay function to the observed TBEP and TCEP concentrations with increasing UV fluence was further evidence of the validity of the determined kOH. TBEP oxidation rates were similar in the surface waters tested. Substantial TCEP oxidation in the model surface water required a significant increase in initial H2O2.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: phosphate rock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasinski, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphate rock minerals provide the only significant global resources of phosphorus, which is an essential element for plant and animal nutrition. Phosphate rock is used primarily as a principal component of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, but also to produce elemental phosphorus and animal feed.

  18. How inositol pyrophosphates control cellular phosphate homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Saiardi, Adolfo

    2012-05-01

    Phosphorus in his phosphate PO(4)(3-) configuration is an essential constituent of all life forms. Phosphate diesters are at the core of nucleic acid structure, while phosphate monoester transmits information under the control of protein kinases and phosphatases. Due to these fundamental roles in biology it is not a surprise that phosphate cellular homeostasis is under tight control. Inositol pyrophosphates are organic molecules with the highest proportion of phosphate groups, and they are capable of regulating many biological processes, possibly by controlling energetic metabolism and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Furthermore, inositol pyrophosphates influence inorganic polyphosphates (polyP) synthesis. The polymer polyP is solely constituted by phosphate groups and beside other known functions, it also plays a role in buffering cellular free phosphate [Pi] levels, an event that is ultimately necessary to generate ATP and inositol pyrophosphate. Although it is not yet clear how inositol pyrophosphates regulate cellular metabolism, understanding how inositol pyrophosphates influence phosphates homeostasis will help to clarify this important link. In this review I will describe the recent literature on this topic, with in the hope of inspiring further research in this fascinating area of biology.

  19. Metallic function of lithium phosphate glass electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kochetova, T.I.; Bobrov, V.S.

    1995-05-20

    Specificity of metallic functions of lithium phosphate glasses toward univalent cations over a wide concentration range and their correlation with cation size have been studied. In the present work, the authors extended the spectrum of phosphate glass compositions: a study has been made how additions of gallium, titanium, and vanadium oxides influence electrode properties.

  20. Phosphate rock resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cathcart, James Bachelder; Sheldon, Richard Porter; Gulbrandsen, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the United States produced about 54 million tons of phosphate rock, or about 40 percent of the world's production, of which a substantial amount was exported, both as phosphate rock and as chemical fertilizer. During the last decade, predictions have been made that easily ruinable, low-cost reserves of phosphate rock would be exhausted, and that by the end of this century, instead of being a major exporter of phosphate rock, the United States might become a net importer. Most analysts today, however, think that exports will indeed decline in the next one or two decades, but that resources of phosphate are sufficient to supply domestic needs for a long time into the future. What will happen in the future depends on the actual availability of low-cost phosphate rock reserves in the United States and in the world. A realistic understanding of future phosphate rock reserves is dependent on an accurate assessment, now, of national phosphate rock resources. Many different estimates of resources exist; none of them alike. The detailed analysis of past resource estimates presented in this report indicates that the estimates differ more in what is being estimated than in how much is thought to exist. The phosphate rock resource classification used herein is based on the two fundamental aspects of a mineral resource(l) the degree of certainty of existence and (2) the feasibility of economic recovery. The comparison of past estimates (including all available company data), combined with the writers' personal knowledge, indicates that 17 billion metric tons of identified, recoverable phosphate rock exist in the United States, of which about 7 billion metric tons are thought to be economic or marginally economic. The remaining 10 billion metric tons, mostly in the Northwestern phosphate district of Idaho, are considered to be subeconomic, ruinable when some increase in the price of phosphate occurs. More than 16 billion metric tons probably exist in the southeastern

  1. Effects of Nickel on Calcium Phosphate Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-López, J.; González, R.; Gómez, A.; Pomés, R.; Punte, G.; Della Védova, C. O.

    2000-05-01

    We have investigated the effect of nickel on calcium phosphate formation from aqueous solutions. The calcium phosphates prepared under different reaction conditions (pH, temperature, and nickel concentration) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The apatite compounds were also studied thermogravimetrically. From the combined results of the techniques employed we have determined that nickel favors the formation of brushite and amorphous calcium phosphate. We have found, as well, that the presence of nickel in the solution inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHAP) and octacalcium phosphate formation. However in the synthesis performed at basic pH and 95°C the apatitic phase (HAP) could be obtained. The present results suggest that the presence of nickel may modify the precipitation of oral calcium phosphate.

  2. Phosphate transport and arsenate resistance in the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, T.

    1988-03-01

    Cells of the cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis starved for phosphate for 3 days took up phosphate at about 100 times the rate of unstarved cells.Kinetic data suggested that a new transport system had been induced by starvation for phosphate. The inducible phosphate transport system was quickly repressed by addition of P/sub i/. Phosphate-starved cells were more sensitive to the toxic effects of arsenate than were unstarved cells, but phosphate could alleviate some of the toxicity. Arsenate was a noncompetitive inhibitor of phosphate transport; however, the apparent K/sub i/ values were high, particularly for phosphate-replete cells. Preincubation of phosphate-starved cells with arsenate caused subsequent inhibition of phosphate transport, suggesting that intracellular arsenate inhibited phosphate transport. This effect was not seen in phosphate-replete cells.

  3. Nanoporous sorbent material as an oral phosphate binder and for aqueous phosphate, chromate, and arsenate removal

    PubMed Central

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Lee, Richard; Morry, Jingga; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate removal is both biologically and environmentally important. Biologically, hyperphosphatemia is a critical condition in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Patients with hyperphosphatemia are treated long-term with oral phosphate binders to prevent phosphate absorption to the body by capturing phosphate in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract followed by fecal excretion. Environmentally, phosphate levels in natural water resources must be regulated according to limits set forth by the US Environmental Protection Agency. By utilizing nanotechnology and ligand design, we developed a new material to overcome limitations of traditional sorbent materials such as low phosphate binding capacity, slow binding kinetics, and negative interference by other anions. A phosphate binder based on iron-ethylenediamine on nanoporous silica (Fe-EDA-SAMMS) has been optimized for substrates and Fe(III) deposition methods. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS material had a 4-fold increase in phosphate binding capacity and a broader operating pH window compared to other reports. The material had a faster phosphate binding rate and was significantly less affected by other anions than Sevelamer HCl, the gold standard oral phosphate binder, and AG® 1-X8, a commercially available anion exchanger. It had less cytotoxicity to Caco-2 cells than lanthanum carbonate, another prescribed oral phosphate binder. The Fe-EDA-SAMMS also had high capacity for arsenate and chromate, two of the most toxic anions in natural water. PMID:25554735

  4. Phosphate Biomineralization of Cambrian Microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Rozanov, Alexei Yu.; Hoover, Richard B.; Westall, Frances

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long term study of biological markers (biomarkers), we are documenting a variety of features which reflect the previous presence of living organisms. As we study meteorites and samples returned from Mars, our main clue to recognizing possible microbial material may be the presence of biomarkers rather than the organisms themselves. One class of biomarkers consists of biominerals which have either been precipitated directly by microorganisms, or whose precipitation has been influenced by the organisms. Such microbe-mediated mineral formation may include important clues to the size, shape, and environment of the microorganisms. The process of fossilization or mineralization can cause major changes in morphologies and textures of the original organisms. The study of fossilized terrestrial organisms can help provide insight into the interpretation of mineral biomarkers. This paper describes the results of investigations of microfossils in Cambrian phosphate-rich rocks (phosphorites) that were found in Khubsugul, Northern Mongolia.

  5. Hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate to hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, M T; Brown, P W

    1998-04-01

    Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) was hydrolysed in water and in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution at temperatures from 25-60 degrees C. Hydrolysis was incomplete in water. At 25 degrees C, DCPD partially hydrolysed to hydroxyapatite (HAp). Formation of HAp is indicative of incongruent DCPD dissolution. At the higher temperatures, hydrolysis to HAp was more extensive and was accompanied by the formation of anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCP). Both of these processes are endothermic. When hydrolysis was carried out in 1 M Na2HPO4 solution, heat absorption was greater at any given temperature than for hydrolysis in water. Complete hydrolysis to HAp occurred in this solution. The hydrolysis of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution was also endothermic. The complete conversion of DCPD to HAp in sodium phosphate solution would not be expected if the only effect of this solution was to cause DCPD dissolution to become congruent. Because of the buffering capacity of a dibasic sodium phosphate solution, DCPD hydrolysed completely to HAp. Complete conversion to HAp was accompanied by the conversion of dibasic sodium phosphate to monobasic sodium phosphate. The formation of DCP was not observed indicating that the sodium phosphate solution precluded the DCPD-to-DCP dehydration reaction. In addition to affecting the extent of hydrolysis, reaction in the sodium phosphate solution also caused a morphological change in the HAp which formed. HAp formed by hydrolysis in water was needle-like to globular while that formed in the sodium phosphate solution exhibited a florette-like morphology.

  6. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, Leung K.; Wicks, George G.; Enz, Glenn L.

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  7. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  8. Peroxymonosulfate activation by phosphate anion for organics degradation in water.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiaoyi; Wu, Liuxi; Guo, Yaoguang; Chen, Chuncheng; Wang, Zhaohui; Xiao, Dongxue; Fang, Changling; Liu, Jianshe; Zhao, Jincai; Lu, Shuyu

    2014-12-01

    Activation of peroxygens is a critical method to generate oxidative species, but often consumes additional chemical reagents and/or energy. Here we report a novel and efficient activation reaction for peroxymonosulfate (PMS) by phosphate anions (PBS). The PBS/PMS coupled system, at neutral pH, is able to decompose efficiently even mineralize a variety of organic pollutants, such as Acid Orange 7, Rhodamine B and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. In contrast, no measurable degradation was observed when the PMS was replaced by other peroxygens (i.e. hydrogen peroxide and peroxydisulfate). Both PMS and PBS are indispensable for the oxidative degradation of pollutants. Increasing pH and concentrations of PMS and PBS significantly accelerate the degradation of organics. It is proposed that OH would be the major radical for contamination degradation at pH 7.0 through the radical quenching experiments. This work provides a new way of PMS activation for decontamination at neutral pH, in particular for phosphate-rich wastewater treatment.

  9. Characterization of Titanium Phosphate as Electrolytes in Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, A. T. T.; Duke, M. C.; Gray, P. G.; Diniz da Costa, J. C.

    Titanium phosphate is currently a promising material for proton exchange membrane fuel cells applications (PEMFC) allowing for operation at high temperature conditions. In this work, titanium phosphate was synthesized from tetra iso-propoxide (TTIP) and orthophosphoric acid (H3PO4) in different ratios by a sol gel method. High BET surface areas of 271 m2.g-1 were obtained for equimolar Ti:P samples whilst reduced surface areas were observed by varying the molar ratio either way. Highest proton conductivity of 5.4×10-2 S.cm-1 was measured at 20°C and 93% relative humidity (RH). However, no correlation was observed between surface area and proton conductivity. High proton conductivity was directly attributed to hydrogen bonding in P-OH groups and the water molecules retained in the sample structure. The proton conductivity increased with relative humidity, indicating that the Grotthuss mechanism governed proton transport. Further, sample Ti/P with 1:9 molar ratio showed proton conductivity in the order of 10-1 S.cm-1 (5% RH) and ~1.6×10-2 S.cm-1 (anhydrous condition) at 200°C. These proton conductivities were mainly attributed to excess acid locked into the functionalized TiP structure, thus forming ionisable protons.

  10. Nucleation, growth and evolution of calcium phosphate films on calcite.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sonia; Scherer, George W

    2014-12-01

    Marble, a stone composed of the mineral calcite, is subject to chemically induced weathering in nature due to its relatively high dissolution rate in acid rain. To protect monuments and sculpture from corrosion, we are investigating the application of thin layers of hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto marble. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and crystal and lattice compatibility with calcite. A mild, wet chemical synthesis route, in which diammonium hydrogen phosphate salt was reacted with marble, alone and with cationic and anionic precursors under different reaction conditions, was used to produce inorganic HAP layers on marble. Nucleation and growth on the calcite substrate was studied, as well as metastable phase evolution, using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Film nucleation was enhanced by surface roughness. The rate of nucleation and the growth rate of the film increased with cationic (calcium) and anionic (carbonate) precursor additions. Calcium additions also influenced phase formation, introducing a metastable phase (octacalcium phosphate) and a different phase evolution sequence.

  11. Nucleation, growth and evolution of calcium phosphate films on calcite.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Sonia; Scherer, George W

    2014-12-01

    Marble, a stone composed of the mineral calcite, is subject to chemically induced weathering in nature due to its relatively high dissolution rate in acid rain. To protect monuments and sculpture from corrosion, we are investigating the application of thin layers of hydroxyapatite (HAP) onto marble. The motivation for using HAP is its low dissolution rate and crystal and lattice compatibility with calcite. A mild, wet chemical synthesis route, in which diammonium hydrogen phosphate salt was reacted with marble, alone and with cationic and anionic precursors under different reaction conditions, was used to produce inorganic HAP layers on marble. Nucleation and growth on the calcite substrate was studied, as well as metastable phase evolution, using scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. Film nucleation was enhanced by surface roughness. The rate of nucleation and the growth rate of the film increased with cationic (calcium) and anionic (carbonate) precursor additions. Calcium additions also influenced phase formation, introducing a metastable phase (octacalcium phosphate) and a different phase evolution sequence. PMID:25233226

  12. Hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of Cs[(V[sub 2]O[sub 3])(HPO[sub 4])[sub 2](H[sub 2]O)], a mixed-valence vanadium (IV, V) hydrogen phosphate with a one-dimensional (-V[sup IV]-O-V[sup V]-O-) chain of corner-sharing VO[sub 6] octahedra

    SciTech Connect

    Haushalter, R.C. ); Wang, Z. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ ); Thompson, M.E. ); Zubieta, J. ); O'Connor, C.J. )

    1994-04-01

    The hydrothermal reaction of Cs[sub 4]V[sub 2]O[sub 7], V, H[sub 3]PO[sub 4], H[sub 2]O, and Bu[sub 4]NBr in the molar ratio 4.5:1:41:3150:1 at 200[degrees]C for 48 hr yielded the red-brown cesium vanadium phosphate Cs[(V[sub 2]O[sub 3])(HPO[sub 4])[sub 2](H[sub 2]O)], a mixed-valence V(IV, V) species. The structure contains corner-sharing vanadium octahedra and phosphorus tetrahedra with unusual 1-D (-V[sup IV]-O-V[sup v]-O-)[infinity] chains formed from VO[sub 6] octahedra sharing opposite corners. These chains are connected through tridentate bridging (HPO[sub 4])[sup 2[minus

  13. Adsorption of trimethyl phosphate and triethyl phosphate on dry and water pre-covered hematite, maghemite, and goethite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mäkie, Peter; Persson, Per; Osterlund, Lars

    2013-02-15

    Adsorption of trimethyl phosphate (TMP) and triethyl phosphate (TEP) on well-characterized nanoparticles of hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)), maghemite (γ-Fe(2)O(3)), and goethite (α-FeOOH) has been studied by in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), 2D correlation DRIFTS analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on dry and water pre-covered surfaces. It is shown that, at room temperature and low coverage, both TMP and TEP coordinate to Lewis acid Fe sites through the O phosphoryl atom on hematite and maghemite, while hydrogen bonding to Brønstedt acid surface OH groups dominates on goethite. At room temperature, slow dissociation of TMP occurs on the iron (hydr)oxide nanoparticles, whereby a methoxy group is displaced to form surface methoxy, leaving adsorbed dimethyl phosphate (DMP). Methoxy is further decomposed to formate, suggesting an oxidative degradation pathway in synthetic air on the oxide particles. Relatively, larger amounts of DMP and surface methoxy form on maghemite, while more formate is produced on hematite. Upon TMP adsorption on dry goethite nanoparticles, no oxidation surface products were detected. Instead, a slow TMP hydrolysis pathway is observed, yielding orthophosphate. It is found that pre-adsorbed water stimulates the hydrolysis of TMP. In contrast to TMP, TEP adsorbs molecularly on all iron hydr(oxide) nanoparticles. This is attributed to the longer aliphatic chain, which stabilizes the loss of charge on the methoxy CO bonds by charge redistribution upon phosphoryl O coordination to Fe surface atoms. The presented results implicate different reactivity depending on specific molecular structure of the organophosphorus compound (larger functional groups can compensate loss of charge due to surface coordination) and iron (hydr)oxide surface structure (exposing Lewis acid or Brønstedt acid sites).

  14. Potential Application of Biohydrogen Production Liquid Waste as Phosphate Solubilizing Agent-A Study Using Soybean Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    With CO2 free emission and a gravimetric energy density higher than gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol, biohydrogen is a promising green renewable energy carrier. During fermentative hydrogen production, 60-70 % of the feedstock is converted to different by-products, dominated by organic acids. In the present investigation, a simple approach for value addition of hydrogen production liquid waste (HPLW) containing these compounds has been demonstrated. In soil, organic acids produced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria chelate the cations of insoluble inorganic phosphates (e.g., Ca3 (PO4)2) and make the phosphorus available to the plants. Organic acid-rich HPLW, therefore, has been evaluated as soil phosphate solubilizer. Application of HPLW as soil phosphate solubilizer was found to improve the phosphorus uptake of soybean plants by 2.18- to 2.74-folds. Additionally, 33-100 % increase in seed germination rate was also observed. Therefore, HPLW has the potential to be an alternative for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers available in the market. Moreover, the strategy can be useful for phytoremediation of phosphorus-rich soil.

  15. Potential Application of Biohydrogen Production Liquid Waste as Phosphate Solubilizing Agent-A Study Using Soybean Plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; LeBihan, Yann; Buelna, Gerardo

    2016-03-01

    With CO2 free emission and a gravimetric energy density higher than gasoline, diesel, biodiesel, and bioethanol, biohydrogen is a promising green renewable energy carrier. During fermentative hydrogen production, 60-70 % of the feedstock is converted to different by-products, dominated by organic acids. In the present investigation, a simple approach for value addition of hydrogen production liquid waste (HPLW) containing these compounds has been demonstrated. In soil, organic acids produced by phosphate solubilizing bacteria chelate the cations of insoluble inorganic phosphates (e.g., Ca3 (PO4)2) and make the phosphorus available to the plants. Organic acid-rich HPLW, therefore, has been evaluated as soil phosphate solubilizer. Application of HPLW as soil phosphate solubilizer was found to improve the phosphorus uptake of soybean plants by 2.18- to 2.74-folds. Additionally, 33-100 % increase in seed germination rate was also observed. Therefore, HPLW has the potential to be an alternative for phosphate solubilizing biofertilizers available in the market. Moreover, the strategy can be useful for phytoremediation of phosphorus-rich soil. PMID:26541163

  16. A Few Facts about Hydrogen [and] Hydrogen Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, H. Roger

    Divided into two sections, this publication presents facts about and the characteristics of hydrogen and a bibliography on hydrogen. The first section lists nine facts on what hydrogen is, four on where hydrogen is found, nine on how hydrogen is used, nine on how hydrogen can be used, and 14 on how hydrogen is made. Also included are nine…

  17. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates as cholinesterases inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Krátký, Martin; Štěpánková, Šárka; Vorčáková, Katarína; Vinšová, Jarmila

    2015-02-01

    Based on the presence of dialkyl phosphate moiety, we evaluated twenty-seven salicylanilide diethyl phosphates (diethyl [2-(phenylcarbamoyl)phenyl] phosphates) for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from electric eel (Electrophorus electricus L.) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) from equine serum. Ellman's spectrophotometric method was used. The inhibitory activity (expressed as IC50 values) was compared with that of the established drugs galantamine and rivastigmine. Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates showed significant activity against both cholinesterases with IC50 values from 0.903 to 86.3 μM. IC50s for BChE were comparatively lower than those obtained for AChE. All of the investigated compounds showed higher inhibition of AChE than rivastigmine, and six of them inhibited BChE more effectively than both rivastigmine and galantamine. In general, derivatives of 4-chlorosalicylic acid showed enhanced activity when compared to derivatives of 5-halogenated salicylic acids, especially against BChE. The most effective inhibitor of AChE was O-{5-chloro-2-[(3-bromophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphate with IC50 of 35.4 μM, which is also one of the most potent inhibitors of BChE. O-{5-Chloro-2-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)carbamoyl]phenyl} O,O-diethyl phosphate exhibited in vitro the strongest inhibition of BChE (0.90 μM). Salicylanilide diethyl phosphates act as pseudo-irreversible cholinesterases inhibitors. PMID:25462625

  18. Ultrafast phosphate hydration dynamics in bulk H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Costard, Rene Tyborski, Tobias; Fingerhut, Benjamin P. Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-06-07

    Phosphate vibrations serve as local probes of hydrogen bonding and structural fluctuations of hydration shells around ions. Interactions of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions and their aqueous environment are studied combining femtosecond 2D infrared spectroscopy, ab-initio calculations, and hybrid quantum-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Two-dimensional infrared spectra of the symmetric (ν{sub S}(PO{sub 2}{sup −})) and asymmetric (ν{sub AS}(PO{sub 2}{sup −})) PO{sub 2}{sup −} stretching vibrations display nearly homogeneous lineshapes and pronounced anharmonic couplings between the two modes and with the δ(P-(OH){sub 2}) bending modes. The frequency-time correlation function derived from the 2D spectra consists of a predominant 50 fs decay and a weak constant component accounting for a residual inhomogeneous broadening. MD simulations show that the fluctuating electric field of the aqueous environment induces strong fluctuations of the ν{sub S}(PO{sub 2}{sup −}) and ν{sub AS}(PO{sub 2}{sup −}) transition frequencies with larger frequency excursions for ν{sub AS}(PO{sub 2}{sup −}). The calculated frequency-time correlation function is in good agreement with the experiment. The ν(PO{sub 2}{sup −}) frequencies are mainly determined by polarization contributions induced by electrostatic phosphate-water interactions. H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −}/H{sub 2}O cluster calculations reveal substantial frequency shifts and mode mixing with increasing hydration. Predicted phosphate-water hydrogen bond (HB) lifetimes have values on the order of 10 ps, substantially longer than water-water HB lifetimes. The ultrafast phosphate-water interactions observed here are in marked contrast to hydration dynamics of phospholipids where a quasi-static inhomogeneous broadening of phosphate vibrations suggests minor structural fluctuations of interfacial water.

  19. Trapping of hydrogen atoms in X-irradiated salts at room temperature and the decay kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.; Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1974-01-01

    The salts (hypophosphites, formates, a phosphite, a phosphate, and an oxalate) were X-irradiated, whereby hydrogen formed chemically by a radiolytic process becomes trapped in the solid. By room temperature vacuum extraction, the kinetics for the evolution of this trapped hydrogen was studied mass spectrometrically. All salts except two exhibited second-order kinetics. The two exceptions (NaH2PO2(H2O) and K2HPO4) showed first-order kinetics. Based on experimental results, the escape of hydrogen involves three steps: the diffusion of hydrogen atoms from the bulk to the surface, association of these atoms on the surface (rate controlling step for second-order hydrogen evolution), and the desorption of molecular hydrogen from the surface. The hydrogen does not escape if the irradiated salt is stored in air, apparently because adsorbed air molecules occupy surface sites required in the escape mechanism.

  20. Ribose-5-phosphate biosynthesis in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii occurs in the absence of a pentose-phosphate pathway.

    PubMed

    Grochowski, Laura L; Xu, Huimin; White, Robert H

    2005-11-01

    Recent work has raised a question as to the involvement of erythrose-4-phosphate, a product of the pentose phosphate pathway, in the metabolism of the methanogenic archaea (R. H. White, Biochemistry 43:7618-7627, 2004). To address the possible absence of erythrose-4-phosphate in Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, we have assayed cell extracts of this methanogen for the presence of this and other intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and have determined and compared the labeling patterns of sugar phosphates derived metabolically from [6,6-2H2]- and [U-13C]-labeled glucose-6-phosphate incubated with cell extracts. The results of this work have established the absence of pentose phosphate pathway intermediates erythrose-4-phosphate, xylose-5-phosphate, and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate in these cells and the presence of D-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, an intermediate in the ribulose monophosphate pathway. The labeling of the D-ara-bino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, as well as the other sugar-Ps, indicates that this hexose-6-phosphate was the precursor to ribulose-5-phosphate that in turn was converted into ribose-5-phosphate by ribose-5-phosphate isomerase. Additional work has demonstrated that ribulose-5-phosphate is derived by the loss of formaldehyde from D-arabino-3-hexulose-6-phosphate, catalyzed by the protein product of the MJ1447 gene.

  1. Aquatic Toxicity Assessment of Phosphate Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunju; Yoo, Sunkyoung; Ro, Hee-Young; Han, Hye-Jin; Baek, Yong-Wook; Eom, Ig-Chun; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are high production volume chemicals, mainly used as foodstuff additives, pharmaceuticals, lubricants, synthetic resin, and disinfectants. Phosphate has the potential to cause increased algal growth leading to eutrophication in the aquatic environment. However, there is no adequate information available on risk assessment or acute and chronic toxicity. The aim of this research is to evaluate the toxic potential of phosphate compounds in the aquatic environment. Methods An aquatic toxicity test of phosphate was conducted, and its physico-chemical properties were obtained from a database recommended in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidance manual. An ecotoxicity test using fish, Daphnia, and algae was conducted by the good laboratory practice facility according to the OECD TG guidelines for testing of chemicals, to secure reliable data. Results The results of the ecotoxicity tests of tricalcium phosphate and calcium hydrogenorthophosphate are as follows: In an acute toxicity test with Oryzias latipes, 96 hr 50% lethal concentration (LC50) was >100 (measured:>2.14) mg/L and >100 (measured: >13.5) mg/L, respectively. In the Daphnia test, 48 hr 50% effective concentration (EC50) was >100 (measured: >5.35) mg/L and >100 (measured: >2.9) mg/L, respectively. In a growth inhibition test with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, 72 hr EC50 was >100 (measured: >1.56) mg/L and >100 (measured: >4.4) mg/L, respectively. Conclusions Based on the results of the ecotoxicity test of phosphate using fish, Daphnia, and algae, L(E)C50 was above 100 mg/L (nominal), indicating no toxicity. In general, the total phosphorus concentration including phosphate in rivers and lakes reaches levels of several ppm, suggesting that phosphate has no toxic effects. However, excessive inflow of phosphate into aquatic ecosystems has the potential to cause eutrophication due to algal growth. PMID:23440935

  2. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate.

  3. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  4. BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PROCESS FOR Pu RECOVERY

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-02-01

    An improvement in the bismuth phosphate carrier precipitation process for recovering plutonium is described. It has been found that a more granular and more easily filterable carrier precipitiite is formed if the addition of the bismuth and phosphate ions is effected by first adding 9/10 of the bismuth ions necessary, then slowly adding all of the source of the phosphate ions to be incorporated in the precipitate, while digesting at 75 C and afterwards incorporating the remainder of the total bismuth ions necessary

  5. Non-oxidative synthesis of pentose 5-phosphate from hexose 6-phosphate and triose phosphate by the L-type pentose pathway.

    PubMed

    Williams, J F; Blackmore, P F

    1983-01-01

    1. Ribose 5-phosphate was non-oxidatively synthesized from glucose 6-phosphate and triose phosphate by an enzyme extract prepared from rat liver (RLEP). Analysis of the intermediates by GLC, ion-exchange chromatography and specific enzymatic analysis, revealed the presence of the following intermediates of the L-type pentose pathway: altro-heptulose 1,7-bisphosphate, arabinose 5-phosphate and D-glycero D-ido octulose 8-phosphate. 2. With either [1-14C] or [2-14C]glucose 6-phosphate as diagnostic substrates, the distribution of 14C in ribose 5-phosphate was determined. At early time intervals (0.5-8 hr), [1-14C]glucose 6-phosphate introduced 14C into C-1, C-3 and C-5 of ribose 5-phosphate, at 17 hr 14C was confined to C-1. With [2-14C]glucose 6-phosphate as substrate, 14C was confined to C-2, C-3 and C-5 of ribose 5-phosphate during early times (0.5-8 hr), while at 17 hr 14C was located in C-2. 3. The transketolase exchange reaction, [14C]ribose 5-phosphate + altro-heptulose 7-phosphate in equilibrium ribose 5-phosphate + [14C]altro-heptulose 7-phosphate, was demonstrated for the first time using purified transketolase, its activity was measured and it is proposed to play a major role in the relocation of 14C into C-3 and C-5 or ribose 5-phosphate during the prediction labelling experiments. 4. The coupled transketolase-transaldolase reactions, 2 fructose 6-phosphate in equilibrium altro-heptulose 7-phosphate + xylulose 5-phosphate and 2 altro-heptulose 7-phosphate in equilibrium fructose 6-phosphate + D-glycero D-altro octulose 8-phosphate were demonstrated with purified enzymes, but are concluded to play a minor role in the non-oxidative synthesis of pentose 5-phosphate and octulose phosphate by (RLEP). 5. The formation of gem diol and dimers of erythrose 4-phosphate is proposed to account in part for the failure to detect monomeric erythrose 4-phosphate in the carbon balance studies. 6. The equilibrium value for the pentose pathway acting by the reverse mode in

  6. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  7. [Adsorption of Phosphate by Lanthanum Hydroxide/Natural Zeolite Composites from Low Concentration Phosphate Solution].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-wei; Wang, Hong; Zhan, Yan-hui; Chen, Dong-mei

    2016-01-15

    A series of composites of lanthanum hydroxide/natural zeolite ( La( OH) 3/NZ composites) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and these composites were used as adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption capacities of different composites prepared with different precipitated pH values were compared in batch mode. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 was investigated using batch experiments. The results showed that the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH values of 5-7 and 13 had a low adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous solution, while the La( OH) 3/NZ composites prepared with the precipitated pH values of 9-12 exhibited much higher phosphate adsorption capacity. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the La (OH)3/NZ composite increased with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 9 to 11, but remained basically unchanged with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 11 to 12. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La ( OH ) 3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model with the predicted maximum phosphate adsorption of 44 mg x g(-1) (phosphate solution pH 7 and 30 degrees C). The kinetic data of phosphate adsorption from low concentration phosphate solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) in low concentration phosphate solution had no negative effect on phosphate adsorption onto the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11, while the presence of HCO3- slightly inhibited the adsorption of phosphate. Coexisting humic acid had a negative effect on the adsorption of phosphate at low concentration on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the

  8. [Adsorption of Phosphate by Lanthanum Hydroxide/Natural Zeolite Composites from Low Concentration Phosphate Solution].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian-wei; Wang, Hong; Zhan, Yan-hui; Chen, Dong-mei

    2016-01-15

    A series of composites of lanthanum hydroxide/natural zeolite ( La( OH) 3/NZ composites) were prepared by co-precipitation method, and these composites were used as adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. The phosphate adsorption capacities of different composites prepared with different precipitated pH values were compared in batch mode. The adsorption characteristics of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 was investigated using batch experiments. The results showed that the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH values of 5-7 and 13 had a low adsorption capacity for phosphate in aqueous solution, while the La( OH) 3/NZ composites prepared with the precipitated pH values of 9-12 exhibited much higher phosphate adsorption capacity. The phosphate adsorption capacity of the La (OH)3/NZ composite increased with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 9 to 11, but remained basically unchanged with the increase of the precipitated pH value from 11 to 12. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate from aqueous solution on the La ( OH ) 3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 could be described by the Langmuir isotherm model with the predicted maximum phosphate adsorption of 44 mg x g(-1) (phosphate solution pH 7 and 30 degrees C). The kinetic data of phosphate adsorption from low concentration phosphate solution on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11 well followed a pseudo-second-order model. The presence of Cl- and SO4(2-) in low concentration phosphate solution had no negative effect on phosphate adsorption onto the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the precipitated pH value of 11, while the presence of HCO3- slightly inhibited the adsorption of phosphate. Coexisting humic acid had a negative effect on the adsorption of phosphate at low concentration on the La(OH)3/NZ composite prepared with the

  9. Hydrogen evolution inhibitors for cells having zinc anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Przybyla, F.J.; Rossler, E.J.

    1980-03-25

    Hydrogen evolution in cells having zinc anodes is reduced or eliminated by incorporating in the cell a surfactant which is a complex phosphate ester of a surfactant of the ethylene oxide adduct type. This surfactant is added in such a manner that, directly or upon wetting of the anode by the electrolyte, there is an adsorption of surfactant on the surface of the zinc anode material, whereby hydrogen evolution is inhibited. The surfactant is desirably present in the cell in an amount of from 0.001% to 5% by weight of the zinc component of the cell

  10. Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Methods for concentrating hydrogen peroxide solutions have been described. The methods utilize a polymeric membrane separating a hydrogen peroxide solution from a sweep gas or permeate. The membrane is selective to the permeability of water over the permeability of hydrogen peroxide, thereby facilitating the concentration of the hydrogen peroxide solution through the transport of water through the membrane to the permeate. By utilizing methods in accordance with the invention, hydrogen peroxide solutions of up to 85% by volume or higher may be generated at a point of use without storing substantial quantities of the highly concentrated solutions and without requiring temperatures that would produce explosive mixtures of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

  11. [Rasburicase therapy may cause hydrogen peroxide shock].

    PubMed

    Góth, László

    2008-08-24

    Hyperuricemia contributes to the pathomechanism of diseases such as renal failure, gout, tumor lysis syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Tumor lysis syndrome is a complication of malignancies caused by massive tumor cell lysis due to either spontaneous tumor cell lysis or to different therapies and it may cause hyperuricemia. Recently, for treatment of hyperuricemia the recombinant urate oxidase (rasburicase) therapy has been used. This enzyme converts uric acid with high affinity into soluble allantoin which is eliminated by the kidneys. In this reaction high concentration of hydrogen peroxide is generated. This hydrogen peroxide could cause hemolysis and especially methemoglobin formation, in case of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase and catalase deficiencies. Therefore it is recommended that these enzymes are determined before therapy. For monitoring of rasburicase therapy the determination of serum uric acid concentration is used. More than 95 per cent of Hungarian clinical laboratories are using the uricate oxidase/peroxidase reactions and hydrogen peroxide measurements in the uric acid assays. These assays may be interfered by ascorbic acid and hydrogen peroxide which is generated by rasburicase either in vivo or in vitro. PMID:18708312

  12. The oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate in Elkhorn Slough, California: A tracer for phosphate sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Karen; Cade-Menun, Barbara J.; Paytan, Adina

    2006-11-01

    Elkhorn Slough, a small seasonal estuary in central California, has been subjected to increased nutrient loading from agricultural and other non-point sources. However, because nutrients do not behave conservatively, tracing nutrient sources and cycling in ecosystems like Elkhorn Slough has been difficult to assess. This is particularly true of phosphorus (P), which has only one stable isotope and cannot be used as an isotopic tracer. However, isotopic fractionation of oxygen in phosphate at surface water temperatures only occurs as a result of enzyme-mediated, biochemical reactions. Thus, if phosphate demand is low relative to input and is not heavily cycled within the ecosystem, the δ18O of phosphate will reflect the isotopic composition of phosphate sources to the system. We utilized the δ18O of dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) within the main channel of the slough and nearby Moss Landing Harbor and the δ18O of reactive phosphate from sediment and soil samples collected within the watershed to understand phosphate sources and cycling within Elkhorn Slough. Trends in the δ18O of DIP were seasonally consistent with high values near the mouth reflecting oceanic phosphate (19.1‰-20.3‰), dropping to a minimum value near Hummingbird Island in the central slough (point source, 14.1‰-14.4‰), and increasing again near the head of the slough, reflecting fertilizer input (18.9‰-19.3‰). Reactive phosphate δ18O values extracted from sediments and soils in the watershed range from 10.6‰ in a drainage ditch to 22.3‰ in creek sediments near agriculture fields. The wide range in phosphate δ18O values reflects the variations in land use and application of different fertilizers in this agriculturally dominated landscape. These data suggest that phosphate δ18O can be an effective tool for identifying P sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in estuarine ecosystems.

  13. Phosphate Oxygen Isotopes as a Tracer for Sources and Cycling of Phosphate in San Francisco Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, K.; Paytan, A.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Phosphorous is an essential macro-nutrient for primary productivity, but tracing sources and cycling of P in marine systems has been difficult to assess because P has only one stable isotope and can not be used as an isotopic tracer. Recently a new technique (McLaughlin et al., 2004) has been developed to track sources and cycling of phosphate in aquatic systems. This approach takes advantage of the strong P-O bond in phosphate, which is resistant to inorganic hydrolysis. The exchange of oxygen isotopes therein only occurs due to intracellular biological cycling. Because the d18O of phosphate will largely be determined by the isotopic composition of the water in which it is being recycled and because the isotopic composition of rivers and oceans is significantly different, the d18O of phosphate may be used as a tracer for different sources of phosphate to an estuarine system which is not phosphate limited. Consequently, the d18O of phosphate may be useful for quantifying the mixing of different sources of phosphate in estuarine systems. We applied this method to enhance our understanding of P sources and cycling in the San Francisco Bay. To this end we conducted four sampling transects from Coyote Creek in the South Bay to the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers in the North between October 2002 and August 2004. Phosphate d18O ranged from 10.1 to 20.1 per mil, with highest values at the Golden Gate and lowest at the San Joaquin River. Most of the Bay samples showed strong positive correlations with salinity, water d18O, and the inverse of phosphate concentration, suggesting a simple two-component mixing of oceanic and riverine sources. These data suggest that phosphate d18O can be an effective tool for identifying P point sources and understanding phosphate dynamics in the ecosystem.

  14. Optimization of Porous Pellets for Phosphate Recovery

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster presents the preliminary adsorption experiment showing that phosphate concentration is decreasing over time as well as presenting the kinetics models that best fit the data collected over 25 days.

  15. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1954-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totaling 5, 600 traverse miles were made in 10 areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for deposits of uraniferous phosphate. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in 8 of the 10 areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; the river-pebble samples contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphatic rock containing as much as 0. 016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported.

  16. Airborne radioactivity surveys for phosphate in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1953-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys totalling 5,600 traverse miles were made in ten areas in Florida, which were thought to be geologically favorable for the occurrence of uraniferous phosphate deposits. Abnormal radioactivity was recorded in eight of the ten areas surveyed. The anomalies are located in Bradford, Clay, Columbia, DeSoto, Dixie, Lake, Marion, Orange, Sumter, Taylor, and Union Counties. Two of the anomalies were investigated briefly on the ground. One resulted from a deposit of river-pebble phosphate in the Peace River valley; samples of the river pebble contain an average of 0.013 percent equivalent uranium. The other anomaly resulted from outcrops of leached phosphate rock containing as much as 0.016 percent equivalent uranium. Several anomalies in other areas were recorded at or near localities where phosphate deposits have been reported to occur.

  17. Phosphate treatment of hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thalassinos, N; Joplin, G F

    1968-10-01

    Thirteen patients with hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma received inorganic phosphate, orally or intravenously, as palliative treatment for their high serum calcium levels. The serum calcium promptly fell in all patients fully treated, and there was a striking clinical improvement in most patients. The blood urea was usually unchanged or became nearer to normal, while the serum phosphate altered variably. Only two of the eight patients who were studied at necropsy had microscopical nephrocalcinosis; corneal calcification was evident in both before phosphate treatment was started.This oral inorganic phosphate (1 gramme thrice daily) is a safe and effective means of treating hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma. An intravenous infusion of 1 gramme over eight hours may sometimes be required initially for patients who are vomiting.

  18. Phosphate Treatment of Hypercalcaemia Due to Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Thalassinos, N.; Joplin, G. F.

    1968-01-01

    Thirteen patients with hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma received inorganic phosphate, orally or intravenously, as palliative treatment for their high serum calcium levels. The serum calcium promptly fell in all patients fully treated, and there was a striking clinical improvement in most patients. The blood urea was usually unchanged or became nearer to normal, while the serum phosphate altered variably. Only two of the eight patients who were studied at necropsy had microscopical nephrocalcinosis; corneal calcification was evident in both before phosphate treatment was started. This oral inorganic phosphate (1 gramme thrice daily) is a safe and effective means of treating hypercalcaemia due to carcinoma. An intravenous infusion of 1 gramme over eight hours may sometimes be required initially for patients who are vomiting. PMID:4175670

  19. Enzyme activity in dialkyl phosphate ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.F.; Dunn, J.; Li, L.-L.; Handley-Pendleton, J. M.; van der lelie, D.; Wishart, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The activity of four metagenomic enzymes and an enzyme cloned from the straw mushroom, Volvariellavolvacea were studied in the following ionic liquids, 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [mmim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate, [emim][dmp], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate, [emim][dep] and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [emim][OAc]. Activity was determined by analyzing the hydrolysis of para-nitrobenzene carbohydrate derivatives. In general, the enzymes were most active in the dimethyl phosphate ionic liquids, followed by acetate. Generally speaking, activity decreased sharply for concentrations of [emim][dep] above 10% v/v, while the other ionic liquids showed less impact on activity up to 20% v/v.

  20. CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

  1. Isolation of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from phosphate mines and their effect on wheat seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunqiao; Chi, Ruan; He, Huan; Qiu, Guanzhou; Wang, Dianzuo; Zhang, Wenxue

    2009-11-01

    Three phosphate-solubilizing fungi, identified as Penicillium expansum, Mucor ramosissimus, and Candida krissii, were isolated from phosphate mines (Hubei, People's Republic of China) and characterized. All the isolates demonstrated diverse levels of phosphate-solubilizing capability in National Botanical Research Institute's phosphate growth medium containing rock phosphate as sole phosphate source. Acidification of culture medium seemed to be the main mechanism for rock phosphate solubilization. Indeed, citric acid, oxalic acid, and gluconic acid were shown to be present in the culture medium inoculated with these isolates. Moreover, the isolates produced acid and alkaline phosphatases in culture medium, which may also be helpful for RP solubilization. A strong negative correlation between content of soluble phosphorus and pH (r = - 0.89; p < 0.01) in culture medium was observed in this study. All the isolates promoted growth, soil available phosphorus, phosphorus, and nitrogen uptake of wheat seedling in field soil containing rock phosphate under pot culture conditions, thus demonstrating the capability of these isolates to convert insoluble form of phosphorus into plant available form from rock phosphate, and therefore hold great potential for development as biofertilizers to enhance soil fertility and promote plant growth.

  2. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  3. Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis and Tissue Mineralisation

    PubMed Central

    Bergwitz, Clemens; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate is absorbed from the diet in the gut, stored as hydroxyapatite in the skeleton, and excreted with the urine. The balance between these compartments determines the circulating phosphate concentration. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) has recently been discovered and is part of a previously unrecognised hormonal bone-kidney axis. Phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, and dentin matrix protein 1 regulate the expression of FGF23 in osteocytes, which then is O-glycosylated by UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-d-galactosamine: poly-peptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl-transferase 3 and secreted into the circulation. FGF23 binds with high affinity to fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c in the presence of its co-receptor Klotho. It inhibits, either directly or indirectly, reabsorption of phosphate and the synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxy-vita-min-D by the renal proximal tubule and the secretion of parathyroid hormone by the parathyroid glands. Acquired or inborn errors affecting this newly discovered hormonal system can lead to abnormal phosphate homeostasis and/or tissue mineralisation. This chapter will provide an update on the current knowledge of the pathophysiology, the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation and therapy of the disorders of phosphate homeostasis and tissue mineralisation. PMID:19494665

  4. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life. PMID:20981096

  5. The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir.

    PubMed

    Planavsky, Noah J; Rouxel, Olivier J; Bekker, Andrey; Lalonde, Stefan V; Konhauser, Kurt O; Reinhard, Christopher T; Lyons, Timothy W

    2010-10-28

    Phosphorus is a biolimiting nutrient that has an important role in regulating the burial of organic matter and the redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. The ratio of phosphorus to iron in iron-oxide-rich sedimentary rocks can be used to track dissolved phosphate concentrations if the dissolved silica concentration of sea water is estimated. Here we present iron and phosphorus concentration ratios from distal hydrothermal sediments and iron formations through time to study the evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. The data suggest that phosphate concentrations have been relatively constant over the Phanerozoic eon, the past 542 million years (Myr) of Earth's history. In contrast, phosphate concentrations seem to have been elevated in Precambrian oceans. Specifically, there is a peak in phosphorus-to-iron ratios in Neoproterozoic iron formations dating from ∼750 to ∼635 Myr ago, indicating unusually high dissolved phosphate concentrations in the aftermath of widespread, low-latitude 'snowball Earth' glaciations. An enhanced postglacial phosphate flux would have caused high rates of primary productivity and organic carbon burial and a transition to more oxidizing conditions in the ocean and atmosphere. The snowball Earth glaciations and Neoproterozoic oxidation are both suggested as triggers for the evolution and radiation of metazoans. We propose that these two factors are intimately linked; a glacially induced nutrient surplus could have led to an increase in atmospheric oxygen, paving the way for the rise of metazoan life.

  6. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Debajyoti; De, Debojyoti; Chaudhuri, Surabhi; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

    2005-01-01

    The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical), Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source. PMID:16371161

  7. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOEpatents

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  8. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  9. Solar hydrogen generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Sabol, A. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus, using solar energy to manufacture hydrogen by dissociating water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen molecules is described. Solar energy is concentrated on a globe containing water thereby heating the water to its dissociation temperature. The globe is pervious to hydrogen molecules permitting them to pass through the globe while being essentially impervious to oxygen molecules. The hydrogen molecules are collected after passing through the globe and the oxygen molecules are removed from the globe.

  10. Disposable Hydrogen Generator.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J H; Allgeier, D L

    1965-02-26

    A convenient means of producing hydrogen gas for anaerobe jars or other situations where 2 liters of hydrogen will suffice is described. Hydrogen gas is produced by the chemical action of magnesium metal, zinc chloride, sodium chloride, and water within a unique plastic and aluminum foil envelope. That there is no excessive buildup of hydrogen greatly reduces the hazard of explosion. The gas-producing units are simple to activate and may be discarded after use.

  11. Liquid metal hydrogen barriers

    DOEpatents

    Grover, George M.; Frank, Thurman G.; Keddy, Edward S.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

  12. Purification of Hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Newton, A S

    1950-12-05

    Disclosed is a process for purifying hydrogen containing various gaseous impurities by passing the hydrogen over a large surface of uranium metal at a temperature above the decomposition temperature of uranium hydride, and below the decomposition temperature of the compounds formed by the combination of the uranium with the impurities in the hydrogen.

  13. Flash hydrogenation of coal

    DOEpatents

    Manowitz, Bernard; Steinberg, Meyer; Sheehan, Thomas V.; Winsche, Warren E.; Raseman, Chad J.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

  14. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  15. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  16. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  17. The effect of two bleaching agents on the phosphate concentration of the enamel evaluated by Raman spectroscopy: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Sokkalingam Mothilal; Narayan, Gopal Shankar; Ramachandran, Anil Kumar; Indira, Rajamani

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of in-office bleaching agents,–35% and 38% hydrogen peroxide containing bleaching agents, on the phosphate concentration of the enamel evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Forty noncarious, craze-free human maxillary incisors, extracted for periodontal reasons, were used in this study. Baseline Raman spectra from each specimen were obtained before the application of the bleaching agent to assess the phosphate content present in the teeth. The teeth were divided into two groups: Group A – bleached with pola office bleach (35% hydrogen peroxide, potassium nitrate) (light activated). Group B – bleached with opalescence Xtra bleach (38% hydrogen peroxide potassium nitrate and fluoride) (chemical activated). After the bleaching procedure, the treated specimens were taken to obtain Raman spectra to assess the phosphate loss after bleaching treatment. Results: The results showed that the chemically activated bleaching agent showed less phosphate loss when compared with the light activated bleaching agent. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the chemically activated bleaching agent showed minimal phosphate loss when compared to light activated bleaching agent. The chemically activated bleaching agent was better than the light activated bleaching agent when values were evaluated statistically. PMID:23230356

  18. Structure and Evolution of the Archaeal Lipid Synthesis Enzyme sn-Glycerol-1-phosphate Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Vincenzo; Schofield, Linley R.; Zhang, Yanli; Sang, Carrie; Dey, Debjit; Hannus, Ingegerd M.; Martin, William F.; Sutherland-Smith, Andrew J.; Ronimus, Ron S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most critical events in the origins of cellular life was the development of lipid membranes. Archaea use isoprenoid chains linked via ether bonds to sn-glycerol 1-phosphate (G1P), whereas bacteria and eukaryotes use fatty acids attached via ester bonds to enantiomeric sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. NAD(P)H-dependent G1P dehydrogenase (G1PDH) forms G1P and has been proposed to have played a crucial role in the speciation of the Archaea. We present here, to our knowledge, the first structures of archaeal G1PDH from the hyperthermophilic methanogen Methanocaldococcus jannaschii with bound substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate, product G1P, NADPH, and Zn2+ cofactor. We also biochemically characterized the enzyme with respect to pH optimum, cation specificity, and kinetic parameters for dihydroxyacetone phosphate and NAD(P)H. The structures provide key evidence for the reaction mechanism in the stereospecific addition for the NAD(P)H-based pro-R hydrogen transfer and the coordination of the Zn2+ cofactor during catalysis. Structure-based phylogenetic analyses also provide insight into the origins of G1PDH. PMID:26175150

  19. Entropic Enhancement of Protein-DNA Affinity by Oxygen-to-Sulfur Substitution in DNA Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Nguyen, Dan; Anderson, Kurtis M; White, Mark A; Gorenstein, David G; Iwahara, Junji

    2015-09-01

    Dithioation of DNA phosphate is known to enhance binding affinities, at least for some proteins. We mechanistically characterized this phenomenon for the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex by integrated use of fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography. By fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry, we found that this affinity enhancement is entropy driven. By NMR, we investigated the ionic hydrogen bonds and internal motions of lysine side-chain NH3(+) groups involved in ion pairs with DNA. By x-ray crystallography, we compared the structures of the complexes with and without dithioation of the phosphate. Our NMR and x-ray data show that the lysine side chain in contact with the DNA phosphate becomes more dynamic upon dithioation. Our thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic investigations collectively suggest that the affinity enhancement by the oxygen-to-sulfur substitution in DNA phosphate is largely due to an entropic gain arising from mobilization of the intermolecular ion pair at the protein-DNA interface. PMID:26331260

  20. Entropic Enhancement of Protein-DNA Affinity by Oxygen-to-Sulfur Substitution in DNA Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zandarashvili, Levani; Nguyen, Dan; Anderson, Kurtis M.; White, Mark A.; Gorenstein, David G.; Iwahara, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Dithioation of DNA phosphate is known to enhance binding affinities, at least for some proteins. We mechanistically characterized this phenomenon for the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex by integrated use of fluorescence, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR spectroscopy, and x-ray crystallography. By fluorescence and isothermal titration calorimetry, we found that this affinity enhancement is entropy driven. By NMR, we investigated the ionic hydrogen bonds and internal motions of lysine side-chain NH3+ groups involved in ion pairs with DNA. By x-ray crystallography, we compared the structures of the complexes with and without dithioation of the phosphate. Our NMR and x-ray data show that the lysine side chain in contact with the DNA phosphate becomes more dynamic upon dithioation. Our thermodynamic, structural, and dynamic investigations collectively suggest that the affinity enhancement by the oxygen-to-sulfur substitution in DNA phosphate is largely due to an entropic gain arising from mobilization of the intermolecular ion pair at the protein-DNA interface. PMID:26331260

  1. Structure of octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens in a complex with phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, A. A.; Polyakov, K. M.; Boiko, K. M.; Filimonenkov, A. A.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Tikhonova, T. V.; Popov, V. O.; Koval'chuk, M. V.

    2010-01-15

    Octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens (TvNiR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia. The structures of the free enzyme and of the enzyme in complexes with the substrate (nitrite ion) and the inhibitor (azide ion) have been solved previously. In this study we report the structures of the oxidized complex of TvNiR with phosphate and of this complex reduced by europium(II) chloride (1.8- and 2.0-A resolution, the R factors are 15.9 and 16.7%, respectively) and the structure of the enzyme in the complex with cyanide (1.76-A resolution, the R factor is 16.5%), which was prepared by soaking a crystal of the oxidized phosphate complex of TvNiR. In the active site of the enzyme, the phosphate ion binds to the iron ion of the catalytic heme and to the side chains of the catalytic residues Arg131, Tyr303, and His361. The cyanide ion is coordinated to the heme-iron ion and is hydrogen bonded to the residue His361. In the structure of reduced TvNiR, the phosphate ion is bound in the same manner as in the structure of oxidized TvNiR, and the nine{sub c}oordinated europium ion is located on the surface of one of the crystallographically independent monomers of the enzyme.

  2. Phosphate separation and recovery from wastewater by novel electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Desmidt, Evelyn; Van Looveren, Arnaud; Pinoy, Luc; Meesschaert, Boudewijn; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2013-06-01

    Stimulated by the depletion of phosphate resources, phosphate recovery systems have been studied in recent years. The use of struvite reactors has proven to be an effective phosphate recovery process. However, the struvite reactor effluent still consists of an excessive amount of phosphate that cannot be recovered nor can be directly discharged. In this study, selectrodialysis (SED) was used to improve the efficiency of phosphate recovery from a struvite reactor: SED was implemented in such a way that phosphate from the effluent of an USAB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactor was transferred to the recycled effluent of a struvite reactor. Prior to the experiments, synthetic water with chloride and phosphate was used to characterize the efficiency of SED for phosphate separation. Results indicate that SED was successful in concentrating phosphate from the feed stream. The initial current efficiency reached 72%, with a satisfying (9 mmol L(-1)) phosphate concentration. In the experiments with the anaerobic effluent as the phosphate source for enrichment of the effluent of the struvite reactor, the phosphate flux was 16 mmol m(-2) h(-1). A cost evaluation shows that 1 kWh electricity can produce 60 g of phosphate by using a full scale stack, with a desalination rate of 95% on the feed wastewater. Finally, a struvite precipitation experiment shows that 93% of phosphate can be recovered. Thus, an integrated SED-struvite reactor process can be used to improve phosphate recovery from wastewater.

  3. Hydrogen production by immobilized R. faecalis RLD-53 using soluble metabolites from ethanol fermentation bacteria E. harbinense B49.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Feng; Ren, Nan-Qi; Xing, De-Feng; Ding, Jie; Zheng, Guo-Xiang; Guo, Wan-Qian; Xu, Ji-Fei; Xie, Guo-Jun

    2009-05-01

    In order to increase the hydrogen yield from glucose, hydrogen production by immobilized Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53 using soluble metabolites from ethanol fermentation bacteria Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was investigated. The soluble metabolites from dark-fermentation mainly were ethanol and acetate, which could be further utilized for photo-hydrogen production. Hydrogen production by B49 was noticeably affected by the glucose and phosphate buffer concentration. The maximum hydrogen yield (1.83 mol H(2)/mol glucose) was obtained at 9 g/l glucose. In addition, we found that the ratio of acetate/ethanol (A/E) increased with increasing phosphate buffer concentration, which is favorable to further photo-hydrogen production. The total hydrogen yield during dark- and photo-fermentation reached its maximum value (6.32 mol H(2)/mol glucose) using 9 g/l glucose, 30 mmol/l phosphate buffers and immobilized R. faecalis RLD-53. Results demonstrated that the combination of dark- and photo- fermentation was an effective and efficient process to improve hydrogen yield from a single substrate. PMID:19200719

  4. Hydrogen separation process

    DOEpatents

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  5. Safe venting of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase: structure of its ternary complex with an N(7)-acycloguanosine inhibitor and a phosphate anion.

    PubMed

    Luić, M; Koellner, G; Shugar, D; Saenger, W; Bzowska, A

    2001-01-01

    The calf spleen purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) ternary complex with an N(7)-acycloguanosine inhibitor and a phosphate ion has been crystallized in the cubic space group P2(1)3, with unit-cell parameter a = 94.11 A and one monomer per asymmetric unit. X-ray diffraction data were collected using synchrotron radiation (Station X31, EMBL Outstation, DESY, Hamburg). The crystal structure was refined to a resolution of 2.2 A and R and R(free) values of 17.5 and 24.5%, respectively. The acyclonucleoside inhibitor is bound in the active site in an inverted ('upside-down') orientation of the purine base compared with natural substrates. The side chain of Asp243 forms two hydrogen bonds with the base ring: N(delta) donates a hydrogen to N(3) and O(delta) accepts a hydrogen from the guanine N(2)-amino group. N(1)--H of the base is hydrogen bonded to O(epsilon) of Glu201, while N(9) accepts a hydrogen bond from Thr242 O(gamma). In addition, a water molecule (W417) bridges the N(2)-amino group of the base and O(epsilon) of Glu201. In the phosphate-binding site, a phosphate ion is bound to Ser33, His64, Arg84, His86, Ala116 and Ser220. The acyclic chain of the N(7)-acycloguanosine inhibitor is in a folded conformation and together with a water molecule (W388) occupies the pentose-binding site, with possible hydrogen bonds to Tyr88 O(eta) and His257 N(delta 1). This new binding mode fully accounts for the previously observed substrate properties of 7-beta-D-ribofuranosides of hypoxanthine and guanine. It also provides a new starting point for the design of inhibitors of PNP for therapeutic and other applications.

  7. Nature-Inspired Design of Artificial Solar-to-Fuel Conversion Systems based on Copper Phosphate Microflowers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ting; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2016-07-01

    Phosphates play significant roles in plant photosynthesis by mediating electron transportation and furnishing energy for CO2 reduction. Motivated by this, we demonstrate herein an artificial solar-to-fuel conversion system, involving versatile copper phosphate microflowers as template and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as host photocatalyst. The elaborate flowerlike architectures, coupled with a unique proton-reduction cycle from interchangeability of different species of orthophosphate ions, not only offer a 2D nanosheet platform for an optimal heterostructure interface but also effectively augment charge-carrier transfer, thereby contributing to enhanced photoactivity and hydrogen generation. These nature-inspired, phosphate-derived nanocomposites advance the synthesis of a large variety of functional materials, which holds great potential for photochemical, photoelectric and catalytic applications. PMID:27225314

  8. A general entry to linear, dendritic and branched thiourea-linked glycooligomers as new motifs for phosphate ester recognition in water.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Blanco, José L; Bootello, Purificación; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; Gutiérrez Gallego, Ricardo; García Fernández, José M

    2004-01-01

    A blockwise iterative synthetic strategy for the preparation of linear, dendritic and branched full-carbohydrate architectures has been developed by using sugar azido(carbamate) isothiocyanates as key templates; the presence of intersaccharide thiourea bridges provides anchoring points for hydrogen bond-directed molecular recognition of phosphate esters in water.

  9. Crystal and molecular structure of the antimalarial agent 4-(tert-butyl)-2-(tert-butylaminomethyl)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)phenol dihydrogen phosphate (WR 194,965 phosphate).

    PubMed

    Karle, J M; Karle, I L

    1988-04-01

    WR 194,965 phosphate, a new antimalarial agent containing a biphenyl ring structure active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum, crystallized in ionic form with a positive charge on the quaternary nitrogen atom. The oxygen and nitrogen atoms of WR 194,965 were hydrogen bonded to the same phosphate group. The nitrogen atom was also hydrogen bonded to a second phosphate group. The phosphate ions formed discrete clusters of four phosphate moieties. The phosphate clusters contained fourfold inversion symmetry. The intramolecular N-O distance in WR 194,965 of 3.073 A (1 A = 0.1 nm) was close to the reported values for N-O distances in the active cinchona alkaloids and may be important for activity. A comparison of the crystalline structure of WR 194,965 with those of mefloquine and quinidine sulfate demonstrated that the regions of the three molecules in the vicinity of the aliphatic nitrogen atom and the oxygen atom superimpose. Much of the remainder of the WR 194,965 molecule spatially overlapped with the combined three-dimensional space defined by quinidine and mefloquine. The crystallographic parameters were: C21H29ClNO+.H2PO4-; Mr = 443.9; symmetry of unit cell, tetragonal; space group, I41/a; parameters of unit cell, a = b = 24.305 +/- 0.002 A, c = 17.556 +/- 0.003 A; V (volume of unit cell) = 10370.9 A3; Z (number of molecules per unit cell) = 16; Dx (calculated density) = 1.137 g cm-3; source of radiation, CuK alpha (lambda = 1.54178 A); mu (absorption coefficient) = 21.3 cm-1; F(000) (sum of atomic scattering factors at zero scattering angle) = 3,440; room temperature; final R = 8.2% for 2,508 reflections with [F0] greater than 3 sigma. PMID:3288114

  10. Discovery of linear receptors for multiple dihydrogen phosphate ions using dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Beeren, Sophie R; Sanders, Jeremy K M

    2011-03-23

    We describe the use of dynamic combinatorial chemistry to discover a new series of linear hydrazone-based receptors that bind multiple dihydrogen phosphate ions. Through the use of a template-driven, selection-based approach to receptor synthesis, dynamic combinatorial chemistry allows for the identification of unexpected host structures and binding motifs. Notably, we observed the unprecedented selection of these linear receptors in preference to competing macrocyclic hosts. Furthermore, linear receptors containing up to nine building blocks and three different building blocks were amplified in the dynamic combinatorial library. The receptors were formed using a dihydrazide building block based on an amino acid-disubstituted ferrocene scaffold. A detailed study of the linear pentamer revealed that it forms a helical ditopic receptor that employs four acylhydrazone hydrogen-bond donor motifs to cooperatively bind two dihydrogen phosphate ions.

  11. Role of inorganic phosphate during electron transfer in the redox system NADH+flavin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozinova, T. A.; Brzhevskaya, O. N.; Kisin, A. V.; Nosova, V. M.; Rykov, S. V.; Tychinskaya, L. Yu.

    2006-05-01

    We have used 31P NMR and EPR to study the effect of inorganic phosphate (Pi) on the process of electron transfer in oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by flavin in aqueous solutions. Observation of a significant (up to 40%) drop in the integrated intensity of the 31P NMR signal for the inorganic phosphate over the course of the reaction is interpreted as a manifestation of the effect of chemically induced polarization of the phosphorus nuclei during singlet-triplet conversion in charge-transfer complexes [NADH…Pi], and is evidence for a possible catalytic role for Pi in processes involving transfer of an electron (hydrogen atom) from NADH to appropriate acceptors. The results presented support the possibility of direct involvement of Pi in a chain of one-electron conversions in chemical systems.

  12. Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Gelatin-PEG and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van, Thuy Duong; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Nguyen, Dai Hai; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Phuong Thi

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have recently attracted much attention for tissue regeneration because of their biocompatibility. In this study, we introduce poly-ethylene glycol (PEG)—grafted gelatin containing tyramine moieties which have been utilized for in situ enzyme-mediated hydrogel preparation. The hydrogel can be used to load nanoparticles of biphasic calcium phosphate, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, and forming injectable bio-composites. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra indicated that tyramine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-nitrophenyl carbonate ester was conjugated to the gelatin. The hydrogel composite was rapidly formed in situ (within a few seconds) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. In vitro experiments with bio-mineralization on the hydrogel composite surfaces was well-observed after 2 weeks soaking in simulated body fluid solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be a potential injectable material for bone regeneration.

  13. Photobiological hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Asada, Y; Miyake, J

    1999-01-01

    The principles and recent progress in the research and development of photobiological hydrogen production are reviewed. Cyanobacteria produce hydrogen gas using nitrogenase and/or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenases in cyanobacteria occurs under in the dark under anaerobic conditions by degradation of intracellular glycogen. In vitro and in vivo coupling of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic system with a clostridial hydrogenase via cyanobacterial ferredoxin was demonstrated in the presence of light. Genetic transformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum was successful; the active enzyme was expressed in PCC7942. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Coculture of Rhodobacter and Clostriudium was applied for hydrogen production from glucose. A mutant strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV whose light-harvesting proteins were altered was obtained by UV irradiation. Hydrogen productivity by the mutant was improved when irradiated with monochromatic light of some wavelengths. The development of photobioreactors for hydrogen production is also reviewed.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and spectroscopic characterization of three uranyl phosphates with unique structural units

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, Ernest M.; Dawes, Colleen M.; Burns, Peter C.

    2012-12-15

    Single crystals of Zn{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)] (UZnP), Cs[(UO{sub 2})(HPO{sub 4})NO{sub 3}] (UCsP), and In{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 4}OH(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}].2H{sub 2}O (UInP) were obtained from hydrothermal reactions and have been structurally and chemically characterized. UZnP crystallizes in space group Pbcn, a=8.8817(7), b=6.6109(5), c=19.569(1) A; UCsP crystallizes in P-1, a=7.015(2), b=7.441(1), c=9.393(2) A, {alpha}=72.974(2), {beta}=74.261(2), {gamma}=79.498(2); and UInP crystallizes in P-1, a=7.9856(5), b=9.159(1), c=9.2398(6) A {alpha}=101.289(1), {beta}=114.642(1), {gamma}=99.203(2). The U{sup 6+} cations are present as (UO{sub 2}){sup 2+} uranyl ions coordinated by five O atoms to give pentagonal bipyramids. The structural unit in UZnP is a finite cluster containing a uranyl pentagonal bipyramid that shares corners with two phosphate tetrahedra. The structural unit in UCsP is composed of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids with one chelating nitrate group that are linked into chains by three bridging hydrogen phosphate tetrahedra. In UInP, the structural unit contains pairs of edge-sharing uranyl pentagonal bipyramids with two chelating phosphate tetrahedra that are linked into chains through two bridging phosphate tetrahedra. Indium octahedra link these uranyl phosphate chains into a 3-dimensional framework. All three compounds exhibit unique structural units that deviate from the typical layered structures observed in uranyl phosphate solid-state chemistry. - Graphical abstract: Three new uranyl phosphates with unique structural units are reported. Black-Small-Square Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three new uranyl phosphates have been synthesized hydrothermally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal analyses reveal unique structural units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dimensionality of these compounds deviate from typical U{sup 6+} layered structures.

  15. Molecular Basis of Reduced Pyridoxine 5′-Phosphate Oxidase Catalytic Activity in Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy Disorder*

    PubMed Central

    Musayev, Faik N.; Di Salvo, Martino L.; Saavedra, Mario A.; Contestabile, Roberto; Ghatge, Mohini S.; Haynes, Alexina; Schirch, Verne; Safo, Martin K.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase are known to cause neonatal epileptic encephalopathy. This disorder has no cure or effective treatment and is often fatal. Pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of pyridoxine 5′-phosphate to pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, the active cofactor form of vitamin B6 required by more than 140 different catalytic activities, including enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism and biosynthesis of neurotransmitters. Our aim is to elucidate the mechanism by which a homozygous missense mutation (R229W) in the oxidase, linked to neonatal epileptic encephalopathy, leads to reduced oxidase activity. The R229W variant is ∼850-fold less efficient than the wild-type enzyme due to an ∼192-fold decrease in pyridoxine 5′-phosphate affinity and an ∼4.5-fold decrease in catalytic activity. There is also an ∼50-fold reduction in the affinity of the R229W variant for the FMN cofactor. A 2.5 Å crystal structure of the R229W variant shows that the substitution of Arg-229 at the FMN binding site has led to a loss of hydrogen-bond and/or salt-bridge interactions between FMN and Arg-229 and Ser-175. Additionally, the mutation has led to an alteration of the configuration of a β-strand-loop-β-strand structure at the active site, resulting in loss of two critical hydrogen-bond interactions involving residues His-227 and Arg-225, which are important for substrate binding and orientation for catalysis. These results provide a molecular basis for the phenotype associated with the R229W mutation, as well as providing a foundation for understanding the pathophysiological consequences of pyridoxine 5′-phosphate oxidase mutations. PMID:19759001

  16. Iron-based phosphate binders: do they offer advantages over currently available phosphate binders?

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Armando Luis; Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been associated with the hyperphosphatemia seen in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in these patients to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational cohorts they have shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. Different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders as positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Several iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. Ferric citrate (JTT-751) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are the two iron-based binders that have passed to the clinical field after being found safe and effective in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is partially absorbed compared to sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Ferric citrate usage could result in an important reduction in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and IV iron usage, resulting in significant cost savings. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was effective in lowering serum phosphorus in dialysis patients with similar efficacy to sevelamer carbonate, but with lower pill burden, and better adherence. Ferric citrate may be more suited for the treatment of chronic hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have been hampered by potential aluminum overload, as citrate facilitates its absorption; sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplementation, with low pill burden. PMID:25815172

  17. Kinetics of phosphate limited algal growth.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, N

    1977-04-01

    The kinetics of phosphate limited growth of two green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum capricornutum have been studied in chemostats. Several kinetic models which express the specific growth rate as a function of the intracellular phosphorus content have been examined, and one of the models was found to be significantly better than the other models. The principles of this model were described in a recent paper by Nyholm. The kinetics of phosphate uptake have been investigated by adding pulses of phosphate to the chemostats, The uptake by phosphorus deficient cells could be described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics for phosphate concentrations below approximately 500 microng P/liter. Further, with the assumption of a discontinuous adjustment of the uptake rate at the onset of phosphorus deficiency, a complete kinetic model for growth and phosphate removal is proposed. The mean cell size and the contents of chlorophyll a and RNA per unit dry weight have been measured for C. pyrenoidosa as a function of the dilution rate. PMID:856323

  18. Hydrogen storage methods.

    PubMed

    Züttel, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m(-3), approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen

  19. Hydrogen storage methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at T<100 K), (4) absorbed on interstitial sites in a host metal (at ambient pressure and temperature), (5) chemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is

  20. Mutation of archaeal isopentenyl phosphate kinase highlights mechanism and guides phosphorylation of additional isoprenoid monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Dellas, Nikki; Noel, Joseph P

    2010-06-18

    The biosynthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) from either the mevalonate (MVA) or the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) pathway provides the key metabolite for primary and secondary isoprenoid biosynthesis. Isoprenoid metabolism plays crucial roles in membrane stability, steroid biosynthesis, vitamin production, protein localization, defense and communication, photoprotection, sugar transport, and glycoprotein biosynthesis. Recently, an alternative branch of the MVA pathway was discovered in the archaeon Methanocaldococcus jannaschii involving a small molecule kinase, isopentenyl phosphate kinase (IPK). IPK belongs to the amino acid kinase (AAK) superfamily. In vitro, IPK phosphorylates isopentenyl monophosphate (IP) in an ATP and Mg(2+)-dependent reaction producing IPP. Here, we describe crystal structures of IPK from M. jannaschii refined to nominal resolutions of 2.0-2.8 A. Notably, an active site histidine residue (His60) forms a hydrogen bond with the terminal phosphate of both substrate and product. This His residue serves as a marker for a subset of the AAK family that catalyzes phosphorylation of phosphate or phosphonate functional groups; the larger family includes carboxyl-directed kinases, which lack this active site residue. Using steady-state kinetic analysis of H60A, H60N, and H60Q mutants, the protonated form of the Nepsilon(2) nitrogen of His60 was shown to be essential for catalysis, most likely through hydrogen bond stabilization of the transition state accompanying transphosphorylation. Moreover, the structures served as the starting point for the engineering of IPK mutants capable of the chemoenzymatic synthesis of longer chain isoprenoid diphosphates from monophosphate precursors. PMID:20392112

  1. Pore-Scale Evaluation of Uranyl Phosphate Precipitation in a Model Groundwater System

    SciTech Connect

    Fanizza, Michael F.; Yoon, Hongkyu; Zhang, Changyong; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Hess, Nancy J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Strathmann, Timothy J.; Finneran, Kevin T.; Werth, Charles J.

    2013-02-01

    The abiotic precipitation of uranium (U(VI)) was evaluated in a microfluidic pore network (i.e. micromodel) to assess the efficacy of using a phosphate amendment to immobilize uranium in groundwater. U(VI) was mixed transverse to the direction of flow with hydrogen phosphate (HPO42-), in the presence or absence of calcium (Ca2+) or sulfate (SO42-), in order to identify precipitation rates, morphology and types of minerals formed, and effects of mineral precipitates on pore blockage. Precipitation occurred over the time scale of hours to days. Relative to when only U(VI) and HPO42- were present, precipitation rates were 2.3X slower when SO42- was present, and 1.4X faster when Ca2+ was present; larger crystals formed in the presence of SO42-. Raman backscattering spectroscopy and micro X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) results both showed that the only mineral precipitated was chernikovite, UO2HPO4•4H2O; energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results indicate that Ca and S are not incorporated into the chernikovite lattice. A pore scale model was developed, and simulation results of saturation ratio (SR=Q/Ksp) suggest that chernikovite is the least thermodynamically favored mineral to precipitate (0hydrogen phosphate and Na-Autunite (13105). Fluorescent tracer studies and laser confocal microscopy images showed that densely aggregated precipitates blocked pores and reduced permeability. The results suggest that uranium precipitation with phosphate as chernikovite is rapid on the time scale of remediation for the conditions considered, and can block pores, alter fluid flow paths, and potentially limit mixing and precipitation.

  2. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  3. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  4. Hydrogen interactions with metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclellan, R. B.; Harkins, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    Review of the literature on the nature and extent of hydrogen interactions with metals and the role of hydrogen in metal failure. The classification of hydrogen-containing systems is discussed, including such categories as covalent hydrides, volatile hydrides, polymeric hydrides, and transition metal hydride complexes. The use of electronegativity as a correlating parameter in determining hydride type is evaluated. A detailed study is made of the thermodynamics of metal-hydrogen systems, touching upon such aspects as hydrogen solubility, the positions occupied by hydrogen atoms within the solvent metal lattice, the derivation of thermodynamic functions of solid solutions from solubility data, and the construction of statistical models for hydrogen-metal solutions. A number of theories of hydrogen-metal bonding are reviewed, including the rigid-band model, the screened-proton model, and an approach employing the augmented plane wave method to solve the one-electron energy band problem. Finally, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is investigated on the basis of literature data concerning stress effects and the kinetics of hydrogen transport to critical sites.

  5. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  6. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  7. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis. PMID:26510127

  8. Inhibition of microbial arsenate reduction by phosphate.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Deanne C; Macur, Richard E; Inskeep, William P

    2012-03-20

    The ratio of arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)) in soils and natural waters is often controlled by the activity of As-transforming microorganisms. Phosphate is a chemical analog to As(V) and, consequently, may competitively inhibit microbial uptake and enzymatic binding of As(V), thus preventing its reduction to the more toxic, mobile, and bioavailable form - As(III). Five As-transforming bacteria isolated either from As-treated soil columns or from As-impacted soils were used to evaluate the effects of phosphate on As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation. Cultures were initially spiked with various P:As ratios, incubated for approximately 48 h, and analyzed periodically for As(V) and As(III) concentration. Arsenate reduction was inhibited at high P:As ratios and completely suppressed at elevated levels of phosphate (500 and 1,000 μM; P inhibition constant (K(i))∼20-100 μM). While high P:As ratios effectively shut down microbial As(V) reduction, the expression of the arsenate reductase gene (arsC) was not inhibited under these conditions in the As(V)-reducing isolate, Agrobacterium tumefaciens str. 5B. Further, high phosphate ameliorated As(V)-induced cell growth inhibition caused by high (1mM) As pressure. These results indicate that phosphate may inhibit As(V) reduction by impeding As(V) uptake by the cell via phosphate transport systems or by competitively binding to the active site of ArsC. PMID:21741807

  9. Temperature- and pH-Dependent Shattering: Insoluble Fatty Ammonium Phosphate Films at Water-Oil Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Forth, Joe; French, David J; Gromov, Andrei V; King, Stephen; Titmuss, Simon; Lord, Kathryn M; Ridout, Mike J; Wilde, Pete J; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-09-01

    We study the films formed by tetradecylamine (TDA) at the water-dodecane interface in the presence of hydrogen phosphate ions. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), interfacial shear rheology, confocal fluorescence microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we find that between pH 5 and 8 tetradecylammonium cations bind to hydrogen phosphate anions to form needle-shaped crystallites of tetradecylammonium hydrogen phosphate (TAHP). These crystallites self-assemble into films with a range of morphologies; below pH 7, they form brittle, continuous sheets, and at pH 8, they form lace-like networks that deform plastically under shear. They are also temperature-responsive: when the system is heated, the film thins and its rheological moduli drop. We find that the temperature response is caused by dissolution of the film in to the bulk fluid phases. Finally, we show that these films can be used to stabilize temperature-responsive water-in-oil emulsions with potential applications in controlled release of active molecules.

  10. Temperature- and pH-Dependent Shattering: Insoluble Fatty Ammonium Phosphate Films at Water-Oil Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Forth, Joe; French, David J; Gromov, Andrei V; King, Stephen; Titmuss, Simon; Lord, Kathryn M; Ridout, Mike J; Wilde, Pete J; Clegg, Paul S

    2015-09-01

    We study the films formed by tetradecylamine (TDA) at the water-dodecane interface in the presence of hydrogen phosphate ions. Using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), interfacial shear rheology, confocal fluorescence microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), we find that between pH 5 and 8 tetradecylammonium cations bind to hydrogen phosphate anions to form needle-shaped crystallites of tetradecylammonium hydrogen phosphate (TAHP). These crystallites self-assemble into films with a range of morphologies; below pH 7, they form brittle, continuous sheets, and at pH 8, they form lace-like networks that deform plastically under shear. They are also temperature-responsive: when the system is heated, the film thins and its rheological moduli drop. We find that the temperature response is caused by dissolution of the film in to the bulk fluid phases. Finally, we show that these films can be used to stabilize temperature-responsive water-in-oil emulsions with potential applications in controlled release of active molecules. PMID:26263177

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate polyhedron connectivity in glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulations of Phosphate Polyhedron Connectivity in Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.

    1999-12-21

    Monte Carlo simulations of phosphate tetrahedron connectivity distributions in alkali and alkaline earth phosphate glasses are reported. By utilizing a discrete bond model, the distribution of next-nearest neighbor connectivities between phosphate polyhedron for random, alternating and clustering bonding scenarios was evaluated as a function of the relative bond energy difference. The simulated distributions are compared to experimentally observed connectivities reported for solid-state two-dimensional exchange and double-quantum NMR experiments of phosphate glasses. These Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the polyhedron connectivity is best described by a random distribution in lithium phosphate and calcium phosphate glasses.

  13. Pumpable/injectable phosphate-bonded ceramics

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Dileep; Wagh, Arun S.; Perry, Lamar; Jeong, Seung-Young

    2001-01-01

    A pumpable ceramic composition is provided comprising an inorganic oxide, potassium phosphate, and an oxide coating material. Also provided is a method for preparing pumpable ceramic-based waste forms comprising selecting inorganic oxides based on solubility, surface area and morphology criteria; mixing the selected oxides with phosphate solution and waste to form a first mixture; combining an additive to the first mixture to create a second mixture; adding water to the second mixture to create a reactive mixture; homogenizing the reactive mixture; and allowing the reactive mixture to cure.

  14. Calcium and phosphate impact cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Heine, Gunnar H; Nangaku, Masaomi; Fliser, Danilo

    2013-04-01

    Non-traditional risk factors substantially contribute to cardiovascular (CV) disease. A deranged calcium-phosphate metabolism-first identified as a major non-traditional CV risk factor in patients with chronic kidney disease-may be implicated in development and progression of CV disease even among individuals with intact renal function. This review thus summarizes epidemiological and experimental data on the role of calcium, phosphate, and its major regulating hormones-parathyroid hormone, calcitriol, and fibroblast growth factor 23-in CV medicine. PMID:23109644

  15. [Phosphate nephropathy: how to avoid it?].

    PubMed

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Zellweger, Michael; Levy, Marc; Hadengue, Antoine; Moll, Solange

    2011-11-16

    Colonoscopy is a commonly used procedure for colon cancer screening. The ideal bowel preparation for a good visualization of the colonic mucosa would be effective and well tolerated. Sodium phosphate (NaP) and polyethylen glycol (PEG) are the two most frequently used solutions in this indication. However, although NaP has been described as more effective and better tolerated, it can cause severe acute electrolytes disturbances and, in rare cases, lead to irreversible renal failure, called phosphate nephropathy. NaP should therefore be prescribed with caution and be formally banned for patients with risk factors. PMID:22400350

  16. Phosphate starvation regulon of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Foster, J W; Spector, M P

    1986-05-01

    Several phosphate-starvation-inducible (psi) genetic loci in Salmonella typhimurium were identified by fusing the lacZ gene to psi promoters by using the Mu d1 and Mu d1-8 bacteriophages. Although several different starvation conditions were examined, the psi loci responded solely to phosphate deprivation. A regulatory locus, psiR, was identified as controlling the psiC locus. The psiR locus did not affect the expression of the Escherichia coli phoA locus or any of the other psi loci described.

  17. Potentially Prebiotic Syntheses of Condensed Phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the importance of a prebiotic source of high energy phosphates, we have investigated a number of potentially prebiotic processes to produce condensed phosphates from orthophosphate and cyclic trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. The reagents investigated include polymerizing nitriles, acid anhydrides, lactones, hexamethylene tetramine and carbon suboxide. A number of these processes give substantial yields of pyrophosphate from orthophosphate and trimetaphosphate from tripolyphosphate. Although these reactions may have been applicable in local areas, they are not sufficiently robust to have been of importance in the prebiotic open ocean.

  18. Dual mechanism of ion permeation through VDAC revealed with inorganic phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites.

    PubMed

    Krammer, Eva-Maria; Vu, Giang Thi; Homblé, Fabrice; Prévost, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the exchange of metabolites and ions between the mitochondrion and the cytosol, the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a key element, as it forms the major transport pathway for these compounds through the mitochondrial outer membrane. Numerous experimental studies have promoted the idea that VDAC acts as a regulator of essential mitochondrial functions. In this study, using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations, and electrophysiological measurements, we investigated the transport of ions through VDAC, with a focus on phosphate ions and metabolites. We showed that selectivity of VDAC towards small anions including monovalent phosphates arises from short-lived interactions with positively charged residues scattered throughout the pore. In dramatic contrast, permeation of divalent phosphate ions and phosphate metabolites (AMP and ATP) involves binding sites along a specific translocation pathway. This permeation mechanism offers an explanation for the decrease in VDAC conductance measured in the presence of ATP or AMP at physiological salt concentration. The binding sites occur at similar locations for the divalent phosphate ions, AMP and ATP, and contain identical basic residues. ATP features a marked affinity for a central region of the pore lined by two lysines and one arginine of the N-terminal helix. This cluster of residues together with a few other basic amino acids forms a "charged brush" which facilitates the passage of the anionic metabolites through the pore. All of this reveals that VDAC controls the transport of the inorganic phosphates and phosphate metabolites studied here through two different mechanisms.

  19. Anesthesia cutoff phenomenon: Interfacial hydrogen bonding

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, J.S.; Ma, S.M.; Kamaya, H.; Ueda, I. )

    1990-05-04

    Anesthesia cutoff refers to the phenomenon of loss of anesthetic potency in a homologous series of alkanes and their derivatives when their sizes become too large. In this study, hydrogen bonding of 1-alkanol series (ethanol to eicosanol) to dipalmitoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in DPPC-D2O-in-CCl4 reversed micelles. The alkanols formed hydrogen bonds with the phosphate moiety of DPPC and released the DPPC-bound deuterated water, evidenced by increases in the bound O-H stretching signal of the alkanol-DPPC complex and also in the free O-D stretching band of unbound D2O. These effects increased according to the elongation of the carbon chain of 1-alkanols from ethanol (C2) to 1-decanol (C10), but suddenly almost disappeared at 1-tetradecanol (C14). Anesthetic potencies of these alkanols, estimated by the activity of brine shrimps, were linearly related to hydrogen bond-breaking activities below C10 and agreed with the FTIR data in the cutoff at C10.

  20. Niobium phosphates as new highly selective catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane.

    PubMed

    Weng, Weihao; Davies, Mathew; Whiting, Gareth; Solsona, Benjamin; Kiely, Christopher J; Carley, Albert F; Taylor, Stuart H

    2011-10-14

    Several niobium phosphate phases have been prepared, fully characterized and tested as catalysts for the selective oxidation of ethane to ethylene. Three distinct niobium phosphate catalysts were prepared, and each was comprised predominantly of a different bulk phase, namely Nb(2)P(4)O(15), NbOPO(4) and Nb(1.91)P(2.82)O(12). All of the niobium phosphate catalysts showed high selectivity towards ethylene, but the best catalyst was Nb(1.91)P(2.82)O(12), which was produced from the reduction of niobium oxide phosphate (NbOPO(4)) by hydrogen. It was particularly selective for ethylene, giving ca. 95% selectivity at 5% conversion, decreasing to ca. 90% at 15% conversion, and only produced low levels of carbon oxides. It was also determined that the only primary product from ethane oxidation over this catalyst was ethylene. Catalyst activity also increased with time-on-line, and this behaviour was ascribed to an increase of the concentration of the Nb(1.91)P(2.82)O(12) phase, as partially transformed NbOPO(4), formed during preparation, was converted to Nb(1.91)P(2.82)O(12) during use. Catalysts with predominant phases of Nb(2)P(4)O(15) and NbOPO(4) also showed appreciable activity and selectivities to ethylene with values around 75% and 85% respectively at 5% ethane conversion. The presence of phosphorous is required to achieve high ethylene selectivity, as orthorhombic and monoclinic Nb(2)O(5) catalysts showed similar activity, but displayed selectivities to ethylene that were <20% under the same reaction conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that niobium phosphates have been shown to be highly selective catalysts for the oxidation of ethane to ethylene, and demonstrates that they are worthy candidates for further study. PMID:21881631

  1. Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active Archaean ocean.

    PubMed

    Blake, Ruth E; Chang, Sae Jung; Lepland, Aivo

    2010-04-15

    Oxygen and silicon isotope compositions of cherts and studies of protein evolution have been interpreted to reflect ocean temperatures of 55-85 degrees C during the early Palaeoarchaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago). A recent study combining oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of cherts, however, makes a case for Archaean ocean temperatures being no greater than 40 degrees C (ref. 5). Ocean temperature can also be assessed using the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate. Recent studies show that (18)O:(16)O ratios of dissolved inorganic phosphate (delta(18)O(P)) reflect ambient seawater temperature as well as biological processing that dominates marine phosphorus cycling at low temperature. All forms of life require and concentrate phosphorus, and as a result of biological processing, modern marine phosphates have delta(18)O(P) values typically between 19-26 per thousand (VSMOW), highly evolved from presumed source values of approximately 6-8 per thousand that are characteristic of apatite in igneous rocks and meteorites. Here we report oxygen isotope compositions of phosphates in sediments from the 3.2-3.5-billion-year-old Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We find that delta(18)O(P) values range from 9.3 per thousand to 19.9 per thousand and include the highest values reported for Archaean rocks. The temperatures calculated from our highest delta(18)O(P) values and assuming equilibrium with sea water with delta(18)O = 0 per thousand (ref. 12) range from 26 degrees C to 35 degrees C. The higher delta(18)O(P) values are similar to those of modern marine phosphate and suggest a well-developed phosphorus cycle and evolved biologic activity on the Archaean Earth. PMID:20393560

  2. Phosphate oxygen isotopic evidence for a temperate and biologically active Archaean ocean.

    PubMed

    Blake, Ruth E; Chang, Sae Jung; Lepland, Aivo

    2010-04-15

    Oxygen and silicon isotope compositions of cherts and studies of protein evolution have been interpreted to reflect ocean temperatures of 55-85 degrees C during the early Palaeoarchaean era ( approximately 3.5 billion years ago). A recent study combining oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions of cherts, however, makes a case for Archaean ocean temperatures being no greater than 40 degrees C (ref. 5). Ocean temperature can also be assessed using the oxygen isotope composition of phosphate. Recent studies show that (18)O:(16)O ratios of dissolved inorganic phosphate (delta(18)O(P)) reflect ambient seawater temperature as well as biological processing that dominates marine phosphorus cycling at low temperature. All forms of life require and concentrate phosphorus, and as a result of biological processing, modern marine phosphates have delta(18)O(P) values typically between 19-26 per thousand (VSMOW), highly evolved from presumed source values of approximately 6-8 per thousand that are characteristic of apatite in igneous rocks and meteorites. Here we report oxygen isotope compositions of phosphates in sediments from the 3.2-3.5-billion-year-old Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa. We find that delta(18)O(P) values range from 9.3 per thousand to 19.9 per thousand and include the highest values reported for Archaean rocks. The temperatures calculated from our highest delta(18)O(P) values and assuming equilibrium with sea water with delta(18)O = 0 per thousand (ref. 12) range from 26 degrees C to 35 degrees C. The higher delta(18)O(P) values are similar to those of modern marine phosphate and suggest a well-developed phosphorus cycle and evolved biologic activity on the Archaean Earth.

  3. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FLUORIDE FROM BISMUTH PHOSPHATE PRECIPITATE CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating plutonium from fission products present on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The dried carrier is first treated with hydrogen fluoride at between 500 and 600 deg C whereby some fission product fluorides volatilize away from plutonium tetrafluoride, and nonvolatile fission product fluorides are formed then with anhydrous fluorine at between 400 and 500 deg C. Bismuth and plutonium distill in the form of volatile fluorides away from the nonvolatile fission product fluorides. The bismuth and plutonium fluorides are condensed at below 290 deg C.

  4. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  5. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  6. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by introducing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a spray into a partial oxidation region and mixing with a mixture of steam and air that is preheated by indirect heat exchange with the formed hydrogen rich gas, igniting the hydrocarbon fuel spray mixed with the preheated mixture of steam and air within the partial oxidation region to form a hydrogen rich gas.

  7. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E.

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  8. HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS

    DOEpatents

    Ashley, R.W.

    1958-08-12

    The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

  9. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  10. Synthesis of arabinitol 1-phosphate and its use for characterization of arabinitol-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Soroka, Nikolai V; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Shabalin, Konstantin A; Uffimtcev, Andrei V; Povelainen, Mira; Miasnikov, Andrei N; Neustroev, Kirill N

    2005-03-21

    D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (Ara-ol1-P), a substrate for D-arabinitol-phosphate dehydrogenase (APDH), was chemically synthesized from D-arabinonic acid in five steps (O-acetylation, chlorination, reduction, phosphorylation, and de-O-acetylation). Ara-ol1-P was used as a substrate for the characterization of APDH from Bacillus halodurans. APDH converts Ara-ol1-P to xylulose 5-phosphate in the oxidative reaction; both NAD(+) and NADP(+) were accepted as co-factors. Kinetic parameters for the oxidative and reductive reactions are consistent with a ternary complex mechanism.

  11. Attenuation of Phosphate Starvation Responses by Phosphite in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Ticconi, Carla A.; Delatorre, Carla A.; Abel, Steffen

    2001-01-01

    When inorganic phosphate is limiting, Arabidopsis has the facultative ability to metabolize exogenous nucleic acid substrates, which we utilized previously to identify insensitive phosphate starvation response mutants in a conditional genetic screen. In this study, we examined the effect of the phosphate analog, phosphite (Phi), on molecular and morphological responses to phosphate starvation. Phi significantly inhibited plant growth on phosphate-sufficient (2 mm) and nucleic acid-containing (2 mm phosphorus) media at concentrations higher than 2.5 mm. However, with respect to suppressing typical responses to phosphate limitation, Phi effects were very similar to those of phosphate. Phosphate starvation responses, which we examined and found to be almost identically affected by both anions, included changes in: (a) the root-to-shoot ratio; (b) root hair formation; (c) anthocyanin accumulation; (d) the activities of phosphate starvation-inducible nucleolytic enzymes, including ribonuclease, phosphodiesterase, and acid phosphatase; and (e) steady-state mRNA levels of phosphate starvation-inducible genes. It is important that induction of primary auxin response genes by indole-3-acetic acid in the presence of growth-inhibitory Phi concentrations suggests that Phi selectively inhibits phosphate starvation responses. Thus, the use of Phi may allow further dissection of phosphate signaling by genetic selection for constitutive phosphate starvation response mutants on media containing organophosphates as the only source of phosphorus. PMID:11706178

  12. Hydrogen energy creeps forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, G.

    1983-05-01

    There have been hopeful forecasts of a 21st centry 'hydrogen economy' in which cheap hydrogen fuel would finally end mankind's dependence on petroleum fuels. The present investigation is concerned with developments related to the possible realization of such forecasts. One vital factor involves the feasibility to provide hydrogen at competitive prices for use as a fuel. Industrial hydrogen is too expensive for applications involving a competition with currently used common fuels. A number of investigations are being conducted in the U.S. and in other countries with the aim to develop an economical process by which hydrogen can be obtained from water. There exist already a great number of feasible different approaches for obtaining hydrogen on the basis of the decomposition of the water molecule. However, problems still to be solved are related to the development of any of these approaches to the point of economic viability. Another crucial factor concerns the strorage of hydrogen. Automakers are testing hydrogen-powered cars in which hydrogen is stored in liquid form or with the aid of metal hydrides.

  13. HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect

    Donald P. McCollor; John P. Kay

    1999-08-01

    A likely membrane for future testing of high-temperature hydrogen separation from a gasification product stream was targeted as an inorganic analog of a dense-metal membrane, where the hydrogen would dissolve into and diffuse through the membrane structure. An amorphous membrane such as zinc sulfide appeared to be promising. Previously, ZnS film coating tests had been performed using an electron-beam vacuum coating instrument, with zinc films successfully applied to glass substrates. The coatings appeared relatively stable in air and in a simple simulated gasification atmosphere at elevated temperature. Because the electron-beam coating instrument suffered irreparable breakdown, several alternative methods were tested in an effort to produce a nitrogen-impermeable, hydrogen-permeable membrane on porous sintered steel substrates. None of the preparation methods proved successful in sealing the porous substrate against nitrogen gas. To provide a nitrogen-impermeable ZnS material to test for hydrogen permeability, two ZnS infrared sample windows were purchased. These relatively thick ''membranes'' did not show measurable permeation of hydrogen, either due to lack of absorption or a negligible permeation rate due to their thickness. To determine if hydrogen was indeed adsorbed, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses tests were performed on samples of ZnS powder. A significant uptake of hydrogen gas occurred, corresponding to a maximum of 1 mole H{sub 2} per 1 mole ZnS at a temperature of 175 C. The hydrogen remained in the material at ambient temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere, but approximately 50% would be removed in argon. Reheating in a hydrogen atmosphere resulted in no additional hydrogen uptake. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the hydrogen uptake was probably due to the formation of a zinc-sulfur-hydrogen species resulting in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The zinc sulfide was found to be unstable above approximately 200 C

  14. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y. Simon; Deb, Satyen K.

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing.

  15. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOEpatents

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  16. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  17. Sustainable hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  18. Beneficial knockouts in Escherichia coli for producing hydrogen from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kien Trung; Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez-Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K

    2015-03-01

    Glycerol is an inexpensive and abundant source for biofuel production on a large scale. Escherichia coli is a robust bacterium for producing hydrogen; however, its hydrogen productivity from glycerol is low. In this study, we conducted random transposon mutagenesis to identify uncharacterized genes whose inactivation is beneficial for hydrogen production from glycerol. Through screening, four mutant strains were found that are able to have from 1.3- to 1.6-fold higher hydrogen productivity (μmol H2/mg protein) than that of their parent strain (p < 0.05). These mutations were identified as aroM, gatZ, ycgR, and yfgI. The hydrogen yield (mol H2/mol glycerol consumed) of the aroM, gatZ, ycgR, and yfgI strains was 1.7-, 1.4-, 2.4-, and 2.1-fold higher than that of their parent strain, respectively. Moreover, a single disruption in these genes resulted in a faster cell growth and glycerol consumption under anaerobic conditions. In E. coli, AroM is predicted to be involved in the shikimate pathway, GatZ is tagatose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase 2 which converts dihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1,6-biphosphate, and YcgR acts as a molecular brake limiting the swimming speed and ATP consumption. So far, the function of YfgI in general and in hydrogen production in particular remains unknown.

  19. Interaction of cadmium with phosphate on goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Venema, P.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. van

    1997-08-01

    Interactions between different ions are of importance in understanding chemical processes in natural systems. In this study simultaneous adsorption of phosphate and cadmium on goethite is studied in detail. The charge distribution (CD)-multisite complexation (MUSIC) model has been successful in describing extended data sets of cadmium adsorption and phosphate adsorption on goethite. In this study, the parameters of this model for these two data sets were combined to describe a new data set of simultaneous adsorption of cadmium and phosphate on goethite. Attention is focused on the surface speciation of cadmium. With the extra information that can be obtained from the interaction experiments, the cadmium adsorption model is refined. For a perfect description of the data, the singly coordinated surface groups at the 110 face of goethite were assumed to form both monodentate and bidentate surface species with cadmium. The CD-MUSIC model is able to describe data sets of both simultaneous and single adsorption of cadmium and phosphate with the same parameters. The model calculations confirmed the idea that only singly coordinated surface groups are reactive for specific ion binding.

  20. Insights from Genetic Disorders of Phosphate Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The molecular identification and characterization of genetic defects leading to a number of rare inherited or acquired disorders affecting phosphate homeostasis has added tremendous detail to our understanding of the regulation of phosphate balance. The identification of the key phosphate-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), as well as other molecules that control its production, such as the glycosyltransferase GALNT3, the endopeptidase PHEX and the matrix protein DMP1, and molecules that function as downstream effectors of FGF23, such as the longevity factor Klotho and the phosphate transporters NPT2a and NPT2c, has permitted us to understand the elegant and complex interplay that exists between the kidneys, bone, parathyroid, and gut. Such insights from genetic disorders have allowed not only the design of potent targeted therapies for some of these rare genetic disorders, such as using anti-FGF23 antibodies for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets, but also have led to clinically relevant observations related to the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Thus, we are able to leverage our knowledge of rare human disorders affecting only few individuals, to understand and potentially treat disease processes that affect millions of patients. PMID:23465501

  1. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  2. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  3. An Experiment to Quantitate Organically Bound Phosphate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes quick and easy experiments that yield quantitative information on a variety of levels, emphasize the concept of experimental controls, and integrate the experimental with the theoretical using the organic phosphates as the experimental system. Background information, list of materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  4. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1301 - Ferric phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric phosphate. 184.1301 Section 184.1301 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  8. Mixed-metal templated phosphate phases

    SciTech Connect

    Nenoff, T.M.; Jackson, N.B.; Thoma, S.G.; Kohler, S.D.; Harrison, W.T.A.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to direct the structure formation and subsequently the catalytic properties of novel materials, both organic molecules and transition metals have been systematically incorporated into zinc phosphate materials, and various transition metals in zirconium phosphate materials. The resultant phases in the Zn/P experiments are determined not by the organic template, but by the type and stoichiometric amount of metal incorporated and by the organic template`s anion. Furthermore, only one of the phases, a Ni/Zn/P, shows any acidic catalytic behavior. Similarly, the transition metals incorporated in stoichiometric amounts into the catalytically active novel zirconium phosphate are highly structure directing. Their presence inhibits the formation of the phosphate phase, instead promoting the formation of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}. The catalytic activity of the products are greatly diminished from the baseline material. The synthesis and characterization methods for each phase will be presented. Characterization techniques employed include single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analysis, DCP and FTIR.

  9. TUCS/phosphate mineralization of actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, K.L.

    1997-10-01

    This program has as its objective the development of a new technology that combines cation exchange and mineralization to reduce the concentration of heavy metals (in particular actinides) in groundwaters. The treatment regimen must be compatible with the groundwater and soil, potentially using groundwater/soil components to aid in the immobilization process. The delivery system (probably a water-soluble chelating agent) should first concentrate the radionuclides then release the precipitating anion, which forms thermodynamically stable mineral phases, either with the target metal ions alone or in combination with matrix cations. This approach should generate thermodynamically stable mineral phases resistant to weathering. The chelating agent should decompose spontaneously with time, release the mineralizing agent, and leave a residue that does not interfere with mineral formation. For the actinides, the ideal compound probably will release phosphate, as actinide phosphate mineral phases are among the least soluble species for these metals. The most promising means of delivering the precipitant would be to use a water-soluble, hydrolytically unstable complexant that functions in the initial stages as a cation exchanger to concentrate the metal ions. As it decomposes, the chelating agent releases phosphate to foster formation of crystalline mineral phases. Because it involves only the application of inexpensive reagents, the method of phosphate mineralization promises to be an economical alternative for in situ immobilization of radionuclides (actinides in particular). The method relies on the inherent (thermodynamic) stability of actinide mineral phases.

  10. Phosphate adsorption on granular palygorskite: batch and column studies.

    PubMed

    Fangqun, Gan; Jianmin, Zhou; Huoyan, Wang; Changwen, Du; Wenzhao, Zhang; Xiaoqin, Chen

    2011-02-01

    A method to prepare granular palygorskite (GPA) was put forward in this research, and its potential use to remove phosphate species from aqueous solution was assessed. Batch experiments were performed to study the adsorption equilibrium and influence of contact time and pH on the adsorption and desorption of phosphate onto GPA in water. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity of GPA was 13.1 mg/g. Kinetic data revealed that more than 90% of phosphate was adsorbed onto GPA within 2 hours. Phosphate adsorption capacity was 0.10 mg/g in column experiments, and co-existing anions could decrease phosphate removal. The saturated column was regenerated by 0.2 mol/L sodium hydroxide, and the GPA could be reused in phosphate removal. The data obtained from both batch and column studies indicated that GPA could be used effectively to remove phosphate from water.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5697 - Riboflavin-5-phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5697 Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (a) Product. Riboflavin-5-phosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate may be ... Clayton PT, Baumgartner MR, Steinmann B, Bast T, Wolf NI, Zschocke J. Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate may be ...

  15. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Li, Yingwel; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  16. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  17. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, Larry A.; Mead, Keith E.; Smith, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  18. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  19. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOEpatents

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  20. Phosphates in some missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.B.; Foord, E.E.; Keller, D.J.; Keller, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays. The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspora, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore ("burley" clay). The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality. The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore host

  1. Iron phosphate glass containing simulated fast reactor waste: Characterization and comparison with pristine iron phosphate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Kitheri; Asuvathraman, R.; Venkata Krishnan, R.; Ravindran, T. R.; Govindaraj, R.; Govindan Kutty, K. V.; Vasudeva Rao, P. R.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed characterization was carried out on an iron phosphate glass waste form containing 20 wt.% of a simulated nuclear waste. High temperature viscosity measurement was carried out by the rotating spindle method. The Fe3+/Fe ratio and structure of this waste loaded iron phosphate glass was investigated using Mössbauer and Raman spectroscopy respectively. Specific heat measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-700 K using differential scanning calorimeter. Isoconversional kinetic analysis was employed to understand the crystallization behavior of the waste loaded iron phosphate glass. The glass forming ability and glass stability of the waste loaded glass were also evaluated. All the measured properties of the waste loaded glass were compared with the characteristics of pristine iron phosphate glass.

  2. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOEpatents

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  3. Hydrogenated graphene and hydrogenated silicene: computational insights.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Manh-Thuong; Phong, Pham Nam; Tuyen, Nguyen Duc

    2015-06-01

    Density functional calculations are performed to study the energetic, structural, and electronic properties of graphene and silicene functionalized with hydrogen. Our calculations predict that H atoms bind much more strongly to silicene than to graphene. The adsorbed H atoms tend to cooperatively stabilize each other leading to a two-dimensional nucleation and growth mechanism. The different structural and electronic modifications induced by H in fully functionalized graphene and silicene (known as graphane and silicane) are also explained. Finally, the electronic properties of defective graphane with multiple hydrogen vacancies are investigated. Engineering the vacancies in graphane offers a way to modify the electronic properties of this material.

  4. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOEpatents

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  5. 21 CFR 182.6085 - Sodium acid phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acid phosphate. 182.6085 Section 182.6085 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium acid phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium acid phosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1883 - Prednisolone sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone sodium phosphate. 522.1883 Section... § 522.1883 Prednisolone sodium phosphate. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 20 milligrams (mg) prednisolone sodium phosphate (equivalent to 14.88 mg of prednisolone). (b) Sponsor. See...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10357 - Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iron, citrate phosphate potassium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10357 Iron, citrate phosphate potassium complexes. (a) Chemical..., citrate phosphate potassium complexes (PMN P-09-382; CAS No. 120579-31-9) is subject to reporting...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 582.1781 Section 582.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate. (b) Conditions...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1781 - Sodium aluminum phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminum phosphate. 182.1781 Section 182.1781 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1781 Sodium aluminum phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminum phosphate....